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Report
South African – French Network for Research in Water Science and Technology
(SAFe Water)
Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Flash Floods,
Understanding the Effect of Climate Variability on the Management of
Water Resources
Geoff PEGRAM
University KwaZulu Natal
Durban, SA
Sandrine ANQUETIN
LTHE - CNRS
Grenoble, F
Scientific Report - 2007
Aims of the project:
The aim is to strengthen the scientific collaboration between France and South Africa to
address the questions of the hydrological forecasting at different time scales (Anquetin and
Pegram, 2006). We propose to focus our work for time scales ranging from the real time
forecasting (24h) to seasonal and long term forecasting taking into account the variability
associated to the climate change.
Two main themes have been identified :
- the flash-flood forecasting;
- the impact of the climatic variability on the hydro-systems.
A short presentation of the project is proposed at:
http://www.lthe.hmg.inpg.fr/~anquetin/Projets_scientifiques_fichiers/SAFeWater/SAFeWater_LTHE.html
Means :
In the proposal submitted in June 2006 and funded late Spring 2007, we proposed three
levels of action:
1/ Visits of the South African Universities
April 2007, Christophe Bouvier (DR-IRD, HSM-Montpellier), Thierry Pellarin (CR-CNRS,
LTHE-Grenoble) and Sandrine Anquetin (CR-CRNS, LTHE-Grenoble) went for a 2 week
visit in South Africa. See the program in ANNEX 1. You can access to the presentations
(listed below) given during the tour at the following web site :
http://www.lthe.hmg.inpg.fr/~anquetin/Projets_scientifiques_fichiers/SAFeWater/Avril_2007_agenda.html
Due to the delay of the visit linked to the delay of payment of the project, Charles Perrin
(Cemagref, Antony) and Jean-Emmanuel Paturel (DR-IRD, HSM-Montpellier) had to cancel their coming.
The main purposes was : 1/ to identify common projects, 2/ to present the French universities and the research facilities to the South African students, and 3/ to visit the South African research facilities in particular the field works performed by the University of KwaZulu
Natal at Pietermaritzburg.
S. Anquetin - December 2007
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South African – French Network for Research in Water Science and Technology
(SAFe Water)
Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Flash Floods,
Understanding the Effect of Climate Variability on the Management of
Water Resources
At the end of the journey, Thierry Pellarin and Sandrine Anquetin met Samuel Elmaleh
(MAE) and Anne Corval (CNRS) at the French Embassy in Pretoria. They both explained
the available funding to welcome South African PhD and/or Postdocs in France.
2/ Research Actions.
Three main actions are going on, they concern :
- Satellite application and Hydrometeorology.
1/ Soil moisture estimation from Satellite
This theme was in the core of the Postdoc project of Théo Vischel who went in Durban
from September 2006 to September 2007. He developed a distributed hydrological model
based on the concept of TOPKAPI, performed the simulation of the Liebenbergsvlei
catchment (4600 km2) and compared the simulated soil moisture to the soil moisture estimated by the satellite (Vischel et al., 2007a,b). This collaboration will be strengthen by :
a/ the 5 month training period of Julia Pfeffer, M2R-STE from Grenoble, in Durban,
b/ WP5 of the European STREP-HYDRATE project coordinated by Marco Borga
where Goeff Pegram and Sandrine Anquetin are involved.
2/ Satellite remote sensing of rainfall.
Highlighted in Cape Town, this common action will start in Spring 2008 between LTHE
(Grenoble) and the University of Cape Town. It is proposed to welcome Michael Mehari in
Grenoble for a 2 - 3 month period to work in collaboration with Thierry Pellarin. The idea is
to build a common expertise on the rainfall estimated by satellite and its associated uncertainty.
- Non-hydrostatic modeling of the atmosphere.
LTHE has a strong expertise on the simulation of the storms associated to flash-flood in
the Mediterranean context. Ross Blamey, from the University of Cape Town, will be welcomed during May and June 2008 in Grenoble to implement a quantitative validation, developed at LTHE, of the simulated rain field associated intense precipitation in South Africa.
- Small scale hydrological processes
The observation device visited in April 2007 in South Africa appear to be very similar to the
one proposed within the framework of the SO-OHMCV 1 in the South East of France. The
main objectives are very similar and they concern : 1/ soil moisture estimation based on
electrical device, 2/ understanding and estimating the soil erosion at the catchment scale,
3/ water budget at catchment scale and the impact of the land use. Christophe Bouvier
1
http://www.lthe.hmg.inpg.fr/OHM-CV/
S. Anquetin - December 2007
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South African – French Network for Research in Water Science and Technology
(SAFe Water)
Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Flash Floods,
Understanding the Effect of Climate Variability on the Management of
Water Resources
(HSM-Montpellier) and Simon Lorentz (University KwaZulu Natal, Pietermaritzburg) are
now planning to built up a 6-month research project for a student from the PolytechʼMontpellier Engineer School Today. This training period will start late june 2008 for a 6 month
period. It will deal with the evaluation of the hillslope subsurface water dynamics using
Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) surveys.
Synthesis of the exchanges in 2007 and perspectives for 2008
2007
Sandrine Anquetin (CNRS)
France
to
2008
Julia Pfeffer (M2R-STE) Durban
Christophe Bouvier (IRD)
Thierry Pellarin (CNRS)
South Africa
PolyetchʼMontpellier Student (Engineer Final Project) Pietermaritzburg
Théo Vischel (Postdoc WRC)
Durban
South Africa
to
France
Mathieu Rouault (Cape Town)
March - Grenoble
Michael Mehari (PhD Cape Town)
March/April - Grenoble
Ross Blamey (PhD Cape Town)
May/June - Grenoble
Geoff Pegram (Durban) September - Grenoble/Montpellier
References associated ONLY to this project
Anquetin, S. and G. Pegram, 2006, Hydrometeorology and Water Ressources. Workshop
on South-African-French Research Cooperation, CNRS Headquarters, Paris, June
13th – 14th.
Pegram G., S. Sinclair and T. Vischel, 2007. Validation of remote sensing of soil moisture
in Southern Africa 13TH SANCIAHS Symposium, Cape Town.
Sinclair S., G. Pegram and T. Vischel, 2007. Spatial conditioning of Evapotranspiration potential for distributed hydrological modelling in Southern Africa. 13TH SANCIAHS
Symposium, Cape Town.
S. Anquetin - December 2007
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South African – French Network for Research in Water Science and Technology
(SAFe Water)
Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Flash Floods,
Understanding the Effect of Climate Variability on the Management of
Water Resources
Vischel T., G. Pegram, S. Sinclair, W. Wagner, A. Bartsch, 2007. Comparison of soil moisture fields estimated by catchment modelling and remote sensing: a case study in
South Africa. Accepted in Hydrologic and Earth Science System.
Vischel T., G. Pegram, S. Sinclair, M. Parak 2007. Implementation of the TOPKAPI model
in South Africa. First results on the Liebenbergsvlei catchment.. Under review for
submission in Water SA.
Vischel T., G. Pegram, S. Sinclair , 2007. Remote sensing and modeling of soil moisture:
comparison on a regional size South African catchment. 13TH SANCIAHS Symposium, Cape Town.
List of the presentations given during the tour in April 2007:
Anquetin, S., LTHE-Grenoble, France, Flash-flood in Mediterranean region.
Anquetin, S., E. Yates and V. Mano, LTHE-Grenoble, France, Flash-flood producing
storms. Synoptic analysis and orographic enhancement.
Anquetin, S., G. Delieu, V. Ducrocq, C. Bouvier, A. Walpersdorf, W. Wobrock, SO-OHMCV,
France, Hydrometeorology of Mediterranean Flash-Flood. Main results obtained from
some national projects and European actions
Anquetin, S., M2R-STE Grenoble University, Presentation of the Master of the Sciences
of the Earth and Environment, University Joseph Fourier, Grenoble.
Anquetin, S., E. Yates, V. Mano, P. Nuissier and V. Ducrocq, LTHE-Grenoble and CNRMToulouse, France, Rainfall regime in Mediterranean region. From meteorological
processes to impact of climate changes
Blamey, R., University of Cape Town, South Africa, Extreme precipitation event over the
east coast of South Africa
Bouvier, C., HSM-Montpellier, France, Small scale hydrological processes associated to
flash-flood : Observation and modelling strategies
Fauchereau, N., University of Cape Town, South Africa, Madden Fluxes and Southern
African rainfall
Kongo, V. and G. Jewitt, University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermartizburg South Africa,
Application of Scintillometry and remote sensing techniques in estimating “Green water” fluxes in the Thukela River basin
Lorentz, S., University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermartizburg South Africa, HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES RESEARCH.
S. Anquetin - December 2007
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South African – French Network for Research in Water Science and Technology
(SAFe Water)
Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Flash Floods,
Understanding the Effect of Climate Variability on the Management of
Water Resources
Mehari, M., University of Cape Town, South Africa, Satellite Remote sensing of tropical
temperate trough
Pegram, G., N. Nxumalo & S. Sinclair, University of KwaZulu Natal-Durban, South Africa, Soil moisture from satellites : Daily Maps over RSA.
Pegram, G., University of KwaZulu Natal-Durban, South Africa, Empirical Mode Decomposition Analysis of Hydro-climatological data
Pellarin, T., A. Legtchenko, J.-P. Laurent, M. Descloitres, J.-M. Cohard, J.-M. Vuillamoz,
LTHE-Grenoble, France, Water measurements at LTHE (Hydrogeophysic group).
Pellarin, T., LTHE-Grenoble, France, Remote sensing and Hydrology
Podwojewski, P., V. Chaplot and J.-L. Janeau, IRD at University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermartizburg South Africa, Rehabilitation of degraded land at different scales, in
the Province of KwaZulu-Natal
Reason, C., University of Cape Town, South Africa, The SAGRADEX Experiment.
Rouault, M, University of Cape Town, South Africa, Role of the Ocean on the Southern
African rainfall
Schulze, R., University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermartizburg South Africa, APPLIED
CLIMATE RESEARCH IN SOUTH AFRICA FOR INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT IN
THE AGRICULTURE & WATER SECTORS.
Sinclair, S., G. Pegram and T. Vichel, University of KwaZulu Natal-Durban, South Africa, Towards a spatially distributed Evapotranspiration estimate.
Smithers, J., University of KwaZulu-Natal Pietermartizburg South Africa, School of
Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology University of KwaZulu-Natal
Pietermartizburg South Africa
Vigaud, N., M. Rouault, Y. Richard and N. Fauchereau, University of Cape Town and
Université de Dijon, Water Vapour Transport and Summer Rainfall over Southern
Africa
Vischel, T., G. Pegram and S. Sinclair, University of KwaZulu Natal-Durban, South Africa, Comparison of soil moisture fields estimated by catchment modelling and remote sensing: a case study in South Africa.
Vischel, T., University of KwaZulu Natal-Durban, South Africa, Issues of scale in studies of the hydrological impact of climate change. A case study in the Sahel
S. Anquetin - December 2007
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South African – French Network for Research in Water Science and Technology
(SAFe Water)
Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Flash Floods,
Understanding the Effect of Climate Variability on the Management of
Water Resources
ANNEX 1
Program of the visits - April, 2d to April 12th, 2007
Durban - University of KwaZulu Natal
INTRODUCTION
2/4/07
• Welcome and objectives of the Project (G. Pegram and S. Anquetin)
• Presentation of the KwaZulu Natal University (G. Pegram)
morning
• Presentation of the Master of the Sciences of the Earth and Environment, University
Joseph Fourier, Grenoble and the Laboratory of Hydrologie, LTHE (S. Anquetin)
• Presentation of the Master of the Sciences of the Water, University of Montpellier
and the Laboratory HSM (C. Bouvier)
SEMINARS - Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Flash-Floods
2/4/07
• The Hydrometeorological Observatory in a French Mediterranean context (S. Anquetin)
Afternoon
• Flash-Flood producing storms. Synoptic analysis and orographic enhancement (S.
Anquetin)
• Small scale hydrological processes associated to Flash-Flood : Observation and
modelling strategies (C. Bouvier)
• Comparison of soil moisture fields estimated by catchment modelling and remote
sensing (T. Vischel)
• G. Pegram
• Potential of passive microwave remote sensing for hydrology (T. Pellarin)
PROSPECTIVE PROJECTS
3/4/07
• Short presentation of the HyMeX experiment (HYdrological cycle in the Mediterranean EXperiment) (S. Anquetin)
morning
• Proposition of future training periods for Master degree students
• Common studies
Pietermaritzburg - University of KwaZulu Natal
FIELD TRIP: Thukela Basin
• Ntabamhlope wetland
• Potshini research catchment
• Tugela Ferry
S. Anquetin - December 2007
4/4/07
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South African – French Network for Research in Water Science and Technology
(SAFe Water)
Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Flash Floods,
Understanding the Effect of Climate Variability on the Management of
Water Resources
SEMINARS - Extreme event hydrology; Climate Change research; Hydrological
Processes research
• School of Bioresources Engineering and Environmental Hydrology and Extreme
Event Hydrology (J. Smithers)
• Global Climate Change Research at SBEEH (R. Schulze)
• The Hydrometeorological Observatory in a French Mediterranean context (S. Anquetin)
• Small scale hydrological processes associated to Flash-Flood : Observation and
modelling strategies (C. Bouvier)
• Low flows hydrological research at SBEEH (G. Jewitt)
• Small Scale Innovations research at Potshini catchment (V. Kongo)
• Soil water measurement activities at LTHE (T. Pellarin)
• Hydrological processes research at SBEEH (S. Lorentz)
• Collaborative research (All)
5/4/07
Morning
University of Cape Town
INTRODUCTION
10/4/07
• Welcome and objectives of the Project (M. Rouault and S. Anquetin)
• Presentation of the Cape Town University (M. Rouault)
morning
• Presentation of the Master of the Sciences of the Earth and Environment, University
Joseph Fourier, Grenoble and the Laboratory of Hydrologie, LTHE (S. Anquetin)
SEMINARS - Climate Variability on the Management of Water Resources
10/4/07
• The Hydrometeorological Observatory in the Cévennes-Vivarais area and the challenge of the HyMeX experiment for water resources in Mediterranean areas (S. Anquetin)
afternoon
• Water Resources at HSM (S. Anquetin & C. Bouvier)
• Issues of scale in studies of the hydrological impacts of climate change - A case
study in the Sahel (T. Vischel)
• M. Rouault
• T. Pellarin
PROSPECTIVE PROJECTS
11/4/07
• Proposition of future training periods for Master degree students
• Common studies
morning
Pretoria - French Embassy
Meeting with S. Elmaleh, Roger Casalegno (UJF), Anne Corval (CNRS)
Report of the visits - Main prospective actions
S. Anquetin - December 2007
12/4/07
morning
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South African – French Network for Research in Water Science and Technology
(SAFe Water)
Hydrometeorological Forecasting of Flash Floods,
Understanding the Effect of Climate Variability on the Management of
Water Resources
April, 2d to April 12th, 2007
Group at Durban
(from left to right)
T. Pellarin, S. Sinclair, C. Bouvier,
S. Anquetin, G. Pegram, T. Vischel
Group at Pietermaritzburg
(from left to right)
in front :
Master Pmb, S. Anquetin, J.-L. Janeau, Doc. Pmb, T. Pellarin
Back:
P. Podwojewski, V. Chaplot, C.
Bouvier, S. Lorentz, G. Jewitt,V.
Kongo
Group at Cape Town:
(From left to right)
G. Pegram, S. Anquetin, T. Pellarin,
M. Mehari, M. Rouault, R. Blamey,
N. Vigaud, N. Fauchereau, T.
Vischel, C. Reason
S. Anquetin - December 2007
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