Innovation Projects Report-2013 - [email protected]

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Innovation Projects Report-2013 - [email protected]
Innovation Projects @ University of Delhi
A Journey of Discovery
Report from the Innovation Desk
The Research Council
University of Delhi
www.du.ac.in/[email protected]
© The Registrar, University of Delhi
This report is not for sale.
Disclaimer: The report has been prepared with material submitted by
project coordinators. While care has been taken to present their own
views directly, some editing of textual matter has been undertaken. The
Research Council does not take responsibility for the project details
given by the colleges
Redefining Education
India is going through a reformatory phase. Education and Technology
have a significant role in effecting a change for the nation. It is important to
interrogate as to ‘who we are and what we are’ and it is the foremost duty of
educational institutions to interrogate their pedagogy periodically, innovate
and find a place in the world’s dynamic environment. We must essentially
think out of the box and impart learning that should be intertwined with
living and livelihood.
Prof. Dinesh Singh
Contents
Prefacevii
1
Glucose – A Biosensing approach
1
2
CO2 Gas Sensing - an ICT based investigation for
pollution control
5
3
Survey-based study to identify the health hazards associated
with occupational exposure of textile dyes used by dyers to
color the fabrics
9
4
Development of Cost-Effective Nutritious Multi Cereal Bar
and It’s Sustainable Packaging Using Nano-Biopolymer
14
5
Development and study of alternate packaging materials
from agro wastes and its application in food packaging
18
6
24 x 7 water supply in villages and small towns of India
22
7
Solution for road management from modeling and simulation
of traffic flow on selected roads of Delhi
27
8
IT model for parking space management: optimal and efficient
parking-retrieval of vehicles
30
9
Symphonies of Life in Nature and Environment: Folksongs
of Punjab and Jammu and Kashmir
35
10Development of Zoology E-Museum for courses of
University of Delhi
39
11Daastaan-e-Nisvan (Stories of Women)
44
12राष्ट्रीय राजधानी क्षेत्र में दृष्िटबािधतों से संबनि्धत संस्थाओ
एवं संस्थानो की उपलबि्धयां एवं चुनौितयाँ
13 Development of Thin Films/Nano materials for their Electronic
and Biomedical Applications
47
54
14To Prepare a Glossary of Technical Terms in Yoga Philosophy 61
15Isolation and identification of pigment producing fungi for
using as textiles dyes
66
16Conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy on
metro tracks
70
17Mapping the Spatial Topology of two sub- glacier basins of
NW Himalayan for multi class change detection using
MODIS, Landsat and IRS data
75
18Generating Energy Consciousness among Rural Household
86
19The Imprisoned Dove: Transcending Conflict and Building
Cultures of Peace 93
20Measuring Environmental Footprint of University of Delhi
and Transforming it into a Zero-Impact University
97
21Miles on the Yamuna Team-A
104
22Miles on the Yamuna Team-B
111
23In vitro effect of medicinal plant extracts against human fungal
pathogen Candida albicans
124
24साप्तािहक बाजार : रोज का संघर्ष (खुली अर्थव्यवस्था में साप्तािहक
बाजारो का सामािजक – सांस्कृितक – आर्िथक और मनोवैज्ञािनक
अध्ययन एवं उसकी प्रासंिगकता
25उपभोग संस्कृित, बाजार और बचपन
131
134
26An Exploratory Study of Environmental Awareness and
Consumer Behaviour towards Eco-Friendly Household Products 161
27An Assessment of consumers’ exposure to pesticide in
conventional vegetables and vegetables sol with the ‘organic’
tag in Delhi NCR region, India
165
28Fluorescent Powder Compositions for Developing Latent
Fingerprint 168
29Aahaar172
30Strengthening Psychological capital for sports person
176
31Survey of Tree Species in Delhi Region and Screening of
Selected Medicinal Plants for Anti-Cancer Activity
190
32Purification and characterization of Cytochrome P450 from
liver for the study of P450 interaction with anticancer during
drug molecules
196
33Suggested Areas of improvement in the Shelters for the
homeless in Delhi
207
34Feasibility studies to improve quality of living and development
of low cost efficient techniques to purify potable water in villages:
Case study with reference to villages of Ajmer (Rajasthan)
212
vi
Preface
The Innovation Project Scheme for Colleges at the University of Delhi emerged
from Vice Chancellor, Prof Dinesh Singh’s vision of bringing interdisciplinary
research to the purview of young students. Given a curriculum that was
bounded by a discipline based syllabus and strict timetables for lectures, the
teachers and students did not have the time, or the grants, to consider new
ways of learning. The innovation projects were visualized as a means to break
the mould and to encourage both students and faculty to think ‘out of the
box’.
The scheme, ‘Innovation Projects in Colleges’, announced in January 2012,
is ‘designed to enhance learning experience through student participation’.
Teachers and students submit projects that are outside the strict syllabi. They
are to be conducted by teams of three teachers from at least two departments
and ten students, and a mentor for expert advice from outside the institution.
The team schedules a programme that encourages hands-on activity. In this
single scheme, inter-disciplinary research in the colleges and the potential
link with problem solving in society is established.
The University received 146 entries from 51 colleges in the first round
in March 2012, with several colleges submitting multiple projects to be
conducted by inter-departmental teams. The University selected 113
Innovation Projects for grant support, subject to periodic review. Quarterly,
half yearly and completion reports were submitted to the University. The
mentor reviewed each project in order to monitor progress. Several projects
demonstrated their viability. Most projects conducted field trips, seminars
and workshops. The hands-on approach showed results in public and drew
attention to real life issues of shelter, water and air pollution, urban transport,
nutrition, preservation of history and culture, weekly markets and many other
such issues. Newspapers have periodically carried reports about the projects
and four books have been published. Another four projects resulted in highly
innovative and creative work leading possibly towards patents.
This year, 2013-14, more than 400 projects (involving about 6000
students and faculty) were submitted. They were subjected to careful scrutiny
for quality and originality. The 251 projects recommended point in the
direction of innovative concepts, productivity or discovery. Several projects
focus on high-end research and hope for patents and publications whereas
others explore known concepts in innovative ways.
It is clear that the purpose for which the Innovation Project scheme had
been launched--to generate excitement in trying out ideas and carrying them
through by means of practical output--is being fulfilled. The outcome of the
projects may provide prototypes for problem solving in society.
The Innovation Desk functions from the office of the Dean Academics and
the Research Council. It acknowledges with thanks the valuable contributions
by the Chairperson, and the Deans Research: Prof. Ajay Kumar (Physical
& Mathematical Sciences), Prof. M.M. Chaturvedi (Life Science), Prof.
Girishwar Mishra (Humanities & Social Sciences).
Regular monitoring and coordination of the Innovation Desk is conducted
by Dr Deepika Bhaskar, Dy Dean Research, and earlier by Ms Mukta Dutt,
Information Executive.
Dean, Academic Activities & Projects
Chair, Research Council
Prof. Malashri Lal
viii
ACHARYA NARENDRA DEV COLLEGE
project title:
project code:
Glucose Detection:
ANDC – 101
A Bio Sensing Approach
Objective
Oxidation of glucose is known to be a mainsource of cellular energy in the
human body. Besides being an important metabolic intermediate, glucose
also formsa major part of the carbohydrates in the peripheral blood. Hence
it is important to determine the glucose present in the blood to aid in the
diagnosis and treatment of lifestyle diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus.
Higher concentrations of blood glucose levels also indicate the existence of
Pancreatitis, Pituitary or Thyroid dysfunction, Renal Failure or even Liver
Disease.
The primary objective of the project undertakenby the students at
Acharya Narendra Dev College wastodevelop a glucose oxidase based
blood glucose concentration sensing material. More specifically, it involved
the immobilization of glucose oxidase on an identified matrix for stability
and reproducibility. The matrix, based on relevant metal oxide, would be
identified by systematically working out the iso-electric point (IEP) factors,
followed by the immobilization of bio-molecules. The entire process would
be bereft of any hazardous chemical treatment.
Image 1: Low-cost glucometer
1
Image 2: Students immobilizing protein and enzymes on Zinc Oxide
Final Findings
The students scanned the literature, and identified zinc oxide (ZnO) asthe
ideal semiconducting metal oxide for making up the matrix since it possessed
a high iso-electric point (IEP) factor of 9.5 which could support the low IEP
of glucose oxidase (GOX). Further, the biocompatibility of ZnO wasreported
to be an added advantage. The binding capacity of protein and optimum
conditions for the binding to take place were determined by usingBovine
Serum Albumin (BSA) as the model protein. In the experiments, BSA was
dissolved in 50 mM Phosphate Buffer (PB) at pH 7.2, and incubated with
50 mg ZnO. Post incubation,the slurry was centrifuged at room temperature
for twenty minutes. The protein content of the supernatant was determined
by the Folin-Lowry method, which gave an indication of the unbound
protein. The amount of protein binding on the ZnO matrix was estimated by
subtracting the amount left in the supernatant from the total.The measured
average was found to be approximately 573.33 ug bound / 50 mg of ZnO
matrix.
Further, the binding of a model enzyme with the ZnO matrix, and
enzymatic activity of the immobilized enzyme onto the matrix was analysed.
Horse Radish Peroxidase (HRP) was taken in PB as above, but at varying pH
conditions (5.6, 7.2, 8.0), to investigate the effects of pH on binding. The
results obtained indicated that a buffer with a pH of 7.2 was optimal for the
binding of HRP with ZnO matrix, and any further increase or decrease lead
to a fall in the binding capability. The bound enzyme was also found to be
catalytically active. In the next set of experiments, the binding of Glucose
Oxidase (GOX) with ZnO was undertaken. A solution of 50 mm PB at pH
7.2 was taken to test the binding. Glucose Oxidase was found to bind with
the matrix with the retention of catalytic activity.
2
Learning for Students
The multi-disciplinary nature of the project ensured that students from
all different streams learnt to appreciate each others’ field of study, and
develop understand skills to how to tackle the life-style problem of diabetes.
Students of life science learnt about the skill sets required in a physical science
laboratory, and the students ofvice-versa for physical science learnt about
lifestyle diseasesstudents. Having scanned literature and journals accessed
through the scientific databases of Scopus and ScienceDirect, the students.
They also have becoame more aware conscious of the burgeoning problem
of rapid spread of diabetes having scanned literature and journals accessed
through scientific databases of Scopus and ScienceDirect available through
University of Delhi’s wi-fi internet. Hands-on experiments performed in
the laboratory, coupled with the handling of hazardous chemicalshave made
the students appreciate team-work, while at the same time inculcating
good laboratory practices. Another tangible benefit for the students washas
been the understanding of time management as they had to manage visà-vis regular classes along with working on the project.and maturity as a
responsible individual who is tuned to the needs of the society. The advanced
sophisticatedlevel equipment operated as part of the project gavehas made
the students equipped with technical dexterity whichthat may prove very
useful when they find employment in the industry. While learning to procure
different chemicals and even distinguishing the same chemical of different
grades for specific use has 3 emboldened the students to perceive study in
a new light that is beyond the classroom. A paradigm shift is wasclearly
discernible in the way the trained students attempted the problem by and
adopting a scientific approach. The students participated and presented their
papersat the following workshops/seminars:
1. ‘Glucose Detection- A Bio sensing Approach’, Animesh Kar, Gunjan,
Harsh Bishen, Raj Keshri, Deepak Kumar, Rajender, Durgesh Kumar,
Kapil Joshi, Dikshant Hans, Rajesh Choudhary, Arijit Chowdhuri, Amit
Garg;‘National Conference on Redefining Science Teaching: Future of
Education’, 7-9 March 2013, University of Delhi, South Campus.
2. ‘To Device a cost effective set up for Cell Identification, Characterization
and Separation’, held at Gargi collegeunder the project GC-102, on 21
April 2013.
Benefits to College
The college now has more scientific facilitiesowing tothe establishment of
advanced laboratories fully furnished with modern instruments, which are
expected to find use in further research, and for teaching under the upcoming
3
Four Year Undergraduate Programme. The faculty was successful in coming
together to perform as a team to achieve goals in multi-disciplinary fields.
Students in the college were exposed to frontier areas of science withcutting
edge researchand are now better equipped to take up research as a viable
career option.
Benefits to Society
The project empowered the students to assimilate knowledge and develop
skills to work for the benefit of the society. The students with their scientific
temper and training in researchare geared to join the crusade against the
onslaught of lifestyle diseases. The training and hands-on skills acquired by
the students will also be at an advantage in finding topranking jobs, and will
encourage them to make responsible CEOs and COOs who believe in giving
back to society.
Further Plans
With the advanced laboratories developed during the course of the project, it
wasfelt that the project could be taken forward to realize some key applications.
A few of the immediate applications are enumerated as follows:
• Develop a blood glucose measurement prototype strip compatible with the
low cost glucometer developed in the study.
• Increase the shelflife of the strip from a few weeks to a few months.
• Reduce the cost of the blood glucose measurement strip.
• Rapidly transfer the technology of the blood glucose measurement strip to
a company for developing it commercially.
4
ACHARYA NARENDRA DEV COLLEGE
“CO2 Gas Sensing – an ICT based
investigation for pollution control”
project title:
project code:
ANDC – 102
1. Objective
CO2 is recognized as a significant workplace hazard. It poses a threat to life
through asphyxiation when it displaces the oxygen in air down to dangerously
low levels. Inhalation of elevated concentrations of CO2 can adversely affect
the respiratory, cardiovascular and central nervous systems in humans.
Hence, need of the hour is to accurately measure level of CO2 in the ambient
environment. The aim of this project is to use commercially available gas
sensors for CO2 detection in the immediate environment and understand the
mechanism of its detection, data acquisition and recording of the acquired
data.
Students in the project have been trained in the measurement of realtime CO2 gas concentration levels in the immediate vicinity as well as in
a controlled environment (Gas Sensing Test Rig). They have acquired skills
in hands-on operation of the sensor and acquire CO2 data by interfacing
the sensor to a computer. Investigation of critical issues related to selectivity,
sensitivity, response speed, and aging have been undertaken.
2. Final Findings
The students investigated CO2 gas level concentrations in Delhi (plain) and
in places located at higher reaches including Sat Tal, Chanfi, Naukuchiya
Image 1: a) Figaro CO2 sensor b) Vernier CO2 sensor with data acquisition module
c) Gas Sensing Test Rig (GSTR) for simulation of controlled environmental conditions
5
Tal and Pangot (mountains) with the idea to correlate the effect of spread of
human habitat to the existing CO2 concentrations in the immediate vicinity.
The acquired data indicates a direct correlation between the density of
human population and the measured concentration of CO2 gas. Specifically,
in all locations situated in the mountains (besides Delhi) the CO2 level was
found to increase with increasing human density i.e. more popular the spot,
higher the CO2 level. Interestingly at Pangot and Chanfi (less touristy) with
small hamlets and more green cover, the commercial CO2 sensor could only
measure just base level CO2 concentrations indicating that it had reached its
lower limit.
In another experiment the students measured CO2 exhaling characteristics
of a human being who is initially at rest and works up a light exercise after
some time before relaxing once again. It is noted that the response of the
CO2 sensor (rise and fall in the CO2 concentration level) typically follows
the pattern of exercise regimen of the human being. Upon examining the
variation of output CO2 concentration levels of a human being, pre- and
post-exercise, it is seen that there is an accentuated difference in the initial
CO2 concentration value for the person pre and post exercise and that the
concentration level progressively moves to a saturation value. Further if the
same person uses mint (chewing gum) during exercise then the CO2 sensor
returns a flat value.
This Indicates that the CO2 detection characteristics of the sensor,
somehow gets inhibited in the presence of mint. A simple variation of position
of the sensor affects the CO2 detection characteristics and it is observed that
concentration of CO2 measured varies inversely as a function of distance.
3. Learning for Students
In this multi-disciplinary project the first tangible benefit for students has
been teamwork and hands-on learning beyond the classroom on a real life
problem affecting the world at large. Students have learnt to access databases
like Scopus and Science Direct, study scientific journals and scan literature
for relevant information using the University of Delhi powered wi-fi internet
available in college. They have gained advanced skills through hands-on
usage of advanced instruments and imbibed good laboratory practices thus
turning them into useful manpower. They have learnt to implement different
softwares on computers and have become skilled in their use for scientific
applications including graph plotting, data acquisition, data conditioning
etc. Sight visits to different areas in the country for data collection has made
them aware of different customs besides varying environment affecting the
acquired data and limitations of the sensor. They have developed a keen
sense of responsibility towards preserving the environment and awareness
6
to reduce carbon footprint in whichever way possible. Having developed a
logical bent of mind and scientific temper the students have learnt how to
manage disappointments and values of hard work over long duration of time.
They have become adept at time management besides developing dexterity
at interacting with people coming from diverse backgrounds. Finally, having
worked in the project for the last year the
Students have changed into well-rounded personalities overcoming their
initial shy nature. The students also participated in the following conferences/
seminars:
a) Ms. Sandal Azhar and Mr. Priyank presented a poster in the National
Conference on Redefining Science Teaching: Future of Education held
at University of Delhi South Campus, 7 – 9 March 2013.
b) Ms. Sandal Azhar and Ms. Priya Kashyap won third prize in the poster
competition during the Seminar on “Optical fibre based probes”
organized by Gargi College on 12th April 2013.
4. Benefits to College
Through the project students have acquired hands-on skills in advanced
research grade equipments/instruments. The college has been able to establish
state-of-the-art laboratories adding to the established infrastructure, wherein
students can perform some of the experiments included under the FYUP
programme. Due to multi-disciplinary nature of the project faculty members
from different departments have put in more time, effort and imagination
which has helped in advancing their knowledge base and which is expected
to help in solving complex societal problems. Project investigators have been
successful in contributing a paper in the 27th National Conference on Plasma
Science and Technology (Plasma 2012) during 10 – 13th December 2012 at
Pondicherry University, wherein funding under the DU innovation project
has been duly acknowledged.
5. Benefits to Society
Students have matured into responsible citizens having developed scientific
temper. They have cultivated a sense of responsibility towards protecting the
fragile environment and awareness of problems caused by CO2 emissions has
inspired them to adopt techniques that reduce the carbon footprint in small
but definite measures. They have instilled the values of hard work and gained
useful hands-on training in advanced technology instruments. It is envisaged
that the society is definitely going to get more responsible citizens in the
future who are willing to take informed decisions and thus make a positive
difference to its well-being.
7
6. Further Plans
It is envisaged that the established infrastructure and advance level instruments
procured can be utilized further to take the work forward. Some of the
immediate applications are enumerated as follows:
• Build an array of gas sensors for measuring gas response characteristics in
a gas mixture
• Investigate gas sensing characteristics in a gas mixture.
• Acquire data of gas sensing characteristics
• Generation of finger prints for individual gases in a combination of gases
• Use statistical distribution concept of principal component analysis for
recognizing gas mixtures
Image 2: Media coverage of the ANDC – 102 project in Dainik Bhaskar
newspaper (NCR edition) dated 10th August 2012.
8
ACHARYA NARENDRA DEV COLLEGE
Survey-Based Study to Identify the Health
Hazards Associated With Exposure to Textile
Dyes Used by Dyers to Colour Fabrics
project title:
project code:
ANDC 104
Objective
The health and safety cover for theunorganized sector of dyers isalmost nonexistent. This encouraged us to take up the task of identifying the health
problems faced by these dyers who can be found in almost every corner of a
market, but go unnoticed and unattended. There is very little statistical data
available at anational level on the accidents and occupational diseases of the
people who work in this sector. The objectives of this survey were:
1.To assess and evaluate the awareness of the dyers regardingthe
occupational hazards of their profession.
2. To identify suspected cases (gender based) of work-related symptoms—
skin-itching, contact dermatitis, irritation of eyes, headaches, hearing
disabilities, asthma, etc.—at the local dye units in Delhi and NCR.
3. To assess the amount of dye actually adsorbed by the cloth fibre vis à vis
the quantity used by the dyer for each dyeing.
The project was designed to enable a science student, especially from the
chemistry or biomedical science background to assess the impact of chemicals
on the common man working far away from labs. The project also aimed at
creating environmental awareness among students and in society at large.
Final Findings
Our team interviewed more than 160 dyers. They observed that the dyes and
chemicals used in textile finishing are very harmful for the health of the dyer.
People exposed to these dyes werefound to suffer from skin irritation, skin
rashes and scaling on the hands and forearms (in some cases loss of sensation),
and sometimes also on the nose and eyes. Some dyers alsodeveloped a short
9
Image 1: Project team with the mentor, and dyers at work…various stages of the project
term allergy to certain dyes. Exposure to even small amounts of dyes such
asIndian Pinkled to severe coughing.
It was found that dyers generally used Hypo and Bleach to clean the dye
from their hands. Bleach is extremely harsh on the skin and nails. The skin on
the hands of most of thedyers was dry and patchy. Almost every dyer admitted
that their hands had lost the sensitivity to hot and cold objects. Many of
themalso said that they could not feel the sensation of an insect crawling
on their hands. Common bleach contains sodium hypochloritewhich causes
mucosal irritation. The extent of the irritation depends on the concentration
and the duration of contact with the dye. In case of severe exposure, permanent
pulmonary damage may occur, leading to a chemical irritant induced type of
asthma (respiratory sensitization) which causes an unusual breathlessness.
Long-term exposure to Hypo (Sodium Thiosulphate), although less severe
than bleach causes dermatitis and eye irritation leading to redness and pain
in the eyes. In our survey, the dyers admitted that they had developed small
patches (discoloration) on their skin. Some dyers reported that they became
sensitized to these reactive dyesstraightaway, and some others developed
sensitivity to them after a few years of exposure. The dyers informed us that
the symptoms of sensitization were usually better when they were away from
work over a weekend or a holiday.
Although one cannot rule out the possibility that some of these symptoms
may have been exaggerated, the harmful effect of the chemicals in the dyes
10
cannot bedisputed. When asked why most of the dyers did not followsimple
safety precaution such as wearing gloves, the most common reason that came
out was the discomfort with gloves while handling hot dye solutions. A small
numbers of dyers even admitted toamemory reduction over time, but they
were reluctant to correlate it with the use of dyes. Almost every dyer useda
common household remedy for cleaning his internal system after being
exposed to dyes throughout the day;they ate jaggery every evening.According
to them jaggery cleans their throat and clears away the dye particles inhaled
during the day.
This survey revealed a striking fact about the profession of dyers—whether
literate or illiterate, the dyers know that they are dealing with chemicals that
may harm them. They may not have the exact knowledge of the negative
effects of the chemicals, but they certainly know that they are harmful in the
long term. They take measures to counter the impact of these chemicals, but
are reluctant to admit it publicly out of fear of losing their profession.
The survey revealed that the dyers would not be at the risk if they took
the right precautions. To reduce the symptoms mentioned in figure 1, the
following suggestions were given to the dyers:
(a)
(b)
(c)
Image 2: (a) Venn diagram showing the sensitivity of hands and feet of the dyers
towards temperature (hands_temp and feet_temp respectively) and touch (hands_touch
and feet_touch respectively) (n = 134).
(b) Pie diagram showing the proportion of the dyers (n = 134) with skin cracks.
(c) Pie diagram showing different types of health problems faced by dyers (n = 134).
11
1. Work as cleanly as possible, to protect yourself and others in the vicinity.
2. Get as much information as possible about the chemicals you use and
how to handle them safely.
3. Wash your hands thoroughly before eating, drinking or smoking. Do
not eat, drink or smoke in the area where these chemicals are used.
4. Wear personal protective equipment such as chemical-resistant gloves,
aprons and work boots to stop liquids spilling on the skin, and eye
protection (preferably a visor which extends and tapers under the chin.
Report any accidents and seek medical help immediately.
5. Inform your doctor that you work with dyes and chemicals if you suffer
from ill health, and seek medical advice.
Learning for Students
This project has been a great learning experience for the undergraduate
students involved. They have learned how to design and implementa project,
and how to collect data and summarize the results in a coherent manner.
They have also learnt how to plan a project, choose the correct methodology
to achieve the desired goals, and analyse whether their research isprogressing
in the correct direction or not.
In this project, the students were also involved in the purchase of the
required equipment along with their mentors. They learned about the desired
specifications in the equipment, and how to do a market survey to figure
out the best brand at the best price. For this survey-based project, they used
a self-prepared questionnaire to collect the data afterexhaustive discussions
with the mentors. To check for the comprehensiveness of their questionnaire,
the students conducted pilot studies. They used the results of the pilot studies
to enrich the questionnaire for the final data collection. During the course
of this study, the students also acquired knowledge about various methods
of determining physiological parameters, the socio-ethical issues involved in
dealing with human subjects,and statistical analyses including sampling, data
generation, presentation and interpretation.Theinterviews allowed them to
develop better communication skills, team spirit, and constructive criticism
for the team members.They also refined their interviewing skills and learnt
how to improve data quality.
They stepped beyond the college premises, to see the real world as a
classroom, enriching their knowledge not only about how their subject of
undergraduate studies is correlated to the real life, but also about human
survival in challenging circumstances.
12
Benefits to College
The college truly benefited from this project as the students reached out to
local dyers all over Delhi and NCR. In fact, not only did the students interview
the dyers,they also interacted with the shopkeepers in the area. Therefore,
a lot he people came to know that the undergraduate students of Acharya
Narendra Dev College affiliated to the University of Delhi were researching
on a topic that isbeneficial for the society. The findings of this project are
being compiled in the form of a research paper that will be communicated
to a peer reviewed journal. A research publication by undergraduate students
will earn laurels for the College. Theinfrastructure generated by the funding
from this project will be utilized for training more undergraduate students.
Benefits to Society
The occupational health hazards associated with the professionsof people who
work in thesmallunorganized sectors of the society generally go unnoticed.
The research findings of this project clearly illustratethe casual approach
of the dyers in dealing with harmful chemical dyes. The dyer, most often
illiterate or at best primary school educated is unaware about the extent of
harm these dyes can pose to them. During their interaction with the dyers,
the students conveyed to them the need for adopting safer occupational
practices, and being alert tothe harmfuleffects of dyes on their bodies. The
interactive sessions during interviews made the dyers felt included, attended
to and cared for. This research also brought to notice the amount of dye that
was being thrown everyday into the common drains, and thus calls for a safer
solution for the disposal of dyes after use.
Further Plans
As mentioned earlier, the findings of this project are being compiled in
the form of a research paper that will be communicated to a peer reviewed
journal. Since this project involved interaction with dyers in Delhi and the
NCR, the surveymay be extended to other regions of the country.
13
BHASKARACHARYA COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES
project title:
project code:
Development of Cost-Effective Nutritious
Multi Cereal Bar and its Sustainable
Packaging Using Nano-Biopolymer
BCAS-103 1. Objectives of the Study
1. To develop cost-effective Nutritious Multi-Cereal Bar to curb the problem
of malnutrition in India.
2. To develop and characterize a cost-effective nano biopolymer film to make
it suitable for food packaging.
3.To study the changes in chemical and sensory attributes in order to assess
the Shelf- stability of in-house biofilm packaged bar.
4.To conduct health and environmental awareness camps in government
schools and slums areas.
2. Final Findings
Five bars with the ingredients in different forms and proportions, using
different methods of cooking, different flavor, texture, appearance and
nutritive value were formulated keeping in mind the standards that were
decided.
Sensory evaluation of all bars was done by a panel of 20 semi trained judges.
Their nutrient content was estimated using nutritive value of Indian foods,
ICMR publication. On the basis of sensory evaluation, cost and nutritive
estimation, one bar was selected as the final bar on which further tests, studies
and improvements are being carried out.
The testing of this bar for proteins, fats, carbohydrates, total ash, vitamin A
and vitamin C, texture using standard procedures was done. Peroxide value,
fat, acidity, moisture were also tested for a period of three months. Water
activity of bar was also determined for a period of three months at 0, 7, 15,
30, 60, and 90 days period. Finally bar was found tasty, healthy, nutritious.
Cost of the bar was very less as compared to other bars available in market.
Shelf life of bar is more than three months both at ambient as well as at 37
degree Celsius.
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Image 1: Nutrition Bar and Its Packaging Material
For packaging the nutrition bar, nine biofilms based on starch and PVA
have been developed with varying compositions. Based on their mechanical
properties the film with 50:50 starch and PVA have been selected for the
project. The film was further added with many active food grade reagents to
make it water insoluble, food safe and anti microbial in nature. Nanofillers
have been also incorporated in the film at 1%, 2% and 3% loading. The
mechanical properties were enhanced but the incorporation of clay made it
brittle in nature. Hence, the nanoclay filled composite of the film was not
chosen for the final work. The unfilled film were further tested for mechanical
properties, antimicrobial properties, WVTR and permeability in air. The
mechanical properties are very high, permeability is almost nil in air. The film
absorbs water but insoluble in water. The film has antimicrobial properties.
3. Learning for Students
The DU Innovative projects are one of a kind. It is unheard of any other
university to fund such research projects for their students to help them
develop their skill sets. Students are really grateful to the University of Delhi
for giving them such an opportunity.
Students explored, learnt and developed product. The project was a great
platform for students to explore their minds, learn from their experiences
and develop personally as well as professionally. Being the students of applied
sciences, it is necessary for them to have a practical knowledge of all that they
study in their classrooms. In this project that is exactly what they achieved.
Managing studies and this project together wasn’t a burden at all; instead
it taught them multitasking and time management. Apart from developing
product, they had Nourish Organics factory visits, attended three international
conferences and workshops, won best poster award, published paper in
journal and conducted awareness campaigns. We are sure that at some point
of time in their life they would benefit from their experiences.
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4. Benefits to College
1.College students got exposure to new research area at an undergraduate
level and also to the field which is not their field of study. They were
trained to integrate their knowledge with their peers of different streams.
The students worked in the team and learnt to collaborate which is the
need of the day.
2.Two patents were submitted from this project.
3. Teachers got funds to carry out research work. Infrastructure was build up
for the college. Even teachers also learnt to collaborate with each other and
mentor who is an expert in this field.
4.It gave an excellent platform and financial assistance for the students and
the teachers to visit industries and attend and participate in different
conference
5. Benefits to Society
The project was proposed keeping in mind the problem of malnutrition
in India. The nutrition bar developed during this project will benefit the
low income groups of our society as the bar developed is very cheap. It can
be incorporated into mid day meal for school children and various other
government schemes and curb malnutrition.
The bar is rich in macro and micro nutrients; it is tasty and very cost
effective which makes it the bar for the common man.
The packaging of the bar has been done using biodegradable packaging
material made form starch. This is aimed as a solution of plastic pollution, a
problem that not only our country but every other country faces. Moreover
the packaging is very cheap and based on bio resource. The final packaging
film is food compatible too.
Possible End-users
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Low Income group of the society especially malnourished children.
Pregnant and lactating women.
Teenagers.
Packaging Industry.
Ministry of Health and family welfare.
Department of Environment.
6. Further Plans
We have applied for patent both for bar and film. Our plan is to incorporate
this bar in mid day meal scheme so that nutritious and safe food can be
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provided to malnourished and poor children at very low cost. In future also
we want to make handy, healthy, nutritious and inexpensive ready to eat food
products in environment friendly packaging material from waste products or
from cheap easily available material. So that these type of food products can
be used/ distributed at the time of need like during flood, drought, war etc.
In future, we can also export these type of products.
The packaging film is environment and food safe. The packaging film may
be used for this nutrition bar as well as for packaging of other materials. This
film may be also combined with other packaging films to create a multi layer
packaging material.
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BHASKARACHARYA COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES
Development and study of Alternate
Packaging Materials from Agro Wastes and
its Application in Food Packaging
project title:
project code:
BCAS-104
1. Objective of the Study
The development of alternate packaging material from renewable resources
is the focus of this study. Packaging is defined as a socio-scientific discipline
which operates in society to ensure delivery of goods to ultimate consumer in
the best condition intended for their use. The packaging material must have
good barrier properties, thermal and mechanical properties. It is advantageous
and equally important for the packaging material to be ecofriendly. Most of
the packaging materials used at present are bio non-degradable in nature.
These non biodegradable materials generate large amount of toxic substances,
which are harmful to the biosphere. All these factors have contributed in
generating a huge ecological imbalance. The society has now awaken to
realize the consequences of this ecological imbalance and is gradually shifting
towards environmental friendly materials. Keeping various environmental
and other issues in mind and the present day need, we decided to work on the
problem which could directly serve the society and bring awareness on certain
issues. Thus, the proposed work aims to develop hard and flexible material
film using agro wastes like rice husk, sugar cane bagasse etc, optimize the film
properties and explore the suitability of the film as packaging material for
Image 1: Agro waste based packaging material for market eggs
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food products. The study would also assess the shelf life of the food products
using the developed packaging materials.
2. Final Findings
1.Initially the material film that we developed degraded with time. Also it
was rough. The gelatin coating over the material eliminated this problem.
The new film was then flexible, hard, strong and showed swelling behavior
of 5%. 0It was also reversible after heating in an oven after 30 minutes
at 120 C. The developed film had property to absorb metal ions from
surrounding (liquid) solution. The film was characterized by measuring
the absorbance of metal ion by UV spectroscopy. This particular property
added a new dimension to our work. The flexible film developed was
robust in nature. The parameters like strength, permeability and stretching
ability were found satisfactory. Further, the material was solution casted
for making packaging material for marketed eggs.
2. The data of internal and external quality parameters of market eggs (using
commercial paperboard packaging) was studied and showed better quality
of eggs at refrigerated temperature in comparison to room temperature.
The air cell size and weight loss was less in refrigerated storage.
3.The paraffin coated rice husk based packaging material showed
better barrier properties and had reduced moisture and CO2 losses in
comparison to pure rice husk based packaging material. It had better pH
of yolk and albumen. The studies were carried out at room temperature
conditions from December to July. The results indicate suitability of the
paraffin coated rice husk based packaging material as an alternate to the
conventional packaging materials.
4.The Focaccia bread was standardized (formulation) with respect to taste,
specially the spice and herb mixture with reference to local Indian palate.
We propose to improve the texture in future and also develop a suitable
bio-degradable packaging material film.
5.We are also working on to use our packaging material for liquid items.
Due to paucity of time, the findings could not be completed but initial
results indicate the suitability of our packaging material for liquid items.
3. Learning for students
1. The opportunity was very well used by students to develop logical thinking,
experimental expertise and ability to draw scientific conclusions. It has also
helped them to gain confidence and improve their holistic education.
2.The exposure to attend conferences gave them opportunity to hear some
highly intellectual as well as informative lectures. This helped them to
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expand their knowledge base and could get glimpse of the various research
activities and programmes.
3.The presentations trained them to plan, organize and deliver the data in
systematic manner. They developed scientific writing skills, learnt literature
survey and the importance of citations and references.
4.They realized the relevance and importance of the objective of the study.
They understood vast applications of agro wastes. They could appreciate
the interdisciplinary aspects in sectors academic, economic, resource
management, employment etc .
4. Benefits to College
1.The funding of the projects under Innovation Scheme is a big motivator
for teachers and students. Such schemes help to create an academic friendly
environment where exchange of ideas and thoughts take freely. It infuses
fresh energy in the academic community.
2.It created an environment where the importance of interdisciplinary
approach was realized by faculty as well as by students themselves. The
innovative thinking was very much evident during the cultural festival
“Antardhvani”.
3.The initiative and support of the University was commendable. The
other Universities are also realizing the importance of academic growth by
encouraging the college faculty and students.
4.The unique concept of research under the Innovation Scheme was highly
appreciated in various conferences that we attended. The students were
highly motivated in conferences while competing with the post graduate
and full time research students in academic events.
5.The publications/ patents will definitely lift the prestige of the University
and Colleges.
6.The research at undergraduate levels, will also attract students in colleges
from foreign nations. This would help in the academic growth of the
University and will spread the popularity further.
7.The continuous research activities would also help in enhancing the
prestige of the University. It will help faculty members to continuously
update their knowledge and skills.
8. The funding received under the project scheme has also helped the colleges
to equip their laboratories with some modern instruments and softwares.
This will provide an opportunity to enhance the learning skills of all.
9.The avenues for higher promotions will open up in colleges.
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5. Benefits to Society
1.The study was undertaken with an objective to assess the suitability of
agro waste generated in industries in developing a packaging material. The
success work can help the society in many ways:
2.It is a beginning towards developing the ecofriendly waste management.
3.Eco and Environment friendly approach will be in consonance with
current needs to preserve and improve quality of biosphere.
4.It will reduce dependency on non-renewable resources. It will help in
preserving our diminishing natural resources.
5.It may encourage small time entrepreneurship.
6. Further Plan
We propose to further investigate certain unique characteristics, properties
and behavior using agro wastes like:
1.Separation of cellulose and silica from agro-wastes.
2.Water purification using the residual form of agro-wastes.
3.Development of different types of packaging materials for different food
items.
21
CLUSTER INNOVATION CENTRE
DUCIC27X7 WS 1.0: Automated Project
Proposal Development Tool for Rapid
implementation of 24X7 Water Supply
Systems in Small Towns and Villages of India
project title:
project code:
CIC 101
1. Objective
The project “DUCIC27X7 WS 1.0: Automated Project Proposal Development
Tool for Rapid Implementation of 24X7 Water Supply Systems in Small Towns and
Villages of India” aims at developing a public domain software module that
will automatically generate the project proposal for implementation of a 24X7
water supply system in any small town or village. The generated proposal,
starting from input parameters related to the population, geographical
layout, payment capacity, consumption etc., will contain all details of the
water distribution network, cost of the proposed project, tender document
and a commercially viable tariff structure. The proposed software module will
incorporate spatial position analysis, mathematical model for pipe network
and tariff structure, optimal path analysis and analysis of relationship between
topology and pipeline network.
Image 1: DUCIC24X7 WS 1.0
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2. Final Findings
The primary output of the project is a software module that generates a
project proposal for implementation of small to medium sized public 24X7
water supply system. The main findings of the work are:
• Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE) proved to be a powerful optimization
algorithm to solve water distribution network optimization problems.
• Cross subsidy can be used to generate optimal tariff slab structure for
efficient recovery of the project cost.
• The optimized network design module resulted in minimization of
construction costs and maximization of reliability of final solution subject
to constraints such as proper pressure level at demand node and fire flow
compliances.
• IPython was used to integrate code snippets written in FORTRAN,
OpenEV, Java, PCRASTER and to generate PDF report.
• GUI for the software module is developed in wxPython and pyQt.
• Any village or town that is willing to provide population data can avail
of this cheap method of making assessment for project cost and tariff
structure for switching to a 24x7 water supply system.
3. Learning for Students (200 words):
The students have benefitted from the project by learning a variety of subject
concepts/working methodologies and thorough understanding of the software
development life cycle. The key skills acquired by the students during project
phase are:
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•
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Familiarity with GIS desktop application like ArcGIS and QGIS.
Developing complex mathematical models and algorithms.
Geoprocessing, Spatial DBMS, data mining techniques
Software development, testing and licensing procedure
Conducting field survey, handling of GPS and post processing techniques.
Economics of 24x7 water supply.
Automated project proposal
4. Benefits to College
The developed software module will greatly assist in implementation of
24X7 water supply system in small towns and villages thereby enhancing
the efficiency in management of resources. Certain aspects of the project
were closely related to the curriculum of the member students. The student’s
knowledge of the paper “Amazing world of probability and statistics” helped in
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forming questionnaire and organization of the collected survey data; “Data
modeling and design” in developing the database of all the civil and tariff related
data acquired and “Information Organization and Art of Problem Solving”,
“Discretizes and understanding real life situation through mathematical lens” in
gaining the algorithmic perspective for optimizing the distribution network
and designing the tariff structure. The output of the project is in line with
the mandate of CIC and will help the centre in establishing link with society
and industry by providing consultancy in resource management, planning
and implementation.
Working for the project provided the member students a great platform to
learn and implement diverse
concepts like GIS, tariff optimization, civil engineering, Database
development and management, automated project proposal generation etc.
The experience of software development, testing, interaction with public
and professionals, huge number of presentations helped in development of
professional, technical and communicational skills which would benefit them
in their future career.
5. Benefits to Society
India is rapidly urbanizing. An essential component of a good urban
infrastructure – a proper water supply system – is absent in most of the villages
and small towns of India. As we organize our society better by adopting
technology, it is only a matter of time that most of the villages and towns will
explore the possibility of moving to a 24x7 water supply system.
First step for establishing a 24x7 water supply system is to generate a
network, optimize tariff structure and to approximate the initial investment
required. This 24x7 water supply software will be extremely handy for such
a transition by villages and towns who do not have financial resources to hire
expensive consultants. The software generates an automated project proposal
for the rapid implementation of the 24x7 water supply system including the
cost structure, pipeline network and tariff structure.
This module takes basic information like GPS data of the area, field
survey, population (from census data), as input and takes into account the
growing population and consequently their growing needs for water. The
software thereby helps in the organized development of urban infrastructure
and efficient water resource management. This in turn replaces the system
of investing huge amounts on consultants for initial planning as concerned
authorities can now access this open source software for the same.
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6. Further Plans
The project team further aims at testing the software by debugging it under
vivid environments, and removing errors if any. The software will also be
tested in its real-time implementation scenario with the data of some small
towns and villages locally so that accuracy of the module could be further
improved. At present the user interface is for more of a technical audience.
Hence, interface of the module needs to be more user-friendly for which
some more work is required. The final aim is to fully automate the procedure
thereby reducing the user effort and manual input requirements. When both
types of testing would be done, the executable of the software will be made
Open Source for every user.
We also aim to approach city authorities, NGOs, Sarpanch of villages,
MLAs who are willing to implement 24x7 water supply systems in their areas.
We hope to take up some such turnkey projects where we will conduct the
survey and provide the authorities a cost estimation of the planned project
and user friendly commercially viable tariff structure.
25
CLUSTER INNOVATION CENTRE
Solutions for Road Management Based on
Models and Simulation of Traffic Flow on
Selected Roads of Delhi
project title:
project code:
CIC-102
Objective
The objective of this project was to develop a mathematical model for real
time simulation of traffic flow on select Delhi Roads. The model parameters
and rules of vehicular movement were determined by studyinga synchronous
recording of traffic inflow and outflow on those roads. The simulation aimed
to correctly predict the out flux of vehicles for each segment from a statistical
point of view. This model could be used to simulate new traffic flow scenarios
on the same road segments by changing the road dividers, flyovers, traffic
restrictions, etc. The origin of specific jams orclustering was also studied
using computer simulation, and potential solutions were obtained by testing
the new layout or by redesigning the traffic lights.
The methodology of the study included:
a) Mathematical modelling of vehicular traffic flow
b) Stochastic modelling
c) Image analysis for quantifying vehicular flow density
d) Traffic lighting system
e) Flyover planning
f ) Restricted traffic flow
Findings
This project helped us achieve the following:
a) Simulation of traffic flow using MATLAB for a Ring Road segment that
includes two intersections around Vishwavidyalaya metro station.
b) Simulation of vehicular acceleration and deceleration on a Ring Road
frame near South Campus using MATLAB.
c) Visualization of MATLAB simulation results using the three dimensional
ray tracing software POV-RAY. This is done by generating frames and
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Image 1: Proposed solution for road management
Image 2: Simulation of traffic flow
placing vehicles in them. Each captured frame is then saved in PNG
format. Movies aremade from these sequential PNG images using another
software.
d) Development of a Java applet to simulate traffic along major road segments
around the University of Delhi, North Campus. In this simulation,
minimum distance between the vehicles was maintained, acceleration27
deceleration rules were applied, and vehicles were made to stop-go at
traffic junctions depending on the traffic light.
e) Development of a traffic light system with dynamic synchronization
of traffic lights as per the density of vehicles on different roads of the
junction. The algorithm controls the traffic lights by comparing the traffic
flux and traffic density from different directions, and accordingly switches
the traffic signal at different frequencies at different times.
f ) Development of a model to simulate public transport along a road segment
passing through Agatpur village. This model has been used to determinethe
optimal bus frequency at which the bus service becomeseconomicalwith
the least waiting time for the public.
Learning for Students
This study enabled the students to learn a number of new techniques, tools
and research methods that included:
a) Mathematical modelling of traffic flow using MATLAB and JAVA
b) Field survey techniques and analysis of video data
c) Image visualization using POV-RAY and MATLAB
d) Computer simulation of optimal bus routes and timings
e) Stochastic modelling and statistical averaging
f ) Mathematical modelling based on empirical data
The students, for the first time, dealt with a real life problem of this
magnitude, and tried to solve it using mathematical modelling and computer
simulation. They learnt how to match the simulation data with empirical
observations. They also learned probabilistic simulation techniques.
Benefits to College
A direct outcome of this project is the formation of a traffic modeling and
simulation undergraduate research group. CIC has planned recording
systems for traffic and high power computers for simulation and graphics.
An IT innovation lab has been established out of the equipment and software
purchased for this project.
Benefits to Society
Traffic congestion is one of the biggest impediments in the economic
activities of Delhi and other major cities of India. In spite of well-planned
and well laid out roads, increase in the vehicular density and lack of traffic
discipline often lead to localized clustering and jams. Flyovers, BRT corridors
28
and synchronous traffic lighting systems seem tobe ineffective in dealing with
the situation.
This project work demonstrated that traffic planning can get vital inputs
from computer modelling and simulation. Specific traffic flow scenarios can
first be tested on computer models before committing large investments.
Public transport routes and timing can be optimally designed through
computer simulation. Automated traffic light systems that can adapt to the
accumulation of vehicles on the roads can also be designed using computer
simulation.
Further Plans
The following activities have been planned in future:
a) Incorporating the physics of vehicular motion into the existing simulation
model.
b) Finding the reason behind the discrepancy between simulation and
empirical data
c) Data collection of a DTC bus route for testing a bus route model
d) Creating a graphics simulation of traffic flow using MATLAB graphics
tools
e) Designing a new model for BRT
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CLUSTER INNOVATION CENTRE
IT Model for Parking Space Management:
Optimal and Efficient Parking-Retrieval of
Vehicles
project title:
project code:
CIC-103
Objective
The project aimed to explore the possibility of installing efficient and optimal
solutions that addressed the parking problems of the city.
The scope of the project wasto analyse various options for optimizing
parking; these includedmulti-level parking, valet parking and parking in
saturated residential colonies. Varioussurveys held across Delhi revealed
that most residential colonies were lackingappropriate infrastructure to
accommodate vehicles. For such saturated colonies, a multi-level car parking
model was suggested. Also, in order to increase the efficiency of valet parking
systems, an android application was designed which could be used by the valet
to make optimal use of available parking space. Apart from this, simulations
of unorganized car parking lots were created using MATLAB®.
Image 1: Picture of a parking lot in Delhi Image
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Image 2: Proposed parking-retrieval system
Findings
Delhi University Parking Lot
The Delhi University parking lot near Rugby Sevens Stadium was chosen to
examine the parking patternsof car owners and the possibility of an optimized
solution. It was observed that people park their cars randomly, which createsa
problem at the time of retrieval of cars. In order to solve this problem, the
project team came up with a solution for optimized parking of the vehicles.
The students measured every part of the parking lot using a measuring tape,
and drew a sketch of the area on a graph paper. The final graph, with near
precise measurements, was then plotted using grids. MATLAB®
Image 3: Simulation of the parking lot allows better organization for bus parking, car
parking and two-wheeler parking.
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Image 5: Automated multi-level parking
for saturated residential enclaves
Image 4: Entry-exit visualization
Most of the old residential enclaves were built on the assumption that every
household would need one car space and in some casesone scooter space.
However, over the years, the numbers of cars owned by residents increased
tremendously. As a result,there was no space for the extra cars. Left with no
option,the cars started occupying the road space of the colonies. This made
these colony roads extremely vulnerable to accidents. The blocked road also
affectedthe entry/ exit of the vehicles to the enclaves.
Android Application for Parking Lots
The app developed by the students can help make parking and retrieval of
cars from valet parking lots more efficient. All the valet has to do is simply ask
the car owner how much time he plans to park the car in the parking lot. He
then has to enter the value on his app, and tap the slot on the screen where
the car has been parked. As time passes, the colour of that particular slot on
his parking lot map darkens. Having done this for each car that enters the lot,
the valet can, by just a glance on his screen, seewhich cars are due to be out,
and which cars still have time left. This not only facilitates and increases the
efficiency of parking new cars as they come into the lot, but it also eliminates
errors due to human memory when allotting new slots to cars.
Learning for Students
This project was a great learning experience for the students involved. It
enabled them to explore and practice techniques which were beyond their
regular coursework. They learned to create real time simulations in Matlab ®
using probabilistic variables, to determine the average time in which a parking
lot filled up. A few students even learned to create Androidapplications for
tablets, and developed and implemented real time algorithms for managing
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valet parking in a more efficient manner. A few other students learned to
create and render customized 3-D models in ‘Blender’,which was used to
design multilevelparking in residential areas. They also studied the working
of automated multilevel parking lots inSarojini Nagar and at Baba Kharak
Singh Mark, from the inside.
During the course of the project, the students learned to recreate the layouts
of the existing parking lots using manual measurements. They also learned
to analyse those layouts using top view photography and video recordings.
They explored various techniques to combine images from differentcameras
to get acomplete view of parking lots. The students got an insight into the
functioning of parking lots by collating data collected through interviews
with the users and the employees of the parking lots. Some of the students
created real life models of the parking lots surveyed.
Benefits to College
With the funds assigned by the College, the Centre could purchase all the
equipment required to realize this project. The Centre also benefited in terms
of the expertise and knowledge gained through the work of the students. The
faculty for its part was able to assign more complex tasks to the team as they
were working with adedicatedgroup rather than individual students. This in
turn made for a more focused peer group working together with relevant
researchers. A research group with competence in parking models has evolved
out of these activities.
Benefits to Society
With the rise in population and correspondingly, the number of vehicles,
we need to devise more intelligent ways to combat the parking problem.
There is a space crunch not just for the cars moving on the road, but also
for the vehicles seeking parking. The suggested multi-level design parking
system will go a long way towards providing relief to society with a number of
advantages such as optimal utilization of space, security, lower maintenance
and operational costs. It will alsobecome easier for the driver as he willnot
have to maneuver his car through the entire parking lot looking for a place
to park, nor will he have to attend to the car while it is parked, thus saving a
lot of time.
The android application developed for residential and single-level parking
systems would be very beneficial for unorganized parking lots, as it canbe
used for synchronous real time tracking of the parked vehicles within the
parking area. Also it can compute the most efficient entry-exit scheme for
each vehicle, which will help reduce the chaos in the parking lots, and use the
existing space in the most efficient manner.
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Further Plans
A relevant theme such as ‘parking problems of a city’ definitely involves a lot
of scope for further development. Some of the proposals that the students
plan to take up in the future include:
1. The team proposes to sync a live-image capturing Quadcopter with special
surveillance software that canhelp the authorities ensure the security and
optimal utilization of their parking lot.
2. Research on RFID technology, which the team had initially proposed is
still in progress. The team would like to implement the technology in a
simulated parking lot to explore the feasibility of this technology in actual
parking lots.
3. Parking problems in residential colonies require immediate attention. Our
team shall endeavor to optimize the available parking space in a residential
colony in New Delhi, India. This can be done by allotting fixed positions
to the cars belonging to the residents of the colony. Such measures would
undoubtedly require cooperation from the Residential Welfare Associations
(RWAs) of the colony.
4. The Android application for single-level parking lots needs to be developed
further for final commercial utilisation.
These parking problems are not restricted to Delhi alone. It seems that
every city in the world requires appropriate solutions to address their parking
problems. Developing such solutions requires various skills and expertise
which can only be acquired over time.
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DELHI COLLEGE OF ARTS & COMMERCE
project title:
project code:
Symphonies of Life in Nature and
Environment Folksongs of Punjab, Jammu
and Kashmir
DCAC--102
1. Objective
The focus of the Innovation Project was Student Centric and its main
aim was to introduce students, through their own hands-on experience,
to methodologies of research. The subject chosen was the creation of a
knowledge resource regarding the cultural ethos, the lived experience and
the social history as expressed through the folksongs of Punjab, Jammu and
Kashmir, and their relativity to Nature and Environment. Our objective here
was to create an awareness in the students regarding the diversity of parallel
cultures alongwith the thread of commonality amongst them, as seen through
folksongs of neighbouring regions. Further, they could relate to the richness
of lived experience by interacting with people in their own milieu, in their
own environment, and not through books but an ‘out of the box/classroom’
experience. Also our objective was to inculcate in them a sense of participation
in the celebration of life as reflected in these folksongs.
Image 1: Workshop on Kashmiri Folksongs with Dr Muzaffar Ahmad Bhatt
and Ms Shazia in Progress, Srinagar, Kashmir
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2. Final Findings
One of the major findings of the team was that the use of language becomes
crucial in preserving folksongs since, with change in language usage, certain
genres and songs gradually go into oblivion. Folksongs follow the language in
use by the masses as they are sung by the common people and handed down
from generation to generation. They have their own dynamism as they adapt
to the changing usage of idioms, tones and pronunciation.
Moreover, folksongs were found to be connected to the people’s own
lifestories. Memories of childhood and of the mother singing with them
played a major role in their interest in folksongs. The elders also went into
the memories of their past, their younger days when modern modes of
entertainment were not available and singing of folksongs was a means of
relaxation and bonding at communal gatherings. Alongwith this, there was
also an element of nostalgia when they talked of the past with its practice of
sitting in the open in the evenings and singing songs which is no longer a
practice.
The diligent case studies of the three regions made by the team also
dispersed the different memories associated with the life-patterns and history
of the specific region. In Punjab the longing for the western Punjab now
separated by partition of the country, was a common memory, in Jammu it
was the simplicity of life and the innocence and modesty that characterized
the womenfolk whereas in Kashmir it was the desire for union, especially
spiritual union and the integrity of the people that is missed.
The individual consciousness of the cultural ethos and traditions of the
community is very important for treasuring this rich heritage of folksongs.
Though passed by word of mouth and picked up by recurrence, they are full
of wisdom as well as reflections on the social condition, especially that of
women going into their in-laws’ home and the treatment that they receive,
their memories of their parents’ home and their looking for support from
their husbands who are often unsympathetic to their positioning in the family.
There are also reflections on ecology and the significance of its sustainance
for the survival of the human beings. There are also folksongs which advise
people to rise beyond barriers of religion and just be good human beings.
The most prominent of the findings was the desire of everyone interviewed
that the folksongs must be preserved and revived. The common voice of
opinion across all three regions was that folksongs must be given space in
public dominion through the practitioners and also that interest of the youth
must be revived and propelled towards an interest in the folksongs.
36
3. Learning for Students
The project has enhanced the essential student learning capabilities outside
the walls of the classroom. Timely funding has made it possible for attempting
things that were not possible before. It has essentially added an effective
learning tool to their C.V., making it possible to be recognized in the future.
The project has facilitated easy access to media personalities/academics
who have influenced the student group in an informed way, enhancing
their research methodology. The project emphasized the importance of
interpretation in research .It also developed the skill of analysis of the data
collected through interviews.
Not only has this been a once in a life time experience for them, but it
has been wonderful to actually meet people at the grass root level, to have
a first hand experience of such an important field of folklore adding to
the knowledge of folk music. Working on the project ‘Symphonies of life:
Nature and Environment in Folk Songs of Jammu, Kashmir and Punjab’ has
helped not only to break barriers of regional differences but has also brought
close intricacies between the culture in these particular regions to the better
understanding of the entire group. During the course of the field trips,
particularly to Jammu, they had the opportunity to meet several eminent
personalities like-Padmashree Pradyumann Singh and learnt to conduct a
formal one to one interview with him and with Dr. Rama Sharma. They also
had a very lucid and enlightening session with honorable Dr. Karan Singh,
member, Rajya Sabha and an authoritative voice on Dogri folk songs and
culture.
Being actively involved in the research also contributed to their
photographical skills, breathing color into this project. This project has not
only inculcated a better understanding of intense connections between nature
and folksongs but has also honed their skills to carry forward the knowledge
of efficient research for future prospects.
4. Benefits to College
The new FYUP introduced at the undergraduate level with its emphasis
on cultural studies, this Knowledge resource creation can be used as study
material and it can be carried forward as further research avenues open up.
An extensive list of Resource Persons has been made available to pursue
further research. In the Documentary submitted with the Final Report, an
extensive footage of Audio-Visual documentation is provided which shows a
wide range of interviewees – right from the grassroot level to practitioners, to
academicians to renowned and recognized scholars and writers.
37
The students in the College have benefitted from this primary research
and at Antardhwani 2013, the College became well known by this project.
5. Benefits to Society
The main point is that we have brought this subject of folksongs into public
space and have created an awareness of our cultural roots. The dynamics of
face to face, one to one interaction, with folksongs being sung by practitioners,
has much more impact on the awareness of people than simply listening to
a CD. Antardhwani2013 provided a platform for the dissemination of the
knowledge creation by research and interaction, bringing these singers to the
center from the margins. A very significant question asked again and again was
how to carry this work forward, how to make people again develop interest in
the lilting rhythm and the simple but profound emotions of folksongs.
6. Further Plans
A two-fold further plan is given below. It merits consideration in view of
the compliments received from the experts and Folksongs Veteran Dr. Karan
Singh, Chairperson, ICCR.
• To bring out a pictorial book on Folksongs based on the research findings
by the team DCAC-102, and pictures taken by our team of students. This
will be a primary research material for use by the academics and research
fellows.
• The estimated cost of 50 copies (120 pages, 80 pictures) of the proposed
book will be around Rs.85,000/- . Funds for the book are left over from
the grant of Rs ten lakh allotted for the Project and it would be published
in four months time.
• To carry out this seminal research further to adjoining areas of Himachal
Pradesh and Laddakh, in response to the recommendations received from
reputed scholars in the field who audited our work.
38
DYAL SINGH COLLEGE
project title:
project code:
Development of Zoology E-Museum for
Courses of University of Delhi
DS-104
1. Objective
Zoology Museums at College/University level where variety of animal
specimens, slides etc. are stored in preserved form to educate the society in
general and students/explorer in particular. Present work is based on the idea
of integration of work among two branches of science viz., Animal Taxonomy
(from Zoology) and IT (from Computer Science). It was proposed to access
some of the best known Zoology Museums in and around Delhi and, it
possible, to farther places in India as well. As there is only limited knowledge
about our biodiversity, present work is likely to generate further understanding
towards various life forms around us. It will be helpful in creating a common
database of specimens available related to syllabi of University of Delhi. It
is an effort to integrate the physically available specimens into an electronic
database or virtual zoology museum primarily for the specimen of syllabus of
B.Sc. (H) Zoology & B.Sc. Life Sciences of University of Delhi.
2. Final Findings
I.
Product Submission Details:
• Hard Copy (to be submitted very soon)
• Copy of Product as CD
Image 1: Zoology e-Museum(Snapshot)
39
• Hosted on local server in the college at the link: 10.140.1.79/
zooemuseum
• Accessible from anywhere on DU website.
II. Identification of Resource Base- Extensive search to identify resource
base for the Database. Various centers in and around Delhi were
requested for respective permission. Personal reference and contact was
also explored for the same.
III. Continuous/extensive literature survey- Foundation of any project lies
in extensive & in-depth literature survey. Innovation Team search for
available information from all possible sources & update about dataset
under study.
IV. Continuous/extensive site (internet) survey – Web search for features
and patterns related to present work so as to integrate some of the best
tools.
V. Demand/expectation survey from the target group – The expectations
of the target group collected by survey method.
VI.Collection of Data for Database/Museum from Resource Base –
Collection of the information in the suitable format. A diagrammatic
sketch may also be essentially required and will be made to put up
possible minute details.
VII.Compilation of information – Information so collected from sl. 1-4 may
be compiled accordingly. Development of Electronic Database & User
Interface- A user friendly interface to be developed to access the datasets
conveniently. The data is presented in the form of a website and the
work done along with the features are as follows:
• Designing of Logo
– Choosing the plaque
– Designing of “Zoology” using Animals
– Including college logo
– Including DU logo
• Presenting slide show on website
• Website tabs
– Selecting tabs
– Location of tabs in website
– Selecting hierarchical structure for sub-tabs
• Deciding on placing slideshow of animals
• Mouse over color change on selection of tab
• Account creation and management of social media
–Facebook
–LinkedIn
– Google plus
• Understanding the procedure to enlarge image on click
40
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
– Zoom in
– Zoom out
Our Visibility
–Poster/Banner
–Brochure
–Documentary
–PPT
– Workshop Poster
– Workshop Banner
– Workshop Pamphlet – simple, detail
–Certificate
– Workshop tit-bits
• Entry card
• ID card
• Registration form
– Newspaper – TOI 1
– Newspaper – TOI 2
Link to DU website from here
Images enlarge on click and also zoom in
Slideshow of images with following features
–Forward
–Background
–Play
–Pause
– Button to choose the slide group
Specific characters, habits and habitats, classification
Photoimages and line diagrams
Social media connectivity
– Facebook link
– Linked in
– Google plus
Accepts user input
–Feedback
– New contributions
3. Learning for students
Student developed understanding about the biodiversity. Problem related to
zoology museum were assessed. Expectation from the target group was taken
into consideration for making current product. The concept of integration
of ICT in teaching or development of resource using ICT was taken care
during the present innovation project. During the workshop participants
41
get benefitted from the program in general. The workshop feedback seems
to be particularly motivating as the participants come up with variety of
ideas, the possibility of exploring and learning from the workshop in their
respective fields. Student investigators learn integrated approach using two
different streams for benefit of larger group. Student learned to work in team
in an heterogeneous interdisciplinary environment. Concept of research
investigation, time management, planning and systematic organizing of
data was learned as a learning process during the project. Tools and flavor
of interdisciplinary approach for understanding and presentation of findings
were also explored.
4. Benefits to College
College may act as central point for resource based on this aspect. Future
upgradation may be carried out subject to availability of necessary resources.
By getting center of attraction for such a project college may be key spot for
similar studies and projects in near future. Other agencies willing to explore
the idea may take benefit from the experiences from the college. As planned
initially, our project developed a product which may be accessible to end users
easily. The possibility of revenue generation in near future cannot be ruled
out. This may be appreciated in view of approaching towards self-sufficiency.
5. Benefits to Society
This project leads to development of awareness and understanding for our
faunal biodiversity. Extension of understanding beyond the boundaries of
traditional museums by one click point allows us to access certain less known
organisms and facts about those organisms. This will be surely helpful in
generating awareness to broader mass, not only to the students but also
anyone interested in faunal biodiversity. This kind of awareness may be aiding
in busting prevailing myths about different life forms around us directly and
conservation of biodiversity indirectly. This will be also helpful in bringing
down the cost of maintenance for larger number of museums as well as
growing attraction for such museums, which might be helpful in generating
revenues as well for the resources.
6. Further Plans
The concept of E-museum may be extended to further depending upon
available resources. Based on feedback at ANTARDHWANI, The Innovation
Project DS-104 team was greatly motivated and felt that this concept may
be further carried with input from other resources towards integration of
42
additional informations. It is suggested that animal specimens listed in the
courses of other Central and State Universities of India may be included
during the future expansion of this project. Further, additional animals
listed in Discipline I and Discipline II of Animal Biodiversity of four year
undergraduate course may also be included.
Additional inputs received during the course of development give us the
strength to integrate images, facts (comments), systematic position along with
line drawing of the specimens. In future, live images even video clippings of
live animals in their natural habitat of various Biodiversity Reservoirs may
also be included.
43
GARGI COLLEGE
project title:
project code:
Daastan-e-Nisvaan (Stories of Women)
GC 103
Objective
This project was an endeavor by Gargi College to empower its students to
become socially sensitive using unconventional approaches, to foster a spirit
of inquiry in them, to be potential game-changers of tomorrow by catering to
their multiple intelligences and to think beyond their prescribed curriculum.
In order to achieve this goal, the students were engaged in researching,
composing, scripting and producing an inspiring multi-genre, cross-cultural
play ‘Daastan-e-Nisvaan’ (DEN), invoking the stories of four powerful
women from Indian mythology, history and literature. The larger goal of
the project was the belief that this exploration and journey ofthe making of
‘Daastan-e-Nisvaan’ would lead to suggestions for reform and change in the
perception of women in society. We believed that theprocess of researching,
scripting, producing and staging the play would make the students realize
that powerfulwomen are not just restricted to legends, but are indeed part of
our contemporary world.
Image 1: Members of the project team
44
Final Findings
Daastan-e-Nisvaan has been a creative project in every possible way. The
students were engaged and involved inthe project from its very inception. In
the first phase of the project, they conducted an in-depth research on the four
women characters they had chosen to study. They explored how these women
faced challenges with rationality, intuitiveness and revolutionary ideas, and
were game changers in their own right.
In the second phase of the project, the students focused on developing
the script. This crucial phase was marked by innovation and creativity as it
involved invoking the stories of these women and translocating them into
meaningful and relevant contemporary situations. In this they were greatly
helped by the workshops organizedby the resource persons, which allowed
them to create a powerful script.
The third and the final phase of this project once again involved the students’
innovation and creativity in the form of dramatization and production of the
play. The play was staged twice in our college on 19 July 2013, and once in
Delhi University during ‘Antardhwani’.
The group, which was completely unknown to each other, to begin with,
integrated into one unit during the making of DEN. There was a growing
sense of self-belief and a quiet confidence within the group. The project
helped build the groupinto one united powerhouse, collating all the gains
from the various workshops they had attended to concretize it into a final
script.
While scripting the stories of the four women,the students realized that these
women couldnot be portrayed or projected as victims or as the epitome of soft
virtues, but as imbued with the potential for transcending gender borders and
social mores to become game changers. These women emerged as archetypal
images that could be recast in new situations and in different ages. The play
helped our students to interrogate, celebrate and extend the choices made by
these women.
Learning for Students
Daastan-e-Nisvaan was a unique learning experience for the students for it
enabled them to question themselves, and empowered them to work with
their creative instincts. During the making of the play, the students passed
through numerous stages, with each stage bringing a new experience for
the students, from participating in team-building workshops, to meeting
varioussocial activists, to scripting the play and finally staging it. The play provided the students with an opportunity to think out of the box
and widen their sense of imagination. The experience of the project sensitized
the students towards the social issues concerning women as they interacted
45
with a panel of socials activists and luminaires such as DrKiran Bedi. The
students got an insightchance into understand the plight of victims of female
foeticides and&domestic violence, which they . Such interactions made the
students incorporated these elements into the play.The workshops conducted
by Mr. Avijit Dutt and Mr. Ishwar Shunya not only honed the dramatic skills
of the students, but also taught them the importance of working in a team
and trusting each other.
This experience was extremely fruitful for the students because in a matter
of about eleven months they not only scripted and produced a multi-genre
play, but also developed the ability to think beyond the given boundaries of
their curriculum and become socially sensitive citizens.
Benefits to College
This prestigious project was greatly beneficial forthestudents of Gargi College.
Not only did thestudents from different departments get an opportunity to
work together creatively on a project which extended beyond their fields of
discipline, butthe newspaper coverage brought a lot of credibility to their
efforts. The students working on the project also got exposure to a range of
experts from the fields of dramaturgy, theatre and those working in the areas
of womens’ empowerment. This enhanced the confidence of thestudents to
try out new things beyond their secure areas of study.
Benefits to Society
Since the play wasstaged thrice for the students of Delhi University,
teachers,parents, grandparents and friends, it can be assumed that the team
was somewhat successful in sensitizing them to the issues that women have
faced in the past and continue to do sointhe contemporary world.
We are convinced that raising awareness of womens’ issues will bring
about a change in the attitude and perception of our society towards women.
Moreover,, taking inspiration from these characters, women will have greater
determination to survive and prevail in a discriminating world.
Further Plans
Since the students received the second instalment of their funds during the
summer vacations, they were not able to utilize the grant to bring out the
monograph and publish the play in a bookform. If possible, they would like
to go ahead with these two plans.
46
HANSRAJ COLLEGE
राष्ट्रीय राजधानी क्षेत्र में दृष्टिबाधितों से सम्बंिधत
संस्थाओं एवं संस्थानों की उपलब्िधयां और चुनौितयाँ
project code: HR 101
project title:
1. Objective
राष्ट्रीय राजधानी क्षेत्र में कार्य करने वाली संस्थाओं के कामकाज,
उसकी कार्य-प्रणाली, उसके संगठन, प्रबंधन, संसाधन, कार्यक्रम आिद
का समग्र अध्ययन कर इन संस्थाओं की उपलबि्धयों और चुनौितयों
का एक खाका तैयार करना. इसके जिरये भारत जैस ेकल्याणकारी राज्य
व्यवस्था में िवकलांगों िवशेषकर दृष्िटबािधतों के लिए संचािलत नीितयों
एवं कार्यक्रमों की खािमयों और उसमे सुधार की संभावनाओं की तलाश
करना तािक उनके िहत में बेहतर नीित िनर्माण की िदशा में कुछ सहायता
हो सके.
इसके साथ ही सरकारी और गैरसरकारी आर्िथक सहायता के बल पर
काम करने वाली िविवध संस्थाओं एवं संस्थानों के काम-काज और उसमे
बरती जाने वाली इमानदारी एवं पारदरि्शता आिद का भी एक आकलन
करना, दूसरे शब्दों में कहें तो इन संस्थाओं एवं संस्थानों की सोशल
ऑिडिटंग करना.
स्वयंसेवी संस्थाओं के रूप में पंजीकृत िविवध संस्थाओं एवं संस्थाओं
के कार्यक्रमों एवं योजनाओं से दृष्िट बािधतों को मिलने वाली सुविधा,
सहायता एवं इसके द्वारा उनके जीवन में हो रहे सकारात्मक बदलाव
एवंव्यक्ितत्व विकास आिद काव्यापक अध्ययन एवं िववेचन िवश्लेषण
करना तथा इस सम्बन्ध में जरुरी तथ्य जुटाना भी हमारा ध्येय रहा.
Image 1: रोिहणी स्िथत नेशनल फेडरेशन ऑफ़ ब्लाइंड में सि्थत ब्रेल प्रेस.
47
Image 2: अंतर्ध्विन २०१३ में प्रोजेक्ट टीम कुलपित प्रो. िदनेश िसंह के साथ.
दृष्िटबािधतों के जीवनयापन के लिए पुनर्वास एवं प्रिशक्षण आिद के
जिरये बेहतर कौशल प्रदान कर उनके जीिवकोपार्जन के प्रबंध की िदशा
दशा का आकलन भी हमारे इस पिरयोजना कार्य का एक महत्वपूर्ण
हिस्सा रहा है.
कुल िमला कर राष्ट्रीय राजधानी क्षेत्र में कार्यरत इन सभी प्रमुख
संस्थाओं एवं संस्थानों का समग्र अध्ययन कर इनकी स्िथित, प्रभाव,
परिणाम के साथ साथ इनकी अपनी चुनौितयों के पिरप्रेक्ष्य को सामने
लाने के साथ साथ इनकी उपलब्िधयों का आकलन िवश्लेषण कर नीित
िनर्माण में सहायक तथ्यों एवं आंकड़ों को प्रस्तुत करना और रचनात्मक
परिवर्तन लाने लायक वातावरण िनर्िमत करना ही इस पिरयोजना कार्य
के उद्देश्यों की पिरिध रही है तथा वर्ष भर पिरयोजना कार्य से जुड़े
सदस्यों ने इन्हीं बिन्दुओं के इर्द-िगर्द काम करते हुए पूरी म्हणत और
लगन के साथ काम िकया है िजस के अनेक सकारत्मक प्रभाव भी देखे
जा सकते हैं.
2. Final Findings
परियोजना कार्य से जुडी टीम सम्बंिधत िवषय पर वर्ष भर जुटाए
गएतथ्यों एवं जानकािरयों के आधार पर कुछ महत्वपूर्ण िनष्कर्षों तक
पहुँचने में सफल रही है. िजन्हें िनम्निलिखत िबन्दुओं के जिरये समझा
जा सकता है.
1. दृष्िटबाधितों के िलए काम करने वाली अनेक संस्थाओं एवं संस्थानों
का कामकाज अपनी तमाम सीमाओं एवं चुनौितयों के बीच भी अद्भूत
एवं प्रभावकारी है.ं इनमें लोधी रोड सि्थत ब्लाइंड िरलीफ एसोिसएसन,
साकेत सि्थत नॅशनल फेडेरेशन ऑफ ब्लाइंड, रोिहणी स्िथत ऑल
48
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
इंिडया कन्फेडरेशन ऑफ द ब्लाइंड, रामकृष्णपुरम सि्थत नेशनल
असोिसएशन फॉर द ब्लाइंड आिद प्रमुख संस्थाओं का नाम िलया
जा सकता है.
इस क्षेत्र में काम करने वाली संस्थाओं एवं सरकार के बीच सहयोग
एवं समन्वय का जबर्दश्त अभाव देखा जा सकता है. इसके कारण
सरकार द्वारा िनर्धािरत धन एवं संसाधन का समय पर तथा बेहतर
िवतरण नहीं हो पाता है िजसके चलते इन संस्थाओं के कामकाज
में रुकावट एवं गितरोध पैदा होते रहते है.ं इस समस्या को लगभग
सभी संस्थाओं से सम्बद्ध अिधकािरयों ने न केवल स्वीकार िकया है
बल्िक कई संस्थाओं ने इसके कारण सरकारी सहायता लेने से अपने
को दूर रखने की बात भी कही है.
दृष्िटबािधतों के िलए काम करने वाली िविभन्न संस्थाओं एवं संस्थानों
के बीच परस्पर सहयोग, समन्वय एवं सहकार से और बेहतर एवं
प्रभावकारी पिरणाम की आशा की जा सकती है. परन्तु इस सम्बन्ध
में इसका अभाव सहज ही देखा जा सकता है. ऐसे में एक संस्था
िजन समस्याओं का समाधान नहीं कर पाती है उन समस्याओंको
उसके समाधान में सक्षम दूसरी संस्था को अग्रसािरत करने की
प्रविृत देखने को नहीं िमलती है. इस िदशा में जरुरी सुधार के िबना
महत्वपूर्ण बदलाव संभव नहीं है.
इस क्षेत्र में काम करने वाली िविवध संस्थाओं एवं संस्थाओं में
उन संस्थाओं को िचन्िहत करने की आवश्यकता है जो वास्तव में
पूरी प्रितबद्धता एवं लगन के साथ दृषि्टबािधतों के िलए िदनरात
काम कर रही है.ं ऐसी संस्थाओं को और अिधक सहयोग एवं सहायता
सरकार और समाज की ओर से िमले यह सुिनश्िचत करना भी
जरुरी है. इसके साथ ही स्वयंसेवी संस्था के रूप में पारदरि्शता और
इमानदारी की कमी के साथ काम करने वाली संस्थाओं एवं संस्थाओं
पर िनयंत्रण एवं उसका िनयमन भी अिनवार्य है.
िविभन्न संस्थाओं के िनरंतर प्रयास से िदल्ली दृष्िटबािधतों के िलए
सर्वािधक अनुकूल शहर के रूप में सामने आयी है. पिरणामतः देशभर
के दृषि्टबािहत बड़ी संख्या में िदल्ली में न केवल रहते हैं बल्िक
िशक्षा और प्रिशक्षण प्राप्त कर समाया जीवन जी रहे है.ं
दृष्िटबािधतों के पुनर्वास, प्रशिक्षण, आवास, उपकरण िवतरण
आिद के साथसाथ अनेक संस्थाओं ने अंधविद्यालय महाविद्यालय
आधीके सञ्चालन के जिरये उनके लिए बेहतर िशक्षा व्यवस्था को
सुिनश्िचत िकया है और बेहतर किरयर की अनेक संभावनाएं और
अवसर भी पैदा िकया है.
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7. लोधी रोड सि्थत ब्लाईंड िरलीफ असोिसएसन सिहत कई संस्थाओं
ने मोमबत्ती बनाने, कुर्सी बुनने, िलफाफा बनाने सिहत कई ऐसे
रोजगारपरक प्रिशक्षण की व्यवस्थ की है िजसके बल पर दृषि्टबािधत
स्वावलंबन के साथ जीवनयापन करने में स्वयं को सक्षम पाते हैं
और जीवन के प्रित उनके दृष्िटकोण में सकारात्मकता आती है.
8. कई संस्थाए ंसेमीनार एवं कार्यक्रमों तथा आंदोलनों आिद के जिरये
लगातार दृषि्टबािधतों के अिधकार और उनके िलए जरुरी नीितिनर्माण
की िदशा में सरकार और समाज का िनरंतर ध्यान आकृष्ट करते
रहते है.ं साकेत स्िथत नॅशनल फेडेरेशन ऑफ ब्लाइंड, रोिहणी स्िथत
ऑल इंिडया कन्फेडरेशन ऑफ द ब्लाइंड आिद संस्थाओं ने तो कई
बार इसकेिलए जरुरी कानूनी लड़ाई भी लड़ी है िजसके पिरणामपरक
प्रभाव भी रहे है.ं
9. कुछ संस्थाओं ने जीवनयापन और रोजगार के साथसाथ आवास आिद
की व्यवस्था के िलए दृष्िटबािधतों को िवत्तीय सहायता भी प्रदान
िकया और जो प्रायः न्यूनतम कागजी कार्यवाही के साथ कम से
कम दर पर कर्ज के रूप में उपलब्ध कराया जाता है. इस िदशा में
नॅशनल फेडेरेशन ऑफ ब्लाइंड का कामकाज अत्यंत ही सराहनीय है.
10. रामकृष्णपुरम सि्थत नेशनल असोिसएशन फॉर द ब्लाइंड ने
दृष्िटबािधत वृद्धों के िलए वृद्धाश्रम िनर्माण की िदशा में भी
गंभीरतापूर्वक कार्य प्रारंभ िकया है जो न केवल कािबलेगौर है
बलि्क कािबले तारीफ़ भी है.
11. कुल िमलाकर इस क्षेत्र में काम करने वाली िविभन्न संस्थाओं का
कामकाज अपनी तमाम सीमाओं के बावजूद अत्यंत ही सराहनीय रहा
है और इन्हें सरकार और समाज से अिधक से अिधक सहयोग एवं
प्रोत्साहन की आवश्यकता है.
3. Learning for Students
संबंधित पिरयोजना कार्य में काम करने वाले छात्रों के िलए पूरा वर्ष
ज्ञान, प्रशिक्षण, नयी दृष्िट के िनर्माण एवं सामूिहक अनुसंधान की
प्रक्िरयाओं को जानने-समझने का रहा. उन्होंने अनेक संस्थाओं का भ्रमण
कर जरुरी तथ्य तो जुटाया ही उसके िववेचन िवश्लेषण और िनष्कर्ष
तक पहुँचने की कवायद में भी स्वयं को पूरी तत्परता के साथ शािमल
िकया और अनेक रोचक एवं संवेदनशील अनुभवों से गुजरते हुए स्वयं के
सामिजक दाियत्व को ढंग से समझने की कोिशश की. िवद्यार्िथयों को
इसपिरयोजना कार्य से िमली सीख को इस प्रकार से देखा जा सकता है–
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1. िकसी भी कार्य को समूह में सम्पािदत करने की पद्धित को
जानना-समझना और उसमे अपने अिधकािधक रचनात्मक योगदान
को सुिनश्िचत करना.
2. तथ्यों को जुटाने, उसे एकत्िरत करने, उसके िववेचन िवश्लेषण और
िनष्कर्ष तक पहुँचने के साथसाथ सर्वेक्षण के तौरतरीकों आिद को
जानने और प्रमुख िवद्वान िवशेषज्ञों से साक्षात्कार आिद लेना
और उसके िलए खुद को तैयार करना.
3. सेमीनार-संगोष्ठी आिद के आयोजन एवं प्रबंधन का व्यवहािरक
ज्ञान प्राप्त करना और स्वयं को अकादिमक रूप से उच्चता
प्रदान करना.
4. सामािजक महत्व के िवषयों पर अपना दृषि्टकोण बनाना औरअपने
सामिजकदाियत्व को भलीभांित जानना और तदनुरूपआचरण करना.
5. प्रयोगधर्िमता की प्रवृित का िवकास और समग्र एवं संतुिलत
िवकास के िलए जरुरी नीितिनर्माण की आवश्यकता एवं उसकी
सीमाओं आिद की समझ का िनर्माण के साथसाथ इस क्षेत्र में
काम करने वाली संस्थाओं की कार्य पद्धित को नजदीक से देखना
और समझना.
6. कुल िमलाकर शोध, सामूिहक रूप से कार्य करने की प्रवृित, सामािजक
दाियत्व की जानकारी, संस्थाओं के संगठन एवं प्रबंधन और उसकी
उपलब्िधयों और चुनौितयों को जानना और सर्वेक्षण, साक्षात्कार,
सेमीनार के आयोजन आिद के बारीिकयों की समझ िवक्िसत करना
और स्वयं को इस िदशामें अिधक योग्य और कुशल बनाना आिद
इस पिरयोजना कार्य के अंतर्गत काम करने वाले िवद्यार्िथयों की
महत्वपूर्ण उपलब्िध रही है और समग्र रूप में बेहतर व्यक्ितत्व
िवकास की सीख भी िमली है.
4. Benefits to College
इनोवेशन प्रोजेक्ट के तहत महिवद्यालय में आयोिजत िविवध गितिविधयों,
सेमीनार, संगोष्ठी आिद से बेहतर अकादिमक माहौल िनर्िमत होने के
साथसाथ इनोवेशन और शोध के प्रित िवद्यार्िथयों का रुझान बढ़ा है. इसके
साथ ही अनेक िवद्वान िवशेषज्ञों केसमय समय पर महािवद्यालय में िदए
गए व्याख्यान आिद से भी महािवद्यालय के सभी िवभाग के िवद्यार्थी
और प्राध्यापक भी लाभान्िवत हुए हैं. एक साथ एक ही पिरयोजना
कार्य में कई िवभागों के प्राध्यापकों और िवद्यार्िथयों की सामूिहक
कोिशश सेसम्पन्न इस पिरयोजना कार्य ने महािवद्यालय में सामूिहकता
की प्रवृित को भी बढ़ावा िदया है और भिवष्य में इसका सकारात्मक
51
प्रभाव स्वाभािवक ही है. इस इनोवेशन प्रोजेक्ट ने शोध, सामूिहकता,
प्रयोगधर्िमता, सामिजक दाियत्व आिद के प्रित महािवद्यालय को और
अिधक जागरूक बनाया है.
इसके अितिरक्त पिरयोजना कार्य के िलए जुटाए गए जरुरी उपकरण
आिद ने महाविद्यालय की आधारभूत संरचना को बढाने मेंभी सहायता की
है िजससे भिवष्य में महािवद्यालय के िवद्यार्थी लाभान्िवत होते रहेंगे.
5. Benefits to Society
दृष्िटबािधतों से सम्बंिधत इस पिरयोजना कार्य का सर्वािधक महत्व
इसके सामिजक दाियत्वबोध में ही िनिहत है. इस पिरयोजना कार्य ने न
केवल दृष्िटबािधतों से सम्बंिधत समस्याओं की ओर इस क्षेत्र में काम
करने वाली संस्थाओं और सामिजक कार्यकर्ताओं का ध्यान आकृष्ट
िकया है वरन उन संस्थाओं की समस्याओं और चुनौितयों के व्यवहािरक
पहलुओं को भी सामने लाने का काम िकया है.
दृष्िटबािधतों के अिधकारों और आवश्यकताओं के प्रित जागरूकता
पैदा करने के साथ साथ उनके लिए उठाये जाने वाले जरुरी कदमों की
समीक्षा और उनकी नयी आवश्यकताओं और इस सम्बन्ध में आवश्यक
नीितिनर्माण की ओर ध्यान आकृष्ट करने की दृष्िट से भी पिरयोजना
कार्य के िनष्कर्षों में कई महत्वपूर्ण िबन्दुओं को शािमल िकया गया है.
इस पिरयोजना कार्य के तहत काम करते हुए परियोजना टीम ने इस
िदशा में काम करने वाली संस्थाओं, उसके प्रबंधकों, कर्मचािरयों और
समाज के िविभन्न तबकों को पहले से अिधक संवेदनशील बनाया है िजससे
समग्र रूप में समाज में दृषि्टबाध्तों के प्रित नयीदृष्िट के िनर्माण में
मदद िमली है.
कुल िमलाकर इस पिरयोजना कार्य से जुडी टीम दृषि्टबािधत समाज
और समाज के सभी तबकों को प्रिशक्िषत, संवेदनशील, पारदर्शी और
जागरूक बनाने में अपनी महती भूिमका का िनर्वहन करती हुयी वर्ष भर
कार्यरत रही और अपने रचनात्मक सामािजक दाियत्व के प्रित सतत
सचेत और जागरूक बनी रही.
6. Further Plans
िकसी भी शोध एवं पिरयोजना कार्य के िनष्कर्षों को अंितम नहीं जा
सकता है खासकर तब जब वह सामािजक महत्व का िवषय हो. समाज में
होने वाले दैिनक पिरवर्तनों से उसके िनष्कर्षों में पिरवर्तन सवाभािवक
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है. बावजूद इसके सामान्य प्रवृितयों के आधार पर जरुरी और महत्वपूर्ण
िनष्कर्षों तक तो पहुंचा ही जा सकता है.
इस शोध कार्य में वैसे तो पिरयोजना टीम ने लगातार किठन श्रम
और लगन से जरुरी तथ्य और आंकड़ों को जुटाकर महत्वपूर्ण कार्य को
अंजाम िदया है परन्तु भिवष्य में हम कई और िबन्दुओं के साथ इस
पिरयोजना कार्य से जुड़े िवषय को आगे बढाने की िदशा में काम करने
की योजना बना रहे हैं.
दृष्िटबािधतों के अितिरक्त अब समग्र रूप से हर प्रकार के िवकलांगो
ंके िलए काम करने वाली संस्थाओं और संस्थानों के कामकाज का आकलन
करने और उनके िलए जरुरी नीितिनर्माण की आवश्यकता आिद का
िववेचन िवश्लेषण करने की िदशा में भी काम करने की योजना है. इस
सम्बन्ध में महत्वपूर्ण शोध कर सरकार और समाजको ध्यान इस ओर
आकृश िकया जा सकेगा.
इसके साथ ही इस पिरयोजना कार्य के तहत वर्ष भर िजन तथ्यों,
आंकड़ों, सर्वेक्षणों, साक्षात्कारों आिद को जुटाया गया है उसके आधर
पर जुलाई तक एक पुस्तक तैयार और प्रकािशत कर िवश्विवद्यालय में
जमा करने और दुसरे जरुरी संस्थाओं एवं संस्थाओं तक उसे पहुचाने के
प्रित भी हम प्रितबद्ध हैं.
कुल मिला कर इस पिरयोजना कार्य से प्राप्त उर्जा और प्रेरणा को
भिवष्य में और अिधक रचनात्मक और सकारात्मक िदशा में लगाने और
सामिजक दृष्िट से लाभकारी आयामों तक पहुचने की िदशा में हम भविष्य
में िनरंतर सक्िरय बने रहेंगे.
53
HINDU COLLEGE
project title:
project code:
Development of Thin Films / Nano materials
for Electronic and Biomedical Applications
HC-104
Objective
The materials science tetrahedron symbolizes the goal of materials science
and engineering. The points represent characterization, processing, structure,
and performance. Understanding how each of these relates to each other lies
at the core of materials science and engineering. The key role of a materials
scientist and engineer is to optimize the match between materials and their
applications, and innovate new materials where needed. While materials
science and engineering is important in order to understand the properties
of metals, glass, and stone, it is also important for the development of
new materials, such as photovoltaic solar cells, polymers, and composites.
Everything we see and use is made of materials—cars, airplanes, computers,
refrigerators, microwave ovens, TVs, dishes, CD-ROMs and even biomedical
devices.
Image 1: In front of the Innovation lab
at Hindu College
Image 2: Interaction with V.C., Delhi
University during ‘Antardhvani 2013’
54
Final Findings
(i) Characterization and Applications of Metal Nanoparticles Prepared Through
Wire Explosion Technique
Nanoparticles of copper wereproduced in distilled water by the controlledcurrent wire explosion process. Distilled water acts as a stabilizer during the
synthesis procedure. Following this, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) was carried
out for structural analysis of the nanoparticles. The particle size was evaluated
at about 37nm by using Debye Scherrer’s relation. The voltage applied during
the synthesis process had an impact on the particle size.
Image 3: XRD pattern of Cu nanoparticles prepared by wire exploding technique
Results
Figure 5 shows the XRD pattern of copper particles prepared by the wire
exploding technique. The average crystalline size of copperparticles was
determined from the measured width of their diffraction curves using Debye
Scherrer’s relation (D = 0.9l/b cosq where l is the wavelength of the CuKa
radiation (l=1.5443Å), b is the full width half maxima in radians). Debye
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Scherer’s formula assumes approximations and gives the average crystalline
size.
(ii) Preparation of Ferrofluids, their Characterization and Applications
A ferrite of Mn-Zn was not synthesized successfully. The precipitate obtained
had a very weak field and hence did not show the properties of ferrite (strongly
magnetic).
An iron oxide Ferro fluid was synthesized using kerosene oil as the carrier
fluid. This was not possible with vegetable oil as the carrier fluid. This
observation indicates that a carrier of appropriate viscosity should be used.
Ferrofluids get suspend in carriers of low viscosity such as kerosene.
Image 4 and 5: Process of preparation of nanopowder
(iii) Preparation, Characterization and Applications of Iron Oxide
Nanoparticales using Sol-gel Technique
Image 6: Sample 1of Fe2O3 nanopowder
Image 7: Sample of Fe2O3 nanopowder
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Results and Discussions
The samples of Ferric Oxide formed through the above two processes were
sent for characterization which included their X-Ray Diffraction pattern and
VSM technique. These two techniques determined the purity of the sample
formed. The data obtained was tallied with the standard data. It was found
that the first sample (the one prepared in basic medium) was highly magnetic,
with a high degree of purity since the peaks obtained in the diffraction pattern
of this sample exactly matched those of the standard data. Magnetic properties
such as retentivity and coercivitywere deteremined usingVSM. These two
parameters obtained for the first sample were relatively less as compared to
the second one. In the presence of an appreciable magnetic field, the particles
aligned in the direction of magnetic field, as was expected.
As far as second sample wasconcerned, since there was a defect during the
process of formation of Ferric Oxide, it should have been less magnetic. The
X-ray diffraction pattern for this sample clearly demonstrated the presence of
several impurities. When the obtained pattern was tallied with the standard
data, certain peaks were not in synchronism with each other. Some of the
extra peaks obtained in the pattern were due the presence of impurities.
Despite that, the particles obtained were feebly magnetic since they showed a
kind of alignment in the presence of magnetic field.
Image 8: M-H curves of sample 1 and sample 2.
Conclusion
Iron(II) oxide nanoparticles were prepared via sol gel technique in two
different media—acidic medium (Citric acid) and basic medium (ethylene
glycol). It was found that the nanoparticles formed in basic medium were
highly magnetic and pure whereas those formed in the acidic medium
contained several impurities. Maintaining the temperature of the solution
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wasan important aspect of this experiment since it was observed that uneven
heating resulted in a reversible reaction (e.g. formation of liquid phase
even after gel formation). The solution in any of the set-ups wasnot stirred
vigorously using a magnetic stirrer since there were chances of spilling the
solution.
Several unsuccessful attempts were madefor the electro-deposition of ZnO
thin film on the ITO coated glass substrate. Initially the metal clips through
which the glass electrode was suspended interacted with the electrolyte.
Hence a dirty brown precipitate was deposited on the glass substrate. But
even after taking the required precautions in the next attempt, the desired
result could not be obtained.
(iv) Preparation, Characterization and Applications of Single Crystals.
Image 9: Photograph of TGS crystals
Image 10: Photograph of KDP Single
Crystals
Characterization
To confirm the quality and
structure of the crystals grown,
they were exposedto powder
XRD using a powder X-Ray
diffractometer. The samples
were scanned over the 2Ө range
of 5-80°, with the step size of
0.02. Results matched very well
with the reported data.
Image 11. XRD pattern of TGS
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Image 12: XRD pattern of KDP
Conclusion
Pure crystals of TGS and KDP were obtained by slow evaporation technique
at room temperature. The powder XRD study confirmed the crystals to be of
good quality and structure.
Therefore, it was decided that a good quality single crystal for piezoelectric,
ferroelectric and multiferroic applications would be prepared.
(v) Preparation of Nanoparticles by Reverse Micelle technique and its
Characterization and Applications.
Image 13: Preparation of nano particles
in progress
Image 14: RM1
Image 15: RM2
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Image 13 shows the arrangement for preparation of nanoparticles by
reverse microemulsion. We used two other techniques. These include:
2. Using CTAB as the surfactant, isoamyl alcohol as the cosurfactant, and
cyclohexane as the solvent.
3. Using CTAB as the surfactant, n-hexanol as the cosurfactant and
cyclohexane as the solvent.
Learning for Students
Working on this projectmade the project teamaware of the current research
in the field of material sciences in India and abroad. This wouldhelp them
to decide their field of work/research in the future. They were even taken
to National Physical Laboratory to do some measurements and interacted
with scientists. This was highly motivational for them. They went to the
Department of Physics for the characterization (XRD, VSM, HRTEM,
FTIR, Dielectric studies), which was a very educativeexperience for them.
The students learnt about new concepts in field of research of nanoparticles.
They were encouraged to pursue physics in the future and were given some
recommended some books in the field. Working on this project was overall a
very educational experience for the participating students.
Benefits to College
During this project, an innovation project lab was set up in the Department
of Physics, Hindu College. The equipment purchased for the project can be
utilized in future for research work.
Benefits to Society
Although there was no direct benefit to the society from the project, the
students are working to developbiosensors, and gassensors that would be very
useful to the society.
Further Plans
Due to paucity of time, the project team was unable to complete the project.
The teams plans to do the following to finish the project:
(a) In-situ polymerization of nano materials with different polymers followed
by shielding and sensing studies.
(b) Preparation of good quality single crystal for piezoelectric, ferroelectric
and multiferroic applications.
(c) Thin films for different applications.
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INDRAPRASTHA COLLEGEFOR WOMEN
To Prepare a Glossary of Technical Terms in
Yoga Philosophy
project title:
project code:
IP-101
Objective
The primary objective of the project was to prepare a tri-lingual glossary of
the technical terms used in Yoga Philosophy, with a complementary understanding from a modern psychological perspective. Specific objectives of the
project included:
1. To prepare a glossary of the technical terms used in Yoga Philosophy based
on original Sanskrit texts.
2. To present the terms and their explanatory Sanskrit sentences in romanized
and transliterated form using diacritical marks.
3.To translate the meanings of the technical terms in Hindi and English so
that readers from varied disciplines couldunderstand Yoga philosophy and
apply it in their learning as well as in their day-to-day behaviour.
4. To present Yogic technical terms with a modern psychological interpretation
wherever possible, so that the knowledge contained in Yoga can be fully
utilized by students and researchers in the field of psychology.
5.To explore parallels between traditional Indian Yogic wisdom and modern
psychological thought so that the project is truly interdisciplinary in
nature.
Image 1: Innovation Project Team (IP-101) at ‘Antardhwani’ Festival
organized by Delhi University
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Final Findings
Under the project, 150 technical terms were compiled and presented in both
romanized and transliterated form, and translated into Hindi as well as English.
Parallels were drawn between relevant terms as explained in Yoga philosophy
and in Western psychological thought. This wasthe first time thattechnical
Yogic terms, as understood in original Sanskrit texts were interpreted in
light of the theories and concepts of modern psychological literature. Both
Sanskritists and psychologists can use this work for further interdisciplinary
research as it will compliment scholars from both fields; Sanskritists require
modern scientific approach and psychologists need traditional wisdom. This
research provides ample material for both.
Our study revealed many yogic terms that were related to disciplines
such as philosophy, ayurveda, social medicine, management, consciousness,
etc. Some of the terms weremultidimensional and could be applied to any
discipline of knowledge systems. This is because Yoga studies an individual
and human nature as a whole, with a holistic view.Modern university
education on the other hand is primarily based on a western way of looking at
reality,and approaches it with a reductionist and mechanistic view. This kind
of interdisciplinary research wouldprompt readers and researchers to develop
integrated thought and a holistic kind of personality, which is not only the
goal of yogic seers, but also the need of the hour if we want to establish a
sustainable society.
The research work done in the course of the project is currently the process
of being published in the form of a book for readers and scholars. The tentative
date for the publication of the book is 15 September 2013.
Learning for Students
• Enhancement of students’ knowledge on Yoga philosophy: Several lectures
and sessions were held with the students wherein they were given detailed
information on the following:
a) Yoga philosophy and its basic tenets
b)Epistemology in Yoga philosophy
c) Metaphysics in Yoga philosophy
d)Significance of Yoga in mental and physical health
e) Relevance of Yoga glossary for interdisciplinary research
f ) The interdisciplinary nature and application of Yoga philosophy
These sessions helped the students understand the metaphysics,
epistemology and ethics of the philosophyof Yoga. Some reading material
and a set of references were provided to the students to enhance their
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understanding of this philosophy and its significance as an integrated psychospiritual system.
• Training of students on transliteration work:Transliteration helps in
converting a text from one script to another. Students were trained in
transliteration. Since the glossary was meant for easy readability in three
languages, thiswas an essential part of the project.
• Students’ engagement in research review activities: Through this project,
students
learnt how to index, review and refer to research literature.
They went through an extensive compilation of scholarly articles, research
material and unpublished manuscripts that helped them understand the
process of reviewing theresearch entailing a project.
• Organizing seminars and other such academic events: A seminar was held
on ‘Yoga and Psychology: An Integrated Approach’on 11 April 2013.
The students enthusiastically participated in the seminar by making
presentations on the project. Not only was this was a tremendous learning
experience for them but it willgo a long way in making them better
equipped to take up such challenges in the future.
Benefits to College
• This project inspired an intellectual fervor for interdisciplinary research
within the college community. Faculty members from different academic
departments collaboratedclosely for undertaking research that transcended
the scope of a single discipline. Many research proposals were sent to the
University on issues that were previously neglected in the traditional
disciplinary structure of research.
• Through this project, the team was able to procure a number of important
books on .the philosophy of Yoga, and psychology; these will serve as a
truly rich reference resource for students and teachers alike. These books
are a reservoir of information and knowledge on the traditional wisdom
of Yoga philosophy that can be accessed by the college community for its
research as well as personal needs.
• The seminar ‘Yoga and Psychology: An Integrated Approach’ held on 11
April 2013 brought together eminent academicians and scholars from
diverse disciplines. The seminar facilitated academic interaction on issues
concerning Yoga world-view, its psychological process and its role in holistic
health and well-being. Professor Girishwar Mishra from Department
of Psychology, University of Delhi spoke on Yoga and well-being, and
emphasized the importance of the yogic way of understanding reality and
applying it in our day-to-day behaviour as well as academic research across
different disciplines of learning. Dr Angiras (Sanatan Dharma College,
Ambala Cantt, Lahore),in his lecture on‘Form and Essence of Applied
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Indian Psychology’,talked about an Indian model of psychology whichwas
required to be understood and taught on the basis of the Indian knowledge
system. Dr Ram Nath Jha from Jawaharlal Nehru University,spokeon
‘Yoga and Holistic Health’,and correlated Yoga with complete and holistic
health on the basis of the definition ofhealthgiven by WHO (World Health
Organization). According to him, complete health—a state of happiness—
could be achieved through Yoga. This interdisciplinary seminar included
about 200 students and faculty from different disciplines of learning. The
exchange of perspectives during the seminar encouraged college students
and teachers to undertake further interdisciplinary research, education,
and training on the traditional wisdom contained in the Yoga system of
philosophy.
Benefits to Society
Patanjali’s Yoga discloses the secret of bringing under control the divergent
modifications (vrittis) of the mind, and through the controlled mind, the
transcendental Atman, which is the foundation of all knowledge, discriminative
wisdom and bliss. To truly appreciate the traditional wisdom embedded in
the Yoga Sutras, it is important to understand the philosophyand method
of this Yoga in its pure form, as recorded in Sanskrit;this glossary is a step
in that direction. The translation of the original thought contained in the
sanskrit texts in both Hindi and English will help to understand the deeper
meaning of the symbols of Yoga and its metaphoric language. This rich source
of knowledge can be used to enhance one’s personal life. In fact, Yoga is the
key to good health and happiness in today’s world. It develops theability to
maintain inner peace at all times and thereby achieve physical and mental
health.
Further Plans
This interdisciplinary research encompassedthe fields of epistemology,
consciousness, metaphysics, psychology, and ayurveda. In the future,
we would like to take up these issues for further research. This kind of
interdisciplinary approach to research will help bridge the gap between
these compartmentalized areas whichis the need of hour. Among the abovementioned areas, the study of consciousness wasour favorite, and we will take
it up in the near future.
At the advent of the new century, the study of consciousness has become
of paramount importance. We are currently facing a series of problems such
as environmental, social, economic, health etc., which are the product of
the so-called modern education that confines our personality and trains us
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to look at reality with a shallow vision. The worldview of modern science
has transcended this reductionist approach and fragmented way of thinking
established by Newtonian science. Since the apparent multifarious realities are
interconnected and interdependent, we need to accept that there is but one
underlying and unifying reality—the energy of modern science,Prakriti or
Maya,finally the Brahman of Vedanta. To understand and realize this ultimate
reality is the goal of each individual whether they belong to the sciences,
humanities or other streams of learning. In this regard, Vedanta and Yoga
can together play an important role because both systems primarily study
consciousness at all levels. This is an appropriate time to study the nature of
consciousness as understood by modern science along with the traditional
wisdom of Vedanta and Yoga. Einstein rightly said, “Science without religion
is lame, religion without science is blind”.
Consciousness is the essence of every individual and the universal reality.
It is through consciousness that we are able to cognize this gross universe. It
is consciousness that leads us from the gross to the subtle, subtler and the
subtlest aspect of this universe. It is consciousness that reveals its own nature,
prompts us to achieverealization, strengthen us to transcend all problems
related with adhyatmika, adhidaivika and adhibhautika and equip us with a
holistic worldview.
We have sent one more project proposal for ‘Innovation Projects from
Colleges 2013-14’ on ‘Consciousness as reflected in Vedanta and Modern
Physics’. This project is about a new understanding of life at all levels of
living systems. It is based on a new perception of reality that has profound
implications not only for science and philosophy, but also for business,
politics, health care, education, and everyday life.
65
INSTITUTE OF HOME ECONOMICS
Isolation and Identificationof Pigment
Producing Fungifor Usingas Textile Dye
project title:
project code:
IHE-102
Objective
(1a) Introduction
Synthetic dyes are commonly used to impart colour to textile fibres. At
present, more than 30 million tons of synthetic dyes are used annually for
this purpose. There are, however, certain limitations in the use of synthetic
dyes. Firstly, these are produced from non-renewable sources;secondly, being
non-biodegradable and toxic, theypollute the environment and pose health
hazards.
(1b) Project hypothesis
The colourants presently used to impart colour to textile substrates are mostly
synthetic, and are produced from non-renewable sources. They are hazardous
both for the environment and for our health. Therefore, there is a growing
demand for eco-friendly, biodegradable, natural and non-toxic colourants
Image 1: Sample of
garment coloured with
microbial dye
Image 2: Project team with Vice-Chancellor
(Delhi University)
66
for dyeing textiles which can be obtained from renewable resources such as
plants, animals and microbes. Microbes can be exploited as one of the natural
sources of colourants as they multiply very fast and can be grown on a large
scale on a variety of raw materials, and require limited space. Keeping these
points in mind, the present study was planned with the following objectives:
(1c) Objectives
i. Screening and isolation of pigment producing saprophytic and endophytic
fungi.
ii. Identification and preservation of pigment producing fungi.
iii. Testing whether isolated fungal pigments can be dyed on different fabrics.
iv. Optimization of culture conditions for maximizing colour production.
v. Product development.
Final Findings
(2a) Screening of pigment producing microbes
Screening of pigment producing microbes (fungi and bacteria) from
different sources such assoil, leaf, water, bark was carried out using different
microbiological media. A total of 134 samples were screened, out ofwhich
about 67 microbes were isolated. Out of these 67 microbes, 45 successfully
produced colour on the agar plates. These were further analysed for colour
production by growing them on broth media. A total of 6 out of 45 microbes
which were producing sufficient pigment in broth cultures were maintained
in pure form. These were grown in sufficient quantity, and the crude culture
filtrates were used for dyeing various types of textile fabrics. Wool and silk
samples dyed easily with these colourants without any mordant. However,
cotton fabric did not dye with these colourants. The pH range for dyeing was
found to be 4-6. Colour fastness to washing was reasonably good for all the
samples tested.
(2b) Optimization of physico-chemical conditions and product
development
Optimization of physiochemical conditions was performed for maximum
pigment production usingfive microbes, different carbon and nitrogen
sources, and varying pH (5, 7, 9) and temperature conditions (15OC, 28O
C, 37OC). Different carbon and nitrogen sources promoted extracellular
pigment production in the five fungi tested. However,complex carbon and
nitrogen sources such as soluble starch, yeast extract and peptone were found
to be quite effective. Efforts thus can be made in future projects to find
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complex natural (plant or animal) waste carbon and nitrogen sources so as to
make the process cost-effective.
Optimization of physical conditions revealed that the incubation of test
fungi at a temperature of 28oC, with slightly acidic to neutral pH yielded
maximum pigment production. However, a room temperature of 37°C did
not show much decline in the pigment production, and can therefore be used
in the scale up process to reduce the cost of pigment production.
Various textile products (neck ties, bows, cravats) were developed using
the colour pigment produced by Monascus.These products were highly
appreciated at the‘Antardhwani’ exhibition.
Learningfor Students
The project benefitted the students immensely. Besides inculcating a flare for
research, students also got financial support for their study.
The project was interdisciplinary in nature and involved undergraduate
students from two departments—Department of Microbiology and
Department of Fabric and Apparel Sciences—working together towards the
development of a technology for natural dye production. The students, thus,
not only got better acquainted with their own subject, but also acquired
knowledge about anothersubject.
The project students also learnt how review literature on a subject, browse
various national and international journals on the intranet, and understand
statement of objectives and research design.
The students also underwent training in various microbiological and
dyeing techniques used for the study. These included sterilization, media
preparation, inoculation, dyeing processes, etc.
All the students involved in the project got an opportunity to work on
different types of equipments such as laminar chamber, vortex, water bath,
incubators, etc.
Through the project, the students learnt how to design experiments,
implement them, and analyse results. The project exhibition gave them
an opportunity to present the results and interact with the students and
professors, thus motivating other students in the college to get involved in
such projects.
Benefitsto College
Prior to the experiment,the Department of Microbiology and the Department
of Fabric Apparel Science hadverybasic equipment that could only be used
to carry out class experiments. However, for this kind of a research, some
advance equipment was required. A Lyophilizer (freeze dryer) was purchased
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for drying colour pigment produced by the microbes, and to find out the
yield of the product.Some more material was also purchased for developing a
resource centre at the Department of Fabric and Apparel Science.The project
therefore helped in the infrastructure development of the Department of
Microbiology and Department of Fabric and Apparel Science of the college.
The Project also helped in inculcating a zestfor research among the students
of the college. The research work was appreciated and covered by the media,
which helped in bringing recognition to the institution.
Seminar: A one-day seminar on ‘Isolation and identification of pigment
producing fungi for use as a textile dye’ was held on 29 April 2013. The lectures
at the seminar emphasizedthe importance of eco-friendly biotechnological
process in textiles. The topics included,‘Surface Modification of Polyester:
AChemical and Enzymatic Approach’ and ‘Spider Silk Produced in
Genetically Engineered Bacteria: Biotechnological Intervention in the Field
of Textiles ’. A question-answer session was held among students, researchers
and mentors. This was followed by a poster-making competition on ‘Green
Technology Initiatives in Textiles’.
Benefitsto Society
The textile industry—more specifically wet processing—releasesextremely
toxic effluents in the ecological systems. Synthetic dyes are largely azo based,
and contain harmful metals which are carcinogens. Natural dyes which are
plant based also use metallic mordants and thus are not truly eco-friendly.
However, dyes from fungi and bacteria do not use petrochemicals as raw
material,and can be standardized in a laboratory. If these dyes are explored
and optimized, they could replace synthetic dyes and thus yield benefits to
mankind at large.
Future Plans
• Development of an eco-friendly, cost-effective technology for large scale
microbial pigment production and transfer of the technology to industry.
• Use of microbial pigment to dye materials such as leather, cotton fibre, etc.
• Exploit the use of microbial pigment in other areas such as food,
pharmaceutical, indicators, etc.
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KALINDI COLLEGE
project title:
project code:
Conversionof Mechanical Energy to
Electrical Energy Using the Delhi Metro
KC-101
Objective
The objective of this project was to study the feasibility of harnessing the
wind energy generated by fast-moving metro trains in Delhi to produce
electricity. This included:
• Studying the energy and cost calculations for the production of
electricity
• Simulating the production of electricity (amount) in the laboratory and
thenon the computer (if possible)
We have completed the first part of the project, and for the second
part we have gone ahead with the execution of project instead of the
simulation.
Image 1: Innovation project team getting the Shaurya Sammaan
from Smt Sushma Swaraj
70
Final Findings
Through this innovation project, the students made an effort tousewind
energy that is abundantly available all along metro tracks, and which is
otherwise wasted, to generate and supplement the ever-increasing demands
of clean, green and cheap electricity.
The students involved in the projectstudied extensively the various
parameters that impact the generation of electricity from wind turbines.
Calculations were made to get an estimate ofthe number of blades required,
the length of the blades, the material of the blades andthe type of turbines
required for optimum generation of power. The power calculations were
made for different lengths of blades taking into account the losses in wind
turbine and other components.
• On the basis of our findings and calculations, we devised a prototype of a
rotor with 3-bladedsystems with a span area of 0.2826 m2 coupled with a
horizontal axis turbine of 500 watt of power generation capacity.
• A conservative estimate of energy that can be harnessed with a 500 watt
turbine at a wind velocity of 6 m/s was calculated as 0.541 kWh for a
blade length of 30 cm, assuming the conversion to be only 60%,wth the
remaining 40% taken as energy lost. This would increase exponentially
with the size of the blades and wind velocity.
• In addition to the electricity generated at the above stated condition,a
single turbine would be able to save more than 500kg of coal, reduce more
than 1.5 metric tons of CO2 emissions and save one tree per day.
• The cost of installing the turbine would approximately be Rs.30,000 /=
per turbine, and would be recovered within a year even if electricity was
generated at a rate of 0.5kWh per day per turbine.
Without obstructing the operation, safety and security of the metros, it
was decided to put the turbine along the underground metro tracks at the
mouth of tunnel where the maximum wind velocity available is 6.5 m/s. The
process of installating these turbines has begun in collaboration with Delhi
Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC).
Learning for Students
This project was a great learning experience for the students.
• They got training in basic research methodology which allowed them
to develop a research bent of mind. They also learned how to conduct
literature survey, and visualize and analyse a given problem. Their
endeavour took them to various universities and research institutes such as
71
•
•
•
•
DMRC, IIT-Delhi, DTU, NPL, IUAC,etc., where they actively interacted
with scientists and people who were pioneers in this field. Their extensive
literature survey exposed them to the vast volume of research done in the
area which otherwise is not accessible to undergraduate students of pure
sciences. They got to know the university (DU) better by participating and
attending various meetings, conferences and festivals.
As part of the project, the students attended the stakeholder’s meet
organized by DMRC, where they found out about the energy efficient
measures taken by DMRC in their ongoing projects. This meet further
highlighted the importance of theproject.
The studentsreceived training in various scientific softwaressuch
as MATLAB, ORIGIN, MS Office, etc. They were also trained in
writing papers and articles, making documentaries, making PowerPoint
presentations, posters, etc. The students did all the calculations,
simulationsand presentations at international and national conferences
independently, with just some help from the teachers. They also learnt
how to manage accounts, maintain stock books, etc.
The students learnt how to work as a team without any conflict of interest.
They developed effective management skills in various areas due to their
interaction with DMRC engineers and equipment vendors. They also
learned time managementas they had to balance their regular studies
with the project. Theyconducted anextensive market survey to do a cost
comparison and study of the quality of equipment available etc.
The students presented three papers at international and national
conferences.
Benefits to College
This project has brought huge recognition to the college at various forums,
both national and international.
• The students won the motivational award and the best poster award at
the ‘Indo-German Workshop on Advanced Materials for Future Energy
Requirements (WAMFER-2012)’.
• This project got laurels for its uniqueness, and was also praised by the
Hon’ble Vice Chancellor of Delhi University and the other dignitaries
present. The students won the second prize at ‘Antardhwani 2013’organized
by the Universityof Delhi.
• The students were awarded the certificate of appreciation at the Swadeshi
Science Movement of India, Delhi, organized by the Council of Scientific
and Industrial Research.
• Owing to this project, Kalindi College made headlines in the National
72
Dailies such as the Hindustan Times, the Times Of India, Navbharat
Times, Deccan Herald, Dainik Jagran, etc.
• The college once again was in the news headlines when the project team
was honoured with the Shaurya Samman and applauded by Ms Sushma
Swaraj.
Benefits to Society
In a developing country such as India, there is a considerable need for a costeffective sourcing of energy. The electricity generated along the metro tracks
has the following benefits for society and also the country at large:
• A single turbine will be able to save more than 500kg of coal, over 1.5
metric tons of CO2 emissions and one tree per day.
• There is apotential for a real contribution to our energy supply, however
minuscule it may be, and towards the ultimate goal of self-reliance for our
energy needs.
• An indigenously developed small wind turbine being relatively
uncomplicated technology, can become a huge home grown industry.
• While producing energy, small wind turbines produce no environmental
emissions.
• Small wind turbines will help meet the national needs for energy
diversification and national security.
• A carbon credit (often called a carbon offset) is a financial instrument
that represents a ton of CO2 (carbon dioxide) or CO2e (carbon dioxide
equivalent gases) removed or reduced from the atmosphere. The carbon
credits earned from this project can be used by the Government, industry
or private individuals to offset the damaging carbon emissions that they
are generating by consumingelectricity produced from fossil fuels.
Further Plans
• Installation of the turbine. The studentshave purchased a wind turbine of
500 watts with a suitable data logger system. We have also been allocated a
place for its installation in one of the metro station premises, the required
permissions for which have already been acquired. Our next step is to
complete the installation of the turbine.
• Power and cost calculations need to be made using real-time data.
• Costing for large scale implementation of the project.
• Generation of electricity using Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) with
suitable modification to reduce air drag, friction, etc., and comparison
with HAWT results.
• Suggest suitable modifications in tunnel design (civil part) to make
provision for housing in-built turbines in future metro projects.
73
KIRORI MAL COLLEGE
project title:
project code:
Mapping the Spatial Topology of two subglacier basins of NW Himalayas for multi
class change detection using MODIS,
Landsat and IRS data
KMC 105 1. Objective
Spaces occupied by glaciers in the Himalayas have become an important area
of study in the context of climate change in recent past. The recent tragedy in
Uttarakhand Himalayas in June 2013 has further demonstrated the urgency
for undertaking the research like present. Moreover, multiple and diverse
results from within and outside India are surfacing about the shrinkage
of glaciers in the Himalayas. To understand and spatially document the
reality about changes in glacier regimen in last four decades using remotely
sensed images in sub-glacier basins of Bhagirathi Basin was the main aim
of the present project. Climate changes may influence the spatial extent of
the snow (Barnett et. al., 1989; Cess., et. al., 1991; Cohen and entekhabi
2001; Liang. Et.al., 2007) on the other hand for the seasonally snow covered
Picture 1: Enroute to Khatling Glacier from Kharsoli in Higher Himalayas in
Uttarakhand for collecting Ground Control Points (17 June 2012)
74
regions, the snow cover effects the ecology, snow pattern and hydrological
cycles (Walker,et.al., 1993 ; Jones 1999). The Objective of this study was two
pronged, both academically driven- first was to map the Spatial topology
of two sub- glacier basins of NW Himalayas for multi class change detection
using MODIS, Landsat and IRS data and the second to demonstrate the
trans disciplinary flavor for enhancing the analysis and interpretation of the
study.The Innovative Project KMC-105 therefore is an effort to understand
the reality about changes in glacier regimen in two sub-basins of Bhagirathi
Basin.
2. Final Findings
The final findings in the present research though limited have been glaring
and focused. One year however seemed less for the research like present and
more so because the minimum third field work required for field testing
just could not be undertaken due to the recent flash floods and subsequent
landslides, etc., in the study area in Himalayas and the GPS data could
not be corroborated well with the High resolution images of the study area
as desired. The following findings are based on the study area (Figure 1)
including the Khatling Glacier and Phating Glacier in Bhagirathi basin in
N_W Himalayas
Figure 1: The Study Area
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1. The Khatling (300 50’N to 78057’30’’) E and Phating glaciers (300 50’30”
N to 78059’00’’E) present in Bhilangana basin are impacted by the climate
variability in the North-West Himalayas,
2.Digital image Processing of Remote sensing data including Landsat,
MODIS and IRS LISS 3 data along with topographic sheets and two field
works have been used in the present research. Glacier is the after effect of
snow and ice accumulation. It is important to distinguish snow and ice
field and to note that a considerable period of time is required to give rise
to snow pack or ice field and firn and neve are two stages that bring over the
change from snow to ice. Rigorous analysis has led us to evolve an index
using ERDAS IMAGINE V.10 and distinguish different parameters.
3. Longitudinal foliation was observed in the region. It appeared represented
by alternating light and dark coarse and line grained bands.
Picture 3: Longitudinal folia exposed in Khatling Glacier (15 June,2012)
4.Thirteen glaciers have been visualized in all in Bhilangana basin with four
as valley glaciers compound basins; three as mountain glacier compound
basins; one as mountain glacier simple basin ; two as glaciered snowfield
cirque and three as snow field niche with Khatling glacier as the largest
glacier (Figure 2) with maximum orientation towards South –West. AAR
% ranges between 0 and 100 in different part and depth varying between
10m and 90 m in different places, followed by the Phating Glacier. The
area is calculated from the IRS LISS 3 data using NDSI.
5.The data of rainfall indicates an above average rainfall in the year 20102011 and a lean period in 2009-2010. We also analysed the data on normal
rainfall in the region for these 4 years. The actual rainfall varies considerably
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Figure 2: Area of two largest galciers Khatling and Phating glaciers in the Study Area.
from normal rainfall for the years 2010-2011 and 2009-2010. The data
above indicates an above average rainfall in the year 2010-2011 and a lean
period in 2009-2010. We also analysed the data on normal rainfall in
the region for these 4 years. The actual rainfall varies considerably from
normal rainfall for the years 2010-2011 and 2009-2010.
6.The spatial topology also highlights the variability in glaciated region
in different time period including 2005;2006;2007; 2008 and 2010.
The reasons for this have to be probed further. This exercise has been
completed for 25 datasets ranging between 2005 and 2010.
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Calculation of the approximate area depicted that if on 22-Jun-05 the noticed
surface area of the Khatling glacier was 4459.245 sq km, on 24-May-06 the
surface area of khatling Glacier glacier was 4668.3 , the surface area on 06Jun-08 was 4665 and on 27-May-10 it was noticed to be of 4693.9. Further,
for Phating glacier on the same dates in May and June the area calculated was
3349.38,3533.68,3696.98 and 3303.92 respectively.
7. CHANGE DETECTION 2000-10:
Digital Image Processing of 10 year satellite IRS LISS 3 data has given us
convincing result for the change in the size of the glacier. Though with
the limited data it would not be able to convincingly show case the retreat
but yes convincingly the variability in the size is there. Both the decrease
and the increase in the size is simultaneously there as showcased below.
Between 2000and 2010 , if there is a decline, between 2006 and 2010 there
is an increase in the size of the glacier. Spatial topology too consequently is
varying.
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Between 2000 And 2010 it appears that 46% of glaciated area is
lost; with addition of 53.69% of barren land ;36.26% of fallow land lost;
vegetation to be improved by 53.15% and 103% of shadow area has
increased leading to loss of classified area.
For glaciated region of 2000, 51% is common to 2010, while 44%
has been converted into barren land, 3% under fallow and o.5% under
shadow; For barren land of 2000, 78% is common to 2010, while 16% has
been converted into fallow, 2% under Glacier and 3% under shadow;For
fallow land of 2000, 29% is common to 2010, while 17.7% has been
converted into vegetation, 7% barren, 3% under Glacier and 45% under
shadow.
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8. CHANGE DETECTION 2006-09
Between 2006 and 2009 54% of glaciated area is increased; 50% of
barren land is lost;13% of fallow land is added ;vegetation has improved
by 15.7% and shadow area has decreased by 60%.
9. According to our observations in the field , Glaciers are retreating in the long
term and not advancing;Weather fluctuations are frequent in the region,
the evidence being the uneven and untimely rains;Melting of glaciers has
been observed from past 6-7 years, where last year showed unexpected
results for snow fall;Construction of dams and tunnels is disturbing the
present climatic conditions. It lead to decrease in water resources which
in turn causes climatic change and Glaciers are important for survival.
Effects of Glacier melting and climatic change:
a. Increase in temperature
b. Uneven rains
c. Seasonal changes ( shift in seasons )
d. Decrease in water resources
e. Decrease in agricultural produce
10.However, Observation of the data of the crops at district level of the
study area was also considered for two reasons, one to conceptualize
the macro behavior and second in a short span, this could only be made
available in the form of secondary data from 1988 to 2010. As stated, this
was to observe the macro behavior in different seasons , it highlighted
that Since First Differences of the Logarithms are Constant, First degree
Exponential Curve can be selected as a Trend type. Further, the series
when plotted on a Logarithmic scale resembles a Straight line, So, First
degree Exponential curve was selected as the Trend curve.
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Further, it was computed that there is no significant difference between
the estimate of the variance of the Random component V10 and V11 and any
of these two can be taken as the variance of the Random component.Hence,
the Estimate of the Variance considered in the macro region from 1988 to
2010 Random Component is 0.003826 or 0.00337.
11. Thus to conclude , what is a major concern that all physical changes
are indicating of the nature being bringing physical changes with
unpredictable behavior and severe intensity. What is missing is the
awareness of common man for it to be linked to climate variability. What
worries is the unpreparedness of the local people towards it and both
political and administrative caretakers are still lost in debating between
81
their respective roles and the discourse between sustainable environment
and urbane like development on the pristine Himalayas.
3. Learning for Students
The learning for the students has been immense as the students in our group
were from three disciplines , including four from Geography; three from
mathematics and three from Statistics and above all most of them were high
scorers in the University with positions in their respective batches. Though
wanting otherwise Intra –learning’s’ appeared more than the inter-learning.
The first and foremost learning came with their exposure to the idea of
trekking in higher Himalayas with equipment for data collection. Buying
trekking gears, using tents for sleeping and not getting a mode of transport for
many days in continuation in the scenic environ of Bhilangana river brought
team spirit in almost all of them. Taking care of each other and discussing on
how to help local people and looking at them closely ignited sensitivity in
them. As all of them were exposed for the first time to the remote sensing data
they learned about this tool too with eagerness along with the importance
of using GPS and toposheets. Downloding of Landsat and Modis data also
taught them the importance of Open Source data along with the importance
of purchased NRSC data. They also for the first time used NRSC data using
different software, including ERDAS IMAGINE; Wolfram Mathematica 9;
SPSS; EXCEL spreadsheet and were excited to share their results. Making the
first phase of documentary and clicking the photographs of scenic landscape
was also a unique learning with newness and excitement.
4. Benefits to College
The College is made up of three pillars: students , teachers and administration.
The students definitely became more enriched with getting a chance to be
doing research that otherwise they would have only got after post-graduation.
For teachers like us , provided we stay in a team with trust we definitely
got a glimpse of research routed through our University. In other words
an undergraduate environment got a flavour of real research with a hope
that University will remember them as equals and provide research related
opportunities in future also. Besides, for a work like ours , despite innumerable
deterrents the analysis has definitely improved and brought that reality closer
that how much is the scope for all of us to learn from our colleagues of
different disciplines. In our college it seems the administration needs little
more preparedness in handling and distributing finances despite its ready
availability. Albeit deterrents, the innovative projects added the research
culture in an undergraduate set-up and highlighted that student and teacher
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team even at Undergraduate level of Higher education can contribute and
interdisciplinary research can be encouraged.
5. Benefits to Society
Research like ours reiterates the fear that climate variability is bringing
unprecedented changes for which we all are just not prepared. The disaster
that took place in Bhagirathi basin in June 2013though missed this tributary
this time the research definitely forewarns for a disater in future and the
region needs a serious attention. Even that debate that whether glaciers are
melting or not in Himalayas, the change is visible and it highlights that the
fluctuations demands attention and action from the administration. This
research therefore, is of immense utility not only to people belonging to the
area but also to geologists, environmental scientists, engineers, technicians
and other technical professionals who acquire, analyze, understand, interpret,
and summarize environmental data and then communicate results.
6. Further Plans
There is an immense scope of furthering the present research, especially
because of its own importance and the changes that recent disaster has
brought in the study area. There is still so much more to do in the present
research, analysis to be improved, more data to be added, more field work to
be conducted, a research paper to be sent for the publication and above all,
there is an urgent need to find ways and means by which the stake holders
who belong to that region may find ways to prepare themselves in case of
disasters. This can be a topic of new research. Moreover, there is a need for
more in-depth study of debris around and the moraines for measuring the
quantum of water flow downhill in the moments of calamity with better high
resolution data sets and intensive field work.As stated above , the NDMA like
parallel body cannot solve anything at the time of disaster, what is required is
a carrying capacity programme for the region and a data bank with complete
transparency available with supporting agencies. I saw another project during
display of projects in Antardhwani who had developed a technology for
which I visualize lot of scope in my study area. Therefore wishes to collaborate
with them to take the research forward.
In addition, most importantly as so many agencies are collecting funds
for recent held Uttarakhand disaster, and the region though not directly
was affected, but certainly is a fourth order tributary of Bhagirathi Basin to
visualize Foucault’s concept of dispositif, or concrete social apparatus
becomes urgently important and conceptualization in the form of research
on ‘thoroughly heterogeneous ensemble ‘ at the level of first order tributary
becomes so important and urgent.
83
84
Team interacting with the young locals at Ghuttu in the Garhwal Himalayas. In the
backdrop four Pradhans of different Gram Sabhas can be observed.
85
LADY IRWIN COLLEGE
project title:
project code:
Generating Energy Consciousness Among
Rural Households
Li-102
Objective
The Government of India has been on a mission to empower villages with
renewable energy resources as electricity supply is either not available in these
areas, or is highly irregular. Several programmes have been undertaken by way
of installing renewable energy technologies (RETs) in rural areas, but these
are not gaining momentum despite continued and persistent initiativesby
the Government. The rural residents seem to be either ignorant or apathetic
towards the new energy equipment installed in their residential areas. Perhaps
they are unable to associate themselves with RETs, and have apprehensions
about handling them. The project presumed that there wasa gap betweenthe
programme implementation and peoples’ felt needs and practices, and
proposed to bridge this gap.
Another objective of the project was to plan an energy consciousness
programme for rural residents to increase their awareness of RETs such as
Image 1: Project team conducting an energy awareness programme at
Alumdipur Village, Haryana
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solar energy, wind energy, energy from biomass, etc., as these are the future
energy resources. During the energy consciousness programme, residents
were told to use all energy resources judiciously owing to the energy crisis
in the country and thereby also reduce pollution. This programme will
encourage rural residents to adopt eco-friendly energy practices for a better
and sustainable future.
Final Findings
For the project, the students visited some rural households in two villages
of UP and Haryana—Gharoda (Faridabad) and Rabupura (Ghaziabad).
The selected villages are located 16-23km from the block headquarter, i.e.
Ballabhgarh (and 20-30 km from the district HQ Faridabad) and Ghaziabad
respectively. In both villages the main occupation of the villagers was primarily
agriculture-based.
Energy use practices
The energy needs of the house were predominantly met by women (who were
at times assisted by young children). Theycollected wood, biomass or dung,
and made dung cakes for cooking and other purposes (such as heating water,
warming room in winters, etc.). Besides these energy resources, the villagers
were also using kerosene, LPG, diesel and electricity. Electricitysupply was
erratic as there was heavy load shedding, and power was available for only
sixhours either in the morning or at night.In Gharoda, two families were
found to possess a biogas plant whichthey used for cooking,and its residue
was used as fertilizer in the fields. The information concerning energy use
practices for different activities in the village is represented in table 1.
Table 1: Energy Use Practices of Rural Households
Energy source
% Share
Purpose of use
Wood
• 17.78
Dung Cakes
• 45.79
• Cooking
• Heating water
• Keeping room warm in winters (ashes used to clean
utensils)
• Cooking
• Heating water
Kerosene
• 7.4
• Lighting (small kerosene lamps)
• Small indoor fires
LPG
• 7.64
• Cooking
• Heating water
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Biogas
• 0.22
• Cooking
• Residue used as fertilizer in fields
Diesel
• 17.73
• Tractors
• Generators
Electricity
• 7.09
• Lighting
• Household Equipments
• Battery recharge
Note: Percentages are more than 100% as some houses were using more than
one energy source
Table 1 reveals that in the two villages surveyed, the maximum share
of energy source was that of dung cakes (45.79%), followed by fuel wood
(17.78%). As informed by the rural residents,solar energy did not occupy a
significant share; this was also reflected in their practices. The reason for poor
usage of RETs was the ineffective method of installation of solar devices,
i.e. poor involvement of rural residents during planning, installation and
aftercare (maintenance). Therefore,due to lack of knowledge,many of them
chose to not use the improved energy source. Only a few families showed an
interest in learning how to use solar equipment. In the villages in Faridabad,
the solar energy equipments installed included a 5 KW power plant, solar
home lighting systems, solar lanterns (kissan torch) and solar street lights. In
Rabupura (Ghaziabad), solar street lights and solar lanterns were provided.
In Gharoda, emu-hatching was done using solar energy and the eggs of the
emus were sold to pharmaceuticals companies to make medicines for cancer
patients.
The residents seemed to be interested in using RETs as they felt that these
provided them with safety from theft and wild animals, and they could be
used for visiting the fields at night, performing household chores, studying,
etc. However, since there was no arrangement to repair or charge batteries,
most of the solar RETs were not functional. There was also no provision
for the additional cost of battery replacement every 3-5 years, nor were the
residents informed about the fact that the battery required changing. Among
the various RETs installed, solar lanterns seemed to be a favourite option
among hawkers as they were able to sell their wares effectively till late into
the night. In fact, a total of 150 hawkers benefitted fromthe Urja Unlimited
Solar Lanterns project. Table 2 gives details of the subsidy provided by the
Government to facilitate the use of solar RETs by the residents.
Road blocks in using RETs
There were several constraints in the adoption of RETs that were reported by
rural residents, and these were later shared with the MNRE officials during
the project meetings. These included:
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Table 2: Subsidy for different solar devices
Devices used
Actual rate
Subsidy
% subsidy
Solar lantern 10 W
2350
1000
42.5
Solar lantern shikshadeep 10W
2350
2350
Free for girls
Solar cooker (dish type)
5710
3213
56.2
Solar cooker (box type)
3150
1945
61.7
Home domestic light (LED based 12 W)
6500
2000
30.7
Home domestic light (37 W module)
9700
5000
51.5
Solar street light (for panchayat)
16000
4000
25
Solar water heating system
36000
12000 cash 33.33
(per month
electricity
rebate)
Solar water heating system
Solar tube well
70% subsidy of total cost for
NGOs
2.85 lakh
1.14 lakh
70
60
1.Inadequate knowledge about RETs and their benefits.
2.Inadequate training in the use, operation and repair of RETs.
3.Inadequate financial assistance/loan available for the purchase of RETs.
Grameen Banks were also not too keen to provide loans for solar products
due to the high risk perceived by them.
4. Inefficient functioning of repair shops and changing of batteries related to
RETs. Replacement and repair of products took time.
5.Theft of solar panels, batteries and poles, etc.
6.Due to quota reservation, powerful people and certain castes such as SC,
ST and OBC got access to benefits—a higher subsidy amount. Common
people got neglected.
7.High initial cost of RETs.
8.Lack of community participation and ownership particularly regarding
women.
9.Spurious RETs provided by some private companies resulted in the rural
residents losing confidencein them. Quality control of RETs was not
possible because of lack of product standardization and certification.
Energy Consciousness Programme
Based on the findings and observations ofthe survey, and interactions with
the residents, the research team planned an energy awarenessprogramme for
Gharoda, Alumdipur (Haryana), Rabupura (Ghaziabad) and Morni hills
(Panchkula). They motivated the residents to adopt RETs in the activities of
89
their day-to-day life by demonstrating how they work, by role play and by
explaining to them how RETs are constructed. Working models of RETs were
prepared to show the operation of solar and biomass RETs. All this helped
them to befriend the new technology rather than feel alienated from it.
The rural residents seemed to be inclined towards individual ownership
of renewable energy devices rather than community bound products such
as solar street lights, solar power grids, etc. The primary motivating force
for this was the potential saving in individual electricity bills. Based on the
survey results, an energy consciousness programme was designed on Solar
and Biomass RETs whichcovered the following aspects:
• Importance of RETs based on the constraints and problems experienced
• Information about the technology involved in RETs, theirrepair and
maintenance
• Comparative analysis of saving in electricity bills versusconventional
energy resources
• Applications of RETs in rural households
• Understanding the construction of RETs throughworking models. This
method proved highly effective in information sharing.
• Games (ex: match the energy equipment with the energy source,
wheel of renewable energy resources, etc.) were used to reinforce the
understanding of RETs.
The participation of residents in the programme was encouraging as
they wanted more information onrepairs, subsidies and financial assistance
concerning RETs.
Learning for Students
Knowledge about the RETs empowered the students who undertook this
project. This was especially significant considering the present environmental
crisis. They learnt the importance of RETs in the rural as well as urban setting.
They also gained significant knowledge about how RETs can be used tosave
precious resources and the environment by using alternate technologies and
harnessing natural resources such as sunlight,which are non-polluting and
present in abundance.
The project encouraged the students to take up research in similar areas
of renewable energy as part of their course work in the form of major as well
minor projects in college. Ongoing research in these areas also benefitted from
this project as lot of experience-sharing took place among undergraduate and
postgraduate students. All this helped to enthuse the students and to maintain
a high level of interest among them.
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Familiarization with the rural families and village environment and
lifestyle was an enriching and insightful experience for the undergraduate
students. Interventions by postgraduate students and doctoral students as
mentors during field visits, and sharing experiences during interactions with
rural residents proved highly effective. The undergraduate students gained
confidence through these exchanges with the senior students.
Benefits to College
The project provided a platform for the students to collaborate with experts
and people interested in renewable energy, and thus synergize their efforts
in a constructive manner. The benefits of the project were both quantitative
as well as qualitative. Quantitatively,the students successfully delivered the
programme planned and coordinated by them along with the rural families.
They prepared visuals, simulation models and role play scripts, etc.,toempower
rural families. Qualitatively, the students gained confidence and knowledge,
and learnt multi-tasking by using their spare time more effectively for project
activities along with their academic work.
• The project helped us collaborate with NGOs, manufacturers of RETs,
and government and private organizations working in the area of
renewable energy.
• Interactions with the manufacturers provided a holistic understanding
of RETs—their constraints and benefits.
• Demonstration by installation of solar RETs (street lights, home
lighting system, water heating system) on the campus was an effective
experiential learning for the students as it gave them an in-depth
understanding of the working of RETs.
Benefits to Society
During the course of the project, the students interacted with the rural
families of two villages where the Government had already installed some
RETs, but these were not being used by the residents. This was because the
families in these villages had not been sufficientlyinformedby the Government
about the new technology.The project team was able to reinforce the existing
programme by providing relevant information concerning the functioning of
RETs. These interventions were effective in not only addressing barriers in
the adoption of the new technology, but also helped in befriending the new
technology and bringing it into practice as part of the day-to-day life of the
villagers. The residents for their part reported that the RETs hadhad changed
their day-to-day living and generated immense power saving in households
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which had electricity. The project findings also revealed certain critical factors
that should be looked into when any such programme takes place in the
future.
Further Plans
The project team plans to undertake the following activitiesin the future:
• Prepare a self-instructional booklet on RETs that will cover aspects such as
information about renewable energy technologies, solutions to frequently
occurring problems, instructions for use, care and maintenance of RETs,
people to contact when help is needed, etc. This can be distributed to the
families in rural areas.
• Develop products for day-to-day use with renewable energy resources to
enable rural families to adopt the new technology more easily.The RETdriven products will enable the use of non-conventional energy resources,
thereby relieving the load onthe conventional energy resources (such as,
electricity).
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LADY SHRI RAM COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
The Imprisoned Dove: Transcending
Conflict and Building Cultures of Peace
project title:
project code:
LSR-102
1. Objective
• To assess the strength of religious identification of adolescents in Kashmir
(a conflict zone) and Delhi (a non-conflict zone).
• To identify the nature of stereotypes held towards in-group and out-group
members by adolescents in Kashmir and Delhi.
• To assess the nature of attributions made by adolescents in Kashmir and
Delhi for behaviours by in-group and out-group members.
• To compare the dominant identities of adolescents in Kashmir and Delhi.
• To understand the inter-relationships among regional, religious, personal
and national identity, and to see how this impacts the group’s relationship
with the Indian state.
• To understand teachers’ perceptions about peace.
• To understand the nature and sources of conflict in the classroom.
• To explore the role of curriculum and pedagogy in creating cultures of
peace.
The Research Project Team LSR-102 at the Seminar ‘The Flight of the Dove: Building
Cultures of Peace in the Classroom’ held in January 2013
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1. Final Findings
The data collected from Kashmir and Delhi produced several interesting
findings. The results indicated that adolescents in Kashmir expressed stronger
religious and regional identification than those in Delhi. On the other hand
a strong sense of personal identity was found among adolescents in Delhi,
which was missing in Kashmir. Moreover despite growing up in a region
troubled by violent and persistent conflict, adolescents in Kashmir held more
positive perceptions of Hindus as well as Muslims as compared to adolescents
in Delhi. Encouragingly, the drawings made by the adolescents in Kashmir
showed that the minority’s relation with the nation state was not fractured
but conducive. The presence of a strong Kashmiri identity in the valley did
not appear to interfere with national identity. The influence of textbooks
was clear in the drawings of the adolescents, indicating that the books
students read in their classrooms play a critical role in shaping their world
views. Teachers from Delhi as well as Kashmiri schools enumerated multiple
sources of conflict and expressed that it operates at numerous levels- personal,
relational, structural and cultural. Both overt and hidden curricula appeared
to be serving as sources of conflict in the classroom. Verbal violence emerged
to be a predominant form in which conflict was expressed. Majority of the
teachers, both from Delhi and Kashmir felt that peace meant being able
to live life on one’s own terms and to have the freedom of choice, decision
and freedom to preach, practice, propagate and abide. However, when it
came to transacting/implementing education for peace in the classroom, it
narrowed down to a regimented order of disciplining/silencing. Teachers did
not discuss contentious issues extensively nor were they equipped enough
to handle them. Many teachers in the schools in Delhi expressed that peace
can be taught while teachers in Kashmiri believed that peace could only be
experienced and felt. The integration of peace into the curricula does not
appear to be a priority for teachers considering that only specific subjects
have been viewed as suitable to transact peace and conflict issues.
2. Learning for Students (200 words):
The Innovation Project has been a step towards understanding the nuances of
original research and field work. The conception of ideas such as peace, violence
and conflict are largely misunderstood by governments, peace agencies, civil
society organizations and people at large. This initiative provided space to
students to review theories, models and skills for theorizing and developing
peace initiatives that can respond to deep-rooted contemporary social conflicts
in India. The fieldwork, in particular the visit to Kashmir, has enabled the
students to transcend religious and cultural differences and definitions of the
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‘other’. The students feel that the research has enabled them to see our society
not just in black and white but in all its shades bereft of prejudices from
either the media or other institutions of society. Issues which seemed distant
and less relevant became a part of their daily reflections, such as the issues of
AFSPA and its influence on the functioning of the school and the psychology
of children. The interdisciplinary nature of the program is something which
we hope the students will surely benefit from for future research. Our quest
for peacebuilding has left our students feeling empowered and has facilitated
us to see sparks of future peacebuilders in our students. And we hope they
carry on the message of peace in all their future endeavours.
3. Benefits to College (100 words):
Endeavours such as these bring to the College enormous value and research
potential from the academic scholarship at large.We believe that our research
would contribute in envisioning the path to building cultures of peace within
the classrooms of our college.The practical and knowledge-based resources
acquired during the project will continue to enable teachers and students
interested in studying the issues of peace and conflict to engage with these
topics and develop the college into a knowledge hub and resource center for
the same and add value to our already renowned centre for peace building
called the “Aung San SuuKyi Centre for Peace”. Further, ‘The Flight of the
Dove: Building Cultures of Peace’ seminar conducted to disseminate the
findings was attended by a large number of college teachers who can benefit
from the findings of the study and apply them to the way they manage
their classrooms. In addition, the project has been influential in promoting
interdisciplinary contact and undertakings, especially between the three
departments involved in the study.
4. Benefits to Society
In a society where all of us are living under constant fear, frustrations, crime,
jealousy and conflicts, education for peace can be of great benefit since it
does not offer readymade solutions but encourages people to pause and think
critically. Researches such as ours provide concrete proof in dispelling deeply
held religious stereotypes and attributions. This can have beneficial outcomes
for important stake holders such as not-for-profit community service and
welfare organizations, local governmental agencies, public and private schools,
neighbourhood groups, and even individuals who reside in the region. All of
us as stakeholders involved in this process must join hands. Our students have
been deeply moved by the current scenario of negligence of the critical issues
of peace and conflict in the schools, and as future teachers shall work towards
95
building cultures of peace in the classroom, thus advancing towards building
of a peaceful society.
5. Further Plans
This research has opened several avenues of future research. For instance
while the present study was conducted in Kashmir, a Muslim dominated
area troubled by conflict, we would like to replicate this study in a Hindu
dominated area which has experienced conflict like Ahmedabad. Also
during the process of the research we realised that there is a tremendous gap
between theory and practise. To reduce this gap, we have begun the process
of conducting workshops to impart cultural diversity training to adolescents
to address their identity issues and equip teachers with pedagogical strategies
to deal with issues of identity and conflict in the classroom. These workshops
were carried out as a part of the project based seminar organized by us
titled “The Flight of the Dove: Building Cultures of Peace in the Classroom” in
January 2013. We hope to continue this endeavour and reach out to as many
stakeholders and young people as possible, especially in conflict ridden areas
where it is required the most.
96
MAHARAJA AGRASEN COLLEGE
project title:
project code:
Measuring Environmental Footprint of
University of Delhi and Transforming it into
a Zero Impact University
MAC-101
1. Objective:
• In order to ensure a sustainable future at the colleges, the entire learning
fraternity needs to assume responsibility for their actions and commit
themselves to creating positive social and environmental change. It entails
embracing a long-term perspective and a willingness to encourage a
participatory problem-solving process. There is a rising interest among
students attending colleges that practice, teach and support environmentally
responsible choice.
• A baby step was taken by Maharaja Agrasencollege towards this vision to
identify the activities that create measurable carbon footprint, quantify
them that could be considered a baseline and further devise a pathway to
consistently monitor the levels of emissions to track our greening effort.
• Hence the main objective of the study was to move the students away from
peripheries of formal curriculum and develop a more committed vision
to sustainability. We at Maharaja Agrasencollege believe that as educators
it is our responsibility to sensitise our students about the damages our
day to day activities are doing to the environment, so that our students
are capable of implementing and understanding green practices where
ever they go. The ripple effect of undertaking such an activity hence are
expected to be much greater than just being confined to MAC.
• We felt that just by putting posters of appeal to conserve energy, water,
fuel and paper were just not working. We had to initiate and create a new
technique to make our students more responsive. Therefore we calculated
our carbon footprint and mathematically showed our students the damage
Students engaged in environmental carbon mitigation related activities
in project MAC 101
97
all of us together were doing to the environment. The figure did wonders
and encouraged students to implement offsetting techniques to bring
down the footprint figure.
2. Final Findings
The activities of the college identified to be contributing towards carbon
emissions were categorized under six heads-Electricity consumption,
transportation, paper consumption, food consumption, water consumption,
waste disposal. Emissions generated out of these activities essentially fall
under scope 2 &3 categories. Emissions out of purchased electricity falls in
the ambit of scope 2 while emissions due to transportation; paper, food, water
consumption and the manner in which waste is disposed off falls under scope
3 indirect GHG emissions. None of the carbon emissions of the college come
under the ambit of scope 1 since the college does not own any energy or
transport resource. The source of emission consumed is multiplied by the
relevant emission factor (as shown below) to get the relevant level of emissions.
Scope Emission category
Data Sources
Emission factor
1
College Owned
Sources
College owned vehicles: vehicles As in transport
log books
2
Energy
Consumption
Meter Reading / Electricity Bills at .912 kgs CO2/kwh
three different points in time
3
Transportation
Employee Commuting: By survey
Total amount of Kms travelled
(based on Pin Code distance
analysis of NCR region)
If commuting by public transport
– DMRC, DTC Road distance
chart.
Age of the car/mileage to calculate
fuel consumption
Student
Commuting:
Same
Method for Employee commuting.
By fuel type
Petrol:2.296 kg CO2/
litre
Diesel:2.653kg CO2/
litre
CNG :2.25 Kg CO2/kg
LPG : 1.6 kg CO2/kg
4
Paper
Consumption
Paper purchased: College Office
data
Administrative Purposes: Office
data for examination sheets,
admission process, Info systems
Paper consumption by students:
Survey on total note books used by
the student per paper per semester,
paper used for photocopying of
notes/readings and in assessments
and tests.
Data confirmed by inspection
method
Office paper : 0.98
metric tonnes CO2/
short tonne
98
1 short tonne= 907 kgs
5
Food Habits
Cafeteria Data – Food Purchased, LPG :2.983 kg CO2/kg
LPG usage, PET bottles by survey 500 ml plastic bottle :
240 gms CO2
1litre = 360 gms
6
Waste disposal
Segregation of organic and
inorganic waste. Quantity of waste
generated by measuring weight/
volume
Organic waste: 0.9
tonnes
CO2/tonne
Inorganic : 2.59 tonnes
CO2/tonne
Mixed :0.07 kg CO2/kg
Maharaja Agrasen college emission details:
• The total to and fro distance travelled by MAC learning community each
day equals 42236.94 km that is equivalent to the circumference of the
earth. Annual footprint due to transportation aggregated to 480076.2 kg
CO2
• Total paper used in a semester was found to be 14,27,800 A4 size sheets.
Weight of paper used per year was calculated as 10.64 tons. This amounted
to felling of 170 trees every year (1 ton is equivalent to felling 17 trees).
Annual Footprint of paper: ((10.64*1000)/907)*.980 = 11496.36 kg CO2
• Av. electricity consumption in college was worked out to be 42840 Kwh/
month(average of 3 months) Annual Footprint due to electricity usage was
found to be 514080*.912= 468841KgCo2
• 50 LPG cylinders per month were used in the college canteen (19kg/
cylinder). Annual Consumption being 950 * 12 = 11400 kg. Annual
Footprint in canteen was found to be: 11400 * 2.983= 34006.2 kg CO2
• Waste generated in the college per day aggregated to 26 kg. Category wise
annual mixed waste, organic waste, paper waste generated was found to be
1500 kg,4500 kg and 1800 kg respectively.Hence, Annual footprint from
waste was found to be 8655 kg CO2
• Total footprint of Maharaja Agrasen College = 1003075 kg CO2= 1003.07
tons.
• Per capita footprint of Maharaja Agrasen college = 517.049 kg CO2
Carbon Map of MAC
99
Mode of Transport - Students
Mode of Transport – Teachers
Carbon Footprint - Waste
Shaheed Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women emission details:
Transport footprint : 122262.1 kgs CO2
Electricity footprint : 42674.91 kgs CO2
Paper footprint
: 4689.30 kgs CO2
Hindu College :
Transport footprint : 347385.5 kgs CO2
Paper footprint :
14229.9 kgs CO2
100
Bhim Rao Ambedkar College :
Transport footprint : 171161.1 kg CO2
Paper footprint
:
8957.22 kg CO2
Transport and Electricity consumption seem to be the major
contributors towards the carbon footprint of the University system. Clear
policies and incentives in this direction can go a long way in curbing
this footprint.
3. Learning for Students
The project has created immense interest and sensitivity amongst students
towards tracking their own contribution towards carbon footsteps.
• The pilot study was conducted in the home college hence emissions due
to electricity usage is being monitored by students, administrative staff
and faculty members by controlling the overuse of electrical gadgets and
appliance.
• Sub-metering to monitor electricity consumption initiated by department
of electronics faculty and students is underway at various utility centres
in the college. Proposal for Solar panel installation has been approved by
the college authorities. All these steps have gone a long way in keeping the
sensitization effort amongst students alive.
• The students’ awareness about technological interface to combat carbon
emissions and naturally restrict emission levels has been enhanced.
• The recycling of paper already initiated by the college under the aegis
of zero impact club has got further impetus thereby reducing the overall
paper consumption in the college premises.
4. Benefits to College
• The project has brought laurels to the college. The initiation of such
projects both at academic level and implementation level has been one
of the reasons for bringing the first prize to the college atAntardhavani
University level event where in the efforts of all the colleges in various
fields were show cased.
• Provision of waste segregation stations for biodegradable, nonbiodegradable, PET bottles and electronic waste at the college campus has
been initiated. Reducing cafeteria waste by donating excess food is another
welcome step. Initiatives are being taken to encourage use of glasses/cups/
containers in cafeteria made from recycled, biodegradable, or eco-friendly
materials, and removing bottled water by installing water purifiers.
101
•
•
•
•
Provisioning for recycling of electronic waste like batteries, cell phones,
computers, and printer cartridges has already been initiated by the college.
Facilitating programs that provide incentives for members of the campus
community to reduce energy use. This would pave the way to conduct an
energy audit of the institution i.e. Sections of the college to be monitored:
- Laboratories, Library, Cafeteria, class rooms, Offices, Common spaces.
Last but not the least the college has doubled its greening effort by
reducing water consumption via effective water harvesting, reducing
paper consumption. Installation of various energy efficiency and water
conservation retrofits, such as lighting motion sensors or low-flow
plumbing equipment, terrace gardening through programmed dripirrigation method using PET bottles are underway that would enable us
shrink CO2 emissions.
The college has a bi-cycle club the encourages students to save fuel
especially if the have to travel short distances
Paper reduction policy is in place wherein all deptt. messages, notices are
put on the website. Students are encouraged to recycle practical notebooks
etc.
5. Benefits to Society
• The carbon footprint is one of the most important metrics that
organizations should account for in their environmental, sustainability
or ethical report that serves as an important metric for determining its
environmental performance.
• Reductions in CO2 emissions can hence be paired with financial benefits.
For example, less CO2 is emitted if less electricity is used resulting in
lower electricity bills and if employees would use less paper less expenses
on paper. Likewise all activities need to be identified resulting in carbon
footprints. Furthermore, a lower CO2 emission can result in a better
image of the organization.
• This also emphasizes the Environmental Management System to be
adopted not only by corporate houses but also in academic institutions.
The Green Guide can only be developed when a baseline assessment of
carbon emissions is done initially for further monitoring.
• Take this holistic approach to sustainability on college campus to different
Universities.
• Offering a college website to facilitate involvement in campus sustainability
initiatives and to educate the community.
• The project proved to be a fruitful learning experience for the students
who are now confident to understand and implement green practices
wherever they go after their graduation.
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6. Further Plans
• Simply put, sustainability has to do with reducing our footprint on the
future. A sustainable campus program is next in agenda that addresses:
1)improving economic efficiency 2) protecting and restoring ecological
systems, and 3) enhancing the well-being of all peoples, all of these
components. • The aim is to provide accessible information for other colleges to learn
from each other’s experiences and establish more effective sustainability
policies that enhance students’ academic experience and quality of life in
ways that is truly worth appreciation.
• Developing a Green Code for the Delhi University is the desirable goal.
A green audit for the constituent colleges is something that we would
recommend.
103
MIRANDA HOUSE
project title:
project code:
Miles on the Yamuna, Team A
MH-103
Objective
The goal of this project was to find sustainable solutions to keep the Yamuna
clean. It was clear to us from an initial survey of literature that in spite of
significant intervention towards this end from the State (both the executive
and the judiciary) as well as civil society, there has been no improvement in
the state of the river over the last few decades. To this purpose, we undertook
a detailed socio-economic survey of a village, Jagatpur, on the banks of the
Yamuna, hoping to uncover some of the dynamics of the relation between
the river and the communities closest to it. We hoped that by studying the
riparian practices in Jagatpur, we would get an understanding of the kind of
practices that would be symbiotic for both, the community as well as the river.
Further, we hoped to explore the dynamics of two sets of forces—the need to
preserve past practices of land-holding and land-use, and the pressures and
opportunities generated by theburgeoning population of Delhi, both on the
village and on the river.
Image 1: Picture of the project team and images of the Yamuna
104
Final Findings
a. The Geography of the village: Jagatpur village is an urban village located in
North Delhi on the western bank of the river Yamuna,between 28˚42’30’’
N and 28˚45’N latitudes and 72˚12’9’’E and 72˚14’49’’ E, at an elevation
of 209m above mean sea level. It occupies a geographical area of about
204.3 hectares in which 40% of the area is used for cultivation. The village
has a history of frequent flooding as a result of which the village had to be
relocated to its current place in 1952, which explains the grid pattern of
the streets. This also places Jagatpur in a special category—the residential
area of the village is not under ‘Lal Dora’ but is registered as a Housing
Society. A levee was constructed in 1978 to protect the settlement from the
flooding of theriver. The village lies in Zone ‘o’,in the rural urban fringe of
the Metropolitan area of Delhi, as demarcated by the Delhi Development
Authority.
Our visits revealed that Jagatpur lies between stage 3 and stage 4 of the
transformation process from rural to urban. Jagatpur cannot be regarded
as an ‘urban’ village as the village is still not connected with the city by
proper public transport services. More importantly, agriculture and dairy
farming remain the dominant occupations of its people. Migrants are not
as numerous as one might expect on the basis of the location of the village,
possibly because cattle rearing is space intensive.
Image 2: Land use pattern in Jagatpur village
b. Occupational Profile
Agriculture is the main occupation in Jagatpur and all kinds of vegetables,
fruits, wheat, jowar and bajra are grown here. Animal husbandry is the
other important occupation in this village. In addition to this, jobs in
government service and commerce have also become common. Often,
both activities are combined in the same household, and are sometimes
carried out by the same person.
c. The demographic profile of the village is given in table 1:
105
106
5385
Total
2909
M
2476
F
Total population
M=Male, F=Female
Source: Census 2001, delhi.gov.in
802
No. of
households
896
Total
515
M
381
F
Population in the
age group0-6 years
272
Total
155
M
117
F
SC population
0
Total
0
M
0
F
ST population
Table 1: Demographicprofileof Jagatpur
3450
Total
2114
M
1336
F
Number of literates
851
Sex
ratio
76.85
Literacy
rate
d.Water and Sanitation Facilities
Our study revealedthat river water is not used directly either for domestic
purposesor for irrigation. Pumps andbore wells are commonly used for
both purposes. The Delhi Jal Board is responsible for potable water supply
in the area, but the supply is very erratic.
e. Relating to the River:
Since our project was based on the river Yamuna, we also looked into the
nature-culture dichotomy to understand the relationship ofthe villagers
with the river.
The residents of the village seemed to have a complex relationship with
the river. At one level, it appeared that they had a minimal consciousness
of dependency on the river for their daily needs and agriculture. However,
we also found that the river was considered to be superior and sacred.
Thevillagers subscribed to the pre-modern view that the river (as a part of
nature) was mightier than man, and should be feared. They looked upon the
Yamunaas an angry deity that had to be appeased. The riverwasconsidered
as an unmarried maiden, and every year she claimedthe sacrifices of young
unmarried menduring the monsoons. On the one hand wasthe view that
nature is mightier than man, and cannot be controlled; it can at best be
appeased. On the other hand, in direct contrast is the modern view that the
river can be controlled, and even ‘channelized’ (as reflected in the Master
plans for Delhi).
The complexity of this relationship also extended to the nature of
land-holding and the very nature of kinship in the village. The possibility
of flooding implied that there weresignificant inherent risks in agriculture
for Jagatpur. In a traditional method for risk mitigation, agricultural land
is commonly owned by the villagers. Cultivation, however, is individual.
In Jagatpur, plots were allocated on the basis of hereditary shares to the
members of the Gujjar community through a complex andtraditional
practice of Batej. The survival of common property in this era of rising
land prices and commercialization is something that took us by surprise.
We used Game Theory to explain its survival, and predict the conditions
under which the system may collapse. Our FGDs also revealed that the
‘batej’ system, while crucial to risk mitigation, may dampen long term
investment incentives in land.
f. Sociological Profile: River-Gender Parallelism
The sociological profile of Jagatpur revealed the existence of entrenched
patriarchy amongst all communities, especially amongst the Gujjars and
the Muslims in the village. The census data supported these findings—
the sex ratio for Jagatpur waslower than that for Delhi as a whole. The
child sex ratio waslower than the adult sex ratio, indicating continuing
sex-selection and inferior status of women.
107
The people of Jagatpur treated the river as they treated their women.
The river wasrevered as a female deity but the people wereindifferent to her
plight. The women of Jagatpur were worshipped as Goddesses at one level,
yet they weresubject to a subordinate status and sometimes also violence.
g.Conclusion: What we found remarkable about Jagatpur wasthe extent to
which the Yamuna has been ‘backgrounded’ despite the fact that the very
nature of economic and kinship relations in the village werecontingent on
the current profile of the river. It wasinteresting to speculate how a change
in the profile of the river may change these relations in the village.
Learning for Students
Apart from the standard skills that students pick up in such projects in terms
of writing, presenting and organizing seminars and exhibitions, the following
are what our students reported to us as significant learning outcomes:
1.Time management: Each student reported that this wasone of the most
important lessons they had taken away from the project since they had to
balance an intensive academic schedule with an equally demanding project
schedule, while continuing to juggle their extra-curricular activities in
college.
2.Theory in practice: Students in each field were able to see the theoretical
concepts they had studied in the classroom at work in the real world. Thus
Sociology students got to see (and draw up) kinship charts; Economics
students saw a living example of an infinitely repeated game, and work
out that the dominant strategy was to cooperate; Geography students
witnessed a village transiting into an urban area, as well as getting a firsthand feel of ariver and its ecosystem.
3. Interdisciplinary learning: Since all members participated in all FGDs and
surveys, and all results were discussed with the entire group, a significant
amount of inter-disciplinarity emerged. Discussions with Team B of the
project also exposed team members to the methods of analysis in the pure
sciences.
4.Breaking stereotypes, experiencing stereotypes: All our students reported
that the field surveys were eye-openers for them in several ways;their
notions of ‘rural’, gender, affluence and poverty, all had to be revised.
They also had to reconcile seeming contradictions—the demand for a
girls’ college in Jagatpur from Hukkah-smoking grandmothers, advice
that avoiding the male gaze was a girl’s responsibility, etc. They learnt
to disengage themselves during FGDs and surveys in order to be able to
report without bias what the respondent/s were saying.
5.Greater environmental awareness: Almost none of the participating
108
students had actually seen the river before the project. They are now ardent
ambassadors for its revival.
Benefits to College
1.Resource creation:
a. Equipment such as voice recorders, data drives, cameras were purchased
for the project which can be used later for similar projects.
b. Software: LPS mapping software was procured for the project.
c.Networking with other colleges, and institutes doing similar work,
especially with TERI, TOXIC LINKS, etc.
Benefits to Society
1. The project helped highlight the importance of including the stakeholders
in the preservation of the river Yamuna. But the most important lesson the
students wanted to publicize wasto push home a concrete perception of the
stakes involved. If the relevance of the river wasobscure to a community
that livedon its banks, and wasso intimately dependent on it, the challenge
for the rest of the city wasindeed daunting.
2.The project helped the community understand the importance of the
preservation of the river. They are now aware of the need to stop polluting
the river especially during festive season when people come for various rites
and rituals. Special FGDs were held on the importance of the preservation
of the Yamuna, and itsclose link with the riparian community of the
Gujjars in Jagatpur.
3. During various focus group discussions we also tried to generate awareness
about the rights of women. The FGDs discussed in detail the benefits of
continuing the education of women for their upliftment and empowerment.
Some of the FGDs also concentrated on the rights of women and legal
provisions such as the Domestic Violence Act, the right to inherit property
and the PCPNDT Act.
Further Plans
In 2012-13 we undertook twin projects on the issues of riparian communities
so that the river could be revived through two levels of empirical work—
scientific and social. The project was planned as a synergistic work informed
by strong scientific and socio-economic evidence without any alienation
from ground realities. We hope to make this an ongoing effort, so that the
data thus generated can be used to find environmentally, economically and
socially sustainable solutions for the stakeholders that arecoherent.
109
The 2012-13 projects coveredtwo interrelated investigations, carried out
in tandem by a team of ten students each, drawn from seemingly disparate
academic streams. We studied the stretch of river between Palla Village
(where the river enters Delhi), and Majnuka Tila for development of research
instruments and primary scientific study. The socio-economic study focussed
on Jagatpur village. We now plan to usethe apparatus, research instruments
and methodology we developed in these projects to broaden our investigations
tofind sustainable solutions for rejuvenating the river Yamuna. For the next
phase of our project, we have submitted a proposal under the Innovations
Project ‘More Miles on the Yamuna’.
110
MIRANDA HOUSE
project title:
project code:
Miles on the Yamuna
MH-104 Objective
The primary objective of the project was to monitor the water quality of the
river Yamuna and the quality of the soil on its banks at different locations in
the NCT of Delhi. The first step involved familiarization with the river—life
on its banks—as it made its way through Delhi after entering the city at Palla.
The research methodology included hands-on measurements of water quality
parameters using commercially available Vernier sensors and real-time dataacquisition systems interfaced with the computers. Water and soil quality was
investigated for various parameters such astemperature, pH, conductivity,
turbidity, soil moisture, salinity, chloride ions, dissolved oxygen (DO),
coliform content and heavy metal content. The sites investigated included
Palla Shank, Jagatpur village, Yamuna Biodiversity Park, MajnukaTila,
Wazirabad and Khajuri. The seasonal variation in water quality parameters
was also studied.
Image 1: Project team working on the banks of the Yamuna
111
Final Findings
Water Quality Parameters:The water quality parameters measured at various
locations on the Yamuna are depicted in figures 1 to 7.
Figure1. Measurement of Chloride ion
Figure 2. Measurement of dissolved oxygen
Figure 3. Temperature readings at different locations
112
Figure 4. Conductivity
Figure 5. pH readings
Figure 6. Measurement of turbidity
Figure 7. Coliform content
113
Key: PS – Palla
Shank; JV – Jagatpur
village; YBP – Yamuna
Biodiversity Park; MKT
– Majnu ka Tila
It was clear from a comparison of figures 1 to 7 that Majnu Ka Tila was
the most contaminated site with low DO and high values of conductivity,
turbidity and chloride ion concentration. This may probably be attributed
to a combination of two factors—diversion of water to the Wazirabad Water
Treatment Plant and location of the Najafgarh drain opening which emptied
sewage into the river. Most Probable Number (bacterial count) tests showed
that the samples from Wazirabad still water, Wazirabad flowing water and
MajnukaTila were highly contaminated, with more than 2500 bacterial cells
per ml.
The impact of water volume on the concentration of water pollutants
couldalso be seen by comparing the data for the water quality parameters in
the dry season with that of the monsoon. For samples collected during the
monsoon, the pollutant levels werefound to be significantly lower.
It could thus be concluded that (a) preventing untreated sewage and
effluents from being dumped into the river would help to bring back the
smile on the river Yamuna to a great extent and (b) increase in water volume
reduces the pollution load hence less water should bediverted from the river
during the dry season.
Soil Quality Parameters
The soil quality parameters are given in figures 8 to 10.
Figure 8. Conductivity of soil
Figure 9. pH of soil
114
Figure 10. Coliform content of soil
Heavy Metals in Soil
The presence of heavy metals in the soil at various sites has been given in
figures 11 to 16.
Figure 11. Presence of manganese in soil
Figure 12. Presence of lead in soil
115
Figure 13. Presence of Nickel in soil
Figure 14. Presence of Zinc in soil
Figure 15. Presence of Cadmium in soil
Figure 16. Presence of Cobalt in soil
Key: 1. Palla village; 2. Palla check dam; 3. Jagatpur right; 4. YBP phase 2; 5.MKT; 6.
Barrage; 7.Jagatpur village; 8. MKT farm land
116
From figures 11 to 16 it is clear that the soil samples werecontaminated
with Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) and Manganese(Mn) beyond the safe limits
prescribed for these metals (Pb–0.05 ppm, Zn – 5 ppm, Mn – 0.1 ppm).
Heavy Metal Contamination in Vegetables:
Figure 17. Level of Cadmium in vegetables
Figure 18. Level of Chromium in vegetables
Figure 19. Level of Copper in the vegetables
117
Figure 20. Level of Lead in the vegetables
Figure 21. Level of Zinc in the vegetables
Figure 22. Level of Nickel in the vegetables
118
Figure 23. Level of Arsenic in the vegetables
Key: 1. Turnip; 2. Spinach; 3. Beans; 4. Radish; 5. Cauliflower
The levels of Chromium, Arsenic and Cadmium were found to be in the
toxic range for Turnip, Spinach, Beans, Radish and Cauliflower. The high
values of metal toxicity weredue to the fact that the soil as well as the water
used for irrigation was contaminated with the corresponding metals found in
this study.
Seasonal variation in water quality
The seasonal variation in water quality before and after rains is shown in the
table below.
Table 1. Table showing seasonal variation in water quality
Parameter
Jagatpur
Wazirabad
Khajuri
MajnukaTila
Before
rains
After
rains
Before
rains
After
rains
Before
rains
After
rains
Before
rains
After
rains
Conductivity
(µS cmˉ¹)
393.3
807.1
233.9
809.2
-----
698.3
1666
770.3
Chloride ion
(mg Lˉ¹)
702.8
6.7
40
6.8
-----
8.6
1146
7.1
Nitrate ion
(mg Lˉ¹)
3.6
6.6
4.6
7.8
-----
2.8
10.3
16
Pb (mg Lˉ¹)
0.07
0.017
0.1
0.0341
-----
0.1023
0.09
0.0682
Ni (mg Lˉ¹)
0.05
0
0
0
-----
0.0037
0.03
0.0135
Zn (mg Lˉ¹)
11.69
0.0789
1.93
0.1831
-----
0.0552
4.84
0.0578
119
Figure 24. Change in conductivity
Figure 25. Concentration of chloride ions
Figure 26. Concentration of Nitrate ions
Figure 27. Concentration of Lead
120
Figure 29. Concentration of Nickel
Figure 30. Concentration of Zinc
Prior to rains, the water was found to be highly polluted, owing to high
values of ion concentration, conductivity and heavy metal. However,tests
conducted after the onset of the monsoon showed improved results because
of an increase in the volume of water in the Yamuna; most of the parameters
were within safety limits (conductivity: 50-1500 µS cmˉ¹;chloride ion
concentration: 1-100 mg/L; nitrate ion concentration: 10mg/L; lead: 0.05
mg/L; zinc: 1 mg/L.)
A seasonal comparison could not be made between the vegetable samples
for heavy metal content due to flooding of the Yamuna banks and consequent
submergence of the agricultural land. The higher conductivity and nitrate
content of some of the samples was probably due to heavy rains in the
catchment area of the Yamuna upstream which led toa greater run-off from
the agricultural land treated with chemical fertilisers.
The above data clearly suggested that allowing more water into the Yamuna
by limiting diversion of water for irrigation and industrial purposes would
prove to be a major step in saving this water body. This would also allow the
river to self-rejuvenate naturally.
The pollution and encroachment of the river banks has also led to a decrease
121
in the number of migratory birds in the last ten years. Sightings of species of
birdssuchBlack-winged Stilt and Purple Swamp Moorhen which feed on the
waste dumped on the banks of the river were also an indicator of the pollution
in the river. On the other hand, species such as Common Kingfisher which
are an indicator of clean waterwererarely spotted. A major portion of the
Yamuna bank wasalso being used for cultivation of economically important
crops such aswheat (Triticum aestivum), maize (Zea mays), rice (Oryza sativa),
radish (Raphanus sativus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus), spinach (Spinacia
oleracea) and turnip (Brassica campestris).
Learning for Students
The project enabled undergraduate students from across various disciplines
to work together and learn research methodology through a hands-on
investigation process. It also brought the members of the team closer to
the Yamuna—the lifeline of Delhi. The project enabled the students to
engage in thought-provoking issues and gave them an opportunity to think
independently, formulate problems and draw conclusions.
From background research to handling technical equipment; from field
visits to brainstorming sessions; from interactions with the twin project
members and mentors to interactions with the riparian communities; the
project helped the students to develop the mindset and skillsrequired for
examining issuescritically. They started by designing the project and in the
process,they honedtheir organizational skills and learnt time management.
The periodic requirement ofreport submission helped the team to keep pace
with the project. The preparation and management of the ‘Antardhwani’
Project Stall enhanced the communication and presentation skills of the
team members. The two-day conference organized in collaboration with
TERI for societal sensitization and awareness-building on the Yamuna helped
themachieve their goal of bringing various stakeholders together on one
platform. This awakened interest and awarenessvis àvis the river and helped
set up productive collaborations.
The Yamuna Project added to theself-confidence of the students, motivated
them to do meticulous fieldwork, enhanced their awareness about important
environmental issues and increased their inclination and dedication towards
research.
Benefits to College
The Yamuna Project providedthe team of student researchers with an enriching
first-hand experience of an environmental issue that impacts society. The
awareness and sensitivity acquired by the team during the course of the project
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diffused into their peer group as well. It also helped the core team widen
their understanding of academic achievements and motivate other students
to be part of future innovation projects. The enthusiasm and excitement
of the project teams were communicated to other students through peer
interactions, both structured and non-structured. The projectemphasizedthe
role of hands-on approach in education, especially with respect to real-life
issues and inspired another group of students to continue studying the
problem beyond the term of the project. It also provided a platform for
multidisciplinary interactions among students and mentors and promoted
originality, self-reliance, exchange of ideas and collaboration within and
between groups of students.
Benefits to Society
The project team interacted with the local people, including school students,
living close to the Yamuna and made them aware of the impact of their
activities on the river by showing them actual results of the water and soil
analysis. A report of the team’s efforts published in a Hindi newspaper helped
to spread awareness about the degraded condition of the river and the heavy
metal toxicity in the vegetables grown using the waters of the Yamuna.
Through ‘Antardhwani’, the University Festival, and ‘RhythmsVillage’,
the public seminar held in collaboration with TERI, people from different
sectionsof the society gained knowledgeabout the water and soil quality
parameters and the importance of preserving the Yamuna, the lifeline of
Delhi.
Further Plans
The remaining portion of the river Yamuna in Delhi can be mapped with
respect to water and soil quality parameters, including their seasonal variations.
A survey onpeople’s feelings towards the Yamuna and their perception of how
it affects their lives can be conducted. Young people can be sensitized about
the present situation of the Yamuna in Delhi, by conducting sensitization
workshops with different schools and colleges of Delhi and NCR. The impact
of pesticides on soil and water can also be studied. The impact of festivals on
the rivercan also be studied; this includes practices such as immersion of idols
after Durga Puja. The study of various health hazards affecting the riparian
communities would also prove to be beneficial for society in general.
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RAMJAS COLLEGE
project title:
project code:
In vitro effect of medicinal plant extracts
onhuman fungal pathogen Candida albicans
RC101
Objective
Candidiasis is one of the most common forms of mycoses caused by Candida
spp., especially Candida albicans. Candida is a dimorphic and opportunistic
but otherwise commensal organism that turns pathogenic to cause serious
infections resulting in high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially
in immuno-compromised individuals. Limited therapeutic regimes and
availability of few broad spectrum antifungal medicationswith minimum
side effects pose a serious medical concern that needs to be addressed in the
treatment of systemic fungal infections. Furthermore, the emergence of drug
resistant strains is posing an increasing threat to antifungal therapies. The
search for novel antifungal medicines that are affordable, readily available and
of acceptable quality has seen the advent of medicinal plants as a rich source
of antimicrobial agents. The use of these natural products or their synthetic
derivatives as partner drugs maydecrease dependence on conventional drugs
and form an attractive alternative to antifungal medicines. In this study,
Table 1. Spot Assay- Growth Inhibition of Candida albicans using Pippali extract
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Figure 1. GCMS-Chromatogram of Piper longum
Figure 2. Effect of Pippali on the growth of C. albicans (CAF2-1)
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Candida albicans was used as a test organism to assess the potency of some
natural products on the pathogen.
Final Findings
The students were individually trained in the basic methods of microbial
culture. This involvedthe preparation of plant extracts and drug susceptibility
testing using three different methodologies—toxicological end point
determination by MIC, spot assay and filter disc diffusion assay. The following
preliminary findings using the plant extracts (mentioned in the project
proposal) against Candida albicans strain CAF2-1 werevery encouraging:
I. The spot assay using plant extracts prepared in 100% ethanol gave the
following novel findings:
a) The fruit-derived materials of Piper longum or Pippali had previously
been used against six phytopathogenic fungi, namely Pyricularia
oryzae, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cineria, Phytophthorainfestans,
Puccinia recondita, and Erysiphe graminis,and had shown a
reactiononly in the case of Puccinia recondite. This wasthe first time
Pippali extract was being used against Candida albicans in vitro. The
results were quite promising.
b) The antifungal activity of Aloe vera leaf extract had been previously
tested against Aspergillus niger, Crytococcus neoformans, Penicillium
maneffei, Phythium sp.and Candida albicans,but the previous studies
did not report any antifungicidal activity of Aloe vera against Candida
albicans. However our study showed encouraging results with Aloe
vera leaf extract.
c) Anti-fungicidal property wasalso seen with roots of Ashwagandha,
Withania somnifera.
II. The growth curve obtained with various concentrations of Pippali
showed a marked inhibition of Candida albicans.
III.GCMS-spectra recorded different peaks as per the composition of
plant extracts, supported by the mass spectra results. The molecular
ion peaks corresponded to the molecular weight of the components
whichwerepresent in the extract. In the ethanolic extract of Piper Longum
and Aloe Vera, 9 and 10 phytochemical compounds were identified
respectively. However further validation needs to be done to identify the
specific phytochemical constituent responsible for the anti-microbial
activity.
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Learning for Students
I. The students participating in this program belonged to different
disciplines of science and had a remarkably good interdisciplinary
exposureduring the project. Their educational visits to Advanced
Instrumentation Research Facility (AIRF), a state of art national facility
for advanced scientific interdisciplinary research at Jawaharlal Nehru
University not only introduced them to the basic research techniques,
but also gave them an insight into to scientific research at the master and
doctoral level.
II.The students receivedindependent trainingin the use of standard
laboratory-based microbiological techniques as well as other
techniques such as rotavapor concentration of plant products, gas
chromatography,mass spectrometry, etc. These would be of immense
benefit for their career in pharmaceutical companies.
III.The students participated in four conferences namely-1) International
Conference on Interface between Chemistry and Environment
(ICICE2012) from13-14 Dec 2012 at the Department of Chemistry,
Ramjas College; 2) National Seminar on Current Environmental
Challenges and Possible Solutions from15-16 February 2013 at which
Ramjas College won the consolation prize forposter presentation; 3)
Presentation on ‘Recent Trends in Innovative Research’ organized by
Sri Venkateswara College from 28 February-2 March 2013; 4) National
Conference on ‘Redefining Science Teaching: Future of Education’from
7-9 March 2013.
IV.Students visited the DRDO laboratory DIBER (Defence Institute of
Bio-Energy Research)at Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand from24-27 July 2012.
The Institute hada herbal garden with about 140 different medicinal and
aromatic plants, and a well equipped laboratory engaged in eco-friendly
applications ofbio-energy resources. The project team also visited the
CSIR laboratory CIMAP (Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic
Plants) in Lucknow from 5-7 April 2013. CIMAP is equipped with stateof-the-art multidisciplinary laboratories, ultra-modern instrumentation
facilities and has significant scientific expertise in the fields of agriculture,
genetics, plant biotechnology, biochemistry, microbiology and bioenergy.
It is also involved in the development of herbal products. These visits
further broadened the horizons of students.
V. A one day symposium was organized in Ramjas College entitled, ‘Natural
Products: Application in Human Welfare’ on 27 June 2013, with lectures
by three eminent personalities.
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Benefits to College
The Innovation project scheme was conceptualized by the University of
Delhi to provide research opportunities to students ofundergraduate level
at various colleges of the University. The programme was intended to help
college teachers overcome a common challenge faced by them, i.e. financial
assistance for running a research set-up. This challenge was met through the
grant received under the scheme. The grant enabled Ramjas college to set up
a microbiology laboratory in the college premises, and purchase important
instruments such as orbital shaker cum incubator, vertical laminar flow hood,
microscope with camera, weighing balance, pH meter, colorimeter, etc.,
which can be utilized by the college students even after completion of the
project.
The programme also provided an understanding of the theoretical,
practical and transferable skills in the interdisciplinary area of sciences, thus
enhancing the research and scholastic excellence of the students and teachers,
and spreading awareness about the latest development and techniques. It
proved to be an excellent platform for knowledge exchange between students
of various colleges of the university.
Benefits to Society
Nature’s pharmacy includes hundreds of medicinal plants and herbs that can
be used for healing and these are relatively unexplored. It is a little known
fact that roughly 40% of our prescription medicines come from plant extracts
or their synthetic derivatives. Medicinal plants can be used to treat and cure
many ailments including malaria, arthritis, diabetes, glaucoma, heart disease,
thyroid disorders, skin conditions, and many more. The research undertaken
in this project is anendeavour to explore the potential of medicinal plants.
In this study, Candida albicans has been used as the test organism to assess
the effective activity of medicinal plant extracts. In-depth studies of potent
compounds from the present study may also provide a clue to their mechanism
of action and help us develop novel therapeutic strategies and identify new
antifungal drug targets for MDR reversal in this organism. It will be interesting
to evaluate these derivatives as adjunct medicine or in combination with
already known drugs to increase their efficacy by synergistic activity.
Further Plans
The Innovation project scheme was a successful venture and provided
opportunities forresearch at undergraduate level to various colleges of the
University. The project undertaken by Ramjas College (RC101)showed
encouraging experimental results. Of the seven medicinal plants selected for the
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study, three were found to show potent antifungal activity. Initial experiments
involved culture maintenance, extraction of plant-derived extracts, growth
curve studies, drug susceptibility techniques namely toxicological end point
determination by MIC, spot assays and filter disc diffusion assay and others
such asGCMS.However these results maybe further supplemented with
further experiments to include:
• Flow cytometry analysis to evaluate the effect of test compounds on the
physiology of yeast cells, e.g. if these compounds initiate apoptosis or
necrosis.
• Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) to evaluate the effect of test
compounds on the architecture of yeast cells.
• Gas chromatograph mass spectrometry to check the effect on the
metabolome of the yeast cells.
• Determination and characterization of the secondary metabolite
responsible for antifungal activity using HPLC and NMR techniques.
• Publication of the results in ajournal of repute.
129
SHYAM LAL COLLEGE
project title:
“साप्तािहक बाजार: रोज का संघर्ष”(खुली
project code:
अर्थव्यवस्था में साप्तािहक बाजारों का सामािजक
– सांस्कृितक – आर्िथक और मनोवैज्ञािनक
अध्ययन एवं उसकी प्रासंिगकता)
SLC – 101
1. Objective
1. भारत में बाजार के िवकास के िविवध चरणों का ऐितहािसक िवश्लेषण
तािक इसके सापेक्ष हाट और बाजार की स्िथित का सम्यकिवश्लेषण
िकया जा सके।
2. साप्तािहक बाजार के िविवध पहलुओं का अध्ययन एवं सर्वेक्षण।
3. इस अध्ययन एवं सर्वेक्षण के आधार पर साप्तािहक बाजार के
िविवध पहलुओं पर छात्रों के सहयोग से इस बाजार का सािहत्य
िवकिसत करना।
4. इस बाजार के ऊपर डाक्यूमेंट्री िफल्म के रूप में डिजिटल डेटा तैयार
करना।
5. सर्वे के अिंतम िनष्कर्षों के िवश्लेषण के आधार पर नीित-िनर्धारकों
की सुिवधा के िलए जरूरी प्रस्तावों का संकलन
सीलमपुर (वीरबाजार) का विहंगम दृश्य
(प्रत्यक्ष दर्िशयों के अनुसार यहां 50,000 -1,00,000 लोग हर सप्ताह
बाजार में खरीददारी के िलए आते है)ं
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2. Final Findings
1. बाजारों के िवकास के ऐितहािसक प्रक्िरया को दर्शाने के िलए बाजार
: इितहास और संस्कृित नामक पुस्तक का लेखन इस इनोवेशन
प्रोजेक्ट के अंतर्गत िकया गया।
2. साप्तािहक बाजार के िविवध पहलुओं पर सािहत्य िनर्माण के लक्ष्य
को ध्यान में रख कर दूसरी पुस्तक साप्तािहक बाजार : रंग – बहुरंग
िलखा गया।
3. अध्ययन से यह पता चला िक साप्तािहक बाजार पारंपिरक एवं
औपिनवेिशक हाट बाजारों का ही िवकिसत और पिरवर्त्ितत रूप
है जोआधुिनक समाज का एक अविशष्ट अंग होकर भी आधुिनक
समाज िवशेषकर अिधनस्थों को बङे पैमाने पर जीिवकोपार्जन का
साधन उपलब्ध करवा रहा है। यद्यिप सरकार अपनी नीितयों द्वारा
इस बाजार को औपचािरक स्वरुप प्रदान करने को तत्पर है परंतु
इसकी रोजगार प्रदायणी क्षमता एवं आमदनी के िनचले स्तर की
जरुरत की राजनीितक पिरस्िथित के कारण िकसी तरह के गुणात्मक
पुनर्िनर्माण की सि्थित से बच कर िनकलने की चेष्टा करती रही है।
4. इस बाजार में भागीदार वेंडरों की अलग-अलग श्रेणी है िजसमें कुछ
नवागंतुक हैं तो कुछ 20 वर्षों से अिधक समय से रोजगार अर्िजत कर
रहे हैं।
5. इस बाजार में भागीदार ज्यादातर वेंडर्स 15 से 20 प्रितशत लाभ के
रूप में कमाते हैं, वहीं कुछ ऐसे वेंडर्स भी हैं िजनका लाभ लागतका
30 प्रितशत है।
6. सर्वे के मुतािबक 12 से 15 प्रितशत वेंडर्स की आय 15000 से अिधक
है।
7. इस बाजार से भागीदार वेंडरों को इतनी आय प्राप्त हो जाती है िजससे
उनमें से ज्यादातर 6000 से 10,000 रुपये का मािसक खर्च आसानी से
उठा पाते हैं। कुछ वेंडरों की मािसक खर्च तो 15000 रुपये से अिधक
है।
3.
Learning for Students
1. शोध छात्रों द्वारा साप्तािहक बाजार पर शोध–आलेख तैयार िकया
गया जो पुस्तकाकार रूप में “साप्तािहक बाजार : रंग – बहुरंग” नाम से
प्रकािशत हुई। िदल्ली िवश्विवद्यालय के बी.ए. के छात्रों को शोध
लेखक होने का गौरव प्राप्त हुआ। िवश्विवद्यालय के इितहास में यह
एक अनोखी पहल है।
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2. शोध छात्रों ने तकनीकी प्रिशक्षण में कुशलता एवं दक्षता हािसल की
(वर्डस, एक्सेल, पावरप्वाइंट, फोटोग्राफी, डाक्यूमेंट्री िफल्म िनर्माण
प्रिविध सीखा)।
3. शोध छात्रों ने “पावरप्वाइंट प्रेजेंटेशन” बनाना सीखा और साप्तािहक
बाजार पर प्रेजेंटेशन तैयार कर िवश्विवद्यालय को हाफयर्ली िरपोर्ट
के साथ उसकी सोफ्ट एव ंहार्डकॉपी भेजा।
4. शोध छात्रों द्वारा सेमिनार प्रेजेंटेशन िकया गया िजससे उनकी
अिभव्यक्ित कौशल में संवृदि्ध हुई।
5. शोध–छात्र पुस्तकीय एवं िसलेबस के सैद्धांितक ज्ञान से बाहर
िनकलकर बाजार एवं समाज से सीधे जुङे और व्यावहािरक ज्ञान
अरि्जत िकया।
6. छात्रों ने शोध की बारीकी एवं पद्धितको जाना। इस क्रम म वेतथ्यों,
आंकङों, साक्षात्कारों, िविवरणों आिद के संचयन, िनरीक्षण, परीक्षण
एवं उसके आधार पर िनष्कर्ष िनकालने की पद्धित को सीखा।
7. शोध छात्रों में एक कुशल, प्रिशकि्षत, योग्य, तकनीकी रूप से दक्ष
एवं सैद्धांितक एवं व्यवहािरक गुणों से युक्त शोधार्थी के गुण
िवकिसत हुए जो आगे चलकर उन्हें उच्चकोिट का शोधार्थी बनाएगा।
8. इस शोध के माध्यम से छात्रों ने बाजार के मेकेिनज्म को जाना –
समझा।
9. भारत के िवशाल असंगिठत क्षेत्र, उसकी कार्य – पद्धित, रोजगार
क्षमता, िवशेषताएं एवं खािमयों को जाना।
4. Benefits to College
1. कॉलेज को शोध-केंद्र की नई संभावनाओं के रूप में िवकिसत करने की
कोिशश इस प्रोजेक्ट के माध्यम से की गई।
2. इस इनोवेशन प्रोजेक्ट के माध्यम से कॉलेज के अन्यप्राध्यापकों
मेंशोध के प्रित जागरुकता पैदा की गई। शोधों के प्रित उनमें स्वाभािवक
आकर्षण पनपा और लोगों में इससे जुङने एवं काम करनेकी भावना
पनपी। यही वजह है िक आगामी प्रस्तािवत प्रोजेक्ट (2013–14) के
िलए पांच आवेदन पत्र श्यामलाल कॉलेज से िवश्विवद्यालय को भेजे
गए।
3. सेिमनारों एवं वर्कशॉप के माध्यम से कॉलेज के अन्य प्राध्यापकों
एवं छात्रों का ज्ञान संवर्द्धन हुआ िजससे कॉलेज के एकेडेिमक्स
ग्राफ को ऊंचा उठाया गया। श्यामलाल कॉलेज के इितहास में एक
कैलेंडर वर्ष में सभी िवभागों ने िजतने सेिमनार आयोिजत नहीं करा
पाए उससे ज्यादा सेिमनार िसर्फ इस प्रोजेक्ट के तहत िकए गए।
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4. कॉलेज में एक्यूपमेंट की खरीद से कॉलेज एवं प्राध्यापक तकनीकी
रूप से समृद्ध एवं दक्ष हुए। एक िकस्म से दोनों एम्पावर हुए।
5. सर्वे के दौरान जब बाजार में आम लोगों से िमले तो उन्हें जान
कर हैरानी हुई िक श्यामलालकॉलेज “साप्तािहक बाजार” पर िरसर्च
कर रहा है और उनकी स्टीिरयोटाइप धारणा कॉलेज के बारे में काफी
बदली। यहां तक की एम.सी.डी. के अिधकािरयों ने कॉलेज के इस शोध
को अवलोकनार्थ मांग की तािक नई नीितयां बनाने में मदद िमल
सके। यह कॉलेज की छिव के िलए बङा अवसर है।
5. Benefits to Society
1. साप्तािहक बाजार सरीखे अनौपचािरक क्षेत्र पर हुए संभवत:
पहले िवशद अध्ययन से कुछ उन अनछुए एवं महत्वपूर्ण तथ्यों
की जानकारी सामने आयी है, िजनका लाभ उठाकर इस बाजार के
अर्थशास्त्र को और अिधक मजबूत िकया जा सकता है, िजसका
अंितमपिरणाम न्यायशील समाज की स्थापना में सामने आ सकेगा।
2. इस अध्ययन में साप्तािहक बाजार से संबंिधत तथ्यों को सर्वे
तथाफील्डवर्क द्वारा पहली बार सामने लाने का प्रयास िकया गया
है जो नीितिनर्धारकों के िलए महत्वपूर्ण स्त्रोत हो सकता है।
3. इस अध्ययन द्वारा हवाई संपत्ितिनर्माण के कुछ महत्वपूर्ण सूत्र
प्राप्त हुए हैं जो गरीब, वंचित, बेसहारा लोगों को भी संपत्ित संबंधी
सपने िदखा सकते हैं और उसे साकार कर सकते हैं।
4. इस अध्ययन से यह भी स्पष्ट हुआ है िक सस्तेरोजगार िदलाने में
असंगिठत क्षेत्र का यह बाजार महत्वपूर्ण भूिमका िनभा सकता है।
6. Further Plans
“साप्तािहक बाजार : रोज का संघर्ष” नाम से साप्तािहक बाजार के िविवध
आयामों को समझाने के लिए हम एक तीसरी पुस्तक िलखने का िवचार
कर रहे हैं। िजसमें न केवल इस बाजार पर िकए गए िनष्कर्षों का
िवश्लेषण िकया जाएगा बल्िक इस बाजार के भिवष्य में पुनर्निर्माण
के संभािवत मॉडल पर िवचार िकया जाएगा तथा जरूरी अनुसंशाएं भी की
जाएंगी िजससे नीित – िनर्धारकों को सहायता प्राप्त हो सके।
133
SHYAM LAL COLLEGE (EVENING)
vkfnoklh efgykvksa }kjk ou laj{k.k%
tequk VqMw ds iz;klksa ds lanHkZ esa
project title:
project code:
SLC (Eve.)-102
fnYyh fo’ofo|ky; vUos"k.k ifj;kstuk] dksM&101
';ke yky dkWyst lkaè;] fnYyh fo’ofo|ky;
izks- ,e-ih- flag
i;Zos{kd
izLrqr 'kks/k fo"k; ^^vkfnoklh efgykvksa }kjk ou laj{k.k % tequk VqMw ds iz;klksa ds lanHkZ
esa** esjs fn’kk&funsZ’ku esa fy[kk tk jgk gSA bl 'kks/k esa lrr~ fodkl ,oa ikfjfLFkfrdh;
ukjhokn dh lS/kakafrd i`"BHkwfe dks è;ku j[krs gq, tequk VqMw }kjk xfBr ou laj{k.k
lfefr ds iz;klksa dk ledkyhu fo’ys"k.k fd;k x;k gS vkSj ;g 'kks/k vius&vki esa ,d
vuwBk iz;kl gS tks >kj[k.M ds vkfnoklh thou larkyksa ds fo’ks"k lanHkZ esa] ou laj{k.k
lfefr esa tequk ds ikfjfLFkfrdh; iz;kl] Hkkjrh; ou vf/kdkj dkuwu dk leh{kkRed
foospu o ewY;kadu djrk gSA
blds lkFk gh uDly izHkkfor {ks=k gksus ds ckotwn buds }kjk fd, x, QhYM&odZ esa
eSa buds lkgl dh iz’kalk djrk gw¡A bl 'kks/k esa uohurk] jkspdrk o lthork dks cuk,
j[kus gsrq 20 feuV dh MkWD;wesaVªhfQYe “Be Victorious in Such Difficulties:
Lady Tarzon Jamuna Tuddu” dk fuekZ.k fd;k tk pqdk gS ftlds mijkUr ;g
'kks/k tehuh okLrfodrk dks Hkh iznf’kZr djsxkA vc rd fjiksVZ ds lHkh Hkkxksa ij ys[ku
dk;Z fd;k tk pqdk gSA
eSa viuh rjQ ls 'kks/k lewg ds lnL;ksa vkSj fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks 'kqHkdkeuk,¡ nsrk gwWaA
izks- egsUnz izlkn flag
jktuhfr foKku foHkkx] fnYyh fo’ofo|ky;
134
fo|kFkhZ
1 ,drk jkuh
2 jkes’oj
3 ih;w"k
4 ân;kuUn
5 fiz;adk
6 f’kokuh
7 T;ksfr
8 bjQku
9 ufyu dqekj flag
jhrs’k Hkkj}kt
10 Hkkjrh
vf’ouh tLly
jke:i eh.kk
izLrqr 'kks/k esa tequk }kjk xfBr ou laj{k.k lfefr dh dk;Ziz.kkfy;ksa dk leh{kkRed
foospu djrs gq, buds iz;klksa dh >yd dks ikfjfLFkfrdh; ukjhokn vkSj lrr~ fodkl dh
lS/kakkafrd ekU;rkvksa ds lanHkZ esa [kkstus dk iz;kl fd;k x;k gSA bl 'kks/k gsrq eqrqj[ke
xk¡o o ou esa QhYMlosZ ds lkFk gh lfefr dh xfrfof/k;ksa ls lacaf/r ekSfyd nLrkostksa
dk fo’ys"k.k djrs gq, fnYyh fo’ofo|ky;] ts-,u-;w-] tkfe;k] bR;kfn fo’ofo|ky;ksa ds
vusd fo’ks"kKksa ls Hkh fopkj&foe’kZ fd;k x;k gS vkSj blesa gekjs lHkh fo|kfFkZ;ksa dk
iz’kaluh; ;ksxnku jgk gSA ^dFkuh ds ctk; djuh* ij tksj nsrs gq, tequk VqMw us fu%LokFkZ
vnE; lkgl dk ifjp; nsrs gq, i;kZoj.k laj{k.k esa viuk vlk/kj.k ;ksxnku fn;k gSA
vr% bl izdkj ds LFkkuh; Lrj ij fd, x, iz;klksa dks gesa i;kZoj.k laj{k.k esa lcls
vf/kd egRo nsuk pkfg, vkSj ,sls yksxksa dks izksRlkgu vkSj igpku feyuh pkfg, tks vkt
gkf’k, ij gksus ds ckotwn ns’k ds i;kZoj.k laj{k.k esa viuk vewY; ;ksxnku ns jgs gSaA
izLrqr 'kks/k esa >kj[kaM jkT; ds iwohZ flagHkwe ftys esa vofLFkr eqrqj[ke xk¡o dks
,d vkn’kZ ikfjfLFkfrdh; xk¡o Model Ecological Village) ds :i esa izLrqr djus dk
135
iz;kl fd;k x;k gSA izLrqr 'kks/k esa lrr~ fodkl dh vo/kj.kk] blds vk/kjHkwr fl}kUrksa
tSls i;kZoj.k lqj{kk] ikfjfLFkfrdh; lUrqyu vkSj vkfFkZd n{krk 3-E Environmental
Protection, Economic Efficiency & Ecological Balance) ds lUnHkZ essa tequk VqMw
ds fu%LokFkZ iz;klksa vkSj vlk/kj.k lkgl ij xkSj djrs gq, budh vxqokbZ esas LFkkfir ou
laj{k.k lfefr }kjk i;kZoj.k ds {ks= esa fd, x, vrqyuh; ;ksxnku dk leh{kkRed
foospu fd;k x;k gSA
'kks/k ds igys Hkkx i;kZoj.kh; fpUru% vrhr ,oe~ orZeku& esa vrhr dky esa i;kZoj.k
ij gq, fpUru fo’ks"k :i ls ikSjkf.kd xzUFkksa o fgUnh lkfgR;) ij xkSj djrs gq, orZeku
le; esa i;kZoj.kh; vkSj vk/qfud i;kZoj.kh; vkUnksyuksa ij xkSj fd;k x;k gSA Hkkx nks
esa tequk VqMw }kjk xfBr ou laj{k.k lfefr esa laFkkyh vkfnoklh efgykvksa dh Hkwfedk
dk ikfjfLFkfrdh; ukjhokn o lrr~ fodkl dh lS}kfUrd i`"BHkwfe esa leh{kkRed
foospu o ewY;kadu fd;k x;k gS vkSj bldk 'kh"kZd gS &^^vkfnoklh efgykvksa }kjk ou
laj{k.k % tequk VqMw ds iz;klksa ds lanHkZ esaA** izLrqr fjiksVZ essa bUgha nks Hkkxksa ij fo’ks"k
fpUru djrs gq, budk laf{kIr fooj.k fn;k tk gSA blds vfrfjDr ge vius 'kks/k dks
QLrd ds :i esa Hkh izdkf’kr djus tk jgs gSa ftlesa fo’ks"k vè;k;ksa dk o.kZu gS tSls &
vè;k;&1 ^>kj[k.M esa vkfnoklh thou % laFkkyksa ds fo’ks"k lanHkZ esa*] vè;k;&2 ^i;kZoj.
kh; fpUru% vrhr ,oe~ orZeku*] vè;k;&3 ^vkfnoklh efgykvksa }kjk ou laj{k.k %
tequk VqMw ds iz;klksa ds lanHkZ esa*] vè;k;&4 ^ty] taxy] tehu ij vkfnoklh vf/kdkj %
leh{kkRed foospu*] vè;k;&5 ^ewY;kadu* bR;kfnA
izLrqr 'kks/k ij fyf[kr bu lHkh Hkkxksa ds lkFk gh tequk ds iz;klksa] i;kZoj.kh; o
LFkkuh; fodkl dk;ks± dks MkWD;wesaVªh fQYe “Be Victories in Such Difficulties:
Lady Tarzon Jamuna Tuddu” esa Hkh n’kkZ;k x;k gSA lhMh layXu)
bl 'kks/k gsrq ge vius fnYyh fo’ofo|ky; ds izfr cgqr vkHkkjh gSa ftlus bl izdkj
dh vUos"k.k ifj;kstuk dk vkjEHk fd;kA lkFk gh blds fy, ge 'kks/k i;Zos{kd ds
fn’kk&funsZ’ku gsrq muds izfr Hkh viuh ÑrKrk Kkfir djrs gSaA
Hkkx&1
i;kZoj.kh; fpUru % vrhr ,oa orZeku
(Environmental Concern: Past & Present)
orZeku le; esa i;kZoj.k eqíksa dh ppkZ dk ,d fo’ks'k egRo gSA
vkt ehfM;k ds ekè;e ls Hkfo"; esa gksus okys ;qx ds fy, ty
dh laHkkouk dks ,d izeq[k dkj.k crk;k tk jgk gSA ns’k esa ckWa/ksa dh
fLFkfr ;k ty] taxy] tehu ij vkfnokfl;ksa dh [kcjsa Hkh izlkfjr
gksrh jgrh gSaA nks n’kd igys ,slk yxk Fkk fd i;kZoj.k ,d ,slk
fopkj gS ftldk le; vk x;k gS tSlk fd 1989 esa ^VkbZe* eSxthu
136
us vius doj ist ij fdlh iq#"k ;k efgyk dh txg i`Foh dks The Planet of the
Year ds :i esa n’kkZ;kA vkt Hkh i;kZoj.k ,d vkykspukRed eqík gS pkgs bls {ks=h;]
jk"Vªh; ;k varjkZ”Vªh; lanHkZ esa ns[kk tk,A i;kZoj.k ls tqM+s eqíksa ds lkeus vkus dk
D;k dkj.k gS\ ^ikfjfLFkfrdh;* ls D;k vfHkizk; gS\ izd`fr vkSj euq"; ds vkilh
laca/kksa dks è;ku esa j[kdj vkSj laLd`r o fgUnh lkfgR; esa buds o.kZu ij xkSj djrs
gq, ledkyhu le; esa tyok;q ifjorZu ds ßgzkl ds lkFk&lkFk ikfjfLFkfrdh; larqyu
ds egRo dks Hkh mtkxj fd;k x;k gSA
i;kZoj.k ls rkRi;Z gS & og okrkoj.k ftlls laiw.kZ txr ;k
czãk.M f?kjk gqvk gS nwljs 'kCnksa esa lEiw.kZ i`Foh ,d vkoj.k ls vko`Ùk
gS tks bls ifjpkfyr Hkh djrk gS vkSj Lo;a blls izHkkfor Hkh gksrk
gSA i;kZoj.k vaxzsth 'kCn “Environment” dk vuqokn gS tks nks 'kCn
vFkkZr~ ‘Environ’ o ‘ment’ ls feydj cuk gS ftldk vFkZ vko`r
djuk gS] Encircle or all around) vFkkZr~ ^^tks pkjksa vksj ls ?ksjs gq,
gS** og i;kZoj.k gSA lEiw.kZ i`Foh ok;qeaMy ls vko`r gS] blh izdkj
/jkryh; tho LFky] ty] ok;q ,oa buds ?kVdksa ls vko`r gSA
lEiw.kZ thoeaMy tSfod o vtSfod ?kVdks }kjk vko`r gSA o`gr :i ls ;g LFkye.My
Lithosphere) tyeaMy Hydrosphere) ok;qeaMy Atmosphere) ls lacaf/kr gS vkSj
;gh HkkSxksfyd i;kZoj.k dk ewy gSA
/kjrh dh ikfjfLFkfrdh; Ecology) ij euq"; dk izHkko Lo;a euq"; ftruk gh izkphu
gSA ikfjfLFkfrdh; ra= Eco system) vaxzsth ds nks 'kCnksa ls feydj cuk gSA ftlesa ‘Eco’
dk vfHkizk; ^pkjksa vksj ds izko`Qfrd i;kZoj.k* ls gS] mlds ‘System’ ls vfHkizk; ,d
ra=k ;k O;oLFkk ls gSA laiw.kZ i`Foh vFkkZr~ LFky] ty ,oa ok;qe.My vkSj bl ij fuokl
djus okys tho ,d fof’k"V pozQ vFkok iz.kkyh ;k ra=k esa ifjpkfyr gksrs jgrs gSa rFkk
izo`fr ;k i;kZoj.k ds lkFk vHkwriwoZ lkeatL; LFkkfir djds u dsoy vius dks vfLrRo
esa j[krs gSa] vfirq i;kZoj.k dks Hkh Lopkfyr djrs gSaA bl izdkj jpuk ,oa dk;Z n`f"V ls
tho leqnk; ,oa okrkoj.k ,d ra= ds :i esa dk;Z djrs gSa] ftldks ikfjfLFkfrdh; ra=
dgk tkrk gSA nwljs 'kCnksa esa] ikfjfLFkfrdh; ra= ,d var%fdz;kRed o var%fuHkZj lfeJ
Interacting and interdependent complex) izkd`frd O;oLFkk gSA
ikfjfLFkfrdh; ds vè;;u dks ;fn vrhr dky esa ns[kk tk, rks vjLrw] fgIiksdzsVht
vkSj vU; xzhd nk’kZfudksa ds ys[kksa esa bls i<+k tk ldrk gSA tho vkSj muds i;kZoj.k
ds eè; ijLij laca/kksa dk loZizFke o.kZu bZlk iwoZ pkSFkh 'krkCnh esa vjLrw ds fe=
^Fkh;ksizsQLVl* us fd;k FkkA blh otg ls Fkh;ksizsQLVl dks ^ikfjfLFkfrdh; foKku
dk firkeg* ekuk tkrk gS] rks ogha 1869 esa tUrq’kkL=kh ^vusZLVhdsy* us loZizFke
bdksykWth Ecology) 'kCn dk iz;ksx fd;kA ^vusZLVhdy* ds vuqlkj ^^ikfjfLFkfrdh;
foKku izk.kh txr vkSj mlds dkcZfud vkSj vdkcZfud lEiw.kZ laca/ksa dk vuqla/ku gS
vkSj blh rjg tho&i;kZoj.k laca/ksa dks fofo/k ukeksa ls lacksf/r fd;kA tSls oh-oh- Mksdw
psg 1846&1903) us bls “Geobioceonosis” dgk] rks ogha 1877 ^dkyZ eksfc;l* us
bls “Bicochosis” dgkA blh rjg 1887 esa ,l-,- Qksjfcl }kjk bls Microcosm dgk
x;k] rks ogha 1939 esa fFk;useku us bls ‘Biosystem’ ’kCn ls lacksf/r fd;k_ ijUrq
loZLohdk;Z 'kCn “Ecosystem” dks ekuk x;kA
137
ikfjfLFkfrdh; dh mRifÙk oSls rks tho oSKkfudksa }kjk gqbZ vkSj vkjaHk esa bldk dsoy
'kSf{kd egRo Fkk fdUrq vc ;g egÙoiw.kZ lekt&mi;ksxh foKku ds :i esa mHkjk gS
tSls&tSls foKku dh izxfr gqbZ vkSj vkS|ksfxd ozQkafr vkbZ] tula[;k c<+h vkSj yksxksa esa
miHkksDrkoknh laLd`fr dk izpyu c<+k oSls&oSls izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dk vf/kd nksgu gksus
yxk vkSj ikfjfLFkfrdh; ra= dk larqyu Mxexkus yxkA ,sls fdz;kdykiksa ds QyLo:i
gekjk i;kZoj.k tgjhyk gksus yxk ftlds QyLo:i ekuo dh mÙkjthfork ij ladV ds
ckny eaMjkus yxsA izcq} oSKkfudksa us Hkh psrk;k fd vxj le; jgrs ikfjfLFkfrdh;
larqyu dk xM+cM+krk larqyu laHkkyk u x;k rks tho&tarqvksa o ikniksa ds lkFk ekuo thou
Hkh ladV esa iM+ tk,xkA ;gh dkj.k gS fd orZeku esa oSKkfudksa dh :fp O;kogkfjd
ikfjfLFkfrdh; Applied Ecology) esa gS ftlds varxZr leLr tSfod leqnk; ds laiw.kZ
lekt dk vè;;u fd;k tkrk gS vkSj fo’ys”k.k djds mu rjhdksa dh [kkst dh tkrh
gS ftlls gekjh /jrh thoksa ds jgus yk;d csgrj cuh jgs D;ksafd lEiw.kZ czãk.M esa
thoksa ds jgus yk;d dsoy ;gh ,d LFkku gSA blh dkj.k dbZ ckj bl fLFkfr i;kZoj.k
vlarqyu dks bl xzg ds fy, ^Vfu±x IokbaV* dgk x;k gSA
vkt ds nkSj esa i;kZoj.kh; fparu dbZ :iksa esa gekjs lkeus vkrk gSA tSls i;kZoj.kh;
lqj{kk] izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dk ßgzkl] iznw"k.k vkSj tSo&fofo/krk dk [kRe gksuk] Hkwe.Myh;
rkiu vkfn i;kZoj.k ls tqM+s izeq[k ledkyhu eqíksa ds :i esa lkeus vk, gSaA vrhr esa
Hkh bu leL;kvksa dk lkeuk djus dh dksf’k’k dh tkrh jgh gS] tSls ou laj{k.k ds ckjs
esa dkuwu cuk, x, fd dkSu vkSj dc taxyksa dk mi;ksx dj ldrk gS\ osful] teZuh]
izQkal gj txg bl rjg ds fu;e cuk, x,A Hkkjr esa ekS;Z 'kkldksa us 3200 lky
igys gkfFk;ksa dk f’kdkj djus ij naM dk izko/ku fd;kA
fiNyh nks lfn;ksa esa bu lokyksa dks u;k vk;ke feyk gS fd fof’k"V lalk/kuksa ij
fdldk vf/kdkj gksuk pkfg, vkSj D;ksa gksuk pkfg,\ ledkyhu le; esa bl ckjs esa
fpark izdV dh xbZ gS fd lalk/kuksa ds mi;ksx djus ds rjhdksa ls fo’o izHkkfor Hkh
gksrk gSA izkjafHkd izsaQp vkSj fczfV’k oSKkfudksa us fgUn egklkxj {ks=k esa isM+ksa dh dVkbZ]
Qjkus isM+ksa ds iwjh rjg [kRe gksus vkSj ikuh dh Qu% iwfrZ ds chp tqM+ko ij fopkj
fd;kA Hkkjr esa lu~ 1864 esa ou foHkkx dk xBu fd;k x;kA njvly bl foHkkx
ds ekè;e ls taxy ds egÙoiw.kZ vkSj j.kuhfrd vkfFkZd lalk/ku vFkkZr~ ydM+h ij dCtk
djus dksf’k’k dh xbZA
chloha lnh esa nks cM+s fo’o ;q} gq, 1914&18 o 1939&45) vkSj bu nksuksa fo’o ;q}ksa
ds i’pkr~ lao`f} ds vHkwriwoZ nkSj dh 'kq:vkr gqbZA bl lanHkZ esa bfrgkldkj tkWu edWuhy
us ;g vkadyu fd;k gS fd yksxksa us fiNys 100 lkyksa esa ftruk mtkZ dk iz;ksx fd;k
gS] buds iwoZtksa us mruh mtkZ dk iz;ksx fiNys 10]000 lkyksa esa Hkh ugha fd;kA 1960
dk n’kd vkrs&vkrs blds ladsr feyus yxs Fks fd ftl izdkj /kjrh ds lalk/kuksa dk iz;ksx
fd;k tk jgk gS mlesa cgqr lkjs rjhds Bhd ugha gSaA blh lanHkZ esa leqnzh tho oSKkfud
jlsy dklZu dh fdrkc ^lkbZysaV fLizax* ds izdk’ku us egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ blesa
dklZu us isLVhlkbV ds cgqr T;knk bLrseky ds udkjkRed izHkkoksa dh vksj è;ku fnyk;kA
vkt lkoZtfud :i ls bu fo"k;ksa ij Hkh ppkZ gksus yxh gS fd ijek.kq ijh{k.k ds
ckn gksus okys jsfM;ks,fDVo fjlko ls dSls fuiVk tk,\ tSlk fd gky gh esa tkiku esa
138
vkbZ lqukeh ds dkj.k ijek.kq la;a=ksa dk ladV xgjk;k FkkA ogha nwljh vksj ^cSjh dkWeksuj*
Barry Commoner) ds fopkj Hkh cgqr izeq[k gSa bUgksaus bl ckr ij tksj fn;k fd
dsoy ek=k rduhd ds ekè;e ls gh ikfjfLFkfrdh; dh leL;k dks gy ugha fd;k
tk ldrk gSA
fodkl’khy ns’kksa esa Hkh ,sls fopkjd jgs gSa tks bl rjg ds [krjksa ds ckjs esa tkx#d
djrs jgs gSaA egkRek xk¡/kh ,sls 'kq:vkrh fopkjd Fks ftUgksaus bl ckr ij tksj fn;k
fd gekjh thou’kSyh ,slh gksuh pkfg;s fd izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dk cgqr T;knk nksgu u
gksA johUnzukFk VSxksj us bl ckr ij cgqr tksj fn;k fd izd`fr ds lkFk lqlaxr rjhds ls
thou thus ds fy, ;g t:jh gS fd xzkeh.k dqVhj m|ksxksa dks viuk;k tk,A ogha ,d
lnh igys D;qck ds jk"Vªifr ^tksl ekjrh* us bl ckr dh fpark O;Dr dh Fkh fd i`Foh
ij euq"; dh tula[;k cgqr c<+ jgh gSA tc 1960&70 ds n’kd essa if’peh ns’kksa esa
dkWeksuj vkSj dkWjlu ds fopkjksa ij ppkZ gksus yxh Fkh mlh nkSjku Hkkjr esa Hkh i;kZoj.
kh; vkanksyu dh 'kq:vkr gqbZ vkSj bl lanHkZ esa izfl} i;kZoj.kfon ^ek/o xkMfxy* us Hkh
cgqr lkjs i;kZoj.kh; fcanqvksa dh vksj b’kkjk fd;k gSA blh nkSjku fgeky; ds if’peh
Hkkx esa xzkeh.kksa us taxyksa ij Bsdsnkjksa ds vf/kdkjksa ij loky mBk;k D;ksafd vaxw Ash)
pej[k Hornbeam) vkSj cywr Oak) tSls isM+ xzkeh.k yksxksa dh thfodk ds vk/kkj FksA
>kj[kaM esa Hkh ydM+h ekfQ;k vkSj vkfnokfl;ksa ds chp esa >M+isa gqbZA ;gk¡ vkfnokfl;ksa us
lky vkSj lkxoku ds o`{kksa dks cpkus dk iz;kl fd;kA Hkkjr ds if’peh ?kkV ij xksvk
esa tkSjh] pfy;kj unh ds fdukjs cls ekowj vkSj dsjy esa vkS|ksfxd iznw"k.k ds f[kykQ
vkanksyu gq,A
1970 ds n’kd ls cM+s cka/ksa dh izklafxdrk vkSj buds dkj.k ou o xzkeh.k {ks=ksa
ds tyeXu gksus dk eqík lkeus vk;kA lkbZysaV oSyh dsjy vkSj rfeyukMq ds eks;j esa
fojks/k ds dkj.k ck¡/k cukus dh ;kstuk dks NksM+ fn;k x;kA 1980 ds n’kd ds izkjaHk esa
fodkl ds ,d ,sls u, ekWMy dks is’k djus dh dksf’k’k dh xbZ ftlesa ikfjfLFkfrdh
vksj lekurk nksuksa dks gh leku egRo fn;k x;kA
vkt cgqr de yksx bl ckr dks eglwl dj ikrs gSa fd 1982 dh ^n LVsV vkWQ
bafM;kt % n QLVZ flVhtu fjiksVZ* fdruh egÙoiw.kZ vkSj ,uok;jesaV ij nwjxkeh izHkko
Mkyus okyh Fkh ftlesa vfuy vxzoky dh cgqr egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk FkhA vfuy vxzoky
us cSjh dkWeuj dh rjg ^fjMD’kfuTe* Reductionism) fl}kUr dk [kaMu fd;kA
^fjMD’kufuTe* dk vFkZ gS fd fdlh leL;k dks iw.kZr% esa u ns[kdj fliZQ mlds dqN
igyqvksa ij utj MkyukA bl fjiksVZ esa /uh oxks± ds ikfjfLFkfrdh; viO;; dh rqyuk
esa fu/kZuksa dh lw>cw> ds lkFk lalk/kuksa dk mi;ksx djus dh izo`fÙk ij tksj fn;kA ;g
fodkl ds cgqr ls oSdfYid ekWMyksa esa ls ,d ekWMy ds :i esa lkeus vk;kA
blh izdkj fodflr o fodkl’khy ns’kksa ds chp dh oSpkfjd fHkUurk vkt Hkh
txtkfgj gSA i;kZoj.k ds ckjs esa la;qDr jk"Vª }kjk vk;ksftr lEesyuksa esa ;g oSpkfjd
fHkUurk dbZ ckj ns[kus dks feyh] tSls LVkWdgkse lEesyu 1972)] fj;ks fn tsusjks 1992)]
tksgkUlcxZ 2002) vkSj dkudqu lEesyu 2011) essa gqvkA fiNys rhu n’kdksa esa dsoy
ekafVª;y le>kSrk gh lQyrk gkfly dj ik;k gS ftlesa vkstksu ijr ds {kj.k dks jksdus
ds fy, rduhdh gLrkarj.k ds ckjs esa lgefr cu ikbZ gS] D;ksafd DyksjksÝywjksdkcZu
139
esa dVkSrh djus dh rduhdh tkudkjh dks ckaVuk t:jh Fkk ijarq vkt ds le; esa
dkcZuMkbvkWDlkbM dk lcls vf/kd mRltZu gksrk gSA dkcZuMkbvkWDlkbM dh dVkSrh dks
ysdj vHkh rd dksbZ le>kSrk ugha gks ik;k gSA okLro esa bl nkSjku i;kZoj.k ds eqíksa
ij ,d rjg dh vke lgefr mHkj dj lkeus vkbZ ysfdu dqN vioknksa dks NksM+dj ;g
lgefr izHkko’kkyh :i /kkj.k ugha dj ikbZA
tgk¡ rd Hkkjr dh ikfjfLFkfrdh dk iz’u gS ;gk¡ izokyfHkfÙk;ksa ls ysdj cQZ ls <dh
txg feyrh gSA ;gk¡ ,d vksj 'k'd Fkkj jsfxLrku gS rks nwljh vksj vknzZ if’peh ?kkVA
;gk¡ gksus okyh o"kkZ ds dkj.k u flQZ ?kuk taxy gS cfYd 500 ls T;knk Lru/kkjh tho
;gk¡ ik, tkrs gSa vkSj yk[kksa yksx ;gk¡ jgrs gSa ftudh /kfeZd rFkk lkaLo`Qfrd fofHkUurk
vusdrk esa ,drk dks iznf’kZr djrh gSA ;gk¡ 45]000 ls T;knk ouLifr;k¡ ikbZ tkrh
gSa vkSj /kjrh dh gj 10 ouLifr esa ls ,d ouLifr ;gk¡ ikbZ tkrh gSA tgk¡ phu esa
fliZQ nl izfr’kr tehu gh [ksrh ds yk;d gS ogha nwljh vksj Hkkjr ds vk/ks ls T;knk
fgLls ij [ksrh dh tk ldrh gSA njvly] Hkkjr esa vk/qfud ikfjfLFkfrdh; fofHkUurk
ds ftrus lkjs vk;ke miyC/kk gS mrus nwljs ns’k esa miyC/kk ugha gSA LVkWdgkse lEesyu
ds le; ns’k dh 70 izfr’kr tula[;k [ksrh esa yxh gqbZ FkhA dkj[kkuksa dk ,d etcwr
vk/kj Hkh ekStwn Fkk LVkWdgkse lEesyu ds nks lky ckn Hkkjr ^ijek.kq Dyc* esa 'kkfey
gqvk vkSj blus viuk igyk mixzg vk;ZHkV~V NksM+kA
okLro esa ,sls cgqr de lekt gS tgk¡ i;kZoj.k ds elys ij ljdkj }kjk bruh
lfdz;rk ls dne mBk, x, gksaA Hkkjr esa 1973 esa ^izkstsDV Vkbxj* dh 'kq:vkr dh
xbZ] tks fd ml le; fo’o esa oU; thoksa ds laj{k.k dh lcls cM+h ;kstuk FkhA blds
rgr tYnh gh cgqr ls {ks=kksa esa fjtoks± dh LFkkiuk dh xbZA lu~ 1972 esa laln us
oU; tho laj{k.k vf/fu;e ikfjr fd;k vkSj 1980 esa laln us ou laj{k.k vf/fu;e
Hkh ikfjr fd;kA blh o"kZ uoEcj ekg esa dsUnz ljdkj us i;kZoj.k foHkkx dh LFkkiuk
dh ftls vkt ,d vyx ea=ky; cuk fn;k x;k gSA ;gk¡ ij ;g iz’u mBuk LokHkkfod
gS fd ;fn ;s uhfr;k¡ izHkko’kkyh Fkh] rc bl nkSj esa i;kZoj.k ds eqíksa ij bruk T;knk
la?k"kZ D;ksa Fkk\
njvly] ftl izdkj varjkZ"Vªh; Lrj ij fodflr rFkk fodkl’khy ns’kksa ds chp
i;kZoj.k ds laca/k esa oSpkfjd fHkUurk gS Bhd mlh rjg ls Hkkjrh; lekt esa Hkh bl
ckr ij er foHkktu gS fd dkSu&lk i;kZoj.kh; eqík egÙoiw.kZ gSA 1980 ds n’kd
esa tehuh Lrj ij dbZ i;kZoj.kh; vkanksyu lkeus vk,A taxy ds leqnk;ksa us fefJr
taxyksa dks [kRe dj mudh txg ,d gh rjg ds isM+ yxkus dh ou foHkkx dh uhfr
ds f[kykQ vkanksyu pyk;kA oSKkfud izek.kksa ls Hkh ;g ckr lkfcr gqbZ gS fd fefJr
taxyksa dks lkQ dj ,d gh rjg ds isM+ yxkus dh uhfr lgh ugha gSA dsjy esa ^lkbysaV
oSyh ifj;kstuk* ij Hkh LFkkuh; yksxksa ds vkanksyu ds dkj.k gh jksd yxhA fgeky; ds
rjkbZ ds bykdksa vkSj ns’k ds dbZ Hkkxksa esa vkfnokfl;ks }kjk pyk, tk jgs vkanksyuks us
ou uhfr dks ,d ubZ fn’kk esa vxzlj djus esa egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZ vkSj bldh ppkZ
fjiksVZ ds rhljs Hkkx esa dh xbZ gSA
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ouksa ds izfr Hkkjrh; ,sfrgkfld ,oa lkfgfR;d n`f”Vdks.k
;g loZfofnr gS fd i`Foh ds ftl izkd`frd vkoj.k dh xksn esa ekuo thou iyrk
gS] og i;kZoj.k gh gSA izd`fr ds vkWapy esa ekStwn ty] tho] gok] ioZr vkfn ds lkFk
gh ou ;k isM+&ikS/ks bl i;kZoj.k ds izeq[k ?kVd gSaA lfn;ksa ls bl i;kZoj.k ds izfr
Hkkjr ds yksxksa dk cnyrk gqvk joS;k izkphu bfrgkl o lkfgR; ds ekè;e ls le>k
tk ldrk gSA ,sls esa ns’k dh ou&lEink ds izfr yksxksa dk ;g cnyrk n`f"Vdks.k izkphu
laLd`r] izkd`r] rfey] tSu rFkk ckS} lkfgR; ds lkFk gh vU; Hkk”kkvksa ds lkfgR;
esa c[kwch >ydrk gSA lkekU;r% ;g Hkh ik;k x;k gS fd ekSf[kd ijEijk esa ouksa
ds izfr lgkuqHkwfr vf/kd jgh gSA gkykWfd vkfne lekt&O;oLFkk esa euq"; dh ouksa
ls xgu utnhdh Fkh ysfdu /khjs&/khjs f’kf{kr lekt&O;oLFkk dh thou’kSyh esa O;kid
cnyko ds pyrs ijorhZ dky esa ouksa ls nwjh c<+rh xbZA oSls lHkh ;qxksa esa ;g cnyko
leku xfr ls ugha gqvk gSA vkjEHk esa bldh xfr /kheh Fkh ysfdu tSls&tSls tehu
o vU; phtksa dh ekWax c<+h Bhd oSls gh rFkkdfFkr fodkl ds uke ij gq, vkfo"dkjksa
vkSj vkS|ksfxdj.k us bl izkd`frd la;kstu dks cqjh rjg fcxkM+ fn;kA vius bykds dks
foLr`r djus dh pkg esa yksxksa }kjk oukas dks rhozrk ls lkQ fd;k x;k ftldh otg ls
dqN bykdkas esa rks ogkWa dk ikfjfLFkfrdh larqyu gh cny x;kA mnkgj.kkFkZ ,sfrgkfld
n`f"V ls ns[kk tk, rks bfrgkldkj jksfeyk Fkkij ds vuqlkj fla/kq&?kkVh ds iru ds ihNs
,d eq[; otg i;kZoj.k dh cckZnh dks u jksd ikuk gh gSA laHkor% i;kZoj.k ds bl
egRo dks eglwl djds gh vkxs pydj vk/qfud ;qx ds vkSifuosf’kd nkSj esa izd`fr o
euq"; ds ikjLifjd lacU/ dks fgUnh lkfgR; esa Nk;koknh n`f"Vdks.k ls is’k fd;k x;kA
blh izdkj dqN izkarh; lkfgR; Hkh ikfjfLFkfrdh vkSj laLd`fr ds chp varl±ca/k dks izdV
djrs gSaA tSls bZLoh lnh ds 'kq: essa jfpr rfey laxe lkfgR; esa ikfjfLFkfrdh bykdksa
dk [;ky rfey Hkk"kk esa frj ds uke ls foLr`r :i esa izLrqr fd;k x;k gS tks fd
izkphu n`f"Vdks.k dk ,d csgrj mnkgj.k gSA
izkphu oSfnd lkfgR; rFkk jkek;.k o egkHkkjr esa Hkh xzke o vj.; dk QdZ ekStwn
gSA egkHkkjr ds fdLlksa esa ou vkSj oU; thou dks mtkM+us dk fp=k.k feyrk gSA ftl
izdkj nq";ar vkSj 'koqQaryk ds dFkk&izlax esa nq";ar }kjk f’kdkj djus dh fdz;k ds rgr
taxy ds tkuojksa dks va/k/kqa/k ekSr ds?kkV mrkj nsuk ,oa isM+ksa dh rckgh djuk ,d izdkj
ls izd`fr ls gh tax gSA mlh izdkj ik.Moksa dks izkIr vk/s jkT; dh jkt/kuh bUnzizLFk
dks clkus ds fy, ouksa dks tyk nsus dh ?kVuk Hkh cLrh ds yksxkssa }kjk izd`fr ij viuk
'kfDr&izn’kZu djuk gh gS ftlesa ouksa ij xzke ds yksxksa dks fot;h ?kksf"kr fd;k tkrk
gSA tkfgj gS fd xzkeoklh yksx ou ds fuokfl;ksa ls fHkUu gSaA os ou dks taxyh vkokl
ekudj ml ij fu;a=.k pkgrs gSa tcfd ouokfl;ksa ds fy, ou mudk izkd`frd vkokl
gS tgk¡ os dUn] ewy] Qy [kkdj o taxyh tkuojksa dk f’kdkj dj viuk thou;kiu
djrs gSaA ;fn xzkeokfl;ksa dh dksbZ lH;rk ouokfl;ksa ds izko`Qfrd vkokl dks u"V djrh
gS rks os ,slh lH;rk ds fojks/kh gSaA è;krO; gS fd lH;rk dk fodkl ouksa dks mtkM+rk
jgk gS fQj Hkh ou dbZ :iksa essa Lohdk;Z jgs gSaA vkfnoklh lekt esa rks izR;sd tkfr
dk vius xkS=k ds eqrkfcd Qy&o`{k gksrk gS ftldh os ^/kjkM+h* o ^ljuk* tSlh izFkkvksa
ds rgr iwtk djrs gSa rFkk ouksa dks laj{k.k iznku djrs gSaA
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ns[kk tk, rks ouksa dks iwtus dh ijEijk izkphudky ls gh pyh vk jgh gSA oSfnd iwtk
fof/k esa iz;qDr gksus okys ik= [kkl isM+ksa dh ydM+h ls gh fufeZr gksrs Fks ftlls ;g
Li"V vuqHko gksrk gS fd muds vuq"Bku esa ouksa dk egRo xgjkbZ ls tqM+k gSA ,sls [kkl
isM+ksa dh Js.kh esa ihiy] cjxn o lky dk Hkh ftdz gksrk jgk gSA [kkl isM+ksa dks iwtus dh
jhfr esa ^ihiy* ds isM+ dks ;g iwT; in yEcs vjls ls izkIr gS ftldk lk{; flU/q&?kkVh
dh eqnzkvksa ij Hkh vafdr gS vkSj vkt ;g fgUnw o eqlyekuksa ds chp Hkh iwT; :i essa
Lohdk;Z gSA bl isM+ dk ckS} /eZ ls Hkh xgjk ukrk gSA vr% tSu vkSj ckS} lkfgR; esa
Hkha ouksa dh ifo=krk dk ftozQ feyrk gSA tSu o ckS} eB bu ouksa dh j{kk djrs
FksA ,sls ifo=k ouksa ;k iwT;uh; isM+ksa dks ^pSR;* ds uke ls Qdkjk tkrk FkkA cks/kx;k
esa cksf/k&o`{k ds ikl [kqnkbZ ds nkSjku ftl pcwrjs ds lk{; feys gSa mls ekS;Zdkyhu ekuk
x;k gSA blh izdkj isM+ksa dks moZjrk dk izrhd ekudj mldh iwtk vFkok mikluk djus
dh fof/k fuEu Lrj ds ukxfjdksa tSls d`"kd] i’kqikyd vkfn esa vR;Ur iz/ku jgh gSA
izkphu Hkkjrh; dgkfu;ksa esa Hkh dqN isM+ksa dk nsoh&nsorkvksa ls lacU/ LFkkfir dj mudh
ifo=krk ,oa tknwxjh dks ekuohdj.k :i esa jkspdrk ds lkFk izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA ,sls
esa ou nsork ds vk/kkj ij ekuo ds eu esa izd`fr ds izfr vknj ,oa lgkuqHkwfr ekStwn FkhA
vkJe O;oLFkk ds vUrxZr laU;klh thou ekuo vkSj ou ds chp c<+rs gq, laca/k dks
n’kkZrk gSA laU;klh vkSj ns’kfudkyksa ds ou esa tk clus ls yksxksa ds eu esa ouksa ds izfr
Hk; de gqvk vkSj og ouksa ds lEidZ esa jguk T;knk Js;Ldj le>us yxkA mnkgj.
kkFkZ lkfgfR;d jpukvksa esa dkfynkl ds ^vfHkKku’kkoqQUrye~* dh dFkk bl f}Hkktu dks
mHkkjrh gS tgk¡ ,d vksj nq";ar taxy ds tkuojksa dk f’kdkj djus tkrs gSa ogk¡ oukJe
dh 'kkfUr] lkSE;rk vkSj izd`fr 'koqQUryk ds eu dks [kwc Hkkrh gS D;ksafd oU; izd`fr
esa ikS/ks vkSj fgj.k Hkh 'kdqUryk dks vius ikl cqykrs utj vkrs gSaA mls oU; izd`fr esa
,d uohu thou dk vglkl gksrk gSA oLrqr% lkfgfR;d jpuk,Wa gesa yksxksa dh Hkkoukvksa
dk vankt nsrh gSA
gkykWfd izkphu dky ls gh lkfgR; esa izd`fr&fp=.k fdlh&u&fdlh :i esa ekStwn jgk
gS ysfdu lkfgR; esa igys izd`fr dk fp=.k fdlh dFkk&izlax vFkok ekuoh; fdz;k dh
i`"BHkwfe ds :i esa gh fd;k tkrk jgk gSA tSls dkfynkl ds ^dqekjlaHko* ds vkjfEHkd
dFkk&izlax esa fgeky; dk foLr`r o.kZu gS vkSj ^es?knwr* esa es?k fojg&fuosnu ds ^nwr*
:i esa izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA blh rjg fgUnh lkfgR; ds HkfDr rFkk jhfrdkyhu dfo;ksa
}kjk Hkh izd`fr dks xkS.k LFkku gh fn;k x;k gSA D;ksafd lkfgR; ds izkphu vkpk;ks± dh
n`f"V essa ou] miou vkfn uk;d ;k ukf;dk dh ps"Vkvksa dks fpf=r djus okys ^Ük`axkj*
ds míhiu ek=k gaSA blfy, fgUnh ds eè;dkyhu dfo;ksa us izd`fr ds egRo ij vf/kd
è;ku ugha fn;kA ysfdu tc fgUnh ds vk/qfud Nk;koknh dfo ;g dgrs gSa fd mUgsa
dfork djus dh izsj.kk gh izd`fr ls feyh] rks ;g iz’u mBuk LokHkkfod gS fd vkf[kj
izd`fr dh dkSu&lh 'kfDr us vk/qfud dfo;ksa dks viuh vksj vkd`"V fd;kA tkfgj gS
fd Nk;koknh dkO; izo`fÙk ds 'kq: gksrs gh ou ;k izd`fr ij Nk;koknh jax p<+ x;k vkSj
fgUnh lkfgR; esa ;g Nk;koknh izo`fÙk rc vkjEHk gksrh gS tc lH;rk ds fodkldze ds
nkSjku vk/kqfud dfo ;g eglwl djrk gS fd izd`fr ij HkkSfrd laLd`fr fot; ik jgh
gS vkSj bl HkkSfrd laLd`fr essa mldh oS;fDrd Lok/hurk [krjs esa iM+ jgh gSA rc blh
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dze esa vk/jqfud dfo dh Hkkouk lkekftd Lok/hurk vkSj oS;fDrd fodkl dh vkdka{kk
ds iz;kl essa izd`fr&izse ds :i esa izdV gqbZA izkd`frd LoPNUn okrkoj.k esa mUgsa Lo;a
dh eqfDr o fuckZ/k LoPNUnrk ds n’kZu gq, vkSj rc bl izd`fr&izse ls gh jk"Vªh; tkxj.k
ds ml nkSj esa mUgksaus viuh dforkvksa }kjk turk esa ns’k&izse dh Hkkouk mRiUu dhA
ns’k&izse dk vkjaHk izd`fr&izse ls fdl rjg gksrk gS] bls le>krs gq, fgUnh lkfgR; ds
eeZK vkykspd vkpk;Z jkepanz 'kqDy us Hkh ;gh fy[kk gS fd ^;fn fdlh dks vius ns’k
ls izse gS rks mls vius ns’k ds euq";] i’kq] i{kh] yrk] xqYe] isM+] iÙks] d.k] ioZr] unh]
fu>Zj lcls izse gksxk] lcdks og pkg Hkjh n`f"V ls ns[ksxk] lcdh lq/k djds fons’k esa
vk¡lw cgk;sxkA* ,d izdkj ls ;g izd`fr ,oa euq"; ds ikjLifjd leUo; dks izdV djus
okyh vk/qfud lkfgfR;d n`f"V gh gSA
oLrqr% lkfgR; ,slh vUr%n`f"V gS tks ns[krk Hkh gS vkSj fn[kkrk Hkh gSA lkfgR; dh
vk¡[kksa ls ge lekt dks ns[krs gSa rks nwljh vksj lekt dh vk¡[kksa ls ge lkfgR; dks ns[krs
gSaA blessa Hkys gh ikjLifjd fojks/kkHkkl izrhr gks ysfdu blls lkfgfR;d o lkekftd
n`f"Vdks.k HkyhHkk¡fr Li"V gks tkrk gSA lekt dk fuekZ.k L=h vkSj Q#"k ds lg;ksx ls
gqvk gSA ;gk¡ è;krO; gS fd ukjh nqfu;k dh yxHkx vk/kh vkcknh dk fgLlk gS ysfdu
mldh Hkkxhnkfjrk dks vkt Hkh nks;e ntsZ dk gh ekuk tkrk gS tcfd vk/kqfud ifjn`’;
esa ukjh dk Lo:i cny jgk gSA vkt dh ukjh thou ds fofHkUu fdz;k{ks=ksa ds lkFk gh
i;kZoj.k laj{k.k esa Hkh viuh lfdz; Hkwfedk fuHkk jgh gSA ,sls esa vkt tc ukjh thou
ds gj {ks= essa n`<+rk ls vkxs c<+ jgh gS] rks bl i;kZoj.k ;k ou&laj{k.k ds {ks= esa Hkh
mldh vxqvkbZ dh l[r t:jr gSA bl lanHkZ esa >kj[k.M dh laFkkyh vkfnoklh efgyk
tequk VqMw dh Hkwfedk ljkguh; gS ftlus eqrqj[ke ds taxy esa ouksa dh voS/k dVkbZ
ij jksd yxkdj ou&lEink ds egRo dks mtkxj dj fn[kk;k gSA ,sls esa fgUnh lkfgR;
lekt dh fL=;ksa dks izd`fr vFkok i;kZoj.k ds chp fdu fLFkfr;ksa ds lkFk ns[krk vkSj
Lohdkj djrk gS bls tkuus ds fy, loZizFke fgUnh lkfgR; esa of.kZr L=h dh fLFkfr
dk voyksdu djuk gksxkA
tkfgj gS fd fgUnh lkfgR; ds 100 o"kks± esa L=h ds vfLrRo dk /kkjnkj la?k"kZ Li"V
fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA L=h&vktknh dh yM+kbZ lkfgR; us rVLFk&Hkko ls L=h ds gedne gksdj
yM+h gS ftldk ifj.kke gS fd vkt L=h dekscs’k dqN izfr’kr essa viuh L=hrk ds lkFk
lekt esa mifLFkr gSA fgUnh lkfgR; essa L=h&foe’kZ ds vusd lksikuksa ds vUrxZr ukjh ds
fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa ;ksxnku dks ysdj fujUrj ppkZ gksrh jgh gSA bl dze esa ys[kdksa vkSj
ysf[kdkvksa }kjk fy[ks x;s lkfgR; esa L=h ds fp=kadu dk fo’ys"k.k furkar vifjgk;Z gSA
fgUnh lkfgR;dkjksa dks bl fn’kk eas vo’; ys[kuh pykuh pkfg, rkfd ukjh dks i;kZoj.k
ls tqM+s cgqewY; rF;ksa ds izfr tkx`r dj ^i;kZoj.k&uSfrdrk* dk ikB leLr txr~ dks
i<+k;k tk lds vkSj mUgsa lekt dk Hkjiwj lg;ksx vkSj lacy fey ldsA bl dze esa
fgUnh ysf[kdk bfUnjk xksLokeh dk miU;kl ^vfgju* NÙkhlx<+ dh vcksgok dks vius
dF; esa lesVrs gq, vfgju unh ds fuekZ.kk/khu ck¡/k ds ekè;e ls izkd`frd lkSUn;Z ds
lkFk ekuo Je dks tksM+dj L=h ds eeZ dks mn~?kkfVr djrk gSA Je ds vkyksd esa ?kqyk
mldk :i L=h dk lgt&fueZy vk/kqfud :i gSA ijEijkxr L=h ls vyx] bl miU;kl
dh L=h viuh vkUrfjd vkSj lkekftd {kerkvksa ds niZ ls mTToy gSA ;g vkt dh L=kh
143
dk cnyk gqvk :i gS D;ksafd ;g lc mldh eqfDr dh vkdka{kk ls izsfjr gS tks lfn;ksa
ls fujUrj py jgs mlds eqfDr&la?k"kZ dh LokHkkfod ifj.kfr gSA ,sls esa tks izd`fr igys
lkfgR; esa L=h ds Ük`axkfjd fp=.k esa iz;qDr gksrh Fkh] vc mlh izd`fr ds chp vk/kqfud
L=h viuh oS;fDrd Lok/khurk dk liuk ysdj vkxs c<+rh gSA viuh blh eqfDr dh
vfHkyk"kk ls izsfjr gksdj vk/kqfud ifjn`’; esa ukjh us izd`fr vFkok i;kZoj.k laj{k.k
dk nkeu Fkke fy;k gSA ftl rjg izd`fr esa fuckZ/ LoPNUnrk gS] mlh izdkj dh
Lok/khurk og Lo;a Hkh pkgrh gSA izkd`frd miknkuksa dks og vius thou&fuokZg ds
lalk/kuksa ds :i esa mi;ksx djuk pkgrh gSA ,sls esa mlus izkd`frd ouksa dks cpkus dk
ladYi ys fy;k gSA bl lanHkZ esa eqrqj[ke xkWao dh ou laj{k.k lfefr dh vkfnoklh
fL=;ksa dk iz;kl egÙoiw.kZ gS tks vk/qfud lekt esa L=h dh cnyrh gqbZ fLFkfr ij
izdk’k Mkyrk gSA bldh lkFkZd vfHkO;fDr gesa vkfnoklh lkfgR; esa ns[kus dks feyrh
gSA ,sls esa vc ;g flQZ ljdkjh vkSj xSj ljdkjh laxBuksa ds eapksa ij gh cgl dk fo"k;
ugha gksuk pkfg, fd gekjs lekt esa fL=;ksa dh cnyh gqbZ fLFkfr dSlh gS cfYd lkfgR;
dks Hkh bl n`f"V ls ns[kuk pkfg,A
vkt Hkwe.Myhdj.k dk nkSj gSA ;g Hkwe.Myhdj.k euq"; ds leLr lacU/kksa dks rkd
ij j[kdj tks fodkl ds lw=k viuk jgk gS og i;kZoj.k ds larqyu dks fcxkM+ jgk gSA
blesa vFkZra=k vkSj ikfjfLFkfrdh ra= esa Vdjko gS tks i;kZoj.k ladV dks mHkkj jgk gSA
izd`fr ds lkFk gekjk fj’rk lkaLd`frd euksHkwfe dk gS blfy, lkfgR; ds varxZr dfork
esa i;kZoj.k ;k izd`fr ekuoh; O;ogkj dk fgLlk cudj vkrh gS tgkWa izd`fr ds lkFk
,d lgp;Z LFkkfir gksrk fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA tSls fgUnh esa ukxktZqu] dsnkjukFk vxzoky]
fxfjtkdqekj ekFkqj] Hkokuhizlkn feJ] ,dkar JhokLro] iadt prqosZnh vkfn dh dfork
esa ;g i;kZoj.k fparu ekStwn gSA budh dforkvksa esa ,d xkWao gS] yksd gS tgkWa izkd`frd
lkSUn;Z dk vR;Ur eksgd okrkoj.k gSA gkykWafd ;g Bhd gS fd ;gkWa dfo fdlh lekt
lq/kjd vFkok i;kZoj.kfon~ dh eqnzk esa ugha gS ysfdu og i;kZoj.k vkUnksyudrkZvksa dks
,d lacy nsrk gS] lgkjk nsrk gS vkSj lEeku nsrk gSA bl rjg lkfgR; esa Hkh i;kZoj.k
fparu Li"V mHkjdj lkeus vkrk jgk gSA
ouksa ds izfr Hkkjrh;ksa dk cnyrk n`f"Vdks.k bfrgkl ds ekè;e ls Hkh ns[kk tk ldrk
gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ Hkkjrh; bfrgkldkj jksfeyk Fkkij us Li"V fd;k gS fd izkphu Hkkjrh;
nk’kZfud dkSfVY; us vius xzaFk ^vFkZ’kkL=* esa ou laink dks egRo nsrs gq, dgk fd
fcuk ljdkjh vuqefr ds ou ds fdlh Hkh Hkkx dh dVkbZ fu"ks/k gksuh pkfg,A mUgksaus
ou inkFkks± vkSj lkQ dh xbZ tehu ij gksus okyh [ksrh] nksuksa ls feyus okys jktLo
ij fu;a=.k j[kus dk leFkZu fd;kA lezkV v’kksd dks vius iz’kklu }kjk cuk, x,
jktekxks± ij cgqr xoZ Fkk ftlds nksuksa rjQ cM+s&cM+s Nk;knkj isM+ yxs Fks vkSj FkksM+h&FkksM+h
nwj ij dq,¡ Hkh [kqnok, x, FksA pkSFkh bZ- ds ckn jktLo c<+kus ds fy, vkSj 'kk;n c<+rh
gqbZ vkcknh dh t:jrksa dks iwjk djus ds fy, [ksrh dk foLrkj gksus yxk rHkh ouksa ij
bldk ncko c<+us yxkA
xqIrdky ds f’kykys[k esa ouksa esa jgus okyh tkfr;ksa ij fgalk dk ftdz feyrk gSA
ftlesa bu ouokfl;ksa dks dkcw essa djus dh t:jr dk Hkh o.kZu gS pwWafd ;g f’kykys[k
rRdkyhu ljdkjh Qjeku Fks blfy;s ouokfl;ksa dks dkcw esa yk;k x;kA buds ou&lalk/
144
kuksa ij dCtk fd;k x;k vkSj bUgsa uhph tkfr dk ntkZ nsdj 'kgj ds gkf’k;s ij ;k
ouksa esa nwljh txg clk;k x;k D;ksafd njvly ouks ls xqtkjk djus okyksa dks gkf’k;s
ij ykus dk ;gh ,d rjhdk FkkA
Hkkjrh; miegk}hi ds dbZ Hkkxksa essa ouokfl;ksa ds dbZ dqyksa dh mRifÙk ds ckjs esa
dbZ dFkk,W ns[kus dks feyrh gSaA czkã.kksa ls tqM+h dqN ,slh dFkk,Wa gSa ftuessa ouoklh ds
izfr mudh mis{kk lkQ utj vkrh gS ftlesa jktk i`Fkq dh dFkk dkQh izHkko’kkyh gS
ftlesa dgk x;k fd & osuk] tks buds igys jktk Fks] czkã.kksa dk fujknj djus dh otg
ls ekj Mkys x,A jktk ds u gksus ls jkT; esa [kycyh ep xbZ vkSj O;oLFkk ds VwVus
dk [krjk utj vkus yxkA blfy, czkã.kksa us osuk dh ckabZ tka?k dks eFkk] ftlls ,d
ukVk] dkys jax dk vkneh fudykA mls fu"kkn dk uke nsdj ou esa Hkst fn;k x;k vkSj
blh uke ls ouoklh igpkus tkus yxsA fQj mUgksaus osuk dh nkfguh ck¡g dks eFkk vkSj
mlls ,d yEck] pkSM+k] xksjk vkSj lqUnj vkneh fudyk ftls jktk cuk fn;k x;kA [ksrh
vkSj i’kqikyu djus dk Js; bUgha dks tkrk gSA blls i`Foh bruh izlUu gqbZ fd mudks
viuk gh uke iznku dj fn;k vkSj os i`Fkq dgyk,A ml le; ouksa esa vkJe cukuk
,d lkekU; ckr Fkh ij ouokfl;ksa dk feyuk vyx ckr FkhA vkJe dh ftUnxh dks
Hkys gh cgqr yqHkkous jax esa izLrqr fd;k x;k gks ij ouokfl;ksa dks lekt ds nk;js ls
vyx j[kk x;kA vkt rd ;gh ekuk tkrk jgk gS fd ;g ^fiNM+s* gSa vkSj bUgsa fgUnw
lekt esa lfEefyr djus dh vko’;drk gSA
oLrqr% ns[kk tk, rks ouksa esa jgus okys gh ou ds lcls djhc gksrs gSa vkSj nwljksa dh
rqyuk essa T;knk feyulkj HkhA blh rF; dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, QLrd dk izFke vè;k;
&>kj[k.M essa vkfnoklh thou % laFkkyksa ds fo’ks”k lanHkZ esa & vkfnokfl;ksa ds bfrgkl]
yksd laLo`Qfr] dyk] /eZ] jhfr&fjokt vkSj izd`fr&izse ij n``f"Vikr djus ds lkFk gh buds
lkfgR; dks mlds okLrfod :i esa n’kkZrk gSA
Hkkx&2
vkfnoklh efgykvksa }kjk ou laj{k.k %
tequk VqM~Mw ds iz;klksa ds lanHkZ esa
(Forest Conservation by Tribal Women:
An Effort by Jamuna Tuddu)
fo’o dh 1-3 vjc xjhc vkcknh essa ls 70 izfr’kr efgyk,a gSaA og nqfu;k dh [kk|
lkexzh dk 50 izfr’kr mRiknu djrh gSa tcfd cnys esa mUgsa ek=k 10 izfr’kr vk;
izkIr gksrh gSA efgyk,a Q#"kksa dh vis{kk de lalk/kuksa dk mi;ksx djrh gSa vkSj Q#"kksa
dh rqyuk esa mu lalk/kuksa ij mudk LokfeRo Hkh de gSA ;gk¡ rd dh ftl lEifÙk
ij mudk LokfeRo Hkh gksrk gS] izk;% mldk j[kj[kko vkSj fu;a=.k Hkh ifjokj ds Q#"kksa
ds ikl gksrk gSA Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk esa xzkeh.k {ks=ksa dk ;ksxnku 72-18 izfr’kr
gSA Hkkjrh; lafo/kku }kjk tsaMj ds vk/kkj ij lekurk fn, tkus ds ckotwn efgyk,a
lkekftd&vkfFkZd lwpdkad ds izR;sd lewg esa Q#"kksa dh vis{kk ihNs NwVh gqbZ gSaA
efgykvksa vkSj Q#"kksa ds dk;Z le; dh rqyuk djus ij ;g Kkr gksrk gS fd efgykvksa
145
ds dke ds ?kaVs Q#"kksa dh rqyuk esa T;knk gksrs gSa] fo’k"kdj xzkeh.k {ks=ksa ds lanHkZ esa
;g ,d cM+k lR; gSA
efgykvksa dh ;g v/khurk lkekU; rkSj ij Je ds fyax vk/kkfjr foHkktu }kjk
izdV gksrh gSA vkerkSj ij efgyk,a Hkkstu cukus] b±/ku vkSj ikuh bdV~Bk djus] cPpksa dh
ns[kHkky vkSj ?kj ds ckgj ds tks dke os dj ldrh gSa mlds fy;s Hkh mu ij ftEesnkjh
Mky nh tkrh gSA mudh 'kkjhfjd] xfrfof/k;ksa tSls & inkZ ij yxkbZ xbZ ikcafn;ksa esa
mudh v/khurk izdV gksrh gS vkSj ;g v/khurk xzkeh.k ifjokjksa ds vyx&vyx oxks± esa
vyx&vyx izdkj dh gksrh gSA
vkBosa n’kd ds var esa i;kZoj.k dh fLFkfr ij tkjh nwljh ukxfjd fjiksVZ lh,lbZ
fjiksVZ b’kkjk djrh gS fd &
laHkor% xzkeh.k fu/kZu fL=;ksa dks NksM+dj dksbZ vU; lewg i;kZoj.k ds fouk’k ls bruk
izHkkfor ugha gSA muds izR;sd fnu dh 'kq:vkr lw;kZn; ds lkFk gh b±/ku] pkjk rFkk
ikuh dh ryk’k ;k=kk ls gksrh gSA blls dksbZ varj ugha iM+rk fd fL=;ka cw<+h] toku
;k xHkZorh gS] jkstejkZ dh nq"dj ?kjsyw t:jrsa mUgsa iwjh gh djuh iM+rh gSaA ouLifrd
fLFkfr;k¡ tSls&tSls fcxM+rh tkrh gSa] bu xjhc efgykvksa dh bZ±/ku ryk’k ;k=kk vkSj
vf/kd yach gksrh tkrh gSA xjhc vkSj i;kZoj.k fouk’k esa tdM+h bu xjhc xzkeh.k
efgykvksa dh esgur dh nkn nsuh gksxhA n lsdaM flVhtu fjiksVZ vku n ,uok;jesaV]
1987)
varjkZ"Vªh; Je laxBu ILO) dh 1979 dh fjiksVZ ds vuqlkj leLr Hkkjr esa ;fn
efgykvksa dh okLrfod vkfFkZd xfrfof/;ksa dk dqy ys[kk&tks[kk fd;k tk, rks irk
pyrk gS fd cktkj vkSj xSj cktkj vFkZO;oLFkk esa efgykvksa ds dke ds ?kaVs T;knk gSa]
[kkldj xzkeh.k Hkkjr esaA Hkkjr ljdkj us lu~ 1952 esa gh i;kZoj.k dks ouLifrd :i
ls lUrqfyr djus ds mís’; ls Hkkjr ds HkkSxksfyd Hkw&Hkkx ds 33 izfr’kr {ks= essa ou
yxkus dk y{; j[kk FkkA ch-ch- cksgjk] 1985)
lkroha iapo"khZ; ;kstuk ds izkjEHk esa ljdkj us bls nksgjkrs gq, dgk & ns’k ds
HkkSxksfyd Hkw&Hkkx ds 33 izfr’kr {ks= esa ou yxkus ds dk;Z dks mPp izkFkfedrk nh
tk,xh tks fd orZeku esa ek=k 23 izfr’kr gSA ftu {ks=ksas esa vHkh rd ;g y{;
izkIr ugha fd;k tk ldrk gS] muesa o`{kkjksi.k dk;ZozQe dks l?ku cuk;k tk,xk--- ^n
,izksp Vw n lsoaFk Iyku* ls m}`r] 1985) nwljs 'kCnksa essa] ;g y{; vHkh rd izkIr ugha
fd;k tk ldkA
orZeku esa Hkkjr oqQy o"kkZ dk nloka fgLlk gh mi;ksx djrk gS] cM+s {ks=ksa esa ty
lkj.kh ?kVh gS] mPp rduhd okyh ifj;kstuk,a tSls & ck¡/k] tyk’k; ,oa ugj O;oLFkk &
ftl ij ljdkj us vf/kd cy fn;k gS & Hkh i;kZIr flapkbZ ;k ck<+ ,oa lw[ks dh fLFkfr
tks fd Hkkjr esa xjhcksa dks gj lky izHkkfor djrh gS] ls fuiVus esa dkjxj lkfcr ugha
gqbZ gS vkSj blds QyLo:i fL=;ksa dh fLFkfr vkSj vf/kd n;uh; gqbZ gSA xzkeh.k fL=;ksa
dks b±/ku] pkjk vkSj ikuh dh [kkst esa vf/kd le; yxkdj T;knk nwj rd HkVduk
iM+rk gSA dbZ ckj rks 2 ls 8 fdyksehVj rd iSny pyuk iM+rk gS ftlls u dsoy mUgsa
etnwjh ds fy;s cfYd izfrfnu lkekU;r% 14&15 ?kaVs dke djuk iM+rk gSA ;gh fLFkfr
146
eqrqj[ke xk¡o] csMkfnzg Vksyk] CykWd pkoqQfy;k] iwohZ flagHkwe] >kj[kaM esa QhYMooZQ ds
nkSjku ns[kus dks feyk)
fjiksVZ ds bl Hkkx dks fy[kus dk mís’; >kj[kaM ds iwohZ flagHkwe ftyk ds pkoqQfy;k
CykWd essa vofLFkr eqrqj[ke ou esa eqrqj[ke xk¡o dh vkfnoklh efgykvksa }kjk ou
laj{k.k ds {ks= esa fd, x, vrqyuh; ;ksxnku dk lrr~ fodkl vkSj ikfjfLFkfrdh;
ukjhokn dh lS}kfUrd i`"BHkwfe esa leh{kkRed foospu djuk gSA izLrqr Hkkx essa tequk
VqM~Mw laFkkyh vkfnoklh }kjk xfBr ou laj{k.k lfefr ds xBu] bldh dk;Ziz.kkyh vkSj
blds }kjk fd, x, LFkkuh; ou laj{k.k ds iz;klksa ds lkFk&lkFk tequk VqM~Mw ds eqrqj[ke
xk¡o esa fd, x, tu dY;k.kdkjh dk;ks± dk Hkh foospu fd;k x;k gSA
lEiksf”kr fodkl ,oa i;kZoj.kh; ukjhokn dk lS}kafrd foospu
Theoretical Discussion of Sustainable Development and
Ecological Feminism
fodkl dh /kkj.kk dk ,d udkjkRed fcUnq ;g gS fd bldh rqyuk izk;% lao`f} ds
lkFk dh tkrh gSA lao`f} O;fDr ds fy;s le`f} ykrh gS vkSj bl le`f} esa vf/klajapuk]
ifjogu vkSj lapkj dks lqfuf’pr djrh gSA ijUrq ;g euq"; dh cgqvk;keh vko’;drkvksa
dh Hkh vuns[kh djrh gSA fodkl ,d cgqeq[kh vo/kkj.kk gS] ftldks lkaLd`frd :i ls
vuqdwy] lkekftd :i ls U;k;iw.kZ] i;kZojf.kd :i ls thou{ke rFkk jktuSfrd :i ls
lgHkkfxrkewyd gksuk vko’;d gSA izkjEHk esa fodkl dh vo/kkj.kk O;fDr vkSj i;kZoj.k
ds chp lEcU/kksa dk ijh{k.k ugha djrh Fkh tcfd okLrfodrk ;g gS fd euq"; dk
laca/k vusd phtksa ls gS vkSj ;s lHkh phtsa vUr% lEcfU/r gksrh gSaA
vHkh gky gh esa Hkkjrh; iz/kuea=kh eueksgu flag us xzhu us’kuy ,dkmfVax dh
vUrjkZ”Vªh; dk;Z’kkyk ds vk;kstu esa i;kZoj.k ds izfr xEHkhj fpUrk O;Dr djrs gq,
dgk fd &
^^gekjk vkfFkZd fodkl izkd`frd lalk/kuksa ds b"Vre optimal) mi;ksx ij vk/kkfjr gksuk
pkfg;s vkSj ,slk fodkl i;kZoj.kh; :i ls lEiksf"kr gksuk pkfg;sA pwafd gekjh vFkZO;oLFkk
us rhoz fodkl dh {kerk gkfly dj yh gS] ftldh otg ls dbZ ubZ pqukSfr;k¡ gekjs
lkeus gSa] tSls lhfer izkd`frd lalk/ku] ?kVrk ou bR;kfnA ,sls esa gesa ;g fu.kZ; ysuk
gksxk fd fdl izdkj ge lhfer lalk/kuksa dk b"Vre mi;ksx dj ldrs gSaA vUrjkZ"Vªh;
Lrj ij mitkm Hkwfe dh deh] c<+rk e:LFkyhdj.k] ?kVrk ou {ks=] LoPN ty dh
miyC/krk dk vHkko vkSj tSo fofo/rk dk vR;f/d dh otg ls i;kZoj.kh; ns[kus dks
fey jgk gSA blfy;s vkt fodkl dks lEiksf"kr fodkl ds vuq:i gksuk pkfg,A** ih-VhvkbZ-] vizSy 05] 2013)
1980 ds n’kd ds var rd lEiksf"kr fodkl dk fopkj izfl} ugha gqvk Fkk ijUrq
bl n’kd ds nkSjku ,sls vusd izek.k ns[kus dks feys ftlls oSf’od Lrj ij ekuoh;
fdz;kvksa dk i;kZoj.k ij udkjkRed izHkko iM+ jgk gS] ftlds QyLo:i oSf’od rki
dh leL;k vkt txtkfgj gSA
lEiksf"kr fodkl dk ,d vo/kkj.kk ds :i esa fodkl lcls igys 1987 esa czUVySaM
147
fjiksVZ ds izdk’ku ds lkFk gqvkA bl fjiksVZ essa dgk x;k gS fd fodkl gekjh vkt dh
t:jrksa dks iwjk djs] lkFk gh ;g vkxs vkus okyh ihf<+;ksa dh t:jrksa dks Hkh vuns[kk
u djrk gksA vk;ksx dk dguk gS fd] ^lEiksf"kr fodkl lkeatL; esa LFkkf;Ro ykuk
ugha gS] vfirq ;g ,d ifjorZu dh izfdz;k gS ftlesa lalk/kuksa dk nksgu] fuos’k dh
fn’kk] rduhdh fodkl dh fLFkfr rFkk laLFkkRed ifjorZuksa dks orZeku ds lkFk&lkFk
Hkkoh le; dh vko’;drkvksa ds Hkh vuqdwy cuk;k tk lds czUVySaM fjiksVZ] 1987)A ;g
vkfFkZd fodkl esa mUufr dh gksM+ ds izfr fo’o dks lpsr djrk gS] rkfd nh?kZdkyhu
fodkl rks gks ijUrq izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dh lekfIr ;k i;kZoj.k dks {kfr igq¡pk, fcukA
vxLr&flrEcj 2002 esa nf{k.k vizQhdk ds tksgkalcxZ esa lEiksf"kr fodkl ij
la;qDr jk"Vª lEesyu dk vk;kstu fd;k x;kA 1992 ds fj;ks fM ftusjks czkthy esa
vk;ksftr i`Foh lEesyu ds dze esa bls ^i`Foh f}rh;* Hkh dgk tkrk gSA bl lEesyu
dk eq[; fo"k; Fkk & i;kZoj.k lqj{kk ds lkFk fVdkm fodkl dks izkIr djukA lEesyu
esa rRdkyhu egklfpo dksQh vUuku }kjk lq>k, x, 5 {ks=ksa dks lEiksf"kr fodkl
ds eq[; fo"k; ds :i esa viukrs gq, O;kid :i ls fopkj foe’kZ fd;k x;kA dksQh
vUuku }kjk lq>k, x, ik¡p {ks=k bl izdkj gSa & ty Water) mtkZ Energy) LokLF;
Health) d`f"k Agriculture) rFkk tSo fofo/krk Bio-Diversity)A bu ik¡pksa {ks=ksa dks
WEHAB Hkh dgk tkrk gSA lEiksf"kr fodkl ds ekxZn’kZd fl}kUrksa esa fuEu rjhdksa ij
xkSj fd;k tkrk gS &
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
mRiknu ds {ks= esa ikfjfLFkfrdh fe=or izkS|ksfxdh Eco-Friendly TechnQue)
dks viuk;k tk,A
lexz thou pozQ izcU/u Hkwe.Myh; vk/kkj ij fd;k tk;s rkfd lalk/u laj{k.k
dks ,d izHkko’kkyh fn’kk nh tk ldsA
ifj;kstuk ewY;kadu dh izfdz;k esa ftu rhu ‘E’ ij fo’ks"k è;ku fn;k tk,]
os gSa & i;kZoj.kh; lqj{kk Environmental Protection)] ikfjfLFkfrdh; larqyu
Ecological Balance) o vkfFkZd n{krk Economic Efficiency)A
mRiknu dk fodsUnzhdj.k djds bu {ks=ksa esa tu Hkkxhnkjh c<+k;h tk,A
ikfjfLFkfrdh lk{kjrk Eco-Literacy) dks izHkko’kkyh oSf’od vkUnksyu dh rjg
pyk;k tk,] ftlls gj O;fDr ikfjfLFkfrdh ds laj{k.k esa lg;ksx djus yxsA
fo’o ds lHkh jk"Vªksa }kjk i;kZoj.k ds lEcU/k esa oSf’od laLFkkvksa] laf/k;ksa o
izksVksdkyksa dks iw.kZ ekU;rk nh tk, o mudk iw.kZ:is.k vuqikyu gksA
tgk¡ rd i;kZoj.k ukjhokn Eco-Feminism) dh vo/kj.kk dk iz’u gS rks ;g
vo/kkj.kk vkt i;kZoj.kokfn;ksa ds eè; cgqr iz[;kr gSA ;g vo/kj.kk ukjh
i;kZoj.kokfn;ksa }kjk izHkkfor gSA budk ekuuk gS fd vkt tsaMj ds bnZ&fxnZ tks jktuhfr
vkSj vlekurk gS og i;kZoj.k ls cgqr utnhdh ls tqM+h gqbZ gSA ukjh i;kZoj.koknh bl
ckr dh iM+rky djrs gSa fd fdl izdkj vkfFkZd izfdz;k] lkekftd O;ogkj vkSj jktuSfrd
lEcU/k tsaMj vk/kkfjr vlekurk dks c<+kok nsus esa lgk;d gSA
i;kZoj.k ukjhokn ;k ikfjfLFkfrdh; ukjhokn Eco-Feminism or Ecological
Feminism) 'kCnkoyh dk iz;ksx loZizFke 1974 esa izSaQdksbl Mh vkscku Francoise
148
us fd;kA bl n’kZu ds vuqlkj] fL=;ksa ds 'kks"k.k
dh lkekftd]ekufldrk lh/ks rkSj ij izd`fr ds 'kks"k.k dh
lkekftd ekufldrk ls tqM+h gqbZ gSA i;kZoj.k ukjhokfn;ksa }kjk
eq[; rdZ fn;k tkrk gS fd ,sfrgkfld :i ls Hkwfe ij Q#"kksa
ds vkf/kiR; us gh fir`lÙkk Patriarchy) dks tUe fn;k gS vkSj
vR;f/d pjkbZ overgrazing) yksxksa ds 'kks"k.k o Hkwfe ds vuSfrd
iz;ksx gsrq laLd`fr eq[; :i ls mÙkjnk;h gSA bu nksuksa dh otg
ls gh Hkwfe o thoksa dks ek=k vkfFkZd lk/ku ekuk tkrk gSA ,sls iÝsadksbl Mhvkscku
cgqr lkjs i;kZoj.k ukjhoknh gS ftudk ;g ekuuk gS fd i;kZoj.k us fL=;ksa ds fodkl
esa ;ksxnku fn;k gS vkSj blds lkFk ;g Hkh rdZ fn;k x;k gS fd L=h vkSj izd`fr
ds lEcU/kksa dks fir`lÙkk ds 'kks"k.kdkjh bfrgkl esa Hkh ns[kk tk ldrk gS D;ksafd ;s
nksuksa gh ukjhtkrh; gSaA iq#"k bu nksuksa dks fuEu ekurk gS rkfd os iq#"k dh HkkSfrd
vko’;drkvksa dh iwfrZ djrs jgsaA bl fl}kUr ds leFkZdksa esa oUnuk f’kok] chuk vxzoky
ds uke eq[; gSaA i;kZoj.k ukjhokfn;ksa dk ;g Hkh dguk gS fd tks fo’ks"krk,¡ ,d L=h
esa gksrh gS tSls lkgl] la;e o lgu’khyrk] d:.kk] eerk o ikyu ;g lHkh fo’ks"krk,¡
izd`fr esa Hkh n`f"Vxkspj gksrh gSaA bu ldkjkRed lEcU/kksa dks L=h vkSj izd`fr ds lEcU/
kksa esa <wa<k tk ldrk gSA
oUnuk f’kok 1989) dk ekuuk gS fd fL=;ksa dk izd`fr vFkok i;kZoj.k ds lkFk
,d xgjk lEcU/k gksrk gS ftls buds eè; jkstejkZ dh gksus okyh fdz;kvksa esa ns[kk tk
ldrk gSA la{ksi esa dgk tk ldrk gS fd tgk¡ lEiksf"kr fodkl izkd`frd lalk/kuksa ds
,sls b"Vre mi;ksx ds rjhdksa ij cy nsrk gS ftlls izkd`frd lalk/kuksa dk iz;ksx vkus
okyh Hkkoh ihf<+;k¡ Hkh dj lds vkSj LoPN i;kZoj.k mUgsa Hkh fn;k tk ldsA ogha nwljh
vksj i;kZoj.k ukjhokn i;kZoj.k laj{k.k esa fL=;ksa dh Hkwfedk dks eq[; ekurs gq, nksuksa
ds eè; dqN lekurkvksa dks ns[krs gSaA fjiksVZ ds izLrqr Hkkx esa bu nksuksa lS}kafrd
vo/kj.kkvksa dh i`"BHkwfe esa tequk VqM~Mw ds i;kZoj.k laj{k.k ds iz;klksa dh leh{kkRed
foospuk dh xbZ gS D;ksafd vc rd fdlh Hkh fo’ofo|ky; esa i;kZoj.k laj{k.k esa
vkfnoklh efgykvksa ds ;ksxnku ij dksbZ 'kks/k ugha fd;k x;k gSA
bl vUos"k.k izkstsDV ^^vkfnoklh efgykvksa }kjk ou laj{k.k% tequk VqM~Mw ds iz;klksa ds
fo’ks"k lanHkZ esa**] esa vkfnoklh efgykvksa laFkkyh vkfnoklh% >kj[kaM) }kjk ou laj{k.k
ds {ks= esa fn, muds vnE; lkgl o vFkd iz;klksa dh leh{kkRed foospuk dh xbZ gSA
blds lkFk gh vU; i;kZoj.kh; vkUnksyuksa esa efgykvksa dh Hkwfedk dks Hkh è;ku esa j[kk
x;k gSA bl fjiksVZ gsrq >kj[kaM jkT; ds iwohZ flagHkwe ftys ds pkdqfy;k CykWd ds csM+kMhg
Vksyk pkoqQfy;k CykWd esa ik¡p Vksys vkrs gSa ftlesa xuSMh] tksthMh] xqfM;kMh] eqrqjMh
eqrqj[ke xk¡o ds csM+kMhg Vksyk vU; pkj Vksys & xquSM+h] tksthM+h] xqfM+;kMh] eqrjkM+h) dks
vè;;u {ks= ds :i esa fy;k x;k gSA ;gk¡ ij laFkkyh vkfnoklh efgyk tequk VqM~Mw
}kjk eqrqj[ke ou dh lqj{kk gsrq LFkkfir ou laj{k.k lfefr dh dk;Zokfg;ksa dk i;kZoj.
kh; ukjhokn ds lanHkZ esa leh{kkRed vè;;u fd;k x;k gSA
eqrqj[ke ou >kj[kaM esa jk¡ph gokbZ vM~Ms ls yxHkx 250 fdeh- mÙkj iwoZ fn’kk essa
if’peh caxky o mM+hlk dh lhek ij vofLFkr 23]60]500 gsDVs;j dk le`} ou {ks=
d’ Eaubonne)
149
gSA ;g ou 12 o"kZ igys rd ydM+h
ekfQ;kvksa dk lcls O;Lr dk;Z{ks=
gqvk djrk FkkA ;gk¡ ds gkykr jkT;
ds nwljs {ks=ksa ls vyx ugha Fks]
ftldk 50 Qhlnh {ks=k fiNys 11
o"kks± esa voS/ dVkbZ dh HksaV p<+ pqdk
FkkA gekjs igys QhYM losZ ds nkSjku
twu] 2012 esa ?kkVf’kyk ls] jk¡ph ls
yxHkx 200 fdeh mÙkj&iwoZ dh vksj
vkxs lHkh Mªkbojksa us tkus ls euk
dj fn;k ftldk dkj.k bl {ks=
dk uDly izHkkfor gksuk gS ijUrq
lkSHkkX;o’k gesa eqrqj[ke xk¡o rd
igq¡pus esa lQyrk izkIr gqbZA
lu~ 1999 esa eqrqj[ke ds taxy ekfQ;kvksa
dh eqykdkr 32 o"khZ; laFkkyh vkfnoklh efgyk
tequk VqM~Mw tks LFkkuh; Lrj ij ysMh VktZu ds
uke ls fo[;kr gS) ls gqbZA tequk VqM~Mw laFkkyh
tutkfr dh ,d NksVs dn dh etcwr efgyk gS]
ftlus fliZQ 8oha d{kk rd i<+kbZ dh gSA tequk
us vkt ls 19 o"kZ igys lu~ 1994 esa ^ou laj{k.k
lfefr* dk xBu fd;k vkSj ou foHkkx ls 2003 essa
bldks iathd`r Hkh djok;kA izkjEHk esa blesa efgyk
lnL;ksa dh la[;k 25 Fkh tks vkt c<+dj yxHkx
70 lnL; gks xbZ gS ftlesa lcls NksVh 13 o"khZ;
laFkkyh vkfnoklh Tkequk VqMw
cgke;h VqM~Mw gS vkSj lcls cqtqxZ ekyrh VqM~Mw 70
o"kZ) gSA lfefr dh efgyk,a fiNys 11 o"kks± ls rhu lewgksa esa eqrqj[ke ds taxy esa
x’r yxkrh gSa ftlesa oqQN Q#"k lnL; Hkh budks lg;ksx nsrs gSaA budh lfefr ds
yksx xSj&dkuwuh rjhds ls ydM+h dh dVkbZ djus okyksa dks ou foHkkx dks lkSai nsrs gSaA
fdlh le; iwohZ flagHkwe ftys ds
50 gsDVs;j esa QSys taxyksa dks ou
ekfQ;kvksa us catj cuk fn;k FkkA
vc ;gk¡ 3 yk[k ls T;knk isM+ gSa
ftlesa fo’ks"k :i ls lky] osaQnw]
ccwy ds isM+ yxs gSa] tcfd 11 o"kZ
igys nks isM+ksa ds chp 24&25 QhV
dk Qklyk gqvk djrk Fkk losZ }
kjk ,df=kr vkadM+k)A tequk dh
bl ikfjfLFkfrdh; ukjhoknh igy
Oku laj{k.k lfefr dh vkfnoklh efgyk,W¡
150
dk gh ;g urhtk gS fd vc ;gk¡ dbZ taxyh tkuojksa tSls taxyh lqvj] [kjxks’k] vtxj]
lk¡iksa vkSj gkfFk;ksa us bls viuk ?kj cuk fy;k gSA oSls eqrqj[ke ou esa vk;k ifjorZu
i;kZoj.kh; vFkZ’kkL=k ls Hkh izsfjr Fkk D;ksafd bl {ks=k dh tequk o vU; efgykvksa ds
ikl i;kZIr tykou Hkh ugha Fkk] xfeZ;ksa ds fnuksa esa dgha o`{kksa dh Nk;k rd ugha gksrh
Fkh o tkuojksa ds fy, pkjs dh i;kZIr miyC/krk dk vHkko FkkA 15 fdyksehVj ds nk;js
essa Hkwfexr ty Lrj fxjrk tk jgk FkkA ftlds ifj.kkeLo:i vkfnoklh efgykvksa dh
fLFkfr vkSj vf/kd eqf’dy gksrh tk jgh Fkh D;ksafd tykou ydM+h o i’kqvksa ds fy;s
pkjs gsrq cgqr nwj rd tkuk gksrk Fkk ftlds QyLo:i bUgsa izfrfnu 15&16 ?kaVs ?kj ds
voS/kkfud dk;ks± dks nsuk gksrk FkkA
ukjhoknh vFkZ’kkL=kh vkSj lkekftd foKku
fo’ks"kK nsodh tSu bafLVV~;wV vkWQ lks’ky
LVMhVªLV) vkSj ohuk etwenkj lsaVj QkWj foesu
MsoyiesaV LVMhk) bR;kfn us efgykvksa ds
voSrfud dke dks dke u ekuus dk eqík
mBk;kA mUgksaus roZQ fn;k gS fd ,slh ifjHkk"kk
vi;kZIr gS ftlesa voSrfud dke dks dke Okhuk etwenkj
nsodh tSu
u ekuk tk,A ?kj dk dke vkSj cPpksa dh
ijofj’k lekt ds fy;s vko’;d dke gksrs gq, Hkh budk dksbZ vkfFkZd ewY;kadu ugha
fd;k x;k gSA blds dkj.k efgykvksa] [kkldj xzgf.k;ksa dh fLFkfr detksj iM+rh tkrh
gS vkSj ;gh lcoqQN bu vkfnoklh efgykvksa ds lkFk Hkh gqvkA
vkfnoklh cgqy csM+kMhg Vksyk] vktknh ds 65
lky ckn vkSj >kj[kaM jkT; xBu ds 11 lky
ckn Hkh is;ty dh leL;k ls xzLr FkkA pkikuy
gS.M iEi) dh ckr rks nwj xk¡o esa ,d oqaQvk rd
ugha FkkA vc rd ;gk¡ ds vkfnoklh flanjk [kky
esa ,df=r tyk’k; ds utnhd feV~Vh [kksndj
xM~<k cukuk vkSj fQj tyk’k; ls fjl dj vk;s
ty dks ihus gsrq mi;ksx esa ykuk) dk ikuh ihus
dks etcwj FksA xk¡o rd tkus ds fy;s lM+d ugha
Fkh vkSj u gh vkt rd dksbZ vLirky cuk gSA
eqrqj[ke xkao esa LowQy ds lkFk&lkFk fctyh dh
O;oLFkk Hkh ugha FkhA bl i`"BHkwfe esa ;g fdlh
ds fy;s Hkh vuqeku yxkuk vlEHko ugha gksxk fd
flanjk [kky
fdruh d"Vdkjh ifjfLFkfr;ksa essa bUgksaus vc rd
dk le; fudkyk gksxk\ nwf"kr is;ty dk bu vkfnokfl;ksa ds LokLF; ij fdruk cqjk
vlj jgk gksxk\ bu vk/kjHkwr vko’;drkvksa ds vHkko esa LoPN is;ty] LokLF; lqfo/kvksa
dk vHkko] izkFkfed f’k{kk dk vHkko] lM+d dk vHkko bR;kfn) vkfnoklh efgykvksa dk
thou fdruk d"Vdkjh jgk gksxkA vkjEHk esa tequk ifjokj ds Hkj.k&iks"k.k gsrq iRFkj
rjk’kdj ewfrZ cukus dk dke fd;k djrh FkhA gkykafd 2 o"kZ igys bUgksaus ?kj esa gcZy
151
C;wVh ikyZj dk dke 'kq: dj fn;k gS ftlls izfrfnu 50 ls 60 #i;s rd dh vk;
budks gksrh gSA
eqrqj[ke esa izfrfnu lqcg ds N% cts ou laj{k.k lfefr dh T;knkrj efgyk,a] tequk
ds ?kj ds ckgj vius&vius ikjaifjd gfFk;kjksa ds lkFk ,df=kr gksdj rhu lewgksa esa rhu
fHkUu&fHkUu fn’kkvksa ls ou esa x’r ds fy, izos’k djrh gSaA tequk dk dguk gS fd &
^^vkt ;fn dksbZ Hkh isM+ dkVrs idM+k tkrk gS rks ml ij 501 #i;s dk tqekZuk yxkdj
ou foHkkx ds gokys dj fn;k tkrk gS vkSj ;g jde lfefr ds dks"k esa tek dj nh
tkrh gS vkSj bldk bLrseky laxBu dh csgrjh ds fy;s fd;k tkrk gSA**
ydM+h dh voS/k dVkbZ djus okys
ekfQ;k ls tw>us ds fy;s cqtqxZ
efgyk,a rjkbZ okys {ks=k esa oqQÙkksa ds
lkFk fuxjkuh djrh gSaA VqM~Mw dh bl
eqfge esa tqM+us okyh efgyk,a dgrh
gSa fd bl dke ls mudh [ksrh ;k
?kjsyw ftEesnkfj;ksa ij dksbZ izHkko ugha
iM+rk gSA xk¡o ds eqf[k;k jkes’oj VqM~Mw
dk dguk gS fd ^^iwjk xk¡o tequk dh
lky dh ifRr;ksa ls IysV cukrh vkfnoklh efgyk,¡
lfefr dk dtZnkj gks x;k gSA** vkt
ou foHkkx us eqrqj[ke dks vkn’kZ xk¡o jsatj ,-ds- flag ds dk;Zdky esa) ds :i esa
xksn ys fy;k FkkA vHkh T;knk le; ugha chrk tc dsjy ds ikoqQM+ ftys esa tutkrh;
vf/kdkjksa ds fy;s vkokt mBkus okyh flLVj okylk tkWu dks oqQYgkM+h ls ekj fn;k x;k
FkkA blds ckotwn tequk fuMj gksdj taxy esa vU; efgykvksa ds lkFk x’r yxkrh
vk jgh gSA ftu efgykvksa ds ikl dqN o"kZ igys xqtj&clj djus dk dksbZ tfj;k ugha
Fkk] vc os Hkh gkFk ls pyus okyh e’khu dh enn ls lky dh ifÙk;ksa dh IysV cukdj
lkykuk 15 ls 18 gtkj dek ysrh gSA >kj[k.M jkT; ljdkj tequk dh vxqokbZ okyh
bl lfefr ds iz;klksa dks udn iqjLdkj ds tfj;s >kj[k.M LFkkiuk fnol ds volj
ij lEekfur dj pqdh gSAblds lkFk gh fgUnqLrku VkbEl xzqIl dh rjQ ls losZ{k.k ds
i’pkr~ jk"Vªh; Lrj ij ns’k esa fn, x, vius vrqyuh; ;ksxnku gsrq tequk VqM~Mw dks ns’k
dh 25 vlk/kj.k gfLr;ksa esa 'kkfey djrs gq, rRdkyhu
i;kZoj.k ea=kh t;jke jes’k ds gkFkksa QjLo`Qr fd;k x;kA
bu 25 vlk/kj.k gfLr;ksa esa izFke ik¡p vlk/kj.k gfLr;ksa
esa Hkh bUgsa 'kkfey djrs gq, QjLo`Qr fd;k x;kA vHkh
gky gh esa fQfyi] xzsQhYM dEiuh eksnh xzqi }kjk Hkh
bUgsa 2012 ds ^^lkekftd cgknqjh iqjLdkj** Social Bravery
Award) ls Hkh uoktk x;kA
tequk dks izkIr ^^fgUnqLrku
VkbEl xzIq l vokMZ**
152
tequk }kjk lEiksf"kr i;kZoj.kh; ukjhoknh iz;kl
Sustainable Eco-Feminist Efforts by Jamuna Tuddu)
1-
lEiksf"kr fodkl izd`fr ds lkFk ekuo dk
lg;ksx] lgp;Z Symbiosis) mlds izfr J}
k o lEeku dh Hkkouk ij vk/kfjr gSA bl
Hkkouk dh igpku eqrqj[ke xk¡o dh vkfnoklh
efgykvksa ds ioZ o R;kSgkjksa xkseg ioZ] tkurkM
ioZ] lksgjk; ioZ o ldjkr ioZ)] buds izd`fr
/eZ ljuk&vkfnokfl;ksa dk viuk /eZ ^ljuk*
gS tks izd`fr dk /eZ gSA os isM+ksa vkSj vius
iwoZtksa dh iwtk djrk gSA budk cksaxk nsorkº
budk fe=k gS] tks vkdk’k esa ugha fopjrk
cfYd bldh tM+sa /jrh esa gSaA budk izÑfr ds tequk dh vxqvkbZ esa isM+ksa dks jk[kh
lkFk lgp;Z bruk T;knk gS fd buds VksVe
ck¡a/rh vkfnoklh efgyk,W¡
xks=k) isM+] ikS/ksa ;k thoksa ds uke ij gksrs gSaA
vkfnoklh Lo;a dks fgUnw] eqlyeku ;k bZlkbZ dgdj viuk ifjp; ugha nsrk cfYd
^rqe dkSu gks* iwNs tkus ij og dgsxk & ^^eSa vkfnoklh gw¡A**
ftl izdkj vkt ns’k ds ouksa ds vfLrRo dks [krjk gS Bhd mlh izdkj budk vfLrRo
Hkh ladV esa gSA ^vkfnoklh* dh igpku vkSj uke Nhudj mls ^ouoklh* ?kksf"kr fd;k
tk jgk gS rkfd og Hkwy tk, fd og bl ns’k dk ewy fuoklh ;kuh vkfnoklh
gSA vkfnokfl;ksa dks Hkkjr ljdkj us ewy fuoklh ds :i esa Lohdkj ugha fd;k
gS D;ksafd ;fn ljdkj bUgsa ewy fuoklh Lohdkj djrh gS rks varjkZ"Vªh; izko/kkuksa
ds vuqlkj bUgsa oqQN fof’k"V vf/kdkj ftuesa vkRefu.kZ; dk vf/kdkj Hkh
lfEefyr gS] bUgsa iznku djuk iM+sxkA izd`fr ds iwtk LFky dks eqrqj[ke xk¡o esa
tkgsj Fkku dgk tkrk gS tgk¡ lHkh xzkeh.k yksx izd`fr iwtk djrs gSaA ;g o`{kksa ds
izfr budk vxk/k izse gh gS fd ;s lHkh efgyk,¡ j{kk cU/ku ds R;kSgkj esa o`{kksa
dks jk[kh ck¡/rs gq, mudh j{kk dh ftEesokjh
Lo;a ij ysrh gSaA
2- lEiksf"kr fodkl ij la;qDr jk”Vª lEesyu
2002) essa blds ik¡p eq[; fo"k;ksa ij O;kid
fopkj&foe’kZ gqvk ;s {ks=k Fks & ty] mQtkZ]
LokLF;] d`f"k vkSj tSo fofo/rkA bu fo"k;ksa dks
WEHAB Water, Energy, Health, Agriculture
and Bio-Diversity) dgk tkrk gSA bl
varjkZ"Vªh; lEesyu o blds fo"k;ksa ds vufHkK
tequk us xk¡o esa is;ty dh lqfo/kk gsrq ikuh
dh Vadh gsrq viuh iSr`d lEifÙk dk nku
fd;k vkSj Vadh dk fuekZ.k dj ?kj&?kj ikuh
dh vkiwfrZ dhA igys lHkh xzkeh.k vkfnoklh
153
eqrqj[ke xk¡ao esa fufeZr ikuh dh
Vadh
flanjk [kky dk LoPN ty ihus dks etcwj FksA ckn essa tequk ds iz;klksa vkSj xzkeh.k
vkfnokfl;ksa ds Jenku ls ;gk¡ dq,¡ dk fuekZ.k lEHko gks ik;kA
3- lEiksf"kr fodkl dh ifj;kstuk ewY;kadu
esa ftu rhu ‘E’ Environment Protection,
Ecological
Efficiency)
Balance
and
Economic
ij tksj fn;k tkuk pkfg;s bu
rhuksa mís’;ksa dk fozQ;kUo;u gesa ou laj{k.k
lfefr dh eqrqj[ke) j.kuhfr;ksa esa ns[kus
dks feykA i;kZoj.k laj{k.k ds {ks=k esa bUgksaus
dHkh catj cu pqds 23]60]500 gsDVs;j ds {ks=k
dks o`{kksa ls gjk&Hkjk dj vkt Hkh lrr~ :i
ls budh ydM+h ekfQ;kvksa ls j{kk dj jgh eqrqj[ke xk¡ao esa is;ty gsrq dqvkW¡
gSA o`{kkjksi.k ls bl {ks=k dk ikfjfLFkfrdh;
lUrqyu rks lq/kjk gh gS lkFk gh ouksa dh l?kurk ls LoPN ok;q] e`nk vijnuSoil
Erosion)] ty lap;u Water Harvesting)] gsrq rkykcksa ds fuekZ.k ls Hkwfexr ty
esa o`f} bR;kfn dk Hkh fodkl gqvk gSA
LoPN is;ty dh miyC/krk] dq,¡ dk fuekZ.k] xk¡o esa lM+dksa ds fuekZ.k] izko`Qfrd
lalk/uksa dh izpqjrk lks budh vkfFkZd n{krk dk Hkh fodkl gqvk gSA vkt vkfnoklh
efgykvksa dks bu lHkh vk/kjHkwr vko’;drkvksa ds fy;s 4 ls 6 fd-eh- ugha tkuk
iM+rkA MkD;wesaVªh esa ;g lc n’kkZ;k x;k gS)
4- lEiksf"kr fodkl esa orZeku ih<+h viuh vko’;drkvksa dh iwfrZ vkus okyh
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bu vkfnoklh efgykvksa ds ou laj{k.k ds iz;klksa] LoPN ty dh miyC/krk]
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viuh iSr`d lEifÙk nku esa nh vkSj bl
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lgHkkfxrk Q#"kksa ls cgqr vf/kd gSA bl rF; dks fuEu rkfydk ls igpkuk tk
ldrk gS&
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ukjh vkSj izd`fr
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ukjhokn ls cuh oks LokfHkekuh] ckr ugha ekuh gS ;s QjkuhA
vkvks lquk, >kj[k.M dh dgkuhA
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dkVs taxy vkSj ckxku] catj gq, >kj[k.M m|kuA izd`fr ij ;g dSlk dgj <k;k]
thou vius gkFkksa ls viuk ujd cuk;kA
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tu&tu dk gqvk dY;k.k] >kj[k.M fQj ls cuk m|kuA
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nsj gks xbZ vc vxj rks ;g lc gedks lguk gksxkA
LoLFk O;fDr dh /kkj.kk dks LoIu cudj gh jguk gksxkA
ns[kks&ns[kks >kj[k.M dh tequk VqMw dks ns[kksA
blus eqrqj[ke dks cpk;k] ydM+h ekfQ;kvksa ls cpk;kA
blus o`{kksa dks yxk;k] >kj[k.M dks LoPN cuk;kA
f’kokuh
fiz;adk
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blesa dHkh ihNs ugha jghA jksgrklx<+ essa rhu ckj rqdZ lsuk ij geyk gqvk Fkk ftlesa
rhuksa ckj ^fluxh nbZ* vkSj ^dbyh nbZ* ds usr`Ro esa vkSjrksa us eqdkcyk djds mUgsa iNkM+kA
laFkky fonzksg esa fl/kq&dkUgq vkSj pkan HkSjo dh nks cguksa ^iwQyks* vkSj ^/kuks* us vaxzstksa ls
eqdkcyk fd;k vkSj vaxzstksa ds bDdhl flikfg;ksa dks ekSr ds ?kkV mrkj MkykA >kj[k.M
dh ^nsoeuh* mQZ ^ca/kuh*] ^ekdh* vkSjrsa Hkh cfynku dk izrhd gSaA buds vykok pEih]
ukxh] lkyh] fFkXxh] ysEcq] edh os vkfnoklh efgyk,a gSa ftUgksaus vkfnoklh fonzksgksa esa
egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkbZA
okLro esa lEiksf"kr fodkl vkSj i;kZoj.kh; ukjhokn dh T;knkrj ekU;rkvksa dk
vuqdj.k gesa tequk }kjk funsZf’kr o xfBr ou laj{k.k lfefr dh O;kogkfjd dk;Ziz.
kkfy;ksa esa ns[kus dks feyrk gSA pwafd fodkl dh eq[; /kjk ls nwj fcuk fdlh ljdkjh
lgk;rk ds bu lHkh vkfnoklh efgykvksa ds iz;kl ljkguh; gSa vkSj tc rd LFkkuh;
leqnk;ksa dks ou laj{k.k gsrq izsj.kk] izksRlkgu vkSj igpku ugha feysxh rc rd ou laj{k.k
ds {ks=k esa O;kid lQyrk izkIr ugha gks ldsxhA laiksf"kr fodkl vkSj ikfjfLFkfrdh;
ukjhokn ds lS}kfUrd Kku ls vufHkK bu vkfnoklh efgykvksa ds Lo&izsfjr iz;kl
iz’kaluh; gSa vkSj i;kZoj.k laj{k.k vrqyuh; gSA
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160
SHYAMA PRASAD MUKHERJEE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
An Exploratory Study of Environmental
Awareness and Consumer Behaviour towards
Eco- Friendly Household Products
project title:
project code:
SPM -102
Our slogan
The above slogan is designed by our project team. It is an original design.
1. Objective
• To examine consumer’s environmental awareness and behavioral practices
on environmental issues.
• To develop the theoretical understanding towards eco friendly household
consumer goods in the reduction of adverse environmental impact vis a vis
non eco friendly products in the same category.
• To deliver insights into the factors such as environmental concerns, age,
education, gender and level of income that shape consumption of eco
friendly products.
2. Final Findings
There has been unprecedented number of eco friendly products available in
the market. In the survey it has been found out that people are aware of most
of the environmental issues facing mankind like problem of drinking water,
proper sanitation and garbage disposal, air pollution, etc. Most of them are
concerned with the adverse effect of the harmful chemicals used in many
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household consumer goods on their health. They are also concerned with
the protection of their environment but their participation in the form of
use of eco-friendly household products is very less. Some of them were not
even aware of these earth and health friendly products such as organic food,
biodegradable soaps and detergents, wall paints, energy efficient design of the
buildings etc. Even if they had faint knowledge of these, biggest hurdle was
their availability and cost. They were of the opinion that why these products
are not advertised like other products? Respondents from the high and
middle income groups were more than happy to use some of the eco friendly
products but they needed assurance of quality, as any other brand would give
them. Many of them showed keen interest in knowing more about the health
and environmental impacts of the products they are presently using. Research
project also reveals that people want to separate garbage, reduce electricity
consumption and water wastage, use organic foods and products, and use
non chemical paints among many from our questionnaire. Most of them are
ready to bring a change in themselves.
The project team strongly feels that more awareness has to be spread
amongst the people. The manufacturers of eco friendly products should try
to gain the trust of the public by giving them the assurance of the quality of
these products. There are few to no regulations on disclosing ingredients in
conventional cleaning and cosmetics.
3. Learning for Students
It gives us immense pleasure to share that this project has helped the
students to grow, advance and update themselves. This project has given
them the platform by which they can make a difference in the society.
Very enthusiastically they took part in many activities related to the project
such as household surveying; attending seminars, conferences, work shops;
designing original slogan, poster and brochure; preparing for Nukkad Natak
and exhibition; making presentations and a film etc. All these activities have
polished them and made them more knowledgeable. With this experience
they will surely make a difference in the society.
4. Benefits to College
Direct benefit to the college is that their ten students and three faculty
members got the privilege to undertake this project. What ever they have
learned will surely be distributed to others. One candle can lit many more.
Also, project team has given the following proposal to the college principal.
• Segregation, management of the waste and composting it.
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• Install solar panels on the roof of administrative block. Govt. gives
subsidies.
• To make a garden of hope- organic farm at any small piece of land in the
SPM campus. Navdanya has offered help.
• To plant bamboos in clusters. Govt gives subsidy.
• To make bamboo gazebos (sitting places) at few selected places such as
outside the canteen for students.
• Switch over to CFL/ LED bulbs as and when new bulbs are required
5. Benefits to Society
The findings of the project may be of great help in building an eco and
health friendly consumer movement in India. The outcome may directly
or indirectly help in policy making and to the manufacturers. The project
has great significance at this crucial juncture when the entire human kind is
under severe pressure to save environment for survival of future generation.
Through our survey, Nukkad Natak and exhibition at antardhwani cultural
festival of university of Delhi we could make many people aware of these
simple eco- friendly practices. It is a matter of habit than anything else.
One can begin with just one product once a month adding another the next
month. Gradually people will realize their benefits not only on the health but
also on their surroundings.
6. Further Plans
As we had opportunity to network with many organizations both from
Government sector as well as from alternate agencies, we have found many
interesting practices that can be taken up at Delhi University campus to make
it environment friendly. Some of these practices are:
• To make an Eco - haat. Products displayed / sold may be the result of the
interconnections between the industry and the university students, who
wish to work in this direction. It may be integrated in their curriculum.
In this whole process new earth friendly ideas will be generated. It will be
a swadeshi self- reliant production centre.
• To make a garden of hope- organic farm at any small piece of land in the
campus. This will bring our students close to the earth and their food.
Navdanya , the organic pioneers run by Dr. Vandana Shiva has offered us
the help to make an organic farm.
• Segregation and management of the waste and composting it. A lot of
organic waste is generated by the college canteens. If this waste is managed,
the output may be used in the organic farm mentioned in point no. 2.
• To plant bamboo clusters. Bamboo is amazingly versatile, makingit one
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of the most renewable sources on the planet. Since it is a grass it can grow
in most climates and environments without chemicals or pesticides, and
it produces 35% more oxygen than hardwood trees. Bamboo’s tensile
strength or the measurement of a material’s ability to handle stress is very
high.
• Above all, we propose that a school / institute for sustainable Living may be
opened by the University of Delhi, offering opportunities to explore and
practice the art and science of sustainability based on ecological principles.
We as project team found a significant opportunity to make university of
Delhi a model campus for the entire university community by integrating
some of these best practices.
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SHAHEED RAJGURU COLLEGE OF APPLIED SCIENCES
FOR WOMEN
project title:
project code:
An
assessment of consumer’s exposure to
pesticides in conventional vegetables and
vegetables sold with the ‘Organic’ tag in
Delhi-NCR region, India
SRCA – 101
1. Objective:
• To find out the pesticides used for vegetables currently and frequency of
their use on vegetables grown in Delhi and NCR region.
• To know about the awareness level of farmers regarding pesticides and
their use.
• To compare the residue levels of pesticides on vegetables (like okra,
eggplant, tomato and cauliflower) collected from organic farms, plains
along Yamuna banks and farms away from Yamuna.
• To help in developing a regional exposure database and in facilitating
assessment of health risks from pesticide exposure in our day to day lives.
2. Final Findings
• Based on the survey it was found that farmers across Delhi-NCR region are
using chemical herbicides, fungicides and insecticides like cypermethrin,
profenos, endosulfan, butachlor etc. In fact they are well aware of their
Collection, Extraction and Analysis of pesticide residue in vegetables across Delhi-NCR
165
•
•
•
•
usage, frequency and the adverse effects caused by these chemicals to
health. However, the farmers still feel that government support is lacking
in providing the awareness, education and related inputs for farming.
Usage of organic vegetables across Delhi-NCR region is not very popular.
Even the availability of organic vegetables which comply by the government
norms are in dearth.
Another interesting finding is that the standardized conventional method
for extraction of residual pesticide is at par with the commercial method
of QuEChERS. But the conventional method requires more time for
extraction.
Analysis of pesticide residue using either GC-ECD or GC-MS, revealed the
same results. In both the cases it has been found that no significant residues
of the targeted pesticides were present. Thus, it can be established, based
on the analysis, that the organic vegetables are not superior to conventional
vegetables with respect to the presence of residual pesticides. However,
the presence of more number of peaks in conventional vegetables than in
organic vegetables indicates the presence of other unfocussed chemicals.
In nutshell, it could be concluded with a happy note that the consumers
in Delhi and NCR region are safe with the consumption of all types of
vegetables against the residual harmful pesticides as confirmed by the
scientific evidences provided by the study.
3. Learning for Students
The project was a substantial learning experience for the students involved
as it helped them understand the aesthetics of an investigatory project and
imbibe its principles. It was an academic breakthrough for an undergraduate
level program which broadened their horizon and assisted them in taking
a leap towards the realistic dimension of studies/education. The project
has been a magnificent way of understanding and analyzing the intricate
involvement of pesticides in the food system and the environment. Besides, it
has paved the way for students towards understanding the standard method
of conducting analysis for estimation of pesticide residues in vegetables (food)
and subsequently, gaining a practical experience of working on experiments
with precision and enhancing laboratory skills, obtaining meaningful results.
To a larger extent, hands-on experience of using modern instruments like
Gas Chromatograph was a major erudition for students. The project has not
only instilled confidence in students but also helped in developing research
aptitude, art of field work, interaction/survey skills, interpretation of results
and presentation skills and majorly of all, writing the report of a project.
Amalgamation of all this learning further opens up opportunities for students
to work on other investigatory/research projects during their higher studies.
166
4. Benefits to College
With the grants received from the university, the college is now well-equipped
with technology and infrastructure to estimate pesticide residues. The method
standardized during the project tenure can now be used readily for further
research work. In simulation to the project, the method standardized can
be used to analyze other food products and other samples in collaboration
with other departments like food technology and chemistry. The college has
been profusely delighted to conduct the project as it helped its students to
go beyond the framed curriculum and contribute a little to the concern of
pesticide consumption in food.
5. Benefits to Society
With the conclusion of the project and the interpretation of the results, it
comes to society’s relief that the vegetables grown along the Yamuna banks
have been found to contain no significant levels of residual pesticides and
thus, they are safe for consumption. Also, it confutes the misconception that
the farmers are unaware of the pesticides they are using that is likely to affect
the consumers adversely. People residing in Delhi-NCR can now step out
of the myth that the vegetables they consume contain residues of pesticides
because the farmers here are using the pesticides within maximum residual
limit (MRL), owing to their awareness and concern.
6. Further Plans
Further plans include:
• Covering greater area for sample collection and targeting more number of
pesticides in detection so as to give more diversified and substantial results.
• Expanding the project work to include other sophisticated analytical
techniques like GC – MS.
• The awareness level of farmers dwelling away from Delhi – NCR can also
be accessed through this scheme and can be enhanced through training in
college.
• Most importantly, with the standardization of the method and availability
of infrastructure, the college can be treated as centre for analysis of pesticide
residues in local fruits and vegetables as the college is in close proximity to
the rural areas of Uttar Pradesh.
167
S.G.T.B. KHALSA COLLEGE
Fluorescent Powder Compositions for
Developing Latent Fingerprints
project title:
project code:
SGTB-103
Objective
To prepare fluorescent powder compositions for detecting fingerprints which:
(a) are non-toxic and cost-effective.
(b) can develop weak, chance orfragmented fingerprints.
(c) can develop fingerprints on both absorbent and non-absorbent surfaces.
(d) can develop persistent fingerprints on unusual and difficult surfaces.
(e) can develop fresh, as well as old fingerprints.
Final Findings
During the course of the innovation project, we prepared a multi-purpose
fingerprint detecting composition which was not surface-specific, and could
therefore be used on a broad spectrum of articles most commonly found at
crime scenes.
The composition had a wide range of applications. It could detect
fingerprints on a range of items, both absorbent (paper, wood, etc.) and nonabsorbent (glass, plastic, etc.); white and multicoloured; smooth and rough.
Image 1. Picture of a fingerprint developed on a knife after keeping it immersed
in drain water for 12 hours
168
The composition was also able to detect fingerprints on crime scene evidence
that had been accidently or deliberately wetted.
Alternately a suspect may commit a crime and thereafter throw the weapon
in an aquatic body such as ariver or a stream. Thecomposition worked on
such items as well, provided they were recovered within a span of 12 hours.
The students also considered the possibility of the criminal wanting to
recover his weapon after the hue and cry of the crime hadsubsided. In that
case, he may bury the weapon in soil the rather than throwing it in a river.
If the weapon wasrecovered by the police within 12 hours after the crime
has been committed, the new composition could successfully develop good
quality fingerprints on the evidence even if it had been buried in soil.
There was yet another way by which a suspect may despoil the crime
scene—by setting it on fire. High temperature and deposition of soot is
known to interfere with detection of fingerprints. Initially it proved difficult
for the project teamto carry out this type of experiment because it wasnot
permissible to light a fire in College premises. However, theyovercame this
problem by creating a mock arson site. Theyplaced the evidence (floor tiles
or utensils) in an oven (common equipment in chemistry labs), adjusted the
temperature to about 250 degree Celsius (normally encountered at arson
sites) and placed a few newspapers in the oven to generate soot. The novel
composition developed excellent quality fingerprints.
There are several methods for detecting fingerprints on compact disks
(CDs). However, in most of these methods the data stored in the CD cannot
be retrieved after the prints have been developed. The new composition
created by the students could be used to detect fingerprints on CDs without
destroying the stored data. In case of rewritable CDs, more files could also be
added after detection of fingerprints.
The composition wasindigenous, non-toxic and cost-effective. It was
fluorescent in nature and hence could even detect weak or faint fingerprints
that are commonly found at crime sites.
Learning for Students
The students enrolled in the innovation projectacquired hands-on experience
in research methodology. From the hypothesis and literature survey to
experimentation and quality assessment, they learnt how an idea may be
translated into technology. The teamwas asked to come up with a technique
for fingerprint detection which could assist the law enforcement agencies
to solve crime cases in a scientific manner. The students were successful
in formulatinga composition which couldlift fingerprints not only from
the articles removed from conventional crime scenes, but also from those
sites which hadbeen accidently or deliberately despoiled. An Indian patent
169
entitled‘A composition for developing latent impression marks and process
for preparing the same’ was filed by the University of Delhi on behalf of
the project team. The undergraduate students who were part of the project
team were listed as the inventors in this patent application. The addition of
this patent to their profile will be extremely helpful to them intheir careers.
Moreover, if the patent gets approved and commercialized, the students will
also get a share of royalty.
Benefits to College
The equipment and consumables procured during the course of the innovation
project were passed on to the Forensic Science Unit of theCollege. This unit
offers a postgraduate diploma in forensic science. The resources acquired by
virtue of the innovation project will henceforth be used by the students of
forensic science. At the final presentation on the outcome of the innovation
project, the team invited officers from Delhi Police, Military Police and Delhi
State Fingerprint Bureau for a critical assessment of theirresearch work. These
departments are now well aware of the academic and research activities being
undertaken at theS.G.T.P. Khalsa Collegein the field of forensic science. In
fact, they are now requesting thecollege to run periodic training courses for
their personnel.
Benefits to Society
The technology developed by the project teamwill assist forensic scientists
across the nation to solve crime cases scientifically. Theformulation prepared
by the students has a number of advantages over the conventional formulations
in use. These include:
a.The composition prepared for detecting fingerprints by the teamis the
first of its kind. Conventional compositions are surface specific, i.e. they
work only on one type of surface. This novel composition has broad-based
applications. It can detect fingerprints on a broad spectrum of surfaces,
including absorbent and non-absorbent; white and multicoloured; and
smooth and rough.
b.Conventional compositions do not work on crime scene evidence which
has been deliberately or accidently despoiled. Thisnovel reagent developed
by the students can even lift fingerprints at crime scenes that have been
washed out by water. It also works on articles (read weapons) that have
been thrown intoan aquatic body or have been buried under the soil by the
suspect after committing the crime.
c.Most police personnel are from a non-science background and often
170
face problems choosing the correct fingerprint detecting composition for
specific crime scene evidence. With onesingle composition this problem
will not arise.
Further Plans
The team would like more undergraduateto be involved in theirnext
innovation project entitled, ‘Identification of Weapon Holders in Crime
Cases’.Weapons such as revolvers, pistols, swords, daggers and rods used in
crime casesare generally made of iron or an alloy of iron. It is hypothesized
that whilecommitting the crime, nanoparticles of iron are transferred from
the weapon to the palm of the suspect. The fatty acid constituent of the palm’s
sweat transforms the transferred iron to iron(II) ions. These ions form stable,
intensely colored, chelates with some complexing agents. In this project, the
students propose to synthesize ligands belonging to the triazine functional
group for identification of weapon holders. When these complexing reagents
are sprayed on the hands of a person who had held theweapon, a coloured,
iron (II) chelate will be precipitated, thus identifying the suspect. In cases
the suspect murders a victim, and before fleeing the scene of crime places the
weapon in the hands of the dead person to make it appear like suicide, the
coloured precipitate will not be seen since sweating ceases immediately after
death. It will thus even be possible to make a distinction between a suicide
and a homicide.
171
SHRI RAM COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
project title:
project code:
Project Aahaar
SRCC- 101
1. Objective
Project Aahaar, reclaiming life the culinary way, is an initiative to empower
commercially exploited women to become self-sufficient entrepreneurs, by
providing them with basic culinary training and access to demand avenues
to market their acquired skills. Training in accounting, kitchen management
and environment awareness is also provided, so as to give them a holistic
development. These women are from an economically backward background, and have
been victims of harassment and exploitation in the past. By providing them
with a skill-set in order to help them earn an alternative livelihood, we seek
to open windows of opportunity for such underprivileged women, helping
them gain economic independence. This will bolster their dignity and selfesteem, and give them an impetus to stand on their own feet.
The girls at the certificate distribution ceremony after completion of
culinary training at the Taj Mahal Hotel
172
2. Final Findings
Project Aahaar aims to rehabilitate underprivileged and commercially
exploited women by providing them with culinary training and enabling them
to market their acquired skills in order to transform them into entrepreneurs
in the culinary business.
We realised that one thing which every woman knew was how to cook
and hence we made ‘Bulk Indian Cooking’ the centre of our business model.
Initially we worked with four women from a shelter home in Nirmal Chhaya
Complex, New Delhi. These women were trained in bulk Indian cooking
at the Taj Mahal Hotel, Mansingh Road, New Delhi and they have started
cooking for the inmates of the shelter home.
As we moved on to expand our project, we felt the need to introduce
manufacturing of a product as our new business model for sustainability as
well as profitability. Our proposed model is to engage our target community in
a dry-food products (such as “badiyan”, “moogodi”, “papad”) manufacturing
business. The production needs to take place in an open space and we will
require a terrace to sun-dry the food products.
We carried out a preliminary demand assessment and identified Khari Baoli,
a wholesale groceries market in Old Delhi, as one of our major demand avenues.
We contacted various organizations including Indo-Global Social Service
Society (IGSSS) for identification of a community. We have also found a
trainer who shall also be one of our major customers once the production
process begins.
IGSSS maintains over 100 shelter homes in Delhi. We were put in touch
with 5 women living at one such shelter near Bangla Sahib Gurudwara in
CP. But, after having spent a considerable amount of time with the women
and understanding their problems, we realised that due to their instability,
it would not be feasible to go ahead with this community for our business
model.
In this entire process, the most important thing that we have learnt is that
it is necessary to build a strong bond of trust with the community and to
inculcate a feeling of independence in them.
3. Learning for Students
Project Aahaar helps us apply our textbook curriculum of economics and
business in real-life situations by using concepts like cost-profit analysis,
adaptability and sustainability of business models, etc. Functioning as social
entrepreneurs, we learn to frame a successful business model and to face the
challenges involved in its implementation. We discuss project related details
with top companies and leaders of successful ventures. This has provided
us with immense exposure and great insight into the corporate world.
173
These mentorship sessions help us to gain from the experience of extremely
reputed people. Also, our interaction with the communities involved gives us
a lesson in public dealing and prepares us to take on bigger leadership roles.
Interaction with the community also broadens our horizon and makes us
sensitive towards the society.
4. Benefits to College
In the process of achieving academic excellence, it is the prerogative of
every academic institution to inculcate in its students the zeal to unleash
society’s full potential by opening up new pathways for the marginalized and
disadvantaged communities. Project Aahaar, in its endeavor to uplift the lives
of underprivileged women, is well aligned with the aforementioned objective
of the college. In addition to this, the project gives an edge to SRCC over
other institutes of business and economics by facilitating practical application
of classroom learning. An initiative by the students of Shri Ram College of
Commerce, it also earns appreciation for the college in the field of social
entrepreneurship.
5. Benefits to Society
In our initial model at Children Home for Girls, Nirmal Chhaya, 4 girls were
trained in bulk Indian cooking. They are now cooking healthy and nutritious
food, under the supervision of the existing cooks, for the 350 other inmates
and get remunerated by the Government. A health check-up camp was also
conducted here to review the health status of over 300 girls.
We were also involved with a community at the IGSSS Shelter Home,
Gurudwara Bangla Sahib, where we had conducted a counseling session
and health check-up for five women. These women also underwent literacy
training for a month.
These models aim at empowering the communities by making them
financially independent and self-confident. The tremendous media coverage
received by our project creates the much needed awareness about the cause.
6. Further Plans
(a) Plans regarding the existing model of a community kitchen at the
shelter home in Nirmal Chhaya Complex:
The girls have now started cooking under the supervision of the existing cooks
of the shelter home’s kitchen, for which they will be remunerated. A monthly
stipend of Rs.3000 for each girl has been approved by the Department of
Women and Child Development, Govt. of Delhi. The stipend will be
174
transferred to their respective bank accounts, which will be opened shortly.
The setting up of an “Aahaar Trust Fund”, as proposed in the previous report,
has been kept on hold for the time being, until the bank accounts are in place.
(b) We are currently in touch with a Delhi based NGO regarding the
identification of a community for the new model of a dry food products
manufacturing business.
Once the community is identified, the women will be provided with the
requisite training for 2-3 days before undertaking the production process.
Their soft skills will be strengthened for overall personality development.
They will also be provided with financial and literacy training to make them
aware of the concept of savings and money management.
175
SRI AUROBINDO COLLEGE
Green Banking and Sustainable
Development: The Need of Today
project title:
project code:
SAC(101)
“Green bank is a bank for which green is not just the colour, it is the
commitment to conserve and save the environment”.
—Dr Namita Rajput.
Objective
Climate change is a noteworthy concern because of its drastic and looming
effects. Even economists have recognized that there are financial rewards
from controlling climate change and developing a low carbon economy.
Green banking refers to how environmentally friendly your bank is, and
how committed to green and ethical policies they are. Banks can fulfilan
important leadership role for this economic transformation that has the
potential to provide new opportunities in financing and investment policies.
In compliance with the principles of integrity, impartiality, reliability and
transparency, social banks are expected to ethically trail their operations in
responsibility and controlling money laundering.The objective of this project
Image 1. A collection of photos of the project team
176
is wasto highlight the Green green Bbanking initiatives being taken by the in
the Indian banking sector in terms of awarness, pursuance, energy efficiency,
financial inclusion , Rrural green practices, corporate social responsibility
and sustainable development, in relation with the best international
practices.The team and also to gave recommendationson how passing more
mandates,legislation and a proactive role for RBI can take India to a greener
tomorrow.
Final Findings
The impulse of going green is moving at a faster rate and is not a zero sum
game, i.e. things which are good for the environment are also good for
business.Green banking gives environmental benefits and helps in reducing
the carbon foot print.Going green is a wonderful and judicious combination
of operational improvements, technology and changing client habits, along
with inculcating a shared vision towards saving the planet. The results of this
study will have far-reachingimplications for the Indian banks, policymakers
(RBI), environmentalists, social organisatons,Government of India, Ministry
of Finance and International Strategic Alliances, joint ventures, etc.
The survey responses are:
Question
Response
1.
How
prepared Very slow in response to global peers.
are
Indian
banks
regardingenvironmental
and sustainable concerns?
2. What is the level There is 100% awarness of green issues;
of
awarness
and
implementation
of About 93 per cent of the banks indicated that theytake
enviromental initiatives?
enviromental initiatives.
3. Does your organization About 90 per cent proclaim that they have been able to
take initiativesin offering undertake such initiatives.
green products or services?
4. Does your organization Yes
have
any
enhanced
or
special
criteria
such as clean energy/
low
carbonfootprint/
environment friendly, for
the evaluation of a project?
177
5. Is there a statement
or objective of the
organization in a policy
or program in the public
domain that reflect sits
commitment to green
and sustainable issues
and affects the image
and reputation of the
organisation? State your
agreement.
Type of Bank Agreement
Private
Public
Foreign
6. Does your organisation
have
sustainability
benchmarks
in
the
evaluation of investment/
lending programmes?
Percent
Cumulative
Percent
Agree
45.5
45.5
Strongly
Agree
54.5
100.0
Total
100.0
Agree
48.1
48.1
Strongly
Agree
51.9
100.0
Total
100.0
Agree
65.4
65.4
Strongly
Agree
34.6
100.0
Total
100.0
100% Yes
7. What is the awareness There was an awareness level of 100% in the case of public,
level of international private and foreign sector banks relating to international
initiatives in corporate frameworks and initiatives.
sustainability?
8. International Initiatives
Participation level
UNEP-FI
3.7% per centpublic sector, 9.1% private sector, 53.4% foreign
bank
Climate Principles
14.8% public sector, 22.7%private sector, 11.54% foreign
bank
Equator Principles
100% no for public sector banks and private sector banks,
65% no for foreign sector banks
UN Global Compact
100% no public sector banks, 100% no private sector banks,
97no foreign sector banks
Carbon Disclosure Project 11.1 per centpublic sector banks,18.2 per centprivate sector
banks, 26.9 per centforeign sector banks.
9. Aggregate of awareness
and participation level in
international
protocols
and parameters
Awareness and implementation level
International protocols
Responses
N
Percent
Percentage
of Cases
UNEP FI
75
17.6%
100.0%
Climate Principles
75
17.6%
100.0%
Equator Principles
75
17.6%
100.0%
178
Awareness and implementation level
Responses
N
Percent
Percentage
of Cases
UN Global Compact
75
17.6%
100.0%
Carbon Disclosure Project
75
17.6%
100.0%
Participating
UNEP FI
15
3.5%
20.0%
The Climate Principles
12
2.8%
16.0%
Equator Principles
9
2.1%
12.0%
UN Global Compact
2
.5%
2.7%
Carbon Disclosure Project
14
3.3%
18.7%
International protocols
10. Is there an agreement
on internal drivers
(agreement yes/no)
parameters
Increase in the value of 100% yes
shareholder
Yes
Social pressure from 100% yes
investors to invest in
socially
responsible
manner
Yes
Changing board room 100% no
agenda
No
Percievedbenefits
profitability
and 100% yes
Yes
Marketing benefits by 100% yes
way of brand-building
and reputation
Yes
Detention andattraction 100% no
of employees
No
11. What are the most
significant internal drivers?
Levene’s
Statistics
Sig.
F
Sig.
Statistica Sig.
Increase in
the value of
shareholder
3.260
.001 1.218 3.360 .040 1.118
Social
pressure
from
investors
to invest
in socially
responsible
manner
3.360
.002 1.118 .332 1.154 .324
179
Levene’s
Statistics
12. Is there an agreement
on external drivers
Sig.
F
Sig.
Statistica Sig.
Changing
board room
agenda
1.513
.227 4.828 1.513 2.332 .108
Percieved
benefits and
profitability
3.513
.003 1.828 .011 5.621 .007
Marketing
benefits
by way
of brandbuilding and
reputation
2.043
.004 1.231 .590
.539
.587
Detention
and
attraction of
employees
1.435
.245 3.224 .417
.786
.317
External Drivers
Percentage of
Cases
Regulation of the Government
41.3%
Socialresponsibility
100.0%
Environmental benefits and opportunities
100.0%
Increase in eco-centeric consumers
5.3%
Pressure groups/popular movements in the 100.0%
society
Others
13. Important external
drivers
2.7%
International
protocols
Sig.
F
Sig.
Statistica
Sig.
Regulation of the
Government
1.435
.245 3.224
.046 3.703 .032
Social
responsibility
3.360
.040 1.118
.332 1.154 .324
180
International
protocols
Sig.
F
Sig.
Sig.
Environmental
benefits
and opportunities
4.984
.009 2.773
.069 2.332 .108
Increase in
eco-centric
consumers
1.513
.227 4.828
.011 5.621 .007
Pressure
groups/
popular
movements in
the society
2.043
.137
.531
.590
.539
.587
Others
3.834
.026
.886
.417
.786
.317
14. Policies relating to Public sector
specific issues of climate bank
Private sector bank
change,energy efficiency
and waste management
100% yes
100% yes
15. Which is the most
important
policy
of
energy efficiency and
waste
management
strategy
followed
by
your
organization
thatwill help in reducing
carbon footprints in the
organization?
Statistica
Levene’s
Statistic
Sig.
F
Foreign
sector bank
100% yes
Sig.
Welch
Sig.
Purchasing
4.965
.010 2.132 .126
1.786
.179
Educating
6.658
.002 1.589 .211
1.566
.219
Recycling
.365
.002
.298
1.230
.301
Transport
.504
.606 1.964 .148
1.918
.158
Energy
2.188
.119 2.158 .123
1.996
.147
16. State your agreement
Levene’s
on
the
employee
Statistic Sig.
engagement
practices
1.084 .344
in your organization to Training
address the issue of climate
Performance 1.556 .218
change.
and reorganization
objectives
Intranet
sites
1.054
181
.354
2.14
F
Sig. Welch
Sig.
1.8
.169 1.816
.174
.30
.741
.292
.748
1.92
.153 1.873
.165
17.
What isyour
agreement
on
the
statement that pursuance
of green initiatives and
sustainable development
has impacted financial
performance positively?
Levene’s
Statistic
Sig.
F
Sig. Welch
Sig.
Internet
2.659
.077
1.24
.294 1.371
.264
Internal
communication
3.389
.039
1.70
.190 1.575
.218
Type
Bank
Private
Public
(The results revealthat
there is 100% agreement
on the impact of green
banking and financial
performance
for
all
categories of banks)
18. Major gaps:
Foreign
of
Valid
%
Cumulative%
Agree
50.0
50.0
Strongly Agree
50.0
100.0
Total
100.0
Agree
59.3
59.3
Strongly Agree
40.7
100.0
Total
100.0
Agree
23.1
23.1
Strongly Agree
76.9
100.0
Total
100.0
The main gaps identified by the Indian Banks that require
directives from regulatory bodies:
1. Lack of awareness and consciousness on sustainability
issues, international guidelines and frameworks.
2. Sustainability reporting:Need for formal frameworks and
lucid and clear policies pertinent for banks operating in
India.
3. Training and development of relevant skills inbank
employees that can be used in core banking operations.
4. Clear policies to alter current management systems to
incorporate sustainability issues.
5. Formal information sharing and dissemination platforms
need to be defined properly.
6. Guidance / workshops / training programmes for banks are
necessary on CSR focus areas.
7.There could be an international strategic programme
in terms of funding these climate change programmes
along with Indian banks such asa low cost green fund.
This will help the developing countries counter the issue
of sustainable development and help to develop green
economies. There is a broad agreement that an effective
response to climate change will require new investments and
expenditure on a massive scale. International cooperation
in this regard will help the developing economies to combat
the environmental challenges.
182
19. What is your position
on the statement that
pursuance
of
green
initiatives and sustainable
development has impacted
financial
performance
positively?
20. Suggestions
Levene’s
Statistic
Sig
7.274
0.01
There is almost 100%
agreement on the fact that if
green initiatives are pursued by
the banks it will certainly affect
the financial performance of
organisations positively.
1.To address each of these gaps, the Reserve Bank of India should
have constructive and productive policy recommendations to
facilitate and assist the evolution from the existing conventional
business models to comprehensive and sustainable practices.
This will help to realize the goal of sustainable economic
development and decarbonize the economy.
2. The Government of India, but more specifically the Ministry
Of Finance can play a special role in enhancing the speed of
reforms to combat issues of climate change and decarbonizing
the economy.
3.When we speak aboutsustainability in the context of
banks,it refers to the philosophy that underpins a certain
value system where the banks, in addition to ensuring that
their employees,investors and customers make a profit, also
focus on green measures. These measures promote resource
optimization in internal operations (local hiring and green
procurement), social value creation and proactive steps towards
enabling financial inclusion,responsible growth and mitigation
of environment issues.International funding could be used to
facilitatea binding global agreement on reducing green house
gas emissions and allow developing countries to begin scaling
up their climate change responses without delay.
4. Help customers shape their own banking experiences by
changinghow the bankprovides information and advice,
recruiting online affinity groups and developing flexible loyalty
programs.
5.Develop models around customer needs by reprioritizing
spending, increasing the use of low-cost digital models and
using more innovative technology.
6.Implementing these suggestionsrequires a strong political
effort by all partcipating countries, butthe potential payoffs
will be enormous.
7.Once created,the Green Fund can provide a unified resource
mobilization framework which will be capable of meeting the
financial needs for decades to come.This will bring the world
closer and also help developing countries to begin scaling up
their adaptations and mitigation efforts sooner (perhaps years
sooner) than might otherwise be possible.
183
Green Bankingin RRBS in India: A Snapshot
RRBS
1) Andhra Pragathi Grameena
Bank(Syndicate Bank)
2) Chaitanya Godavari
Grameena Bank (Andhra
Bank)
3) Deccan Grameena Bank
(State Bank Of Hyderabad)
4) Saptagiri Grameena Bank
(Indian Bank)
5) Assam Grameena Vikash
Bank (United Bank Of
India)
Greenand Sustainable Initiatives
• Subsidy-cum-refinance scheme for installation of
solar off-grids (photovotaic and thermal).
• Decentralized applications under Jawaharlal Nehru
national solar mission (JNNSM).
• The bank has established a ‘Women Development
Cell’ at the Head Office in September 2004; the cell
is functioning as per the guidelines of NABARD
to achieve the objective of women empowerment
through SHGs and credit flow to women.
• Financial inclusion.
• Core Banking Solutions will enable our customers to
transact from any branch anywhere.
• National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) facility
has beenmade available at all our branches to enable
customers to remit their funds to any bank/any
branch in the country.
• SMS alerts are sent to customers for all transactions
exceeding Rs.2,500/- as a security measure.
• The Bank has achieved 100% core banking.
• Rewarded as the best bank for SHG Finance in
Chittoor district each year since inception of the
scheme.
• Fully computerized RRB in the state of Andhra
Pradesh.
• RTGS and NEFT enabled.
• Remittance facility to all over India.
6) Langpi Dehangi Rural
Bank(SBI)
• Financial inclusion.
• Self-help groups.
7) Arunachal Pradesh Rural
Bank(SBI)
• Fund transfer from and to any bank all over India
though National Electronic Fund Transfer (NEFT).
• Formation, monitoring and credit linkage of ‘Selfhelp-group’
• Financial inclusion by opening of no-frill accounts
in rural areas through existing and new branches of
banks.
• SMS alert facilitity
8) Madhya Bihar Grameen
Bank(Punjab National
Bank)
9) Uttar Bihar Grameen Bank
(Central Bank of India)
• Financial inclusion through‘Sunhara sapna’.
• Account portability facility.
184
10)Durg-Rajnandgaon Gramin
Bank (Dena Bank)
11)Dena Gujrat Gramin Bank
(Dena Bank)
12)Himachal Gramin Bank
(NB)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Core Banking Solution (CBS).
Account portability facility.
RTGS / NEFT facility.
Mahila shakti scheme.
SHG bank linkage.
ATM facility available at Bhiloda and Meghraj
branches in Sabarkantha district.
• Self-help group microfinance.
13)Ellaquai Dehati Bank (SBI)
• Scooty loan for girls and working women.
14)J&K Grameen Bank (J&K
Bank Ltd)
•
•
•
•
15)Jharkhand Gramin Bank
(Bank of India)
•
•
•
16)Vananchal Gramin Bank
(SBI)
17)Pragathi Gramin
Bank(Canara Bank)
18)Visveshvaraya Grameena
Bank(Vijaya Bank)
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
19)South Malabar Gramin
Bank(Canara Bank)
20)Vidharbha Kshetriya
Gramin Bank (Central Bank
of India)
21)Maharashtra Gramin Bank
(Bank of Maharashtra)
•
Anywhere banking facility available.
Account portability available.
Bank 100% CBS compliant.
Jharkhand Gramin Bank has embarked on an
ambitious technological initiative, named ‘Gram
SHAKTI’, which includesintroduction and
implementation of core banking solution in our
branches.
RTGS/ NEFT remittances throughout India.
Internet banking.
Issuance of ATM cards which can be used at any of
the ATMs located in India.
NEFT facility (fundstransfer).
Account portability facility.
Solar power equipments finance.
30 brand new ATMs / Cash dispensers (CDs) were
installed on 13 March 2013.
Joint liability groups.
Financial literacy.
Credit, and strong, stable and sustainable support
to rural activities through personalized dedicated
servicesusingmodern technology.
A Technologically driven organisation with
sustainable viability
Micro finance and lending to self-help groups
• Gram Ujala ( Solarhome lighting system)
• Farmers Short Message Information Services
22)Wainganga Krishna Gramin • Swapan purti
Bank(Bank Of Maharashtra) • Prakash kiran
• NSTFDC under micro credit
• All 71 branches of the bank are working on CBS
(Core Banking Solution).
• Internet banking
185
23)Punjab Gramin
Bank(Punjab National
Bank)
• All 180 branches on the CBS network arenow going
to provide ICT based financial inclusion services to
clients in remote areas.
• Awarded SKOCH FI 2011 award by the Skoch
Foundation (INDIA) for micro credit facility.
24)Pallavan Grama Bank(Indian • The bank has introduced Indian Bank co-branded
Bank)
ATM cards for its customers on 29 November 2010,
thus becoming the first RRB to issue co-branded
ATM cards in the country enabling their customers
to utilize 1128 Indian Bank ATMs across the country.
The bank has so far issued 32,424 cards.
• SMS alerts
• Solar powered green branch
• Introduction of money transfer facility
• NEFT facility
25)Pandyan Grama
• Micro credit(Winner of best performance award
Bank(Indian Overseas Bank)
from NABARD)
• Recognized as a model institution by NABARD for
hosting exposure visits on SHGs and JLGs.
26)Tripura Gramin
• National Rural Financial Inclusion Plan (NRFIP)
Bank(United Bank Of India)
27)Prathama Bank(Syndicate
Bank)
28)Paschim Banga Gramin
Bank(Uco Bank)
• Pioneer in the field of micro finance. The Bank
has developed its own model of micro finance, i.e.
‘Prathama Model’ that has been widely appreciated
and recognized by NABARD, GOI and other
international forums. The Bank has promoted the
largest number of SHGs, JLGs and Farmers’ Clubs in
the state of UP.
• National pioneer in the promotion of Solarhome
lighting. Bank’s efforts have been recognized and
ithas been awarded India Power Awards for the years
2008-09, 2009-10 & 2010-11.
• Commitments fulfilled towards financial inclusion
by providing ICT based banking facilities in all
villages identified for financial inclusion as per the
Government of India guidelines.
• All 219 Branches are under CBS.
• CPSMS compliant.
• PBGB on boards National Automated Clearing
House (NACH).
• NEFT facility.
• ATM debit card is in the pipeline.
• 530 villages having population over 2000 have been
identified for financial inclusion
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Learning for Students
• Project-based learning involves an instructional scheme in which students
learn a range of skills and subject matter in the process of creating a project.
Sometimes, these projects are close to problems faced in the realworld;
students work in groups and bring their own experiences, abilities, learning
styles and perspectives to the project..
• Duringthe course of the project, students gathered and evaluated data
from various sources such as print, multimedia or internet sources. They
analysed and synthesized the information they had gathered and then
determined the direction the project would take. This process was very
inspiring and empowering for the students.
• Through this project, students gained procedural as well as conceptual
understanding of green banking. They acquired hands-on experience,
improved their communication skills, problem-solving, and learnt
critical thinking, visualizing, decision-making and reasoning.They also
learnt how to write clear and concise reports on investigations using
statistical toolssuch as spreadsheets and databases. They enhanced their
interpersonal and communication skills, learnt time management andhow
to set benchmarks. They also learntto recognize conflictsand resolve them,
take initiative, and engage in active listening, They understood how to
evaluate the overall progress of the group vis à vis the achievement of
project objectives.
Benefits to College
• Green banking will help in reducing the carbon footprint of not only
the bank but also of the college. This will put the institution on an
environmentally sustainable path.
• Every green step taken today will go a long way in building a greener
tomorrow. With the initiation of suchendeavours, awareness and sensitivity
towards environment has gone up. Both the teaching and non-teaching
staff of Sri Aurobindo College has adopted green strategies such as internet
banking, use of ATMs,mobile banking, etc.
• Under this project, a small scale hand handled paper recycling plant
wasinstalled in the college which will be a role model for otherinstitutionsand
also help save trees.
• During this one year of the project,special lectures, seminars, and research
workshops were arranged which have benefitted the teachers as well as the
students. This would not have been possible without the support of the
Delhi University grant.
• The students got the maximum mileage out of this project in terms of
knowledge, presentations, seminars, analytical capacity and research
187
aptitude, which was verycommendable and went much beyond classroom
teaching. Moreover, innovative projects can be path-breaking and also
instrumental in shifting gears from conventional teaching to reality-based
teaching.
Benefits to Society
• ‘Green Banking’ is mutually beneficial to the banks, industries and the
economy. It ensures green industryand assistsin recuperating the asset
quality of the banks.
• Internationally, there is a growing concern about the role of banking and
institutional investors inenvironmentally responsible/socially responsible
investment projects. Banking institutions are more effective inachieving
this goal owing to the kind of intermediary role they play in the economy,
and for their potential reach to alarge number of investors.
• The banking sector influences the economic growth and development of
an economy both in terms of quality and quantity, thereby changing the
nature of economic growth. It is is one of the major sources of finance
for commercial projects which is one of the most important economic
activities for economic growth. Therefore, the banking sector can play
a crucial role in promoting environmentally sustainable and socially
responsible investment.
Figure 2.
188
Further Plans
Moving to a thriving low carbon economy can encourageinnovation, boost
output and create new jobs. Banks can provide important leadership for
the required economic transformation that will provide new opportunities
for financing and investment policies as well as portfolio management for
the creation of a strong and successful low carbon economy. In this study,
awareness, pursuance, implementation level of green banking, lending norms
and international framework participation has been gauged and compared
with international peers. Further research can be conducted to empirically
test a sustainable (green) model which can lead to increased profitability using
panel data of the Indian banking sector. This model can be a benchmark for
sustainability, and can prove that if we move towards the green path, not only
will we be able to reduce our carbon footprint, but we will also help increase
profits.
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SRI VENKATESWARA COLLEGE
project title:
project code:
Survey of Trees in Delhi Region and
Screening of Select Medicinal Plants for
Anti-Cancer Activity
SVC-101
Objective
In the last few years, Delhi has witnessed extreme changes in land use pattern
due to urbanization. The comparison of the current forest cover assessment
with the previous assessment (Satellite data of FSI October 2006) shows a
loss of 0.38km2 forest cover of Delhi. This loss can be attributed mainly to
the felling of trees for development purposes. Medicinal trees have long been
associated with maintaining good health and curing ailments. Due to its
Figure 1. Representation of activities during the investigation
190
negligible sideeffects and cost effectiveness, 75% of the world’s population
relies on herbal remedies, however only 15 % of all known plant species are
screened for their medicinal value.With the aforementioned facts, our project
had three main objectives—to survey tree species in Delhi; to prepare a crude
extract from various parts (root, bark, stem, leaves, flowers, etc.) of select
medicinal plants using solvents; and to evaluate these crude extracts for anticancer activity against certain cancer cells. Additionally, antibacterial activity
was also investigated in select plants by Disc Diffusion method.
Final Findings
In our literature survey, the old and recent lists of tree species were compared.
The old list was prepared from The Flora of Delhi by J. K. Maheshwari
(1963), and the latestlist was prepared from Trees of Delhi: A Field Guide by
Pradip Krishen (2006) andDr Anand Sonkar’sthesis Trees of Delhi (2009).
Maheshwari’s book mentioned 178 species of trees belonging to 46 families,
while the 2recent sources of literature contained a total of 384 species
belonging to 77 families. Additionally, comparing the old and recent lists
provided information on the number of tree species thathave disappeared
or have been introduced in the region during this time period. Out of the
381 tree species currently present in Delhi region, 219 species from 65
families have been introduced during the past 50 years. Some examples
of the cultivated species are Santalum album introduced from southern
India, Spathodea campanulata from tropical Africa, Persea americana from
the Carribean, Terminalia catappa and Syzygium jambos from Malaysia,
and Shorea robusta from Nepal (Mukherjee, 1988; ICRAF, 2006; Pant and
Sharma, 2010). A total of 13 tree species from 10 families were found to have
locally disappeared within these 50 years. Thisloss of forest cover could be
mainly attributed to urbanization and development. Although there may be
other reasons as well for the disappearance of tree cover, they are not known.
In addition, out of 381 recently reported tree species, 256 species were found
to be medicinal, and a detailed table of these medicinal trees was prepared
stating their medicinal properties.
Interestingly, encouraging results were observed in the preliminary
investigation on anti-cancer activity of selected medicinal plants, i.e.Cressa
critica and Holarrhena antidysenterica. However, experiments are going on,
and the final results are under progress. Besides, the extract of Ficus elastica,
Albizia saman and Caryota urens were also investigated for antibacterial
assay and a significant activity was observed. Three review articles have been
published in esteemed peer reviewed international journals, which enabled
the team members to update recent advances in the area.
191
Figure 2. Pie chart representing the composition of tree species inthe past 50 years
Learning for Students
Since, the project wasinterdisciplinary and involved bothchemistry and
biology, students from thebotany, chemistry, biological sciences and
life sciences stream also benefitted from it. During the literature survey
and preparation of the list of plants, the students learnt how to use new
computational tools while managing, analyzing and drawing conclusions
from the data. For the collection of plants and preparation of crude extracts,
the students visited medicinal gardens such as Kangra Herbs in Himachal
Pradesh in September 2012.During this visit, the students learnt how to
identify trees using taxonomic keys. The students also received training in the
use of Soxhlet Apparatus. While preparing the tables of medicinal plants, the
students had to consult books and online databases such as Pubmed. They
also visited Central Science Library (CSL), Delhi University, North Campus
to enhance their learning experience. While performing the antibacterial
assay, the students learnt how to culture pathogenic bacteria with important
precautions, and investigate the action of plant extracts. The team members
also got expertisein several sensitive experimental techniques such as MTT
assay and culture of cell lines. Hence students learnt significant aspects of
microbiology.
Another important achievement of the students was to publish three
review articles in journals of international repute. These included two articles
in Journal of Pharmacy Research and one article in Drug Invention Today.
Benefits to College
This innovation project has given the college immense scope to discover
the talents of undergraduate students and subsequently build a bridge
between classroom concepts and hands-on experience. A three-day national
symposium on ‘Recent Trends in Innovative Research at Undergraduation:
Science and Society’ was organized by Sri Venkateswara College from 28
February-2 March 2013. The symposium was sponsored by the Department
of Biotechnology (Govt. of India) and the University of Delhi.
192
Benefits to Society
Our investigation presented the status of floral diversity in Delhi region and
revealed a surprising number of medicinal plants. Medicinal plants have long
been associated with maintaining good health and curing ailments. These
plants can be used to develop new antibiotics as a lot of current antibiotics have
become ineffective against microbes due to drug resistance. Thisresistance is
seen to a much lower extent in herbal medicines. In our study, we found two
plants with anti-bacterial properties.
Cancer is a major global concern as it is prevalent in both developing and
developed countries. The current procedure for the treatment of cancer is
associated with several harmful side effects. Hence, this research to develop an
anti-cancer herbal medication from medicinal plants was an important step
towards finding a better cure for this deadly disease.
Further Plans
Recent literature on the flora of Delhi shows the disappearance of 13 trees
species.
The investigation of anti-cancer activity of somemedicinal plants is
currently under progress. The preliminary results are encouraging. After
isolating the active molecules present in the crude extracts of the plant
materials their, analytical and spectroscopic characterization will be done.
Publications
Image 5. At ‘Antardhwani’
with the Vice-Chancellor of Delhi
University
193
Image 4. Project team
194
Image 5. At ‘Antardhwani’ with the Vice-Chancellor of Delhi University
195
SRI VENKATESWARA COLLEGE
Purification and characterization of
Cytochrome P450 from liver for the study
of P450 interaction with anticancer drug
molecules
project title:
project code:
SVC -106
1. Objective
The study of ADME/T properties characterize drug molecules in terms of
their absorption, modification transport presents a challenging area of research
in the discovery of novel drugs. When a drug is administered to the body it
encounters the problems of stability, chemical modification and retention
before being transported to the target site. The complications posed by the
interaction between drug-drug and drug with serum proteins loss of activity
are a hurdle that a novel molecule must traverse before being a successful
therapeutic drug. The project aims to provide the students an insight into the
various aspects of drug metabolism in the human body and the approaches to
different steps of drug design and synthesis.
Serum proteins play important role in bioavailability aspect of drugs
by facilitating binding and transport of drugs after it has either been
administered orally or intravenously. The activation/deactivation of drug
Various aspects of drug metabolism in the body
196
involves interaction with cytochrome p450 (CYP) proteins. Bioavailability
and metabolism studies of drug molecules play a pivotal role in the design
of novel drugs. In this study, existing FDA approved anticancer drugs were
evaluated for their ADMET properties with the hope to design new anticancer
drugs.
The objective of this project is to study:
• Interaction of the CYP protein with drug molecule
• Chemical modification of drug by CYP
• Sequestration of Drug molecule by BSA
• Design and synthesis of anticancer flavanoid molecule and their evaluation.
• Inactivation of CYP by drugs.
2. Final Findings
The drugs were characterized spectroscopically and UV-visible spectra was
obtain to determine the chromophores. (Fig 1).
Fig 1. The absorbance spectra of Doxorubicin, Etoposide, Methotrexate and Vinblastin
The binding of the drug with BSA was studied using fluorescence
spectroscopy. The binding of fluorescent probe ANS (Anilino Napthalene
Sulphonic acid) to BSA (Bovine Serum albumin) was compared with the
binding behaviors of the methotrexate, etoposide, vinblastin to estimate
the affinity of these molecules to serum proteins. Vinblastin showed higher
affinity as confirmed by absorbance spectroscopy (Fig 2).
Fig 2. The quenching of BSA fluorescence with Vinblastin, Etoposide and ANS
197
Drug- Serum Protein binding studies
Determination of the Binding Constant (K binding)
Binding studies of the drugs were performed with three different BSA
concentrations i.e. 20.(03mM), 30 and 40 mg/mL. (drug concentration
0.1 mM). As evident from the following graphs for a given concentration
of drug, if the concentration of BSA is increased, the effect on the drug
absorption spectra is less pronounced suggesting some interaction is
taking place.
198
Fig 3. Spectroscopic study of BSA–drug interactions shows that increase in BSA
concentration decreases the intensity of the drug.
The Estimation of binding constant by UV- visible spectroscopy was
performed and free and bound drug with protein were studied. K binding
for doxorubicin was found to be 16.70 × 104 M-1 and for vinblastin it has a
value of 0.87 × 104. Binding constant for the prepared flavanol was found to
be 5.07 × 106 implying weaker interaction (Fig 4).The flavanoid compounds
were synthesized and compared to the existing anticancer molecules namely
methotrexate, doxorubicin, vinblastin and etoposide on basis of ADMET
guidelines. By comparison of these parameters we intend to predict the
efficacy of the synthesized molecule.
199
Fig 4. Calculation of K binding
Experimental estimation of partition coefficient (Log P) is a very
important parameter for solubility of the drug in blood. The solubility across
various lipid monolayers composed of lipids like cholesterol, stearic acid and
oleic acid and vegetables oils was evaluated. Methotrexate showed higher
mobility across membrane and solubility in the aqueous front as compared to
Doxorubicin. (Fig. 5)
Fig 5. Experimental determination of Log P and estimation of
membrane permeability
200
Fig 6. The enzyme activity of goat liver CYP with aniline as substrate
The enzyme assay was optimized with aniline as the substrate. Liver
extract was assayed for simple transformation reactions with aniline and
p-nitrophenol (fig 6). The analysis of the enzyme activity showed that the
extract from particular goat liver sample was not rich in aniline metabolizing
CYP2A and 1A.
Purification of CYP
The P450 was partially purified from Goat liver by ammonium sulfate
precipitation and DEAE anion exchange chromatography. The interaction
of drug with the crude and partially purified protein was performed by UVvisible spectrophotometery (fig 7-8).
Fig 7. Partial purification Cytochrome P450 from goat liver
Fig 8. Elution profile of CYP by DEAE anion exchange chromatography and the SDS
PAGE of various steps in purification
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Inhibition of aniline hydolase activity of CYP by drugs
The data suggests that the drugs inhibit aniline metabolism, however it is
known that aniline is substrate for CYP 2E1 while the other drugs are CYP
3A substrates, however in crude extract of liver we observed decrease in aniline
hydrolase indicative of allosteric inhibition. Care was taken to add ethanol to
the control in equivalent concentration as the drug solution.
Fig 9: Suppression of aniline transforming capacity of the CYP by various drugs
Computational
Compilation of 60 known anticancer drugs with 2D structures was done.
The structures of the drugs were downloaded from PDB or 3D structures
of drugs were generated using Hyperchem (Molecular Modeling Software)
(figure 9). The data was complied inaccordance with Lipnsky’s rule. The
Schrodinger suite Glide was being used for docking studies. The molecules
were prepared by Geometry Optimization and Energy Minimization and
were used for docking. (Figure 10)
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Fig 9. Computed parameters from Hyperchem -the Lipinsky’s rule
Score
XpG
MGbsa
Binding free energy
Doxorubicin
-9.346
-96.783
Etoposide
-5.992
-85.159
Methotrexate
-6.074
-79.730
Tegafur
-3,471
-3.7602
Fig 10. Docking of CYP 3A (PDB id- 1TQN ) with Doxorubicin using Glide.
3.Learning for Students:
203
This project opens the horizons for undergraduate students to imagine and
foresee themselves in the field of drug discovery both in research and industrial
set-up. The project gave them exposure to Drug development and designing
of therapeutics. They applied their knowledge of biochemistry to understand
cancer metabolism. They came to know about specificity of drugs targets.
They learnt to design experiments and organize their work. The aspects of
biophysics and physical chemistry were introduced by encouraging them to
experiment with the proteins using different techniques. They were able to
appreciate different perspectives about same problem and also to interlink the
different fields to make conclusive ideas. The importance of data accumulation,
analysis and interpretation was given to the students by hands on approach.
The students gathered multitude of aspects of research by interacting with
faculty, scientist and research scholars at IIT (Delhi), IMTECH (Chandigarh)
and NIPER (Mohali). This will give them considerable experience to be able
to take pharmaceutical/ biochemistry research as a career. The participation
at Antardhwani was a one of its kind of experience for the students. They
interacted with of people all walks of life-young school students, faculty and
parents to whom they communicated their work. The students with their
knowledge and wit brought difficult fields of research to the understanding of
the community.
The technical skills:
• Spectroscopy Uv vis and fluorescence were used as tool for drug protein
interactions.
• Physical chemistry -aspects of data analysis were discussed.
• Protein purification-chromatography, SDS page, dialysis, assay
characterization- using theoretical know how to solve problems faced
during optimizations.
• Computational tools- Glide, Autodock, Hyperchem, Marvin Sketch,
exploring PDB.
• Organic synthesis of flavanoid.
• Exposure to advanced technologies and infrastructure by virtue of visits to
research institutes such as IIT, IMTECH, NIPER and industry Sphaera
pharma.
4. Benefits to College
Exploring and forging Synergy between different departments along with
cross pollination of ideas and concepts. The project was enthusiastically
supported by college administration, different departments faculty members
and staff.
204
• Enabled platform for pioneering further research in this direction by
assistance in development of infrastructure. Rejuvenation of the laboratory
resources.
• Faculty was mobilized and young researchers got a chance to try out newer
topics of study. It gave new faculty confidence, resources and impetus to
explore different areas of research and enhance their skills, all the while
sharing with and enriching the students.
• The students had the opportunity to familiarize themselves with advanced
dimensions of research and to do research in house rather than going to
other institutes for short durations. Here they were dedicated and secure
in home institute and worked flexibly. They were in touch with their other
friends in all other projects resonant exchange of ideas took place and spirit
of excellence was renewed.
• The college was able to raise the bench mark for research by compilation
and publications in peer reviewed journals.
• The college will be more keen to seek further support to take finding from
this work to next level.
5. Benefits to Society
CYP450 plays a pivotal role in clinical and pharmaceutical research especially
that of cancer. The genes of CYP450 enzymes exhibit high degree of
polymorphism. People of different races, geographic locations have a plethora
of gene variants for a particular CYP450 enzyme. This will lead to decreased
efficacy of the drug or may even lead to build up the unmetabolised form to
its toxic levels which may damage the liver, kidney and other organs involved
in drug metabolism and clearance.
Hence for a molecule to be considered drug like or to even enter drug
trials, it has to first pass the ”CYP 450 test”. Detailed study with CYP450
can contribute to the society in future by obliviating the need for high-end
technologies. Hence generating opportunities for small enterprises to take up
drug discovery and development.
Humanitarian aspect:
•
•
•
•
Reduced Costs of drugs
Absolute safety side effects
Dosage efficacy-bioavailability
Inter individual variability genetic polymorphism
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6. Further Plans
The one year in the project was useful to optimize very sensitive protocols
to study drug interactions, transformation and metabolism. The parameters
need to be fine tuned to make a authoritative hypothesis. The Computational
drug design parameters will be correlated to the spectroscopic data with the
number of drugs that we can study will add to the sensitivity, accuracy and
applicability of the outcome. The study with various models of organisms
and drugs need to be set in a frame work that can be a comprehensive tool for
single and multi drug interactions in the animal.
206
ST. STEPHEN’S COLLEGE
Improving the Living Conditions of the
Homeless in Delhi
project title:
project code:
SSC 103
Objective
The project addressed the issue of improving the living conditions of the
homeless in Delhi. The problems faced by the homeless citizens of Delhi
range from inadequacies in the infrastructure of the shelter, to poor access to
sanitation, food, health services and public distribution systems, etc. Earlier,it
was found that the number of temporary and semi-permanent shelters (about
146) is not enough to house all the homeless peopleof Delhi, particularly
during winter. Moreover, there is partial or even complete absence of basic
civic amenities at most of the existing shelters. These reasons, coupled with
the lack of available space for constructing new shelters at key locations,
namely central and old Delhi, where the density of labourers and daily wagers
is the highest, shifted our focus to developing mobile shelters. Another
major concern with the poor and homeless people of Delhi wasmalnutrition
and/or illnesses, which result from dietary imbalance. Owing to habituary
Image 1. Students working on the rickshaw Image2. and 3. Inauguration by the
Chief Minister ,Image 4. The rickshaw ‘Sukoon’ displayed at ‘Antardhwani’
207
compulsions and lack of awareness, many people consumed food with
a low nutritional value thatwasreadily and cheaply available close to their
workplace. The problem of access to balanced food/ rations at affordable
prices was addressed as well.
Final Findings
This project brought together students and faculty members from the Physics
and History Departments of St. Stephen’s College. The teamwasbroadly
divided into three groups, each dealing with one of the following issues—
development/improvement of existing/new shelters, food security, and health
and sanitation.
The demographic survey data indicatedthat around 30% of the homeless
comprised ofrickshaw pullers, and formed the single largest group among the
homeless (based on employment). This data, together with the fact that space
for the construction of additional shelters is difficult to procure, led the team
to conclude that it would be useful to convert a rickshaw into a mobile home.
The first two prototypes of the mobile home were completed in collaboration
with the team from Mother NGO (MNGO), St. Stephen’s Hospital, and
they had the following special features:
• A folding seat which couldbe opened into a bed 2.5’ X 5.5’ in size, to
accommodate a sleeping adult.
• An expandable roof to protect the rickshaw puller from rain/direct sun.
• A sleeping bag and provision for a mosquito net. • A 30 watt solar panel attached to the roof, which could power a small
fan, LED front and rear lights, an LED reading light, an FM radio and
a mobile charger.
• A sturdy iron frame for increased mechanical strength.
• A straightened passenger seat, foothold and handrail for the safety of
the passengers.
• Magazine and water bottle holders.
• Reflector panels at the rear for increased safety.
• A rear storage box.
These two prototypes were inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Delhi,
Ms Shiela Dixit, on 23October 2012 and she named the rickshaw ‘Sukoon’.
Subsequent surveys/interactions with rickshaw pullers indicated that the
rickshaws were well received.
The broader scope of such a mobile shelter involved developing a model
of community living that combined housing, food distribution, sanitation
and health care based on various types of mobile units, thereby providing
208
a holistic solution to the problem of homelessness in cities as space is often
difficult to procure.
The students working on food security visited MNGO and Stree Shakti to
get inputs for preparing a model for food distribution to the various shelters.
The concept of ‘Jan Ahaar’, a scheme of the Delhi Government to provide
nutritious food to people with low income at an affordable price of Rs15 was
taken as the role model. Our visits to the shelters showed that in some cases,
the concept of a community kitchen where the inmates prepare one meal a
day was working well. This had a positive impact on improving the social
life of the inmates, as well as making the shelters feel like a home-away-fromhome instead of simply a place for sleeping at night.
The group working on sanitation visited the office of ‘Sulabh’ to get a
comparative estimate of the various types of toilets (bio-toilets, regular
toilets, mobile units, etc.) that couldbe installed in the shelter units. It was
decided by the team that since water scarcity wasa common problem in most
shelters, bio-toilets would be more suitable. However, the problem of some
people defecating in the open even with the availability of toilets could notbe
completely eliminated. The cleaning of the shelters would be done by some
of the inmates, who would be paid for the work. In one of the shelters, the
inmates took the initiative to plant aloe-vera, tulsi, etc., which could serve
as a quick and effective cure for minor injuries and common ailments such
as colds. There were regular weekly visits by a team of doctors to undertake
treatment of patients, if any.
At most of the shelters that we visited, there were books, games, radios and
television sets for the recreation of the inmates. Although the majority of the
inmates were rickshaw pullers, labourers and daily wage workers, the few who
were interested in studying further were able to do so as books were available.
At the family shelters and shelters for children, the inmates were alsoimparted
vocational training in sewing and preparing various articles such as bags,
mats, etc., which could become a source of livelihood for them. The children
went to the local municipal school, and were helped by older inmates and
volunteers with their studies. Singing and dancing classes werealso organized
in some shelters for the benefit of these inmates.
Learning for Students
Keeping in mind the importance of public engagement in carrying forward
the initiative of the Government and other institutions, a conscious effort
was made towards developing a practical strategy for sensitizing the youth to
the emotional and social insecurity felt by the homeless people due to lack
of understanding and exclusion from the community at large. The students
of the project team were encouraged to volunteer for imparting vocational
209
training to the children living in these shelters. The interaction would help
the students get an insight into the problem of homelessness. A blanket
collection drive was initiated by the students working in the project in
January, wherein they coordinated the effort along with students in several
colleges of Delhi University. Such activities were targeted at raising awareness
levels among the youth across the University, towards this problem.
Benefits to College
The project taught the students to think independently. It also helped raise
the awareness level of the students and other members of the college towards
the problem of homelessness. Since the role of volunteers who could teach the
inmates, generate resources for helping the homeless people and care about
the less fortunate wasinvaluable, the involvement of the student community
was of great importance.
The technical aspects of the project provided the students with exposure to hands-on work on real life problems, and they learnt to apply
their knowledge in such areas. Most of the equipment acquired for
the project—electronic equipment, Verniercalipers, screw gauges—
will be utilized in the physics laboratory by the students to do the
experiments prescribed in the University syllabus.
Benefits to Society
The primary achievement of our project wasthe rickshaw itself which would
benefit rickshaw pullers, since it would provide them with a more dignified
and comfortable existence. It would also benefit society as a whole, since it is
an eco-friendly and non-polluting mode of public transport.
The initiative taken by the students during the blanket collection drive
wasan example of how even a small effort can make a difference to some
people. In addition to this, a documentary prepared by the studentswhich
was on display during ‘Antardhwani’, and a one-day colloquium organized at
St. Stephen’s College served to draw people’s attention to the problems faced
by the homeless citizens—a marginalized and neglected section of our society.
Further Plans
An advanced version of the prototype of the rickshaw ‘Sukoon’, with
improvements in the braking system, gear assembly, etc., for increased safety
of the rickshaw puller and rider, is being currently developed. Further,
210
work on microfinance schemes for making the purchase of the rickshaw
simple and accessible needs to be undertaken to take the benefit to the
end user. Options of making health and accident insurance available to
the rickshaw pullers can also be explored, and would be of immense help
to them.
Work can also be done on the development of low-cost, self-contained
houses using eco-friendly material. These would find widespread use as an
integral part of town-planning, and be of immense benefit to society as a
whole, keeping in mind the importance of environment friendly growth that
is being adopted globally. In a country such asIndia, which has a huge deficit
in the housing sector, particularly for the economically weaker sections, this
would be particularly relevant.
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ZAKIR HUSAIN DELHI COLLEGE
Feasibility Studies to Improve the Quality
of Living, and Development of Low Cost
Efficient Techniques to Purify Potable Water
in Villages: Case Study with Reference to the
Villages of Ajmer (Rajasthan)
project title:
project code:
ZH101
Objective
About six villages of Ajmer district (Rajasthan, India) were chosen as the
subject for the present project since this region faces acute drinking water
crisis during summer. During peak summer months, the sources of water dry
up and the villagers are forced to collect water from unsafe sources. Samples
were collected from various community sources of water and analysed for
toxic elements and other parameters. The adverse effect of these parameters
and toxic elements on the health of the local people was also studied.
The main objective of this project was to devise an innovative technique
tofabricate an economical unit to purify water from existing water bodies
Image 1. Dr Swati Arora, Project Investigator with the villagers at Govardhanpura,
explaining to the local villagers about the significance of the work done by the college
team under the innovation project. The team of students and faculty visited the
Govardhanpura village in Ajmer district of Rajasthan and informed the villagers about
the quality of potable water available and educated them about an economical way to
purify impure water.
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for drinking purposes preferably using local resources. In order to achieve
this objective a very simple and realistic approach wasadopted in this project.
It was decided to use solar energy for making distillers for purifying water
as sunlight is abundantly available in this region. A multistage distiller
which couldbe integrated with a solar water heater and a water purifierwas
developed in the project. This multistage distiller was ingenuouslydesigned
to provide substantial output of pure water without any costly inputs. An
alternate arrangement wasalso made to purify water in case there was no sun
as duringmonsoon or winter season. These objectives were achieved in three
phases spread over a period of one year (15May 2012 to 15May 2013)
a. Survey of villages and collection of water samples (Phase I)
b. Chemical analysis of water samples to identify and isolate toxic/hazardous
chemicals (Phase I)
c. Development of low cost efficient techniques and devices to purify water
(Phase I and II)
d. Installation of community tanks to conserve water (Phase III)
Final Findings
From the preliminary findings and analysis of water samples collected from
different sources of water, it was observed that pH, salinity, hardness and
totally dissolved salts (TDS) werethe primary areas of concern.
In order to remove the hardness as well as total dissolved salts from the
water samples, we performed some experiments in college using innovative
techniques. One such technique was based on the distillation of water using
solar energy. We designed and fabricated a single stage, a double stage and a
multistage distillation unit to increase the yield of distillation.
The solar distiller works on the principle of heat and mass transfer.
Ourmultistage solar distiller consisted of five identical stages made of
glass trays and glass slides. Each stage of the still had a square glass tray of
dimension 0.5 m x 0.5 m x 2 cm andcouldhold 2 to 3 litres of water. The
glass tray was covered with a glass slide inclined at an angle of 10 degrees.
The water vapour condensed on the inclined glass pane and water droplets
trickled down in a trough whichwas connected to a common distillate
output. The height of each stage was 100-110 mm except for the first and
fifth stages whichwasaround 160 mm. The interior of the still was painted
black using epoxy based spray paint to absorb and trap the maximum heat.
The still was insulated withglass wool to avoid heat loss to surroundings. The
top stage received maximum solar radiation QH1 since this stage wascoupled
with a solar collector and received an additional amount of heat QH2. The
top stage wasfilled with impure water from a single inlet. The solar energy
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absorbed by the water in the first stage increased the temperature of the
water. This heated water was then transferred to the subsequent stages via a
common thermally insulated pipe. The temperature of the brackish water in
different stages increased and this resulted in the production of water vapour
which condensed on the inside of the inclined surface of the glass slides. The
droplets flowed under gravity towards the edge of the tray, collected first in
the trough and finally in the collecting cylinder. The test rig wasequipped
with a set of PT-100 thermocouples to measure the temperature of the water
in different stages. Thermocouples werealso used to measure the temperature
of the glass slides on which the water condensed.
The distiller could alsobe integrated with a solar water heater for the input
supply of impure water, or with a purifier so that when there wasno sun, during
monsoon or winter season, water couldbe purified through a membrane using
solar panels and a battery to operate the pump. The multistage solar water
distiller was filed for an Indian patent by the Delhi University.
Learning for Students
The innovation project scheme introduced by Delhi University in 2012 was
primarily meant to motivate undergraduate students to conduct research, and
encourage them to come up with innovative research ideas. In due course,
students were expected to learn and become aware of the latest research
methodologies under the guidance of faculty mentors. The research project
undertaken by Zakir Husain Delhi College was quite successful in achieving
this broad objective. The project provided the students with a platform to
translate their ideas into practice, and use the latest technologies to achieve the
desired result. The students undertooka long and difficult journey to reach the
remote villages of Rajasthan—the subject of our research—and got first-hand
knowledge about the problems faced by the local people. They were really
motivated to do something worthwhile to solve the problems faced by the
villagers, particularly drinking water problem, which was directly related to
their health. They were surprised to findthat the resources were quite limited,
and the local people were barely managing with the basic necessities of life.
The students surveyed the villages, interacted with the people and
compiled a report. They learnt how to collect, identify and code the samples
collected from different sources of water available in the villages for further
analysis. The students also got training in how to analyse water samples,
measure their chemical and physical properties and compare them with the
actual standards provided by the government agencies. Based on the results
obtained, the students were trained in preparing a research paper for oral
presentation in front of a learned audience. Eventually, four students were
given the opportunity to present their work at the National Seminar on
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Advances in Environmental Sciences organized by Him Science Congress
Association at Shoolini University, Solan, Himachal Pradesh on 24-26August
2012. They also createda poster displaying their work.
During the course of their project, the students learnt research techniques
other than thoseprescribed in their syllabi, and handled different types
of instruments. They also learnt how to fabricate a test set-up for their
experiments in simulative and actual conditions.
At the DU festival ‘Antardhwani’ held on 22-24February 2013, the students
presented their project to students, teachers, scientists and the general public,
and answered questions on it. The project exposed the students to a kind
of practical training and learning that can only be obtained through such
programmes.
Benefits to College
The project was extremely useful forthe college on various accounts. The
students of the college got exposure to research methodologies, learnt how
to approach a research problem, assemble and fabricate a research test set-up,
and generate a database of results for theoretical and experimental analysis.
The amount sanctioned in the equipment grant under the project was
used to buy instruments such as data acquisition and storage system for
online data access from the test chamber, solar water heater, solar panels, TDS
and pH meter, electrometer, etc. Although the students were aware of this
equipment,they had never had the opportunity to use it. They got practical
knowledge about the working of this equipment during the course of the
project. Now this equipment is available toall college students and they can
use it to enhance their knowledge.
The well-researched report that includeda database on how to generate
purified water using solar energy in tough weather conditions is now a
valuable addition to the college resources. The data can be used to provide
solutions to similar problems faced in other areas.
The faculty of the collegegot an opportunity to visit areas where reaching
on an individual basis would have been difficult. Reaching remote villages
and getting first-hand knowledge about the problems being faced by the local
people was anenriching experience for them.
Benefits to Society
Science should be used to help the society at large rather than confining
itsbenefits to purelyacademic interests. The research problem chosen in
thisproject was concerned with the purification of water for drinking purpose
in rural areas using locally available renewable energy resources. Hence the
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outreach of the benefits was quite large. When the team of students and
teachers reached the six selected villages under the jurisdiction of Ajmer
district, the local people got a platform to raise their concerns and they were
happy to know that efforts werebeing made to take their concerns to a higher
level. Water samples were collected from different sources of water, and the
local people were educated about the presence and absence of toxic elements
in the water. They were also informed about safe limits of these elements
in the drinking water. The villagers were given training in how to control
high values of hardness, TDS or pH. This training specifically involved using
locally available abundant resources of renewable energy to purify water and
control its TDS values. During the dry summer months, when the water level
depletes and resources become limited then additional sources of water can be
generated by purifying water from sources such as handpumps or borewells,
which are otherwise not used due to theirexcessive salinity.
Further Plans
Water purification and filtration for drinking purpose is a very important
area of research. The solar water distiller developed in the project will be
integrated with a water purifier based on an RO membrane. The team is
simultaneously working on developing innovative reusable bio-membranes
for water filtration. Thisis a large scale project and requires systematic
experimentation and development of new advanced nanomaterials. The
project team is also planning to develop low cost biofilters which can be reused
and recycled. These biofilters will consist of an RO membrane supported on
a porous ceramic system. Work is in progress to make a sufficiently strong
porous ceramic support on which the membrane can be fixed. Mechanical,
structural, morphological and electrical measurements have beencarried out
to ensure the exact pore size of the ceramic support as well as the membrane so
that micro, ultra and nanofiltration can be made possible using a monolithic
unit.
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Innovation Projects in News
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