Ding Problema king Palayan - Books

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Ding Problema king Palayan - Books
First printing, English 1983
First printing, Vietnamese 1983
First printing, Tagalog 1983
First printing, Spanish 1984
First printing, Waray 1984
Second printing, English 1985
First printing, French 1985
First printing, (color pages only for
Indian- language editions)
First printing, Ilokano 1985
First printing, Cebuano 1985
First printing, Pampango 1985
First printing, Bikol 1985
ISBN 971-104 127-8
20,000 copies
50,000 copies
10,000 copies
4,000 copies
2,000 copies
10,000 copies
4,000 copies
35,000 copies
2,000 copies
2,000 copies
2,000 copies
2,000 copies
Ding
Problema
king
Palayan
REVISED EDITION
Ing mumunang limbag ning Field problems sinulat neng Dr. K. E.
Mueller ampong linuwal ne ning IRRI anyang 1970. Melimbag ya
naman ita king manga 11 a salita aliwa pa king Ingles. Kukumbiran
no ning IRRI ding aliwang makabansang programs pars king
pagpapasalese ning abyas ampo ding maglimbag kareng susulong a
bansa para magluwal pang aliwang likas a salita a aliwa pa king
Ingles. lng IRRI e ya manyad bayad kareng susulong a bansa para
kareng likas king aliwang salita da reng materyales ning IRRI. Para
kareng aliwang kutang, sumulat king Communication and
Publications Department, International Rice Research Institute, P.O.
Box 933, Manila, Philippines.
M.S. Swaminathan
Director General
1985
INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
LOS BANOS, LAGUNA, PHILIPPINES
P.0 BOX 933, MANILA, PHILIPPINES
1
KALAMNAN
4
7, 8
11, 12, 15, 16
19, 20
23
24
27
27
28
28
31
32
35
36
39
40
40
43
44
44
47
47
48
51
52
55
56
59
60, 63
64
67
68
71, 72
75
76
79
60
83
84
86, 87
89
90
Whorl maggot
Thrips
Stem borers
Gall midge
Brown planthopper
Whitebacked planthopper
Smaller brown planthopper
Rice delphacid
Green leafhopper
Zigzag leafhopper
Leaffolder
Caseworm
Rice bug
Armyworm
Cutworm
Greenhorned caterpillar
Green semilooper
Rice skipper
Crickets
Short-horned grasshopper
Ants
Mealybugs
Hispa
Leptispa
Mole cricket
Black bugs
Rats
Birds
Bacterial leaf blight
Leaf streak
Foot rot
Stripe
Blast
Sheath blight
False smut
Brown spot
Narrow brown leaf spot
Stem rot
Sheath rot
Index
Leaf scald
Bakanae and foot rot diseases
2
93
94
97
98
101, 102
105
106, 109
110
113
114
117
118
121
122
125
126
129
130
133
134
137
138
141
142
145
146
149
150
153
154
154
157
158
161
162
165
166
166
169
169
Gall dwarf
Grassy stunt
Hoja blanca
Orange leaf
Ragged stunt
Transitory yellowing
Tungro
Yellow dwarf
Yellow mottle
Stem nematode
Root-knot nematode
Cyperus diformis
Cyperus iria
Cyperus rotundus
Digitaria ciliaris
D.setigera
Echmnochloa colona
Echinochloa crus-galli
E. glabrescens
Eleusine indica
Fimbrystilis miliacea
lpornoea aquatica
ischaemum rugosum
Leptoch/oa chinensis
Monochoria vaginalis
Oryzae sativa
Sphenoclea zeylanica
Nitrogen deficiency
Phosphorus deficiency
Potassium deficiency
Sulfur deficiency
Silicon deficiency
Zinc deficiency
Salinity
Alkalinity
Iron toxicity
Peat (organic)
Boron toxicity
Aluminum toxicity
Manganese toxicity
3
Whorl maggot Hydrellia philippina. Ing maralas a
sira yapin ing malalasong laman-laman (tissue)
king gilid na ning tutubung bulung (retratu 1).
Patye lalapad la ding bulung, ding madilong
mengasirang parti lalu lang mayayakit. Mababawas ing pamagdabung ampong luluwat ing
parnagtwa na ning tanam. lng pamanyira malyari
yang magumpisa king pamamunla angga king
talwi ning pamagdabung. Ding ulad da reng
lango ning bukid maralas lang manyira kareng
palayan a makalbug king danum.
lng ustu a idad a lango, 2 mm kaba (retratu 2),
mangebun yang tunggal-tunggal king babo na
ning bulung (retrato 3). lng bayung lual a ulad
(larvae) mumunta ya king libutad na ning tanam
ampong mamangan ya ketang tagiliran na ning
tutubung bulung. Ding maberding-dilo bayung
lual a ulad (retrato4) king libutad na ning padurut
ning bulung, kalupa no kulor ding anak pang
bulung. Ding matutud a ulad (pupae) atiyu la king
lualna ning tangke. lng insektu atin yang 4 a
duminggung kaba a biye.
4
Thrips Ballothrips biformis. Ding ustu a idad ampong nimpa da reng thrips yapin deng manyira
kareng laman-laman da reng tanam ampong mamangan king agta. lng pamanyira, makaaliwang
kulor, dilo o malutu (retratu 5), ampong makarolyu king bulung. Ding sampagang maging pale
(spikelets) malyari lang e sapak butil o kaya
bitasang ala lang laman. Malyari lang masira ding
tanam king pamamunla ampong pamagdabung.
Ding thrips manyira la kareng palayan e makalbug
king danum (retratu 6).
7
Thrips. Ding malating, payat a insektu maralas
1 -2mm la kaba am pang atin lang 5-8 tayid-tayid a
sunge (retratu 7). Malyari iang atin pakpak o ala.
Nung atin lang pakpak, ding magkaparis pakaba
la, makitid ampong sapak lang makakabang
buwak. Parapareu la ding ebun am pang malalapag lang tunggal-tunggal kareng sugat kareng
laman-laman ning bulung, a gagawan da reng
bala mu lagaring ipan da reng babaing insektu.
Mangalati la ding ebun, manga 0.25 mm kaba
ampong 0.1 mm lapad, malata patye bayu la pang
lual, pero magmaputla lang dilo bayu la mapsa
ding ebun. Ding bayung apsang nimpa ala lang
kule
E la gagalo ding nimpa kaibat la meapsa pero
mapilan-pilan oras, magumpisa lang munta ka- reng
mangalambut a laman-laman da reng anak pang
bulung para mangan, kareng lalam da reng
makarolyung parti da reng bulung a malapit kong
gilid ning bulung, keng pun na ning talukab, ampong
kareng
tutubung
simpli.
Ding
panaun
ning bayung lual a ulad (larval stage) ampong
matudtud a ulad (pupal stage) mabubuu la karening lugal, nung nokarin la naman mamangan
ding ustung idad a insektu.
8
Stem borers Mamusbus tangke. Chilo suppressalis (gulisan) (retratu 8). C. polychrysus (matuling
la ding buntuk) (retratu 9), Rupela albinella (maputing South American) (retratu 10), Scirpophaga
incertulas (dilo), S. innotata (maputi) (retratu 11),
ampong Sesamia inferens (kule rosas). lng pamanyira rapat de ding bayung lual a ulad a
mamangan king kilub na ning tangke, a manyira
kareng pidadalanan da reng pamangan ampong
danum (vascular system). lng pamamusbus
(deadheart) yapin ing pamanyira king dabung
bayu pamanyampaga. Nung migkasira anyang
pekamarakal a pamagdabung, medyu makabawi
ya ing tanam potang maglual ya pang aliwang
dabung.
11
Stem borers Ing pamanyirang pamamusbus (retratu 12) malyari yang apagkamalan sakit a kresek a
sirang rapat da reng dagis. Pero ding bulung ning
tanam atin
sirang mengabusbus malagwa lang
mabagut king dabung. lng pamanyirang pipanganan ampong nung minsan pigtaklaan, mayakit
la king pun na ning mebagut a bulung.
Ding uban (whitehead) yapin lng pamanyira
kaibat ning pamanyampaga (retratu 13). Makalangi ya ini king mabilug a simpli. Ding dagis
ampong taglanging panaun bibiye lang kalupang
sintomas.
Nung ding kuwau (culm) e la meputut bayu la
miras ustu a idad, ing pamanyira angga ya king
talukab ampong malating parti na niing tangke
kind patag ning gabun. Baug la ding aliwang
sampagang pale king lalam na ning simpli.
12
Stem borer Ing pamanyira abalu ya king bayung
lual a ulad kareng kilub da reng tangke, ding
tangkeng mapuputut king kakapangan da reng
bayung lual aulad, ding dinat da king libutad ning
tangke (culm), o kaya pangaaliwang kule king
lual ampong busbus a pilwalan kareng talukab
ampong kilub tangke.
Ding kumpul-kumpul a ebun (retratu 14) kapabaluan lang malyari yang masira ing tanam. Ding
ebun da reng dilo, maputi, ampong gulisan a
mamusbus malalapag Ia king bandang makapitnang ibabo ning bulung; ding ebun da reng kule
rosas a mamusbus kareng bandang kilub na ning
talukab. Ding ebun da reng dilo ampong maputing mamusbus makabalut lang daseng buwak a
medyu kulor tsokolati. Ding ebun da reng gulisan
a mamusbus lupa lang kaliskis ampong manuling
Ia bayu mayapsa.
15
Stem borer - Ding bayung lual a ulad mumunta Ia
kareng libutad da reng talukab (retratu 15). Kareng mumunang dake ning
pamanubu ning
tanam, ding bayung lual a ulad da reng kule rosas
ampong gulisan a mamusbus atiyu Ia mu king
metung a dabung; ding bayung lual a ulad da
reng dilo ampong maputing mamusbus mayakit
lang tunggal-tunggal. Ding bayung lual ampong
matudtud a ulad maralas lang mayakit kareng
kilub da reng talukab o kilub tangke maski
makananu ya pa katas, magumpisa king lalam
ning gabun angga king simpli. Ding bayung lual
ampong matudtud a ulad da reng dilo ampong
maputing mamusbus milupa la
Patye marakal Ia ding niknik a ustu idad king
padurut da reng suiu, marakal Ia ding mangebun
king benging a ita
Ing Chilo zacconius ampong Scirpophaga sp.
mayayakit Ia king West Africa Ing pamanyira da
kalupa do retang karetang Asian species
Ing Diopsis macropthalma (stalk-eyed borer)
(retratu 16) mayakit ya naman king West Africa.
Mas maburi Ia king mabasang lugal ding ustung
dad a mamusbus. Ing bayung lual a ulad mad lbduo ya ampong atin yang aduang galame king
atiyan, a atin
mangatuling a panyakbit kareng
dulu da.
16
Gall midge orseolia oryzae. lng karaniwang sira
Ing malatubong parnanubu kalupa ning bulung
ning sibuyas, awsan dang nung misan onion leaf
gall" (retratu 17). Awsan diya narnang "silvershoot" kasi king masala ampong makintab nang
itsura. Ing pamanyira malyari yang kasing kaba
ne ning bulung a malagwang mayakit o kaya
makuyad ampong masakit apantun. Ding dabung
a atin bulutung e La manyimpli. Patye mikasimpli
ne ing tanam, ding bayung lual a ulad e da na
agiyung manyira.
19
Gall midge. Ding ustu a idad a insektu kasing
ragul do reng amuk pero ding babaing insektu
malutu Ia atiyan (retratu 18). Malalapag a ding
ebun king bandang lalam na ning bulung (retratu
19) pero malyari lang milapag ding aliwa kareng
talukab.
Ing pabanwang biye ning padurut tutuki ya
king panaun. Neng kalangian, ing e maliksing
insektu mayakit Ia king meliling tanam pale
ampong marok a dikut, bayu ya magmatudtud a
ulad. Ing ustu a idad, Iiksi ya patye magumpisa ne
ing kauran ampong miraras ya pang metung o
adwang mabilug a biye kareng aliwang tanam.
Ing mabilug a biye miraras ya 9 anggang 14
aldo kareng miyaliwang tanam; 9 anggang 26
aldo king tanam pale. Nung migkapisting sakit
king pale kareng pimamunlaaan, ing insektu
malyari makabuu yang pilan a biye bayu ya
magumpisa ing pamanyimpli.
Nung atin kalangian ampong kauran a panaun,
ding pale a tumubu neng magumpisang kauran
malyari lang e mikasakit. Ding metanam a pale
king talwi ning kauran malala lang mikasakit.
Ding peparanuman a tanam patye kalangian a
migkasakit anyang kauran, magkasakit a naman.
20
Brown planthopper-Nilaparvata lugens. Maralas
lang atiyu kareng malagwang mikasakit a Uri ning
pale, a tsarakal,
ilang
magdala king sakit a
"hopperburn" Ding migkasakit a tanam manilo Ia
ampong mangamate (retratu 20). Ding insektu
magdala lang bayrus (virus) a makapandak kareng tanam kalupa da reng grassy stunt, ragged
stunt, ampong wilted stunt. Lulusub Ia ding
ustung idad a insektu a ating mangakabang
pakpak kareng palayan (retratu 21) tsaka mang ebun Ia kareng talukab ampong libutad a uyat da
reng bulung (midrib) Ding ebun atin lang mangalapad a pitpit a kupyang-ebun (retratu 22). Ding
nimpa miapsa Ia king kilub ning 7-9 aldo Ating 5
kiasing nimpa Ing biye ning nimpa miraras yang
13-15 aldo Ing mumunang nimpa, maputi Ia, ding
katuki kule tsokolati na Ia. Ding ustu a idad a
insektu malyari lang ating makuyad a kaya
mangakabang pakpak. Ding ustu a idad a makuyad a pakpak (retratu 23) mas marakal Ia, bayu
manyampaga ampong atiyu lading babai kareng
dabung ampong kareng pekapun da reng mangalating gabun a pitamnan. Patye tutwa ne ing
tanam, maglual Ia ding mangakabang pakpak a
insektu a malyaring lumipat kareng aliwang
tanam.
23
Whitebacked planthopper
Sogatella furcifera
Maralas kayabe do rin ding brown planthoppers
ampong apapagkamalan da la. Maputi angga
pultikan kule abu la ding nimpa o kaya maputi
ampong matuling Ia (retratu 24). Ding ustu a idad
5 mm Ia kaba ampong atin lang maputing gulis
keng gulut (retratu 25). Ding babal mu ding
mangakuyad pakpak Ding whitebacked planthopper e Ia magdalang sakit ampong malagad
lamung panibatan ning "hopperburn", kasi dinitak
la bilang patye malapit ne ing pamanyampaga.
Ing dagsaan ning pisti makabiye yang mesilab a
sintomas kareng lual dang bulung ding tanam
kareng mangalating gabun a pitamnan (retratu
26).
24
Smaller brown planthopper Landelphax striatelus (retratu 27) Marakal a kareng kasantingan
paling lugal. Maydala lang bayrus a panibatan da
reng sakit a black streaked dwarf ampong stripe.
Ding ustu a idad a insektu adwa Ia itsura pakpak,
makaba ampong makuyad
Rice deLphacid Sogatodes oryzicola (retratu 28).
Atiyu king America ampong yapin ing mumunang magdala kareng bayrus ning hoja blanca o
maputing bulung. Ding ustu a idad a insektu
adwa Ia itsura pakpak, makaba ampong makuyad
27
Green leafhopper Nephotettix spp(retratu 29).
Importanti lang magdala kareng bayrus a panibatan da reng sakit a makapandak king tanam a pale
(rice dwarf), pamanilo (transitory yellowing),
tungro ampong pamanilo ampong makapandak
(yellow dwarf) a sakit. Ding ustu a idad 3-5 mm Ia
kaba, masalang berdi ampong atm lang miyayaliwang matuling a pultik. Ding ebun malalapag Ia
kareng libutad a uyat da reng bulung ampong
talukab. Atin
5 klasing nimpa a miyayaliwa Ia
naman pultik.
Zigzag leafhopper Recilia dorsalis (retratu 30).
Magdala kareng bayrus a panibatan da reng sakit
a bulutungang pandak (gall dwarf), tungro ampong kule kulyawan a bulung (orange leaf) ampong manyipsip lang agta ning tanam. Ding
pakpak da reng ustu a idad atin lang sig-sag a
gulis. Ding nimpa kulor lang madilodilong tsokolati.
28
Leaffolder
Manuklip bulung Cnaphalocrocis
medinalis (retratu 31). Ing pamanyira lalto lang
maputing pipanganan a lugal keng palayan. Ding
malalang pangasira lalto lang mengasilab. Ding
sakit da reng bulung, lab na ing bacterial leaf
streak, malyari lang magumpisa kareng gilid da
reng mengasirang bulung.
Ding ustu a idad a insektu mangebun Ia kareng
babo da reng bulung malapit keng libutad a uyat
(retratu 32). Ding bayung lual a ulad (retratu 33)
mamangan Ia kareng laman-laman ning bulung
ampong manuklip lang bulung neng tutwa Ia para
maging lang tubo (retratu 34). Ing panaun ning
pamanudtud ning ulad mararapat ya ketang kiluban ning makatuklip a partL
31
Caseworm
Nymphula
depunctalis
Makagisan
lang bulung ning tanam a pale bayu king pekamarakal a pamagdabung. Gigisanan no ning
bayung lual a ulad ding laman-laman ning bulung,
maglakwan la mung bala mu papil a balat king
makababong parti (upper epidermis). Ing karaniwang pamanyira king bulung ya pin deng
pakerang linya a berding materyal a maglupang
eran. Ding malalang migkapisting palayan puputi
Ia itsura kasi kareng tilus da reng mengasirang
tanam, Ialu na kareng pipamunlaan (retratu 35).
Ding ustu la idad a insektu 6 mm la kaba
ampong 15mm Ia lapad ding pakpak (retratu 36).
Ding insektu pambengi Ia ampong maburi Ia king
masala. Ding ebun malalapag Ia king banding
lalam da reng bulung a makalutang king danum.
Ding bayung lual la ulad maralas lang atiyu
kareng mas matwang punla da reng tanam a pale
kareng pipamunisan ampong kareng bayung
lipat a punla. Pupututan do reng bulung ampong
babalut do reng sarili da keng metung a parti ning
bulung (retratu 37) Ding meputut a bulung a akit
kareng lele da reng pilapil, nung nokarin Ia
malyaring alabul o aagus ning danum, lupa lang
meputut ning gunting.
Ing metung a padurut a biye miraras yang 35
aldo.
32
Rice bug Leptocorisa oratorius Metung kareng
dakal a uri ning tuneng kutong mamangan keng
lululut a butil-pale. Ding ustu a idad ampong nimpa
mamusbus lang both pale keng libutad
ning
lemma ampong malating balat ning apa ning
pale (palea) Ing pamamangan da neng panaun
ning gatasan (milk stage) mikaresulta king bining
alang laman. Ing pamamangan naman neng
malambut a manarinang panaun (soft dough
stage) makababa king klasi ning butil ampong
makaaspak kareng butil (retratu 38).
Ding ustu a idad a insektu kule tsokolati Ia,
makitid a atin mangakabang bitis ampong antena
(antennae) (retratu 39) Ding ebun malalapag
lang palinya kareng bulung ampong simpli. Ding
berding nimpa ampong matwang insektu pareu
lang atin mabuluk a bau.
35
Armyworm Ulad ning punlang pale Mythimna
separata (retratu 40). Ding ali-aliwang uri ning
armyworm akakwa do reng lagyu da kareng ugali
dang palto king tsarakal a bilang. Patye kagisanan
na lang pamangan, mako Ia para manintun aIiwang bayung palayan. Mamangan lang ali-aliwang
klasing dikut ding armyworm. Ing pamanyira
rapat de reng bayung lual a ulad a mamangan
kareng bulung. Magumpisa lang mamangan kareng
qilid, lalakwan da na mu ding libutad a
uyat
ampong tangke. Ing Mythimna separate mamutut
ya naman simpli keng pun ampong awsan deng
"earhead-cutting caterpillar."
36
Cutworm Spodoptera litura (retratu 41). Manguna
yang problema ing karaniwang cutworm kareng
tanam a pale king malanging gabun kasi mangailangan yang malanging gabun para akumpletu
ne ing metung a durut ning biye. Ding tanam a
pale makalbug king danum mangasira Ia kareng
bayung lual a ulad manibatan kareng madikut a
lugal. Ding anak pang ulad a caterpillar kakanan
do mu ding bulung; ding ustung idad a ulad (retratu
42) kakanan de ing mabilug a tanam.
Mamutut lang punla kareng pun da.
39
Greenhorned caterpillar Melanitis leda ismene.
Ding ustu a idad (retratu 43) mangebun la kareng
bulung. Ding bayung lual a ulad (retratu 44) atin
lang adwang paris a sunge, ing metung manibatan ya king dulo ning buntuk, ing metung
man ibat ya king atiyan.
Green semilooper Naranga aenescens (retratu
45). Ding bayung lual a ulad kapareu Ia sukat
ampong ugali keng berding mabuwak a ulad
(green hairy caterpillar). Pekamarakal Ia king
pipamunlaan angga king marakal a pamagdabung. Gagapang Ia ding bayung lual a ulad
kalupa da reng inchworm, aarku Ia ding gulut da
patye gagapang Ia.
40
Rice skipper Pelopidas mathias Ing ulad mamangan ya king gilid ning bulung papunta keng
libutad kaibat, pakabang pante keng libutad a
uyat-bulung (retratu 46). Ing pamanyirang a rapat
da reng skipper ampong greenhorned ampong
green hairy caterpillars ampong semilooper parapareu Ia.
Ding ustung idad a insektu atin lang lupang
panyakbit a sunge (retratu 47). Mabilis Ia sulapo
ampong pagire-gire. Ding matudtud a ulad makasabit Ia kareng makatuklip a bulung kareng
karelang malasedang sinulad (retratu 48).
43
Crickets Kamaru Euscyrtus Concinnus (retratu
49). Mamangan Ia kareng bulung, maglakwan
lang busbus samantalang lalakwan do reng gilid
da reng buIung. Ding bulung maglupa lang
gisi-gisL
Short-horned grasshopper Makuyad sungeng
durun Oxya spp. (retratu 50). Magdala king sakit a
magpultikang-dilo (yellow mottle). Alalagas do
bulung ding tanam a pale king pamaglako ra
kareng mangaragul a parti kareng gilid da reng
bulung. Ding sula-sulapong durun awsan dong
Iipaktung.
44
Ants Panas Solenopsis geminata (retratu 51).
Maglako lang bini kareng e meranum a palayan
king libutad ning panaun ning pamanyalbag bini
(sowing) ampong pamaniupling (seedling emergence), a makaresulta king mangalagad amponge
pante-panteng pamanubu.
Mealybugs Brevennia rehi (retratu 52). Maralas Ia
reni kareng lugal a masalese ing pangatiktik ning
mesalud a uran. Manyipsip lang agta da reng
tanam ampong makapandak lang pamanubu. Ing
masikan a pamanyalake ning sakit makapigil ya
king pamaglual ning simpli (panicle). Ding mesalakeng palayan atin lang makakawaning patseng
lugal ning pandak a tanam.
Ding mealybugs mangalati lang kulor malutulutung maputi, malambut Ia katawan, ampong
insektu lang alang pakpak a makabalut king
manipis a materyal. Mayayakit Ia rening kumpulkumpul a makasabit kareng tangke ampong talukab ning tanam.
47
Hispa Dicladispa armigera retratu 53). Ding makitid a maputing parti kareng bulung yapin ding
karaniwan a pangasira. Ding sobrang mengasirang palayan lupa lang me "hopperburned"
Ding ustu a idad ampong ding ulad ning
salagubang (grub) manyira Ia kareng tanam.
Ding ustu a idad a salagubang suksukan Ia.
Mamangan Ia kareng babo da reng balat-bulung,
angga king lalam ning balat-buIung. Dakal mayakit a ustu a idad a salagu bang kareng talagang
makayaltong mengasirang palayan. Maralas lilipat a ding salagubang manibat kareng pale a
limput dili da (volunteer rice) o kareng punlang
tinubung menibat kareng mepupul a pale (ratoon
rice), papunta kareng anak pang tanam a pale
Ing hispa ing panibatan ning marok a pamanyira
kareng makatanam keng lele a gilid da reng
palayan.
Ding salagubang mawawala Ia patye tinuwa ne
ing tanam.
Ding babaing hispa a salagubang mangebun Ia
kareng lalam ning balat da reng bulung. Ding
ulad mumunta Ia kareng materyales ning bulung,
king libutad ning babo ampong lalam a balat, a
panibatan da reng magagawang e parapareung
Iungga. Ding ulad ampong matudtud a ulad
mayayakit Ia kareng laman-laman ning bulung.
Ing padurut a biye ning hispa miraras yang 3-4
a duminggu.
48
Leptispa Leptispa pygmaea . Makapanyira ya kalupa ning rapat ning hispa (retratu 54), pero mas
makitid Ia ding gulis a pipanganan da. Ding
dilong ulad mamangan Ia naman kareng bulung.
lng ustu a idad malati lang pakabang salagubang (retratu 55). Ing Leptispa ampo ing hispa
maralas lang mayayakit king pareung palayan.
51
Mole cricket Gryllotalpa Africana (retratu 56).
Makamate Ia king pamamutut da kareng tanam
keng pun. Ing pinsala apagkamalan ya king
pinsalang rapat ning stem borer, pero ding mole
crickets mamangan Ia kareng anak a uyat ampong
lalam a parti ning tanam keng lalam gabun
Problema la ding mole crickets kareng e makalbug a palayan. Ding makalbug a pale magkapinsala Ia mu kaibat Ia melakong danum o kareng
patsing nokarin e pareu ing lalam ning danum
ampong makalual ya ing gabun. Ing pagpaparanum king palayan makapalako ya kareng
crickets papunta kareng pilapil, nung nokarin Ia
mangebun kareng mangasiyas a parti ning makalalam a gabun. Ding lungga da reng mole crickets
lupa lang megulong lugal ning gabun.
52
Black bugs Scotinophora spp. (retratu 57). Makasira lang tanam king pamanyipsip da kareng agta.
Magkule tsokolati anggang malalam a pangakule
tsokolati Ia ding gilid ning busbus a pipanganan,
a kalupa na ning sakit a blast lesion. Ding tilus da
reng bulung o gilid, ding libutad a bulung, o ing
mabilug a tanam malyari yang langi. Ding bulung
keng libutad malyari lang magrolyung pakaba.
Maburi Ia king mabasa ding black bugs ampong matudtud Ia patye malangi ing panaun o
kaya patye marimla a kaya mapali ing temperatura. Neng masalese ing kundisyun, ding ustu a
idad a insektu mumunta Ia kareng palayan ampang mamangan lang bulung a talukab da reng
anak pang tanam. Kareng mangatwang tanam,
mamangan Ia kareng talukab malapit kong pun
na ning tanam.
Ding ebun makasamasan lang 2-4 a ilera kong
baba da reng bulung ampang talukab da reng
pale ampong aliwang dikut. Ding bayung lapag a
ebun maputla Ia pa pero magkule lang malalam
akulyawan bayu Ia miapsa king kilub ning 6 a aldo.
Ding bayung apsang nimpa muna lang mamangan king malapit kareng tsarakal a ebun,
kaibat mumunta Ia karengpun da reng tanam.
55
Rats Dagis. Kakanan do reng tanam a pale maski
anu pa idad pero pekamaragul ing pamanyira
kaibat ning umpisa ning pamanyimpli, nung
kapilan malyari dong kanan ing pun ning anak
pang usbung ning simpli a kaya pututan de ing
tangke para mepangan ya ing butil. Ding senyas
ning pamamangan keng pun na ning tanam,
makayaliwa ya king pamanyira rapat ning dagis
keta king pamanyirang rapat ning insektung
mamusbus tangke (stem borer damage).
Malapad ing agiyu dang siran ding dagis
kareng palayan tsaka malyari deng siran ing
mabilug a patanam liban king makapadurut kareng gilid ning palayan (retratu 58). Nung maranun ya merapat ing pamanyira, ding mepinsalang
tanam malyari la pang makapatubung bayung
dabung, ya pin ing palayan ating yang anak pang
simpli king libutad ampong mangatwang simpli
kareng gilid Ding tanam e no makabawi patye
merapat ing pinsala king talwing panaun ning
pamanubu.
56
Birds Ayup (retratu 59). Agiyu dong siran ding
pale maritak a oras kaibat menyampaga, pero
pekamaragul ing pamanyira neng panaun libutad
ning pamangatas (milk stage) ampong pamagarina (dough stage). Pipigan do reng magatas a
butil ampong kakanan do reng laman ya pin ding
butil medyu makabalut lang maputing magatas a
bage. Ing resulta ya pin ding butil a alang laman.
Neng malapit ne ing pamagtwa, ding ayup lalako
dong mabilug ding butil. Ing pinsalang rapat da
reng ayup patye panaun ning pamangatas mayaliwa ya king uban a rapat da reng insektung
mamusbus tangke kasi e na man eganaganang
butil kareng simpli apa namu. Ding sampling
mepinsala kareng mamusbus tangke maralas apa
na Ia mu ampong malagwa neng mabagut
ingsimpli.
59
Bacterial leaf blight a rapat ning Xanthomonas
campestris pv. Oryzae (X. oryzae) (retratu 60).
Ding sugat a kulor dilo anggang maputi magumpisa la pang mengababad a gulis kareng gilid
ning taram ning bulung. Ding sugat malyari lang
magumpisa king metung a pareung gilid na ning
bulung, a maski nakarin kareng mesirang bulung,
kaibat sumulung Ia para masira ya ing mabilug a
bulung (retraru 61) Kareng e maresistensiyang
tanam (susceptible cultivars) ding sugat malyari
lang miras angga keng bandang lalam ning
talukab.
Ing bakteriya lulub ya king pidalanan da reng
pamangan ampang danum (vascular system) na
ning tanam a pale neng menalis tanam, nung
kapilan mangasira Ia ding uyat anyang mebagut
Ia ding punla kareng kamang pimamunlaan ampang anyang mengasira na Ia ding bulung.
60
Bacterial leaf blight . Neng lulub Ia ding cells ning
bakteriya kareng uyat ampong pun ning tangke,
ding tanam magkakresek Ia (retratu 62). Lalangi
Ia ding bulung a kaya ing mabilug a tanam neng
panaun ning pamamunla angga king umpisa ning
pamagdabung. Nung minsan ding mepinsalang
bulung da reng e maresistensiyang tanam magkule lang maputlang dilo. Ding mas matwang
bulung lupa lang normal ampong berdi. Ding mas
anak a bulung malyaring pante Ia pangadilo a
gulisan lang kule duo ampong berdi.
Ing panibatan na ning bakteriya ya pin ding
mepinsalang are, pigapasan (stubble), bayung
pepatubung tanam a atin sakit (ratoons), bini
ampong tutubung marok a dikut. Ing sakit a blight
kakalat ne ning ambun, danum king palayan,
uran, albug, ampong masikan a angin. Ding cells
ning bakteriya magporma lang malating butilbutil neng abak, kaibat sumiyas Ia ampong mipekat Ia kareng balat da reng bulung ning tanam
(retratu 63). Ing pawas kareng balat da reng
bulung makalaso ya kareng butil-butil kaibat
malyari nong mikalat ding bakteriya.
Ing matas a abonung nitrogeno makabiye ya
king epidemiyung blight, lalu kereng lugal nokarin pepatubu la ding e maresistensiyang tanam.
63
Leaf streak a rapat ning Xanthomonas campestris
pv. oryzae translucens/f sp. oryzicola. Ing impeksiyun makarestriktu ya kareng taram da reng
buIung. Ding sintomas lupa lang makitid a malinong sugat kareng libutad da reng uyat-bulung
(retratu 64). Neng daragul ne ing sakit, daragul Ia
ding sugat, magkule tsokolati Ia ampong daragul
lang makailera lampas kareng mengaragul a
uyat-bulung. Ding mabilug a bulung da reng e
maresistensiyang tanam magkule tsokolati Ia
ampong mangamate. Neng masanting ing kundisyun para king impeksiyun, ding tanam keng
mabilug a palayan kule lang madilo-dilong kulyawan (retratu 65).
Ing metung a bakteriya milulub ya king tanam
kareng sugat o natural a pibuklatan kareng cells.
Lalto lang butil-butil ning bakteriya keng babo
ning bulung. Ing uran ampong masikan a angina
makasaup lang mikalat ya ing sakit.
64
Foot rot a rapat ning metung a uri ning Erwinia
chrysanthemi (retratu 66). Ding mumunang sintomas yapin ding madilong bulung ampong malalam a kule tsokolating panga buluk ning
dabung. Ing maranun a impeksiyun magumpisa
ya kareng tunggal a anak pang dabung. Kareng
mumunang dake ning pamanubu, ing talukab
mangulapu ya ampong magkule tsokolati. Ding
uyat mabilis lang mangaparas kareng pipagusbungan, libutad ning tangke ampong korona.
Ding tangke lalambut Ia ampong mabubuluk Ia
ampong atm lang e masanting a bau. Kareng
talwing dake, masyadung marakal a dabung ing
mabubulukyapin ing mabilug a tanam miraragsa
ne o malagwa neng mabagut. Mayayakit ya ing
sakit a foot rot ning panaun a pekamarakal a
pamagdabung anggang king pamanganak, pero
makasira Ia king pale karengan dake ning pamanubu neng makalbug ya ing palayan.
67
Stripe Gulis a sakit a rapat ning Pseudomonas
setariae. Ding mumunang sintomas kule lang
malalam a berding pakabang gulis a lupang
mebabad malapit keng pun da reng talukab da
reng punla (retratu 67). Patye mamasa-masa ing
panaun, ding sugat kakaba Ia angga king kaba
ning talukab papunta king taram ning bulung.
Maging kule lang malalam tsokolati. Ding sugat
maralas ain lang kabang 3-10 sentimetru (sm)
ampong 0.5-1 milimetru (mm) lapad, pero nung
misan misasagana Ia para laIu lang milapad.
Nung mayan mu ing impeksiyun, tumubu Ia pa rin
ding punla oneng magkasakit Ia king maragul a
pamaminsala (retratu 68). Ding mas mabayat a
impeksiyun
makapandak ampong makamate
kareng punla.
Ing pinsala kareng anak, maglakong tuklip a
bulung awsan deng bud rot. Nung milyari ita,
mate ya ing tanain. Maralas ing impeksiyun
kareng ustung idad a tanam, pero malyari mu
naman marapat kareng dabung a bayu pang
tubu.
68
Blast a rapat ning Pyricularia oryzae Cav. (retratu
69). Ing kulapu (fungus) a ini agiyu neng dinan
impeksiyun ing tanam a pale maski nanu pang
idad ning pamanubu. Ding maralas a sugat korti
lang mata — malapad keng libutad ampong
patilus kareng gilid da (retratu 70). Ding mangaragul a sugat (1 anggang 1.5 X 0.3 anggang 0.5
sm) maralas magkakule abu lang Iibutad Malyari
lang mangamate ding bulung da reng e maresistensiyang uri ning pale. Masakit yang piyaliwa
ding sugat a sukad buntuk-karayum, a buri nang
sabyan maresistensiya ya ing tanam, kareng
sintomas ning sakit a brown spot.
71
Rice blast malyari lang milub king tangke kareng
pipagusbungan (retratu 71). Masisira ya ing talukab, manuling ya ampong malagwa yang mababangal. Malyaring mikasugat kareng batal da
reng simpli. Ding mepinsalang batal manuling
ampong mapuputut Ia. Neng memuluk ne ing
batal (neck rot), ding simpli ala o ditak na Ia pale
(retratu 72). Maburi ya ing impeksiyun neng
marakal ing nitrogenu ampong mabasa Ia ding
bulung.
72
Sheath blight a rapat ning Rhizoctonia solani
Kuhn (Thanatephorus cucumeris [FR] Donk).
Ding mumunang sintomas batik ang kule maberdi-berding-abu a tutubu manibat kareng talukab malapit king pidadalanan ning danurn. Ding
pabilug a korting ebun a batik, manga 1 sentimetru kaba, dagul Ia, kumaba anggang 2 o 3 sm
ampong miyabe. Ding gilid da reng sugat ampong
aliwang kulorda reng sugat bibiye lang malinong
korti keng mepinsalang lugal (retratu 73). Neng
makanayun ing mamasa-masang kundisyun
mayayawa Ia ding bulung kasiping da reng
mengapinsalang tangke. Mas malino Ia ding
sintomas patye manyampaga ampong tutwa ne
ingtanam. Ing malalang impeksiyun makaresulta
ya king e mayap a pangasapak da reng pale.
75
False smut a rapat ning Ustilaginoidea virens CK
Tak. (retratu 74). Mayayakit Ia ding sintomas
neng tutwa no ding butil. Ding balang butil ning
simpli maging butil-butil o isporo (spores) lang
dakal a kule berdi king lual ampong madilodilong-kulyawan keng kilub (retratu 75). Ding
anak pang isporong bola atin lang sukad 1 sm
tsaka mas makaba pa neng tutwa. Ding Chlamydospores (balat ning isporo) e Ia makalako agad
kareng isporo kasi ating mapekat a materyales.
Maralas, ditak mung sampaga da reng simpli ing
mapipinsala.
76
Brown spot Kule tsokolating batik a rapat ning
Helminthosporium oryzae Breda de Haan (Cochliobolus miyabeanus Drech ex Dastur) (retratu 76).
Ding pekaayakit a sintomas atiyu Ia kareng
bulung ampong pun ning pale (glumes). Ding
keraklan a batik kareng bulung korting ebun Ia,
kalupa ning sukad ampong korti da reng butul
ning sesame (retratu 77). Maralas parapareu Ia
sukad ampong pante-pante Ia pangakalat king
babo ning bulung. Ding bayung pultik malati Ia,
pabilug, 0.05 angga 0.1 sm sukad libutad, ampong
maralas kule malalam a tsokolati. Ding pekamaragul a sugat0.4-1 smX 0.1-02 sin, kule tsokolati
la ampong kule abu ampong maputi-puti Ia
libutad. Keraklan kareng batik atin lang maputlang dilo a aslag kareng gilid da. Mas mangaragul
Ia ding batik ampong e do kasing pante da reng
pultik ning sakit a narrow brown leaf spot.
79
Narrow brown loaf spot a rapat ning Cercospora
oryzae Miyake (Sphaerulina oryzee Hara) (retratu
78, 79). Malyaring mika makuyad, makalinyang
kule tsokolating sugat ning bulung kareng talukab, sanga ning pale (pedicles), ampong pun
ning pale (glumes). Ing pakabang sukad ning
balang batik pante ya king kaba ning uyat ning
bulung. Ding sugat atin lang 2-10 mm X 1 mm
lapad, makitid, makuyad, ampong malalam Ia
pangakuletsokolati kareng uring maresistensiya;
mas malapad, maputla pangakule tsokolati, ampong makitid Ia libutad kareng uring e maresistensiya. Maralas ing narrow brown leaf spots kule
lang malutu-lutung tsokolati puputla kareng gilid.
80
Stem rot a rapat ning Helminthosporium sigmoideum (Leptosphaeria salvinii) (retratu 80).
Ing impeksiyun maralas atiyu malapit king pidadalanan ning danum, lulub ya kareng sugat
ampong mengasirang parti. Magumpisa ya pang
matuling, e masalang, e pante-panteng sugat
keng lual ning talukab ampong ditak-ditak yang
daragul. Neng pa, ing amag milub ne keng libutad
ning tangke ampong makaina ya king tangke a
makaresuita king pamanomba (retratu 81).
83
Sheath rot a rapat ning Sarocladium oryzae
(Sawada) Gums and Hawksworth (retratu 82).
Ing impeksiyun mararapat ya keng pekababo
ning talukab ning talwing parti ning pamamuktut.
Ding mumunang sintomas pultik lang korting
ebun a e pante-pante, 0.5-1.5 sm kaba, a mikakuleng abung libutad ampong kuleng tsokolating
gilid o kule abung-tsokolati egana-gana na. Daragul a ding sugat anggang mitayid la ampong
mapinsala ne ing mabilug atalukab. Ing malalang
impeksiyun makapigil ya king pamanyimpli (retratu 83). Ding e linuwal a simpli muluk Ia ampong
mayakit Ia ding marakal a tutubung pulburang
amag keng kilub ning talukab. Ding bagyang
linuwal a simpli e Ia mayap pangasapak reng butil
da. Ding meimpeksiyun a tanam malyari Ia pang
mapinsala da reng insektung mamusbus tangke
o magkaaliwa pang pangasira keng lalam ning
tangke. Ing sakit a mi makayabe ya kareng tanam
a ating impeksiyun ning bayrus.
84
INDEX
INSECTS
Ants Solenopsis geminata, 46-47
Armyworm Mythimna separata, 36-37
Black bugs Scotinophara spp., 54-55
Brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, 22-23
Caseworm Nymphula depunctalis, 32-33
Crickets Euscyrtus concinnus, 44-45
Cutworm Spodoptera litura, 38-39
Gall midge Orsecila cryzae, 18-21
Greenhorned caterpillar Melanitis leda ismene, 40-41
Green leafhopper Nephotettix spp., 28-29
Green semilooper Naranga aenescens, 40-41
Hispa Dicladispa armigera, 48-49
Leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, 30-31
Leptispa Leptispa pygmaea. 50-51
Mealybugs Brevennila rehi. 46-47
Mole cricket Gryllotalpa africana, 52-53
Rice bug Leptocorisa oratorius, 34-35
Rice delphacid Sogatodes oryzicola, 26-27
Rice skipper Pelopidas mathias. 42-43
Short-horned grasshopper Oxya spp., 44-45
Smaller brown planthopper Laodelphax striatellus, 26-27
Stem borers Chilo suppressalis, C. polyctirysus, Rupela albinella, Scorpophaga . incertulas, S. innotata, Sesamia inferens, Chilo zacconius, Diopsis macrophthalma, 10-17
Thrips Baliothrips biformis. 6-9
Whitebacked planthopper Sogatella furcifera, 24-25
Whorl maggot Hydrellia philippina, 4-5
Zigzag leafhopper Recillia dorsalis, 28-29
DISEASES
Bacterial leaf blight, 60-63
Bakanae and foot rot diseases, 90-91
Blast, 70-73
Brown spot, 78-79
False smut, 76-77
Foot rot, 66-67
Gall dwarf, 92-93
Grassy stunt, 94-95
Hoja blanca, 96-97
Leaf scald, 88-89
Leaf streak, 64-65
Narrow brown leaf spot, 80-81
Orange leaf, 98-99
Ragged stunt,100-103
Root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola, 116-117
86
Sheath blight, 74-75
Sheath rot, 82-83
Stem nematode Ditylenchus angustus, 114-115
Stem rot, 84-85
Stripe, 68-69
Transitory yellowing, 104-105
Tungro, 106-109
Yellow dwarf, 110-111
Yellow mottle. 112-113
WEEDS
Cyperus difformis, 118-119
Cyperus iria, 120-121
Cyperus rotundus, 122-123
Digitaria ciliaris, 124-125
Digitaria setigera, 126-127
Echinochloa colona, 128-129
Echinochloa crus-galli, 130-131
Echinochloa glabrescens, 132-133
Eleusine indica, 134-135
Fimbristylis miIiacea, 136-137
Ipomoea aquatica, 138-139
Ischaemum rugosum, 140-141
Leptochloa chinensis, 142-143
Monochoria vaginalis, 144-145
Oryza sativa L. (red rice), 146-1 47
Sphenoclea zeylanica, 148-149
SOIL PROBLEMS
Alkalinity, 162-163
Aluminum toxicity, 168-169
Boron toxicity, 166-167
Iron toxicity, 164-165
Manganese toxicity, 168-169
Nitrogen deficiency, 150-151
Peat (organic), 166-167
Phosphorus deficiency, 152-153
Potassium deficiency, 154-155
Salinity, 160-181
Silicon deficiency, 156-157
Sulfur deficiency, 154-155
Zinc deficiency, 158-159
OTHERS
Birds. 58-59
Rats.56-57
87
Leaf scald, sakit a madadala kareng punla a
rapat ning Rhynchosporiurn oryzae Has. and
Yokogi (Metasphaeria albescens [Von Thumen]
Wei) (retratu 84). Maralas atiyu kareng dulu da
reng mangatwang bulung. Nung minsan atiyu Ia
ka-reng gilid o aliwa pang parti ning bulung. Ding
sugat korting ebun a diamanti Ia, 1-5 sm kaba X
0.5 sm lapad, patsi lang mengababad danum.
Ding sugat daragul lang mangaragul a pabilug o
oblong, a kule olibo a padurutan ning matuling a
manipis a batik ampong maputlang tsokolating
lugit (halo). Ding mitutuking batik a ating malalam pangakule tsokolating lugit ampong maputlang kiluban atin lang pamanyariling lugit (zonation). Ding marok a pangapinsalang bulung Ialangi Ia ampong magkule lang mebilad a are a atin
tsokolating lugit ampong bagyang pangaputi.
Ing tuki-tuking pamagragul da reng sugat
malyari neng atakpan ing mabilug a bulung
(retratu 85). Ing sakit a leaf scald abalu ya nung
ibabad Ia ding pinutut a bulung keng malinis a
danum king kilub ning 5-10 minuto.
Nung ating lumual a magatas-gatas a likidu
keng meputut a parti, ini ing sakit a bacterial leaf
blight. Nung alang lumual ya pin ing sakit a leaf
scald.
89
Bakanae and foot rot diseases sakit a madadala
kareng punla a rapat ning Fusarium moniliforme
Shel (Gibberella fujikuroi Saw.). Ding meimpeksiyun a punla nung misan dobli la pa katas kareng
normal a tanam, a atin kule madilo-dilo-berding
bulung (retratu 86). Ding mengakabang tanam
mangamate la. Ing pangapandak at pamamuluk
ning pun a pangapate ning punla yapin deng
sintomas.
Ding meimpeksiyun a tanam atin lang mangakatas, a patpating dabung. Ding banderang
bulung maputla Ia pangaberdi kulor, malagwa
lang mayayakit kareng babo da reng keraklan a
katas da reng tanam, am pang malyari lang mitubung mangalual a mangalating uyat (adventitious
roots) kareng lalam a pipagusbungan (lower
nodes) (retratu 87). Ding meimpeksiyun a tanam
a kumabiye anggang ustu a idad, mamunga lang
e sapak a butil, o ala tang laman ding simpli.
Maburi ya ing sakit patye matas ing nitrogenong
mekabit ampong manga 30 anggang 35oC (sentigrado) ing temperatura.
90
89
92
Gall dwarf . Ding meimpeksiyun a tanam pandak
Ia ampong mama Ia magdabung. Makuyad Ia
ding bulung, maralas maka pilipit a ding dulu
ampong kule lang berdi anggang malalam pangaberdi (retratu 88). Mitatalwi ing panaun ning
pamanyampaga ampong ding sampaga ala lang
bukong sanga. Ding tanam malyari lang mikasimpling mangalati. Ding sintomas Ia pin ding
pamangalbag da reng uyat ampong pamagbulutung kareng balat da reng bulung ampong
talukab. Ding bulutung maputla Ia pangaberdi o
makintab a puti, 0.4-0.5 mm lapad, 0.4-8 mm
kaba, pero maralas kulang pa king 2 mm kaba.
Ing babong balat ning bulung e ya kumpletu
(retratu 89).
Maralas e la malagwang lawen ding bulutung
keng balat ning bulung, pero malyari lang asalat
gagamitan ding taliri, magumpisa king lalam
angga king babo. Ing bulung malyari yang mika10 bulutung.
Ing bayrus a panibatan ning sakit a gall dwarf
dadalan ne ning berding lipaktung (green leafopper) ampong zig-zag leafhopper. Ing interaksiyun ning bayrus ampong ing magdala ala yang
patad (persistent) papunta king obaryung pidadalanan.
93
Grassy stunt Ding meimpeksiyun a tanam malala
Ia pangapandak ampong marakal Ia magdabung,
yapin maglupa lang dikut o ala rosas Ia itsura
(retratu 90). Ding bulung makitid, makuyad, mangasiyas, maputlang berdi o berdi Ia o nung
misan atin lang pultik a kule kalawang (retratu
91). Ding meimpeksiyun a tanam keraklan mabibiye a angga tumuwa pero ditak Ia simpli magagawa. Ding simpling magagawa malati Ia, malalam a pangakule tsokolati ampong e Ia sapak
butiI.
Nung ing impeksiyun milyari ya anyang taiwing
parti ning pamanubu, ding sintomas e Ia lulual
bayu gapas pero malyari lang lumual keng pepatubuanang pasibayung tanam (ratooned rice)
Ing bayrus a panibatan ning sakit a grassy
stunt daralan ne ning brown planthopper. Ing
interaksiyun ning bayrus ampong magdala ala
yang patad (persistent) pero e ya daralan king
obaryu.
94
Hoja blanca Maputing bulung (retratu 92). Ding
meimpeksiyun a tanam pandak Ia pero ding
bulung a tutuking lumual normal Ia Nung milyari
ing impeksiyun anak ya pa ing tanam, mas
pandak ya. Ing pekaayakit a sintomas yapin ding
metung o maigit pang madilo-dilong maputi
angga maputi ngan a gulis karong bulung, ing
pamagmaputi ning mabilug a bulung, o ing
pamaglareng pultikan ning bulung (retratu 93).
Kukuyad Ia ding simpli da reng mengasakit a
tanam ampong maralas o Ia milulual karong
talukab. Ing lemma ampong palea maralas lalare
lang kule tsokolati, mabilis Ia lalangi, ampong
maralas babaluktut. Kasi ditak o ala lang bini ding
simpli, malalakwan lang makatalakad reni Ding
tanam a meimpoksiyun maralas e Ia mamamate
pero malyari lang mate nung ing impoksiyun
milyari anyang kababayu-bayu pa ning pamanubu ning tanam. Ing bayrus lilipat ne o daralan
no ning dolphacids. Ing interaksiyun ning bayrus
ampo ing magdala ala yang patad papunta kong
obaryung pidadalanan.
97
Orange leaf Kulyawan a bulung (retratu 94). Ding
tanam a meimpeksiyun medyu pandak Ia ampong
diritak Ia pamagdabuny. Ding bulung kule lang
malagintung-dilo anggang malalam a kulyawan.
Ding mumunang sintomas mayayakit Ia malapit
keng dulu ning bulung. Ding malinong gulis
pakaba Ia pante kareng uyat ning bulung. Neng
lalala ne ing sakit, ding malareng bulung magrolyu Ia palub ampong lalangi Ia magumpisa keng
dulu. Ding meimpeksiyun a tanam mabilis lang
mate, lalo na nung meimpeksiyun a anyang
bayu-bayu pang tutubu ing tanam. Ding tanam a
meimpeksiyun keng bandang talwi ning pamanubu malyari Ia pang mikasimpli o neng e Ia ngan
milulual ampong maralas baug Ia.
Ing sakit a mi mawawala yang dili na kasi
maranun lang mangamate ding tanam. Ding meteng
tanam edo panibatan ning sakit a daralan ning
magdalang insektu,
Ing makaimpeksiyun daralan ne ning zig-zag
leafhopper lng interaksiyun ning mamiye ampong magdalang sakit ala yang patad pero e ya
daralan king obaryu.
98
Ragged stunt Papandak Ia ding tanam a mempeksiyun. Manaliwa Ia ding aliwang sintomas
neng tutubu. Ding mabulas ampong ating sakit a
tanam ustu a bilang da reng dabung pero ding
ating sakit berdi Ia pa rin kulor patye metwa Ia
ampong mas marakal no dabung kesa karing
mabulas
a
tanam.
Neng bayu-bayu Ia pa tutubu ding tanam, ding
gute-guteng bulung ya pin ding pekasintomas
(retratu 95). Mayayakit Ia ding e pante-panteng
gilid bayu ya magpalipit ing bulung. Maralas
kupas (chiorotic) yang gute-guteng parti, manilo
o tsokolating-dilo, kaibat malalaso ya ini. Patye
tutubu no ding tanam, mas maritak Ia ding guteguteng bulung a lulual. Kerakian magpalipit Ia
ding
bulung
keng
tilus
a
pun
da.
101
Ragged stunt - Ding pamangalbag da reng uyatbulung resulta ne ning palual a pamanubu da
reng phicem cells a alto kareng lual da reng
balat-bulung ampong talukab, lab
king malapit
king kwelyu. Ding maputlang dilo o maputi anggang malalam pangakule tsokolating albag da
reng uyat-bu lung manga 1 mm anggang sobra pa
king 10 sm kaba, ampong manibat 0.2 anggang
manga 1 mm lapad, ampong mangalbag lang 0.1
anggang
1
mm
keng
babo.
King talwing parti ning pamanubu, ding sin- tomas
makuyad, palipit, e ustu porma ampong gute-guteng
banderang bulung (retratu 96). Ding tanam a atin
sakit talwi Ia manyampaga ampong e ya kumpletu ing
pamaglual ning karelang simpli. Ding dabung
makapatubu
lang
sanga
manibat
kareng
makababong pipagusbungan, a maralas mamurigang
mangalating simpli. Ding tanam a
atm sakit
mas marakal Ia simpli ampong sampaga (spikelets)
kesa kareng mabulas a tanam pero mas maritak Ia
sapak a butil ding sakitan.
Ing bayrus ning ragged stunt daralan ne ning brown
planthopper. Ing interaksiyun ning bayrus ampong ing
magdala ala yang patad papunta
king
obaryung pidadalanan,
102
Transitory yellowing (Dilong pandak) (retratu
97). Ding meimpeksiyun a tanam pandak Ia. Ing
pamanilo maralas magumpisa ya king tilus da
reng makalalam a bulung. Lalto a ding pultik o
patsi-patsing kule tsokolati o kalawang kareng
melareng bulung. Kaibat ning pamanilo ning
bulung, ding meimpeksiyun a tanam lupa lang
makabawi neng makagawa Ia pang berding bulung pero malyari yang alto pasibayu ing pamanilo. Ding tanam a maranun meimpeksiyun ala
lang simpli a maina Ia manyimpli.
Ding sintomas ning transitory yellowing ampong tungro pareu a. Madadala a pareu ning
berding tipaklung (rice green leafhopper). Ing
sakit ababalu ya kareng bayrus, a partikulong
ayayakit, ampo ing kiasi ning interaksiyun ning
bay rus ampo ing magdala. Ing bayrus daralan ne
fling Nephotettix cincticeps, N. nigropictus, ampong N. virescens. Ing interaksiyun ning bayrus
ampo ing magdala ala yang patad papunta king
obaryung pidadalanan.
105
Tungro (retratu 98). Ding tanam a meimpeksiyun
pandak Ia ampong mebawas lang bagya ding
bilang da reng dabung. Ing talukab ampong
sukad ning bulung mekuyad a pareu. Ing anak, a
a pa mibubuklat a bulung masisipit ya king
makalual a talukab ampong ding bulung papalipit
o magrolyu lang bagya. Ding bulung manaliwa Ia
kule manibat king berdi angga king maputlang
dilo, angga king kulyawan-dilo, anggang king
tsokolating-dilo, magumpisa kareng tilus da reng
mas matwang bulung. Ding anak pang bulung
maralas pultikan Ia a atm lang gulis a kule
maputlang berdi o maputi a e parapareu sukad, a
pante pakaba kareng uyat-bulung. Ing pamanilo
ning bulung manaliwa ya dipendi king panaun
ning pamanubu.
Ding tanam a meimpeksiyun miraras lang ustu
a idad. Ing talwing pamanyampaga malyari yang
makaluat king pamagtwa. Ding simpli keraklan
malati, baug, ampong e Ia buung mipapalual.
Makabalut lang malalam pangakule tsokolating
patsi ding butil, a mas mababa timbang kesa
karetang manibatan kareng mabulas a tanam. Ing
mainang pupul pekaresulta ne ning maritak a
pangasapak da reng pale balang tanam. Ding
tanam a talwi na meimpeksiyun malyaring ala
lang sintomas pero ding pepatubuanan pasibayu
malyari nong atin sintomas.
106
Tungro - . Ing mas anak a tanam ampong mas e
maresistenslyang uri ning pale, mas malala Ia
impeksiyun Ing tungro yapin ing pekaimportanting bayrus a sakit ning pale king Tropical Asia.
Ing datang ning sakit makapate yang tanam, king
maragul a lugal king kilub ning makuyad a
panaun (retratu 99).
109
Yellow dwarf (retratu 100). Ding tanam a meimpeksiyun manhilo Ia ding karelang bayung lual
ampong anak pang bulung. Ding kuler ning
bulung manaliwa ya manibat king madilong- berdi
anggang maputing-berdi o maputlang dilo.
Neng malala ne ing sakit, ding tanam a meimpeksiyun keraklan maputla ampong malala la pangapandak, sisikan ing pamagdabung ampo lalambut ampong babalag la ding bulung. Ding
tanam a atm
sakit malyari lang mate pero
kerakian miraras lang ustu a idad.
Ding tanam a meimpeksiyun ditak o ala lang
simpli. Ding tanam a meimpeksiyun na king
talwing parti ning pamanubu malyari lang alang
apakit a sintomas pero ding sintomas malagwa
lang apansin kareng pepatubuanang pasibayung
atin sakit a tanam.
Ing panibatan ning sakit daralan ne ning
Nephotettix cincticeps, N. malayanus, N. nigropictus, N. parvus, ampong N. virescens. Ing
interaksiyun ning bayrus ampo ing magdala ala
yang patad ampong e pupunta king obaryung
pidadalanan.
110
Yellow mottle . Ding tanam a meimpeksiyun pandak la ampong mebawas la pamagdabung; lukutlukut Ia, pultikan, ampong atin lang madilong
patsing-gulis (streaking) kareng bulung; sira la
porma ampong maritak la maglual simpli, ampong baug Ia (retratu 101). Kareng malalang
kasu, mangamate lading tanam a meimpeksiyun.
Ding mumunang sintomas ditak lang pultik a
kule madilong-berdi kareng anak pang bulung.
Ding paltik daragul Ia kareng uyat-bulung, a
bibiye king itsurang patsing-gulis (retratu 102).
Ding bulung nung misan manilo Ia kaibat malalanta Ia. Ding talukab da reng bulung maging
paltikan Ia naman. Ding simpli e Ia lulual kareng
talukab ampong sira Ia porma, a atin mangalati
ampong alang laman a sampaga.
King palayan, ding tanam a atin sakit manilo Ia
3-4 a duminggu kaibat melipat pangatanam (retratu 103k Ding pultik-pultik o medyu madilongberding patsing gulis lalto Ia kareng pekaanak a
bulung. Ing bayrus ning yellow mottle daralan de
reng salagubang
113
Stem nematode (Ditylenchus angustus) - nematodo ya kareng bulung a ibat king gabun, parasitiku yang mamangan kareng lual da reng lamanlaman da reng e pa mibubuklat a bulung ampong
tutubung simpli. lng mumunang sintomas mangalati, lang mapuputing tuldik keng pekaanak a
bulung ning tanam. Lalapad la ding tuldik ampang bagya-bagya lang mikakalat, anggang
miragsa ya ing e pa mibubuklat a mabilug a
bulung (retratu 104). Ding aliwang bayung lulual
a bulung kulubut la ampong keraklan kareng
maglual a simpli kulubut la naman ampong ala
lanng laman ding pun ning pale (glumes) (retratu
105). Ding aliwang simpli e Ia maglual. Mikakalat
ya ing sakit keng danum a mamagus manibat
king metung a palayan papunta king aliwa, lalu na
kareng tanam a pale a makalbug (deepwater rice)
(retratu 106).
114
Root-knot nematode (Meloiodogyn graminicola)
Manyalake Ia kareng tanam a pale keng malanging gabun neng bayu Ia pa tutubu. Ding bulung
maging kulyawan a dilo, lalangi ampong magresultang dilong patsi Ia kareng palayan (retratu
107). Ding tanam a meapektuan atin lang bulutung keng uyat.
Ding aliwang bulating nematodo makanyan Ia
naman manyira. Ing root nematode makakule
tsokolating uyat Ia (retratu 108), panteng pangapandak kareng tanam ampang makalako lang
sigla king tanam Ing root lesion nematode ma
kadilo, pandak, makabawas king bilang ning
dabung ampong makapate lang punla. Ing cyst
nematode makaku pas lang bu lung, makapandak,
makabawas Ia king bilang da reng dabung
ampong makakule tsokolati lang uyat. Ing whitetip nematode a madadala kareng bini makasira
lang bulung ampong simpli.
117
Cyperus ditormis L. (retratu 109) – makatalakad
yang mapinung, makapal a bulung, banwanang
dikut (annual sedge), a 20-70 sm katas. Ding
tanyke makinis Ia, trianguiu keng babo ampong
1-4 mm kapal. Ding talukab malatubo la ampong
miyayabe Ia kareng pun da. Ding talukab king
bandang lalam kule are anggang tsokolati Ia
Ding 3-4 a bulung keng pun e la masiyas ampong
palinya Ia salese, 10-40 sm kaba ampong 2-3 mm
lapad.
Ding sampaga (inflorescence) makapal yang
tila-lobo, simpli o marakal a parasol (umbel) 5-15
mm sukad libutad, sasanga ya ining 2-4, keraklan
3 tila-bu lung a sanga, a 15-30 sm kaba ampong 6
mm lapad (retratu 110). Ding mumunang sanga
(ray) ning parasol manga 2-4 sm Ia kaba, ding
kadwa manga 1 sm kaba. Ding aliwa e Ia migagalo
(sessile), reng aliwa atiyu Ia king makabang
tangke (peduncled). Ding sanga (rays) atin lang
tila-globo o mabilug a laman king dulu da a
manga 6 mm king diametru. Ding laman a reni
atin lang makasiksik a berding pale-paleng sampaga ning dikut (spikelets) a pakaba o oblong a
pakaba (oblong linear), 2-5 mm kaba ampong
1-1.5 mm lapad, a atin 10-30 sampaga.
Ing bunga kule tsokolati yang malangi ng bunga
(achene) a pabilug (elliptical) anggang medyu
korting ebun (obovate), 0.6 mm kaba ampong
medyu mikasanga. Ing bini ya ing gagamitan king
pagpaparakal
118
Cyperus iria L. (retratu 111) - makinis yang
mabulung a banwanang dikut (annual sedge), a
20-60 sm katas, a mikatrianggulung korting tangke Ding uyat madilo-dilo lang malutu ampong
malubid Ia Babalutan ne ning talukab ing tangke
ampong manipis ya ini. Ding bulung tila-gulis
(linear) patilus (lanceolate) mas makuyad Ia
kesang king manyampagang tangke ampong
mga 5 mm lapad.
Ding sampaga kumpul lang parasol (compound
umbel) a mikasanga-sanga a manga 10 sm kaba
ampong ating pangadwang sanga manga 2 sm
kaba a atm 3-5, nung misan 7, malating bulung a
makakabit king panibatan ning sampaga (bracts)
(retratu 112) Ing pekamababang bract mas makaba ya pa king sampaga mismu. Ing 2-4 sm kaba
sampaga pakaba ya ampong makakawani ya
king sanga. Ding marakal a madilo-dilong tsokolati anggang berding pale-paleng sampagang
dikut (spikelets) makatalakad Ia, 3-10 mm kaba
ampong 1.5-2 mm lapad. Ing korting ebun a pun
ning paleng dikut (glume) manga 1-2 mm ya
kaba.
121
Cyperus rotundus L. (retratu 113) makatalakad
yang mauyat a magkatila-kamoting uyat (rhizomatous, tuborous) a makabang biyeng dukut, a
15-20 sm katas. Ding tangke makatalakad lang,
alang sanga, makinis, trianggulu ampong mengalbag Ia pun. Ding rhizomous kakalat Ia, makitid,
maputi, ampong malaman. Atin lang balut a
kaliskis neng anak a pa ampong malubid Ia neng
tutwa. Ding uyat ali-aliwa Ia korti, 1-2.5 sm kaba.
Maputi ampong maranum a neng anak pa, ampong malubid a matuling a kule tsokolati neng
tutwa. Ding malalam pangaberding bulung tilagulis la, makakera o panibatan ning sampaga
(involucral), 5-15 sm kaba ampong anggang 5
mm lapad.
Ding sampaga ning simpil o kumpul ning
parasol (compound umbel) atin lang malating 2-4
a bulung (bracts) (retratu 114). Ding sampaga a
malutulutung tsokolati kulor makasalese a tilapayung keng dulu. Ding mumunang 3-8 sanga
(rays) manga 2-5 sm kaba a atin mangakuyad a
sampagang dikut, a atin 3-10 pale-paleng sampagang dikut (spikelets), nung misan kareng
mangakuyad a sanga ampong nung misan atm
1-2 kadwang sanga keng pun ning sampaga.
Ding spikelets 1-2.5 sm Ia kaba ampong 1.52mm
lapad, sapad ampong patilus Atin lang 10-40
malating sampaga (florets) a kule malutu-lutung
tsokolati neng matwa. Ding lual a kaliskis3-4 mm
Ia kaba ampong pudpud Ia.
Ing bunga korting ebun o oblong a ebun
(oblong-ovate), 3 anggulung malanging bunga
(achene), a 1.5 mm kaba. Matuling ya ini neng
malulut. Ding rhizome, tila kamoting uyat (tuber)
ampong bini reng gagamitan king pagpaparakak
122
Digitaria ciliaris (Retz) Koel. [synonym D. adscendens (H.B.K.) Henr.] (Photo 115) - paggapang a banwanang (decumbent annual) o
makuyad a biyeng dikut (short-lived perennial) a
20-60 sm katas. Manyanga ampong magkauyat
ya ini kareng lalam a pipagusbungan. Maralas
mabuwak ya ing talukab. Sapad ampong pakaba
Ia ding bulung, a 5-15 sm kaba ampong 3-8 mm
lapad. Ding bulung maralas ala lang buwak
ampong mikasobrang balat-balat (scabrous),
kubit (undulate) a gilid. Ing ligule, manipis yang
balat, a 1-3 mm kaba ampong trianggulu yang
sapad keng babo (truncate).
Ding sampaga ya pin ing simpli a mika 3-8
sampaga atiyu king tangke a alang tuknang
kakaba (racemes), a miraras 5-15 sm kaba (retratu 116). Keraklan makapadurut Ia reni king babo
ning makabang tangke. Ing tangke ning dikut
(rachis) manipis a mikapakpak ampong ala yang
buwak. Ding sampagang dikut malera lang adwang linya king metung a arap ning axis manga 3
mm Ia kaba. Ing lalam a trianggulung pun ning
paleng dikut (glume) manga 2 mm ya kaba. Ing
patilus ning glume 1/2 anggang 4/5 ning kaba
ning sampaga. Ing lalam ning balat ning sampagang-dikut (lemma) malapad yang patilus, 5-7
uyat ampong miyayal wang pamagbuwak.
Ing bunga miyayaliwaya porma ning pabilug a
karyopsis (elliptical caryopsis). Ing bini ing gagamitan king pagpaparakal.
125
D. sefigera Roth ex R & S (retratu 117). Kapareu
ne ing ID. ciliaris, pero keraklan mas maragul Ia (1
m o maigit). Ing talukab ning bulung ala yang
buwak.Ding 6-i 5sampagarig atiyu king tangke a e
tutuknang kakaba (racemes) makapadurut Ia
salese manibat king metung a panibatan anggang
6 sm kaba. Ing lalam a paleng dikut malyaring ala
yu o malati ya mung kaliskis.
126
Ech,nochloa colon (L.) Link (jretratu 118)
banwanang dikut (annual sedge) a makinis ampong mabulung a 70-75 sm katas. Maralas makaduku ya ini ampong magkauyat ya kareng mababang pipagusbungan. Ing tangke sapad ya, kerakIan kule malutu-ube keng pun, ampong maralas
mangalbag kareng pipagusbungan. Ing talukab
ning bulung makinis ya ampong maralas sapad.
Ding quid da reng talukab libre la king babong
parti ampong ding lalam a parti kule lang malutu.
Ding balat-bulung makinis, sapad, tilagulis lang
patilus (linear lancolate), medyu babalag, anggang 25 sm kaba ampong 3-7 mm lapad. Nung
misan atin yang medyu pakerang gulis a kule ube.
Ding berdi anygang ubeng sampaga papanik yang
simpli a 6-12 sm kaba, a atin 4-8 simpling
makuyad, masiksik a tangke, a 1-3 sm kaba
ampong 3-4mm lapad (retratu 119). Ding sanga
papanik o medyu makakawani Ia king pekatangke, keraklan tsatunggal Ia pero nung misan
tsatidwa a datang. Ding mangakuyad a sampaga
Iiwas-Iiwas Ia pangasalese (alternately arranged)
king pigtubuanan Ding pale-paleng sampaga
(spikelets) korting ebun o malapad Ia (ovate to
broad ovate), matilus (acute), 2-3 mm kaba
ampong makasiksik Ia king 4 a Iinya king metung
a parti ning tangke. E Ia migagalo reni, nung
misan atin lang sunge (awn) manga 1 mm kaba.
Ing bunga pabilug yang karyopsis (elliptical
caryopsis). Ing bini ya ing gagamitan king pagpaparakal.
129
Echinochloa crus-galli, galli (L.) Beauv. ssp.hispidula
(Retz.) Honda (retratu 120) - makatalakad a
banwanang dikut (annual sedge) a 2 m katas a
atin
mangakapal
a uyat ampong matabang
esponghadong tangke. Ding lalam a parti ning
tangke keraklan masiksik Ia. Ding bulung tilagulis
Ia, angga 40 sm kaba ampong 5-15 mm lapad.
Ding sampaga kule rosas o ube Ia, nung misan
berdi, malambut yang dudukung simpli a 10-25
sm kaba a atin mangakapal a sampaga (retratu
121). Ding pekalalam a tangke yapin ding pekamakaba, nung misan miraras lang 10 sm king
kaba. Ding simpli maralas manyange Ia neng
tutwa ampong kalat Ia. Ding pipagusbungan da
reng tangke ning dikut (rachis) maralas balbasan
Ia. Ding sampaga mabilug lang tusok, 3-3.5 mm
kaba, ampong medyu mabuwak. Mangalagas ya
ini neng miras neng ustu a idad. Ing mababang
glume 1/3 anggang 3/5 ne kaba ing sampaga
Ding sunge maralas malutu o ube Ia kulor ampong 2.5 sm Ia kaba Ing lemma ning mumunang
malating kumpul ning sampaga (floret) sapad ya
o medyu korti yang palual (convex) ampong
mapurud.
Ing bunga karyopsis ya manga 2 mm kaba. Ing
bini ya ing gagamitan king pagpaparaka[
130
E. glabrescens Munro ex Hook f. (retratu 122).
Kaparen ne ing E. crus-galli pero manga 0.5-1 mm
ya katas. Ing balat-bulung patilus (acuminate)
ya. Ding talukab medyu makasara ampong kerakIan sapad la. Ding sampaga korti lang ebun
ampong manga 3 mm a kaba. Ing lemma ning
mumunang sampaga korti Lang palual (convex)
ampong makintab. Nung atin sunge (awns),
manga 1 sm la kaba deni.
133
Eleusino Indica (L.) Gaertn. (retratu 123) - makinis a medyu mabuwak, mabulung, makalatag o
makatalakad a porma, banwanang dikut (annual
sedge) a 30-90 sm katas. Ing maputi a maputlang
berding tangke sapad ya, makinis a atin ditak a
mangakabang buwak kareng gilid. Ing talukab
manga 6-9 am ya kaba, sapad, a atin ditak a
mangakabang buwak king kwelyu. Ing balatbulung sapad ya o makatuklip, tilagulis yang
patilus (linear-lanceolate), 10-30 sm kaba ampong 3-6 mm lapad, a medyu papante ya pakaba
gilid ampong mapurul a sepu. Atm yang kalatkalat a buwak king babong balat-bulung. lng
nligule manipis ya ampong gute-gute ya gilid. Atin
mangakabang buwak kareng gilid ampong keng
lugal a miyayakit ya ing bulung ampong talukab.
Ding kumpul ning sampaga tila taliri a (digitate), manyanga lang dakal keng pun (retratu
124). Nung misan, tutubu Ia ding uyat kareng
mababang pipagusbungan. lag sepung durut a
3-6 sampaga manga 4-8 sm ya kaba ampong 3-6
mm lapad. Keraklan atin lang 1-2 sobrang sampaga a medyu mababa kesa kareng aliwa. Ding
dakal a sampaga e Ia migagalo (sessile), ala lang
sunge a buwak, 4-5 mm a kaba, sapad lang sipitsipit, saksakan king 2 linya king lalam a gilid ning
sapad a rachis.
lng bunga malutung-tsokolati yang karyopsis
manga 1.5 mm kaba, korting oblong-ovate a atin
mayayakita kanal (ridges). Ding bini reng magagamit king pagpaparakal.
134
Fimbrystilis miliacea (L.) Vhal [synonym F littoralis Gaud.] (retratu 125). Makatalakad, mabulung, banwanang dikut (annual sedge) a20-70 sm
katas. lng tangke maina, sapad ya keng pun
ampong mika 4-5 mangasikan angulo keng babo
Ing manyampagang tangke 0.5-1.5 mm ya kapal
ampong mikatangke ya 2-4 a e pante, a mas
makuyad kesa keng sampaga. Ding bulung king
lalam angga Ia 35 mm kaba ampong 1-2.5 mm
lapad a mikamangalapad a tumpak-tumpak a
talukab, Ding bulung king tangke mangakuyad
Ia.
Ding sampaga e Ia makakumpul, kawakawani
Ia, 6-10 sm kaba ampong 2.5-8 sm lapad Ding
tunggalan a sampaga marakal Ia, tilaglobu, kule
tsokolati o are, ampong 2-25 mm king diametru
(retratu 126).
Ing bunga kule gatas anggang tsokolati Ia, 3 ya
angulu, 0.5-1 mm kaba ampong 0.75 mm lapad, a
atin 3 malalam a kanal keng gilid. Ing bini ya ing
gagamitan king pagpaparakal.
137
Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (retratu 127). Makinis,
malapad mikalat, maluat makatubung baging
(perennial vine). Ding tangke gagapang la o nung
misan makapalipit Ia keng burak pero ala lang
laman libutad ampong lolobu Ia neng makalutang
Ia king danum. Magkauyat la kareng pipagusbungan. Ding bulung simpli la datang, 7-5 sm
kaba ampong manga 3.5 sm lapad ampong
oblong-ovate anggang oblong-chlordate ampong
mikamatilus lang dulu. Ding gilid da reng bulung
malyari lang buu o medyu maglobu Ia (entire o
sublobed). Ding tangke manga 2.5-15 sm Ia kaba.
Ding sampagang maputi anggang kule ube, tunggal-tunggal Ia tutubu manibat kareng panibatan
ning sangang bulung (axils), ampong mika 5-15
sm kaba lang tangke (retratu 128).
Ing bunga mabilug yang kapsula manga 1 sm
kaba a atm 2 cells ampong 4 bini. Ing maputlang
pangatsokolating kulor a bini manga 4 mm ya
kaba ampong 5-7 mm lapad, makinis 0 mikamakuyad lang, makapal, a kule-abung buwak. Ding
bini o putut a tangke reng gagamitan king pagpaparakal.
138
Ischaemum rugosum Salisb (retratu 129). Maagresibung, makatalakad a mikakalat, a mabulung
a banwanang dikut, a 0.6-1.2 m katas, a ating 2
makabang sunge a pabilug, a racemes ampong
abilis akit a mikakanal-kanal a sampaga Ding
tangke kule ube Ia a ating mabuwak a pipagusbungan. Ding manyampagang tangke atin lang
mangakabang buwak king pipagusbungan. Ding
bulung pakaba lang patilus, 10-30 sm kaba ampang 5-23 mm lapad, ampang mikakalat-kalat a
buwak king pareung arap ning balat-bulung Ing
berdi o kule abung talukab medyu kawani ya
datang ampang mabuwak ya gilid.
Ding sampaga kakawani ya king adwang racemes 5-10 sm kaba neng tutwa (retratu 130).
Ding madila-dilang berdi a sampaga angga lang
6 mm kaba, paris-paris, ing metung makakabit ya,
ing metung makakawani yang tutubu king tangke
anggang 6 mm kaba Ding sunge (awns) manga
1.5-2~5 sm Ia kaba, payat ampang makapalipit Ia
king pun. Ding lalam a glumes atin lang mayayakit
a 3-6 pakibit a kanal-kanal.
Ing bunga malutu-Iutu yang kule tsakalating
karyapis, mabilug a patilus (oblang-lancealate)
ampang matilus ya keng dulu, 1.5-2 mm kaba. Ing
bini ya ing gagamitan king pagpaparakal.
141
Leptochloa chinensis (L.) Nees (retratu 131).
Malagu a mabulung, banwanang (annual), maburi
king danum (aquatic or semi-aquatic) o makuyad
a biyeng dikut (short lived perennial) a 30 sm-1 m
katas. Akakit a reni king aslagan (East), Paroba
(South) ampong Aslagan-Parobang Asia (Southeast Asia). Tutubu a king manyangang pun ding
mapayat anggang matabang tangke. Ding bulung
ampong simpli nung misan malutu o kule ube Ia.
Ing balat-bulung sapad ya ampong tila-gulis, a
patilus, a 10-30 sm kaba ampong 0.3-1 sm lapad.
Ing ligule 1-2 mm ya kaba ampong kawakawani
yang antimo buwak a bangal-bangal. Ding sampaga ya pin ing simpli a mikamatulid a tubu 10-40
sm kaba (retratu 132). Ding kayang marakal a
simpling, matulid a kakalat a tangke 5-15 sm Ia
kaba. Ding sampaga 2.5-3.5 mm a kaba ampong
atin a 4-6, keraklan 5, sampagaampong malating
tangke a 0.5-0.7 mm kaba. Ding sampaga kule
lang maputlang berdi o malutu.
Ing bunga pabilug yang karyopsis (ellipsoid
caryopsis) manga 0.8 mm kaba. Ding bini reng
gagamitan keng pagpaparakal.
142
Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. f.) Presl. (retratu
133). Banwanang, medyu babad king danum a
malapad a bulung dikut, a 40-50 sm katas. Lng
dikut a ini, metung ya cotyledon (monocotyledonous), atin a mangakuyad a malaman atangke
ampong mangakuyad a uyat. Ding bulung makintab, malalam pangakule berdi, oblong-pabilug
(oblong-ovate) anggang malapad-pabilug (broad
ovate) ampong patilus keng dulu (acuminate).
Ing cordate o biluging pun 10-15 sm ya kaba
ampong 3.5 sm lapad, Ding tangke makaba,
malambut ampong ala lang laman libutad, 10-20
sm kaba a atin pakabang uyat.
Ding sampaga 3-6 sm lang kumpul a atin ditak a
kule-asul a sampaga, manga 1 sm kaba ing
metung a manibat king antimo bulung a talukaL
Ding tangke ning sampaga kulang Ia pa king 1 sm
kaba (retratu 134).
lng bunga kapsula yang 1 sm kaba, a kakawani
king atlung lulanan. Ding bini oblong Ia ampong
manga 1 mm kaba. lIa ring gagamitan king
pagpaparakal.
145
Oryzae sativa L. (malutung pale) (retratu 135).
Malapit a kamag-anak ne ning gagambulan a
pale, nung kaninu ya malyaring miasawa Pero
ding bini da reng uri a ini, malagwa lang maspak
bayu Ia pa tumwa ampong ding simpli masyas Ia
talakad e kalupa da reng gagambulan a pale
Neng pa man, ating uring e malaywang mangaspak ampong babalag Ia simpli. Ding sampagang
maging pale malyari lang mikasunge ampong
miyaliwa Ia kaba reni Ding ustung idad a sepu
(hull) malyari lang kule area o matuling pa. lng
butil keng kilub (pericarp) pultikan ya ampong
manaliwa ya kule manibat king kule abu anggang
malutu neng tutwa ampong keng idad ning binL
Ding bini maluat Ia katudturan (prolonged dormancy) keng gabun, pero nung mepalut Ia ampong mesese Ia kalupa ning gagambulan a pale,
mapuputut ing karelang katudturan.
146
Sphenoclea zeylanice Gaertn. (retratu 136). Makatalakad yang banwanang, malapad a bujung
(annual broadleaf) a atin makinis, mataba, malaman, kakab, a marakal a tangke 0.3-1-5 m katas.
Ding bulung padurut a papanik Ia pangasalese,
simpli, oblong anggang patilus, angga 10 sm
kaba ampong 3 sm lapad. Ding bulung kikitid Ia
anggang patilus. Mangakuyad Ia tangke ampong
buu Ia gilid.
Ding berding sampaga antimo silindru Ia, makapal, keng dulu Ia manubu a 7.5 sm kaba
ampong 12mm lapad, a atiyu king tangkeng 8 sm
kaba. Ding kumpul ning maputi anggang berding
sampaga manga 2.5 mm Ia kaba ampong 2.5 mm
lapad (retratu 137).
Ing bunga globung kapsula ya, 4-5 mm lapad,
ampong kakawaning pakubit. Ing kayang marakal a bini, madilo-dilo lang pangatankolati, 0.5
mm kaba Ing bini ing gagamitan king pagpaparakal.
149
Nitrogen deficiency Kakulangan king nitrogeno
(retratu 138). Ding sintomas manaliwa la dipendi
king idad ning pamanubu nung nokarin diritak ne
mu naman ing rakal ning nitrogeno. Ing kakulangan neng bayu ya pa tutubu ing tanam ayakit
ya king madilo anggang madilo-dilong berding
bulung,pandakampung
papayatatubu,ampong
mainang pamagdabung (retratu 139). Nung ing
kakulangan rasan ne ing ustu a idad, ing bilang da
reng butil balang buntuk diritak ya.
Nung ustu karakal ing nitrogeno anyang mumuna pang parti ning pamanubu, kaibat diritak
nengtutwa, manilo lading mas matwang bulung;
ding bayu normal Ia itsura. Kapanaunan, ing
mabilug a tanam man ilo ya rin.
Ing sobrang nitrogeno makapanomba yang
tanam ampong makalako ya resistensiya king
sakit.
150
Phosphorus
Kakulangan
king
pospuro
(retratu 140). Ding sintomas ya pin ding mainanng
pamagdabung, pangapandak, ampong maritak a
pamagbutil. Ding tanam a atin kakulangan mas
berdi a ampong mas makatalakad Ia deng bulung
da kesa kareng normal. Kareng aliwang uri, ding
mas matwang bulung magkule kulyawan o ubela
(retratu 141).
153
Potassium deficiency Kakulangan king potasyum
(retratu 142). Ding sintomas ning medyu kakulangan malalam a pangaberding bulung, mainang
mapagdabung, ampong pangapandak. Ding sintomas ning malalang kakulangan madilo-dilong
kulyawan anggang madilo-dilong tsokolati kule,
manibat keng titus ning mangatwang balat-bulung
ampong ditak-ditak papunta keng pun. Lalto Ia
ding sakitan a pultik keng balat ning bulung.
Lalati arnpong iina Ia ding butil.
Ing kakulangan king potasyum maralas atiyu
kareng magaspang, mabalas a peat a gabun
ampong kareng gabun a mayaman keng pilang
manaliling potasyum (potassium fixing clays).
Sulphur deficiency. Kakulangan king suIpuro (retratu 143). Ding sintomas ya pin ding mamutlang
anak pang bulung, tutukian ning pamanilo da
reng mas matwang bulung ampong mainang
pamagdabung.
Ing kakulangan king sulpuro atiyu kareng
gabun maritak king organung materyales kareng
lugal mamasamasa ing panaun. Makalala ing
albug king kakulangan king sulpuro kasi ayalilan
no reng sasamut a sulpuro (soluble sulfates)
kingUn a e manyamut (insoluble sulfides).
154
Silicon deficiency Kakulangan king silikon (retratu 144). Ding pekasintomas ya pin ding babalag a
bulung. Makabawas ya ini king pamangwang
aslag ning aldo, kaibat, makainang pamagbutil.
Ing mas masikan a pamangwang silikon ning
tanam, mas makatalakad kareng bulung, para
IaIu deng agagamit ing aslag ning aldo. Ing
silikon makatas yang resistensiya ning tanam
kareng aliwang sakit ampong pesting insektus
. Ing mababa pa king 5O% silikon king are papakit
ne ing kakulangan ning silikon.
157
Zinc deficiency Kakulangan king zinc (retratu
145). Ding sintomas lalto Ia 2-4 dumminggu
kaibat memunla, ya pin ing pangakupas ning
libutad a uyat (midrib) ning lulual a bulung, IaIu
na king pun. Lalto Ia ding kule tsokolating batik
kareng mas matwang bulung. Ding batik daragul
Ia kaibat miyayabe Ia, a bibiye king tsokolating
kulor ning bulung (retratu 146). King malalang
kakulangan, mamate yang tanam. King medyung
kakulangan, luluat ing pamagtwa ning tanam
ampong diritak ing pamagbutil.
Ing kakulangan king zinc atiyu kareng magaspang (calcareous), alkalinung, plat ampong buIkanung gabun ampong kareng mabasang gabun
ampong makalbug maralas king pabanwa. Ing
kakulangan a ini maralas ya naman neng marakal
ing nitrogeno ampong pospurong mekabit.
158
Salinity Kaalatan (retratu 147). Ding sintomas ya
pin ing maputing makarolyung babong bulung,
magkulengtsokolating matwang bulung, ampong
babagal a pamagtwa ampong pamagdabung (retratu 148). Ing kealatan atiyu kareng malanging
(arid) lugal nung nokarin maina ing pagbaba ning
danum ampong mas mabilis ing singo (evaporation) kesa king pamaglangi (precipitation). Ding
mamasamasang malat a gabun alluvial lang
gabun king delta, estero (estuaries) ampong
mababang palayan a albugan ning danum king
dagat.
161
Alkalinity Alkalinity (retratu 149). Ding sintomas
ya pin ding pamanaliwang kule da reng bulung
manibat king maputi angga king malutu-Iutung
tsokolati manibat king titus da kareng e maresistensiyang tanam, ing pamaglare kakalat yang
patipa king tanam, a bibiye king mesilab a itsura
(retratu 150). lina ing pamanubu ampong pamagdabung. Ing alkalino atiyu kareng lugal medyu
malangi (arid) ing gabun ampong atin mu namang
kaalatan. Ding masikan alkalinong gabun malyari
Ia namang atin kakulangan king pospuro.
162
Iron toxicity Lason ning bakal (retratu 151). Ding
sintomas pultik a kule tsokolati kareng lalam a
bulung, manibat keng tilus. Kaibat, ing mabilug a
bulung magkule tsokolati ya, abu, dilo kulyawan
(retratu 152). King malalang pangalason ning
bakal, ding bulung magkule tsokolati Ia kaibat
mangamate lang ding lalam a bulung. lina ing
pamanubu ampong pamagdabung. Kaibat ing
uyat gagaspang, diritak ampong lalalam Ia pangakule tsokolati.
Ing pangalason king bakal manibatan ya king
marakal a bakal atiyu kareng makalbug, asidung
gabun. Makaina ya king pamagdabung kareng
oxisols, ultisols, aliwang histosols ampong asidung-sulpurung gabun.
165
Peat (organic) (retratu 153). Ding sintomas ya pin
ding pandak, mainang pamagdabung, pamanilo
o panagakule tsokolati da reng bulung ampong
bawas a pamaybutil.
Ding peat a gabun mayaman Ia king organung
materyales, o yumus (humus), ampong medyu
asidu Ia. Atin lang kakulangan king zinc ampong
tansu.
Boron toxicity Lason ning boron (retratu 154).
Ding sintomas ya pin ding pamanilo da reng tilus
da reng bulung a kaibat mikakalat kareng gilid.
Lalto Ia ding mangaragul a kule tsokolating batik
kareng gilid ning bulung (retratu 155). Ding
meapektuang parti magkule tsokolati la ampong
lalangi. E tutuknang ing pamanubu anggang e
sosobra ing lason.
lng lason ning boron atiyu kareng gabun king
gilid ning dagat, lugal ating malanging (arid)
gabun, gabun a paranuman dang danum ating
matas a boron, ampong mapali-paling lugal (geothermal areas).
166
Aluminum toxicity Lason ning aluminyu (retratu
156). Ding sintomas maputi o dilo lang patsi
kareng libutad ning uyat ning bulung. Ding bulung
lalangi ampong mamate Ia (retratu 157). Ding
uyat makuyad ampong malagad Ia. Pandak Ia
ding tanam.
Ing pangalason king aluminyu manibat ya king
sobrang aluminyung malalaso ampong mayalilan
king danum, Makaina ya ini keng pamanubu da
reng tanam a pale king makalbug a asidungsulpurung gabun ampong kareng tanam a pale
king malanging, masikan asidung gabun.
Manganese toxicity Lason ning mangganis (retratu 158). Ding sintomas kule lang tsokolating
batik kareng matwang bulung, pangalangi da
reng tilus dareng bulung ampong matas a
pangabaug da reng tanam. E iina ing pamanubu.
Ing pangalason king mangganis (manganese) e
ya mayap kareng tanam a pale king malangi,
asidung gabun.
169
GLOSARYO
agihan kan tubig asin kakanon. vascular system
balu-balo. pupa
bandorang dahon. flag leaf - ultimong dahon ken tinenom
dagang an alsom hali sa asido nin asopre. acid sulfate
soil
dagang kompuesto nin naglalapang tinanom. peat soil
dagang hail sa bulkan. volcanic soil
dagang mabasud. sandy soil
dagang magaspang. coarse soil
dagang matabang a daing alsom. alkali soil
dagang mayaman sa apag. calcareous soil
dagang mayaman sa dalipay na may pigtataguan nin potasyum. soils rich in potassium-fixing clays
dagang naporma sa dating parte kan dagat sa bunganga
a ngimot kan darakulang salog. delta
dagang pighonodan kan mga sapa-sapang paruluwas sa
dagat. estuary
dagang sobra an alsom. highly acidic soil
dalugi. seedling - semllya kan paroy na dai pa itinarok
daing gugudoan. sessile
enot na pagtalubo. early growth
enot na panahon kan pagtalubo. early growth stage
hasok na paroy. upland rice - paroy na itinanom Se paagi nin pagbudbod ken mge banhi sa daing tubig na
kabasan
hudyan na pagtalubo. late growth
hudyan na panahon kan pagtalubo. late growth stage
Iayas na paroy. wild rice - paroy na dai pig-aataman
asin baste na sanang minatubo
lugar na harani sa pigsasangawan nin nit hali sa iraram
kan daga. geothermal area
hinaro. well-drained rainfed environment - lugar o dagang madaling rnahubasan nin tubig
mararatong paroy. susceptible variety - peroy ne madaling magkahelang
nimpa. nymph - bagong ihimsang insektong tinutubuan
pa sana nin pakpak
pagkapugod. stunted growth - haba bang talubo ken hnanom
pagkaturog ken pisog. dormancy - an dai pagtambo kan
pisog sa paborableng kundisyon.
pagluno. molting ornymphal instar -pagbago nin patos
o kulit a karorong ken insekto
pakpakan na insekto. adult insect - insektong kompleto
na an pagkahaman kan gabos na parte kan lawas
pagpalaming kan kabasan. flooding - papatubig kan
kabasan
170
Acknowledgements
IRRI scientists who revised or added to this manual were: insects Dr. E. A. Heinrichs and Dr. J. A. Litsinger; diseases - Dr. T. Mew,
Dr. K. C. Ling, and F. Nuque; soil problems - Dr. F. N. Ponnamperums; weeds - Dr. K. Moody and Dr. S. K. De Datta. Vo-Tong Xuan,
University of Cantho, Vietnam, provided material on nematodes.
Some photos were provided by J. B. Baker of Louisiana State University, M. J. Ereniere of RAT, Montpellier, France, C. L. Graham of the
US Department of Agriculture, and by Dorance Muños of the Instituto
Colombiano Aguapecuario, Colombia. Photos were also taken from
Field problems of rice in Latin America. Editorial preparation was
coordinated by Dr. Thomas Ff. f-fargrove, Dr. LaRue Pollard, and
Edwin Tout of the IRRI Communication and Publications Department
(CPD). Ramiro Cabrera designed the first edition of Field problems of
tropical rice - and the revision - in ~ format to facilitate its inexpensive translation and copublication.
171
The International Rice Research institute (IRRI) was established in
1960 by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations with the help and
approval of the Government of the Philippines. Today IRRI is one of
13 nonprofit international research and training centers supported
by the Consultative Group for international Agricultural Research
(OGIAR). The CGIAR is sponsored by the Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAQ) of the United Nations, the International Bank
for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank), and the United
Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The OGIAR consists of
50 donor countries, international and regional organizations, and
private foundations.
IRRI receives support, through the OGIAR, from a number of
donors including:
the Asian Development Bank
the European Economic Community
the Ford Foundation
the International Development Research Centre
the International Fund for Agricultural Development
the OPEC Special Fund
the Rockefeller Foundation
the United Nations Development Programme
the World Bank
and the international aid agencies of the following governments:
Australia
Belgium
Brazil
Canada
China
Denmark
Fed. Rep- Germany
India
Italy
Japan
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Philippines
Saudi Arabia
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
United Kingdom
United States
The responsibility for this publication rests with the International
Rice Research Institute.
172

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