Pomeranian - Goodreads
Pomeranian Breed of A Queen 1
Table of Contents INTRODUCTION………………………………………...4
An Inquisitive and Alert
Origin and History………………………………...8
Moving to a New Home………………………………..9
Feeding your Pup…………………….………....…9
Housetrain your Pup……………………………....9
Your Puppy’s Immunization……………………....9
Puppy toys .……………………………………….11
Lead training your Pup……………………………12
CARING FOR YOUR POMERANIAN………………….13
Diet and Exercise………………………………….14
Should I Breed My Pomeranian? ............................15
Understanding food needs………………....16
From breeder to you……………………….16
The right dog food…………………………17
Wet or dry dog food………………………..19
Is high protein important? ............................19
Special Diets for Special Times……………19
Feeding the right amount…………………...20
Whether to beg or not………………………21
Added grooming tips……………………….22
Deciding to show your Pomeranian………..25
Potty-training your Pup……………………...27
Three ways to potty-train……………28
The “Puppy pees”…………………....29
Helpful hints for problems……….…..29
Core Training Tips…………………………...31
Using a leash………………………....31
Alpha position training……………....22
Always be consistent………………....22
YOUR POMERANIAN’S HEALTH………………………..32
Regular Health Care……………………………….....32
Things to watch for………………………...…33
A Vet Examination Schedule…………………….......34
Illnesses native to the breed……………………....37-44
FUN FACTS ABOUT POMERANIANS…………………....44
THE AMERICAN POMERANIAN CLUB……………….....45
You’ve decided to share your life with a Pomeranian, one of the best
friends you’ll ever have, and he or she will love you for it. A
Pomeranian is best fulfilled and happy when he or she is with his
human family. In fact, Pomeranians are noted for their overwhelming
need for human attention and affection.
Known as Loulou, Dwarf Spitz, Swergspitz or, in affection, Pom, the
lively little Pomeranian has a huge personality in comparison to its
small stature, weighing in at between three to seven pounds and
between seven and twelve inches tall.
Among such giants as the Norwegian Elkhound, Alaskan Malamute,
Samoyed and others, the Pomeranian is the smallest of the Spitz family
breed of dogs.
Cute, furry and feisty, these Poms are smart and fiercely loyal to their
owners and families. But don’t let that cuteness fool you! They are
definitely bold, independent dogs with a mind of their own. They are
intensely curious about everything around them, and alert. In their
minds, sometimes unfortunately, they are immensely bigger than they
really are and this can sometimes cause them to pester and even attack
dogs that are much larger.
If properly socialized with other animals and dogs, they usually get
along very well with them.
A tiny toy-sized dog, the Pomeranian’s head is in proportion to the
body and is shaped like a wedge. Some say their faces are pansy or
baby-doll like, while others describe them as foxlike. His short snout is
fine and straight with a pronounced stop, and either dark colored or the
color of his coat. Their medium-sized, almond-shaped, dark eyes light
up with curiosity and intelligence.
Their uniquely plumed tail feathers out flat across their back, and
sometimes their dewclaws are removed. Having a double coat, the
Pom’s undercoat is short, thick and very soft while the outer coat is
harsher to the touch, straight and long, where it is bushier about the
chest and neck, forming a frill.
These lovely little dogs come in all colors, with the solid ones
generally black, brown, blue, cream or white, orange and red. You
might come across a white Pom, rarely, that is parti-colored, or a tan
and black one, or even a sable and orange one. His bushy double coat
stands out from his body. Though it appears that it might be hard to
care for, all it needs is regular brushing.
Is it possible for a Pomeranian to change its color? Indeed it is! Some
owners of a Pomeranian wonder if their solid colored Pomeranian is
becoming parti-colored. This frequently occurs when the dog enters
what is called ‘the puppy uglies.’ The adult coat may be a totally
different color from what the puppy coat was.
A once-solid Pomeranian may appear temporarily parti-colored during
this phase. In such changes, once the puppy fur has been replaced by a
new color, the Pomeranian will once more be solid colored, though a
different shade. As an example, a red sable puppy may change into a
sable Pomeranian once it has its adult fur coat.
Pomeranians have a loud bark in spite of their small size and, for that
reason, make great watchdogs. However, they don’t always know
when to stop barking, so it’s important to train them to stop on
Because they’re not as dependent as some other breeds, Pomeranians
make great pets for those who are very busy or for elderly people.
They are good apartment pets or in homes that don’t have a fenced in
yard. They aren’t good for families with small children, since the
children might accidentally hurt them.
In general, Poms are very good at learning tricks, but you have to be
firm and steady when training them. If you aren’t the top dog in your
home, your Pom will be more than happy to take control and can
Poms enjoy going for walks since they have lots of energy. They
proudly hold up their head, trotting along and exploring and meeting
new smells and sights.
Poms are being trained more often in flyball, tracking, agility and
obedience. Some have even been trained as hearing aid dogs. They are
excellent therapy dogs, bringing comfort and joy to the elderly and
sick in nursing homes and hospitals.
Your little Pomeranian will be so pleased to become a member of your
family and more than happy to be your best friend. He/She will remain
playful all their life, but will also love to curl up in your lap. Their
loyalty and desire to guard you and their home will let you know if
anyone else comes around or if there’s some kind of disturbance in the
house. Although they can be stubborn when they want, they do want to
Their playfulness and interaction among themselves makes it easy and
fun to own more than one.
A healthy Pomeranian can live between twelve and nineteen years.
An Inquisitive and Alert Temperament:
Pomeranians are lively, proud little dogs that are extremely loyal to
their families and handlers, enthusiastic to learn and smart. They are
easily housebroken, and may become nervous if children give them
too much attention. It makes both a great show dog and companion.
The Pomeranian’s loving nature and calm temper make it attractive to
a lot of people. One of the most independent of the toy dogs, they are
active, curious and alert, needing a gentle, but firm hand. The dog’s
spiritedness and liveliness make it appealing to people who don’t
usually care for such small dogs.
Sometimes, they can be picky eaters. If introduced in a right way, they
generally get along with other animals in the home and other dogs,
without problems. They also make great watch dogs. Train your Pom
early on that it may bark a few times when visitors come by and when
someone comes to the door. Then train it, after then, to be quiet. You
have to be steady in teaching this. Pomeranians do not cling to their
trainers, but they have a charming personality. Your happy pup is good
at learning tricks. Your Pomeranian will need to see you as its boss, or
it will become demanding. You can’t allow your dog to tell you where
and when to do things or he/she will become a real problem without
you even realizing it. Its bossiness isn’t smart or cute and will only
lead to more problems, if it hasn’t already. Due to its adorable Ewok
(Star Wars Characters) appearance and small size, a lot of
Pomeranians become victims to what is known as Small Dog
Syndrome; behaviors caused when a human allows the dog to think
he’s the pack leader, instead of the human. This can cause a whole lot
of behavior problems brought on by the way they’re treated by
humans, and which are not at all Pomeranian traits. Some of these
behaviors include extreme guarding behavior and excessive barking
while they try to order humans about concerning what they want them
This also includes fear of separation, nervous, willful, bold “Spike”
like behavior such as trying to attack larger dogs.
They can become fearful of strangers, barking at them all the time and
sometimes even biting, snapping and growling. As cute as they are,
children will most certainly be drawn to them. However, these dogs
are generally not made for children because of how a lot of people
treat the toy breed in relation to the way the dog may
not be trained to see their human owner as its pack
leader. However, if you give your Pom rules that
include limits as to what they can do, daily walks and
remain self-assured and calm, he/she will be a
wonderful, trustworthy, mentally stable, and wellrounded friend. This size of dog makes it a great pet for an older
Origin and history:
The dog gets its name from a place known as Pomerania, a part of
what is now north Poland and Germany. It descended from the sled
dogs of Lapland and Iceland and was developed there from ancient
Spitz dog breeds. Originally, this Nordic dog weighed between twenty
and thirty pounds and was used in sledding and herding. It still has its
harsh double coat which once served to protect it in the cold weather
of the north.
Queen Victoria, Mozart (named his Pom, Pimperl and dedicated an
aria to it), Emile Zola and Marie Antoinette all owned Pomeranians.
Michelangelo is said to have owned a Pomeranian who serenely
watched as he painted the Sistine Chapel. Sir Isaac Newton named his
own Pomeranian, Diamond. It’s said that Chopin became so taken with
his girlfriend’s Pom that he wrote "Valse des Petits Chiens" for the
Charlotte, in 1761, travelled from Pomerania to England in order to
marry England’s Prince George III. She was the first person to bring
Pomeranians to England, which were mostly white dogs and weighed
more than twenty pounds. The later Queen Victoria was the
granddaughter of Queen Charlotte and was a loyal dog fan. When
Prince Albert, her husband, suddenly died in 1861, the sad Queen
became fonder of her pets. While she lived, she raised over fifteen
different breeds of dogs, and later in her life, focused mainly on
In 1888, the Queen travelled to Italy where she bought a red sable
Pomeranian named Marco, bringing him back to England with her. He
weighed only twenty pounds and many dog historians today consider
him the start of breeding smaller Pomeranians. Victorian had also
bought three more Pomeranians on the same trip.
Encouraged by what they saw at the Queen’s kennel of Pomeranians,
English dog owners started to breed even smaller Pomeranians. Once
the adult dogs started to weigh less than eight pounds, they were
termed as Toy Pomeranians. The first American Pomeranian was
entered into the AKC’s stud book in 1888, and the first Pomeranian
shown in America was entered in a New York dog show in 1892.
The Kennel Club in England formally recognized them as a breed in
1870. During the time she was queen of England, Victoria bred the
dog in a way it became smaller like it is now, and also helped make it
popular among all people. The American Kennel Club first recognized
the Pomeranian in 1888. Even though, in the past, these little dogs
were renowned for being a ‘one person dog,’ today it is more
outgoing. Some of its exceptional talents include performing tricks,
agility and serving as a watchdog. Poms are fantastic performers in
Moving to a new home:
Your new Pom puppy may be very nervous when you first
get him home. At first, he/she may be very upset from the
change. Be sure your baby is eating his food. The stress of
the excitement can tire your Pom puppy, so don’t show him
off for a while. He’s a baby, and as a baby, he’ll spend most
of his time sleeping. So, make sure he gets lots of sleep.
If you have other pets, introduce your new puppy to them quietly, and
do not do it at mealtimes.
Consider buying your other pets new toys, fussing over them as much
as your new puppy.
Feeding your Pom pup:
Dry puppy food and water should be available for your puppy all the
time. Pom puppies, being very small, can get hypoglycemia if they
don’t eat small amounts of food very often.
A tiny Pom pup needs to have enough energy to play, run around and
grow. You have to provide a good diet or your Pom’s growth and
health can suffer.
Use a dry food that’s right for toy dog breeds and buy the puppy kind,
or provide him or her with three daily meals of small amounts of
minced meat or canned puppy food. What’s important is to remember
to feed OFTEN, LITTLE and QUALITY.
Don’t forget to leave out clean water all the time, and never give your
Pomeranian cooked bones.
Be very, very careful using minced or chopped food and make sure the
food is chopped or minced very fine since Poms can choke easily on
big pieces of meat.
Don’t make any sudden changes in diet for a few days after getting
your puppy. The stress of leaving his or her mother and brothers and
sisters can be hard for a Pom puppy, without making it harder with diet
changes. If possible, use bottled water for your Pom pet as even
changes in drinking water can upset his or her tummy.
Housetrain your Pom pup:
Puppies instinctually want to be clean. Don’t make the mistake of
allowing your Pom pup to run free in your home. Instead, make sure
you keep him penned until he is housetrained without needing to be
supervised. A playpen with newspapers at one end inside a low tray
made from a kitty litter tray is good. Put the puppy’s water and feed
bowls and bed at the other end. Take your puppy to the potty spot after
he wakes from a sleep and after he eats.
Your Puppy’s Immunization:
You should have received a signed Vaccination Certificate from your
puppy’s Breeder’s veterinarian. The card will list all the vaccines your
puppy has received. This is an intermediate record of vaccinations
until your puppy has its full booster vaccination between twelve and
sixteen weeks old. Until then, keep your pup at home, away from
public places so he won’t catch anything like Hepatitis, Distemper or
Before selling a puppy, a good Pomeranian Breeder will make sure it
has been micro-chipped with an iso-approved microchip. The Breeder
will either transfer the Pom puppy’s details with the Microchip registry
or give the Microchip paperwork to you. Make sure you’re listed with
the Microchip registry as the owner of your puppy. Let the Microchip
registry know of any contact information changes in your life.
Like other puppies, A Pom loves having toys to play with, and will
have its favorites. You have to be careful with the type of toys you let
him play with. For example, you should supervise your pup’s play
with fur toys that have squeakers. A puppy could get the squeaker out
and choke on it. This can also happen with plastic toys as pieces of
plastic, over time, get chewed off. Carefully examine toys for tiny
parts that could be dangerous choking hazards.
Remember to restrict your Pom’s access to your closet, specifically
your shoes. They love chew toys. You’ll get the idea when you see
your Pom running behind your couch with your $100, “Nine West”, 4”
sandals or your size 12, Stacey Adams! If permitted, no shoe will be
off limits. Introduce them to a new toy once in a while. This will keep
them interested in their real toys.
Lead training the Pom pup:
Pomeranians love to please their owner, and are very smart; training
easily. They often excel in obedience training. The best time to start
training your puppy to lead is when he’s ten to twelve weeks old.
Use a small harness at first, without the lead, getting the puppy to
follow you. It is time to start using tidbits and treats. The puppy often
will scratch at the harness. After your puppy is used to following you
while wearing his harness, then attach a lead.
A harness is a kinder and safer choice than a collar. The necks of
smaller dogs are more fragile than that of larger dogs and collars can
cause problems in the Pomeranian’s dense coat. It’s only necessary to
wear the harness for walking.
CARING FOR YOUR POMERANIAN
A lot of what you can do to keep your pet healthy and happy is the
same as you would for yourself, just use common sense. Watch what
he eats, brush his coat and teeth regularly, make sure he/she gets
enough exercise and call your vet or an emergency pet hospital if
something doesn’t seem right. Make sure you keep him/her regularly
vaccinated and examined regularly. Regular exams will test for
conditions and diseases common in Pomeranians. You also might
consider getting pet health insurance. Certainly, there will be medical
procedures and tests that or she will need through life and pet health
insurance can help you with the costs.
Put together a schedule that includes her regular care so that your Pom
will stay healthy, be happier and live longer.
• Walk your Pom a minimum of three times per day
• Brush your Pom’s coat at least every week.
• Brush his or her teeth at least three times each week, because
Poms have serious dental problems.
• Get him/her regularly groomed.
• Schedule a regular play time
See the suggested “Routine Care” schedule be low:
3x per day
Walk min. Walk min.
3x per day 3x per day
Walk min. Walk min.
3x per day 3x per day
Pomeranians are also suitable for living in apartments since they are
active indoors and can do well without a yard. Take precautions so
yours won’t overheat when the weather is hot.
Pomeranians, though they don’t usually try to run away, can never be
let run loose. They are extremely fast for their size and don’t
understand the danger of other animals and cars. So, when you take
your Pom outside, it has to be on a leash or within an enclosed area.
He or she will enjoy the outdoors when you are out with them, but the
best housing for them has to be indoors, with you and your family.
It is never advisable to leave small, unsupervised children alone with
Pomeranians. It’s not that Poms don’t like children. Rather, very
young children may not have the respect and coordination needed to
handle such small animals. It’s a good idea to ask your dog’s breeder
for recommendations concerning this.
Pomeranians make great companions on trips simply because they
love to be anywhere you are. Just like with other pets, never lock your
Pom in a closed car in warm weather. It doesn’t take long for
temperatures to reach deadly levels in any kind of warm weather.
These cute little animals are easily stolen if they are left alone. Also,
Pomeranians aren’t aware of their small size and their protective
nature, coupled with their natural curiosity, might get them in a fight
with another dog that he or she would be certain to lose. Be alert to
ensure that never happens.
Diet and Exercise
Make sure your companion exercises regularly and watch their diet.
Help your Pomeranian with his or her eating habits. Put them either on
a natural diet or an excellent dry dog food, and know that their tiny
tummies aren’t made for eating everything. Don’t treat them with
spicy junk food or you might end up needing an emergency vet visit.
Obese Pomeranians are more open to getting arthritis, heart disease,
cancer and other difficulties.
DO NOT feed your dog people food (food prepared and
seasoned for human consumption) and maintain a regular diet
for your dog.
Give him/her a top-quality diet suitable to his or her age.
Exercise him or her regularly, but don’t overdo it, i.e. toss the
ball, chase me, chase you, etc.
As shown in the suggested “Routine Care” schedule, it is very
important that you take your Pomeranian on a daily walk. Although
play will take care of most of their exercise needs, it doesn’t make up
for their basic need to walk. Dogs are more likely to have behavior
problems if they aren’t walked every day. Your special friend will also
have fun romping in a safe open area off his or her lead like a large
Just like any other dog, it’s important that Poms get early socialization
where they are exposed to different experiences, sounds, sights and
people when they’re young. This helps guarantee that your Pom will
grow up to be a well-rounded dog.
You might consider putting him or her in a kindergarten for puppies,
or schedule a play date with another dog owner. Take him out to active
parks or stores that let dogs in and on quiet walks in the neighborhood
to help your puppy in developing his or her social skills.
Just in case your companion gets lost, you can protect him or her with
tags and a collar. A free dog tag along with recovery information is
offered by the AKC Companion Animal Recovery where there is a
round the clock hotline to help find owners. A permanent microchip
and tattoo can be added and registered for more protection with the
AKC CAR. Enrolled animals have a one hundred percent re-homing
rate. For more information, you can go to www.akccar.org or call 800252-7894.
Should I Breed My Pomeranian?
Although you may think a cute litter of puppies is appealing, you
should know that breeding your Pomeranian is an ongoing
commitment of emotion, money and time. While there are some
responsible breeders who commit to keeping a free-whelping breed, in
all reality, Pomeranians often need a Cesarean section. You might be
risking your dog’s life, without extensive training. Keeping in contact
with your Pomeranian’s breeder over the years and seeking his advice
can prove hugely helpful when trying to decide to breed or not. For
most pet owners, spaying their female Pomeranian is the way to go.
This not only lessens the risk in the dog’s later life concerning
reproductive diseases, but also improves the quality of her coat. A
male Pomeranian also benefits in health from being neutered, plus
gains added behavior benefits. Neutered and spayed animals aren’t
able to compete in AKC Conformation classes, but can still participate
in Agility, Obedience and Performance Events.
Understanding Food Needs:
One of the most important things for your dog is a proper diet. If
you’re not careful about your Pom’s diet, he or she can gain too much
weight. Being overweight causes health issues for dogs just like it does
in humans. Strain can be put on his ligaments and joints and he can get
diabetes if the diet isn’t controlled.
As a puppy, a Pomeranian burns calories a lot faster than other dog
breeds. However, as they grow older, his dietary needs change and/or
he needs more exercise.
Changing Foods - From Breeder to You:
No matter what kind of dog food a breeder was using when you first
get your Pomeranian, it’s important for you to slowly change over to
the food you want him or her to eat.
Especially because they’re very tiny as puppies, it’s not healthy to
make a fast change in a Pom’s diet. Even so, you want to get your Pom
eating the food you choose. You should pick your homemade or
manufactured food and steadily, but slowly, make a change. Here’s
how to do it:
Food Change Schedule
Replace their usual food by one quarter with the food
you want your dog to eat, i.e. Blue, Purina, etc.
Remove a third of their usual food and put in an equal
amount of the food of your choice.
Replace one-half their usual food with the same amount
of the food of your choice.
Replace three-quarter of their usual food with threequarter of the food of your choice.
Now you can feed your Pom the food of your choice to
meet their dietary needs.
Choosing the right dog food:
Feeding starts with giving your Pom the best of food. Everywhere you
look, you can find advice about how you need to give your dog a good
quality dog food, and it is important to be aware that the main
difference between a poor quality dog food and a high quality is how
much filler it has in it. A dog’s system is made for large amounts of
proteins, not carbs and definitely not fillers.
There are fillers even in the best of dog foods. These are things added
that only to make it appear there is more food than there is, and they
have no healthy value at all. For instance, a cup of dog food contains
anywhere from one-half to three-quarters actual food, and the rest is
simply trash. These are cheap ingredients tossed in to fill your Pom’s
These pass straight through the body and come right back out, which
can lead to behavioral issues like eating grass or waste and a lack of
A fragile and small dog, your Pomeranian has a sensitive and small
digestive system as well. You can actually cook food for your Pom,
which leaves you in control of what he or she eats, knowing you’re not
using any fillers and giving your Pom the best in nutrition. If you don’t
want to home cook, then the best on the market is Blue, Eukanuba and
Purina. Although Purina hasn’t always been the best, it’s been recently
improved, reducing the use of fillers.
Preparing your own dog food can also save on expenses. Most of what
you use is what you would already buy. For instance, if you’re making
hamburger to eat, you can easily set a little aside for your
Also, you can refrigerate or freeze servings from a larger amount. That
way you can make your dog’s meals once a week, instead of cooking
them every day.
Note: home cooking for your Pom like this is not the same as giving
him or her scraps from meals. It’s important that you prepare each
meal in the right way with the right ingredients.
Here are some of the best ingredients for you to use:
Organ meats like brain, kidney and liver.
Lean meats like fish, chicken breast and lean beef.
Vegetables like zucchini, broccoli, spinach, baby carrots, sweet or
regular potatoes. Do not use corn.
Starch is important, too. Poms like brown or white fresh rice, and
pasta, which can be added into meals.
The majority of any meal should be meat because dogs have to have
this protein as the main source in their food. After that, the next
important ingredient is vegetables, and then starch. The ratio should
work out to be forty percent meat, thirty percent vegetables and thirty
It’s important not to buy the cheap dog food in the grocery store. The
higher quality dog food will contain less filler, providing better
amounts of protein, vitamins and calories. The cheaper the dog food is,
the higher the possibility that your Pom will be unhealthy and
overweight. It could also damage your dog’s immune system,
depending on the brand, causing your Pomeranian to get sick more
Whether to feed dry or wet dog food:
Feed your Pom mostly dry dog food while adding a bit of wet dog
food mixed in. Feeding only wet dog food can give him or her
Is high protein important?
When studies said a high protein diet was dangerous for dogs,
everyone started to worry. However, only rats were used in those
studies, which weren’t important at all to dogs. Your Pom’s diet
should contain forty percent or higher protein, with meat as its main
Dogs that are seven years old or older (seniors) should have the protein
lessened a little.
Special Diets for Special Times
Sometimes you’ll need to adjust the diet for your Pomeranian. You
will have to make changes when feeding store-bought food for:
A pregnant dog: Feed her puppy food so her body receives
the necessary extra nutrients and vitamins to help her puppies
An inactive dog: If a health issue or injury makes your dog
inactive, you’ll want to insure that manufactured dog food
• A lower fat dog food
Vitamin rich fish oils
Making sure you feed the right amount:
It’s important to control portions. Although some will say that a dog
will endlessly eat until stopped by a human, some Pomeranians are
very picky eaters so, while you want to be sure he or she doesn’t eat
too much, you also want to be sure he’s eating enough. Feeding times
and amount of food will depend on the activity level and age of your
As a rule of thumb, leave the dog food out for fifteen to twenty
minutes. Remove it if your dog hasn’t eaten it during that time.
Although the exact amount might have to be changed, depending on
exact needs, here are some suggestions on how much to feed your
Adults need less food than puppies, and each puppy is different.
Suggested Food Serving
1/2 cups of food per day
1 cup of food per day
1 and one quarter cups of food per day
2 cups of food per day
As a puppy goes through growth spurts, the amount of food will need
to be increased; then lessen the amount as her body matures and
reaches its highest growth point.
This amount of food is given to the puppy throughout three or four
meals a day up until the puppy is six months old. Since a Pomeranian’s
tummy is very tiny, meals have to be tiny, too. Remember that every
dog is different in:
Also, remember to use common sense when feeding, and if necessary,
talk to your vet. The above is just a guideline. If your Pomeranian
leaves his bowl after five minutes, it means he’s full. Note: if a dog
starts losing weight from eating less, it’s a sign of possible medical
problems. If, within ten minutes, your Pom finishes what you give him
or her, then looks for more, give him or her another quarter cup.
At six months of age, you can decrease meals from four to
three or from three to two a day.
By the time your little Pomeranian is two years old; she’s an
adult dog and won’t need to eat as much. Usually, adult dogs
need only one meal a day. You may decide to give her two
meals a day, but don’t double the food. Divide the food into
two smaller meals, and remember that if you feed your Pom in
the morning, she’ll need to go outside soon after. That’s the
reason feeding one large dinner is easier.
A small amount of canned dog food can be added to the dry
food. A complete and full supplement of minerals and vitamins
should be added to your dog’s diet whether you buy store dog
food or prepare it yourself.
You can give your dog snacks at any age. Chews and treats
should be used to reward good behavior. It makes it easier to
train your dog. If a dog receives chews and snacks all the time,
they become unimportant when you are trying to train him or
Whether to beg or not to beg:
Your Pom, knowing the answer better than anyone, will beg. Once you
prepare and then put his food in his food dish, he will look at you and
beg for a piece of your hamburger, as though he were about to die.
Even though you’ll have to use all your will-power to go against
everything in you that says you want to make your dog happy, and
though it’s so tempting, don’t give in and feed your dog from the table.
Even though our human bodies have accepted high salt levels, color
enhancers, additives and other things in human food, millions die from
diabetes, heart disease and other illnesses linked to bad diets. Imagine
what that kind of food can do to your Pom.
The long double coat of your Pomeranian should be brushed often. If
you start at the head, parting the hair with a brush and combing it
forward, it will neatly fall back in place. In this way, though it takes
some time, it’s fairly easy to do. Your dog will shed its soft undercoat
once or twice a year. Use dry shampoo, when it’s necessary to clean
your dog. Make sure to clean the ears and eyes every day and take him
or her for regular dental exams.
In general, Poms are not heavy shedders. It’s usual for a male to shed
once a year. Females who haven’t been spayed will shed their
undercoats just before they breed, after they have puppies and when
Brush and comb your Pom twice a week with a metal comb and slicker
brush to keep hair off furniture and clothing. This keeps the fur from
tangling and matting up, keeps the skin and coat healthy and spreads
out the skin’s natural oils. Make sure to brush and comb down to the
skin in order to remove all the shedding undercoat.
You can trim your Pomeranian sometimes - if you want - to keep her
neat, especially around the back end, around the ears and face and on
Whether you do it once a month or every day, you can give her a bath
using a mild shampoo and conditioner. If you notice a little doggy
smell between her baths, you can sprinkle some baby powder on her
coat, allow it to sit a short while then brush it out.
Don’t forget nail care and dental care. Poms are likely to have dental
problems so you have to watch closer for that. Brush their teeth at least
once a week, better every other day.
Since your Pomeranian doesn’t wear its nails out on its own, keep
them trimmed. They’re too long if you hear them clicking on the floor.
Neatly trimmed, short nails will protect your legs from being scratched
when your Pom jumps up to greet you.
You should start brushing and checking your Pomeranian on a regular
basis while she’s a puppy. Handle her paws a lot, since dogs are
sensitive about their feet, and check inside her ears and mouth. If you
make grooming a pleasant time full of rewards and praise, you’ll help
your dog be ready for easy vet checkups and other handling when
she’s grown up.
Check for rashes, sores or signs of infection like tenderness or redness
on the feet, the skin, and the eyes, mouth, nose or ears while you’re
grooming. Eyes should be clear with no discharge or redness and ears
shouldn’t have much gunk or wax inside and should smell good. This
careful exam every week will help you see any possible health
Added grooming tip:
Note: These tips are for pet grooming and not for show ring grooming.
You can check with your local Pomeranian organization for help with
preparing your dog for show, should you want to do that.
Begin by cleaning your Pom. Although there are several
grooming products to choose from, the best is a dry
shampoo unless you have severe dirt or matting. And,
unless you’re aware of an allergy your dog has, you can
pretty much go with whatever shampoo you want from the
grocery store. Be careful not to get any water in his or her
ears, nose or eyes. You can place cotton balls in the ears
to help protect them from water, but be careful and not too far in.
Once your dog is bathed, towel-dry his or her hair as much as you can.
Super-absorbent towels are wonderful. Finish the drying with a blowdryer brushing the hair in an upward motion with a soft slicker brush
toward the head. You can buy a special dryer for dogs, but you can
also use a regular human hair dryer as long as it’s on low heat so you
don’t harm the skin or over-dry the hair.
When trimming the coat, begin with the head,
ear tips first. Possibly, this is the most
difficult part since you have to make sure you
don’t cut the ear. The best way to protect it is
to snugly hold the ear skin between your
thumb and forefinger so you don’t accidentally cut it.
The extra hairs will stick up above your fingers and you want to cut
horizontally across the top. The scissors should be level with your
Pom’s eyes. Follow this with a slightly tilted angle for the second cut.
This will shape the ears in a softer angle and keep them from looking
so pointy. Once you’ve finished the ears then brush forward the hair
about his or her head.
Imagine a circle framing his or her head and trim the extra fur away to
fit in with that circular shape. Be very careful around the ears! You
might try using your fingers as guides when scissors are pointing in
what could be a possibly dangerous position should your dog suddenly
Keep your mind on the circular shape and keep trimming it, brushing
the featherings out beside the shoulder. Look at them straight on and
trim them away. This will maintain the circular shape when looking at
the dog head on and the coat will be less heavy and fluffier in that
Brush the chest fur up while holding it between your fingers then trim
it at an angle towards the knee. Doing this helps keep the chest clean
since a trimmed chest is not likely to get chew sticks hung up in the
fur. When your Pom is looked at from the side, it will also keep up the
Turn your pet sideways and trim the underbelly in a semi-circular
shape. Begin your line almost one-third behind the front leg – behind
the knee – then cut in the semicircular shape, ending in the same spot
almost one-third up the back leg. You can adjust this to fit with your
dog’s leg length and so on. Trim away excess hair sticking out in the
section of your dog’s midriff.
To clean up the back legs, brush the hair up and out, then cut away all
hair sticking out, which can look like spurs. Now you should have nice
clean stovepipe legs.
Trim some of the hair around the tail’s base, giving it a nice and tidy
shape, and finish off the tail by twisting the end and holding it straight
up the back before cutting it the length where you want it to best lay.
Now it’s time to tidy up the feet. Trim away hair to stop the
rabbit foot look and don’t forget to trim beneath the foot, too.
You can flip your dog on his or her back if it helps to control
the dog and the scissors.
Finish up the feet by trimming the nails. It’s important to condition
your dog from a pup, if possible, so it’s used to having its nails
trimmed as an adult. You can use cat
nail clippers to
trim away the length of the nail and
Dremmel tool (small one) to file off the
Be extremely aware of the small vein
that’s inside the
nail. If the nail is clear, you’ll see it, but
if the nail isn’t,
be very cautious! Best to have a liquid
you can buy in
all pet shops or Styptic powder in case you accidentally cut into the
quick of the nail. It will stop the bleeding. Also, be careful not to catch
any hair in the spinning dremmel. You can buy a small Dremmel kit at
your local hardware store, or from online grooming suppliers.
Here’s a fast and easy way to clean your dog’s teeth. Put a fabric
plaster on the end of your forefinger. Dip it in some water, then some
Bicarbonate of Soda. Finally, insert your finger gently in your dog’s
mouth and massage the gums and teeth.
Deciding to show your Pomeranian:
There are lots of owners of Pomeranians who decide to get involved in
the world of show dogs and end up thoroughly enjoying the sport.
Showing can involve Agility, Obedience, Conformation and even
Tracking. When an owner trains their dog in these areas, it only makes
the bond of mutual respect and love stronger between the dog and
human. If you are interested in checking into this, the American
Pomeranian Club and American Kennel Club can help you with
guidance and advice.
If handled right, the Pomeranian is very easy to train. They love
pleasing their owners, and because they are smart, they respond to
positive encouragements. Training has to start early and maintaining a
routine is important.
Training the Pom is different in some ways from training other dog
breeds. It’s important to know what is different with a Pomeranian so
that training succeeds. For one thing, they are very energetic. They
have to be regularly exercised to make training better. If they aren’t,
Pomeranian puppies have too much energy to pay attention like they
Also, Pomeranians get anxious if they don’t get constant or regular
attention. If you are hardly ever or never home, training may not
succeed. Without attention, your Pom, even with training, is likely to
misbehave and be anxious.
A smart breed, Pomeranians are also known to be stubborn. As much
as they enjoy pleasing their owners, they can be very hard-headed,
especially when they’re adults. Your Pomeranian shouldn’t be too
hard to train, with patience and time.
Training any breed of puppy can be a rewarding, though challenging,
experience. You may choose to have your puppy trained by a
professional because of several factors that might include:
• Lack of patience
• Lack of knowledge
• Lack of time
Should you want to try and train your puppy on your own, here are
some basic tips on how to train a Pomeranian puppy.
Proper socialization from the time a puppy is born is the most
important element of puppy training; they learn important social skills
from their mother and brothers and sisters. It also helps to keep your
puppy’s temperament balanced. Future training can be slowed down if
a puppy is removed from its litter before it is eight weeks old.
Make sure you have time to spend with your puppy after you bring
him or her home. Pom puppies left alone can experience troubles with
You need to begin your puppy’s training when he or she is between
twelve to fourteen weeks old. They are beginning to develop their
regular habits and establish behavior patterns. Training is more likely
to succeed if started early.
Potty-training your Pom:
Whether it’s in learning to do tricks, to heel, or for housebreaking,
a Pomeranian is known for being easy to train. What’s important in
housebreaking is regularity from you.
A dog isn’t born with the instinct to go outside of the home to
eliminate. Because of that, your Pom depends on you to teach him
what is right. If you change your training plan all the time or
change rewards for behaving well, this confuses him. You can’t
expect a dog that is confused and urgently needs to eliminate to do
the right thing.
2. When To Begin
When your dog is between eight and twelve weeks old, you can
start housebreaking him. Training at this young an age will not be
an immediately success, but a process. You should take your Pom
out often, rewarding them when they succeed while maintaining
reasonable expectations. To make it even easier, you should
understand that a Pomeranian puppy can wait an hour for every
month of age before it has to eliminate. As an example: a puppy
that is two months old can hold its needs for about two hours. An
adult Pom can hold it up to eight hours.
3. How Often?
You should take your dog outside or to their litter box:
1. Right after any time it’s been penned up.
2. Whenever he or she first wakes up or just before bedtime.
3. About ten to fifteen minutes after he or she has eaten.
4. Every two hours when he/she is two months old; every three
hours when he/she is three months old, and so forth.
Three Ways to Potty-train:
In this part of the training, you must supervise your dog. There are
three ways to choose from in order to do so: the Umbilical Cord
method, the Crate method and the Gate method. Also, the crate method
is best for night-time until your dog has learned to give the proper
signal that he or she needs to go out.
1. The Umbilical Cord method:
If it’s hard for you to closely supervise your Pom, training can be
done by attaching a leash to its collar and threading a belt you wear
on your waist through a loop on the leash. In this way, the dog
can’t wander around and you keep your hands free. Your Pom will
love being so close to you and feel safe, too.
2. The Crate (or Kennel) method:
You do not need to think of a dog crate or kennel as a prison or jail
of some kind. In fact, training by this method may pleasantly
surprise you. A lot of dogs like having their own room, giving
them a place to go to for a feeling of security. Pomeranians are a
fragile breed and like feeling safe. Another benefit of using the
crate is that it also trains your dog to travel better and teaches him
or her to feel ok with a dog kennel if it’s ever needed. Be sure to
choose a crate that gives your dog enough room to turn around,
stand and comfortably rest.
If your Pom resists the crate, there are some things you can do to
make him want it. You can start by leaving the door of the crate
open, being sure it won’t accidentally close on your dog. Also, you
can place its food closer and closer every day to the back of the
crate, starting by placing it right outside the door. If he or she still
resists, put the food where it was before and start from there.
Once your dog is used to the crate with the door open, go to
closing the door, without locking it. Take your time progressing to
where you can then lock the door. Increase your dog’s time in the
crate very slowly every day. Important! Do not remove your dog
from the dog if she or she is non-stop barking. This will only serve
to encourage the barking. When you let your dog out of the crate,
walk him/her immediately outside or to the litter box. Don’t carry
him/her. Being patient and taking some time will pay off for you,
plus your dog will be a happy, well-housebroken pet.
3. The Gate method:
You can also use baby gates to train your dog. This keeps the dog
within sight. You won’t need these very long, so you might like to
ask friends of family if they have some you can borrow. You use
these gates to block off certain rooms within the house, allowing
him or her to walk freely while remaining in sight. Then, it is up to
you to watch for the body motion or signals that he or she needs to
go outside. With a little time, your Pom will soon learn to give you
a clear signal – like pawing at the door, pawing at you and so on –
or be more vocal when he/she needs to go potty.
The Pom "Puppy Pees":
It’s not unusual for some Poms to pee when they’re excited. Usually
this is common in puppies who become too excited with your kisses,
pats and hugs. This is when they have what’s called excitement
urination behavior. This is a phase that most puppies outgrow.
In the meantime, you might find a few things helpful:
1. Play with your puppy outdoors.
2. Take your Pom to their litter box, wee pad or outside to urinate
before you play.
3. Whether puppies or adult dogs in their senior years, it can
sometimes be best to approach the puppy from its side instead
of from its front or back, slowly introducing playtime.
4. Puppies that do this should not be immediately picked up for
play or attention. Rather, kneel beside your puppy, pet them a
bit, and then gently roll them into your lap. This gets rid of the
sudden excitement they experience when picked up and
Just like any other type of dog, a Pomeranian may urinate inside the
house – not because they don’t understand where they should go – but
due to territorial marking behavior. You can recognize this type of
behavior if your Pom always does this in the same spot without fully
emptying its bladder; only spraying just a bit.
Helpful Hints for problems
Sometimes a dog insists on going in one spot that isn’t the spot you
want him or her to go. If your dog is having a lot of accidents, take
him/her to a vet to make sure it’s not a medical problem. Loss of
bowel or bladder control is a serious medical condition. Once the vet
says your dog is one hundred percent healthy, then you can change
your training. There is a way to train a stubborn dog.
You can train your Pom to urinate in any area that you decide within a
week or two, and this can be done with even the most stubborn dog.
First, you must choose exactly where you want her to go. Next, put the
dog on a leash that is around eight feet long.
After your puppy naps for fifteen to twenty minutes after each meal in
the morning and evening and any other time you notice a sign that he
or she needs to pee or poo, put him/her on a leash and take him/her to
the area you want to be used. Just remember that a three month old can
only hold its need to “go” for about three hours, a four month old for
four hours and so forth.
Stand in the middle of the area you’ve chosen and let your Pom roam
the leash’s length. Give him/her enough time to find the spot they
want. If he/she only has that area to pick from, your dog can’t go
Be patient while your Pom sniffs around for what may be forever.
Allow your dog the freedom to choose any place within the area.
Reward your Pom with kind, excited and happy words when they’ve
finished. Never allow your dog to roam anywhere else for its potty
needs. Within two weeks, the area you’ve chosen will be the only
place your dog considers as its bathroom.
Core Pomeranian Training Tips
Using a Harness/Leash
If you find your Pom not responding to the leash – in other words, he
or she has to be dragged along instead of walking freely – you need to
calmly help your dog learn that you’re the one in control. This is the
main Pomeranian training tip: stay calm while controlling. This
teaches your dog not to get too excited as it responds.
A lot of dogs do not do well on a harness or leash because they’re
allowed to run and pull rather than being kept under control. To train
your dog not to pull or try to run, stop and make him/her sit for a short
while every time he/she pulls the leash. In time, he/she will learn that
pulling brings him/her to a stop, instead of going like they want.
Alpha Position Training
A very important training tip is making sure your dog knows you are
the pack leader. When you first get your puppy, he/she doesn’t know
that you’re the boss. He/she thinks he/she is! It is up to you to take
control from the start. If you don’t do this, your dog won’t take you
seriously and won’t easily train.
Along with teaching your dog that you are in control, you have to give
strong, specific and clean commands. Dogs aren’t anywhere near as
smart as some humans think. If you’re going to be the boss, you have
to give commands in a way the dog understands.
Using commands in sentence form is too confusing for most dogs.
Words with one or two syllables are best i.e. “Sit,” Stay,” “Spot
come!” “Inside,” etc.
Always Be Consistent
Probably the best Pomeranian tip for training you can get is being
consistent. Once you begin to teach a positive behavior, you have to
follow through consistently every time. You don’t dare be lazy with
your commands or your dog won’t respond. Make the rule, be
consistent and be the boss all the time. It probably won’t be much fun
for your dog or you at first, but in the end, your stability in being
consistent will give you a lasting relationship with a well-behaved dog.
YOUR POMERANIAN’S HEALTH
Of course you care about your dog and that means you want to take
good care of him/her. Because of that, you want to be aware of certain
health concerns during his/her life.
If you’re looking to buy a puppy, be sure to find a good breeder who
will show you the health clearances from both parents. What this
proves is that the dog was tested for and cleared of particular
conditions. You should expect to see health clearances from the (OFA)
Orthopedic Foundation for Animals for von Willebrand’s disease,
hypothyroidism, elbow dysplasia and hip dysplasia (with a score of
fair or better); from the (CERF) Canine Eye Registry Foundation that
the eyes are normal and from Auburn University for thrombopathia.
You can check out these health clearances by going to the OFA web
Regular Health Care
You want to be aware of your pet’s health all the time, not just when
they’re sick. Toy dogs have to have extra attention. You have to know
the signs of a healthy Pom.
Along with regular visits to your vet and checkups by you at home,
you need to watch your Pom’s weight. Being so tiny, a Pomeranian
can quickly gain weight.
• Check body temperature: Your dog can become sick from
changes in its body temperature. Your pet’s body temperature
should remain normal. Any unusual change can be a sign of
sickness and you need to let your vet know right away.
Check your dog’s eyes: A little watery discharge is normal in
the eyes, but if you notice a very thick discharge, it usually
means your dog is sick and needs to see a vet very soon. If you
notice an unusual reddish color in the eyes, that’s also a sign
he’s sick. When a dog gets older, it can develop cloudiness
over its eyes that can cause it to go blind. This can be
prevented with the right care and treatment if it’s noticed early.
Check the mammary tissue on a female Pom: Check the
dog’s nipples for unusual swelling.
Check the testicles on a male Pom: Check the dog’s testicles
Check the nose: Look for unusual discharge from your dog’s
nose. Older Pomeranians can get cracks and/or crust on the
nose. If you notice that, you need to take him/her to the vet.
Over some time, it’s normal for your dog’s nose to change
Check the ears: If you notice a bad odor coming from your
Pom’s ears, it means something is wrong and you should call
Pay attention to your dog’s breathing: If you suddenly
notice your Pom has bad breath for no reason, it can mean
something is wrong inside his or her body and you need to
have it checked out right away. Normal breathing assures that
your dog is healthy; while irregular breathing is a sign he or
she is sick. Breathing problems develop as a dog ages, so
checking regularly for any problem helps spot something
before it goes too far.
Things to Watch For:
Immediately call a vet if you notice any of these symptoms:
• Chronic diarrhea or throwing up
• Sudden weight gain or loss
• Moles, bumps and lumps
• Sleeping too much, mentally slow, and laziness
• Being too aggressive or afraid or any other changes in behavior
• Lameness or limping
• Matting in the hair or hair loss
• Problems with breathing or coughing
• Times of weakness
• Looking like he or she has a pot-belly
• Trying too hard to urinate or not able to
• Itching, redness or cloudiness or anything else not normal in
• Licking or scratching the skin
• Change in amount of drinking or eating
• Shaking or scratching the head or fluid in the ear
• Skipping or hopping while running
• Doesn’t want to go upstairs or jump up
• Lowering or turning his head or crying out when you pick him
• Skin wounds
• Sore or blisters between the toes
It may appear like your dog might have a lot of problems, but you
don’t need to worry. With the help of a good vet and doing what you
can, you’ll take the lead in keeping her healthy her whole life.
Additionally, always feel free to ask your vet any questions. Find a vet
who enjoys and has experience in caring for toy dogs due to your
Pomeranian’s tiny size. It’s too easy for Pomeranians to be overdosed
A Vet Examination Schedule
Age: 6–8 weeks
Complete physical examination
Test for internal parasites and/or deworming
Discuss at-home puppy care and socialization
Abnormal skull formation
(male) Retained testicle
Healthy dental alignment
Age: 10–12 weeks
Short physical examination
Learn to care for your dog’s teeth at home
Check for proper growth rate
Check for parasites
Age: 14–16 weeks
Short physical examination
Check for internal parasites
Learn about grooming, nail trimming and obedience training
Schedule surgery for spay/neuter
Check for adult teeth properly coming in
Check for skin infections
Examine for tonsillitis
Check for parasites
Age: 4–6 months
Complete physical examination
Elbow and knee evaluation
Pre-surgical diagnostics for neuter or spay surgery
Examination of internal organ health prior to neuter/spay
Puppy to Adolescent: Infant to 17 in People Years
Age: 1 year
Complete physical examination
Lameness and gait examination
Check for internal parasites
Talk about exercise, weight and diet
Check for excessive weight gain
Examine for skin infections
Discuss behavioral problems
Check for elbow and knee problems
Check for heartworms and other parasites
Adult: 18 to 39 in People Years
Age: 2 years through 8 years
Complete physical examination
Lameness and gait examination
Internal organ health check
Heart and internal parasite check
Check for dental disease
Check for skin infections
Check for cataracts
Check for healthy weight
Senior: 40 to 59 in People Years
Age: 9 years through 11 years
Complete physical examination
Internal organ health evaluation for senior dog
Screen for cancer
Check for heart health
Check for internal parasites
Test for heartworms
Check for dental disease
Check for skin infections
Check for cataracts
Check for healthy weight
Internal organ health and function examination
Senior: 40 to 59 in People Years
Age: 12 years and older
Complete physical examination
Golden years’ internal organ health evaluation
Screening for cancer screening
Check for internal parasites
Test for heartworms
Check for dental disease
Check for skin infections
Check for cataracts
Check for healthy weight
Internal organ health and function examination
You should schedule twice yearly exams so that problems can be
diagnosed sooner, plus this schedule gives you the option of spreading
out preventive testing in two visits instead of one, making it easier to
A quickly advancing field in medical testing includes DNA testing
developed to help aid in diagnosing illnesses before they turn into
problems for your dog. You can check out www.Genesis4Pets.com for
up-to-date information about DNA and other screening tests that might
be available for your Pom.
Illnesses to Know About
Several health conditions and illnesses are genetic, which means
they’re specific to your dog’s breed. Now, that doesn’t necessarily
mean your Pomeranian will have these difficulties. It just means
he/she’s more at risk to have them than other breeds. Here’s a list of
the most common things to watch out for, though it doesn’t cover
everything, so be sure you notify your vet if you notice anything out of
In general, Poms are healthy, but just like other breeds; they’re prone
to certain health issues. Although not all Pomeranians will get all, or
even any, of these illnesses, it’s important to be aware of them.
Some Pomeranians suffer from different kinds of allergies, ranging
from allergies to food to contact allergies. If you notice your Pom
rubbing his face or licking his paws a lot, have him examined by his
An Eyelid Condition - Entropion
This involves a health problem that involves the dog’s eyelid rolling
inward, and can happen at any age. Usually it happens to the lower
eyelids. Sometimes it’s caused when the Pomeranian’s eye moves out
of place, making the lid roll inward, and sometimes an infection or
injury causes it. Look for:
Your dog trying to rub an eye with his paws.
Your dog squinting.
Excessive tearing of the eye.
The fur around the eye is very wet.
There will be a thick discharge from the eye.
You may actually see the lid as it rolls back.
The vet can diagnosis this with a complete examination of the eye,
although a canine optometrist specialist is the one who treats it.
Treatment is different based on how bad it is. The eyelid can be
stapled in place on a puppy, to hold it in the right place. This is the
best treatment for puppies because of how fast they grow. They may
actually outgrow the condition. In adult dogs, surgery removes a bit of
skin from the eyelid. Antibiotics are always given.
In Pomeranians, cataracts are a common cause of blindness that may
appear as soon as he/she’s four years old. You and your vet should
watch her eyes to see if the lens becomes cloudy. Although surgery for
cataracts is an option, many dogs adjust well to vision loss and get by
Affecting around eighty percent of all dogs by the time they’re two
years old, dental disease is the most common problem in pets.
Unfortunately, your Pomeranian has a higher chance of having teeth
problems than other dogs. This begins with tartar building up on the
teeth, then progresses to an infection of the gums and finally the teeth
roots. If dental disease isn’t treated or, better yet, prevented, your dog
will lose his teeth, endangering his joints, heart, liver and kidneys, and
possibly even shorten his life from anywhere between one to three
years. It’s important to have your vet regularly clean his teeth and
show you what you can do at home to help keep them clean.
An Eyelash Issue - Distichiasis
This is a special Pomeranian health problem where the dog’s eyelashes
grow abnormally, poking the dog’s eyes or eye. This has to be treated
as soon as possible, since it can actually cause a tear in the dog’s eye.
The symptoms for this issue include:
Your dog’s eye may look red, irritated and/or swollen.
Your dog tried to rub the eye with its paws.
Your dog squints.
Although you may not be able to see the lash that’s causing the
problem, your dog will feel it. There is a choice of two treatments. The
hair may be removed by electrolysis or frozen off. In rare cases, the
hair is growing from the duct. If the duct is damaged, it may need
surgery. Antibiotics are given to protect against infection and most of
the time, the dog recovers just fine.
Sometimes a puppy is born with a seizure condition or develops one as
it grows older. When a Pomeranian experiences its first seizure, it can
be very scary to the owner. If your Pom has a seizure, take him or her
to the vet to find the best treatment for the dog.
Pomeranians can have several types of eye problems. Besides
cataracts, they can experience dry eye, a condition that involves the
dryness of the conjunctiva and cornea) and problems with tear ducts.
These difficulties can show up in young adult dogs and can cause the
dog to become blind if it’s not treated. Be sure to let your vet know if
you see lots of tearing, any scarring or redness.
Fluid Build-up in the Skull
Water on the brain can happen when fluid builds up inside the skull,
putting pressure on brain tissue. This is common in breeds whose
heads are shaped like domes, like your Pomeranian. Usually, it’s
present when the skull bones don’t properly fuse. Signs of this
condition include a spastic walk, circling, mental dullness, a hard to
train puppy and seizures. A vet should check your dog if you notice
these symptoms, and sometimes surgery can help.
Several kinds of heart problems are common in Pomeranians that
include a part of the heart not working right that signals it when to
beat, a birth defect and the breaking down of valves. Some physical
indications of a problem can include weakness in the hind legs,
shortness in breathing, losing weight, not being able to exercise and
coughing. A vet can listen to your dog’s heart for what is called a
‘murmur’ and do tests to check for these problems. Depending on the
kind of heart problem and how bad it is, a vet may suggest medication,
rest or surgery. Controlling your dog’s weight and taking care of his
teeth goes a long way in preventing heart disease.
Sometimes this occurs in Pomeranians. This is a deformity of the hip
joint that is believed to be caused by anything from diet and
environment as well as genetics. Usually, Pomeranians who have this
condition can live normal, healthy lives, not like the giant and large
breeds that often need surgery in order to get around.
This sudden drop in levels of blood sugar is very dangerous and can be
fatal, and usually happens to puppies less than three months old. Signs
can show up very quickly and include:
• Twitching muscles.
• Shaking and trembling.
• Wobbly when walking.
• Doesn’t want to eat as much or at all.
• Seizures and coma in the final stage which can happen within
just a few hours.
You should always keep Karo syrup on hand if you have a very young
puppy and give it to him or her at once when you notice symptoms.
You can also rub honey on the puppy’s gums. Then take the puppy
straight to an animal hospital or vet.
Just as all other dogs, Pomeranians can get viral and bacterial
infections like distemper, rabies and parvo. Vaccines prevent a lot of
those infections and should be given regularly.
At times, the kneecap on a Pomeranian will slip out of place. You may
see him suddenly pick up a back leg, skipping or hopping for a few
steps as he runs. Then, he’ll kick the leg out to the side in order to pop
the kneecap back into place. This can also happen with the elbows,
which causes lameness to the front legs. If the difficulty is only in one
leg and is mild, your Pom may need only arthritis medicine. When it’s
bad, the dog will need surgery to put the elbow or kneecap back in line
to keep it from slipping out of place. Special exercises and rehab can
This is a different disease of the hip joint. A lot of the toy dog breeds
can get this disease. What happens is the blood supply to the top of the
large rear leg bone is lessened and the head of the bone that joins to
the pelvis starts to fall apart. Usually the first signs of this condition
show up when puppies are between four and six months old with
degeneration of the muscle in the leg and limping. A vet who knows
how to do it can cut off the affected bone so it’s not attached to the
pelvis anymore. This creates scar tissue that makes up a ‘false joint’
and usually, the puppy doesn’t have any more pain.
Mats and Hot Spots
Your Pom needs a lot of skin care and brushing because of her dense,
long fur. Tangles and mats can cause skin infections; in particular
painful, moist skin wounds called hot spots. Be sure to brush your dog
every week and watch for sores, especially in humid, hot weather.
A common health problem in dogs is obesity, something that can cause
heart disease, back pain, certain kinds of cancer and arthritis. Although
it can be tempting to give in and treat your dog to extra food,
especially when he begs with those pleading soft eyes, you can
literally love him to death with human treats and food.
All sorts of bugs and worms can attack your dog’s body, outside and
in. Everything from ear mites, ticks and fleas can infest her ears and
skin. Whipworms, heartworms, roundworms and hookworms can enter
her system in lots of ways including being mosquito bitten, stepping
on or eating poop, or drinking dirty water. Some of these bugs can
infect your family or you; a serious concern for everyone. These pests
can cause discomfort, pain and even death for your dog, so it’s very
important that you get him/her checked regularly, plus make sure she’s
up on her vaccinations.
This is very common in all small dog breeds, and happens when a
dog’s body can’t produce the right amounts of growth hormones that it
needs. Some of the things thought to cause this include; cysts in the
glands, tumors or an infection.
Growth hormones don’t just affect a dog’s growth, but also control the
condition of the teeth, bones and fur.
Pomeranian puppies that have this inherited disease will not grow right
and teeth will stay very tiny. They usually don’t lose their puppy coat
and if they do lose it, the adult coat will not grow long and thick. The
lifespan is also, sadly, shorter. Research is trying to find ways to treat
this condition, but for now, the only treatment available that has
limited success is human growth hormones. This is a very expensive
Your little Pomeranian’s feet can get infected in a way that causes
ulcers and blisters between the toes. This is especially common in dogs
that have allergies. If you notice your dog limping or licking his feet,
check him and call the vet right away.
Spaying or Neutering
One of the best ways you can take care of your Pomeranian is to have
him neutered or her spayed. This lessens the chances of him/her
getting certain kinds of cancers and gets rid of the chance she’ll
become pregnant or he’ll father unwanted puppies.
Spinal Cord Injuries
There’s a high chance that your Pomeranian may have a genetic
disease that make the first two neck bones unstable or weak. This
condition can cause sudden spinal-cord injury in the neck. If you
notice that your dog suddenly doesn’t want or can’t go upstairs or
jump up, cries or tried to lower or turn his head when you pick him up
or just cries for no reason, then he/she’s in pain. Immediately call a
Pain can be controlled with medicine and he/she will probably need
surgery. Controlling his/her weight can help prevent this from
happening. It’s important, with Pomeranians, from the time he or she
is a puppy, to use steps or ramps so he/she doesn’t have to stress his or
her neck by jumping off and on furniture.
Another condition that Pomeranians can have involves the thyroid.
The specific condition is where the thyroid stops making enough
thyroid hormone. Signs of this condition include aggression and other
changes in behavior, sleeping too much, mental dullness, laziness,
gaining weight, hair loss, dry coat and skin and weakness to other skin
illnesses. A vet can do a yearly screening test beginning at three years
of age (or sooner if you notice signs) in order to test for the problem.
The treatment is simple and involves prescribing a pill to replace the
Rings of cartilage make up the windpipe or trachea, so that it looks
like a vacuum’s ridged hose. This structure gives strength and
flexibility to the trachea. These cartilage rings sometimes haven’t
correctly formed or are weak in Pomeranians. This can cause the
trachea to collapse and narrow, leading to problems with breathing and
coughing. Most tracheal collapse cases are not severe and are treated
If the symptoms are bad, surgery might help.
INTERESTING FACTS CONCERNING POMERANIANS
#1: Originally from Pomerania, Germany, the Pomeranian breed
came about through careful breeding. Originally from the spitz
dog groups used in Iceland for sledding dogs, Pomeranians
changed to have gorgeous coats and to be smaller.
#2: Poms come in a variety of colors; blue, orange, red, brown,
white, black and parti-colored – which is a kind of calico.
#3: Poms make fantastic watchdogs. Very alert, they instantly
warn if someone is outside the home.
#4: A survivor of the Titanic was a Pomeranian, belonging to Miss
Margaret Hays who also survived (in lifeboat 7).
#5: Theodore Roosevelt had a Pomeranian that he named “Gem.”
#6: Recognized in the United States as an official dog breed in
1900, their first dog show in the U.S. was in 1911.
#7: Poms have a double-coat; a very dense undercoat and a
straight, long outer coat. In order to reach the undercoat, a wire
slick brush is the best one to use in grooming.
#8: Poms are extremely smart and outgoing, craving a lot of
attention and affection from their owner. They are highly loyal
and appear to be one-owner dogs. They are not recommended as a
pet for small children because of their tiny size.
#9: Many movies have used Pomeranians.
#10: A pair of Poms is usually referred to as a "puff." Groups of
three or more are called "tufts."
THE AMERICAN POMERANIAN CLUB
The APC is a national parent club focused on the well-being of the
Pomeranian as a breed. It is also responsible for a description of what
makes for an ideal Pomeranian – the written Breed Standard. The Club
is more than a hundred years old and has members in almost every
state along with Canada and other countries. The American
Pomeranian Club encourages those who love Poms to join-up with any
of the Pomeranian clubs through the country in any region.
You may visit their web site at www.AmericanPomeranianClub.org
for more information, order the The Pomeranian Review or receive a
copy of the Breed Standard.
You may also provide a tax-deductible donation used to help in the
health and welfare of Pomeranians by sending a check written out to
“Pomeranian Charitable Trust” and mailing it to:
821 Brown Road
San Juan Bautista, CA 95045
For more information on your Pomeranian go to
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