Medical gases Health Technical Memorandum 02-01

Comments

Transcription

Medical gases Health Technical Memorandum 02-01
Medical gases – Health Technical Memorandum 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
IS B N 0 -1 1 -3 2 2 7 4 2 -6
www.tso.co.uk
9 780113 227426
Medical gases
Health Technical Memorandum
02-01: Medical gas pipeline
systems
Part A: Design, installation, validation
and verification
DH INFORMATION READER BOX
Policy
HR / Workforce
Management
Planning
Clinical
Estates
Performance
IM & T
Finance
Partnership Working
Document Purpose Best Practice Guidance
ROCR Ref:
0
Title
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01 : Medical Gas Pipeline
Systems - Part A Design, Installation, Validation and Verification
Author
DH Estates and Facilities Directorate
Publication Date
Gateway Ref:
6543
May 2006
Target Audience
PCT CEs, NHS Trust CEs, Care Trust CEs, Foundation Trust CEs ,
Medical Directors, Directors of Nursing, PCT PEC Chairs, NHS
Trust Board Chairs, Special HA CEs
Circulation List
Department of Health libraries, House of Commons library
Strategic Health Authority, UK Health Departments
Description
This document covers piped medical gases, medical and surgical
air, and medical vacuum installations. It applies to all medical gas
pipeline systems installed in healthcares premises. Anaesthetic gas
scavenging and disposal system are included. Specifically, it deals
with issues in the design, installation, validation and verification
(testing and commissioning) of the MGPS.
Cross Ref
n/a
0
HTM 2022 : Design, installation, validation and verification
0
n/a
0
Superseded Docs
Action Required
Timing
n/a
Contact Details
Ken Holmes
Department of Health
Finance and Investment Directorate
Estates and Facilities Division
Quarry House
Leeds
LS2 7UE
[email protected]
For Recipient's Use
Medical gases
Health Technical Memorandum
02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems
Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
London: The Stationery Office
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Published by TSO (The Stationery Office) and available from:
Online
www.tsoshop.co.uk
Mail, Telephone, Fax & E-mail
TSO
PO Box 29, Norwich NR3 1GN
Telephone orders/General enquiries 0870 600 5522
Fax orders 0870 600 5533
E-mail [email protected]
Textphone 0870 240 3701
TSO Shops
123 Kingsway, London WC2B 6PQ
020 7242 6393 Fax 020 7242 6394
68–69 Bull Street, Birmingham B4 6AD
0121 236 9696 Fax 0121 236 9699
9–21 Princess Street, Manchester M60 8AS
0161 834 7201 Fax 0161 833 0634
16 Arthur Street, Belfast BT1 4GD
028 9023 8451 Fax 028 9023 5401
18–19 High Street, Cardiff CF10 1PT
029 2039 5548 Fax 029 2038 4347
71 Lothian Road, Edinburgh EH3 9AZ
0870 606 5566 Fax 0870 606 5588
TSO Accredited Agents
(see Yellow Pages)
and through good booksellers
© Crown copyright 2006
Published with the permission of the Estates and
Facilities Division of the Department of Health,
on behalf of the Controller of Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.
This document/publication is not covered by the HMSO
Click-Use Licences for core or added-value material.
If you wish to re-use this material, please send your application
to:
Copyright applications
The Copyright Unit
OPSI
St Clements House
2–16 Colegate
Norwich NR3 1BQ
ISBN 0-11-322742-6
978-0-11-322742-6
First published 2006
Printed in the United Kingdom for The Stationery Office
ii
The paper used in the printing of this document (Revive Silk)
is 75% made from 100% de-inked post-consumer waste, the
remaining 25% being mill broke and virgin fibres. Recycled
papers used in its production are a combination of Totally
Chlorine Free (TCF) and Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF). It
is recyclable and biodegradable and is an NAPM and Eugropa
approved recycled grade.
Preface
About Health Technical Memoranda
Engineering Health Technical Memoranda (HTMs) give
comprehensive advice and guidance on the design,
installation and operation of specialised building and
engineering technology used in the delivery of healthcare.
The focus of HTM guidance remains on healthcarespecific elements of standards, policies and up-to-date
established best practice. They are applicable to new and
existing sites, and are for use at various stages during the
whole building lifecycle:
main source of specific healthcare-related guidance for
estates and facilities professionals.
The new core suite of nine subject areas provides access to
guidance which:
• is more streamlined and accessible;
• encapsulates the latest standards and best practice in
healthcare engineering;
• provides a structured reference for healthcare
engineering.
Figure 1 Healthcare building life-cycle
CONCEPT
DISPOSAL
RE-USE
DESIGN & IDENTIFY
OPERATIONAL
REQUIREMENTS
OPERATIONAL
MANAGEMENT
Ongoing
Review
MAINTENANCE
COMMISSIONING
INSTALLATION
Healthcare providers have a duty of care to ensure that
appropriate engineering governance arrangements are in
place and are managed effectively. The Engineering
Health Technical Memorandum series provides best
practice engineering standards and policy to enable
management of this duty of care.
It is not the intention within this suite of documents to
unnecessarily repeat international or European standards,
industry standards or UK Government legislation. Where
appropriate, these will be referenced.
Healthcare-specific technical engineering guidance is a
vital tool in the safe and efficient operation of healthcare
facilities. Health Technical Memorandum guidance is the
SPECIFICATIONS
TECHNICAL & OUTPUT
PROCUREMENT
CONSTRUCTION
Structure of the Health Technical
Memorandum suite
The new series of engineering-specific guidance contains
a suite of nine core subjects:
Health Technical Memorandum 00
Policies and principles (applicable to all Health
Technical Memoranda in this series)
Health Technical Memorandum 01
Disinfection and sterilization
Health Technical Memorandum 02
Medical gases
iii
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Health Technical Memorandum 03
Ventilation systems
Health Technical Memorandum 04
Water systems
Health Technical Memorandum 05
Fire safety
Health Technical Memorandum 06
Electrical services
Health Technical Memorandum 07
Environment and sustainabilty
Health Technical Memorandum 08
Specialist services
Some subject areas may be further developed into topics
shown as -01, -02 etc and further referenced into Parts A,
B etc.
Example: Health Technical Memorandum 06-02 Part A
will represent:
Electrical Services – Safety – Low Voltage
Figure 2 Engineering guidance
iv
In a similar way Health Technical Memorandum 07-02
will simply represent:
Environment and Sustainability – EnCO2de.
All Health Technical Memoranda are supported by the
initial document Health Technical Memorandum 00
which embraces the management and operational policies
from previous documents and explores risk management
issues.
Some variation in style and structure is reflected by the
topic and approach of the different review working
groups.
DH Estates and Facilities Division wishes to acknowledge
the contribution made by professional bodies,
engineering consultants, healthcare specialists and
NHS staff who have contributed to the review.
Executive summary
Introduction
A medical gas pipeline system (MGPS) is installed to
provide a safe, convenient and cost-effective system
for the provision of medical gases to the clinical and
nursing staff at the point-of-use. It reduces the problems
associated with the use of gas cylinders such as safety,
porterage, storage and noise.
This Health Technical Memorandum is divided into two
parts. Guidance in this part (Part A) covers piped medical
gases, medical and surgical air, and medical vacuum
installations: it applies to all medical gas pipeline
systems installed in healthcare premises and anaesthetic
gas scavenging disposal systems. Specifically, it deals
with the issues involved in the design, installation, and
validation and verification (testing and commissioning)
of an MGPS. Part B covers operational management.
The guidance given in this document should be followed
for all new installations and refurbishment or upgrading
of existing installations.
It is not necessary to apply the guidance retrospectively
unless patient or staff safety would be compromised. In
this case, the guidance given in this document should be
followed.
Existing installations should be assessed for compliance
with this guidance document. A plan for upgrading the
existing system should be prepared, taking account of the
priority for patient safety. Managers will need to liaise
with medical colleagues and take account of other
guidance published by the Department of Health in
order to assess the system for technical shortcomings.
Health Technical Memorandum 02 supersedes all
previous versions of Health Technical Memorandum
2022.
Sources of supply for pipeline
installations
Oxygen
Oxygen is generally supplied from:
• a liquid source such as a large vacuum-insulated
evaporator (VIE);
• liquid cylinders or compressed gas cylinders; or
• a combination of these to provide the necessary
stand-by/back-up capacity.
Oxygen can also be supplied from an oxygen
concentrator (pressure-swing adsorber). Such systems are
usually installed where liquid or cylinders are expensive,
unavailable or impracticable.
Medical air
Medical air is usually supplied from a compressed air
plant that includes high-quality drying and filtration
equipment. Blending oxygen and nitrogen on-site
to provide a high-quality product with minimum
maintenance can also provide medical air. Where such
systems are installed to provide both oxygen and medical
air, nitrogen can be used for the power source for surgical
tools.
Other gases
All other gases are supplied from cylinders.
(On-site blended oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture is a
possibility if bulk liquid supplies of nitrous oxide are
available, although this system is unlikely to be adopted
in the UK.)
Basic principles of design
Patient safety is paramount in the design, installation,
commissioning and operation of medical gas pipeline
systems. The basic principles of safety are achieved by
ensuring quantity of supply, identity of supply, continuity
of supply and quality of supply.
Quantity of supply
This is achieved by ensuring that the design of the
pipeline installation and capacity of the supply plant is
sufficient to provide the required flows of gases and
vacuum for the intended number of patients to be treated
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
at any one time. Adequacy of supply is established during
commissioning of the systems.
Identity of supply
This is achieved by ensuring that all points to which the
user can connect medical equipment (terminal units)
and user-replaceable components are provided with gasspecific connectors. Such connectors are also identified
by symbol and often colour. The gas specificity is
maintained by comprehensive tests and checks during
installation and commissioning, and during any work or
maintenance on the systems.
Continuity of supply
This is achieved by installing, as a minimum, duplex
components and providing additional means of supply
provision in the event of failure of the primary and
secondary plant or supply system. Systems are also
connected to the essential electrical supply.
Quality of supply
Quality of supply is ensured by the use of gaseous
or liquid sources that are provided to an appropriate
product specification, usually a recognised European
Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monogram. In the case of
compressor-based systems, filtration equipment to a
known and agreed standard is installed. To ensure that
the product is not adulterated in the distribution system,
pipeline installations and components are required to
meet agreed specifications. There are strict Ph. Eur.
requirements for medical gases.
General uses of gas and pipeline
installations
• Oxygen is one of the most extensively used
gases for respiratory therapy and life-support
and is additionally used in anaesthetic
procedures.
• Medical air is mainly used in respiratory
therapy as a power source for patient
ventilators, and for blending with oxygen.
It is also used as the driving gas for nebulised
drugs and chemotherapy agents.
• Surgical air (of medical air quality) is also
used, at a higher pressure, to power a variety
of surgical tools and other devices such as
tourniquets. (As an alternative, nitrogen can
be used for this purpose.).
• Nitrous oxide is used for anaesthetic and
analgesic purposes, being mixed with air,
oxygen, and nebulised agents.
• Pipeline systems for a 50% mixture of
oxygen and nitrous oxide are widely
installed in the UK for analgesic purposes,
particularly in maternity departments.
• Helium/oxygen mixture is used to treat
patients with respiratory or airway
obstruction and to relieve symptoms and
signs of respiratory distress; guidance on
pipeline systems is now included.
• Carbon dioxide is used less commonly
now as a respiratory stimulant, and for
insufflation during surgery. Pipeline systems
for respiratory use have not been installed in
the UK but they are now being installed for
this latter purpose.
• Piped vacuum is provided in most clinical
areas by means of centrally sited vacuum
pumps.
• The control of occupational exposure to
waste anaesthetic gas (nitrous oxide) and
nebulised agents is a legal requirement under
the Control of Substances Hazardous to
Health (COSHH) Regulations 2002. Where
nitrous oxide is provided for anaesthetic
purposes, scavenging systems are installed.
vi
Acknowledgements
Mike Arrowsmith Arrowsmith and Associates
Geoffrey Dillow Geoffrey Dillow and Associates
Ian Fraser Department of Health
Mike Ralph Medical Gas Association
vii
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Contents
Preface
Executive summary
Acknowledgements
Chapter 1Scope
Guidance in this document
Other guidance
page 1
Chapter 2General principles
Introduction
Quality requirements for medical gases and air
Sources of supply
Sizing information for gas supply sources
Pipeline distribution system design
Safety
Installation/supply of equipment/maintenance
Modifications
Removal of pipework
Validation and verification
General fire precautions
Electricity supply to medical gas installations
page 2
Chapter 3Provision of terminal units, and the location of AVSUs, local alarm indicator panels
and LVAs
page 10
General
Terminal units
Terminal units for helium/oxygen mixture
Nitrogen for surgical tools
AVSUs
Local alarm indicator panels
LVAs
Specific labelling requirements
Chapter 4Gas flow
General
Terminal unit flows
Pipeline flows
Oxygen
Hyperbaric oxygen chambers
Nitrous oxide
Nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture
Air
Vacuum
Helium/oxygen mixture
Anaesthetic gas scavenging systems
viii
page 22
Contents
Chapter 5Cylinder manifold installations
Primary supply system
Secondary supply system
page 36
Chapter 6Oxygen systems
Liquid oxygen systems
Oxygen concentrator installations (PSA plant)
page 41
Chapter 7Medical compressed air systems
General
Compressor systems
Quality
Siting
Compressor noise
Air intake
Compressor types
Compressor lubrication
After-coolers
Receivers
Air treatment and filtration
Pressure control
Traps, valves and non-return valves
Operating and indicating system
Synthetic air
System description
Storage vessels
Vaporisation
Medical oxygen flow control
Surgical nitrogen flow control
Control panel for the nitrogen and oxygen supplies to the mixing panels
Air mixing panels
Buffer vessels
Alarm signal status unit
Emergency supply provision
Additional use of medical air systems
page 66
Chapter 8Surgical air systems
General
Extension of surgical air systems into dental departments
page 82
Chapter 9Medical vacuum systems
General
Siting
Pump noise
Vacuum plant exhaust
Efficiency
Vacuum pumps
Pressure control
Valves
Pressure regulation of vacuum system
Vacuum indicators
Electrical supply
Pump operating and indicating system
page 85
ix
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Chapter 10Anaesthetic gas scavenging disposal systems
Terminology
General
Selecting the number of disposal system pumps
Flow and diversity
Discharge outlet
Plant control indication
page 91
Chapter 11Other medical gas pipeline installations
General
Helium/oxygen mixture
Oxygen/CO2 mixture
Carbon dioxide
Nitric oxide
page 94
Chapter 12Warning and alarm systems
General
Dedicated systems
Panel location
System components
System layout
General requirements
Warning and alarm system faults
Indicator panel requirements for all systems
Central indicator panel requirements
Repeater indicator panel requirements
Area warning and alarm panel
Integrated systems
page 96
Chapter 13Pipeline installation
Pipeline materials
Cleaning
Pipeline jointing
Inspection of joints
Jointing methods (mechanical)
Capping
Pipe supports
Identification of pipelines
Pipeline components
Medical supply units
Flexible pendant fittings
Bed-head trunking/walling systems
LVAs and AVSUs
Specific labelling requirements
Pressure control equipment
Pressure sensors
Pressure gauges
Test points
Emergency inlet port
Line pressure alarms and safety valves
Other systems
page 104
Chapter 14Accommodation
Design and construction of plant and manifold rooms
page 114
Contents
Chapter 15Validation and verification
page 117
Summary of tests
General requirements for testing
Modifications, extensions or repairs to existing systems
Requirements for pipeline carcass tests
Labelling and marking
Sleeving and supports
Leakage
Cross-connection
Requirements for pipeline system tests
Leakage from total compressed medical gas systems
Leakage into total vacuum systems
Closure of area valve service units and line valve assemblies
Zoning of AVSUs and terminal unit identification
Cross-connection
Flow and pressure drop at individual terminal units, mechanical function and correct
installation
Performance tests on the pipeline system
Functional tests of supply systems
Pressure safety valves
Warning and alarm systems
Verification of as-fitted drawings
Filling with medical air
Purging and filling with specific gases
Pharmaceutical testing
Quality of medical gas systems
AGS disposal systems
Requirements before a medical gas pipeline system is taken into use
Appendix ATesting, commissioning and filling for use: forms to be completed during testing
and commissioning of piped medical gases systems
page 141
Appendix BGas pressure variation with temperature
General
Calculation
Examples
page 161
Appendix CPressure-drop test device
General
Measurement principle
Functional requirements
Orifices
Flowmeter
Pressure gauge
page 162
Appendix DMembrane filter test device
General
Measurement principle
Test equipment
page 163
Appendix EEquipment for contaminant testing
General
Measurement principle
page 164
xi
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Appendix FEquipment for gas identification
General
Specificity
Specification
page 165
Appendix GPressure loss data
Pipeline pressure-drop calculations
page 166
Appendix HChecklist for planning/installing/upgrading a cryogenic liquid supply system
Delivery frequency
Calculating consumption
Age of current system
Siting of system and the site survey
Costs
Emergency provision
System shutdown during installation
Paperwork
Health and safety
Preparation
Installation
Follow-up
page 172
Appendix JUpgrading surgical air systems
Background
Modifying “old” systems
page 176
Appendix K
page 178
Signage requirements
Appendix LImportant notes for use of medical vacuum and anaesthetic gas scavenging
Infectious disease units
Laser/surgical diathermy smoke extraction
Dental vacuum systems
Anaesthetic gas scavenging (AGS)
page 182
Appendix M
Oxygen usage data
page 183
Appendix N
Pressure conversion table
page 184
References
xii
page 185
1
Scope
Guidance in this document
1.1 This Health Technical Memorandum is divided
into two parts. Guidance in this part (Part A)
covers piped medical gases, medical and surgical air,
and medical vacuum installations; it applies to all
medical gas pipeline systems installed in healthcare
premises. Anaesthetic gas scavenging disposal
systems are also included. Specifically, it deals
with the issues involved in the design, installation,
and validation and verification (testing and
commissioning) of an MGPS. Part B covers
operational management.
1.2 The guidance given in this document should be
followed for all new installations and refurbishment
or upgrading of existing installations.
1.3 It is not necessary to apply the guidance
retrospectively unless patient or staff safety would
be compromised. In this case, the guidance given in
this document should be followed.
1.4 Existing installations should be assessed for
for upgrading the existing system should be
prepared, taking account of the priority for patient
safety. Managers will need to liaise with medical
colleagues and take account of other guidance
published by the Department of Health in order to
assess the system for technical shortcomings.
1.5 Throughout this document, “medical gas pipeline
system(s)” will be described by the term MGPS.
Other guidance
1.6 Model Engineering Specification C11 –
‘Medical gases’ supports this Health Technical
Memorandum. It provides details of the extent of
the works required and is a procurement
specification.
1.7 Whenever appropriate, British Standard
specifications should be used.
1.8 Guidance on the provision of MGPS is given in the
Health Building Notes and other relevant British,
European, and International standards.
compliance with this guidance document. A plan
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
2
General principles
Introduction
2.1 An MGPS is designed to provide a safe and
effective method of delivering medical gases,
medical air and surgical air from the source of
supply to the appropriate terminal unit by means of
a pipeline distribution system. Medical vacuum is
also provided by means of a pipeline system.
Anaesthetic gas scavenging disposal systems are
provided to control occupational exposure to waste
anaesthetic gases and agents.
2.2 It is essential to ensure that there is no possibility of
a cross-connection between any system and that all
parts of each system to which connections can be
made by users are gas-specific.
2.3 Dental compressed air and vacuum systems have
differing requirements, and these are covered
in Health Technical Memorandum 2022
Supplement 1 – ‘Dental compressed air and
vacuum systems’.
2.4 During the installation stage, extensive tests are
carried out to verify that there is no crossconnection.
2.5 Medical gas systems may be extended to those
departments where respiratory equipment or
surgical tools are serviced, such as in electronic and
biomedical equipment (EBME) workshops and
sterile services departments (SSDs). Specific
additional uses of air systems are covered in
Chapters 7 and 8.
2.6 MGPS should not be used to supply pathology
departments, general workshops or mechanical
services.
2.7 Separate installations should be provided for
pathology and general laboratories and workshops,
although it is recommended that they be
constructed to the same specification as MGPS.
They should not be provided with medical gas
terminal units.
Note
Portable suction devices should be used in infectious
disease units.
Quality requirements for medical gases
and air
2.8 Medical gases supplied from cylinder or liquid
sources comply with the appropriate sections of the
current edition of the European Pharmacopoeia
(Ph. Eur.). The Ph. Eur. also specifies the approved
testing methods to be adopted for gas identity.
2.9 The quality specification for medical, surgical and
synthetic air, and oxygen-enriched air produced
from a pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system, is as
given in Table 29. The medical air and synthetic air
should also comply with the appropriate sections of
the current edition of the current edition of the Ph.
Eur. (see Table 30).
2.10 The quality of piped medical compressed air, and
the particulate content, dryness and concentration
of impurities should comply with the requirements
for maximum concentrations given in Table 30.
Information on testing procedures is given in
Chapter 15 “Validation and verification”.
2.11 Bacteria filters should be included in medical and
surgical compressor systems to reduce the risk of
delivering spores or other infectious material to
vulnerable patients.
2.12 Micro-organisms can penetrate a bacteria filter if
the material is wet. Therefore it is essential that the
dryness of the medical air supplied to a bacteria
filter is checked regularly (at least every three
months) at the test point, using the test equipment
specified in Chapter 15.
Sources of supply
2.13 Both BS EN 737-3:2000 and ISO 7396-1:2002
propose that all medical gas supplies should
comprise three sources of supply identified as
“primary”, “secondary” and “reserve”, although the
2 General principles
latter is more commonly referred to as a third
means of supply. The supply system should be
designed to achieve continuity of supply to the
terminal units in normal condition and in a single
fault condition. A single fault condition is where a
single means for protection against a safety hazard
in equipment is defective or a single external
abnormal condition is present. Loss of supply
due to maintenance of a supply source (or a
component within it) is not considered a single
fault condition.
2.14 Comparing this Health Technical Memorandum
with the above Standards will reveal a different
classification of, for example, individual banks of a
cylinder manifold. Whereas EN 737-3:2000 refers
to the separate banks of an automatic manifold as
primary and secondary supplies, this Health
Technical Memorandum classifies such a manifold
as a primary supply, that is, one single operating
unit.
2.15 Regardless of these classification differences,
the choice of central source will be defined by
the ability of the source not only to provide a
continuous supply of gas over a range of possible
flow rates but also to offer security of supply by
virtue of adequate capacity.
2.16 For these reasons, types, capacities and locations of
primary, secondary and reserve sources of supply
will be based on both system design parameters and
the need for supply security, identified by a risk
assessment during the planning stage. Security of
medical air supplies must be given a high priority.
Total electrical failure must not be allowed to
jeopardise supplies, and all medical air systems
must be supported by an appropriate fullyautomatic manifold. Tables 1–9 describe the
various options for gas supply. For each, the
primary, secondary and reserve sources are
identified.
Table 1 Compressed gas cylinder manifold systems
Primary supply
Fully automatic manifold.
Number of cylinders based on system
design
Secondary supply
Manual emergency reserve manifold.
To come on line automatically via a nonreturn valve.
Number of cylinders based on ability to
provide 4 hours’ supply at average use
Reserve supply (third source of supply)
Automatic/manual manifold supplying
via non-interchangeable screw thread
(NIST) connectors
OR
Locally-based integral valved cylinders
with regulators/flowmeters attached
Table 2 VIE systems
Primary supply
Secondary supply
Reserve supply (third source of supply)
Simplex VIE (vacuum-insulated
evaporator) vessel system
Automatic manifold system.
To come on-line in the event of plant
failure
Automatic manifold system.
May be sited to support highdependency areas or whole site
OR
Locally-based integral valved cylinders
with regulators/flowmeters attached
One vessel of a duplex VIE (vacuuminsulated evaporator) vessel system (on
same plinth)
Second vessel of a duplex VIE system
Automatic manifold system.
May be sited to support highdependency areas or whole site
One vessel of a duplex VIE vessel system
(on separate plinths)
Second vessel of a duplex VIE system (on
separate plinths).
NB split-site systems are intended
primarily for systems where the risk
assessment has identified that the site
for the primary supply is limited in size
or presents too high a risk having both
tanks on the same site. These supply
systems should be fitted with appropriate
non-return valved connections to prevent
gas loss in the event of one tank/system
failing
Type and capacity of supply to be
determined by risk assessment.
May not be required when a ring main
or other dual supply to a pipeline
distribution system is provided
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Table 3 Liquid cylinder systems
Primary supply
Secondary supply
Reserve supply
(Third source of supply)
Liquid cylinder manifold system.
NB: This is NOT a changeover
manifold. All cylinders are on-line
simultaneously.
Automatic manifold system.
To come on-line in the event of plant
failure.
Automatic manifold system.
May be sited to support highdependency areas or whole site
OR
Locally-based integral valved cylinders
with regulators/flow meters attached.
Primary supply
Secondary supply
Reserve supply
(Third source of supply)
Multiplex compressors and columns
(adsorbers).
Subject to design.
Automatic manifold system.
To come on-line in the event of plant
failure.
May be fitted with third party cylinders,
or filled from compressor of main plant.
Number of cylinders based on ability to
provide 4 hours’ supply at average use.
Locally filled cylinders or gas suppliers’
cylinders can be used
Type and capacity of supply to be
determined by risk assessment.
Table 4 PSA plant
Table 5 Compressor-driven medical air systems
Primary supply
Secondary supply
Reserve supply
(Third source of supply)
Duplex compressor system.
Automatic manifold system.
To come on-line automatically in the
event of plant failure.
Number of cylinders based on ability to
provide 4 hours’ supply at average use.
Automatic manifold system.
May be sited to support highdependency areas or whole site
OR
Locally-based integral valved cylinders
with regulators/flow meters attached.
Two compressors of a triplex compressor
system.
Third compressor of a triplex system.
Automatic manifold system.
To support whole site.
Two compressors of a quadruplex system. Other two compressors of a quadruplex
system.
Automatic manifold system.
To support whole site.
Table 6 Synthetic air plant
Primary supply
Secondary supply
Reserve supply
(Third source of supply)
Primary oxygen and nitrogen VIE vessels
and mixer unit.
Secondary oxygen and nitrogen VIE
vessels and mixer unit.
Type and capacity of supply to be
determined by risk assessment.
2 General principles
Table 7 Combined medical/surgical air plant
Primary supply
Secondary supply
Duplex compressor system. Two automatic manifold systems:
• one dedicated to support medical air (MA) system;
• one dedicated to support surgical air (SA) system.
All to come on-line in the event of plant failure.
Number of cylinders on each based on ability to
provide 4 hours’ supply at average use
Reserve supply
(Third source of supply)
Automatic manifold system.
May be sited to support highdependency areas or whole site
OR
Locally-based integral valved cylinders
with regulators/flow meters attached.
Two compressors of a
triplex compressor system.
Third compressor of a triplex system.
Automatic manifold system.
To support whole site.
Two compressors of a
quadruplex system.
Other two compressors of a quadruplex system.
Automatic manifold system.
To support whole site.
Table 8 Compressor-driven surgical air systems
Primary supply
Secondary supply
Reserve supply
(Third source of supply)
Simplex compressor unit.
Automatic manifold system.
To come on-line in the event of plant failure.
Number of cylinders based on ability to provide
4 hours’ supply at average use.
Locally based integral valved cylinders
with regulators/flow meters attached.
One compressor of a
duplex compressor system.
Second compressor of a duplex compressor system.
Automatic manifold system.
Table 9 Central medical vacuum systems
Primary supply
Secondary supply
Reserve supply
(Third source of supply)
Two compressors of a triplex pump
system.
Third pump of a triplex system.
Portable suction equipment.
Two pumps of a quadruplex system.
Other two pumps of a quadruplex
system.
Portable suction equipment.
Notes to Tables 1–9:
General guidance on vacuum systems is contained in Appendix L.
a.Duplex vacuum plant will be classified as a primary source only. A third pump will need to be added to provide a secondary
supply to meet the recommendations of this Health Technical Memorandum.
b.For duplex and triplex compressor systems and triplex vacuum pump systems, each compressor/pump will be sized to provide
the system’s full design flow.
c.For quadruplex systems, each compressor/pump is sized to cope with half the system design flow.
d.For all compressor systems with a design flow greater than 500 L/min, two receivers, each able to be isolated individually,
should be installed.
e. All plant is to be connected to the essential electricity supply.
f.For vacuum provision during total electricity supply failure, cylinder- or medical-gas-system-powered vacuum generators can be
used.
g.The use of venturi-type vacuum generators is recommended only for emergency use, as these units are generally driven from
the medical oxygen system and use large amounts of gas. This can lead to oxygen enrichment and present a potential fire hazard
and may result in the emission of pathological material.
h.The manual/secondary manifolds supporting fully automatic manifolds are usually sited with the manifold system. If a risk
assessment indicates that this is not in the interests of supply security, they may be sited remotely from the manifold.
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
In these circumstances, care should be taken to ensure that appropriate backflow protection (or non-return valves) are used to
protect the system from failure of either manifold.
j.Manifolds supporting medical air, surgical air and PSA systems should be sited remotely from the compressor systems.
Appropriate backflow protection should be provided, as above.
k.Where practicable, a valved by-pass arrangement around compressor and VIE-plant non-return valves should be installed to
permit valve replacement without plant shutdown.
m.Fitting non-return valves one pipe size larger will reduce flow resistance, if this is shown to be a critical factor in system design.
n. All sources of supply should be fitted with a test point comprising weatherproof terminal unit and lockable isolating valve.
p.Where medical air is provided by multiple, locally-sited regulators fed from a combined surgical and medical air distribution
system, it will be impracticable to connect supporting manifolds at each regulating station. In this situation, extra care should
be taken to ensure that the third means of supply is able to support both systems simultaneously. Consideration should be given
to additional manifolds sited to support medical air supplies to critical care areas.
Sizing information for gas supply sources
2.17 Table 10 provides guidance on suggested maximum sizes for gas sources. Final decisions on plant and manifold
capacities will depend on both available accommodation and risks to supply security.
Table 10 Suggested sizes for gas sources
Source
Service
Number of cylinders
Oxygen
2 x 10
J
Used as a stand-alone manifold or
support for cryogenic system/PSA plant
Medical air
2 x 10
J
Surgical air
Automatic Oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture
manifold
Nitrous oxide
2x6
J
Used as a stand-alone manifold or
support for compressor plant
2x8
G
2x6
G
Carbon dioxide
2x4
VF
Helium/oxygen
2x4
H
Nitrogen
2x6
W
Oxygen
2x2
J
Medical air
2x2
J
Surgical air
2x1
J
Oxygen/nitrous oxide mixture
2x2
G
Nitrous oxide
2x2
G
Carbon dioxide
2x1
VF
Helium/oxygen
2x1
H
Nitrogen
2x2
W
Manual
manifold
Cylinder size Notes
As secondary supply for an automatic
manifold system
Source
Service
Plant size
Duplex compressor system
Medical air
Each compressor sized at full design flow capacity
Notes
Triplex compressor system
Medical air
Quadruplex compressor
system
Medical air
Simplex compressor system
Surgical air
Receiver water capacity
Each compressor sized at full design flow capacity sized at 50% free air
delivery (FAD) in
Each compressor sized at half design flow capacity
1 minute
Compressor sized at 1/3 design flow
1/
3
Duplex compressor system
Surgical air
Each compressor sized at
Triplex pump system
Medical
vacuum
Each pump sized at full design flow capacity
Quadruplex pump system
Medical
vacuum
Each pump sized at half design flow capacity
design flow
Water capacity of receiver
sized at 2 x design flow in
1 minute
Water capacity of reservoir
sized at design flow in
1 minute
2 General principles
2.18 Sizing of vacuum-insulated evaporator (VIE)
systems, liquid cylinder storage systems, PSA
plant and synthetic air plant should be based on
historical consumption data and appropriate risk
assessments carried out with the medical gas
supplier. Allowance should be made for increases in
the use of medical gases and changes to the gas
demands caused by local developments and
strategic issues. For a completely new site, the
proposed gas supplier will need to be consulted
so that a review of their historical data can be
conducted for similar sites. The graph shown in
Appendix M will give an approximate indication
of expected annual consumption, based on the
number of hospital beds. It should be noted that
higher consumption could be expected when,
for example, high numbers (>20) of continuous
positive airway pressure (CPAP) machines are in
frequent use (>40 hours per week).
Notes
a. Automatic manifolds are generally expected to hold
a minimum of two days’ supply on each bank.
b. Sufficient cylinders for changing one complete
bank should be stored in the manifold room for
all gases except nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture, for
which two complete changes should be stored in
the manifold room.
c. Sufficient additional cylinders should be held in the
medical gas store to ensure continuous supply for
one week.
Pipeline distribution system design
2.19 The following general information is required to
design an MGPS:
a. schedule of provision of terminal units;
b. design flow rates and pressure requirements at
each terminal unit;
c. diversified flows for each section of the pipeline
system;
d. total flow.
2.20 Guidance on deriving and calculating the above
parameters is given in Chapters 3 and 4 of this
Part.
2.21 The definition of “departments”, which may
comprise several wards, treatment rooms etc,
should be agreed at the project design stage to
avoid confusion.
Safety
2.22 The safety of an MGPS is dependent on four basic
principles:
a. identity;
b. adequacy;
c. continuity;
d. quality of supply.
2.23 Identity is assured by the use of gas-specific
connections throughout the pipeline system,
including terminal units, connectors etc, and by
the adherence to strict testing and commissioning
procedures of the system.
2.24 Adequacy of supply depends on an accurate
assessment of demands and the selection of plant
appropriate to the clinical/medical demands on the
system.
2.25 Continuity of supply is achieved by:
• the specification of a system that (with the
exception of liquid oxygen systems which may
include a secondary vessel) has duplicate
components;
• the provision of a third means of supply for all
systems except vacuum;
• the provision of alarm systems; and
• connection to the emergency power supply
system.
2.26 Surgical air systems are not considered to be
life-support systems and therefore duplicate
components are not normally required; an
emergency/secondary supply is provided.
2.27 Quality of supply is achieved by the use of gases
purchased to the appropriate Ph. Eur. requirements
or produced by plant performing to specific
standards, by the maintenance of cleanliness
throughout the installation of the system, and by
the implementation of the various testing and
commissioning procedures.
Installation/supply of equipment/
maintenance
2.28 The installation of an MGPS should be carried out
only by specialist firms registered to BS EN ISO
9001:2000/BS EN ISO 13485:2003 with the scope
of registration appropriately defined.
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Modifications
Validation and verification
2.29 Special precautions are required when existing
2.33 The objective of validation and verification is to
installations are to be modified or extended, to
ensure that all sections of the pipeline system
remaining in use are not contaminated, and that
the supply to patients is not compromised. The
section to be modified should be physically isolated
from the section in use. Closure of isolating valves
is insufficient for this purpose. Where area valve
service units (AVSUs) and/or line valve assemblies
(LVAs) have been installed, blanking spades should
be used. This isolation procedure is not required
when work is to be carried out on individual
terminal units.
2.30 Modification of existing systems may be
detrimental to the overall performance of the
system. In the case of older systems, there may be
insufficient capacity to permit the system to operate
safely with the flows typically encountered in use
today.
2.31 Any work involving alteration, extension or
maintenance work on an existing system should be
subject to the permit-to-work procedure (see
Part B, Chapter 8).
Removal of pipework
2.32 Removal and cutting out of redundant medical gas
pipelines and equipment can present as great a
hazard to patient safety as any other modification.
All such removal (including cutting into existing
pipelines, and capping off and removal of
redundant pipework and equipment) should be
carried out by specialist medical gas contractors
only. General demolition contractors should not
carry out this work.
Note
Removal of vacuum systems may present additional
microbiological hazards and should be undertaken
in accordance with routine hygiene practices, that is,
covering of open wounds and immediate cleansing and
dressing of cuts/scratches received while carrying out
the work. Immunisation against certain diseases may
be required by the hospital’s occupational health
department or the employer of tradespeople; therefore,
all operatives should ensure that this requirement has
been met.
ensure that all the necessary safety and performance
requirements of the MGPS will be met. Validation
and verification procedures will be required for new
installations, additions to existing installations and
modifications to existing installations. The scope of
work will dictate the specific programme required.
This is described in Chapter 15.
Notes
The concept of the existing quality assurance BSI
scheme schedule QAS 3720. 1/206/A1 is currently
under review. Further guidance will be given when
appropriate.
General fire precautions
General
2.34 The siting and general structural principles for the
design of liquid oxygen storage accommodation
are given in Chapter 6, and the requirements for
plantrooms and gas manifold rooms in Chapter 14.
2.35 Guidance on cylinder storage and handling is given
in Part B.
Fire detection system
2.36 Smoke or heat detector heads should be installed in
the plantrooms, medical gases manifold rooms and
(when internal) medical gases cylinder stores in
any hospital having a fire detection system in
accordance with Health Technical Memorandum
05-03, Part B – ‘Firecode: alarm and detection
systems’. External stores may also require fire
detection systems.
Electricity supply to medical gas
installations
General
2.37 Electrical installations should be carried out in
accordance with the current addition of BS 7671
wiring regulations and associated guidance
documents.
2.38 Provision of electrical supply and distribution
should take account of guidance issued in Health
Technical Memorandum 06-01 – ‘Electrical
services’.
2 General principles
Resilience of supply
2.39 Medical gas pipeline systems, associated equipment
and alarms are a critical service within a healthcare
establishment. Due consideration should be given
to ensure the continuity of service under mains
power failure conditions.
2.40 Medical gas equipment should be supplied from
a dedicated, final sub-circuit which is considered
“essential” within the electrical distribution strategy.
Alternative means of supply should be considered
in the event that internal sub-distribution is
compromised.
2.41 In the event of power failure or interruption, all
systems should continue to function as they did
before the interruption occurred. For example,
except for automatic cycling compressors, dryers,
pumps etc, the same compressor and dryer (or
vacuum pump) set should be on-line, and for
manifold systems the same bank should be
running.
2.42 All electrical systems, including plant control
systems, alarm interfaces etc, should be designed in
accordance with electromagnetic compatibility
(EMC) directives. For further details, see the
“EMC section” within Health Technical
Memorandum 06-01.
2.43 It is important that operational managers and
designers are fully aware of stand-by electrical
supply arrangements and availability and that plans
are available to deal with the total loss of electricity
under adverse circumstances.
Electrical installation
2.44 Wiring systems for medical gas installations should
be selected in accordance with BS 7671 wiring
regulations with particular regard to the
environment and risk from mechanical damage.
In this regard, PVC-insulated MICS (mineralinsulated copper-sheathed) cable for external/
internal locations and heat-rated singles cable in
galvanised conduit for plantrooms are considered
suitable. For large equipment, fire-rated SWA (steel
wire armoured) cable may be appropriate.
2.45 Care should be taken when installing both electrical
systems and medical pipeline systems to avoid
occasional contact between pipework and electrical
cables, conduit or trunking. When physical
separation is impractical or contact with extraneous
metalwork occurs (for example where the pipeline
is carried in metal partitions or where terminal
units are mounted on metal bed-head units),
the pipeline should be effectively bonded to the
metalwork in accordance with BS 7671 wiring
regulations.
2.46 The final connection to any equipment (for
example alarm panels or control panels) should be
made using an unswitched fused connection unit;
a double-pole switch should be available to permit
work on the equipment.
2.47 Where electrical systems and medical gas pipeline
systems are enclosed in a boom, rigid pendant or
multi-purpose-type enclosure, care should be taken
to ensure that low voltage (LV), extra-low voltage
(ELV) and communications and data systems are
maintained together but separate from pipeline
systems. There should be no access to unprotected
live parts within the pendant except by the use of a
tool.
Earthing
2.48 Medical gas pipelines should be bonded together
and bonded to the local electrical distribution
board in accordance with BS 7671 wiring
regulations. The pipelines should not in themselves
be used for earthing electrical equipment.
2.49 Flexible pipeline connections, wherever used,
should be bonded across the fixed points to ensure
earth continuity.
2.50 Where a medical gas outlet or pipeline system is
present within a group 2 location as defined by IEE
Guidance Note 7 – ‘Medical locations’, care must
be taken to ensure the resistance of the bonding
connection is in accordance with the required
value.
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
3 Provision
of terminal units, and the location
of AVSUs, local alarm indicator panels and
LVAs
General
3.1 Terminal unit provision, location of AVSUs, local
alarm indicator panels and LVAs are given in
Table 11. Medical treatment policy is evolutionary,
however, and the project team should review
requirements for individual schemes.
Terminal units
3.2 Terminal units should be mounted in positions that
result in the shortest practicable routes for flexible
connecting assemblies, between the terminal unit
and apparatus. Terminal units may be surface- or
flush-mounted. They may also be incorporated
with electrical services, nurse call systems,
televisions, radio and audio services, in proprietary
fittings such as medical supply units, wall panel
systems and pendant fittings etc. When they are
installed within such fittings, it is essential to
maintain the concentricity of the terminal unit
bezel with the fascia plate aperture; if the
installation is highly eccentric, the bezel will bind
on the fascia plate and the terminal unit will not
function properly.
b. vacuum systems in which body or other fluids
are drawn through a fixed pipeline connecting a
terminal unit or other connector to a remote
suction jar.
3.5 All terminal units should conform to BS EN
737-1:1998. Terminal units intended for wall
mounting where directly connected equipment
such as flow meters are to be used must include a
non-swivel device. Terminal units intended for
installation with the socket axis vertical, for
example in certain types of pendant, or where
horizontally mounted but intended for use with
indirectly connected equipment by means of a
flexible connecting assembly, should also have a
non-swivel device because flow meters may be
attached. Dimensions of probes are given in BS
5682:2005. It is essential that probes be machined
from stainless steel.
3.6 An anaesthetic gas scavenging (AGS) terminal unit
3.4 The following are not permitted:
should be provided whenever nitrous oxide and
anaesthetic agents are available for anaesthetic
procedures. In recovery areas, where nitrous oxide
is not provided, there is no primary source of
anaesthetic gas pollution; thus, no anaesthetic gas
scavenging system (AGSS) is required. Guidance
on operating departments requires such areas to
be mechanically ventilated. Where nitrous oxide
mixed with oxygen is provided for analgesic
purposes, scavenging is not generally practicable
and pollution should therefore be controlled by
mechanical ventilation. Details of ventilation
requirements are given in Health Building Note 26
(Volume 1) – ‘Facilities for surgical procedures’.
For dental departments, scavenging is possible by
means of nasal masks, and reference should be
made to Heath Technical Memorandum 2022
(Supplement 1) – ‘Dental compressed air and
vacuum systems’ (see also Chapter 10).
a. floor-mounted terminal units;
3.7 The terminal unit (AGS) is specified in ISO 7396.
3.3 When planning the installation of operating-room
pendant fittings, the location of the operating
luminaire and other ceiling-mounted devices
should be taken into consideration. When the
operating room is provided with an ultra-clean
ventilation (UCV) system, it may be more
practicable (and cost-effective) to have the services
(both medical gas and electrical) incorporated as
part of the UCV system partial walls. It is
particularly advantageous in the case of surgical
air systems as rigid pipework can be used, thus
avoiding pressure-loss problems that can occur with
flexible assemblies used within pendant fittings.
10
AGSS are covered in Chapter 10.
3 Provision of terminal units, and the location of AVSUs, local alarm indicator panels and LVAs
Figure 1 Terminal unit mounting order
Note
WALL MOUNTED TERMINALS – Horizontal array
Reference should be made to the Department of
Health’s (1996) ‘Advice on the implementation of the
Health & Safety Commission’s occupational exposure
standards for anaesthetic agents’. Further guidance is
given in the Health & Safety Executive’s (1996)
‘Anaesthetic agents: controlling exposure under
COSHH’.
3.8 Where respiratory equipment or surgical
instruments are serviced, such as in EBME
workshops and SSDs, it is normally necessary to
install the full range of medical gas terminal units.
AGS should be provided as a dedicated system.
3.9 The fixing of terminal units into medical supply
systems or to wall surfaces etc should be such that
the following forces can be applied:
a. a lateral force of 20 N applied at 100 mm from
the surface of the terminal unit without
dislodgement or breakage;
b. an axial force of 450 N without dislodgement or
breakage.
3.10 Where an array of terminal units is provided at a
location, they should be arranged as follows (see
Figure 1):
a. for a horizontal array, when viewed from the
front, left to right: oxygen, nitrous oxide,
nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture (50% v/v),
medical air, surgical air, vacuum, anaesthetic
gas scavenging, helium/oxygen mixture. If this
arrangement is impracticable, a number of rows
can be used. For example:
O2, N2O and/or N2O/O2
MA, SA, VAC, AGS, He/O2;
b. for a vertical array, with oxygen at the top and
in the sequence as for a horizontal array. In
many cases a vertical array is impracticable and
a more convenient arrangement will comprise a
number of rows (see Figure 1);
c. for a circular array, for example where terminal
units are installed on the under-surface of a
pendant, with the sequence as for a horizontal
array, in a clockwise direction when viewed
from below. The AGS terminal unit may occupy
the centre of such an array.
LEFT
O2
RIGHT
N2O O2/N2O
SA
MA
AGS
VAC
He/O2
WALL MOUNTED TERMINALS – Vertical array
TOP
TOP
O2
O2
SA
N2O
VAC
O2/N2O
AGS
N2O
O2/N2O
OR
MA
MA
He/O2
SA
VAC
AGS
He/O2
O2
He/O2
N2O
AGS
O2/N2O
VAC
CIRCULAR (eg pendant) – Viewed from below
SA
MA
3.11 Oxygen/carbon dioxide mixture systems have been
installed, but are no longer covered by this Health
Technical Memorandum.
3.12 Helium/oxygen mixtures may be required to be
supplied by pipeline in some critical care areas.
Systems for these are included in Chapter 11.
3.13 Mounting heights for terminal units should be
between 900 mm and 1600 mm above finished
floor level (FFL) when installed on walls or similar
vertical surfaces – the optimum height for the
convenience of users of the medical gas system is
1400 mm (see Figure 2). When terminal units are
incorporated within a horizontal bedhead service
trunking system, which also provides integrated
linear lighting for general room and/or patient
reading illumination, it should be of a design that
does not compromise the convenience of the
medical gas facility.
3.14 When installed in pendants or similar, terminal
units should be of a type suitable for mounting
within the specified fitting.
3.15 Pressure losses across terminal units should be in
accordance with BS EN 737-1:1998. (The standard
does not give pressure loss data for surgical air at
11
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
350 L/min – but this can be up to 100 kPa when
connected via a ceiling NIST (non-interchangeable
screw thread) connector and 5 m of hose.)
b. the distance between the centre of the terminal
unit and a potential obstruction on either side
(for example when installed in a corner) should
be a minimum of 200 mm on either side;
3.16 Terminal units that are wall mounted should be
c. care should be taken to ensure that connected
medical gas equipment and hoses do not foul
other nearby equipment and services during use.
Particular attention should be given to terminal
unit positioning with respect to worktops,
electrical sockets, cupboards, equipment rails,
ventilation flaps and door openings. A
minimum radial clearance of at least 200 mm
from these items is suggested, but this may have
to be increased depending on the nature of
connected equipment.
located as follows (see Figure 2):
a. distance between centres of adjacent horizontal
terminal units:
(i)135 ± 2.5 mm for three or more terminal
units;
(ii) 150 ± 2.5 mm for two terminal units only;
Note
To promote a more “domestic” environment, some
in-patient accommodation is provided with terminal
units installed in recesses behind covers/decorative
panels etc. To accommodate this it is necessary to allow
an additional 100 mm on each side of the outermost
terminal units and 200 mm from centre to top of
recess and 300 mm from centre to bottom of recess.
The depth of the recess should be 150 mm. The
surface should be clearly marked with suitable legend
denoting medical equipment is installed within.
Terminal units for helium/oxygen
mixture
3.17 BS EN 737-1:1998 does not include a terminal
unit for helium/oxygen mixture. They will be
included in a new edition of BS 5682:1998.
Figure 2 Terminal unit mounting heights
PENDANTS
(For rigid units, distance
is measured in fully
retracted position)
400 mm
Terminal unit mounting
height range
900–1600 mm
above FFL
(Recommended range
900–1400 mm
above FFL)
TU separation
135 mm ± 2.5 mm
between centres,
for 3 or more TUs
700 mm
TU centreline
200 mm (min)
from side walls
TU separation
150 mm ± 2.5 mm
between centres,
for 2 TUs only
900 mm
FINISHED FLOOR LEVEL
12
3 Provision of terminal units, and the location of AVSUs, local alarm indicator panels and LVAs
Nitrogen for surgical tools
3.18 BS EN 739:1998 gives details of connectors for
nitrogen for driving tools. The body of the NIST
connector should form the wall outlet.
AVSUs
3.19 AVSUs should be mounted at a convenient height
between 1 m and 1.8 m such that they can be
operated comfortably by staff without their needing
to stoop or overreach (see Figure 3). The order of
the location of individual valves in an array should
follow that for terminal units, for example: O2,
N2O and/or N2O/O2, MA, SA, VAC, He/O2.
If the array exceeds 1 m in height from top to
bottom, it may be preferable to arrange them in
two columns. Care must be taken to ensure that
AVSUs cannot be obscured by opening doors etc.
Details of the design of AVSUs are given in
Chapter 13.
Note
The minimum height of 1 m is the optimum. In
critical care areas where dual circuits are installed, it
may be necessary to reduce this to 800 mm to avoid an
excessive number of columns of AVSUs.
Local alarm indicator panels
3.20 The placing of local alarm indicators should be
such that they are readily visible by staff; notices,
partitioning, screens etc should not obscure them.
The mounting height should be such that in the
event of an audible alarm sounding, staff can
activate the “mute” switch without overreaching,
and be a maximum 1.8 m above finished floor level
(see Figure 3).
LVAs
3.21 LVAs should be installed at branches from risers,
branches from main runs, and where pipelines pass
into or out of a building. Details of the design of
LVAs are given in Chapter 13.
Figure 3 AVSU and local alarm panel mounting heights
AVSU
ALARM
PANEL
800 mm
Mounting height
range for AVSUs
1000–1800 mm
(1000 mm is the
optimum height:
when multi-circuits
are installed, it may
be necessary to
reduce this to
800 mm to avoid
too many columns)
Mounting height
range for local alarm
panel
1000–1800 mm
1000 mm
(800 mm)
1800 mm
Recommended
location –
Nurse base
Mounting order as for
vertical TU array
FINISHED FLOOR LEVEL
13
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Specific labelling requirements
3.22 All AVSUs should be labelled to identify the
individual rooms, sets of terminal units etc
controlled. They should be provided with flow
direction arrows.
3.23 In critical care areas where dual circuits and/or
subdivision of circuitry occur, terminal units
require to be identified as associated with the
specific AVSU. Correspondingly, AVSUs should be
similarly labelled to identify the terminal units
controlled.
14
Table 11 Provision of terminal units, AVSUs and local alarms
Department
O2
N2O
N2O/O2
MA4
SA7
VAC
AGSS
He/O2
Accident and Emergency
Resuscitation room, per trolley space
AVSU
1 set
(1)
2
2
–
2
–
2
2
–
2 sets*
Major treatment/plaster room per trolley space
1
1
1p
1
1p
1
1
–
1 set/8 TUs
Post-anaesthesia recovery per trolley space
2
–
–
2
–
2
–
–
2 sets*
1
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
1 set/8 TUs
Alarm
1 set hp/lp (9)
Note: One set either side of the trolley space, if installed in
fixed location, eg trunking; or both sets in an articulated supply
pendant that can be positioned either side of the bed space.
Treatment room/cubicle
1 set (1)
Operating department
Anaesthetic rooms (all)
1
1
–
1
–
1
1
–
For anaesthetist
2
1
–
2
–
2
1
–
For surgeon
–
–
–
–
4
2
–
–
Operating room, orthopaedic:
1 set per suite
(2)(3)
1 set per suite
hp/lp (10)
–
–
Note: Orthopaedic surgery is normally performed in operating
rooms provided with ultra-clean systems. Such systems are much
more effective in terms of airflow when provided with partial
walls. These walls may be effectively used to include terminal
units that can be supplied by rigid pipework. Such installations
do not suffer from excessive pressure loss when surgical air is
required at high flows.
Operating room, neurosurgery
Anaesthetist
2
1
–
2
–
2
1
–
Surgeon
–
–
–
–
2
2
–
–
Note: If multi-purpose pendants are used, there may be some
loss of performance of surgical tools because of bore restrictions
and convolution of the flexible connecting assemblies at the
articulated joints.
1 set per suite
(2)(3)
1 set per suite
hp/lp (10)
15
3 Provision of terminal units, and the location of AVSUs, local alarm indicator panels and LVAs
Note: One set either side of the trolley space, if installed in
fixed location, eg trunking; or both sets in an articulated supply
pendant that can be positioned either side of the bed space.
O2
N2O
N2O/O2
MA4
SA7
VAC
AGSS
He/O2
AVSU
Alarm
2
2
–
2
2p
2
2
–
1 set per suite
1 set per suite
hp/lp (10)
2
–
–
2
–
2
–
–
2 sets* (5)
1 alarm for both
sets of AVSUs (11)
1
1
–
1
1
1
1
–
1 set
1 set hp/lp (12)
Maternity department
1 set (1)
1 set (9)
LDRP room (normal/abnormal)
1 set per 6–8
rooms (5)
Operating room, general surgery etc
Anaesthetist/surgeon (see (14) regarding CO2)
Note: Terminal units installed in separate pendants: p = project
team option where some orthopaedic overspill surgery may be
performed.
Post-anaesthesia recovery, per bed space
(2)(3)
Note: One set either side of the bed space, if installed in fixed
location, eg trunking; or both sets in an articulated supply
pendant that can be positioned either side of the bed space.
Equipment service room per work space
Mother
1
–
1
–
–
2
–
–
Baby (per cot space) (allow for 2 cots only)
1
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
Anaesthetist
1
1
–
1
–
1
1
–
Obstetrician
–
–
–
–
–
2
–
–
Paediatrician (per cot space) (allow for 2 cots only)
1
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
Post-anaesthesia recovery (per bed space)
1
–
–
1
–
1
–
Equipment service room** per work space
1
1
1
1
–
1
Neonatal unit, per cot space
2
–
–
2
–
1
–
–
1
Single bed room
1
–
–
Multi-room, per bed space
1
–
Nursery, per cot space
1
–
Operating suite:
1 set
1 set hp/lp (10)
–
1 set
1 set (11)
1
–
1 set
1 set (12)
2
–
–
2 sets*
1 for both sets of
AVSUs (11)
–
1
–
–
1 set
1 set (12)
–
–
1
–
–
1 set (11)
–
–
–
1
–
–
1 set for ward
unit
–
–
–
1
–
–
Note: One set either side of the bed space, if installed in fixed
location, eg trunking; or both sets in an articulated supply
pendant that can be positioned either side of the bed space.
Equipment service room** per work space
In-patient accommodation:
Provision for 2 cots only irrespective of number of cot spaces
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
16
Department
Department
O2
N2O
N2O/O2
MA4
SA7
VAC
AGSS
He/O2
Diagnostics departments
AVSU
1 set
(1)
Alarm
1 set
(9)
1 set (10)
1
1
–
1
–
1
1
–
1 set
Anaesthetic room
1
1
–
1
–
1
1
–
1 set
Holding and recovery
1
–
–
1p
–
1
–
–
1 set
Ultrasound
1
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
1 set
Fluoroscopy
1
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
1 set
Urography
1
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
1 set
Tomography
1
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
1 set
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suite
1
1
–
1
–
1
1
–
1 set
1 set (10)
CAT room
1
1
–
1
–
1
1
–
1 set
1 set (10)
Angiography
1
1
–
1
–
1
1
–
1 set
1 set (10)
Endoscopy
1
1
–
1
–
1
1
–
1 set
1 set (10)
Lineac bunkers
1
1
–
1
–
1
1
–
1 set
1 set (10)
General purpose rooms
1
–
–
–
–
1
–
–
In-patient accommodation
Single-bed room
1 set for the
ward unit (1)
1
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
1
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
Multi-bed room, per bed space
1
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
Treatment room
(Appropriate for adult acute, children and the elderly)
1
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
Per dialysis station
1
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
Per bed space
1
–
–
1
–
1
–
–
1 set (11)
Renal
1 set (1)
Critical care area
Per bed space
4
2p
2p
4
4
2p
1
1p
1p
1
1
1p
4
4
2p
1 set (11)
2 sets* (4)
Note: One set either side of the bed space, if installed in fixed
location, eg trunking; or both sets in an articulated supply
pendant that can be positioned either side of the bed space.
Equipment service room, per work space
1 set
1 set (12)
2 sets* (4)(6)(7)
1 for both sets of
AVSUs (11)
Coronary care unit (CCU)
17
Per bed space
4
3 Provision of terminal units, and the location of AVSUs, local alarm indicator panels and LVAs
Special procedures room
O2
N2O
N2O/O2
MA4
SA7
VAC
AGSS
He/O2
AVSU
Alarm
High dependency unit (HDU)
Per bed space
4
Burns unit
2
2p
2p
4
4
2
2
2p
2 sets* (4)(6)(7)
1 for both sets of
AVSUs (11)
2 sets* (4)(6)(7)
1 for both sets of
AVSUs (11)
1 set (1)
Adult mental illness accommodation
Electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) room
1
Post-anaesthesia recovery, per bed space
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Adult acute day care accommodation
1 set (2)
1 set hp/lp (10)
1 set (1)
1 set (11)
1 set
Treatment room:
Anaesthetist
1
1p
1p
1
Surgeon
Post anaesthesia recovery, per bed space
1p
1 set
1 set hp/lp
if (p) (10)
2
1
1p
1
Day patient accommodation
1 set
Single bed room
1
1
Multi-bed room, per bed space
1
1
Treatment room
1
Endoscopy room
1
1
1 set (11)
1 set
(1)
1 set (1)(13)
1 set hp/lp (11)
1p
1
1p
1p
1
1p
1 set (2)(13)
1 set (10)
1
1p
1
1
1 set (1)
1 set (9)
1 set (1)
1 set hp/lp if (p)
Fracture clinic
Plaster room
1p
Oral surgery, orthodontic department
Consulting/treatment room, type 1
1
1p
1
Consulting/treatment room, types 2 and 3
1
Recovery room, per recovery position
1
Appliance laboratory, per workstation
1
1p
1
1
1p
1p
1
1p
(9)
Dental
air
will be
required
†
1 set/4–6 rooms
†
1 set/4–6 rooms
1
1
1 set
1
1
1p
1 set
1 set hp/lp (11)
1
1p
1 set (1)(8)
1 set hp/lp if (p)
Out-patient department
Treatment room/cubicles
(9)
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
18
Department
Sterile services department
Wash room
Inspection, assembly and packing (IAP) room
1
1
1
1
1
1
Other departments (as required by project team)
Notes:
1 set
(1)
1 set (9)
1 set located (9–12)
as appropriate
(8) Additional AVSUs may be required in a large unit: the aim should be to have about
8–12 rooms controlled by a set of valves – discretion is required to arrive at the
logical number.
** Where the delivery and neonatal units are in close proximity, the equipment service
room can be shared.
(9) Installed in reception area.
† Dental vacuum only.
(10) Installed in the operating room in the “main panel” or within the room, or an
ante-room, eg control room of an MRI device.
p = Project team option.
hp/lp = high-pressure and low-pressure alarms for oxygen, medical air and nitrous oxide
when installed together. All other local alarms, low pressure only.
(1) Departmental AVSUs installed on the hospital street side of fire compartment
doors.
(2) Installed immediately outside the room.
(11) Installed at the main staff base (nurses’ station).
(12) Installed in the room space with the AVSUs.
(13) Separate AVSUs will be required if endoscopy room is included.
(14) Carbon dioxide is used for insufflation during some surgical procedures. A
pipeline installation is a project team option and is covered in Chapter 11. Two
NIST connector bodies units should be installed.
(3) Where air is used to control movable pendant fittings, it should be taken from the
7 bar surgical air system.
General:
(4) In addition to the dual circuits, additional AVSUs will be required to sub-divide the
number of terminal units controlled. This subdivision should be based on the layout
of the accommodation; for example, if the recovery area is divided into a number of
separate room/areas, each would have a separate sub-set (see Figures 4 and 5).
Normally, departmental AVSUs would be installed at the hospital street side of the
entrance doors to a department and would reflect the method of horizontal evacuation
in the event of an emergency. In some large departments, for example an operating
department, the clean-service corridor is likely to cross one or more fire compartment
walls. Additional AVSUs may therefore be required to reflect the evacuation route.
(5) This is intended to provide some flexibility and the exact number will depend on
the total number of rooms within the department.
(6) If a high-dependency unit is included within general in-patient accommodation,
a separate set of AVSUs should be provided for the unit. In addition to the
departmental valves or the ward as a whole, an additional set will be required to
control the single-bed, multi-bed and treatment rooms.
(7) Department AVSUs may be required if the units are large and separate from, for
example, the critical care area.
If a department includes one or more floors, a set of AVSUs should be provided for
each floor, which will act as emergency overall fire valves.
AVSUs for zones within critical care areas should be located where they can be seen by
staff – not necessarily at the staff base.
Local alarms within critical care areas should be provided for the individual space; that
is, if a critical care area of, say, 18 beds is sub-divided into three separate six-bed wards,
there should be one alarm only for each space (not one for each of the dual circuits).
19
3 Provision of terminal units, and the location of AVSUs, local alarm indicator panels and LVAs
* Dual circuits.
1 set (1)
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Figure 4 Larger critical care area with isolation room and twin four-bed bays
Bed 1
Terminal
units
Bed 2
Bed 4
Bed 3
4 Bed Bay 1
AVSU
AVSU
Pressure
switch
AVSU
AVSU
4 Bed Bay 2
Isolation Unit
Bed 9
20
Bed 8
Bed 7
Bed 6
Bed 5
3 Provision of terminal units, and the location of AVSUs, local alarm indicator panels and LVAs
Figure 5 Smaller critical care area with isolation room and five-bed bay
Bed 1
Terminal
units
Bed 2
Bed 3
Pressure
switch
location (b)
AVSU
5 Bed Bay
Pressure
switch (a)
Isolation Unit
Bed 6
Bed 5
Bed 4
Note:
Pressure switch location is decided as follows:
(a) upstream of unit AVSUs assumes a departmental AVSU is upstream of
pressure switch;
(b) downstream of unit AVSUs will require two pressure switches connected
in parallel, one for each circuit.
21
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
4
Gas flow
General
4.1 Various layouts of an MGPS are shown throughout
this document, and each will need to be designed
to take into account the anticipated design flow.
Appendix N provides a conversion table for various
units of measurement that may be encountered.
4.2 There are several aspects of gas flow to consider
when designing the pipeline distribution system:
a. the test flow that is required at each terminal
unit for test purposes (this flow is essentially
to establish that the terminal unit functions
correctly and that there are no obstructions; see
Table 12);
b. the typical flow required at each terminal (this is
the maximum flow likely to be required at any
time in clinical use; see Table 12);
c. the likely numbers of terminal units in use at
any time;
d. the flow required in each sub-branch of the
distribution, for example from the terminal unit
or a number of terminal units (for example four
in a four-bed ward) to the pipeline in the false
ceiling of the ward corridor;
e. the total flow to the ward/department, that is,
the sum of the diversified flows in each subbranch;
f. the flow in the main branches/risers, that is, the
summation of all diversified flows;
g. the flow required at the plant. In most cases this
will be the flow in (f ) above except in the case of
vacuum that is not used continuously.
4.3 The pipeline system should be designed so that the
flows given in Table 12 can be achieved at each
terminal unit: the flows are expressed in free air.
Diversified flows are used for the purposes of pipe
size selection.
4.4 The designer should always ensure that due
account is taken of the stated use of a particular
department.
22
4.5 There is a limited range of pipe sizes, and where
there is any doubt about flow requirements, a larger
pipe size should be selected.
Note
When calculating diversified flows, it is the number
of bed spaces, treatment spaces or rooms in which the
clinical procedure is being performed that is used; this
is not the individual number of terminal units since, in
many cases, more than one is installed. For example, a
bed position in a critical care area may have four or
more oxygen terminal units.
4.6 The overall pipeline design should be based on a
5% pressure drop from the plant/source of supply
to that measured at the terminal unit outlet at the
specified test flows.
Terminal unit flows
4.7 At the design stage, the project team should
define the individual room/space requirements.
Departments usually comprise several ward units,
treatment rooms and other spaces. In order to
avoid confusion, the nomenclature for each clinical
space should be clearly defined so that the
appropriate gas flow requirements can be
established at the commencement of the design
stage.
Pipeline flows
4.8 Precise prediction of pipeline flow is not possible,
but there are guidelines that can be used. and these
have been shown to be adequate in practice.
4.9 For vacuum systems, the minimum vacuum should
not fall below 300 mm Hg at the front of each
terminal unit at a design flow of 40 L/min.
4.10 The design of the pipework system is based on the
diversified flows and the permissible pressure loss
from the source of supply to, and including, the
terminal unit pressure loss. The pipe sizes should be
selected to ensure that the pressure loss is below 5%
22
4 Gas flow
Table 12 Gas flow – flows required at terminal units
Service
Location
Nominal
pressure
(kPa)
Design flow Typical flow Test flow
(L/min)
required
(L/min)
(L/min)
Oxygen
Operating rooms and rooms in which N2O is
provided for anaesthetic purposes
400
100(1)
20
100
All other areas
400
10
6
40
All areas
400
15
6
40
310(2)
275
20
275
400
20
15
40
Operating rooms
400
40(3)
40
80
Critical care areas, neonatal, high dependency units
400
80(3)
80
80
400
20
10(3)
80
350
350
Nitrous oxide
Nitrous oxide/ LDRP (labour, delivery, recovery, post-partum)
oxygen mixture rooms
All other areas
Medical air
400 kPa
Other areas
Surgical air/
nitrogen
Orthopaedic and neurosurgical operating rooms
700
350(4)
Vacuum
All areas
40 (300 mm
Hg below
atmospheric
pressure)
40
40
maximum,
further
diversities
apply
40
400
100
40
80
Helium/oxygen Critical care areas
mixture
Notes:
1. During oxygen flush in operating and anaesthetic rooms.
2. Minimum pressure at 275 L/min.
3. These flows are for certain types of gas-driven ventilator under specific operating conditions, and nebulisers etc.
4. Surgical air is also used as a power source for tourniquets.
Figure 6 T
ypical pressures in medical air/oxygen/nitrous oxide/nitrous oxide-oxygen mixture systems
under design flow conditions
Local alarm pressure switch
setting 360 kPa
Plant/manifold outlet pressure (dynamic) 420 kPa
Pressure safety valve setting 530 kPa
Pressure switch settings (alarms)
HIGH 500 kPa
LOW 370 kPa
5% allowable pressure drop to front
of most remote terminal unit
Minimum pressure to be achieved at
front of most remote terminal unit
370 kPa with system at design flow
(including test instrument flow at
terminal unit)
23
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Figure 7 Typical pressures in a vacuum system under design flow conditions
Local alarm pressure switch
setting 37 kPa (275 mm Hg)
Plant outlet pressure (dynamic)
60 kPa (450 mm Hg)
Minimum pressure to be achieved at front of
most remote terminal unit
40 kPa (300 mm Hg) with system at design
flow (including test instrument flow of
40 l/min at terminal unit)
Pressure switch setting (Plant alarm)
LOW 48 kPa (360 mm Hg)
Figure 8 T
ypical pressures in a single pressure reduction surgical air system under design flow
conditions
Local alarm pressure switch
setting 650 kPa
Maximum static pressure 950 kPa
Plant outlet pressure (dynamic) 850 kPa
Pressure safety valve setting 1100 kPa
Pressure switch settings (alarms)
HIGH 1050 kPa
LOW 650 kPa
Minimum pressure to be achieved at front of
most remote terminal unit
700 kPa with system at design flow (including
test instrument flow of 350 l/min at terminal unit)
Figure 9 T
ypical pressures in a double pressure reduction surgical air system under design flow
conditions
Local alarm pressure switch
setting 650 kPa
Plant outlet pressure (dynamic) 1100 kPa
(Primary regulator)
Pressure safety valve setting 1300 kPa
Pressure switch settings (alarms)
HIGH 1200 kPa
LOW 900 kPa
24
5% allowable pressure drop
to input of secondary
pressure regulator
NB. Maximum static pressure
from this regulator 900 kPa
Minimum pressure to be achieved
at front of most remote
terminal unit
700 kPa with system at design
flow (including test instrument
flow of 350 l/min at terminal unit)
4 Gas flow
of the nominal pipeline pressure (see Figures 6–9,
and Appendix G).
4.11 Pressure requirements for surgical air are based on
the requirement that the minimum pressure should
be 700 kPa at the terminal unit at a flow of 350 L/
min.
4.12 Details of pressure requirements for all systems are
described in paragraphs 4.43–4.50.
Oxygen
In-patient accommodation
4.13 Oxygen is used at a typical flow of 5–6 L/min.
Each terminal unit should, however, be capable of
passing 10 L/min (at standard temperature and
pressure (STP)) at a supply pressure of 400 kPa
(nominal) as shown in Table 12, in case nebulisers
or other respiratory equipment are used. Table 13
contains the formula for arriving at diversified
flows.
4.14 For a 28-bed ward unit comprising single and four-
bed rooms and a treatment room, the diversified
flow is calculated on the assumption that one bed
space requires 10 L/min, and one in four of the
remainder require 6 L/min. For the purpose of pipe
size selection, the diversified flow at entry to the
ward is taken as 50 L/min (strictly 50.5 L/min); it
is assumed that a patient will use oxygen in a ward
or in the treatment room but not both.
4.15 When selecting the size of a sub-branch serving, for
example, a four-bed ward, the flow would be taken
to be 28 L/min as all four in-patients could be
using oxygen; for larger wards no additional flow is
added until the formula in Table 13 comes into
play.
4.16 A department may comprise several ward units as
above. The diversified flow for each department Qd
is based on Qw for the first ward unit, plus 50% of
the flow for the remaining ward units. For the
purposes of this calculation, the first ward unit is
taken as the largest within the department.
4.17 If one ward unit is significantly larger than the
others, the flows from the ward units should be
averaged to obtain a more realistic value.
Operating departments
4.18 The diversified flow for operating departments
is based on 100 L/min required for the oxygen
flush. Therefore each oxygen terminal unit in the
operating room and anaesthetic room should be
able to pass 100 L/min. It is unlikely that an
oxygen flush will be administered simultaneously in
several operating rooms. The diversified flow Q is
based on 100 L/min for the first operating room
and 10 L/min for the remainder. To obtain the
flow to each operating suite, add together the flows
for the operating and anaesthetic room, that is,
110 L/min.
4.19 For anaesthetic rooms, each terminal unit should
be capable of passing 100 L/min (it may be
necessary to use oxygen “flush”), but the actual flow
likely to be used is 6 L/min or less. As it is unlikely
that a patient would be anaesthetised at the same
time that a patient in the associated operating room
was continuing to be treated under an anaesthetic
(and because the duration of induction is short),
no additional flow is included.
4.20 In recovery, it is possible that all bed spaces may be
in use simultaneously; hence, no diversity is used.
Critical care, coronary care and high-dependency
units
4.21 The flow for these units assumes that, although all
bed spaces may be occupied, three-quarters of these
will require the use of oxygen. Each terminal unit
should be capable of delivering 10 L/min. The
diversified flow is calculated assuming 10 L/min for
the first bed space and 6 L/min for three-quarters
of the remainder.
4.22 Oxygen should not be used as the driving gas for
gas-powered ventilators if they are capable of being
powered by medical air. The minimum flow that
has been shown to be adequate to drive current
types of ventilator is 80 L/min at 360 kPa. For test
purposes the minimum pressure is 370 kPa.
4.23 If oxygen has to be used to power ventilators and/
or ventilators are operating in CPAP mode, the
high flows that may be encountered should be
taken into account both when designing the
pipeline and when sizing the supply vessel. These
ventilators use exceptional amounts of oxygen,
particularly if adjusted incorrectly. If incorrectly
set, they can use in excess of 120 L/min, but their
therapeutic benefit will be effective at lower flows.
To allow for some flexibility, and additional
capacity, a diversified flow of 75 L/min for 75% of
beds has been included. If significant numbers of
beds are required to treat patients using CPAP
ventilation, consideration should be given to
running a separate pipeline from the source of
25
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Table 13 Oxygen: design and diversified flows
Department
In-patient accommodation (ward units):
Single 4-bed rooms and treatment room
Ward block/department
Accident & emergency:
Resuscitation room, per trolley space
Major treatment/plaster room, per trolley space
Post-anaesthesia recovery, per trolley space
Treatment room/cubicle
Design flow Diversified flow Q (L/min)
for each
terminal unit
(L/min)
10
10
100
10
10
10
Operating:
Anaesthetic rooms
Operating rooms
Post-anaesthesia recovery
Maternity:
LDRP rooms:
Mother
Baby
Operating suites:
Anaesthetist
Paediatrician
Post-anaesthesia recovery
In-patient accommodation:
Single/multi-bed wards
Nursery, per cot space
Special care baby unit
Qw = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Qd = Qw[1 + (nW – 1)/2]
Q = 100 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/8]
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/10]
100 Q = no addition made
100 Q = 100 + (nT – 1)10
Q = 10 + (n – 1)6
10
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)3/2]
100
10
10
Q = 100 + (nS – 1)6
Q = 10 + (n – 1)3
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)3/4]
10
10
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/6]
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)3/2]
Q = 10 + (n – 1)6
100
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/3]
Critical care areas
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6]3/4
Coronary care unit (CCU)
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6]3/4
High-dependency unit (HDU)
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6]3/4
Renal
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
CPAP ventilation
75
Q = 75n × 75%
Adult mental illness accommodation:
Electro-convulsive therapy (ECT) room
Post-anaesthesia, per bed space
10
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Adult acute day care accommodation:
Treatment rooms
Post-anaesthesia recovery per bed space
10
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Radiological:
All anaesthetic and procedures rooms
Day patient accommodation (as “In-patient accommodation”)
As “In-patient accommodation”
Oral surgery/orthodontic:
Consulting rooms, type 1
Consulting rooms, types 2 & 3
Recovery room, per bed space
10
10
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/2]
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/3]
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/6]
Out-patient:
Treatment rooms
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Equipment service rooms, sterile services etc
26
100
Residual capacity will be adequate
without an additional allowance
4 Gas flow
Legend for Tables 13–21:
Q = diversified flow for the department;
Qw = diversified flow for the ward;
Qd = diversified flow for the department (comprising two or more wards);
n = number of beds, treatment spaces or single rooms in which the clinical procedure is being performed, not the individual
numbers of terminal units where, in some cases, more than one is installed;
nS = number of operating suites within the department (anaesthetic room and operating room).
nW = number of wards
nT = number of theatres
supply. Care should be taken when calculating air
exchange rates in wards/rooms in which large
numbers of CPAP machines may be in use
simultaneously and where failure of mechanical
ventilation could result in raised ambient oxygen
concentrations. Consideration should be given to
installation of systems to warn of ventilation failure
and oxygen concentrations above 23%.
Maternity
4.24 For LDRP (labour, delivery, recovery, post-partum)
rooms, the diversified flow is based on 10 L/min
for the first terminal unit and 6 L/min for 25% of
the remainder. Two cot spaces may be provided,
each with a terminal unit. Only one will be
considered to be in use. The diversified flow for cot
spaces is based on 10 L/min for the first and 50%
of the remainder at 3 L/min.
4.25 In the event of multiple births, the additional gas
usage will have negligible overall effect on the total
flow.
4.26 Maternity department operating rooms are
designed as a suite; that is, it is presumed that
oxygen will be provided either in the anaesthetic
room or in the operating room. In post-anaesthesia
recovery, it is assumed that 75% of beds will
require oxygen to be delivered.
Hyperbaric oxygen chambers
4.27 Hyperbaric oxygen chambers should be supplied
from a separate branch from the main riser/
distribution pipe: the pipeline system should be
from a liquid supply source. Typical flows for a
single patient chamber are as shown in Table 14.
Table 14 Gas flow – hyperbaric chambers
Max. time for one complete
treatment
Total consumption for max.
treatment time (L)
Consumption for each
additional minute (L/min)
O2 atmosphere and
recirculation:
On open circuit
On recirculation
2 hours
2 hours
30,000
7,250
250
40
O2 only, no recirculation
2 hours
30,000
250
O2 delivery by built-in
breathing mask and overboard
pump
2 hours
1,200
10
O2 delivery by built-in
breathing hood and overboard
pump
2 hours
7,250
60
27
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Notes
a. T
he flows for a recirculating unit assume the
standard method of operation is recirculation
throughout the treatment. It is recommended that
the pipeline should be designed for open circuit
operation to ensure adequate flow under all
conditions.
b. C
linical practice may require the inclusion of air
during the treatment; it may also be necessary to
switch to air in the unlikely event of an oxygen
convulsion. Therefore consideration should be
given to the provision of medical air from a separate
dedicated medical air plant in accordance with
Chapter 7.
c. S ome hyperbaric chambers use air as a buffer and
consequently less oxygen is consumed. The advice
of the manufacturer should be sought. Where this is
the case, the air should be supplied from a separate
supply system complying with the requirements for
medical air systems.
Nitrous oxide
4.28 Nitrous oxide is provided for anaesthetic purposes
and occasionally for analgesic purposes. In all cases,
each terminal unit should be capable of passing
15 L/min, but in practice the flow is unlikely to
exceed 6 L/min.
4.29 When calculating diversities in a department, 15 L/
min is allowed for the first and 6 L/min for the
remainder, subject to the appropriate diversity
factor being applied (see Table 15).
4.30 It is assumed that, for an operating department,
operating rooms. As it is unlikely that a patient
would be anaesthetised in the anaesthetic room
at the same time that a patient in the associated
operating room was continuing to be treated
under an anaesthetic (and because the duration of
induction is short), no additional flow is included.
Nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture
4.31 All terminal units should be capable of passing
275 L/min for a very short period (normally of five
seconds’ duration) to supply inhalationary “gasps”
by the patient, and a continuous flow of 20 L/min.
The actual flow would not normally exceed 20 L/
min.
4.32 The diversified flow in delivery rooms is based on
275 L/min for the first bed space and 6 L/min for
each of the remainder, of which only half of the
women in labour will be using gas for 50% of the
time. (The peak inhalationary “gasp” is 275 L/min,
whereas the respirable minute volume will be
catered for with a flow of 6 L/min – it should also
be borne in mind that a woman in labour would
not continuously breathe the analgesic mixture.)
For larger maternity departments with twelve or
more LDRP rooms, two peak inhalationary “gasps”
are included.
4.33 Nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture may be used in other
areas for analgesic purposes. The diversified flow is
based on 10 L/min for the first treatment space,
and 6 L/min for a quarter of the remainder for
25% of the time.
4.34 Design and diversified flows for nitrous oxide/
oxygen mixtures are given in Table 16.
nitrous oxide may be in use simultaneously in all
Table 15 Nitrous oxide: design and diversified flows
Department
Design flow for
each terminal unit
(L/min)
Diversified flow Q (L/min)
Accident & emergency: resuscitation room, per trolley space
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Operating
15
Q = 15 + (nT – 1)6
Maternity: operating suites
15
Q = 15 + (nS – 1)6
Radiological: all anaesthetic and procedures rooms
15
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Critical care areas
15
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Oral surgery/orthodontic: consulting rooms, type 1
10
Q = 10 + [(n – 1)6/4]
Other departments
10
No additional flow included
Equipment service rooms
15
No additional flow included
28
4 Gas flow
Table 16 Nitrous oxide/oxygen mixtures – design and diversified flows
Department
Design flow for each terminal unit
(L/min)
Maternity:
<12 LDRP room(s), mother
>12 LDRP rooms
Other areas
Equipment service rooms
275
20
275
Air
4.42 Medical air 400 kPa is also used for other
equipment such as anaesthetic gas mixers,
humidifiers and nebulisers. The flow rates normally
required would not exceed 10 L/min, and this flow
is always in excess of the actual volume respired.
b. a pressure of 700 kPa or higher is required for
surgical air to drive surgical tools.
General
4.37 The use of medical air, particularly for respiratory
use and during anaesthesia, has increased markedly
in recent years. This service is the most critical of
the medical gas services, since air-powered
ventilators cease to operate in the event of failure of
the supply.
Pressure requirements
4.43 A minimum pressure required at terminal units for
respiratory use is 370 kPa.
4.44 Medical air should not be used to supply
mechanical services (see paragraph 7.130).
4.45 Some medical gas pendants use the medical air
supply for operating the control/retraction system.
This is permitted, provided that:
a. a flow limiting device is provided to protect the
medical air system in the event of failure of any
downstream component;
4.38 Medical air is also directly inhaled by patients
during ventilation. It may also be used to dilute
oxygen before administration because of the
potentially toxic effects of pure oxygen.
b. a non-return valve is incorporated to protect the
system integrity;
4.39 The supply system for medical air 400 kPa may
be a manifold system, a compressor system or a
proportioning system (synthetic air), and includes
an emergency reserve manifold. A compressor
plant, or synthetic air supply, should always be
specified where air-powered ventilators are to be
used.
4.40 One of the major uses of medical air is for patients’
ventilators, which fall into two main categories –
those used during anaesthesia and those used
No additional flow included
similar to critical care models, and may require
peak flows of up to 80 L/min and average flows of
20 L/min. Almost all such units are pneumatically
driven and electronically controlled.
but to the same Ph. Eur. standard:
Medical air 400 kPa
Q = 20 + [(n – 1)10/4]
4.41 Current models of anaesthetic ventilator are very
4.36 Air should be provided at two different pressures
a. a pressure of 400 kPa is required for medical air
to drive ventilators and for other respiratory
applications;
Q = 275 + [(n – 1)6/2]
Q = 275 x 2 + [(n – 1)6/2]
during critical care. Pneumatically-powered
ventilators can use up to 80 L/min free air
continuously. The exact flow requirements will
depend on the design of the ventilator. The flow
and pressure requirements for some typical
ventilators are given in Table 17.
4.35 Air is used to provide power for several types of
equipment including surgical tools, ventilators and
nebulisers. Oxygen should be avoided as a power
source because of fire risk and cost, and should not
be used where medical air is available, unless
specifically recommended by the device
manufacturer.
Diversified flow Q (L/min)
c. appropriate AVSU arrangements are in place
(see Chapter 3).
(The surgical air supply should be used to provide
the power source whenever possible.)
4.46 The flow requirements should be ascertained and
taken into account prior to the installation of the
equipment.
29
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Flow requirements
In these areas they should be capable of passing
20 L/min, although typically 10 L/min will be
required in in-patient accommodation where air is
used for nebulisers.
4.47 Flow requirements for medical air are given
Table 18. In ward areas and treatment rooms, the
use of medical air is most likely to be for nebulisers.
Table 17 Typical pressure and flow requirements for ventilators and nebulisers
Ventilator type
Anaesthesia, typically gas-driven,
electronically controlled
Pressure (kPa)
Nominally 400. Max
Flow (L/min)
600(1)
Pneumatically driven ventilators use up to 80 max.
20 continuous
Critical care, electrically controlled, Nominally 400. Max 600(1) 180 peak(2)
gas-powered
80 continuous
Neonatal, gas-driven, electronically Nominally 400. Max 600(1) 80 peak(2)
controlled
40 continuous
Nebulisers
400
10
Notes:
1. It is strongly recommended that ventilators are not connected to the 700 kPa system since their blenders only work satisfactorily
with a tolerance of about 10%: with high differential pressures for air and oxygen an incorrect mixture could be obtained.
2. These flows can be achieved under certain clinical conditions. The peak flows are usually of very short duration.
30
4 Gas flow
Table 18 Medical air 400 kPa – design and diversified flows
Department
Design flow for
each terminal
unit (L/min)
Diversified flow Q (L/min)
In-patient accommodation (ward units):
Single/multi-bed and treatment rooms(1)
Ward block/department
20
20
Qw = 20 + [(n – 1)10/4]
Qd = Qw[1 + (nW – 1)/2]
Accident & emergency:
Resuscitation room, per trolley space
Major treatment/plaster room, per trolley space
Post-anaesthesia recovery, per trolley space
40
40
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)20/4]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)20/4]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Operating:
Anaesthetic rooms
Operating rooms
Post-anaesthesia recovery
40
40
40
No additional flow included
Q = 40 + [(nT – 1)40/4]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)10/4]
40
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
40
40
40
Q = 40 + [(nS – 1)10/4]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Q = 40n
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
80
Q = 80 + [(n – 1)80/2]
High-dependency units
80
Q = 80 + [(n – 1)80/2]
Renal
20
Q = 20 + [(n – 1)10/4]
Oral surgery/orthodontic:
Major dental/oral surgery rooms
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/2]
All other departments
40
No additional flow
allowance to be made
Equipment service rooms
40
No additional flow included
Maternity:
LDRP rooms:
Baby(2)
Operating suites:
Anaesthetist
Post-anaesthesia recovery
Neonatal unit (SCBU)
Radiological: All anaesthetic and procedures rooms
Critical care
areas(3)
Notes:
1. It is assumed that a patient will use oxygen in a ward or in the treatment room.
2. Where two cot spaces have been provided in an LDRP room, assume only one will require medical air.
3. This diversified flow is also used for helium/oxygen mixture (see paragraph 4.73).
Surgical air 700 kPa
4.48 The pressure requirements of surgical tools are
between 600 and 700 kPa and flows may vary
between 200 and 350 L/min (STP; see Table 19).
Most surgical tools are designed to operate within
this pressure range. Higher pressures are likely
to cause damage to tools. Inadequate tool
performance, however, is likely to result from the
lack of flow at the specified pressure.
4.49 The introduction of synthetic air (from on-site
blending of oxygen and nitrogen) leads to the
possibility of using nitrogen as the power source for
surgical tools.
4.50 The pipeline systems should be designed to provide
a flow of 350 L/min at 700 kPa at the outlet from
the terminal unit. Existing systems may not meet
this requirement (but should be capable of
delivering 250 L/min at the terminal unit).
Note
Some surgical tools require up to 500 L/min at up to
1400 kPa. These will require a separate supply,
normally from cylinders.
31
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Dual pressure surgical air systems
4.51 There are cases where, because of system size, a
simple single regulation system (that is, directly
from a receiver pressure of say, 10 bar, to a line
pressure of approximately 8 bar) will not ensure
correct flow conditions at the surgical air terminal
units. To overcome possible flow problems, a
double pressure regulating system can be used.
4.52 Such a system will involve a compressed air plant
receiver operating at a typical pressure of 13 bar,
followed by first-stage pressure regulation to a line
pressure of 11 bar. Locally-sited pressure regulators
(for example for each operating room) are provided
to give the recommended flow and pressure at the
terminal unit outlet(s).
4.53 If this type of system is installed, for design
purposes the maximum allowable pressure drop of
5% should be taken from the plantroom wall to
the upstream side of the secondary regulator. The
secondary regulator should be adjusted to give
700 kPa at a flow of 350 L/min at the terminal unit
outlets(s) and should not allow the static pressure
on the upstream side of the terminal unit to rise
above 9 bar.
Diversity
4.54 Surgical air 700 kPa is only required where surgical
Note
Health Technical Memorandum 2022, Supplement 1
– ‘Dental compresssed air and vacuum systems’
allows for the extension of surgical air into dental
departments for tool use only. No diversity factor
should be applied to the dental service as all dental
clinics can be in use simultaneously: the total design
flow of the dental department should be added.
4.55 Unlike dental departments, the use of surgical tools
in an operating procedure takes place for a limited
period of time.
Table 19 T
ypical pressure and flow requirements
for surgical tools
Type of tool
Pressure (kPa) Flow (L/min)
Small air drill
600–700
200
Medullary reaming
machine
600–700
350
Oscillating bone saw
600–700
300
Universal drill
600–700
300
Craniotome
620–750
300
System capacity
4.56 Unlike respirable equipment, surgical tools are used
intermittently, typically for a few seconds, up to a
maximum of three minutes. The plant, therefore,
should have the capacity to provide the design
flow of the pipeline for a maximum period of five
minutes in any 15-minute period. The diversified
flow is based on the assumption of 350 L/min for
the first theatre and a quarter of the remainder –
see Table 20.
tools are to be used. This would typically be
orthopaedic and neurosurgery operating rooms,
and possibly plaster rooms. For flexibility, and to
allow for possible overspill, surgical air should be
extended to two to four adjacent operating rooms.
It is not required in maternity or ophthalmology
operating rooms.
Terminal units intended for equipment testing
4.57 It may be necessary to provide surgical air at
700 kPa in the equipment service workshop for
testing purposes. Unless a surgical air 700 kPa
pipeline is available nearby, it may be cost-effective
Table 20 Surgical air 700 kPa – design and diversified flows
Department
Design flow for each
terminal unit
(L/min)
Diversified flow Q
(L/min)
Operating room (orthopaedic and neurosurgical operating rooms only):
<4 operating rooms
>4 operating rooms
350
350
Q = 350 + [(n – 1)350/2]
Q = 350 + [(n – 1)350/4]
Other departments, eg equipment workshops, fracture clinic
350
Q = 350
Equipment service rooms
350
No additional flow required
32
4 Gas flow
to use portable cylinders, with a two-stage
regulator.
4.58 If a pipeline supply is to be provided, each terminal
unit should be capable of delivering 350 L/min.
Where several terminal units are provided, it is
unlikely that more than one terminal unit will be in
use at any time, and therefore the total design flow
for the equipment service workshop will be 350 L/
min.
Vacuum
General
4.59 In virtually all cases, vacuum is used via a suction
control device and fluid is collected in suction jars.
On wards these are typically of approximately 1 L
capacity. In operating rooms, two or four 2–3 L
capacity vessels are provided for the suction control
regulator.
4.60 Once full, suction jars have to be emptied;
therefore, vacuum cannot be applied continuously.
4.61 The greatest generation of fluid to be aspirated is
likely to arise in the operating room, particularly
during orthopaedic surgery, where jet lavage to
irrigate and cleanse the wound may be in use. The
maximum rate of collection is about 4 L/min, but
it is not continuous.
4.62 During induction of anaesthesia, a patient may
vomit. Therefore, it is essential that oral and nasal
passages can be cleared as quickly as possible. The
highest likely amount of fluid to be aspirated in
this case will be no more than 0.5 L.
4.63 In order to aspirate fluid, a suction cannula is
normally used, and this will aspirate air as well
as the fluid to be removed. The flow required,
however, is higher than would be the case if fluid
only were to be removed. The ratio of air/fluid
aspirated will depend upon the diameter of the
cannula.
In-patient accommodation
4.64 For a 28-bed ward unit comprising single rooms,
four-bed rooms and a treatment room, the
diversified flow is based on 40 L/min.
4.65 When selecting the size of a sub-branch serving, for
example, a four-bed ward, the flow would be taken
to be 160 L/min as all four terminal units could, in
theory, be in use.
Medical supply units/bedhead trunking systems
4.66 When designing vacuum (and medical gas
systems), it is expected that the greatest pipeline
pressure losses will occur near to the terminal units.
4.67 Care must be taken when sizing vacuum pipework
within medical supply units with two or more bed/
treatment spaces, where availability of space will
often limit the size of pipe. The largest size of pipe
that can be accommodated (typically 22 mm)
should be used, as this will ensure that excessive
pressure losses do not occur within the units. Such
losses could necessitate the installation of larger
diameter pipework within the rest of the system in
order to ensure that the system pressure drops
prescribed in this Health Technical Memorandum
are not exceeded.
4.68 In some instances it may be necessary to provide
more than one “feed” from the ceiling distributor
to the medical supply unit in order to keep pressure
losses within acceptable limits.
Operating departments
4.69 Vacuum is provided for the surgical team and
anaesthetist in the operating room. It is also
provided in the anaesthetic and recovery rooms.
4.70 Since it is possible for both the surgical team and
anaesthetist to use vacuum simultaneously, each
operating room will require 80 L/min and each
terminal unit should be capable of passing 40 L/
min (see Table 21).
4.71 As it is unlikely that a patient would be
anaesthetised at the same time that a patient in the
associated operating room was continuing to be
treated under an anaesthetic, the need to clear an
airway is extremely unlikely and no additional flow
is included.
Helium/oxygen mixture
4.72 Helium/oxygen mixture is used by patients with
respiratory or airway obstruction and to relieve
symptoms and signs associated with respiratory
distress. It can be administered by means of face
mask, a demand valve with face mask, a nebuliser,
or a ventilator.
4.73 Pipeline supply will be primarily limited to critical
care areas, where the gas mixture is used for driving
a ventilator. The design and diversified flows should
be based on the figures given for medical air (see
Table 17).
33
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Table 21 Vacuum – design and diversified flows
Department
Design flow
for each
terminal unit
(L/min)
Diversified flow Q (L/min)
In-patient accommodation:
Ward unit
Multiple ward units
40
40
Q = 40
Qd = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Accident & emergency:
Resuscitation room, per trolley space
Major treatment/plaster room, per trolley space
Post-anaesthesia recovery, per trolley space
Treatment room/cubicle
40
40
40
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/8]
40
No additional flow included
40
40
40
40
Q = 40
Q = 40
Qs = 80 + [(nS – 1)80/2]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
40
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40]/4
No additional flow included
40
40
40
Q = 40
Q = 40
Qs = 80 + [(nS – 1)80/2]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
40
40
40
40
Q = 40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/2]
No additional to be included
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Radiology/diagnostic departments:
All anaesthetic and procedures rooms
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/8]
Critical care areas
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
High-dependency units
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Renal
40
Qd = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Adult mental illness accommodation:
ECT room
Post-anaesthesia, per bed space
40
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Adult acute day care accommodation:
Treatment rooms
Post-anaesthesia recovery per bed space
40
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/4]
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/8]
Operating:
Anaesthetic rooms
Operating rooms:
Anaesthetist
Surgeon
Operating suites
Post-anaesthesia recovery
Maternity:
LDRP rooms:
Mother
Baby
Operating suites:
Anaesthetist
Obstetrician
Operating suites
Post-anaesthesia recovery
In-patient accommodation:
Ward unit comprising single, multi-bed and treatment room
Multi-ward units
Nursery, per cot space
SCBU
Day patient accommodation (as “In-patient accommodation”)
As “In-patient accommodation”
Oral surgery/orthodontic:
Consulting rooms, type 1
Consulting rooms, types 2 & 3
Recovery room, per bed space
40
40
40
Dental vacuum only
Dental vacuum only
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/8]
Out-patient:
Treatment rooms
40
Q = 40 + [(n – 1)40/8]
Equipment service rooms, sterile services etc
40
Residual capacity will be adequate
without an additional allowance
34
4 Gas flow
4.74 Helium/oxygen mixtures administered by means of
a face mask and cannula, a demand valve with face
mask and cannula attached, or a nebuliser, are
normally supplied using cylinders fitted with an
integral valve.
Anaesthetic gas scavenging systems
4.75 For anaesthetic gas scavenging systems, it should be
assumed that for each operating suite two terminal
units could be in use simultaneously, for example in
the anaesthetic room and operating room (receiving
systems may be left connected when patients are
transferred from the anaesthetic room to the
operating room). The diversified flows for other
departments are as below:
Department
Accident & emergency resuscitation room (per trolley space)
Design flow for each terminal
unit (L/min)
V(1)
Diversified flow Q (L/min)
Q = V + [(n – 1)V/4]
Operating departments
V
Q = V + (nT– 1)V
Maternity operating suites
V
Q = V + (nS – 1)V
Radiodiagnostic (all anaesthetic and procedures room)
V
Q = V + [(n – 1)V/4]
Oral surgery/orthodontic consulting rooms (type 1)
V
Q = V + [(n – 1)V/4]
Other departments
V
Q = V + [(n – 1)V/8]
Note:
1. For the purpose of sizing the AGS disposal system pump,
V is taken as either 130 L/min or 80 L/min (see paragraph
10.16).
35
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
5
Cylinder manifold installations
5.1 A cylinder manifold installation comprises a
5.5 An automatic manifold changeover from duty to
primary and secondary supply system.
stand-by should occur at a cylinder pressure that
will ensure the greatest possible utilisation of the
contents of the cylinders in the duty bank. If the
normal operation of the changeover control
depends on an electricity supply, the design should
be such that failure of the electricity supply does
not disrupt the flow of gas to the distribution
system.
Primary supply system
5.2 The primary supply is provided by two banks of
equal numbers of gas cylinders which are connected
to the pipeline via a control panel. The changeover
from the “duty” to the “stand-by” bank of cylinders
should be automatic. All manifolds should be
capable of passing the full pipeline flow. The
temperature of the gas may fall as low as –30°C as
the gas passes through the regulator at maximum
capacity, and the equipment should be designed
accordingly.
5.3 A schematic layout for a primary supply system
is shown in Figure 10. Total storage is usually
provided on the basis of a risk assessment. Each
bank of the manifold should have sufficient
cylinders for two days. Additional cylinders for one
complete bank change should be held in the
manifold room; for nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture,
sufficient cylinders to change two banks should be
held.
Note
Some systems are designed so that both banks (duty
and stand-by) supply gas in the event of a power
failure.
5.6 In the event of power failure, when the power is
restored, the original “running bank” should be online, that is, the same bank that was the “running
bank” prior to interruption of the supply.
Note
Some manifolds default to a specific bank following
a power failure, regardless of which bank was the
running bank prior to interruption of the supply.
5.4 The nominal and usable capacity of the cylinders
commonly used on manifolds are given in Table 22
(the figures are the equivalents at STP).
NB: Some units may require manual resetting to the
original condition.
Table 22 Capacities of medical gas cylinders used on manifolds
Gas
Nominal capacity (L) at 137 bar Usable capacity (L)1
Oxygen J-size
6,800
6,540
Nitrous oxide:
J-size
G-size
18,000
9,000
–
8,900
Nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture G-size
5,000
4,740
Medical air J-size
6,400
6,220
5,550
Helium/oxygen mixture K-size
–
7000 nominal
Note:
1 T
he usable figures are for discharge to a gauge pressure of 7 bar. Two sets of figures are provided for air – for 400 kPa systems
and 700 kPa systems. The latter is for discharge to 15 bar.
36
Figure 10 Typical automatic manifold control system and emergency reserve manifold
Terminal
unit
Sintered
filter
Pressure
regulator
Pressure
regulator
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball
valve
Distribution
System
Non-return
valve
Pressure
switch
Pressure
gauge
Lockable
valve
Ball
valves
Pressure
switch
Pressure
gauge
Ball
valve
Pressure
regulator
Pressure
regulator
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
switch
Ball
valve
Pressure
gauge
Exhaust
(piped to safe position)
Lockable
valve
Sintered
filter
Pressure
regulator
Pressure
switch
Sintered
filter
Isolation
valve
Non-return valve
Terminal
unit
Non-return
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball
valve
Pressure
switch
Isolation
valve
Exhaust
(piped to safe position)
Tailpipe
Cylinder valve
Symbols to BS 2971:1993/ISO 1219-1:1991
37
5 Cylinder manifold installations
Cylinder
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
5.7 Manifolds and control panels should be designed
and certificated for use with 230 bar cylinders. The
manifold headers should incorporate a renewable
non-return valve to prevent the discharge of a
complete bank of cylinders in the event of “tailpipe” rupture.
5.8 The tail-pipe cylinder connector must be a pin-
index yoke connector in accordance with BS EN
ISO 407:2004 for oxygen, nitrous oxide/oxygen
mixture (50% v/v) and medical air. No nonmetallic flexible connectors should be used. The
connector for nitrous oxide should be a side outlet
valve connector in accordance with BS 341-3:2002.
The manifold connectors should be in accordance
with the following:
Thread
Medical gas
M24 x 2
Medical air
M22 x 2
N2O/O2
M20 x 2
O2
M18 x 2
N2O
Where it is necessary to use non-metallic materials,
consideration should be given to the use of nonhalogenated polymers in high pressure systems
(>3000 kPa) delivering oxygen or gaseous mixtures
with oxygen concentrations greater than that in
ambient air. Consideration should also be given to
fitting sintered filters upstream of non-metallic
materials to minimise the risk of particle collisions
and impacts, which are a potential source of
ignition. In addition, there are tests that should be
conducted to ensure that the risk of ignition is
minimised. Attention is drawn to BS EN ISO
15001: 2004.
Note
Studies have shown that inadvertent ignition of
halogenated polymers can lead to highly toxic
by-products being delivered to the gas stream.
5.9 Pressure indication should be provided to indicate
pressure in each cylinder bank and in the MGPS.
Pressure control
5.10 The pressure control should maintain the nominal
pipeline pressure within the limits given in
Chapter 4. High-pressure regulators should comply
with BS EN 738-2:1999 and be supplied with
auto-ignition test results.
38
5.11 Separate pressure regulating valves should be
provided for each cylinder bank. The control
system should be designed so that the cylinders of
one bank can be changed, or the pressure regulator
for one bank can be overhauled, without loss of
continuity of the gas supply.
5.12 Pressure safety valves should be of the self-closing
type and be installed on each distribution pipeline
downstream of the manifold line pressure regulator
and upstream of the main isolation valve. A
pressure safety valve should also be installed
between the secondary source of supply
(emergency/reserve manifold) and the pipeline
distribution system. It should have a flow capacity
at least equal to that of the pressure regulator
immediately upstream of it. The discharge pipe
should be at least one size larger than the main
pipeline and be separate for each safety valve.
5.13 This discharge pipeline should be vented to
atmosphere, outside the building, in an area where
the discharge of oxygen, nitrous oxide, or nitrous
oxide/oxygen mixture will not present a fire hazard
or cause injury to personnel. Medical and surgical
air may be vented internally provided that this is
done in a safe way. Warning signs should be posted
at the discharge positions; access for inspection
should be provided.
5.14 It should terminate at least 3 m clear of any door/
window that can be opened or other ventilation/air
intake. The ends of the discharge pipelines should
be turned downwards to prevent the ingress of dirt
and moisture, and be placed and protected so that
frost cannot form or be collected upon them.
Similar safety valve arrangements are required for
installations supplied from liquid oxygen cylinders.
Note
High pressure cylinders with integral pressure
regulation can be used on manifold systems.
Manifold monitoring and indicating system
5.15 The monitoring and indicating system should
perform the following functions:
a. overall manifold monitoring;
b. manifold condition indication;
c. overall supply plant indication.
5 Cylinder manifold installations
5.16 All functions should be appropriately identified.
Indicators should have a design life of at least five
years. The system should be capable of automatic
reinstatement after restoration of the power supply.
5.17 Manifold monitoring, indicating and alarm systems
should be on the essential electrical supply.
Manifold control unit
5.18 The control unit should include a green “mains
supply on” indicator.
Manifold monitoring
5.19 Each automatic manifold should be provided with
monitoring to detect:
a. duty bank operating;
b. duty bank empty and stand-by bank operating;
c. stand-by bank below 10% capacity, when the
duty bank is empty;
d. each secondary supply (emergency reserve)
manifold bank below nominal 14 bar (for
nitrous oxide) and below 68/100 bar pressure
for other gases;
e. pipeline pressure faults outside the normal
range.
Manifold indicator unit
5.20 There should be indicators to show the following
conditions:
a. for each automatic manifold:
(i)a green “running” indicator for each bank.
This should display when the bank is
supplying gas, irrespective of the pressure;
(ii)a yellow “empty” indicator for each bank
when the running bank is empty and
changeover has occurred;
(iii)a yellow “low pressure” indicator for each
bank to be illuminated after changeover,
when the pressure in the bank now
running falls to the low pressure setting;
b. for each secondary supply (emergency reserve)
bank, a yellow indicator to be illuminated when
the pressure in the bank falls below 14 bar for
nitrous oxide or below 68 bar for other gases
(this will require the use of separate pressure
sensors – one for each bank);
c. for the pipeline distribution system, a red “low
pressure” and a red “high pressure” indicator to
be illuminated when the respective conditions
occur.
Alarm signal status unit
5.21 The following indication of manifold conditions
should be provided:
a. green “normal”: normal;
b. yellow “duty bank empty, stand-by running”:
change cylinders;
c. yellow “duty bank empty, stand-by low”: change
cylinders immediately;
d. yellow “emergency reserve bank low”: reserve
low;
e. red “pipeline pressure fault”: pressure fault.
5.22 Conditions (b) to (e) should be transmitted to the
central alarm system. Where relays are used, they
should be normally energised relays, which deenergise under fault conditions, with contacts
having a minimum rating of 50 V dc and 50 mA.
Volt-free, normally closed contacts rated at 50 V dc
and 50 mA should be provided for transmission of
conditions (b) to (e) to the alarm system.
5.23 The panel can be incorporated into the manifold
control unit or be a separate unit within the
plantroom. If mounted separately, the cabling
should be monitored for open/short circuit. In the
event of such a cable fault, a red “system fault”
lamp should be illuminated on the alarm signal
status unit, together with the appropriate alarm
condition.
Manifold management
5.24 Connections should be provided that allow
monitoring of manifold alarm conditions (b) to (e)
and manifold running for each “bank”. These
connections should be volt-free contacts normally
closed for each condition having a minimum rating
of 50 V dc and 50 mA. The building management
system should not be used to control the manifold.
Secondary supply system
5.25 An emergency reserve manifold system should be
provided to form a secondary source of supply, for
emergency use, or to permit servicing or repair.
5.26 The supply should be designed to provide the
design flow of the primary system and have
39
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
sufficient connected capacity to supply the pipeline
for at least four hours. When such provision would
result in more than ten cylinders on each bank, the
additional cylinders should be held in the manifold
rooms. A non-return valve and isolating valve
should be installed immediately upstream of the
reserve manifold connection to the pipeline
distribution system.
Figure 11 Typical emergency reserve manifold
From Automatic
Manifold
Exhaust
(piped to safe position)
Distribution
System
Ball
valve
Lockable
valve
5.27 The requirements for the emergency reserve supply
capacity should be set out in the operational policy
document; this should take into account the
arrangements for the supply of cylinders and the
flow that the system is required to provide. The gas
supplier should be consulted.
Non-return
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
regulator
5.28 The specific requirements will depend on the
method of primary supply. Where this results in an
unrealistic number of cylinders being kept on site,
the operational policy should be set out, giving
details of procedures to be followed in an
emergency to ensure continuity of supply.
5.29 For large installations, it may be impractical to rely
on a cylinder manifold system; thus, consideration
should be given to either a bulk liquid or liquid
cylinder emergency/reserve supply.
Terminal
unit
Pressure
switch
Sintered
filter
Isolation
valve
Pressure
switch
Isolation
valve
5.30 The operational policy document should set out
the location of emergency manifolds, cylinders etc
and the action to be taken in the event of loss of
the primary source of supply.
Location of secondary sources of supply for
manifold installations
5.31 The secondary supply system for cylinder manifold
systems should normally be located in the manifold
room of the primary supply. A two-cylinder
emergency reserve supply would normally be
considered adequate for a cylinder manifold
supply system (but see note (h) to Tables 1–9
in Chapter 2). All cylinder valves should be
permanently open so that gas is immediately
available, but one of the isolating valves should be
closed. A typical system is shown in Figure 11.
5.32 The supply system should go into operation
automatically via a non-return valve, and the
emergency reserve manifold (ERM) isolating valve
should remain open.
40
Secondary sources of supply for air compressors/
liquid oxygen/oxygen concentrators (PSA)
5.33 The supply should comprise a two-bank fully-
automatic manifold system as described in
paragraphs 5.1–5.23 (except for (d) and (e) in
paragraph 5.19; (b) and (c) in paragraph 5.20; and
(d) and (e) in paragraph 5.21, which do not apply).
A typical number of cylinders in each bank would
be a minimum of ten depending on size and
location (see also Chapter 2). The manifold
system(s) should be installed in an appropriate
manifold room(s) separate from the plant.
6
Oxygen systems
Liquid oxygen systems
General
6.1 Over the last ten years, there has been a significant
increase in the use of medical oxygen for treating
patients in healthcare facilities, with some hospitals
seeing annual increases well in excess of 10%.
Introduction of the new European Standard on
medical gas pipeline systems (BS EN 737) also has
implications.
6.2 The scope of the advice provided by this chapter
covers the supply of liquid oxygen to healthcare
facilities from delivery into bulk storage vessels for
the larger hospitals to supply of liquid oxygen in
liquid cylinders to hospitals with lower demands.
The guidance given is intended to cover all the
aspects of a bulk cryogenic liquid system (VIE).
6.3 This chapter also covers the supply of medical
oxygen from on-site generation using PSA plant, or
in medical cylinders, other than (in the case of the
latter) as a means of backup to the main supply
system.
6.4 It does not specifically cover bulk liquid nitrogen
installations, but its principles may be applied to
hospitals where these gases are used in sufficient
quantities to make the use of a VIE cost-effective.
6.5 Significant changes since publication of Health
Technical Memorandum 2022 (1997) include:
• the use of risk assessment as a tool to assist in
the development of the medical oxygen
installation;
• adoption of the principles outlined in BS EN
737-3:2000;
• new methods of sizing the medical oxygen
vessels and back-up manifolds;
• designation of vessel contents as “operational”
or “reserve” stock.
A checklist for planning and upgrading an oxygen
system is given in Appendix H.
Risk assessment
6.6 Risk assessment is used to assist in the development
of the medical oxygen installation to produce a safe
and practical design and ensure that a safe supply of
oxygen is available for patient use at all times. It is
used for all aspects of the process; from the initial
concept designs through installation and operation
to the routine assessment of the installation, once
in service.
6.7 Advice is given on setting up risk assessment teams
and choosing the correct mix of personnel to ensure
that all aspects of the associated risks are
considered.
6.8 Throughout this chapter, non-exclusive risk criteria
lists are provided to assist these teams in identifying
the unacceptable risks and suggesting how they
might be addressed. It recommends that annual
risk assessments are carried out throughout the life
of the system to ensure that a safe system of supply
is maintained and any new risks are identified.
6.9 The prime responsibility to ensure that adequate
stocks of medical oxygen are available for patient
use should remain firmly with the hospital’s
management team. However, the hospital may
agree with its gas supplier or facilities management
supplier that they should manage the supplies of
medical oxygen and maintain adequate stocks in
the vessel. These arrangements should be clearly
documented within the MGPS operational policy
and procedures document. The effectiveness of
these arrangements will need to be assessed as part
of the risk assessment review and be validated to
ensure that they can be met.
6.10 Consideration should be given to the operational
management consequences of using different
suppliers to supply medical oxygen to different
supply systems on the same pipeline system.
6.11 Any contracts involving different suppliers should
clearly state the obligations and limitations of
liabilities; and any facilities management agreement
between the hospital and the medical gas supplier
must define the responsibilities of each party.
41
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
6.12 There must be no modification to the design or
Figure 13 Primary supply (liquid cylinder)
any part of the medical liquid oxygen system
without written authorisation from the gas supplier.
BS EN 737-3:2000
Full
6.13 This guidance adopts the principles outlined in BS
EN 737-3:2000 ‘Medical gas pipeline systems:
pipelines for compressed medical gases and
vacuum’, which introduces to the UK the concept
of having three independent sources of supply for
medical gas systems. This is covered in Chapter 2.
Operational
stock
Operating alarm signal
Liquid level of operational
stock has fallen below
minimum
Operating alarm signal
Pressure in primary
vessel has fallen below
minimum
New methods of sizing
Risk assessed
stock
Unusable stock
Primary supply
6.14 New methods of sizing the medical oxygen vessels
and back-up manifolds are covered, together with
advice on appropriate location of vessels on site
using principles of risk assessment. This ensures the
provision of a secure source of supply that reflects
the degree of risk associated with the hospital’s
location and its level of dependency on medical
oxygen.
Designation of vessel contents as “operational” or
“reserve” stock
6.15 The operational stock is the volume of product that
the gas supplier uses to manage deliveries to the
hospital; when this stock is exhausted, the vessel
should be refilled under normal conditions.
6.16 The reserve stock is the volume of product that is
used to provide additional stock to take account of
fluctuations in demand or when the supplier fails
to make a scheduled delivery.
6.17 Both operational and reserve stock levels are
calculated using the risk assessment principles
embodied within this document (see Figures 12–
17).
Figure 12 Primary supply (VIE)
Figure 14 Secondary supply (VIE)
Full
Operational
stock
Operating alarm signal
Liquid level of secondary
stock has fallen to
24 hours’ usage
Emergency alarm signal
Pressure from secondary
supply has fallen below
minimum and emergency
supply may need to be
activated
Risk assessed
stock
Unusable stock
Secondary supply
Figure 15 Secondary supply (liquid cylinder)
Full
Operational
stock
Operating alarm signal
Liquid level of secondary
stock has fallen to
24 hours’ usage
Emergency alarm signal
Pressure from secondary
supply has fallen below
minimum and emergency
supply may need to be
activated
Risk assessed
stock
Unusable stock
Full
Secondary supply
Operational
stock
Operating alarm signal
Liquid level of operational
stock has fallen below
minimum
Operating alarm signal
Pressure in primary
vessel has fallen below
minimum
Risk assessed
stock
Unusable stock
Primary supply
42
6 Oxygen systems
Figure 16 Secondary supply cylinder manifold
AUTOMATIC
MANIFOLD
Full
Lead bank
Operating
alarm signal
Changeover from
lead bank to
standby bank
Standby bank
Secondary supply
Emergency
alarm signal
Pressure from
secondary supply
has fallen below
minimum and
emergency
supply may need
to be activated
Figure 17 Secondary supply liquid manifold
6.21 The maximum potential daily demand should be
based on the peak flow conditions measured
between 8.00 am and 6.00 pm, with all operating
rooms in use and with maximum demand being
provided to pipeline outlets. It should not be based
on the theoretical pipeline design flow conditions.
Where actual flow monitoring is impracticable,
daily cylinder or liquid consumption figures should
be used.
Note
Control panels should be capable of passing the
maximum design flow of the oxygen system’s pipeline
distribution system. This may necessitate installing two
control panels in parallel.
6.22 Additionally, historic consumption records should
Full
Emergency alarm signal
Emergency supply system
pressure low
Emergency alarm signal
Pipeline pressure low
Emergency supply
Choosing an oxygen supply system
6.18 When designing or reviewing an installation to
supply medical oxygen to a hospital, the most
appropriate method of supplying the gas will be
determined by the potential size and variability of
the hospital’s medical oxygen demand.
6.19 To determine the most suitable and cost-effective
method of supplying medical oxygen and the
appropriate size of the installation, comprehensive
demand figures should be provided to the designer.
6.20 These demand figures (prepared as a part of the risk
assessment) should be based on:
• the current average daily gas usage based on the
past twelve months’ supplies;
• the maximum potential daily demand volumes
based on peak flow conditions, as below;
• any planned extensions to the hospital/pipeline
that may affect the demand;
• the expected natural annual growth in the use of
medical oxygen.
be reviewed to assess the current usage and the
natural growth of the medical oxygen demand. The
growth predictions should take into account any
planned extensions to the hospital’s facilities or
pipeline systems and changes in clinical practices in
the hospital that could affect the medical oxygen
demand. Natural growth in usage of medical
oxygen, due to changes in clinical practice, is about
8% to 10% per annum, but individual hospitals
will need to establish this growth figure during the
risk assessment process.
6.23 For new hospitals, where no historic information is
available, the estimated demand should be based on
the proposed size and type of the hospital and the
usage figures of the facilities being replaced.
6.24 It is essential to periodically review the average
daily demand with the gas supplier and agree either
to revise delivery frequencies to maintain the
operational stock levels or increase the size of the
storage system on site. Any planned increase in
demand due to hospital site developments, pipeline
extensions or changes in clinical practice should be
notified to the gas supplier to ensure that the
changes do not jeopardise security of supply.
6.25 The medical liquid oxygen demand should be
reviewed with the gas supplier at least annually (or
after a significant extension to the pipeline causing
increase in demand) to re-assess the size of the
installation.
6.26 As the agreed stocks used for the supply of liquid
oxygen are all based on an average daily demand,
as the demand grows so the storage volume
requirements will increase. With the increased
43
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
volume requirements for the reserve stock, the
volume available for operational stock will reduce.
Having reviewed the average daily demand with the
gas supplier, it is necessary to agree either revised
delivery frequencies to maintain the operational
stock levels or to increase the size of the storage
system on site.
6.27 The review of the medical liquid oxygen
installation should also include a review of the risk
assessment to ensure that no other conditions on
site have been changed that jeopardise the security
of the gas supply.
6.28 For smaller hospitals, where the demand is typically
below 3000 m3 per annum, the most cost-effective
method of supplying medical oxygen is from a
compressed gas cylinder manifold.
6.29 As the demand increases, it becomes less practicable
to use compressed gas cylinders and more costeffective to use medical liquid oxygen. A cylinder
manifold larger than 2 x 10 J cylinders is likely
to prove impracticable because of the manual
handling difficulties with the number of cylinders
involved. Liquid cylinders, which are ideally suited
to an annual consumption of between 3000 m3
and 40,000 m3, can be connected together by a
manifold to provide adequate storage capacity and
flow rate.
6.30 For hospitals with larger demands, a bulk medical
oxygen VIE will generally be used. There is a
nominal overlap of annual consumption between
27,500 m3 and 40,000 m3, where either a bulk
VIE or a liquid cylinder installation could be
considered, either to satisfy a particular
requirement, or to accommodate possible site
restrictions.
6.31 The main benefit of using gas cylinders is
that installation costs of manifold systems are
significantly lower than those of a liquid oxygen
system. However, the cost of the medical oxygen in
compressed gas cylinders is higher than the cost of
medical liquid oxygen (supplied either into liquid
cylinders or into a VIE). As the demand grows, so
the lower unit cost of the liquid oxygen offsets the
higher installation costs of the liquid oxygen
systems.
6.32 Cryogenic liquid systems are normally used where
the demand is high enough to make bulk supplies
cost-effective and where the demand makes
cylinder supplies impracticable.
6.33 Liquid oxygen provides a flexible approach to
both the size and the choice of installation design.
44
Its provision is determined by factors such as the
size of the hospital, the availability of space for both
the installation and the delivery vehicle, the
proximity of the gas supplier and the size of the
demand for medical oxygen.
6.34 There are a number of operational benefits in using
a medical liquid oxygen system over compressed gas
cylinders, including:
• greater volume of medical oxygen stored on site;
• improved security of supply;
• reduced storage area for the medical gas
cylinders;
• reduced manual handling requirements for
cylinder handling.
6.35 When determining the cost-effectiveness of specific
proposals from suppliers, the total supply costs
should be assessed, including costs for the site
preparation and vessel installation, vessel rental and
liquid supply over the total period of the contract.
System configurations
6.36 In order to comply with the requirements of BS
EN 737-3:2000, it is necessary for all medical
oxygen installations to have three independent
supply sources capable of feeding medical oxygen
to the pipeline.
6.37 These three sources are referred to as:
• the primary supply – the main source of
medical oxygen on site, providing gas to the
pipeline;
• the secondary supply – the secondary source of
medical oxygen on site, providing gas to the
pipeline and capable of providing the total
oxygen flow requirement in the event of a
primary supply failure;
• the reserve supply – the final source of supply
to specific sections of the pipeline, capable of
meeting the required demand in the event of
failure of the primary and secondary supplies, or
failure of the upstream distribution pipework.
6.38 For smaller hospitals, the primary supply can be fed
from compressed gas cylinders but as the demand
grows, the most practicable supply source will be
either liquid cylinders or a VIE system.
6.39 A fully automatic gas cylinder manifold will
normally be used as the secondary supply system
for smaller VIEs and liquid cylinder systems.
Where it is impracticable to maintain supplies to
6 Oxygen systems
the hospital using a cylinder manifold, a secondary
liquid oxygen system will be necessary.
6.40 Emergency supplies will not normally be fed from
a liquid oxygen supply system, as it is not possible
to prevent the boil-off of the liquid oxygen over
extended periods when the emergency system is not
in use.
6.41 All attempts should be made to locate the primary
and secondary supply systems on separate sites.
They should have independent control systems and
supply routes into the hospital pipeline system and
be valved accordingly to ensure that the systems
remain independent.
6.42 Where it is not feasible to utilise two sites, the risk
assessment should evaluate the greater level of risk
associated with using a single site and define the
appropriate actions that should be established to
obviate the higher risks, such as using twin or ringmain pipeline systems, siting of the emergency
supply manifold or installing suitable protection for
the installation.
6.43 The overall system should be designed so that the
primary supply is used first, with the secondary
supply automatically switching in when the
primary supply is either empty or fails to supply.
Primary supply systems
Cryogenic liquid systems (VIE)
6.44 These systems, commonly referred to as vacuum-
insulated evaporators (VIEs), are used to store the
medical gas as a liquid at cryogenic temperatures
and to vaporise it into a gas at ambient temperature
for distribution through the hospital pipeline.
6.47 The cryogenic storage vessel is normally
constructed from a stainless steel inner pressure
vessel that is supported in a mild steel outer shell.
The space between the vessels is filled with a highperformance insulating material, maintained under
a vacuum, to minimise heat transfer to the inner
vessel, which reduces the rate of evaporation of the
liquid oxygen.
6.48 A pressure-raising regulator that permits the flow of
liquid to the pressure-raising vaporiser, as required,
automatically controls the pressure in the liquid
oxygen system. The vaporised liquid is fed back to
the top of the vessel or liquid cylinder to maintain
the pressure in the system.
6.49 Under normal operating conditions for a VIE
system, the gas supply to the hospital will be
maintained by feeding liquid oxygen to the main
vaporiser system where it is converted to a gas and
warmed towards ambient temperature. There is
a tendency for the vaporiser system to “ice up”
where hospital demands are high or continuous, or
airflow to the vaporisers is restricted. Under these
circumstances the options to be considered should
include:
• installation of additional vaporisers;
• an auto-changeover system between vaporisers;
Note
In the event of power failure, control valves on all
vaporisers should fail “open”.
• hot water/electrically heated vaporisers;
• increasing size of vaporiser;
• repositioning.
Plant
6.45 The VIE system consists of:
• a vacuum-insulated cryogenic storage vessel to
store the bulk liquid;
• one or more ambient-heated vaporisers to
convert the cryogenic liquid into a gas for
supply to patients via a pipeline;
• control equipment to control the pressure and
flow of gas to the pipeline.
6.46 The liquid oxygen is stored at cryogenic
temperatures (down to minus 183°C) and
converted to a gas at ambient temperature by
passing it through an air-heated vaporiser.
6.50 Where hospital demands are low or very erratic,
the natural heat transfer into the vessel causes the
liquid oxygen to boil and the vessel pressure to rise.
When the vessel pressure rises to a set point, the
hospital pipeline is fed from the top gas to prevent
the vessel pressure rising above the safety-valve
setting. On safety-valve operation, oxygen must be
able to vent safely to atmosphere.
6.51 In all cases, the pipeline pressure is controlled
using a system of duplex pressure regulators and
valves. It is essential that all materials used in the
construction of the vessels, control equipment
and pipeline are compatible with oxygen at the
operating temperatures that could be encountered
under normal operation with single fault condition.
45
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
The risk assessment will determine the exact
configuration.
6.52 The control panel design should comply with the
design requirements specified in BS EN 737-3 and
be sized to provide the system design flow.
Telemetry
6.53 The use of telemetry on the liquid storage system is
recommended because it permits both the hospital
and the gas supplier to monitor relevant supply
conditions continuously, including storage vessel
levels and pressure. In addition, it can be used to
transmit other operational data from the storage
vessel, pipeline and associated equipment for
monitoring purposes. It may be beneficial to make
this information available to the relevant person(s)
in the trust. By having continuous monitoring of
stock available through the telemetry system, an
existing vessel could be retained. This solution is
only acceptable provided that an appropriate risk
assessment, following the guidance given in this
chapter, supports the decision.
Siting
6.54 The Authorised Person (MGPS) will be responsible
for agreeing the final location of the liquid oxygen
compound(s), taking into consideration any issues
raised in the initial risk assessment.
6.55 When considering the space requirements for
the liquid oxygen compound(s), there may be
operational advantages in having two compounds
in different areas on the hospital site, rather than
one larger site utilising either a single large vessel or
multiple tanks. This arrangement may also have
benefits with respect to both planning permission
and meeting the safety distances specified in the
British Compressed Gases Association’s (BCGA)
Code of Practice 19 (CP19): ‘Bulk liquid oxygen
storage at users’ premises’ (henceforth known as
BCGA CP19; see Table 23).
6.56 Each supply system should be located in a secure
fenced compound, which should be sized to allow
adequate access to all of the control equipment.
6.57 The site should essentially be level but designed to
have adequate falls to prevent water accumulating
beneath equipment.
6.58 The location of drains in the vicinity of the site
should comply with the requirements specified in
BCGA CP19 (see Table 23).
46
6.59 Only under extreme conditions should the safety
distances specified in BCGA CP19 be reduced.
Any relaxation of these safety distances needs
to be agreed with the supply company’s safety
representative and the Authorised Person (MGPS).
Both parties must ensure that an equivalent level of
safety is achieved, and this should be approved and
documented.
6.60 The layout of the liquid oxygen installation should
provide adequate access to all of the relevant
components of the system and permit adequate
airflow for the ambient vaporisers.
6.61 The plinth should be of concrete construction. The
area in front of the vessel(s) (tanker apron) should
be non-porous concrete. Under no circumstances
should tarmac be used in the vicinity of the liquid
oxygen filling point, or areas where liquid oxygen
spillage may occur.
6.62 The location of the liquid oxygen compound
should permit the supplier to gain safe access with
the appropriately sized tanker. It is the supplier’s
responsibility to assess the space requirements for
vehicular access.
6.63 The design of the liquid oxygen installation should
take into account the gas supplier’s requirements
for discharging the liquid oxygen from the
cryogenic tanker. The area directly in front of the
vessel should be kept clear to provide access for
the delivery vehicle at any time. Under no
circumstances should cars be permitted to park in
front of the compound.
6.64 The compound should not be used for the storage
of other equipment.
6.65 Where the secondary or emergency supply system
is fed from a cylinder manifold, it should be in a
separate enclosure/manifold room and have
adequate space to permit safe cylinder changeover.
Spare cylinders should not be held in the VIE
compound or liquid cylinder compound but stored
in the nearest medical cylinder store.
6.66 A pipework and installation diagram (P&ID) of
the plant should be displayed clearly to indicate the
appropriate valves that are necessary to operate the
plant safely. The medical gases supplier should
make the Authorised Person (MGPS), and others
in the hospital that may operate the system, aware
of its general operating principles. (Typical plant
installations are shown in Figures 18–20.)
6 Oxygen systems
Table 23 Safety distances to comply with BCGA CP19
Safety distances from exposure to vessel/point where oxygen leakage or spillage can
occur
Areas where open flames/smoking permitted
Up to 20 tonnes
(metres)
Over 20 tonnes
(metres)
5
8
10
15
Offices, canteens and areas of occupancy
5
8
Pits, ducts, surface water drains (untrapped)
5
8
Openings to underground systems
5
8
Property boundaries
5
8
Public roads
5
8
10
15
5
8
Places of public assembly
Railways
Vehicle parking areas (other than authorised)
Large wooden structures
15
15
Small stocks of combustible materials, site huts etc
5
8
Process equipment (not part of installation)
5
8
Continuous sections of flammable gas pipelines
3
3
Flanges in flammable gas pipelines (over 50 mm)
15
15
Fuel gas vent pipes
5
8
Compressor/ventilator air intakes
5
8
Fuel gas cylinders (up to 70 m3)
5
5
LPG storage vessels (up to 4 tonnes)
7.5
7.5
LPG storage vessels (up to 60 tonnes)
15
Bulk flammable liquid storage vessels (up to 7.8
m3)
Bulk flammable liquid storage vessels (up to 117
MV or HV electrical sub-stations
m3)
7.5
15
7.5
15
15
5
8
47
PI
PS
PAL
V6
V4
V8
PSV
21
V9
V11
PAH
To hospital
pipeline
Pressure
raising
vaporiser
V13 V12
LIT
14
V19
LSL
14
VIE
10.5
Bar
PSL
Alarm panel
V5
V15
PAL
PI
V20
V10
PI
33
PSH
LAL
14A
PCV
28
S36
Main vaporiser
Pressure control panel
PSV
22
Third
source of
supply
V7
Storage vessel
Auto-change
manifold
Reserve manifold
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
48
Figure 18 Primary supply VIE system with compressed gas cylinder manifold
Figure 19 Primary and secondary VIE system on single plinth
PI
PS
PAL
V6
PSV
21
V13 V12
V11
PAH
To hospital
pipeline
Pressure
raising
vaporiser
V9
V19
LIT
14
V10
LSL
14
VIE
10.5
Bar
PSL
Alarm panel
V5
V15
V8
PI
33
PAL
LAL
14B
PI
V20
V4
PSH
LAL
14A
PCV
28
S36
Main vaporiser
Pressure control panel
PSV
22
Third
source of
supply
V7
Main storage vessel
V6
V20
V4
LIT
14
Economiser vaporiser
PSV
21
Pressure
raising
vaporiser
V9
V13 V12
VIE
10.5
Bar
V11
PSV
22
V7
49
Back-up storage vessel
PCV
28
S36
Back-up vaporiser
6 Oxygen systems
V10
LSL
14
V5
V15
V19
PI
33
PI
PS
PAL
V6
V4
PSL
PAH
Alarm panel
V5
V15
VIE
10.5
Bar
PSV
21
V13 V12
V11
To hospital
pipeline
Pressure
raising
vaporiser
V9
V19
LIT
14
V10
LSL
14
PAL
PI
V20
V8
PI
33
PSH
LAL
14A
PCV
28
S36
Pressure control panel
Main vaporiser
PSV
22
Third
source of
supply
V7
Main storage vessel
V6
LIT
14
PSV
21
PAL
PSH
PAL
PSL
PAH
LAL
14A
PI
Pressure
raising
vaporiser
V9
V11
PS
Economiser vaporiser
Alarm panel
To hospital
pipeline
V13 V12
V8
VIE
10.5
Bar
V19
LSL
14
V5
V15
V10
PI
33
PI
V20
V4
PCV
28
S36
PSV
22
V7
Back-up storage vessel (remote)
Back-up vaporiser
Pressure control panel
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
50
Figure 20 Primary and secondary VIE system on separate plinth
6 Oxygen systems
Liquid cylinder systems
Plant
6.67 Liquid cylinder systems can also be used to store
the medical gas as a liquid at cryogenic
temperatures and to vaporise it into a gas for
patient use. These systems are used where the
demand is too high for compressed gas cylinders
to be a practicable option but where it is neither
economic nor possible to supply bulk medical
liquid oxygen in a VIE system.
6.68 Liquid cylinders are constructed in a similar way to
vacuum-insulated cryogenic storage units, that is,
as double-walled vessels. However, unlike the VIE,
the liquid cylinder has an internal vaporiser coil to
convert the liquid into a gas.
6.69 The size of the liquid cylinder can vary between
200 L and 1000 L water capacity. To obtain
sufficient storage capacity and to meet the hospital’s
flow requirements, a number of liquid cylinders can
be connected together via a manifold.
6.70 The liquid cylinder system consists of:
• a number of vacuum-insulated liquid cylinders;
• a system to manifold the liquid cylinders
together to store sufficient liquid on site to meet
the hospital’s demand;
• control equipment to regulate the pressure and
flow of gas to the pipeline.
6.71 Although liquid cylinders are suitable for
transportation when full, they are normally
installed as a fixed installation and remotely filled
whilst in situ.
6.72 Liquid cylinders are designed and supplied with
gas-specific liquid-fill and gas-use connections
(including the connection on the remote liquid-fill
connection where the liquid cylinders are filled in
situ).
6.73 The connections used are:
• liquid fill: CGA 440;
• gas use: ISO 5145.
Siting
6.74 Where there is no alternative, a liquid cylinder
manifold may be installed in a building or confined
area, but only if the vent header (to which all liquid
cylinder vents will be connected) is piped to a safe
area via a back-pressure control valve. This valve
should be set at a pressure below that of the liquid
cylinder relief-valve setting, thus ensuring that any
excess pressure is safely vented.
6.75 Where installed in buildings, generous ventilation
should be provided by means of fully-louvred access
doors to the outside. The appropriate calculation
must be made to ensure adequate ventilation,
especially during the filling of the vessels, when
they may be venting freely to atmosphere inside the
manifold room.
6.76 A P&ID of the plant should be displayed clearly to
indicate the appropriate valves necessary to operate
the plant safely. The Authorised Person (MGPS)
and others in the hospital who may work with the
VIE system should be made aware of its general
operating principles by the medical gas supplier.
(Figure 21 shows a typical liquid cylinder manifold
installation with cylinder backup.)
Compressed gas cylinder manifolds
6.77 The simplest supply system to provide medical
oxygen to a hospital pipeline system utilises
compressed gas cylinders, connected together on
an auto-changeover manifold. As the demand
increases, the number of cylinders fitted to the
manifold can be increased to meet the hospital’s
requirements. The secondary supply for this system
will usually be a manual changeover compressed
gas cylinder manifold, which comes on line
automatically (via a non-return valve) in the event
of primary manifold failure.
6.78 For a full description of manifold supply systems,
see Chapter 5.
Secondary supply systems
6.79 Where the primary supply system is a VIE, the
secondary supply system can be either:
• another VIE; or
• a liquid cylinder manifold; or
• a fully-automatic compressed gas cylinder
manifold.
6.80 Where the primary supply system is a liquid
cylinder system, the secondary supply system
should be a fully automatic changeover gas cylinder
manifold that comes into operation automatically.
6.81 There should be a system of backflow prevention to
protect either system venting through the other in
the event of a single fault in either system.
51
PI
PS
PAL
PSH
PAL
PSL
PAH
LAL
14A
PI
Alarm panel
To hospital
pipeline
Level
monitor
Pressure control panel
Third
source of
supply
Vent
Liquid
fill
Remote fill
PI
33
PI
33
PCV
28
LIT
14
V2
V3
V5
V1
V1
V2
PCV
28
LIT
14
V3
Auto-change
manifold
V5
Reserve manifold
Liquid cylinder manifold
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
52
Figure 21 Typical liquid cylinder manifold installation with cylinder backup
6 Oxygen systems
6.82 Where the secondary supply is fed from
compressed gas cylinders, the size of the changeover
manifold and the number of cylinders stored on
site should be based on the gas supplier’s ability to
guarantee a delivery service within a defined period.
6.83 Where a liquid oxygen system is used for the
secondary supply, the system design should allow
any liquid oxygen that has boiled off to be fed to
the pipeline system to utilise product.
6.84 Where the feed from the VIE compound to the
hospital extends a long distance, or is exposed
to potential mechanical damage, particular
importance should be given to siting the secondary
supply system remotely from the main VIE
compound with a separate supply to the hospital
pipeline system.
6.85 Where the secondary supply is sited remotely,
consideration should also be given to the set point
of the secondary supply output regulator to ensure
that the pipeline pressure is maintained at a
minimum level of 4.1 bar.
6.86 When the vessels are located on separate sites,
a backflow prevention device must be fitted on
each leg feeding into the pipeline system. This will
prevent loss of product, either from the other vessel
or from the hospital pipeline, in the event of failure
of or damage to a VIE unit or its feed into the
hospital pipeline. The backflow protection should
be sited in a secure location where it is not liable to
mechanical damage and be as close to the hospital
curtilage as possible.
Emergency supply provision
6.87 In the event of total plant and/or main pipeline
failure, an emergency supply of oxygen should be
available for patient use.
6.88 The emergency supply system should be activated
automatically when the primary and secondary
system is empty or fails to supply or when the
hospital pipeline pressure falls below 3.8 bar. It
must have the provision to automatically prevent
the backflow of medical oxygen into the remainder
of the pipeline system should the pipeline fail
upstream of the connection.
6.89 A variety of sources are available for the provision
of emergency oxygen, and these are detailed in
paragraphs 6.96–6.105.
6.90 Under most conditions, compressed gas cylinders
are the appropriate method of providing an
emergency supply source.
6.91 The size and design of the emergency supply
system should allow for cylinders to be changed
whilst in operation.
6.92 Consideration should also be given to the set point
of the regulator of any emergency supply system, to
ensure that the pipeline pressure remains above the
minimum level of 3.8 bar.
Emergency inlet ports
6.93 Emergency inlet ports are covered in Chapter 13.
In some instances, installation of a fixed manifold
system will obviate the need for fitting an
emergency inlet port.
6.94 In smaller installations, fitting an emergency inlet
port may be dispensed with if the risk analysis
indicates that adequate supplies can be maintained
via the NIST connectors of AVSUs supplying
critical care areas.
6.95 When planning emergency provision for a
complete system, vulnerability of the primary
and secondary supplies will be a critical factor in
determining both the type and the means of supply.
Fixed automatic/manual manifold systems
6.96 Where two VIE units on the same plinth are in use,
the emergency supply system should comprise a
fully automatic cylinder manifold permanently
connected to (one of ) the main oxygen riser(s) in
the hospital, or directly into a ring-main system. It
must be able to feed a riser automatically (without
back-feeding to any damaged upstream section) on
failure of both primary and secondary plant, or the
MGPS upstream of the entry into the hospital.
Such an arrangement is particularly suited to
situations in which the main feed from the VIE
installation to the hospital pipeline is vulnerable to
mechanical damage, for example when buried
under a roadway. The location and size of the
manifold should be determined by the risk
assessment and according to the dependency of the
patients.
6.97 When two separately sited VIE units are used to
provide the hospital supply, the need for emergency
manifold provision should be assessed against the
likelihood of failure of both VIE systems and their
respective feeds into the hospital pipeline.
53
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
6.98 Where it can be shown that one or both units are
fed into the hospital pipeline in a manner such that
the probability of disruption of one or both of the
feeds is negligible, the option to waive the fitting of
further (manifold) supplies can be considered.
Discrete cylinder supplies
6.105 For non-critical care areas where there are no high-
dependency patients, it may be appropriate to use
individual cylinders as the reserve source of supply.
Cylinders fitted with integral valves and having a
product-specific terminal unit outlet are suitable
for this purpose. The difficulties associated with
storing, testing, maintaining, distributing and
connecting large numbers of such equipment must
not be underestimated. (Such protocols should be
referenced in the MGPS operational policy.)
Local manifold provision (critical care areas)
6.99 To offer additional protection against the
possibility of a pipeline failure within the hospital,
further (manual or automatic) manifolds can be
permanently connected, via non-return valves,
downstream of AVSUs controlling highdependency areas. Such units should come on line
automatically on failure of the main supply to an
AVSU. A further non-return valve must also be
added upstream of the AVSU to prevent backfeeding into a failed main supply system.
Alarm systems
6.106 Installations of the following type should be fitted
with alarm systems to provide visual and audible
warnings for the following conditions. For:
a. dual VIE vessels feeding into a single control
panel; or
6.100 The positioning of these manifolds is very
important to ensure that the critical supply/highdependency areas defined in the risk assessment
process have adequate stocks of medical oxygen
available in the event of a system failure. However,
the risk analysis for the complete system may
indicate that the probability of use of such a
manifold system is negligible, or that the
circumstances causing the system failure would in
any event require the evacuation of the area.
6.101 Availability of accommodation, staff and manual
handling issues would also need to be considered
during the risk assessment process. Where space
limitations prevent the installation of such
manifolds, the implications of providing discrete
cylinder/regulator combinations must be
considered.
Gas feed via an AVSU (or terminal unit)
6.102 Oxygen supply to the downstream side of an
AVSU (with the valve closed) may be achieved
using an “emergency supply kit” consisting of two
cylinder regulators and associated supply hoses
with gas-specific connectors.
6.103 Such an arrangement may be used to support
high-dependency departments, albeit the unit will
usually be of limited capacity by comparison to a
fixed automatic manifold system.
6.104 Storage, maintenance, testing, security and
deployment arrangements for the emergency
supply kits must be documented in the MGPS
operational policy.
54
b. a single VIE vessel supported by a liquid
cylinder secondary supply; or
c. a single VIE vessel supported by a fully
automatic compressed gas cylinder manifold,
the following displays should be presented at the
plant and in a 24-hour-staffed position.
Status/fault condition
Indication Legend
Normal operation
System available for use
Green
Normal
Primary supply system’s
operational stock empty
Primary supply system’s reserve
stock in use
Yellow
Refill liquid
Primary supply system’s reserve
stock empty
Secondary supply system in use
Yellow
Refill liquid
immediately
Secondary supply system empty
Emergency system in use
Yellow
Emergency
supply in use
Red
Pressure fault
Pipeline pressure high or low
6.107 For:
a. two discrete VIE vessels feeding into separate
parts of the pipeline system; or
b. a single VIE vessel supported by a liquid
cylinder secondary supply that feeds separate
parts of the pipeline system; or
c. a single VIE vessel supported by a fullyautomatic compressed gas cylinder manifold
secondary supply that feeds separate parts of
the pipeline system,
6 Oxygen systems
the following displays should be presented at the
plant and in a 24-hour-staffed position.
At the secondary vessel/liquid cylinder supply/cylinder
manifold and a 24-hour-staffed position
At the primary vessel and a 24-hour-manned position
Status/fault condition
Status/fault condition
Normal operation
System available for use
Green
Normal
Yellow
Refill liquid
Secondary supply system’s
operational stock empty
Secondary supply system’s
reserve stock in use
Refill liquid/
change cylinders
Yellow
Refill liquid
immediately
Secondary supply system’s
reserve stock empty
Emergency supply system
in use
Yellow
Emergency
supply in use
Yellow
Secondary
stock low
Red
Pressure fault
Normal operation
System available for use
Primary supply system’s
operational stock empty
Primary supply system reserve
stock in use
Primary supply system’s reserve
stock empty
Secondary supply system in use
Secondary supply system low
Pipeline pressure high or low
Indication Legend
Green
Yellow
Red
Normal
Pressure
fault
6.108 When the primary system operational stock has
been exhausted and the vessel contents reach the
reserve stock level, the first alarm condition will be
indicated by a yellow alarm and the legend “refill
liquid” illuminated.
6.109 When the primary system reserve stock is empty
and the secondary supply system is in operation,
the second alarm condition will be indicated by
a yellow alarm and the legend “refill liquid
immediately” illuminated. This alarm condition
continues until the primary supply system is
refilled.
6.110 When the secondary supply system is low, the
third alarm condition will be indicated by a
yellow alarm and the legend “secondary stock low”
illuminated. This alarm condition continues until
the secondary supply system is refilled or the
cylinders are replaced.
6.111 Should the primary supply of medical oxygen to
the hospital pipeline fail due to lack of contents or
mechanical failure of any of the components, or
should a serious leak occur, the pipeline pressure
will fall. When the plant output pipeline pressure
falls below 3.75 bar, the condition will be
indicated by the “pressure fault” alarm.
6.112 If the regulator controlling the pipeline pressure
should fail “open”, the pipeline pressure will rise.
This condition will be indicated by the “pressure
fault” alarm when the pressure rises above 4.9 bar.
Pipeline pressure high or low
Indication Legend
6.113 When the secondary system operational stock has
been exhausted and the vessel contents reach the
secondary reserve stock level, the first alarm
condition will be indicated by a yellow alarm and
the legend “refill liquid” illuminated. This alarm
condition continues until the secondary supply
system is refilled.
6.114 When the secondary supply system is empty, the
second alarm condition will be indicated by a
yellow alarm and the legend “emergency supply in
use” illuminated. This alarm condition continues
until the secondary supply system is refilled or the
secondary supply manifold cylinders are replaced.
6.115 Should the secondary supply of medical oxygen to
the hospital pipeline fail due to lack of contents or
mechanical failure of any of the components or
should a serious leak occur, the pipeline pressure
will fall. When the plant output pipeline pressure
falls below 3.75 bar, the condition will be
indicated by the “pressure fault” alarm.
6.116 With a correctly installed and commissioned
emergency system, the hospital pipeline pressure
will be maintained downstream of the primary and
secondary supply connections (non-return valves)
at a minimum pressure of 3.9 bar. Pressure on the
plant side of the non-return valves will, however,
remain below 3.75 bar until the plant is refilled,
or any fault remedied. Therefore, the plant and
24-hour-monitored alarms will continue to
indicate both “pressure fault” and “emergency
supply system in use” until the vessel is refilled or
any fault rectified.
6.117 If the regulator controlling the pipeline pressure
should fail in the “open” position, the pipeline
pressure will rise. This condition will be indicated
55
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
by the “pressure fault” alarm when the pressure
rises above 4.9 bar.
6.118 Where the emergency supply is installed on
individual zones of the pipeline system, the
“emergency supply in use” alarm must be displayed
within the pipeline zone area. A separate
“emergency supply low” alarm should also be
installed on each zone.
6.119 Where more than one VIE is used and the
operational and reserve stock is distributed
between multiple vessels, a lit “normal” display
indicates that the vessel is available for use.
6.120 In the event that the primary (or secondary) vessel
should become empty (or suffer from any other
fault condition), the “normal” display should be
extinguished, indicating that the vessel is not
available for use.
6.121 Alarm conditions should be transmitted to the
central alarm system.
6.122 Where relays are used, they should be energised
relays that de-energise under fault conditions, with
contacts having a minimum rating of 50 V dc and
50 mA. Alternatively, volt-free, normally closed
contacts rated at 50 V dc and 50 mA should be
provided for transmission of the conditions to the
alarm system.
6.123 Typical alarm trigger points are shown in
Figures 12–17.
Determining system size through risk assessment
Introduction
6.124 The 1997 edition of Health Technical
Memorandum 2022 defined a (fixed) VIE primary
vessel capacity of 14 days’ oxygen supply but did
not define capacity of a liquid cylinder system.
This section addresses the risk factors associated
with the supply of oxygen on a hospital site and,
with the aid of defined risk criteria, offers guidance
on the sizing of VIE, liquid cylinder and
compressed gas cylinder manifold installations for
any specified location.
6.125 The risk assessment should take into account all
issues concerning the safety and continuity of
the medical oxygen supply. It is suggested that
identified risk factors and criteria be evaluated
using both qualitative and quantitative measures,
and that all results be recorded in a logical manner
that will support the decisions being made. The
56
record of the risk assessment will also act as a
reference document when the system is reviewed.
6.126 Additional local factors and requirements
identified by the project team will also need to be
considered when carrying out the risk assessment
to take account of site-specific issues concerning
how the product is stored, distributed and used.
6.127 Any risk control procedures identified by the risk
assessment process which are designed to minimise
any identified risks must be recorded and
incorporated into the relevant hospital standard
operating procedures (SOP) or work instructions
(WI).
6.128 When sizing the vessels and cylinder manifolds to
provide adequate storage of medical oxygen on
site, the stock should be distributed between the
three sources of supply as defined in BS EN 737-3:
2000; that is, the medical oxygen supply system
should normally consist of:
• a primary supply;
• a secondary supply;
• a emergency supply.
6.129 The capacity of the primary and secondary supply
system will consist of:
• operational stock;
• reserve stock.
6.130 The operational stock is the volume of product
that the gas supplier uses to manage deliveries to
the hospital, and its exhaustion signals the point at
which the vessel should be refilled under normal
conditions.
6.131 The reserve stock is the volume of product that is
used to provide additional stock, to take account
of fluctuations in demand, or when the supplier
fails to make a scheduled delivery.
6.132 The system should be designed so that the primary
and secondary supply system stocks are kept
separate from each other. Under no circumstances
can the primary supply system operational stock be
stored in the secondary supply system vessel.
6.133 However, where it is not possible to install a single
large VIE vessel for the primary supply (such as
where planning permission restrictions prevent the
use of a single large vessel), it may be appropriate
to hold all or some of the primary supply system
reserve stock in the secondary supply vessel. Under
these circumstances the primary supply vessel
6 Oxygen systems
should retain a minimum level when changing
over to the secondary supply system. The volume
retained in the primary supply vessel should equate
to the secondary supply system reserve stock. This
should provide adequate stock on site to enable the
gas supplier to resupply product to the primary
vessel in the event of failure of the secondary
supply. This level should be determined by the risk
assessment process but should be at least one day’s
usable stock.
Review of risk assessment
6.134 The documented risk assessment should be
reviewed after the installation is complete, prior to
commissioning, to assess whether any parameters
or circumstances have changed since the initial
assessment. The risk assessment must also be
reviewed at least annually (or when there is any
significant change to the medical oxygen supply
system or usage pattern) to ensure that the details
are current. At this review, all changes should be
considered that might have an effect on the safety
of the system or the security of supply.
Sizing plant – general
VIE installations
6.135 The operational and reserve stock for each supply
system should normally be held in the same vessel.
Where planning restrictions prevent the use of a
single large vessel on site, it may be appropriate to
utilise multiple vessels to provide adequate stocks
on site.
6.136 When sizing VIE systems for the primary or
secondary supply, the vessel size will be determined
by adding the operational and reserve stock
together and allowing for the level of unusable
stock left in the vessel when the designed flow rate
cannot be maintained.
Liquid cylinder installations
6.137 For liquid cylinder installations, the primary
system should be made up of a number of liquid
cylinders connected together by a manifold. The
secondary system will comprise an automatic or
manual compressed gas cylinder manifold system.
6.138 Each liquid cylinder will have a maximum design
flow rate for continuous use. The number of liquid
cylinders required for an installation may be
governed by either the maximum storage capacity
required on site or the flow rate required to meet
the hospital’s maximum demand.
6.139 When determining the number and size of
liquid cylinders required for either a primary or a
secondary supply to a VIE, an allowance has to be
made for the unusable capacity of each cylinder
when connected to the manifold system.
Compressed gas cylinder manifold systems
6.140 For auto-changeover cylinder manifolds, one
bank of cylinders should be considered as the
operational stock and the other bank as the reserve
stock. The size of each source of supply should be
determined by considering the operational and
reserve stock requirements for each source.
6.141 The secondary supply will normally comprise a
manually operated manifold system, connected
such that it will come on line automatically (via a
non-return valve) in the event of primary supply
failure.
6.142 For sizing compressed gas cylinder systems, the size
of the manifold will normally be determined by
the ability of the hospital to provide adequately
trained staff to change over cylinders quickly
enough to meet the demand.
6.143 The number of cylinders required to support
the manifold can be determined by dividing the
relevant stock figure by the usable volume of each
cylinder (that is, the volume at full cylinder
pressure less the volume at the pressure of the
cylinder when the manifold changes over).
The risk assessment process
Risk assessment for management responsibilities
6.144 The risk assessment criteria, when considering
management responsibilities for the medical liquid
oxygen system, need to include the following:
• the need to document and agree responsibilities
for the monitoring of the medical liquid
oxygen VIE, and the need to establish a backup procedure with the gas supplier to ensure
that adequate stocks will be maintained in the
event of a failure of the fitted telemetry system;
• the hospital should set up procedures to ensure
that the VIE system is monitored at regular
intervals for any deviation from normal
operation (such as safety valves lifting, major
leaks, or failure of either the telemetry or alarm
system);
• the implications of any decisions to not fit
telemetry or to utilise a vessel, or vessels,
that do not provide adequate operational and
57
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
reserve stocks. These decisions should be taken
at an appropriate level of management, should
be documented, and their implications should
be considered as part of the risk assessment;
• the need to site the reserve sources of supply
local to the point of use to protect against
pipeline failure where high-dependency
patients are located;
• consideration of the resources needed to
maintain adequate supplies of medical oxygen
either under normal, or emergency, conditions.
When evaluating these requirements,
consideration should be given to the risks that
the trust would face in the event of supply
failure causing disruption of clinical services;
• safety requirements for the storage of oxygen
on site, including compliance with the safety
distances specified in BCGA CP19;
• consideration of the operational management
consequences of using different suppliers to
supply medical oxygen to different supply
systems supporting the same pipeline
installation. Any contracts involving different
suppliers should clearly state the obligations
and limitations of liabilities.
6.145 Where manifolds are used as either the secondary
or emergency supply, adequately trained staff
should be available, whenever required, to ensure
continuity of supply. Consideration also needs to
be given to the manual handling issues concerned
with changing cylinders on the manifold and
arrangements to store adequate stocks to meet
demands.
6.146 Consideration needs to be given to the type of
clinical activities carried out in each area of the
hospital and the ability to provide emergency
back-up to individual areas used for critical care,
or within high-dependency units.
Initial risk assessment for siting of plant
6.147 The initial risk assessment should consider the
requirements to ensure a continuous supply of
medical gas to the patient.
6.148 The initial risk assessment criteria related to the
complete installation should include:
• the size and location of each source of supply
(for example the volume held as operational
and reserve stock for each source of supply,
located on one site or two independent sites);
• the associated risks with siting tanks at either
the same or separate locations (for example
physical space availability, accessibility for
delivery and maintenance requirements,
accessibility to the pipeline system [to tie-in
points etc], alarm systems and cabling, pipeline
routing and protection);
58
• the location and extent of the medical oxygen
pipeline system;
• the vulnerability of the hospital pipeline to
mechanical damage and whether underground
sections of the pipeline system comply with
the requirements of this Health Technical
Memorandum; and whether the pipeline is
capable of being inspected throughout its entire
length or pressure tested (whilst maintaining
the supply), or otherwise can be tested;
• the space available for the liquid oxygen
installation, or cylinder manifold, and the
available access for the delivery vehicle;
• the vulnerability of the site to external damage;
• the possibility of interference with the supply
system or other security issues.
Risk assessment for sizing of operational stock
6.149 The risk assessment criteria for the sizing of the
operational stock should include:
• the average daily demand at the end of the
contract period. Any changes to the predicted
growth of demand will need to be considered,
and changes made to the vessel size or delivery
frequency at the appropriate time within the
contract period. It may be beneficial to set a
daily demand rate at which changes to vessel
size or delivery frequency will be considered;
• a review of vehicular access to the VIE, timing
of the deliveries, any restrictions due to local
planning requirements, and the effect of these
factors on the delivery frequency;
• an environmental impact assessment.
Risk assessment for sizing of reserve stock
6.150 The risk assessment criteria for the sizing of the
reserve stock should include:
• the average daily demand at the end of the
contract period. Any changes to the predicted
growth of demand will need to be considered,
and changes made to the vessel size or delivery
frequency at the appropriate time within the
6 Oxygen systems
contract period. It may be beneficial to set a
daily demand rate at which changes to vessel
size or delivery frequency will be considered;
• the delivery frequency guaranteed by the gas
supplier that can be provided at short notice
should the primary supply system fail;
• the minimum response time from when
the primary supply system fails to when the
delivery vehicle could be on site to refill
the secondary supply VIE, or to provide
replacement compressed gas cylinders for the
manifold.
Risk assessment for the provision of emergency supply systems
6.151 The risk assessment criteria concerning emergency
supply systems should include:
• the need for installation of independent
emergency supplies to zones on the medical gas
pipeline supplying critical care areas or wards or
departments that are remote or vulnerable to
interruption;
• the positioning of the manifold to ensure ease
of changeover of cylinders with respect to
access and manual handling issues;
• the storage of cylinders associated with the
emergency manifold to ensure compliance with
the appropriate codes of practice and local
hospital requirements;
• training requirements for both the relevant
clinical and operational staff to ensure correct
operation of the emergency supply system.
Stock calculations
Calculation of operational stock for primary and secondary
supplies
6.152 The capacity of the operational stock of primary
and secondary supply systems should be agreed
with the gas supplier and based on the following
parameters:
• the current average medical oxygen daily
demand, plus any natural growth over the
contract period;
• any additional planned growth (above any
natural growth) in the usage pattern within the
contract period;
• the agreed delivery frequency.
6.153 The current average daily demand can be
calculated by dividing the current annual
consumption by 365 days.
6.154 The operational stock should be based on an
average daily demand predicted for the end of the
contract period calculated by:
Average daily demand = Current daily demand
+ Planned growth + Natural growth.
6.155 The operational stock is calculated as:
Operational stock = Average daily demand x
Agreed delivery period.
6.156 If there is significant growth in average daily
demand within the contract period, either the
vessel should be resized or the agreed delivery
frequency should be reviewed to reduce the
delivery period and maintain the operational stock
level.
6.157 The delivery period for the primary supply will
be based on the gas supplier’s normal delivery
frequency.
6.158 The delivery period for the secondary supply
will be based on emergency conditions when
the primary supply is not available. Under these
circumstances, special delivery response times must
be agreed with the gas supplier.
6.159 The supply agreement should commit the supplier
to manage the operational stock, based on an
agreed delivery frequency and the minimum stock
level to be maintained in the vessel.
Calculation of primary reserve stock
6.160 The table below provides a matrix for the
calculation of primary reserve stock based upon
distance from gas supplier and fitting of telemetry.
Kilometres from
No telemetry
Telemetry fitted
gas supply depot (no of days’ stock) (no of days’ stock)
Up to 75
5
3
75–150
6
4
150–300
7
5
Over 300
8
6
Calculation of secondary reserve stock
6.161 The minimum level for reserve stock for the
secondary supply should allow for circumstances
in which the primary supply system is not available
for use.
59
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
6.162 This secondary supply system reserve stock level
only be installed when an investment appraisal
shows them to be economical.
will be dependent on:
• the proximity of the supplier’s distribution
depot;
6.167 When installed, a PSA system will deliver product
• the response time that the gas supplier needs to
make a delivery under these conditions;
6.168 Oxygen concentrators operate by adsorbing,
gas via the “oxygen” pipeline system.
under pressure, other gases in the atmosphere onto
materials which have specific physico-chemical
properties, thus freeing the oxygen which is stored
and transmitting it for use. The adsorbents are
known as artificial zeolites, more commonly
referred to as molecular sieves. The sieve units
are arranged in pairs, one adsorbing whilst the
other regenerates. The waste product, essentially
nitrogen, is discharged to atmosphere during
regeneration of the adsorbents. In some systems,
the use of vacuum to remove the nitrogen increases
the efficiency of the regeneration/adsorption
process. Regeneration requires the use of a small
proportion of the product gas.
• the delivery frequency that can be sustained
under the conditions when the primary supply
is unavailable for use.
Calculation of capacity of emergency supply systems (cylinder
manifolds)
6.163 The number of cylinders stored locally to the
emergency supply system manifold and the
number of connections on the manifold(s) should
be determined by risk assessment.
6.164 When determining these requirements, the risk
assessment needs to consider:
• the maximum demand from the highdependency patients who may be supplied
from the pipeline zone that the emergency
supply system protects;
6.169 The PSA process has reached a high level
of technical sophistication and is capable of
producing oxygen with a concentration of about
95%. (For the UK the minimum level, below
which the emergency/reserve manifold will
come into operation, is 94%.) The remainder is
mainly argon with some nitrogen. The highest
concentration is not likely to exceed 97/98%,
except when the emergency/reserve manifold is in
use, when it will be 100% if these are from a gas
supplier.
• the maximum duration for which the
emergency state is likely to last;
• the proximity of the supplier of the compressed
cylinders to the hospital;
• the ability of the hospital to connect cylinders
to the manifold.
6.165 Consideration needs to be given to the logistics
6.170 The major components of a PSA system and their
layout are shown in Figure 22. The typical major
components of the system are the compressors,
receiver(s), dryers, molecular sieves, vacuum
pumps, filters and regulators. Other components
are identical to those used for medical air and
vacuum plant, which are described fully in the
appropriate sections. A suitable operating and
indicating system is also required, as specified
below. Package supply systems, which should be
specified to meet the requirements given in this
memorandum, are available from manufacturers.
of storing and handling the number of cylinders
needed to provide adequate supplies until the
primary/secondary supply systems or the hospital
pipeline can be re-established.
Oxygen concentrator installations (PSA
plant)
General
6.166 Oxygen concentrators or pressure swing adsorber
(PSA) systems may be an alternative to the more
traditional supply systems (the terms oxygen
concentrator and PSA are interchangeable).
Typical installations where PSA systems should
be considered are those sites having no access to
reliable liquid supplies, such as remote or off-shore
locations, or where the safety criteria for a bulk
liquid vessel cannot be met (for example, very
restricted sites). Otherwise, PSA systems should
60
Siting
6.171 The plant should have all-round access for
maintenance purposes, and allowance should be
made for changing major components.
6.172 The siting of the plant should allow for adequate
flows of air for three different purposes:
a. air intake to the compressors;
Figure 22 Schematic diagram of a typical PSA installation
Primary supply air system
Filter
PRV
Non-return valve
After-cooler
(optional)
PRV
Primary supply molecular sieve device
PRV
PRV
PRV
Flexible
connector
P
P
P
Booster
compressor
(optional)
Molecular
sieve device
Receiver
(optional)
Inlet
Filter
Optional pipework
Pressure relief valve
Pressure gauge
Reserve supply
filling system
(if included)
Receiver
(optional)
Drain
Oxygen
monitor
Compressor
Shut-off valve
Control system
with oxygen
analyser
Interconnection
PRV
Non-return valve
After-cooler
(optional)
Filter
PRV
PRV
Oxygen
monitor
P
Flexible
connector
Oxygen monitor
Molecular
sieve device
Receiver
(optional)
Booster
compressor
(optional)
Line press regulator
P
Filter
P
Receiver
(optional)
Line press regulator
Inlet
P
Drain
Independent
oxygen analyser
and shut-off
valve
Compressor
Shut-off valve
PRV
Reserve supply
(comprising: primary and secondary supplies with automatic changeover)
Manifold
Non-return valve (shut-off valve
if cylinder filling required)
Primary reserve
vessel(s)
PS
Press
switch
Changeover
(Automatic)
PS
Press
switch
P
Safety relief device
Primary reserve
vessel(s)
Pipeline distribution system
61
6 Oxygen systems
Safety relief device
Non-return valve (shut-off valve
if cylinder filling required)
Manifold
P
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure control
equipment
Secondary supply molecular sieve device
Secondary supply air system
Pressure
safety
valve
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
b. cooling of the compressed air by the aftercoolers;
c. cooling of the compressors.
6.173 Each compressor may require ducting to ensure
an adequate flow of cool air. The manufacturer
should be consulted over the range of operating
temperature for which the system is designed. In
extreme circumstances, refrigeration of the cooling
air may need to be provided.
Compressor and vacuum pump noise
6.178 The noise level produced by the compressors will
increase with the capacity of the supply system.
The maximum free-field noise level for unsilenced
compressed air plant, at 1 m from the plant, varies
with the type and power of the plant but should
not normally exceed the following values:
Reciprocating
Screw
Vane
Power
85 dBA
76 dBA
76 dBA
7.5 kW
89 dBA
78 dBA
76 dBA
7.6–15 kW
93 dBA
80 dBA
79 dBA
15.1–22 kW
97 dBA
92 dBA
90 dBA
22.1–60 kW
6.174 Air-inlet filters should be fitted either to the
compressor inlet or at a suitable point in any
ductwork. The filters should comply with BS ISO
5011:2000 and be either dry medium filters or
grade CA paper element filters.
Plant configuration
6.175 The plant should comprise:
a. a duplex compressor – if more than two
compressors are installed, the plant should
provide the design flow with one compressor
out of service;
b. duplexed air treatment/molecular sieve
devices, that is, two sets of filters and a pair
of molecular sieves (one adsorbing whilst the
other regenerates) and one vacuum pump (if
required by the manufacturer).
Note
All duplexed components should be capable of
independent operation.
Compressors and vacuum pumps
6.176 The compressors for the PSA systems may be
any of the type recommended for compressed air
systems. It is also possible to provide a combined
medical air PSA plant. Generally, the compressed
air requirement per litre of product gas is of the
order 4:1; as a result the compressor plant will be
on longer than that typically seen in hospitals.
6.177 A vacuum pump may be required as part of the
system. The vacuum pump, if provided, is utilised
during the adsorption/regeneration process.
Vacuum pumps may be of any type as for the
piped medical vacuum system. It will not generally
be practicable to use water-sealed pumps or the
medical vacuum plant.
62
6.179 In noise-sensitive areas, an acoustic enclosure
should be included in the purchase specification
for all compressors. Such an enclosure should
produce a reduction of at least 10 dBA in the freefield noise level at 1 m.
Molecular sieves
6.180 Duplex molecular sieves should be provided in
pairs to permit continuous generation of oxygen.
One of the pairs of duplex sieves will be in the
adsorbing stage, whilst the other regenerates.
Dryers
6.181 Air dryers of the desiccant type are usually
integrated within the molecular sieves and
therefore do not regenerate independently.
Refrigerant dryers may also be included.
Oxygen monitoring system
6.182 The plant should include a calibrated
paramagnetic oxygen monitoring system
comprising oxygen analyser, oxygen concentration
indicator, oxygen flow monitor and oxygen
concentration/flow recorder. Connections for
calibration cylinders should also be provided. In
the event of the concentration falling below 94%,
the monitoring system should isolate the PSA
system from the pipeline distribution system so
that the emergency/reserve manifold operates.
Additionally, an independent monitoring system
should be provided to isolate the plant when the
concentration falls below 94%. The second system
need not be provided with a flow indicator or
recorder.
6 Oxygen systems
Operating and indicating system
6.183 The operating and indicating system should
perform the following functions, as appropriate:
a. overall plant control and indication;
b. individual compressor starting;
c. individual vacuum pump starting (where
fitted);
d. control of dryers (where installed as separate
component);
e. control of molecular sieves;
f. plant status monitoring and indication;
g. optional indication of the plant alarm status
(this function may be considered to be part of
the alarm system).
6.184 Provided that the individual compressor starters
are housed in a separate compartment, these
functions may be carried out by separate units or
may be installed in a common panel and located
on the plant or on the plantroom wall.
6.185 Control panels containing pneumatic components
should have vents to permit release of pressure in
the event of component failure. All functions and
indicators should be appropriately identified and
should have a design life of at least five years.
The operating system should be capable of
automatically restarting after reinstatement of the
power supply.
6.186 All components of the PSA supply system should
be connected to the essential electrical supply. The
control system should ensure that compressors
restart in sequence to avoid overloading the
essential power supply.
Plant control unit
6.187 The plant control unit should have a separate
power supply for each compressor and vacuum
pump, controlled by a separate sub-circuit. The
design should be such that no single component
failure in the control unit will result in loss of
plant output.
6.188 The unit should allow either manual selection of
duty/stand-by for each of the compressors or have
an automatic sequence selection with a means for
manual override. The unit should ensure that two
or more compressors do not start simultaneously
when power is applied.
6.189 A warning notice that complies with BS 5499-5:
2002 should be affixed which indicates the
presence of low voltage.
6.190 A further warning notice indicating that the plant
starts automatically should also be affixed near or
on the plant.
6.191 Each compressor should have a selector switch
which, when turned to the “on” position, allows
the maximum and minimum pressure switches on
the receiver to control the “on” and “off ” loading
of that compressor. An alternative “auto” position
of the selector switch may allow automatic
selection of the compressors.
Plant control indication
6.192 There should be indicators for each compressor as
follows:
a. green “mains supply on”;
b. green “compressor called for”, which indicates
that the compressor motor is electrically
energised;
c. an indicator of the pressure produced by the
compressor.
Compressor and vacuum starter units
6.193 There should be individual starter units for each
compressor and vacuum pump, which should
include the features recommended for medical air
compressor plants and vacuum plants respectively.
Molecular sieve control unit
6.194 The molecular sieve control unit may be mounted
on the molecular sieve columns or may be located
with the plant control unit. There should be
separate power supplies for the “duty” and “standby” sieve assemblies, taken from the same phase.
6.195 The vacuum pump, if provided, forms part of the
molecular sieve system.
6.196 The molecular sieve control unit should contain
the following:
a. a duty selector switch;
b. an on/auto selector switch;
c. individually-fused, separate cycling systems for
each sieve pair;
d. a system to control regeneration of the sieves in
relation to pipeline demand;
63
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
e. oxygen concentration, dryness and pressure
sensors;
f. an automatic changeover to the stand-by
molecular sieve system, in the event of failure
of the duty unit by oxygen concentration,
dryness or pressure. This requires:
(i)electrical and pneumatic isolation of the
“duty” sub-assembly so that it is taken offstream;
(ii)electrical and pneumatic energisation of
the “stand-by” sub-assembly so that it is
brought on-stream;
(iii)activation of the appropriate fault
indicator and associated volt-free contacts;
(iv)the sub-assembly to remain in this mode
of operation until the fault has been
rectified;
g. green function indicators for each dryer subassembly to indicate:
(i) molecular sieve 1 selected;
(ii) molecular sieve 2 selected;
(iii) selected molecular sieve – “normal”;
(iv)selected molecular sieve – “failed”
(this fault indicator should remain until
manually reset by means of a reset button);
h. a fail-safe system that, on failure of the power
supply, causes the closure of all inlet, outlet,
exhaust and purge valves.
Plant status monitoring
6.197 A monitoring system must be provided to detect
the following faults in the air compressor system:
a. plant faults (for each compressor):
(i) control circuit failed;
(ii) overload tripped;
(iii) after-cooler temperature high;
(iv)activation of any of the safety devices
supplied by the manufacturer;
(v) oxygen concentration failure;
(vi) pressure fault;
c. plant emergency:
(i)oxygen concentration failed at below 94%
concentration;
(ii)receiver pressure 0.5 bar (gauge pressure)
below the stand-by cut in pressure;
(iii)dryness above 67 ppm (–46°C at
atmospheric pressure);
d. pressure fault (cylinder reserve):
(i)pressure in either bank below 50% (of
normal cylinder pressure);
e. pressure fault (pipeline):
(i) low pipeline pressure;
(ii) high pipeline pressure.
Plant status indicator unit
6.198 In addition to the plant control indication, there
should be a plant status indicator panel, which
may be mounted on the plantroom wall or
adjacent to either the compressor starter unit or
the plant control unit. It should have a warning
notice that complies with BS 5499-5:2002 to
indicate the presence of low voltage.
6.199 There should be indicators for each compressor to
show the following conditions:
a. green “mains supply on”;
b. yellow “control circuit failed”;
c. yellow “overload tripped”;
d. yellow “after-cooler temperature high”;
e. yellow “compressor temperature high”;
(iv) compressor temperature high;
f. yellow for each individual safety device
provided by the manufacturers;
(v) compressor run-up time too long;
g. yellow “compressor failure”.
(vi)activation of other safety devices supplied
by the manufacturers;
b. plant faults (for each molecular sieve unit):
64
(iii) overload tripped;
6.200 There should be indicators for each molecular
sieve dryer system to show the following:
a. green “mains supply on”;
(i) control circuit failed;
b. yellow “oxygen concentration fault”;
(ii) “vacuum pump called for”;
c. yellow “pressure fault”;
6 Oxygen systems
d. yellow “dryness fault”.
6.203 Alternatively, volt-free, normally closed contacts
(When the stand-by dryer is in operation,
conditions (b) and (c) in paragraph 6.199 should
be transmitted as a plant emergency either to the
alarm system or to the plant alarm signal status
unit.)
Alarm signal status unit
6.201 An alarm signal status unit should be provided as
part of the control system. It should display the
following conditions:
Indication
Legends
a. Green “normal”
Normal conditions
b. Yellow “plant fault”
Conditions (b)–(f )
(see paragraph 6.199)
c. Yellow “plant emergency”
Conditions (b) or (c), or
condition (g)
(see paragraph 6.199)
d. Yellow “emergency supply
low”
Emergency supply bank(s)
low (<50%)
e. Red “pipeline pressure fault”
Pressure fault
f. Red “pipeline concentration
below 94% O2
Oxygen concentration
fault
Conditions (b) to (e) should be transmitted to the central
alarm system.
6.202 Where relays are used, they should be normally
rated at 5 V dc and 50 mA should be provided for
transmission of conditions (b) to (e) to the alarm
system.
6.204 The panel can be incorporated into the plant
indicator unit, or be a separate unit within the
plantroom. If mounted separately, the cabling
should be monitored for open/short circuit. In the
event of such a cabling fault, a red “system fault”
lamp should be illuminated on the alarm signal
status unit, together with the appropriate alarm
condition.
6.205 The alarm signal status unit should be supplied
from all individual plant control units, or from a
separate common supply.
Plant management
6.206 Connections should be provided that allow
monitoring (but not control) of the plant
operation. For example:
• compressor – “on”, “off ”, “on-load”,
“unloaded”;
• molecular sieves – “on” or “off ”.
6.207 These connections should be used to provide input
to the hospital energy management and building
management systems.
energised relays, which de-energise under fault
conditions, with contacts having a minimum
rating of 50 V dc and 50 mA.
65
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
7
Medical compressed air systems
General
third means of supply, an automatic
manifold(s), will supply the distribution system
at some point close to or within the building;
7.0 Medical compressed air can be derived from
compressor systems or by mixing gaseous oxygen
and nitrogen from cryogenic liquid supply sources;
air produced by this latter method is referred to as
synthetic air.
Compressor systems
7.1 Medical and surgical air can be provided from a
single combined system or from separate plants.
The choice ultimately depends on the relative
consumption.
7.2 In the case of surgical air, consumption is at a high
flow at a high pressure (up to 350 L/min) but for
relatively short periods of time (minutes); also,
very small numbers of terminal units are in
simultaneous use, typically fewer than five. Air
for respirable purposes, however, is used at much
lower flows (typically less than 80 L/min) but,
particularly in the case of patient ventilation,
use can be continuous. Moreover, in the case of
medical air there are considerably greater numbers
of terminal units in use simultaneously. The
installation of separate plants therefore can result in
lower running costs. Requirements for separate
surgical air systems are given in Chapter 8.
7.3 Some plant configurations are shown in
7.4 Other plant layouts are possible depending upon
the specific design requirements.
Quality
7.5 The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) specifies
maximum impurity levels for carbon monoxide. It
may be necessary to make provision to control the
levels of contaminants and to monitor the supply
to ensure conformance with the specification.
European Commission directive 2001/83/EC
specifies that medicinal products should be
manufactured to the approved standard.
Siting
7.6 The plant should have all-round access for
maintenance purposes, and allowance should be
made for changing major components.
7.7 The siting of the plant should allow for adequate
flows of air for three different purposes:
Figures 23–26:
a. air intake to the compressors;
• Figure 23 shows a duplex system with fully
automatic emergency reserve manifold (the
manifold is located in separate accommodation);
b. cooling of the compressed air by the aftercoolers;
• Figure 24 shows a triplex system, each of the
compressors to be capable of supplying the total
design flow. It should be assumed that the third
means of supply, an automatic manifold(s), will
supply the distribution system at some point
close to or within the building;
• Figure 25 shows a quadruplex system, each
compressor being capable of supplying 50% of
the design flow. It should be assumed that the
66
• Figure 26 shows a combined medical and
surgical air system with automatic emergency
reserve manifolds (located in separate
accommodation).
c. cooling of the compressors.
Compressor noise
7.8 The noise level produced by the compressors will
increase with the capacity of the supply system.
The maximum free-field noise level for unsilenced
compressed air plant, at 1 m from the plant, varies
with the type and power of the plant but should
not normally exceed the following values:
7 Medical compressed air systems
Figure 23 T
ypical duplex medical air 400 kPa plant and energy reserve manifold (reproduced by kind
permission of MEDÆS)
Pressure
switch
Compressor 1
Temperature
switch
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball valve
Ball
valves
Automatic
drain
Automatic
drain
*1
*1
Inlet filter
Pressure
switch
Compressor 2
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
Pressure
gauge
Ball
valves
Automatic
drain
*1
Silencer
*1
Shut-off
valve
Ball valve
Water
Shut-off Oil
valve filter separator
*1
Terminal
unit
Pressure
gauge
Ball
valve
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
P
Silencer
Dryer 1 column 2
Dust/Carbon
filter
*2
Bacteria
filter
Shut-off Oil Water
valve filter separator
Non-return
valve
Pressure
regulator
*1
Non-return
valve
Pressure
regulator Ball
valves
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Shut-off
valve
Silencer
Pressure
switch
Pressure
gauge
Ball
valve
Pressure
gauge
Pressure
Sintered
regulator
filter
Pressure
regulator
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
switch
Ball
valve
*1
Dryer 1 column 1
Terminal
Lockable unit
valve
Ball
valve
Pressure
Pressure
switch
gauge
Pressure
Sintered
regulator
filter
Ball
valve
Shut-off
valve
Ball
valve
Ball valve
Emergency
Supply
Ball
valve
Pressure
Flow
transducer restrictor
Dewpoint
transducer
D
Ball
valve
*1
Dryer 2 column 1
Ball valve
Flow
restrictor
Automatic
drain
Dryer 2 column 2
Silencer
Non-return
valve
Ball valve
Ball
valves
Notes:
1. Drains marked *1 should be fed to an oil/water separator
2. Filters marked *2 are activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon vapours
3. Dryer control systems may incorporate shuttle valves as shown, or
may use other suitable arrangements of directional control valves
4. Symbols to BS 2971:1993/ISO 1219-1:1991
Bacteria
Dust/Carbon
filter
filter
Pressure
*2
safety
valve
Non-return
valve
Pressure
regulator
Pressure
gauge
Ball
valve
Ball
Ball
valve
valve
Ball
Distribution Supply
valve
Pressure
System
System
switch
Lockable
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Fusible
plug
Temperature
switch
Air
receiver 2
Air
intake
Fusible
plug
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
Ball
valves
Air
receiver 1
Air
intake
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
gauge
Inlet filter
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Non-return valve
Exhaust
(piped to safe position)
Tailpipe
Cylinder valve
Cylinder
67
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Figure 24 Typical triplex medical air 400 kPa system (reproduced by kind permission of MEDÆS)
Inlet filter
Pressure
switch
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
*1
Pressure
gauge
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball
valves
Pressure
switch
Compressor 2
Ball
valves
Automatic
drain
Temperature
switch
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
*1
*1
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
gauge
Automatic
drain
Pressure
switch
Compressor 3
Temperature
switch
*1
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
Ball valve
Ball
valves
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Fusible
plug
Ball
valves
Inlet filter
Air
intake
Ball valve
Automatic
drain
Inlet filter
Air
intake
Fusible
plug
Air
receiver 1
Compressor 1
Temperature
switch
Air
receiver 2
Air
intake
Automatic
drain
Ball valve
Automatic
drain
*1
Silencer
Notes:
1. Drains marked *1 should be fed to an oil/water separator
2. Filters marked *2 are activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon vapours
3. Dryer control systems may incorporate shuttle valves as shown, or
may use other suitable arrangements of directional control valves
4. Symbols to BS 2971:1993/ISO 1219-1:1991
Bacteria
filter
Pressure
safety
valve
Distribution
System
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Water
Shut-off Oil
valve filter separator
*1
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
switch
Pressure
gauge
Flow
restrictor
Ball
valve
Pressure
Flow
transducer restrictor
Dewpoint
transducer
D
Ball
valve
P
Silencer
Ball
valve
Shut-off
valve
Dryer 1 column 2
Bacteria
filter
Pressure
safety
valve
Dust/Carbon
filter
*2
Water
Shut-off Oil
valve filter separator
Non-return
valve
Pressure
regulator
Ball valve
*1
Dryer 1 column 1
Shut-off
valve
Silencer
68
Ball
valve
Silencer
Terminal
unit
Ball
valve
*1
Dryer 2 column 1
Non-return
valve
Lockable
valve
Fully Automatic
Emergency Reserve
Manifold
(see duplex schematic
for detail)
Dust/Carbon
filter
*2
Ball valve
Ball
valve
Supply
System
Ball valve
Dryer 2 column 2
Non-return
valve
Pressure
regulator
Pressure
gauge
Shut-off
valve
*1
7 Medical compressed air systems
Figure 25 Typical quadruplex medical air 400 kPa plant (reproduced by kind permission of MEDÆS)
Inlet filter
Air
intake
Pressure
switch
Compressor 1
Temperature
switch
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
Automatic
drain
*1
Inlet filter
Pressure
switch
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
gauge
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball
valves
Automatic
drain
*1
Pressure
switch
Compressor 3
Automatic
drain
Temperature
switch
*1
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
Pressure
gauge
Automatic
drain
Inlet filter
Pressure
switch
Compressor 4
Temperature
switch
*1
Automatic
drain
*1
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
Ball valve
Ball
valves
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Fusible
plug
Ball
valves
*1
Air
intake
Ball valve
Ball
valves
Inlet filter
Air
intake
Fusible
plug
Air
receiver 1
Compressor 2
Temperature
switch
Air
receiver 2
Air
intake
Ball valve
Automatic
drain
Silencer
Notes:
1. Drains marked *1 should be fed to an oil/water separator
2. Filters marked *2 are activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon vapours
3. Dryer control systems may incorporate shuttle valves as shown, or
may use other suitable arrangements of directional control valves
4. Symbols to BS 2971:1993/ISO 1219-1:1991
Bacteria
filter
Pressure
safety
valve
Distribution
System
Ball
valve
Dust/Carbon
filter
*2
Water
Shut-off Oil
valve filter separator
*1
Ball valve
Ball
valve
Supply
System
Ball
valve
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
switch
Flow
restrictor
Ball
valve
Pressure
Flow
transducer restrictor
Dewpoint
transducer
D
Terminal
unit
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Silencer
Lockable
valve
Pressure
gauge
*1
Dryer 2 column 1
Non-return
valve
Ball valve
Ball
valve
P
Silencer
Ball
valve
Shut-off
valve
Dryer 1 column 2
Bacteria
filter
Pressure
safety
valve
Fully Automatic
Emergency Reserve
Manifold
(see duplex schematic
for detail)
Dryer 2 column 2
Non-return
valve
Pressure
regulator
Pressure
gauge
Shut-off
valve
Dust/Carbon
filter
*2
Water
Shut-off Oil
valve filter separator
Non-return
valve
Pressure
regulator
Ball valve
*1
*1
Dryer 1 column 1
Shut-off
valve
Silencer
69
Inlet filter
Pressure
switch
Temperature
switch
Compressor 1
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Automatic
drain
*1
Inlet filter
Pressure
switch
Temperature
switch
Compressor 2
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Automatic
drain
*1
Non-return
valve
Pressure
gauge
Ball
valves
Sintered
filter
Pressure
regulator
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball
valves
Ball
valve
Pressure
Flow
transducer restrictor
P
Silencer
Ball
valve
Shut-off
valve
Dryer 1 column 2
Pressure
regulator
Ball valve
Emergency
Surgical Air Supply
Pressure
switch
Pressure
regulator
Pressure
gauge
Pressure
regulator
Sintered
filter
Pressure
gauge
Sintered
filter
Water
Shut-off Oil
valve filter separator
Dust/Carbon
filter
*2
Non-return
valve
*1
*1
Dryer 1 column 1
Non-return valve
Exhaust
(piped to safe position)
Tailpipe
Cylinder valve
Cylinder
Pressure
switch
Non-return
valve
Pressure
regulator Ball
valves
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Lockable Terminal
unit
valve
Ball
valve
Pressure
regulator
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
switch
Ball
valve
Dewpoint
transducer
Ball
valve
Bacteria
filter
Pressure
safety
valve
*1
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
gauge
Ball
valve
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
switch
D
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Pressure
gauge
Surgical Air
Distribution System
Ball valve
*1
Dryer 2 column 1
Flow
restrictor
Non-return
valve
Non-return
valve
Automatic
drain
*1
Ball
valves
Non-return
valve
Ball valve
Ball Terminal
valve unit
Non-return
valve
Pressure
regulator
Ball valve
Water
Shut-off Oil
valve filter separator
Dust/Carbon
filter
*2
Silencer
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball
Emergency
Medical Air Supply valve
Pressure
switch
Pressure
regulator
Ball valve
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Ball
valves
Pressure
regulator
Exhaust
Pressure
gauge
Fusible
plug
Ball
valves
Pressure
safety
valve
Exhaust
Medical Air
Distribution System
Pressure
gauge
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
Pressure
gauge
Pressure
safety
valve
Air
receiver 2
Air
intake
Bacteria
filter
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball
valves
Automatic
drain
*1
Shut-off
valve
Dryer 2 column 2
Ball valve
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
Ball
valves
Silencer
Fusible
plug
Air
receiver 1
Air
intake
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
gauge
Notes:
1. Drains marked *1 should be fed to an oil/water separator
2. Filters marked *2 are activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon vapours
3. Dryer control systems may incorporate shuttle valves as shown, or
may use other suitable arrangements of directional control valves
4. Symbols to BS 2971:1993/ISO 1219-1:1991
Pressure
safety
valve
Silencer
Pressure
switch
Pressure
gauge
Ball
valve
Pressure
regulator
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
switch
Ball
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Non-return valve
Exhaust
(piped to safe position)
Pressure
gauge
Pressure
regulator
Tailpipe
Cylinder valve
Cylinder
Sintered
filter
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
70
Figure 26 Typical duplex combined medical and surgical plant with emergency reserve manifolds (reproduced by kind permission of MEDÆS)
7 Medical compressed air systems
Reciprocating
Screw
Vane
Power
85 dBA
76 dBA
76 dBA
0–7.5 kW
89 dBA
78 dBA
76 dBA
7.6–15 kW
93 dBA
80 dBA
79 dBA
15.1–22 kW
97 dBA
92 dBA
90 dBA
22.1–60 kW
7.9 In noise-sensitive areas, an acoustic enclosure
should be included in the purchase specification for
all compressors. Such an enclosure should produce
a reduction of at least 10 dBA in the free-field noise
level at 1 m.
7.12 Air-inlet filters should be fitted immediately
upstream of the compressor. In exceptional
circumstances, additional screens, filters and
silencers may be required. The filters should
comply with BS ISO 5011:2000 and be either dry
medium filters or grade CA paper element filters.
Compressor types
7.13 There are many different types of compressor
currently available, the most common types being:
a. reciprocating piston compressors;
Air intake
b. rotary vane compressors;
7.10 The position of an air intake can have a
c. rotary screw compressors.
considerable effect on delivered air quality,
particularly with respect to levels of carbon
monoxide. The air intake for a compressor should
be located to minimise contamination from
internal combustion engine exhausts and the
discharge from vacuum systems, AGSS and
ventilation systems or other sources of
contaminants. Air intakes should be ducted where
necessary to avoid contamination; a minimum
height of 5 m above ground level should ensure a
reasonable quality of intake air. Where this cannot
be achieved, additional filtration and/or air
treatment may be necessary. If the siting of the
compressor, regardless of the air intake location, is
considered subject to a risk of aspirating toxic
fumes and smoke as a result of a fire, an automatic
shutdown system, linked to local smoke detectors,
can be installed. If such a system is planned, it is
essential that an automatic emergency supply
manifold system is sited well away from the fire-risk
area and is arranged to come on-line automatically
in the event of plant shutdown.
7.11 Care is needed when extending compressor air
intakes. Manufacturers’ data should be consulted
to ensure that intake flow, and hence compressor
performance, are not adversely affected by excessive
lengths of intake ducting. Choice of intake material
is also important. Often, intakes are constructed
from solvent-welded PVC. In a fire, toxic materials
from the burning intake could be drawn into the
air compressor and distributed throughout the
system. In addition, there is a risk that inadequate
solvent drying time before use of the intake will
result in toxic solvent fumes being drawn into the
system. Corrosion-resistant ducting (for example
stainless-steel flue liner) is a suitable material.
7.14 The compressors may be of any type, provided they
are suitable for continuous running on load and
for high frequency start/stop operation. When
selecting compressors, the opportunity should
be taken to maximise energy efficiency. If
reciprocating compressors are used, they may be
either of the single- or of the two-stage type,
although for a 400 kPa system a single-stage
compressor is usually satisfactory.
Compressor lubrication
7.15 Compressors may be oil-lubricated, provided that
suitable arrangements are made to ensure that the
air quality specification given in Table 29 is
fulfilled.
7.16 Rotary compressors are sealed and cooled by oil
or water. Oil control is therefore essential and is
usually provided as an integral part of the
compressor. Reciprocating compressors may be oillubricated, carbon ring, PTFE ring or diaphragmsealed type.
7.17 Oil-free compressors may be beneficial in reducing
filtration requirements.
7.18 Water should not be used as a sealant because of
risk of microbial contamination and potential
problems with water treatment.
7.19 There is a danger that PTFE rings and lubricating
oils could decompose at high temperatures to form
toxic products. This may be countered by fitting a
temperature sensor to the cylinder head or output
of the compressor with suitable controls to cut off
the power supply to the compressors if excessive
temperatures are sensed. BS EN ISO 15001
specifies the requirements for selecting materials
used in medical supply equipment.
71
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
7.20 On start-up, when oil is used as the sealant,
moisture condensing at high pressure forms an
emulsion with the oil. Once operating temperature
is reached, water is readily separated. Because it is
impossible to match the varying demand with plant
capacity, it may be necessary to include oil heaters
to avoid emulsification. If it is intended to omit oil
heaters, manufacturers should be asked to confirm
the suitability of the compressor for intermittent
operation. Oil-lubricated compressors, however,
are considered to be satisfactory.
7.21 Where oil-lubricated compressors are used, suitable
means of separating oil from condensate is
essential.
7.22 Once a compressor installation has been selected:
a. the plant should include at least two
compressors, but additional compressors may
be included provided that in all cases the total
capacity will provide 100% of system design
flow with one compressor not running;
b. the individual compressors should be arranged
so that they will supply the system
simultaneously if necessary;
c. the relative magnitude of the capital and
running costs should be evaluated at the time of
purchase. Too much emphasis has been placed
on low capital cost at the expense of reliability
and high power costs. The running costs should
be calculated at realistic levels of usage;
d. the control system for the compressor plant
should include an “hours-run” counter and
should be constructed in accordance with the
guidelines given below;
e. the efficiency of plant, expressed as the volume
of air delivered to the pipeline distribution
system (after losses in the drying system and
filtration system) per kilowatt-hour (kWh),
should be stated by the supplier of the system.
The testing procedure should evaluate this
efficiency by testing the power consumption
over a suitable period of time at 100%, 10%
and 0% of the system design flow. A minimum
efficiency of 5 m3/kWh at 100% and 10% is
required. The power consumption at zero flow
should be less than 1% of that at 100% design
flow.
72
After-coolers
7.23 After-coolers (and inter-coolers) usually form part
of the compressor sub-assembly. After-coolers
should be fitted to oil-lubricated medical air
compressor systems. These will normally be
air-cooled, and may need ducting with forced
ventilation to ensure an adequate supply of cooling
air.
Receivers
7.24 Air receivers should comply with BS EN 286-1:
1998 for all vessels up to 10,000 bar litres, and
should be supplied with test certificates. The
minimum water capacity of the receivers should be
50% of the compressor output in 1 minute, stated
in terms of free air delivered at normal working
pressure. Receivers should also be fitted with an
automatic drain. Electrically operated automatic
drains have been found to be more reliable.
7.25 To facilitate the statutory inspection, there should
be either two suitably valved air receivers or a bypass arrangement (for use in manual operating
mode only) in order to avoid interruption to the
supply. Alternatively the tertiary supply manifold
can be used.
7.26 For systems that have a design flow in excess of
500 L/min, two receivers should be provided with
valve arrangements to permit isolation of one or the
other for inspection purposes.
Air treatment and filtration
General
7.27 Contaminants can enter the compressed air system
from three sources: the atmosphere, the compressor
and the pipeline distribution system. Each potential
source must be taken into account when specifying
the type and location of air treatment equipment.
Filtration equipment may include pre-filters,
coalescing filters, adsorption equipment, carbon
filters, particulate filters and any other additional
filtration equipment necessary to ensure the quality
of the product.
Solid contaminants
7.28 Particles in the environment cover a wide range of
sizes, but approximately 80% are less than 0.2 µm
and are therefore not removed by the intake filter
to the compressor.
7 Medical compressed air systems
7.29 Although particles smaller than 40 µm are unlikely
to cause mechanical damage, a 5 µm intake filter
is preferred to avoid blockage of internal air/oil
separators.
7.30 Filters are specified in terms of performance
tests – a sodium flame test, a DOP (dispersed oil
particulate) test etc.
Water
7.31 Water is always a contaminant in a compressed air
system, regardless of the type and location of the
compressor plant, since the air drawn into the
compressor intake is never completely free of water
vapour. The amount can vary from 2.5 g/m3 to
over 40 g/m3 depending on the climatic
conditions. The after-cooler and receiver remove
some of this, but about 20 g/m3 is likely to remain
in the compressed air unless removed by dryers.
7.32 A water content not exceeding 67 vpm (volume
parts per million – equivalent to dew-point –46°C
at atmospheric pressure) is specified for medical air
pipeline systems. Only desiccant dryers can usually
achieve this. A variety of desiccant types are
available. Activated alumina and silica gel are
commonly employed. Molecular sieve desiccants
employing zeolites can also be used, but on
occasions it has been found that this material has
produced air with an increased oxygen content, in
the order of 24%. Refrigerant dryers can perform
satisfactorily down to a pressure dew-point of +3°C
(atmospheric dew-point –20°C) and are therefore
not recommended as the sole form of drying.
Oil
7.33 With oil-lubricated compressors, it is inevitable
that the compressed air will contain oil. Even with
oil-free compressors (non-lubricated), complete
freedom from oil and oil vapour cannot be
positively guaranteed, as hydrocarbon vapours may
be drawn into the compressor. Oil levels in the air
supply must be controlled to 0.1 mg/m3 with
means of monitoring on a routine basis.
7.34 Oil will exist in the system in three forms: bulk
liquid, oil aerosol and oil vapour. Provided that the
oil lubricant is appropriate and the after-cooler
properly designed, the amount of oil present as
vapour should be small and is unlikely to exceed
0.5 mg/m3.
7.35 The amount of oil that is present as bulk liquid and
aerosol is more difficult to predict. With modern,
well-maintained oil-lubricated compressors, it is
unlikely to exceed 5 mg/m3 due to the highefficiency oil/air separator.
7.36 Oil-contaminated compressor condensate is
classified as a trade effluent by virtue of Chapter 14
of the Public Health (Drainage of Trade Premises)
Act 1937. An oil condensate separator should
therefore be installed.
7.37 Under Chapter 85 of the Water Resources Act
1991, it is illegal to make a discharge of trade
effluent to “controlled waters” via a surface water
drain without the consent of the Environment
Agency.
7.38 Similarly, under the Water Industry Act 1991, local
water companies enforce the limit of oil condensate
discharged into the public foul sewer. Prior consent
to discharge is mandatory.
7.39 Condensate from oil-free compressors may be
discharged to drain.
7.40 Any condensate produced from the compressor/
dryer system must be regarded as trade effluent and
is therefore not suitable for discharge to any surface
water system draining to any surface water sewer,
water-course or soak away; this may not apply if a
suitable separator is installed. Maximum oil content
limits range from region to region, from 25 mg/L
up to 500 mg/L; the local water company should
be consulted.
Dryer controls
7.41 The dryer control system should ensure that
regeneration is operated in proportion to the
compressed air usage. The effectiveness of the
control system will become apparent when the
efficiency of the compressor system is tested at
10% and 0% of the system design flow. Evidence
of the reliability and performance of a dryer system
should be sought from manufacturers, since these
items are critical to the overall performance of the
compressor system. The dryer control system
should include a dew-point hygrometer and display
with a minimum accuracy of ±3°C in a range from
–20°C to –60°C atmospheric dew-point, with a set
point of –46°C. It should be arranged that in the
event of open circuit, a “plant emergency” alarm be
initiated.
Dust filters
7.42 There should be a dust filter downstream of the
dryers to remove particles down to 1 µm, with a
73
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
DOP penetration of less than 0.03%, when tested
in accordance with BS EN ISO 3549:2002.
7.43 Each dryer and filter assembly should be rated for
continuous use at the system demand flow, with air
at 100% relative humidity at 35°C.
7.48 All safety valves should be of the closed-bonnet
type and connected to suitably sized pipework to
allow safe discharge, not necessarily to the outside.
Traps, valves and non-return valves
Activated carbon filter
Automatic drainage traps
7.44 Duplex activated carbon filters should be installed
7.49 Electrically- or mechanically-operated automatic
upstream of the final bacteria filter for odour
removal.
Bacteria filters
7.45 Duplex bacteria filters should be fitted upstream
of the final pressure regulator with appropriate
isolating valves. The filters should provide particle
removal to 0.01 mg/m3 and a DOP penetration of
less than 0.0001%.
Pressure control
7.46 The pressure control should maintain the nominal
pipeline pressure within limits given in Chapter 4.
Duplex line pressure regulators should be provided
with suitable isolating valves. The regulators should
be of the non-relieving type.
drainage traps should be provided on the aftercoolers, receiver, separators and coalescing filters.
The discharge from these drainage traps should
be piped to a suitable gully via an oil separator.
Co-ordination with building work is required for
this provision. Electrically-operated automatic
drains have been found to be more reliable.
7.50 Drainage and tundishes are usually provided
under the building contract. Separators should
be provided under the air compressor contract.
Provision of interceptor tanks may be made under
either the building contract or the air compressor
contract, as appropriate.
7.51 Non-return valves are required to prevent backflow
of the air supply in certain situations. These valves
should be located as follows:
Safety valves
a. between the compressor and the receiver, but
downstream of any flexible connector;
7.47 Safety valves should be provided in accordance with
b. downstream of the dust filter on the dryer;
the requirements given in (a)–(c) below. All safety
valves should conform to BS EN ISO 41261:2004. A safety valve of the certified discharge
capacity stated should be fitted in each of the
following positions:
a. on the delivery pipe of each compressor and
upstream of any isolating valve, non-return
valve or after-cooler, capable of discharging the
total throughput of the compressor;
b. on each air receiver and dryer tower, capable of
discharging the sum of the throughput of all the
compressors. It is not necessary to provide safety
valves on the dryer columns where the system
is already protected by a safety valve on the
receiver and the downstream equipment, that is,
if the dryer column is already sufficiently
protected;
c. immediately downstream of each pressure
regulator, capable of discharging the system
demand flow.
74
c. upstream of the emergency cylinder reserve
connection in the pipeline connecting the plant
to the pipeline distribution system, to prevent
back-feeding this plant;
d. upstream of any inlet point that may be used to
feed the system in an emergency;
e. downstream of the emergency cylinder manifold
regulators.
Isolating valves
7.52 Isolating valves should be provided downstream of
non-return valves and upstream of, for example,
the connection of the emergency reserve manifold.
Isolating valves should be provided in order to
facilitate maintenance or replacement of plant
items.
7.53 Manually-operated ball isolation valves should be
located in the positions shown in Figures 23–26 to
allow isolation of components such as receivers,
dryers, automatic drains, pressure regulators and
filters. There should also be a valve on the
7 Medical compressed air systems
compressed air plant, downstream of the plant nonreturn valve and the connection of the cylinder
manifold supply.
Pressure indicators
7.54 Pressure indicators should comply with BS EN
837-1:1998 or have an equivalent performance
if electronic indicators are used. Calibration
should be in bar or kPa. All gauges should have a
minimum scale length of 90 mm, and the working
range should not exceed 65% of the full-scale range
except on differential pressure gauges. Pressure
indicators should be connected by means of gauge
cocks.
7.55 Pressure indicators should be located:
a. on the plant control unit indicating receiver
pressure;
b. on each receiver;
c. downstream of each pressure regulator;
d. on each dryer tower;
e. on the plant pipework, upstream of the plant
isolating valve.
7.56 Differential pressure indicators should be located
on:
a. each coalescing filter;
b. each dust filter;
plant or on the plantroom wall. Control panels
containing pneumatic components should have
vents to permit release of pressure in the event
of component failure. All indicators should be
appropriately identified and should have a design
life of at least five years.
7.60 The operating system should be capable of
automatically restarting after reinstatement of the
power supply.
7.61 All components of the medical air supply system
should be connected to the essential electrical
supply. The control system should ensure that
compressors restart in sequence to avoid
overloading the power supply.
Plant control unit
7.62 The plant control unit should have a separate
power supply for each compressor, controlled by a
separate sub-circuit.
7.63 The unit should allow either manual selection of
duty/stand-by for each of the compressors or have
an automatic sequence selection with a means for
manual override. The unit should ensure that two
or more compressors do not start simultaneously
when power is applied.
7.64 A warning notice that complies with BS 5499-5:
2002 should be affixed which indicates the
presence of low voltage.
c. each bacteria filter;
Plant control indication
or any combination, as appropriate.
7.65 There should be indicators for each compressor as
7.57 Except for pressure gauges, all control and
measuring devices should be connected directly to
the pipework via a minimum leak device (to allow
removal for servicing) and not isolated by valves.
Operating and indicating system
7.58 The operating and indicating system should
perform the following functions:
follows:
a. green “mains supply on”;
b. green “compressor called for”, which indicates
that the compressor motor is electrically
energised;
c. an indicator of the pressure produced by the
compressor.
a. overall plant control and indication;
Compressor starter units
b. individual compressor starting;
7.66 There should be individual starter units for each
c. control of dryers;
d. plant status monitoring.
7.59 Provided that the individual compressor starters are
housed in a separate compartment, these functions
may be carried out by separate units or may be
installed in a common panel and located on the
compressor which operate a single designated
compressor. The starters should be provided with
safety interlocks, as specified by the compressor
manufacturers, which should inhibit plant
operation until manually reset by means of a
button. The starters should allow automatic restart
after an interruption to the power supply. Each
starter unit should contain the following:
75
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
a. an isolator interlocked with the covers;
b. either HRC (high rupturing capacity) fuses to
BS 88 or suitable circuit breakers to BS EN
60947-2:2003 and/or BS EN 60898-1:2003;
c. an industrial grade ammeter to BS EN 600511:1999, IEC 60051-1:1997 (digital ammeters of
similar accuracy to those compliant with BS EN
60051-1:1999, IEC 60051-1:1997 may be
used);
d. a “total hours” counter if not included in the
plant control unit;
e. a green “mains supply on” indicator if mounted
separately from the plant control unit.
Dryer control unit
7.67 The dryer control unit may be mounted on the
dryers or may be located with the plant control
unit. There should be separate power supplies for
the duty and stand-by dryer assemblies taken from
the same phase.
7.68 The dryer control unit should contain the
following:
a. a duty dryer selector switch;
b. a service function – to enable selection of
continuous/normal running;
c. individually fused, separate cycling systems for
each dryer;
d. a system to control regeneration of the dryers in
relation to pipeline demand;
(iv)the sub-assembly to remain in this mode
of operation until the fault has been
rectified;
Note
In the event of power supply failure, all drain and vent
valves should fail “closed”, and all inlet and outlet
valves should fail “open”.
g. green function indicators for each dryer subassembly to indicate:
(i) dryer 1 selected;
(ii) dryer 2 selected;
(iii) selected dryer – “normal”;
(iv)selected dryer – “failed” (this fault
indicator should remain until manually
reset by means of a reset button);
h. a fail-safe system which on failure of the power
supply causes the following:
(i) closure of the exhaust and purge valves;
(ii) opening of the inlet and outlet valves.
Plant status monitoring
7.69 A monitoring system should be provided to detect
the following faults in the air compressor system:
a. plant faults (for each compressor):
(i) control circuit failed;
(ii) motor tripped;
e. a hygrometer and display with a minimum
accuracy of ±3°C in a range from –20°C to
–60°C (set to –46°C atmospheric dew-point)
and a pressure sensor;
(iii) after-cooler temperature high;
f. an automatic changeover to the stand-by dryer
system in the event of failure of the duty unit by
either dryness or pressure. This requires:
(vi)activation of other safety devices supplied
by the manufacturers;
(i)electrical and pneumatic isolation of the
duty sub-assembly so that it is taken offstream;
(ii)electrical and pneumatic energisation of
the stand-by sub-assembly so that it is
brought on-stream;
(iii)activation of the appropriate fault
indicator and associated volt-free contacts;
(iv) compressor temperature high;
(v) compressor failed to go on load;
b. plant faults (for each dryer unit):
(i) dryer failure;
(ii) pressure fault;
c. plant emergency:
(i)receiver pressure 0.5 bar below the standby cut-in pressure;
(ii)receiver pressure 0.5 bar above cut-out
pressure;
(iii)dryness above –46°C at atmospheric
pressure;
76
7 Medical compressed air systems
d. pressure fault (cylinder reserve):
(i)pressure in duty bank below 50% (of
normal cylinder pressure);
e. pressure fault (pipeline):
(i) low pipeline pressure;
(ii) high pipeline pressure.
Plant status indicator unit
7.70 In addition to the plant control indication, there
should be a plant status indicator panel that may
be mounted on the plantroom wall or adjacent to
either the compressor starter unit or the plant
control unit. It should have a warning notice that
complies with BS 5499-5:2002 to indicate the
presence of low voltage.
7.71 There should be indicators for each compressor to
show the following conditions:
a. green “mains supply on”;
b. yellow “control circuit failed”;
e. red “pipeline pressure fault” (pressure fault).
7.74 Conditions (b) to (e) should be transmitted to the
central alarm system. Where relays are used, they
should be normally energised relays that de-energise
under fault conditions, with contacts having a
minimum rating of 50 V dc and 50 mA.
7.75 Volt-free, normally closed contacts rated at 50 V dc
and 50 mA should be provided for transmission of
conditions (b) to (e) to the alarm system.
7.76 The panel can be incorporated into the plant
indicator unit or be a separate unit within the
plantroom. If mounted separately, the cabling
should be monitored for open/short circuit. In the
event of such a cabling fault, a red “system fault”
lamp should be illuminated on the alarm signal
status unit together with the appropriate alarm
condition.
7.77 The alarm signal status unit should be supplied
from all individual plant control units or from a
separate common supply.
c. yellow “overload tripped”;
Plant management
d. yellow “after-cooler temperature high”;
7.78 Connections should be provided which allow
e. yellow “compressor temperature high”;
f. yellow for each individual safety device provided
by the manufacturers;
g. yellow “compressor failure”.
7.72 There should be indicators for each dryer system to
monitoring of plant alarm conditions (b) to (e)
and pump running for each “compressor”. These
connections should be volt-free contacts normally
closed for each condition having a minimum rating
of 50 V dc and 50 mA. The building management
system should not be used to control the plant.
show the following:
Synthetic air
a. green “mains supply on”;
7.79 This section provides technical details of the
b. yellow “dryness fault”;
c. yellow “pressure fault”.
Alarm signal status unit
7.73 An alarm signal status unit should be provided as
part of the control system. It should display the
following conditions:
a. green “normal” (normal);
b. yellow “plant fault” conditions ((b)–(g) in
paragraph 7.71);
c. yellow “plant emergency” (low reservoir
pressure/high moisture: that is, condition (b) in
paragraph 7.71);
d. yellow “reserve low” (emergency/reserve banks
low (<50%));
process and systems required to generate medical
air from mixing gaseous oxygen and nitrogen,
derived from cryogenic supplies.
7.80 For the purposes of the Medicines Act 1968, it is
considered that the synthetic air is manufactured
on-site, for use on that site only, in exactly the same
way as for medical air derived from compressor
plant. The production of synthetic air implies a
manufacturing process, and as such, the process
should be subjected to the same safety requirements
of any pharmaceutical process. This should include,
for example, a HAZOP (HAZard and OPerability)
analysis and other safety analyses that may be
necessary.
7.81 Synthetic air is generated by mixing gaseous oxygen
and nitrogen in a blender or mixing panel at pre-set
pressures to ensure that the resultant mixture is
77
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
always correct. Continuous on-line monitoring
of oxygen concentration is provided to check the
mixture; the system shuts down automatically if the
oxygen concentration varies from the specified
value.
7.82 If one mixing system shuts down, the pipeline is
supplied from the secondary mixing system to
ensure continuity of supply.
7.83 The feasibility study should provide more
information on the details of the monitoring and
alarm systems required, as well as operational
information.
7.84 The VIE system supplying the medical oxygen
may be used to supply the synthetic air system,
depending on the system demands.
7.85 Nitrogen supplied to the synthetic air system
may also be used to provide the power source for
surgical tools instead of surgical air at 700 kPa.
7.86 An electrical power supply is required in order, for
example to operate solenoid valves and monitoring
instrumentation. Therefore the system should be
connected to the essential power supply and via an
uninterruptible power supply (UPS) with at least
four hours’ capacity; this should ensure continuity
of supply in the event of power failure.
System description
7.87 The gaseous oxygen and nitrogen are derived
from bulk liquid supplies contained in a VIE – as
described in the “Liquid oxygen systems” section of
Chapter 6.
7.88 The oxygen for synthetic air may be taken from the
VIE supplying the medical oxygen system or it may
be from a dedicated VIE. It would normally be
more cost-effective for the oxygen to be taken from
the main VIE, although this would obviously
depend on the existing VIE capacity, the demand,
space constraints etc. The feasibility study should
provide more detailed information on whether it is
likely to be more cost-effective to provide a totally
separate VIE system or to use the existing medical
oxygen VIE.
7.89 For both the oxygen and nitrogen it is necessary
to have a secondary supply system to ensure
continuity of supply; the system demands are
such that this should be derived from a second –
normally smaller – VIE.
7.90 This secondary oxygen supply can also serve the
hospital’s medical oxygen system.
78
7.91 Since four VIEs will be required, the space
requirements will need special consideration when
planning the installation of a synthetic air system.
7.92 The system comprises:
a. storage vessels – one main vessel and one
secondary supply vessel for both oxygen and
nitrogen;
b. vaporisers for both oxygen and nitrogen;
c. medical oxygen flow control – where used to
supply medical oxygen systems;
d. surgical nitrogen flow control – where required;
e. a control panel for the nitrogen and oxygen
supplies to the mixing panels;
f. duplicate air mixing panels;
g. buffer vessels – each mixer has a buffer vessel to
smooth fluctuations in demand;
h. a warning and alarm system;
j. duplicate oxygen analysers on each mixer.
7.93 The system is shown in Figure 27.
Storage vessels
Vessel summary
7.94 The following vessels are required:
a. one main oxygen vessel;
b. one secondary oxygen vessel with at least
24 hours’ capacity;
c. one main nitrogen vessel;
d. one secondary nitrogen vessel with at least
24 hours’ capacity.
Vessel operating pressure
7.95 The following operating pressures are required:
a. main vessels: 12.5 bar;
b. back-up vessels: 12.5–14 bar.
Main vessel capacity
7.96 The main vessel should normally be sized on
the basis of two weeks’ supply. This should be
calculated as 14 x the average daily usage. This
should provide adequate storage and a cost-effective
vessel-filling regime. The gas supplier should,
however, be consulted as there may be other factors,
such as geographical location, space etc, which need
Figure 27 Synthetic air plant
PI
PAL
PS
PSH
PAL
PSL
PAH
LAL
14A
LAL
14B
PI
Alarm panel
To hospital
O2 pipeline
Main storage vessel
Main vaporiser
VIE
O2
Pressure control panel
Economiser vaporiser
Third
source of
supply
Back-up storage vessel
Back-up vaporiser
To surgical
N2 supply
O2
VIE
N2
Main mixer
Main vaporiser
N2
VIE
N2
Back-up mixer
Gas control panel
79
Back-up storage vessel
Back-up vaporiser
Third
source of
supply
7 Medical compressed air systems
To hospital
med air pipeline
Main storage vessel
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
to be taken into account when sizing the main
vessels.
Back-up vessel capacity
7.97 The stand-by vessel should have 24 hours’ capacity
at any time; that is, it should be sized on the basis
of twice the average daily usage. This will ensure
that there is always 24 hours’ supply available.
7.98 In addition to the normal instrumentation as set
out in the “Liquid oxygen systems” section of
Chapter 6, the vessels should be fitted with a
telemetry system to continuously monitor the
vessel contents.
7.99 This information should be transmitted direct to
the gas supplier and also the hospital. The exact
details of how much information, and where it
should be received, will depend on each hospital
site.
7.100 The main vessel low level alarm is activated at 25%
full; the back-up low level alarm is activated at
50% full.
7.101 The safety relief valves and bursting discs should
be sized in accordance with BCGA CP19.
7.102 The liquid from the vessels should be supplied to
the process at a nominal pressure of 12.5 bar.
Vaporisation
7.103 The main and stand-by vessels should have
dedicated vaporisers designed for continuous
capacity and 24-hour capacity respectively at 1.5 x
the required flows to ensure that the vaporisers are
not overdrawn.
7.104 This may be achieved in each case by either a
single set of vaporisers or by vaporisers operated on
timed or manual changeover.
7.105 It is preferable for the vaporisers to operate on
a timed changeover as this avoids the need for
hospital staff to manually operate the changeover
valves.
7.106 The timed changeover will require a 110 V or
240 V supply; this should be on the emergency
supply and a UPS should also be provided, with at
least 4 hours’ capacity.
7.107 Each vaporiser or set of vaporisers must have a
safety relief valve.
80
Medical oxygen flow control
7.108 A control panel (similar in principle to a C11
panel) should be provided – the only difference is
that the secondary supply is taken from a lowpressure liquid source.
Surgical nitrogen flow control
7.109 A control panel to regulate the gaseous nitrogen to
between 7.5 and 9.5 bar, depending on the system
design, should be provided.
7.110 The pipeline distribution system should be
designed in exactly the same way as for surgical air
700 kPa systems, as described in Chapter 8.
Control panel for the nitrogen and
oxygen supplies to the mixing panels
7.111 The control panel should be sized to provide
pressure-regulated flows as appropriate for the
mixing system; this would typically be up to
200 Nm3/hr (normal cubic metres per hour).
7.112 The stand-by supply regulation cuts in when the
main line pressure falls to 11 bar; there is no
regulation on the main supply line.
7.113 A non-return valve should be installed in both the
nitrogen and oxygen supply lines within the mixer
to prevent cross-contamination.
7.114 A non-return valve should also be installed on
both the main oxygen supply and the stand-by
oxygen supply to the mixer to prevent the medical
oxygen line becoming contaminated with
nitrogen.
Air mixing panels
7.115 A range of sizes of mixing panels is available
with, typically, nominal capacities of 50, 100 and
200 Nm3/hr.
7.116 A regulated supply of nitrogen and oxygen is
blended in a mixing valve. The differential pressure
at the inlet to the mixing panel is critical and
should not exceed 0.5 bar. A pressure-switchoperated solenoid valve opens and shuts on a
0.5 bar differential.
7.117 The main mixer solenoid valve opens when the
line pressure falls to 4.2 bar; the stand-by mixer
solenoid valve will open if the line pressure
continues to fall to 4.0 bar.
7 Medical compressed air systems
7.118 Two independent paramagnetic oxygen analysers
are provided on each mixer to give continuous online measurements.
7.119 If the oxygen concentration falls outside 20–22%
as measured by either analyser, the mixer solenoid
valve is held closed and the mixer is shut down. In
addition, a signal is relayed downstream to close
the solenoid valve on the buffer vessel associated
with that mixer.
Buffer vessels
7.120 Each mixer has associated with it a buffer vessel to
smooth fluctuations in demand.
7.121 In the event that the oxygen concentration differs
from the specification (that is, 20–22%), the
solenoid valve downstream of the buffer vessel will
also close, preventing air from the buffer vessel
from entering the distribution system.
7.122 The buffer vessel, together with appropriate means
of safety relief, should be sized to match each
mixing panel to provide stable operation.
Alarm signal status unit
7.123 The same alarm conditions for liquid oxygen
should also be transmitted and displayed for the
liquid nitrogen system. The following conditions
should be displayed for the mixing panels:
a. green “normal” (normal);
b. yellow “plant fault” (low gas pressure to any
mixer);
c. yellow “plant emergency” (analysis out of
specification on any mixer);
d. yellow “reserve low” (operating on final mixing
panel/buffer vessel only);
7.124 Conditions (b) to (e) should be transmitted to the
central alarm system. Where relays are used, they
should be normally energised relays that deenergise under fault conditions, with contacts
having a minimum rating of 50 V dc and 50 mA.
7.125 Volt-free, normally closed contacts rated at 50 V
dc and 50 mA should be provided for transmission
of conditions (b) to (e) to the alarm system.
7.126 The panel can be incorporated into the mixing
panel control unit or be a separate unit within the
plantroom. If mounted separately, the cabling
should be monitored for open/short circuit. If such
a cabling fault occurs, a red “system fault” lamp
should be illuminated on the alarm signal status
unit together with the appropriate alarm
condition.
Emergency supply provision
7.127 A risk assessment should be carried out to establish
the vulnerability of the main supply system of both
oxygen and nitrogen. Further information is given
in Chapter 2 on sources of supply and in
Chapter 6.
Additional use of medical air systems
7.128 It is possible to use medical/surgical air as a power
source for pendant control and braking systems.
7.129 These additions must not compromise either
the medical air system or operation of connected
equipment. They must be connected via a nonreturn valve and flow-limiting device, and be
capable of isolation by means of an AVSU labelled
to identify the equipment controlled.
7.130 Medical air systems must not be used to provide
air for sterilizer chamber or door-seal use.
e. red “pressure fault” (pressure fault).
81
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
8
Surgical air systems
General
Note
8.1 Surgical air at 700 kPa is only used as the power
Systems designed to meet requirements of earlier
editions of Health Technical Memorandum 2022 may
not provide 350 L/min at 700 kPa. Information on
upgrading surgical air systems in given in Appendix J.
source for surgical tools. These tools typically
require high flows – up to 350 L/min – at 700 kPa
at the point of use. Where nitrogen is available on
site, it may be used as an alternative source of
supply.
8.2 Supply systems for surgical compressed air may be
a cylinder manifold system, a dedicated 700 kPa
compressor system or a compressor system capable
of supplying both the 700 kPa and the 400 kPa
supplies. In practice, the decision about which
compressor system to install needs careful
consideration because of the flow rates required and
total usage (see Chapter 7).
8.3 A compressor system will be required for large
operating department complexes specialising in
orthopaedic and/or neurosurgery that require the
use of pneumatically-powered surgical tools. An
automatic reserve manifold located in separate
accommodation should be provided. A typical
system is shown in Figure 28.
8.4 It is possible to use nitrogen instead of air as the
power source for surgical tools. This may be derived
from either a liquid source or cylinders. In either
case, the terminal units must be different from the
existing medical air 700 kPa terminal units. A
NIST connector is already specified for nitrogen
and should be used.
8.5 The pressure control equipment should comprise
duplex regulating valves with upstream and
downstream isolating valves, pressure gauges and
pressure relief valves.
8.6 Whatever supply system is installed, the overall
system should be designed to provide a minimum
of 700 kPa at the front of each terminal unit at a
flow of 350 L/min.
8.7 The maximum pressure at the terminal unit under
“static flow” conditions should not exceed 900 kPa.
8.8 Cylinders of medical air or nitrogen stored locally
should always be available for use in an emergency.
8.9 Vessels should be selected as follows:
Design flow
(L/min)
Vessel size
Compressor
output (L/min)
>500
1 × 200% design flow
0.33 × design flow
500–2000
2 × 66.6% design flow
0.66 × design flow
2000–3500
2 × 200% design flow
0.66 × design flow
3500–7000
3 × 33.3% design flow
0.5 × design flow
Extension of surgical air systems into
dental departments
8.10 Some surgical air systems have been extended
into dental departments; such an extension offers
obvious economic and air quality advantages in
comparison with separate provision. When such
extensions are made, a non-return valve or backfeed protection device, with upstream and
downstream isolating valves, should be installed in
the supply line to the dental department. Before
extending a surgical air system into a dental
department, the following must be taken into
account:
a. the extra demand on the existing system must
not compromise patient safety or operation of
either the existing system or its extension. In
particular, the ability of an existing emergency
supply system to cope with potentially very high
demands must be carefully assessed;
b. the Authorised Person (MGPS) with
responsibility for the existing surgical air system
82
8 Surgical air systems
Figure 28 Typical simplex surgical air plant and automatic emergency reserve manifold
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
gauge
Fusible
plug
Ball
valve
Air
receiver
Ball valve
Ball valve
Inlet filter
Air
intake
Pressure
switch
Compressor 1
Temperature
switch
Non-return
valve
Aftercooler
Pressure
safety
valve
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball
valves
*1
Ball
valves
*1
Automatic
drain
Ball
valve
Automatic
drain
Silencer
Notes:
1. Drains marked *1 should be fed to an oil/water separator
2. Filters marked *2 are activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon vapours
3. Dryer control systems may incorporate shuttle valves as shown, or
may use other suitable arrangements of directional control valves
4. Symbols to BS 2971:1993/ISO 1219-1:1991
Bacteria
filter
Pressure
safety
valve
Dust/Carbon
filter
*2
*1
Ball
valve
Silencer
D
Non-return
valve
Lockable
valve
Terminal
unit
Pressure
switch
Pressure
gauge
Pressure
regulator
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Dewpoint
transducer
Flow
restrictor
Pressure
switch
Pressure
regulator
Flow
restrictor
P
Pressure
transducer
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
switch
Terminal
unit
Non-return Lockable
valve
valve
Emergency
Supply
*1
Dryer 2 column 1
Ball
valve
Ball valve
Sintered
filter
Water
Shut-off Oil
valve filter separator
Ball valve
Ball
valve
Supply
System
Pressure
gauge
Dryer 2 column 2
Pressure
regulator
Pressure
gauge
Distribution
System
Shut-off
valve
Ball
valves
Ball
valve
Pressure
regulator
Pressure
regulator
Sintered
filter
Shut-off
valve
Pressure
switch
Ball
valve
Pressure
gauge
Pressure
safety
valve
Pressure
safety
valve
Non-return valve
Exhaust
(piped to safe position)
Tailpipe
Cylinder valve
Cylinder
83
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
will automatically assume responsibility for the
whole of the dental compressed air and vacuum
system. Both the Authorised Person (MGPS)
and Quality Controller (MGPS) must
appreciate that extending a surgical air system
into a dental unit for dental instrument use
will introduce “non-standard” pipework
terminations, for example crimped or
compression-fitted connectors, in addition to
non-degreased components. Failure of these
“non-standard” components could lead to a
serious depressurisation of the existing surgical
air system and, if provided from the same
84
source, the associated medical air system. If
the system is further extended into a dental
laboratory, surgical air could be used to support
the operation of such devices as natural gas/air
burners. Cross-connection of these systems is
unlikely, but the risk must be assessed;
c. if the surgical air is derived from a plant that
supplies medical air, the medical air supply
should have a separate manifold reserve supply
when space and system design makes this
practicable.
9
Medical vacuum systems
General
9.1 The medical vacuum pipeline system provides
immediate and reliable suction for medical needs,
particularly in surgical accommodation.
9.2 The medical vacuum pipeline system consists of the
vacuum supply system, the distribution pipework
and terminal units. The performance of the
pipeline system is dependent on the correct
specification and installation of its component
parts. This chapter describes the requirements of
the vacuum supply system.
9.3 The medical vacuum pipeline system should be
designed to maintain a vacuum of at least 300 mm
Hg (40 kPa) at each terminal unit during the
system design flow tests.
9.4 To ensure continuity of supply, the vacuum plant
should be connected to the essential electrical
power supply.
9.5 The capacity of the vacuum supply system should
be appropriate to the estimated demand.
9.6 With the exception of the vacuum discharge to
atmosphere, the pipeline distribution system for
vacuum has traditionally been constructed of
copper. PVC pipework can be considered where
cost-effective. Pressure testing of PVC and copper
pipework should be carried out at 100 kPa.
9.7 The major components of a medical vacuum
system and their layout are shown in Figure 29.
A suitable operating and indicating system with
alarms is also required. The location of the
components should allow adequate space for access
for maintenance. Packaged supply systems are
available from manufacturers that should be
specified to meet the requirements given in this
memorandum.
9.8 The plant should consist of at least three identical
pumps, a vacuum reservoir with by-pass facilities,
duplex bacteria filters with drainage traps,
appropriate non-return valves, isolating valves,
gauges and pressure switches, an operating and
indicating system, an exhaust system and a flow test
connection. For capacities in excess of 500 L/min,
two vessels that can be independently isolated
should be installed.
Note
The third means of supply for a vacuum installation
will comprise portable suction units.
Siting
9.9 The plant should have all-round access for
maintenance purposes, and allowance should be
made for changing major components.
9.10 The siting of the plant should allow for adequate
flows of air to cool the pumps. The manufacturers
should be consulted over the range of operating
temperatures for which the supply system is
designed. In extreme cases, refrigerator cooling may
be required.
Pump noise
9.11 The noise level produced by the pumps will
increase with the capacity of the supply system. For
larger systems this can result in an unacceptable
noise level at the pump. The maximum free-field
noise level at 1 m from the unsilenced pump
should not exceed the following values for
individual pumps:
Power (kW)
Noise level (dBA)
5
75
5.1–15
82
15
89
9.12 A suitable acoustic enclosure may be required in
the purchase specification for all pumps with a
free-field noise level at 1 m of 80 dBA or over. An
enclosure should produce a reduction of at least
10 dBA in the free-field noise level at 1 m.
85
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Figure 29 Triplex vacuum system
Pipeline
system
AVSU
Ward
Area
Line valve
assembly
Pressure
switch
Terminal
unit
Terminal
unit
To other
ward(s)
Terminal
unit
Terminal
unit
Riser
Pipework
Notes:
1. Non-return valves marked * are only required if exhausts from other
vacuum pumps share a common exhaust pipe
2. Symbols to BS 2971:1993/ISO 1219-1:1991
Pressure
gauge
Pressure
gauge
Ball valve
Vacuum
vessel
Ball valve
Vacuum
vessel
Pressure
gauge
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Bacteria
filter
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Pressure
transducer
P
Ball valve
Flexible
connection
Ball valve
Ball valve
Exhaust
Non-return
valve
Exhaust
Pump 2
*Non-return
valve
Ball
valve
Drain
flask
Exhaust
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Drain
flask
*Non-return
valve
Ball
valve
Drain
flask
9.13 The position of the termination point should be
carefully chosen to be clear of windows, ventilation
intakes and the intake of air compressors and other
equipment, since for oil-lubricated pumps the
vacuum exhaust is likely to be polluted with oil
fumes.
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Drain
flask
Pump 3
Vacuum plant exhaust
86
Ball valve
Bacteria
filter
Non-return
valve
Non-return
valve
Pump 1
Ball
valve
Flexible
connection
Flexible
connection
*Non-return
valve
Ball
valve
Drain
flask
9.14 Noise from the exhaust should be considered and a
silencer fitted if necessary.
9.15 The construction should conform to the following
criteria:
a. the exhaust should be sized to give a back
pressure at system design flow which is matched
to the pump performance;
9 Medical vacuum systems
b. the termination point should be turned down
and provided with protection to reduce the
effect of wind pressure and prevent the ingress
of rain, snow, insects or animals;
c. weatherproof notices should be fixed at the
discharge point(s) with the legend “medical
vacuum discharge point – do not obstruct”;
d. the exhaust pipe should be provided with a
drainage valve at its lowest point;
e. a silencer should be fitted in the exhaust pipe
from each pump. This may be integral with the
pump unit.
Efficiency
9.16 The pump should be capable of producing a higher
vacuum than that required in the pipeline, so that
the resistance of the bacteria filter and back
pressure in the exhaust system can be overcome.
9.17 The capacity of the vacuum pump should be
specified in terms of the free air aspirated (FAA) in
L/min when the pump is operating at a vacuum of
475 mm Hg (63 kPa) and at 450 mm Hg (60 kPa)
at the plant pipeline connection.
Vacuum pumps
9.18 Any type of pump apart from water-sealed pumps
can be used.
9.19 Pumps should normally be oil-lubricated. Vapours
from the lubricating oil are unlikely to be a
significant component of the exhaust gases if
correctly maintained. “Dry running” rotary vane
pumps are available at increased capital cost and
with lower efficiency than oil-lubricated pumps of
comparable performance.
9.20 At least three pumps should be provided. The
actual number is at the discretion of the plant
manufacturer to ensure optimum cost benefit of
the system. All pumps should be designed for high
frequency stop/start or continuous operation. The
opportunity to maximise energy conservation
should be taken into consideration.
9.21 All systems should comprise pumps and motors
of identical type that are suitable for continuous
running and stop/start operation.
9.22 Pump motors should comply with the National
equipment’ with the addition of Class F insulation
and Class B temperature rise.
9.23 A vacuum reservoir should be provided so that the
duty pump does not run continuously for low
loads. The reservoir should be manufactured in
accordance with BS EN 286-1:1998, with test
certificates provided to the user. The minimum test
pressure should be 4 bar.
9.24 The water capacity of the reservoir should be equal
to the plant design flow at 450 mm Hg (60 kPa) in
terms of free air aspirated in one minute with the
pump operating at 475 mm Hg (60 kPa).
9.25 Provision should be made for draining the reservoir
under vacuum conditions. By-pass facilities should
be provided so that the reservoir can be drained
and inspected without interruption to the vacuum
supply. The reservoir should be fitted with suitable
lifting lugs and feet.
9.26 If multiple reservoirs are provided, they should be
arranged in parallel.
9.27 The bacteria filters and drainage trap should
comprise two identical sub-assemblies with
manually-operated isolating valves, arranged to
allow either sub-assembly to be on stream. Each
sub-assembly should contain a bacteria filter rated
at the plant capacity.
9.28 The bacteria filter should be marked with the
legend “bio-hazard”, together with a description of
a safe procedure for changing and disposing of the
filters and emptying the drainage trap.
9.29 The bacteria filters should have a filter efficiency,
when tested by the sodium flame test in accordance
with BS 3928:1969, of greater than 99.995% at
the system design flow.
9.30 The pressure drop across a clean filter at the system
design flow should not exceed 25 mm Hg (3 kPa)
at a vacuum of 475 mm Hg (63 kPa).
9.31 The drainage trap may be integral with the bacteria
filter and should be fitted with a transparent bowl
to collect liquid. The bowl should be suitable for
steam sterilization at 134°C.
9.32 Although there is no firm evidence that has
demonstrated the need for bacteria filters, it is
recommended that such devices are included as
precautionary measures.
Health Service Model Engineering Specification
C51 – ‘Electrical requirements for specified
87
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Pressure control
9.33 The cut-in setting for the vacuum pumps should be
adjusted to allow for the pressure drop across the
pipeline distribution system and the bacteria filters.
The cut-in may be expected at about 500 mm Hg
(67 kPa).
9.34 The cut-out setting should be at an appropriate
point on the performance curve of the pump,
which minimises stop/start operation but is at a
vacuum which is economically attained by the
pump. This cut-out setting may be expected at
about 650 mm Hg (87 kPa).
Valves
9.35 Non-return valves should be fitted, when necessary,
at the inlet and outlet of each pump to prevent
backflow when a common discharge pipe is used.
(Some vacuum pumps include integral non-return
valves.)
9.36 Manually operated valves should be arranged in the
positions shown in Figure 29 to allow isolation of
components such as pumps, reservoirs, by-pass
pipework, drainage taps and bacteria filters.
Pressure regulation of vacuum system
9.37 A vacuum of 300 mm Hg is required at the
connection point of each terminal unit with a flow
of 40 L/min whilst the system is operating at
system design flow.
9.38 This performance is tested by the procedures
carried out in accordance with Chapter 15.
9.39 A pressure drop of 13 kPa (100 mm Hg) is allowed
across the terminal unit at a flow of 40 L/min (BS
5682:1998). The minimum pressure at the front
of the most distal terminal unit should be 40 kPa
(300 mm Hg) at a flow of 40 L/min. The
minimum pressure (dynamic) at the plant should
be 60 kPa (450 mm Hg).
Note
Precautions for changing filters are included in Part B.
Vacuum indicators
9.40 Vacuum indicators should comply with BS EN
837-1:1998 or have an equivalent performance if
electronic indicators are used. Calibration should
be 0–760 mm Hg (0–101 kPa). All gauges should
be a minimum scale length of 90 mm.
88
9.41 Vacuum indicators should be located on:
a. the plant control unit indicating the vacuum in
the pipeline (that is, on the pipeline side of the
bacteria filter);
b. each reservoir.
9.42 A differential vacuum indicator (to indicate filter
blockage rather than quantitative pressure drop)
should be located across the bacteria filter and have
a service isolation valve.
Electrical supply
9.43 The electrical supply to the medical vacuum plant
should be connected to the essential electrical
supply. A time-delay system should be provided to
avoid overloading the power supply on changeover.
Pump operating and indicating system
General description
9.44 The operating and indicating system should
perform the following functions:
a. overall plant control and indication;
b. individual pump starting;
c. plant status monitoring and indication;
d. alarm signal status unit.
9.45 Provided that the individual pump starters are
housed in a separate compartment, the operating
and indicating system may be housed in separate
units or may be installed in a common panel and
located on the plant or on the plantroom wall.
9.46 Pneumatic components should have ventilation.
All functions should be appropriately identified.
Indicators should have a design life of at least five
years. The operating system should be capable of
automatically restarting after reinstatement of the
power supply.
9.47 The vacuum supply system should be connected to
the stand-by electrical supply. The control system
should ensure that pumps restart in sequence to
avoid overloading the power supply.
9 Medical vacuum systems
Plant control unit
9.48 The control unit should have a separate power
supply for each pump controlled by a separate subcircuit. It should be manufactured and installed in
accordance with IEE regulations, and the design
should be such that no single component failure in
the control unit will result in loss of plant output.
9.49 The unit should allow either manual selection of
duty/stand-by for each of the pumps or have an
automatic sequence selection with a means for
manual override. The control unit should ensure
that two or more pumps do not start
simultaneously when power is applied.
9.50 A warning notice which complies with BS 5499-1:
2002 should be affixed which indicates the
presence of low voltage.
9.51 For testing purposes, each pump should have a
selector switch which when turned to the “on”
position allows the pump to run continuously.
Plant control indication
9.52 There should be indicators for each pump as
follows:
a. green “mains supply on”;
b. green “pump operating”, which indicates that
the pump motor is electrically energised;
c. green “pump operating”, which indicates that
the pump is drawing vacuum;
d. an indicator of the vacuum produced in the
pipeline.
Pump starter units
9.53 There should be individual starter units, each one
operating a single designated pump. The starters
should be provided with safety interlocks as
specified by the pump manufacturers, which
should inhibit plant operation until manually reset
by means of a button. The starters should allow
automatic restart after an interruption to the power
supply. Each starter unit should contain the
following:
a. an isolator interlocked with the covers;
b. either HRC fuses to BS 88 or suitable circuit
breakers to BS EN 60947-2:2003 and/or BS
EN 60898-1:2003;
c. starter;
d. an industrial grade ammeter to BS EN 60051-1:
1999, IEC 60051-1:1997 or an electronic
digital instrument of comparable, or higher,
standard;
e. a total hours counter, if not included in the
plant control unit;
f. a green “mains supply on” indicator, if mounted
separately from the plant control unit.
Plant status monitoring
9.54 A monitoring system must be provided to detect
the following faults in the vacuum supply system:
a. plant faults for each pump:
(i) control circuit failed;
(ii) motor tripped;
(iii) pump failed to go on load;
(iv)activation of other safety devices supplied
by the manufacturers;
b. plant emergency – receiver vacuum has fallen,
for example, by 50 mm Hg below the cut-in
setting for the pump;
c. pressure fault (pipeline) – pipeline vacuum less
than 360 mm Hg.
Plant status indicator unit
9.55 In addition to the plant control indication, there
should be a plant status indicator panel that may
be mounted on the plantroom wall or adjacent to
either the pump starter unit or the plant control
unit. It should have a warning notice that complies
with BS 5499-1:2002 to indicate the presence of
low voltage.
9.56 There should be indicators for each pump to show
the following conditions:
a. green “mains supply on”;
b. yellow “control circuit failed”;
c. yellow “motor tripped”;
d. yellow for each individual safety device provided
by the manufacturers;
e. yellow “pump failure”.
Alarm signal status unit
9.57 The following indication of plant conditions
should be provided:
a. green “normal” (indicator normal);
89
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
b. yellow “plant fault” conditions (b)–(d); see
paragraph 9.56;
c. yellow “plant emergency” condition (e); see
paragraph 9.56;
d. red “pipeline pressure fault” (pressure fault).
9.58 Conditions (b) to (d) should be transmitted to the
central alarm system. Where relays are used, they
should be normally energised relays, which deenergise under fault conditions, with contacts
having a minimum rating of 50 V dc and 50 mA.
9.59 Volt-free, normally closed contacts rated at 50 V dc
and 50 mA should be provided for transmission of
conditions (b) to (e) to the alarm system.
9.60 The panel can be incorporated into the plant status
indicator unit or be a separate unit within a
plantroom. If mounted separately, the cabling
90
should be monitored for open/short circuit. In the
event of such a cabling fault, a red “system fault”
lamp should be illuminated on the alarm system
status unit together with the appropriate alarm
condition.
Plant management
9.61 Connections should be provided which allow
monitoring (but not control) of plant alarm
conditions (b) to (e) and pump running for each
vacuum pump. These connections should be voltfree contacts normally closed for each condition
having a minimum rating of 50 V dc and 50 mA.
9.62 Plant should be operated in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions and be covered by a
sound, effective planned preventative maintenance
(PPM) policy.
10 Anaesthetic
gas scavenging disposal
systems
Terminology
10.1 An active system, as specified in either BS 6834:
1987 or BS EN 737-2:1998, is one in which a high
air flow generated by an electrically driven pump
is used to exhaust air through the system’s fixed
pipework. This in turn entrains waste gases from
the patient, or patient ventilator, via a transfer hose
and receiving system.
10.2 The transfer and receiving system form part of the
anaesthetic/breathing system.
10.3 The receiving system is designed to match the
variable flow in the breathing system to the
constant flow of the disposal system and ensure
that very low induced flows are imposed (0.5 L/
min in the case of BS 6834:1987 and 0.05 L/min
in the case of BS EN 737-2:1998 systems).
10.4 As a passive system essentially comprises a pipe
through a hole in a wall through which waste gases
are driven by the patient or ventilator expiratory
effort, there is no pump involved in such a system.
In the UK, only systems complying with the BS or
EN Standards above are considered appropriate
for scavenging waste anaesthetic gases from
accommodation in which general anaesthesia is
taking place.
10.5 Active scavenging for dental installations is an
entirely different concept. An active system is one
in which there is a flow generated through the
patient’s nasal mask and this carries away the waste
gases exhaled by the patient. This flow is in the
order of 45 L/min and is achieved by connection of
the mask (via a suitable flow-limiting adaptor) to
either a dental vacuum system or directly to an
active scavenging system (BS/EN) wall terminal
unit.
General
10.6 Anaesthetic gases are considered to be substances
hazardous to health for the purposes of the Control
of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations
2002 (COSHH), except where they are
administered to a patient in the course of medical
treatment.
10.7 Detailed guidance on compliance with COSHH is
given in the Department of Health’s (1996) ‘Advice
on the implementation of the Health & Safety
Commission’s occupational exposure standards for
anaesthetic agents’. Further guidance is given in by
the Health & Safety Executive’s (1996) ‘Anaesthetic
agents: controlling exposure under COSHH’.
10.8 The COSHH regulations set out very specific
duties that apply to anaesthetic gases, and
employers have a legal obligation to ensure that
these duties are discharged. It is therefore the
responsibility of the general manager or chief
executive to implement the requirements of the
COSHH regulations with respect to anaesthetic
gases. This subject is covered in Part B.
10.9 For new installations, an assessment should be
made of the transfer and receiving equipment
currently in use and intended for use with the
new installation. Where the transfer and receiving
equipment has been designed to BS 6834:1987, the
disposal system design should be to BS 6834:1987.
Where the transfer and receiving equipment in use
has been designed to BS EN 740:1999, the disposal
system should be designed to BS EN 737-2:1998.
Where a mixture of equipment is in use, the system
should be designed to BS 6834:1987. Where both
types of equipment are required to be used on the
same disposal system, a restrictor should be
provided for the BS EN 740:1999 equipment to
restrict the flow to its design flow rate. The system
should be installed in all operating departments
and other areas, as required, in accordance with the
levels of provision given in Table 11.
Note
BS 6834:1987 covered all aspects of the anaesthetic gas
scavenging systems and has now been superseded by
BS EN 737-2:1998 and BS EN 737-4:1998. ISO
7396 (in preparation) will replace BS EN 737 Parts 2
and 4.
91
92
Limits of
breathing
system
Limits of
transfer
system
Limits of receiving system
Limits of disposal system
Discharge
disposal systems are in contact with a patient’s
Probe/terminal
unit socket interface
Flexible
boom or pendant
Permanent connection
10.11 The internal components and pipework of AGS
Receiving
system
Permanent connection
Receiving
system
Flexible hose
Terminal unit
probe and socket
Figure 30 and shows the terminology used.
Transfer tubing
Means of
positive
pressure relief
30 mm conical
connections
Permanent
connection
10.10 A typical system schematic is illustrated in
Breathing
system
Apparatus
incorporating
integral transfer/
receiving system
Flexible hose
Figure 30 Schematic diagram of an AGS disposal system
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
expired breath. Even though there is considerable
dilution by virtue of the receiving system that
forms part of the anaesthetic equipment, there
is, however, potential for bacteriological
10 Anaesthetic gas scavenging disposal systems
contamination. The materials should be reasonably
resistant to corrosion and should withstand
cleaning, disinfection or sterilization as
appropriate.
below with the number of terminal units for which
it has been designed for use.
Disposal system standard
Pressure drop
10.12 The fixed pipework may be of copper or other
suitable material such as PVC. Where copper
pipework is installed at the same time as the
MGPS, it is desirable to use degreased pipework to
the same specification as that used for the MGPS
(see Chapter 13) in order to avoid confusion.
10.13 Where PVC pipes larger than 38 mm diameter
pass through a fire compartment, they should be
protected with metal sleeves extending for 1 m
either side of the compartment in accordance
with the Building Regulations 2000. The
recommendations of Firecode and Health
Technical Memorandum 81 should be followed.
Selecting the number of disposal
system pumps
10.14 For operating departments, the number of disposal
system pumps should be selected in accordance
with the number of air-handling units that are to
be installed for each operating suite. For example,
if a separate air-handling unit is supplied for each
suite, a separate AGS disposal system pump should
be installed. Where an air-handling unit supplies
two or more operating suites, the AGS disposal
system should serve the same number and in
this case be a duplex system with automatic
changeover. (Where a single pump is provided for
an individual operating suite, a spare pump for up
to six units should be provided for immediate
connection into the system in the event of failure.)
Flow and diversity
10.15 Although more than one AGS terminal unit may
be installed in an operating room or anaesthetic
room for convenience, it may be assumed that
only one terminal unit in each room will be in use
at any given time. The AGS terminal unit in the
anaesthetic room and operating room, however,
may on rare occasions be in use simultaneously;
therefore, the plant is sized for two AGS terminal
units for each operating suite.
10.16 The performance criteria for the disposal system
are specified in the relevant British, European and
International Standards in terms of the extract
flows at specified resistance. The disposal system
should meet the requirements set out in the table
BS 6834: ISO DIS
1987
7396-2:
2005
Maximum
1 kPa
1 kPa
Minimum
4 kPa
2 kPa
Maximum
static
pressure
20 kPa
(–ve)
15 kPa
(–ve)
Flow rate
BS 6834:
1987
ISO DIS
7396-2:
2005
130 L/min 80 L/min
80 L/min
50 L/min
Notes
Since the preparation of BS 6834:1987, developments
in anaesthesiology have resulted in reduced flows being
used. Depending on local circumstances, it may be
possible to commission systems for different flows in
accordance with ISO DIS 7396-2:2005. Details of the
test flows should be recorded in the commissioning
documentation.
The pump inlet should include a vacuum indicator for
commissioning purposes.
Discharge outlet
10.17 Careful consideration should be given to the
siting of the discharge from the disposal system. It
should preferably be sited at roof level, well away
from ventilation inlets, opening windows and
other apertures, to prevent pollution re-entering
the building.
Plant control indication
10.18 There should be indicators to show the following
conditions:
a. green “mains on”;
b. green “air flow” normal;
c. yellow “duty pump failed” (plant fault);
d. red “system failed” (plant emergency).
10.19 Indicator panels should be installed in operating
rooms.
10.20 The “air flow normal” indication should be
initiated by either a pressure switch or air flow
detection device at the pump.
93
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
11
Other medical gas pipeline installations
General
Compressed gas cylinder manifold systems
11.1 It is possible to extend medical gas system design
Primary supply
Secondary supply Tertiary supply
(third means of
supply)
Fully automatic
manifold
Manual emergency
reserve
Manifold to
come on-line
automatically via a
non-return valve.
concepts to other gases used from cylinders and still
maintain the elements of gas specificity that are
essential requirements together with all other
relevant safety considerations.
Helium/oxygen mixture
11.2 Helium/oxygen mixture is used by patients with
respiratory or airway obstruction and to relieve
symptoms and signs associated with respiratory
distress. It can be administered by means of face
mask and cannula, a demand valve with face
mask with cannula attached, a nebuliser, or by a
ventilator.
11.3 Its main use will be in Accident & Emergency
(A&E), supplied from portable cylinders with
integral control valve and regulator, and in critical
care areas.
11.4 When provided by means of a pipeline installation,
all the elements of a manifold supply system for
other medical gases should be installed.
11.5 The manifolds will be designed to operate at
low pressure (10 bar), and connection to K-size
cylinders will be made by means of a low-pressure
flexible assembly to a terminal unit integral with
the cylinder regulating valve. The connection to the
manifold will be by means of a NIST connector.
11.6 The individual cylinders will include pressure
transducers to monitor the pressure upstream of the
integral control valve. (Cylinders do not necessarily
discharge simultaneously.)
11.7 In the case of helium/oxygen mixture pipelines,
the tertiary source of supply is a portable cylinder.
11.8 The manifold should be located close to the facility
that it supplies.
Number of
cylinders based on
system design
Locally based
cylinders with
integral regulator/
flowmeter and
terminal unit
outlet
Number of
cylinders based on
ability to provide
4 hours’ supply at
average use
Oxygen/CO2 mixture
11.9 Oxygen/CO2 mixture has been supplied by
pipeline in at least one installation in the UK for
anaesthetic purposes in cardiothoracic procedures.
11.10 There has been little interest shown in installing
others and, therefore, this medical gas is no longer
included within the scope of this Health Technical
Memorandum.
Carbon dioxide
11.11 Carbon dioxide is now not generally used as a
respiratory stimulant post-operatively. Pipelines
have not been installed in the UK for respiratory
applications. Its main use today is for insufflation
during surgery, and to date there have been some
installations in the UK.
11.12 When pipeline systems are installed for such
purposes, the general requirements for other
medical gas pipelines should be followed. The
terminal unit should comprise a NIST connector
with integral check valve contained in the surgeon’s
pendant. The level of provision of AVSUs should
be provided as for other medical gas pipelines.
11.13 A semi-automatic manifold will normally be
satisfactory and it should be installed “locally”.
94
11 Other medical gas pipeline installations
A 2 x 4 VF-size manifold will provide adequate
capacity. The safety valve discharge should be
taken outside the department. The warning and
alarm system indicator will normally be installed
in the operating room control panel.
Nitric oxide
11.14 Treatment using nitric oxide is subject to specific
Ph. Eur. requirements. Distribution of the gas by
pipeline systems is not considered appropriate.
95
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
12
Warning and alarm systems
General
12.1 The provision of a warning and alarm system is
essential to monitor the safe and efficient operation
of an MGPS. There are three reasons for this
monitoring:
a. to indicate normal function of the pipeline
system by means of visual indicators;
b. to warn by visual and audible indication that
routine replacement of cylinders or other
engineering action is required;
c. to inform the user by visual and audible
emergency alarms that abnormal conditions
have occurred which may require urgent action
by the user. This alarm condition will require a
rapid response by the various departmental staff.
12.2 To date, practice has been to have a “dedicated”
medical gas warning and alarm system and this
approach will remain in many situations. With the
development of computer-based integrated patient/
management systems, nurse call and other alarm
systems, however, there is considerable scope for
including medical gas system information including
text action prompts etc. Additionally, building
management IT-based systems will play an
increasing role in the operation and management of
an MGPS.
Dedicated systems
12.3 The requirements of “dedicated” warning and
alarm systems are covered in paragraphs 12.3 to
12.62 and a schematic diagram of a typical system
layout is shown in Figures 31 and 32. Warning and
alarm systems are required for all medical gas and
vacuum systems. A simplified system is required
for surgical air systems and for the AGSS, with the
warning/indication panel located in the operating
room.
12.4 Warning and alarm systems comprise pressure
sensors, a central system providing information on
all monitored functions, with repeater panels
96
located where information is required to ensure the
necessary action is taken. Area alarms should be
provided to give warning to users downstream
of the designated departmental AVSU (see
Chapter 3).
12.5 Pressure sensors should be connected to the
pipeline by means of minimum leak devices.
12.6 All MGPS warning and alarm indicating panels
should comply with the requirements of this
Health Technical Memorandum, including all
operating room panels.
Panel location
Central indicator panel
12.7 Warning and alarm conditions for all medical gas
supply systems should be displayed on a central
panel located in a position where there is
continuous 24-hour occupation, such as the
telephone switchboard room or the porter’s lodge.
Repeater indicator panel location
12.8 Repeater panels should be provided in other
locations to display all or some of the information
on the central alarm so that appropriate action can
be taken to ensure the continuing operation of the
system. Some warning system information may be
appropriate for display in specific departments, for
example cylinder manifold status information in a
porters’ room, and oxygen concentration in the
pharmacy department when a PSA plant supplies
the hospital pipeline installation.
Area warning and alarm panel location
12.9 Local panels to display “high” and “low” gas
pressure should be installed in the locations given
in Chapter 3. The sensors for these panels should
be located downstream of the designated AVSUs,
normally the departmental AVSUs. It should not
be possible to isolate the sensor with a separate
shut-off valve and they should be connected to the
pipeline by means of a minimum leak device.
Figure 31 Typical warning and alarm system layout (reproduced by kind permission of Shire Controls)
CENTRAL ALARM PANEL
IN TELEPHONE ROOM
OR PORTERS LODGE
REPEATER ALARM
IN ENGINEERS OFFICE
REPEATER ALARM
IN PORTERS LODGE
MULTICORE COMMUNICATION CABLE
PLANT TO ALARM
INTERFACE
TRANSMITTER
END OF LINE
COMPONENTS
TRANSMITTER
END OF LINE
COMPONENTS
MANIFOLD WITH EMERGENCY RESERVE
END OF LINE
COMPONENTS
PLANT WITH EMERGENCY RESERVE
97
12 Warning and alarm systems
OXYGEN V.I.E.
TRANSMITTER
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Figure 32 Typical area alarm panel (reproduced by kind permission of Shire Controls)
SUPPLY
PIPEWORK
PIPEWORK TO
DEPARTMENT
PRESSURE
SENSORS
END OF LINE
COMPONENTS
AVSU
AREA ALARM
PANEL
98
INTERCONNECTING
WIRING
12 Warning and alarm systems
System components
12.10 Warning and alarm systems include the following
functional elements:
a. interfaces/transmitters that convert the signal
from the plant or manifold volt-free alarm
contacts into a form which can be transmitted
via multiplexed cable (for example using pulsewidth modulation). The transmitter may be a
separate unit or may be incorporated:
(i) in plant or into a manifold control panel;
(ii) into an indicator panel.
Cases (i) and (ii) should include line-fault
monitoring devices;
b. indicator panels which display the transmitted
signals;
c. interconnecting multiplex wiring which
connects all interfaces/transmitters to all
indicator panels.
System layout
Central system
12.11 A typical system layout is shown in Figure 31,
which shows initiating devices at remote locations
such as the VIE compound, medical air and
vacuum plantrooms, nitrous oxide manifold room
and emergency/reserve manifold rooms. The
transmitters are normally located close to the
initiating devices. Indicator panels are typically
located at the telephone exchange, the porter’s
room and the engineer’s office to provide
information requiring action by engineering and
other support staff.
Area warning and alarm systems
12.12 A typical layout of an area warning and alarm
system is shown in Figure 32. For each gas service
there should be local pressure switches for low
pressure; high pressure switches are also required
when oxygen, nitrous oxide and medical air are
installed together. These conditions should be
indicated on a locally-mounted indicator panel,
with facility to provide a common alarm condition
for connection to other alarm panels. Area panels
carry no indication of the warnings for cylinder
replacement and plant functions that are given on
central indicator panels.
General requirements
Labelling
12.13 All visual signal panels should be permanently
labelled according to their function, including
clear identification of the areas, rooms or
departments served.
Visual signals
12.14 Flashing visual signals should have alternate “on”
and “off ” periods, each of equal duration between
0.25 and 0.50 seconds.
12.15 There should be two separately energised light
sources for each signal, arranged so that the failure
of one source does not affect the other.
12.16 The light sources should have a design life of at
least five years of continuous operation.
Audible signals
12.17 All audible signal tones should be modulated
equally at a rate of 4 Hz ±10% between two tones
of 440 Hz ±10% and 880 Hz ±10%.
Automatic resetting
12.18 When a warning or alarm signal occurs and the
system condition subsequently reverts to normal,
the corresponding visual and audible signals
should automatically reset to normal.
Temporary muting
12.19 Means must be provided on each panel for the user
to mute the audible signal. The signal must resound after a nominal 15-minute period if the
fault condition still exists. The process of muting
and reinstatement of the signal should be repeated
until the fault condition has been rectified.
Operation of the mute on the central panel should
be accompanied by change from flashing to steady
illumination of the corresponding visual indicator
on the central and any repeater panels. Operation
of the mute on area alarm or repeater panels
should not be accompanied by a change from
flashing to steady illumination.
Continuous muting
12.20 An internally-mounted switch should be provided
to allow continuous muting during periods of
maintenance. When the system condition returns
to normal, the continuous muting should
automatically reset to normal operation. When the
99
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
continuous muting is in operation on any alarm
condition, it should not prevent the operation of
the audible signal on other alarm conditions when
a fault condition arises.
Electrical wiring
12.21 All electrical wiring should be in accordance with
IEE regulations.
System integrity
12.22 If extra low voltage (ELV), maximum 50 V, is
superimposed on the signal or communication
circuit (for example by cross-connection), the
system design should ensure that any damage
to the system is limited to replaceable panel
components and that such damage is indicated as a
system fault.
12.23 The performance of the system should not be
compromised by the use of multi-core cabling that
carries ELV and communication signals in adjacent
cores.
12.24 The system should be designed to reject spurious
radio frequency (RF) or mains noise typically
arising in hospitals, examples being diathermy
equipment and current spikes caused by plant
start-up etc.
Relay conditions
12.25 If relays are used to transmit alarm signals, the
relays should be energised in their normal closed
condition.
Mains power supply
12.26 The mains electricity supply should be derived
from the essential power supply (that is, must be
on the emergency system).
Safety extra low voltage/functional extra low
voltage power supply
12.27 The panel power may be designed either as a safety
extra low voltage (SELV) system or as a functional
extra low voltage (FELV) system, as defined in
Part 4 of the IEE Wiring Regulations.
12.28 The ELV power supply may be housed either in
the alarm panels or in a separate metal enclosure.
12.29 The power supply should be rated for the full load
of the panel, with visual and auditory signals on all
normal and alarm conditions.
100
Test facility
12.30 Each panel should be provided with a means to
test all visual and audible signals on that panel.
The power supply should be capable of sustaining
all indicators and audible signals.
Warning and alarm system faults
General
12.31 A flashing red visual indicator and an audible
signal should operate on all panels when any of the
following conditions occur:
a. line fault from the initiating device;
b. communication fault or other wiring fault;
c. mains power failure.
Line fault
12.32 The system should monitor the integrity of the
lines between the initiating devices and the panel
or transmitter units. The “alarm system fault”
condition should be indicated on loss of integrity,
for example open or short circuits, together with
the visual alarm indicator(s) associated with the
faulty wiring.
Communication/wiring fault
12.33 The system should indicate an alarm system fault
in the event of loss of data transmission between
panels and transmitters.
Mains power failure
12.34 Failure of mains power should be shown by
a flashing red indicator and an audible signal,
which should be powered from an internal battery.
The audible signal may be muted and not
automatically reinstate as required under normal
power supply (see paragraph 12.19), but the visual
indicator should continue to flash until either the
fault has been rectified or the battery has
discharged.
Stand-by battery
12.35 A battery should be provided with sufficient
capacity to power the visual and audible “alarm
system fault” signal for a minimum period of
four hours. The battery should be sealed and
exchangeable, and should automatically recharge
within 72 hours.
12 Warning and alarm systems
Legend
12.36 The legend on this indicator should be “alarm
system fault”.
Indicator panel requirements for all
systems
Indicators
12.37 Panels should be provided with all indicators for
the gas services in local use.
12.38 The visual indicators should be arranged vertically
in priority order, with the normal indicators at the
top. The sequence of gas services should be, from
left to right:
12.44 Panels should have electrical sections with
protection at least equal to BS EN 60529:1992.
12.45 Panels and their housings should be of adequate
strength for their purposes and be manufactured
from corrosion-resistant materials.
12.46 If gas services are brought into the panel,
they should be housed in separate, enclosed
compartments, which are vented to the outside.
12.47 There should be gas-tight seals where electrical
services pass through any gas compartment.
Remote audible sounder
12.48 All panels should have provision for connection to
a remote audible sounder.
a. medical oxygen (cryogenic and cylinders/
pressure swing adsorber (PSA) systems);
Central indicator panel requirements
b. nitrous oxide;
Displays
c. nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture;
12.49 The central panel should display all signals for all
d. medical air 400 kPa (compressor plant,
cylinders and synthetic air);
e. surgical air 700 kPa;
MGPS which are generated by the warning and
alarm system, as described in paragraphs 12.50–
12.53.
f. medical vacuum (pumps);
Normal
g. helium/oxygen mixture.
12.50 The normal condition for all piped MGPS should
12.39 In addition to the gas service signal indicators,
each panel must include:
a. a green “power on” indicator without an
audible signal;
b. a red “alarm system fault” indicator with an
audible signal.
Labelling
12.40 Panels should be labelled as follows:
a. medical gas alarm;
b. with the identification of the medical gas
services indicated, and the areas and
departments served.
be displayed as a steady green visual signal. The
“normal” indicator should extinguish in warning
and alarm conditions.
Warnings
12.51 Warning conditions appropriate to each MGPS
should be displayed as a flashing yellow visual
signal that may be accompanied by a mutable
audible signal (see Table 24).
Emergency alarms
12.52 Emergency alarms are generated by loss of pipeline
pressure or vacuum and are indicated by flashing
red visual signals accompanied by mutable audible
signals.
Construction
Alarm system fault
12.41 The fascia panel should be removable to allow
12.53 The “alarm system fault” condition should
access to the rear of the fascia or to the panel for
maintenance purposes.
12.42 Access to the interior of the panel should be
tamper-proof.
12.43 It should be possible to replace the source of
illumination without removing the legend.
be displayed as a flashing red visual signal
accompanied by a mutable audible signal.
Mute functions
12.54 The temporary mute should cancel the audible
signal for about 15 minutes and change the visual
indicators from flashing to continuous on all
central and repeater panels.
101
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
12.55 Operation of the continuous mute should inhibit
the 15-minute reinstatement of the audible alarm.
12.56 Operation of the mute should not inhibit the
visual or audible indication of any subsequent
alarm conditions.
Panel legend and display
12.57 Panel legend and display should be as shown in
Table 24.
Repeater indicator panel requirements
Displays
12.58 The repeater indicator panel should always display
“normal”, “emergency alarm” and “alarm system
fault” conditions as given above. The repeater
panel should display some or all of the warning
conditions that are displayed on the central
indicator panel. The extent of the display of
warnings should be varied to suit local clinical
requirements.
Mute functions
12.59 The temporary mute should cancel the audible
signal for about 15 minutes whilst the visual
indicator continues to flash. Operation of the
temporary mute (on the central panel) should
change the visual indicator to continuous
illumination on the central and any repeater
panels.
12.60 Operation of the continuous mute must inhibit
the 15-minute reinstatement of the audible alarm.
12.61 Operation of the mute should not inhibit the
visual or audible indication of any subsequent
alarm conditions.
Panel legend and display
12.62 The panel legend and display should be as shown
in Table 24.
Area warning and alarm panel
Panel displays and legend
12.63 Area panels should display the conditions listed in
Table 25.
Mute functions
12.64 The temporary mute should cancel the audible
signal for about 15 minutes whilst the visual
indicator continues to flash.
102
12.65 Operation of the mute should not inhibit the
visual or audible indication of any subsequent
alarm conditions.
Integrated systems
12.66 The introduction of computer-based systems for
a range of functions such as patient information,
nurse call and other alarm conditions provides an
opportunity to further include certain provisions
of medical gas pipeline warning and alarm
conditions. This concept is totally new and, at this
stage, the applications have not been thoroughly
evaluated or analysed. One of the advantages of
the concept is that text prompts can be displayed
on the computer display when changes in the
status of the pipeline occur, and these prompts can
advise staff of the need to take specific action.
12.67 The advantage of a computer-based system is that
the advice given in the text message can be varied
to take account of specific circumstances, changes
in operating procedures and functional changes
within individual departments. Such systems
are likely to be of most use in in-patient ward
accommodation; it may not be appropriate for
central warning and alarm conditions or in
individual operating rooms and other
accommodation in which anaesthetic procedures
are taking place.
12.68 It will be necessary to change the perception of
users in that with this approach the “normal”
conditions of the pipeline systems that are
continuously displayed on alarm indicator panels
will not exist – audible emissions and displayed
messages generated by the computer-based system
will be in response to changes from the “normal”
situation. To ensure the long-term viability of the
system, any supplier or installer of such a system
must supply sufficient information about the
system to allow modification, expansion or
replacement of sections of the system by a third
party. This must include source code for any
software, passwords and details of any other
security device, and details of any communication
protocols. This information must be handed to the
end-user before the system is accepted by the enduser.
Note
No further information can be given at this stage until
further development and consultation takes place.
12 Warning and alarm systems
Table 24 Signals and displays for central alarm panels and repeater panels
Supply system(1)
Alarm conditions
Legend
Colour
Audible
system
Location(2)
Automatic manifolds
1. Duty bank empty: stand-by
bank running
Change cylinders
Yellow
Yes
AB
2. Stand-by bank below 10%
capacity
Change cylinders
immediately
Yellow
Yes
AB
Compressed cylinders on automatic Changeover of manifold. Pressure
manifold serving a single vessel
in each bank is not monitored.
cryogenic oxygen system or liquid
cylinder installation
Reserve low
Yellow
Yes
AB
Compressed cylinders on reserve
Changeover of manifold. Pressure
manifold serving a compressor plant in each bank is not monitored.
Reserve low
Yellow
Yes
AB
Compressed cylinders on reserve
manifold serving an automatic
manifold
Reserve low
Yellow
Optional
AB
Medical air compressor and surgical 1. Plant fault
air compressor
2. Plant emergency
Plant fault
Yellow
Yes
AB
Plant emergency
Yellow
Yes
AB
Medical vacuum plant
1. Plant fault
Plant fault
Yellow
Yes
AB
2. Plant emergency
Plant emergency
Yellow
Yes
AB
1. Plant fault
Plant fault
Yellow
Yes
AB
2. Plant emergency
Plant emergency
Yellow
Yes
AB
Oxygen concentrator
Reserve pressure below 68 bar
(<14 bar for N2O)
Pressure fault (pipeline) high or low For each gas service to indicate
and oxygen concentration fault for that the pressure in the
PSA plant
distribution system has risen/
fallen from the “normal” working
pressure given in Chapter 4
and, for PSA plant, that O2
concentration <94%
Pressure fault
Red
Yes
AB
Vacuum pressure (pipeline)
Pressure fault
Red
Yes
AB
To indicate that vacuum in the
pipeline distribution system has
risen above the normal working
pressure given in Chapter 4
Notes:
1. For liquid supply systems, see Chapter 6.
2. A = Central indicator panel – telephone room and/or porters’ room, ie 24-hour occupancy.
B = Facilities management office reception.
Table 25 Area panel legend and display
Alarm function
Legend
Colour
Auditory
signal
For oxygen, nitrous oxide and medical air(1) to indicate that the pressure in the pipeline
serving the department has risen above the normal value given in Chapter 4
High pressure
Red
Yes
For each gas service to indicate that the pressure in the pipeline serving the department
has fallen below the normal value given in Chapter 4
Low pressure
Red
Yes
For vacuum to indicate that the pressure in the pipeline serving the department has
risen above the normal value given in Chapter 4
Vacuum fault
Red
Yes
Notes:
1. A high pressure alarm is only required when oxygen, nitrous oxide and medical air are installed together.
For location of area panels, see Table 11.
103
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
13
Pipeline installation
13.1 Generally, MGPS should be kept away from areas
where they may be subject to any of the following:
a. mechanical damage;
b. chemical damage;
c. excessive heat;
d. splashing, dripping or permanent contact with
oil, grease or bituminous compounds, electrical
sparks etc.
13.2 Service ducts or voids containing pipelines that
include valves etc should have adequate ventilation
to prevent gas build-up in the event of any leakage.
Elsewhere, where pipelines are brazed throughout
their entire length (and where they will have been
subjected to a pressure test), no ventilation is
required.
13.3 Exposed pipelines should not be installed in lift
shafts, kitchens, laundries, boilerhouses, generator
rooms, incinerator rooms, storage rooms designed
to house combustible materials, or in any other
fire-risk areas. Where pipelines in hazardous areas
are unavoidable, they should be enclosed in noncombustible, non-corrosive materials that have no
electrolytic reaction with copper in order to prevent
the possibility of the liberation of gases into the
room in the event of pipeline failure. Medical gas
pipelines should be routed away from natural gas
pipelines where there is a potential for a flammable
gas mixture to accumulate in the case of a leak.
13.4 Where pipelines are run in enclosed ducts with
other services such as steam mains and water supply
systems, they should be inspected regularly as
corrosion can occur as a result of chloride deposits
following leakage. They should not be run in
enclosed ducts with other services where they
cannot be inspected.
13.5 External pipe runs should be avoided when
possible. Where external runs, however, are
necessary, they should be protected as follows:
a. on external vertical surfaces up to the
maximum height of exposure to possible
104
damage (for example vehicular movement):
by means of galvanised, profile-section steel
of sufficient thickness to afford adequate
protection. The protection should cover the
entire space taken up by the pipeline(s), but
stand off the surface such that the pipes can be
inspected visually (The armour should be
readily detachable to permit more detailed
inspection.);
b. when crossing horizontal surfaces, roofs etc:
similar protection to (a) above should be
provided to withstand “stepping” damage
using profiled section, as above.
13.6 Pipework should be protected from lightning
strikes by ensuring that they are run within a
60‑degree cone beneath the lightning conductor,
for example when run along parapet walls, or when
penetrating parapet walls. When run across roof
surfaces, a copper lightning conductor should be
run on the top surface of the pipework cover
providing physical protection, and should be
bonded to it.
13.7 Internal pipelines should be suitably protected
where there is a possibility of physical damage,
for example from the passage of trolleys, tugs etc.
13.8 Wherever practicable, a clearance of at least 25 mm
should be maintained between each service and
150 mm should be the separation distance between
the medical gas pipeline and heating pipes, hot
water service and steam pipelines. Where pipelines
cross over other services and a clearance of 25 mm
cannot be maintained, they should be electrically
bonded and wrap-insulated, in accordance with
IEE regulations. They should be bonded to main
earth at building entry and exit. Care is required
when selecting pipeline routes to prevent the pipes
coming into contact with electric cables and wiring,
and to minimise the risk of electric shock in the
event of a fault on adjacent cables (see Chapter 2).
13.9 Underground pipelines should be run in properly
drained ducts not less than 450 mm x 450 mm
which have removable covers. Where it is not
13 Pipeline installation
Figure 34 Typical ring-main arrangement
possible to provide removable covers, two pipes
should be run in separate trenches with valves
provided in a convenient location at either end.
The valves should comprise LVAs with NIST
connectors for the purposes of pressure and other
tests. The separation distance between the two
trenches should be not less than 2 m (see
Figure 33). The two pipes should each be sized for
the design flow. One or more different gas pipelines
can be run in each trench. The route of the pipeline
should be identified on the surface and should be
clearly shown on site layout drawings. The
possibility of installing a “ring-main” (see
Figure 34) or double-end supply should also be
considered for both air and oxygen within the
curtilage of the building.
Primary
& Secondary
VIE
Primary
VIE
Non-return
valve
Ball
valve
Non-return
valve
Ball
valve
Riser to
department
N.B. Diameter of ring pipework is
determined by maximum flow to be
carried (ie total flow of all departments
connected to the ring)
13.10 Pipelines concealed within walls should have
their route clearly shown on “as-fitted” drawings.
Pipelines should not be encapsulated in floors,
and any joints should be kept to the minimum
practicable. Pipelines in stud or plasterboard walls
or partitions are acceptable, but the pipeline
should be protected from corrosion. If the
enclosure of pipelines within plaster wall finishes is
unavoidable, they should be wrapped in protective
grease-free tape.
Ball
valve
Ball
valve
Non-return
valve
13.11 Pipelines need further protection in certain
Secondary
VIE
circumstances as follows:
a. where pipes pass through walls, partitions or
floors, they should be provided with sleeves of
copper pipe (with fire stopping) and, where
exposed to general view, be provided with
appropriate wall or ceiling plates;
Non-return
valve
Fully
Automatic
Manifold
This diagram shows a single feed from each source to the ring main. However,
attention is drawn to paragraph 13.9, which details the provision of double feeds to
reduce the risk of supply failure arising from mechanical damage to vulnerable
pipework.
Note: NIST connectors should be fitted either side of each valve. Where three valves
are installed close together, only one needs to be installed between the set of three.
Figure 33 Typical twin pipeline supply arrangement
Pipes in separate
ducts/trenches.
Minimum separation 2 m
Interior of building
LEGEND
VIE compound with
primary and secondary
vessel
Line valve with blanking spades
Non-return valve
NIST test point
Dotted denotes part of VIE installation
105
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
b. in radiodiagnostic procedure rooms etc, radio
frequency (RF) screening wave guides may be
required (the advice of the equipment
manufacturer should be sought);
c. corrosion of pipes can occur where they are in
contact with timber that has been treated with
fire-resistant or flame-retardant compounds, for
example some timber used for roof trusses and
floor joists.
13.12 This contact should be avoided by the use of
impermeable non-metallic materials in the area
where contact may occur. PVC spacers or adhesive
PVC tape may be used for this purpose. If spacers
are used they should not be liable to drop out due
to shrinkage or subsequent movement of the pipe
or timber.
13.13 Such precautions are not required where untreated
timber is used or where the treated timber is
effectively sealed with paint or varnish before the
pipes are fixed to it.
Pipeline materials
Quality
13.14 The manufacturer should comply with BS EN
ISO 9001:2000 for pipes and for all materials
including fittings, terminal units etc. A complete
specification is given in Model Engineering
Specification C11 – ‘Medical gases’.
13.15 Where materials are obtained from suppliers from
other countries, the suppliers should be registered
in accordance with BS EN ISO 9001:2000.
Pipes
13.16 Material for pipes should be manufactured from
phosphorus deoxidised, non-arsenical copper to
BS EN 1412:1996 grade CW024A (Cu-DHP)
in metric outside diameters and to:
• BS EN 13348:2001 – R250 (half hard) for
sizes up to 54 mm; or
• BS EN 13348:2001 – R220 (annealed) for
larger sizes.
Stainless steel is a suitable material for medical gas
pipeline installations, but is not currently used by
installers, and Standards have yet to be established.
Pipe jointing fittings
13.17 In addition to the above, pipe jointing fittings
should be end-feed capillary fittings to BS EN
1254-1:1998.
106
Note
For straight couplings, expanded joints may be used.
Other fittings
13.18 Other fittings for connection to copper pipes (for
example valve and control panel fittings) may be of
copper, brass, gun-metal, bronze or stainless steel.
Cleaning
Pipes
13.19 All pipes must be cleaned and degreased for
oxygen service and be free of particulate matter
and toxic residues in accordance with BS EN
13348:2001. They must be individually capped
at both ends and delivered to site identified as
medical gas pipes.
Pipe jointing fittings
13.20 All pipe jointing fittings and sub-assemblies of
fittings for connection to pipes must be cleaned
and degreased for oxygen service and be free of
particulate matter and toxic residues. They must
be individually sealed in bags or boxes and
delivered to site identified as medical gas fittings.
13.21 Although it is not essential to degrease vacuum
installations, these are frequently installed by the
contractor simultaneously with the medical gas
pipelines. Degreased pipe and fittings should
therefore be used for the vacuum installations to
avoid confusion. PVC pipework may also be used
for vacuum and AGSS but is unlikely to be of
benefit other than for exhaust discharges.
Note
Pipes should only be cut with wheel pipe cutters, not
hacksaws, to prevent the ingress of copper particles.
Pipeline jointing
General
13.22 Except for mechanical joints, only copper-to-
copper joints will be permitted on site, made with
brazing filler rods that can be used without flux.
13 Pipeline installation
Note
Brazing is performed at a higher temperature than in
the case of silver soldering with capillary fittings; the
exterior of the pipe will therefore have considerably
darker oxide deposits.
13.23 Copper joints to brass or gun-metal fittings will
require the use of flux, with subsequent cleaning
to remove the flux residues and oxide deposits.
13.24 Heating of the joint for brazing should be carried
out with oxygen/acetylene or acetylene, liquid
petroleum gas/oxygen torches. Additional heating
may be required for some fittings, for example,
by means of a second torch.
13.25 The techniques recommended cover all copper-to-
copper joints and all copper-to-brass/gun-metal/
bronze joints in an MGPS, and are explained in
more detail below.
13.26 The brazing technique should be used on all
medical gas pipeline services.
Pipe preparation
13.27 Pipe ends should be cut square with the pipe axis,
using sharp wheel cutters whenever possible, and
be cleaned to get rid of any cuttings or burrs.
Expanded joints should be made using the
appropriate tools and dies. Only where the cut
pipe has either deformation or a burr which
significantly restricts the flow of gas will deburring be necessary. Only oil- and grease-free
tools and dies should be used.
13.28 When brazing copper-to-copper joints:
a. the brazed joints should be made using a silvercopper-phosphorus brazing alloy CP104 to
BS EN 1044:1999. No flux should be used;
b. ensure adequate protection of adjacent pipe
runs and other services.
Note
Brazing copper to brass/gun-metal/bronze is not
performed on site. Manufacturers use copper-silverzinc brazing alloy AG203 to BS EN 1044:1999 with
an appropriate flux. The flux residues created by the
process are chemically removed and, if necessary, the
complete assembly is cleaned and degreased for oxygen
service. Where brass/gun-metal/bronze fittings are
required to be installed they should be supplied
complete with copper “tails” of adequate length to
ensure that the brazing process does not damage the
components.
Use of N2 internal inert gas shield
13.29 Brazing should be carried out using oxygen-free
nitrogen as an internal inert gas shield to prevent
the formation of oxides on the inside of the pipes
and fittings. This method leaves a bright, clean
bore. Some slight burnishing may occasionally
be observed on sectioned joints. Purging is still
required to remove the internal shield gas and the
other particulate matter not associated with the
brazing operation.
13.30 Oxygen-free nitrogen should be supplied to the
inside of the pre-assembled, unbrazed pipework
through a pressure regulator and flow controller or
flow-regulating device.
Application
13.31 Oxygen-free nitrogen as an internal inert gas shield
should be used for all positive pressure gases and
for vacuum pipelines – up to and including
22 mm – that are run in medical gas supply units
and to individual terminal-unit drops. Once the
route of the vacuum service has been clearly
established (that is, above the ceiling level),
nitrogen purging may be discontinued. Nitrogen
purging is not required for AGS disposal systems.
Note
During the first-fix stage of pipeline installation,
particularly when installing in confined locations such
as medical supply units or running pipework within
partitions etc to individual terminal unit drops, it is
possible to inadvertently crossover a pipeline. This is
usually discovered at an early stage and, so that the
pipe section can be re-assigned and the fault can be
corrected, it is essential to use the shield gas to
maintain the cleanliness of the internal bore.
13.32 By agreement between the health facility
management and the pipeline contractor, the use
of a purge gas may be waived on joints such as
break-ins to old pipeline systems, where pipe joints
will not have been made in accordance with this
technique.
13.33 It is recommended that the pipeline to be brazed
should first be flushed to remove the air. This may
be followed during the brazing operating by a
continuous or intermittent flow as necessary to
prevent the ingress of air. Pipe ends may be capped
if desired to direct the flow of nitrogen into
sections of the pipe or pipes to be brazed.
Particular attention should be given to the gas
107
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
shielding of T-joint fittings. Care should also
be taken to ensure that other pipelines in close
proximity to the one being brazed do not oxidise
due to heat transfer. It is essential that there is a
leak-free connection between the pipework to be
brazed and the nitrogen supply.
Safety
13.34 If working for prolonged periods in very confined
spaces, precautions must be taken to avoid
excessive build-up of nitrogen by ventilating the
space or by piping the shield gas safely out of the
space. The oxygen content of the ambient air
should be monitored when brazing in a confined
space.
Control of cylinders
13.35 The contractor and the site engineer must keep
a record of nitrogen cylinders held on a site.
Nitrogen cylinders should be accounted for and
removed from the site at the end of the contract,
and must not become mixed up with medical gas
cylinders.
Inspection of joints
13.36 Inspection of joints should be carried as a “rolling”
procedure on a monthly basis as work progresses
for each team performing the installation in
accordance with the following procedure:
a. the site engineer should identify a number of
fittings to be cut out for examination in order
to establish the quality of the finished joint.
The exact number to be cut out will vary with
the size of the installation: as a guide, a ratio
of one fitting per 200 should be cut out; a
minimum of ten for all systems should be cut
out for examination (it is preferable to perform
these checks before pressure-testing sections of
pipeline);
b. the fittings cut out should be cut open
(quartered longitudinally) and examined. If
unacceptable joints are found, adjacent fittings
should be cut out until the extent of any faulty
workmanship has been established. This may
require extensive removal of sections of the
installation.
Internal cleanliness
13.37 The tube and fitting should be internally clean and
free from oxides and particulate matter. Some heat
burnishing may be apparent and is acceptable.
108
Penetration
13.38 Penetration of brazing alloy:
a. due to tolerances of the capillary space on these
pipes and fittings, full penetration of the
brazing alloy may not occur and is not
necessary;
b. the minimum penetration at any point on the
joint must be three times the wall thickness of
the tube or 3 mm, whichever is greater;
c. the pipe should be fully inserted up to the
shoulder of the fitting.
Note
These tests can be carried out on a sectional basis.
Jointing methods (mechanical)
13.39 In addition to mechanical connections to plant
and valve assemblies, mechanical connections
can be used for connecting pre-piped bed-head
trunking/wall units to the pipeline distribution
system. They may also be used in situations where
brazing may present a fire risk and in other
situations when patients cannot be transferred to
alternative accommodation (in which case they
should be of the permanently swaged type).
Mechanical connections should have comparable
structural integrity to brazed fittings in normal
operation and in the event of fire. Any lubricant
required for swaging should be oxygen-compatible.
The fittings should not contain elastomeric
materials.
13.40 Mechanical joints can also be used in an
emergency. Fittings that are non-permanent should
be number-tagged and marked on the record
drawings.
Note
Open ends of the remaining pipework should be
capped off. The installation should be made good as
soon as possible in accordance with paragraphs 13.29–
13.35.
13.41 PTFE tape is not an acceptable sealing material on
oxygen systems or elsewhere downstream of final
filters on supply plants.
13 Pipeline installation
13.46 The connection of individual, or a number of,
Note
PTFE tape, if applied, can enter the gas system and
fragments can block terminal units and present a fire
hazard with high-pressure oxygen. Also, when applied
by hand, traces of oil and grease can contaminate the
inside of the pipeline.
13.42 Liquid or gel-sealing media should be used only
if they have been tested and proven safe when
subjected to the tests specified in BS EN ISO
15001:2004.
Capping
13.43 Sections of pipeline should be capped as soon as
they are completed so as to prevent the ingress of
debris.
Pipe supports
13.44 The pipeline should be adequately supported at
sufficient intervals in accordance with Table 26 to
prevent sagging or distortion. Supports for surfacemounted pipework should provide clearance to
permit painting of the surface. Where it is essential
for pipes to cross electric cables or conduit, they
should be supported at intervals on either side of
the crossing to prevent them from touching the
cables or conduit. Supports should be of suitable
material or suitably treated to minimise corrosion
and prevent electrolytic reaction between pipes and
supports.
vacuum terminal units into branches should be
taken into the top of the pipeline to avoid flooding
other vertical pipe drops, should liquid carry-over
occur. Each vacuum main riser should be provided
with a double (15 mm) valve arrangement at the
base, with an intervening full bore pipe section,
preferably transparent, to permit drainage when
the system is under vacuum; one of the valves
should be lockable in the closed position. Within
trunking systems and medical supply units etc,
vacuum pipes should connect into the underside
of terminal units.
Identification of pipelines
13.47 Pipelines should be identified in accordance
with BS 1710:1984, and colour banding for
the pipelines should be used. Colour band
identification (see Figure 35) should be applied
near to valves, junctions, walls etc. A label applied
every 3 m and bearing 6 mm size letters should
identify each gas. Self-adhesive plastic labels of
Figure 35 Pipeline identification colours
O2
N2O
O2/N2O
50/50
MA
Table 26 Intervals between copper pipe supports
(horizontal and vertical)
SA
Outside diameter (mm)
Maximum interval between
supports (m)
Up to 15
1.5
22–28
2.0
35–54
2.5
>54
3.0
Note: Consideration should be given to additional supports
near LVAs, elbows etc where the potential effects of
inadvertently applied torque can result in severe pipeline
distortion or fracture.
VAC
AGS
He/O2
NITROUS OXIDE
OXYGEN/NITROUS OXIDE
MIXTURE
50%/50%
MEDICAL AIR
SURGICAL AIR
MEDICAL VACUUM
AGS SYSTEM
79/21
HELIUM/OXYGEN MIXTURE
79%/21%
SN
SURGICAL NITROGEN
(Alternative label N2)
13.45 Pipelines need not be laid with falls. In the case of
vacuum, the sub-atmospheric pressure will result
in the evaporation of any moisture entering the
system.
OXYGEN
EXHAUST
EXHAUST FROM PSVs ETC
CO 2
CARBON DIOXIDE
109
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
approved manufacture may be used for this
purpose. A band 150 mm wide is usually adequate.
All colour-coded tapes applied by the pipe
manufacturers should be removed before the
systems are identified, in accordance with this
paragraph.
13.48 Care should be taken to maintain pipeline
identification when periodical re-painting is
undertaken. The direction of flow should be
indicated.
Pipeline components
13.49 Pipeline components, which may be attached to
an MGPS, include various types of terminal unit,
AVSUs and other components such as emergency
inlet ports and pressure control equipment.
Medical supply units
13.50 These should comply with BS EN ISO 11197:
2004. The construction should provide segregation
of FELV electrical services by means of partitions
or flexible conduit as appropriate. Access to “live”
components should be via panels that are
removable by means of tools only. Multi-purpose
medical supply units should be constructed in such
a manner to ensure that flexible hoses are not
subject to excessive “kinking” or “twisting”. The
flexible hose materials should be free from volatile
or organic compounds and be tested prior to
installation. Rigid units should be piped in copper.
13.51 When these fittings include flexible connecting
assemblies for the gas supply, the method of
attachment to rigid pipework or terminal units
should be by means of the appropriate NIST
connector in accordance with BS EN 737-1:1998.
13.52 The fittings should be provided with adequate
venting to allow escape of gas in the event of
rupture of one or all of the medical gas services.
13.53 The recommended height for rigid pendants is
2000 mm above FFL. The maximum height for
pendants capable of vertical movement should be
2000 mm above FFL in the fully retracted
position.
13.54 The use of medical air for pneumatically actuated
pendants is covered in Chapter 3.
Note
In cases where medical or surgical air terminal units
are not required to be included in these pendants, an
AVSU will still be required “locally” for emergency
isolation and servicing of the air-braking mechanisms
of some units.
Flexible pendant fittings
13.55 These should comply with the requirements of
BS EN 737-1:1998 and BS EN 739:1998. In
particular, all loose assemblies should be provided
with appropriate NIST connectors.
Bed-head trunking/walling systems
13.56 These fittings should generally be in accordance
with BS EN ISO 11197:2004. Separate
compartments should be provided for electrical
services, nurse call/radio etc and medical gas
pipelines.
13.57 Any flexible connecting assemblies used within the
fitting should comply with BS EN 739:1998.
13.58 The medical gas compartment should be provided
with ventilation by means of louvres, slots etc to
prevent the accumulation of any gas in the event
of rupture of the medical gas pipeline services.
13.59 In some departments, to engender a more
domestic environment, medical gas and other
bedhead services are installed within concealed
recesses (or behind decorative panels, paintings
etc). In such cases, adequate provision must be
made for ventilation, and the required space
to permit connection and disconnection of
equipment should be considered. The covers
should be clearly labelled to indicate that medical
gas equipment is installed within/behind.
13.60 There are three possible installation procedures:
a. the connection between the pipeline and the
trunking should be considered as a second-fix,
with the trunking being pre-piped and
certificated as having passed a first-fix test; after
brazing, the joints will be subject to a secondfix test and leak-tested;
b. the connection between the trunking and the
pipework should be as paragraph 13.55;
c. the connection should be by mechanical
means, and the separate pipeline connections
should be staggered to prevent cross-connection
110
13 Pipeline installation
at a later date in the event of the necessity to
dismount and reconnect.
Note
After any such disconnection and reconnection, it will
be necessary to carry out the full range of anticonfusion tests.
13.65 LVAs should be provided as follows:
a. at the connection of the pipeline to any source
of supply;
b. at the emergency inlet port (that is, it forms the
emergency inlet point);
c. at the pipeline entry to a building;
d. at the pipeline exit from a building;
LVAs and AVSUs
13.61 All valves should be of the lever-ball type, having
flanged O-ring seal connections which open and
close with a 90-degree rotation: the handle should
be in line with the pipeline when open.
LVAs
13.62 LVAs should be capable of being locked with the
valve in the open or closed position. Means of
physically isolating and blanking the pipeline both
upstream and downstream of the valve should be
provided. The means of isolation should be in the
form of a spade that can be readily deployed. It
should blank both the pipeline and the valve port
and be visible when deployed. Each valve should
be provided with a set of “through” and “blanking”
spades; they should be coloured white and red
respectively. The valve flange should include the
thread, and the bolts should be of sufficient length
to permit loosening to allow removal/replacement
of the spades without loss of structural integrity
of the connection. Union-type connections with
O-rings are permissible, but the securing nut must
also have sufficient thread length to permit venting
while maintaining the structural integrity of the
connection. A single key for each service is
considered to provide sufficient security.
13.63 In the event of leakage of the through or
blanking spade, gas must be capable of venting to
atmosphere and must not be able to enter either
the valve port or the pipeline section blanked.
13.64 The appropriate NIST connector bodies with self-
sealing check valves and lockable blanking nuts
should be provided upstream and downstream of
the flanges. Gas identity and flow direction arrows
should be provided for each valve.
Note
A single NIST connector will suffice in ring-main
branch connections between the three closely spaced
valves.
e. at the connection of branches to the main
pipeline run;
f. at the connection to risers;
g. at branches from risers to serve a number of
similar departments;
h. upstream, downstream and in the branch
connection to a ring-main.
Notes
a. Where departments on a floor are functionally very
different, for example wards and diagnostic areas,
it is preferable to run separate branches from the
risers.
b. LVAs should not be installed where a leakage of
gas could cause an accumulation that is likely to
result in a hazardous atmosphere developing.
The assembly should include clear labelling of the
service.
AVSUs
13.66 AVSUs are provided for user access in an
emergency (or for maintenance purposes). They
should be in accordance with the requirements
above for LVAs except that security is achieved by
installing them in an enclosure with a lockable
door designed such that it can be closed with the
valve either in the “open” or “closed” position.
Note
The views of the building operator should be sought as
to the level of security that will be required and hence
the range of keys.
13.67 In an emergency, the user must be able to gain
access in order to operate the isolating valves
quickly and simply without the need for a key.
There are several methods of providing such
emergency access, for example break-glass panels
and plastic push/pull-out inserts. Whichever
method is used must be safe and secure and must
111
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
clearly act as a deterrent to tampering without
introducing undue risk of injury to the user. Float
glass must not be used. The method of emergency
access must be obvious and clearly labelled, and its
use must be evident.
13.68 AVSUs may be designed for a single pipeline
service or multi-services. Where the cover bears the
name of the gas service, it should be gas-specific.
In the case of multi-service AVSUs, the design
should permit the attachment of a hose assembly
to any one or more of the NIST connectors and be
such that the door can then be closed and locked.
The AVSU may include provision for pressure
gauges/pressure switches by means of separate
bosses.
13.69 The enclosure should have adequate ventilation to
prevent the accumulation of gas in the event of a
leak. Pipe entries and other penetrations should be
sealed to prevent gas escape by routes other than
the vents or openings into the user space. The
enclosure should be designed to facilitate sealing
of these entries on site. Gas identity and flow
direction arrows should be provided for each valve.
13.70 Provision and location of AVSUs is covered in
Chapter 3.
Note
AVSUs should not be installed in positions where they
can be obscured or damaged, for example within the
“swing” of a department door or behind partitions.
Specific labelling requirements
13.71 All AVSUs should be labelled to identify the
individual rooms, sets of terminal units etc
controlled. The upstream and downstream NIST
connectors should be clearly identified by a
permanent label, securely fixed.
13.72 In critical care areas, where dual circuits and/or
subdivisions of circuits occur, terminal units need
to be correspondingly identified with the specific
AVSUs (see Figures 4 and 5).
13.73 In the case of pneumatically-powered pendant
fittings where, typically, medical air (or surgical
air) is used for the power source, the AVSU that
controls the pneumatically-powered devices should
be identified.
112
Pressure control equipment
13.74 Medical gases may be distributed at a higher
pressure than the eventual nominal pipeline
distribution pressure at terminal units. Where this
is the case, the maximum pressure should not
exceed 1100 kPa, and the local pressure “control”
equipment should be installed in an area that has
good ventilation and be in a position where it is
readily accessible for maintenance/service.
13.75 The pressure control equipment should include
duplex pressure-regulating valves, each with
upstream and downstream isolating valves, safety
valves and NIST connectors. The safety valve
discharges should be run to the exterior of the
building; medical air and surgical air may be
discharged within a plant space, for example
a plantroom above an operating department,
provided it is terminated in a safe position.
Pressure sensors
13.76 Pressure sensors to provide the alarm function will
need to be fitted to pipeline distribution systems.
In all cases they should be installed in a location
which is adequately ventilated and having access
for maintenance. They may be incorporated
downstream of AVSUs. Where not incorporated
into an AVSU, the pressure sensor should be
close to the AVSU so that it is accessible for
maintenance. Pressure sensors should be factoryset and be a replacement item. They should be
connected to the pipeline by means of a minimum
leak connector.
Pressure gauges
13.77 Pressure gauges are not usually required outside
the plantroom of an MGPS. If provided, however,
they should similarly be installed in an adequately
ventilated location. They may be incorporated
within AVSUs, operating room supply fittings etc.
They should be installed with isolation cocks.
Test points
13.78 Each supply plant, that is, liquid facility, manifold
(main and ERM), compressor plant, PSA and
blending plant, should be provided with a test
point comprising lockable valve and terminal unit.
This should be within the plantroom or enclosure,
and be sited immediately upstream of the
distribution pipeline isolating valve.
13 Pipeline installation
Emergency inlet port
13.79 Medical oxygen and 400 kPa medical air systems
should be provided with an emergency inlet port
to the pipeline distribution system. This should be
located downstream from the main source of
supply line valve isolation point to permit
connection of a temporary supply plant. The
emergency inlet should comprise an LVA, an
additional non-return valve on the emergency inlet
side and a connection that can be blanked, to
which the emergency inlet can be made.
13.80 An emergency inlet port is not required for
700 kPa surgical air systems.
Line pressure alarms and safety valves
13.81 The purpose of the line pressure alarm is to warn
users that the nominal line operating pressure is
out of limits and that gas mixtures, whether
supplied by a blender/mixer, an anaesthetic
machine or patient ventilator, may deviate from
the clinically desired proportion. Local action can
then be taken to adjust the mixture, or when an
anaesthetic machine is in use the reserve cylinders
can be brought into use. The low-pressure alarm
for nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture supply pipelines
will warn of possible demand valve regulator
failure so that a portable cylinder can be made
available. The high/low pressure limits have been
set to accommodate the design of most types of
anaesthetic equipment where differential pressure
or low pressure may affect performance.
13.82 The line pressure safety valve provides limited
safety from differential pressure effects since the
pressure at which maximum discharge occurs will
result in a differential much greater than that for
which the anaesthetic equipment has been
designed. They are therefore strictly system
protection devices. All safety valves should have
a separate discharge pipe that is run to a safe
position which – except for air – should be
external.
13.83 The commissioning of medical gas pipeline line
pressure regulators, warning and alarm systems,
and pressure settings is crucial to the performance
of anaesthetic equipment and patient safety; once
commissioned, medical gas pipelines are
subject to strict permit-to-work procedures.
Decommissioning a complete system is highly
disruptive to patient care and introduces
considerable risk.
13.84 The Pressure Systems and Transportable Gas
Containers Regulations 1989 require pressure
safety devices to be periodically tested. It is not
appropriate to test an MGPS by either raising
the line pressure regulator setting or manually
unseating the relief valve. Such action could result
in failure of anaesthetic equipment and – if the
safety valve to fails to reseat – considerable gas loss
and further hazard. Medical gas pipeline line
distribution systems should be provided with a
pressure relief device downstream of the line
pressure regulator connected by means of a
three-way cock so that the safety device can be
exchanged for a “certificated” replacement in
accordance with the frequency required by the
Regulations.
Other systems
13.85 Quench dump pipes from magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) cryostatic units should be sized
to pass the high flows resulting from magnet
quenching. They should be routed to safe areas
and protected from obstruction. Failure to install
adequately sized pipework will result in the venting
of asphyxiant helium and/or nitrogen at low
temperatures into the working environment,
with potentially fatal results.
113
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
14
Accommodation
Design and construction of plant and
manifold rooms
Location of manifold rooms
14.1 Cylinder gas/liquid supply systems should not
be located in the same room as medical air
compressors, PSA systems or vacuum plants.
14.2 Manifold rooms, emergency/reserve manifold
rooms for PSA systems, VIE installations and
medical compressed air systems should be located
to take account of the risk assessment, but should
also take account of the location of the medical gas
cylinder storage area.
14.3 All manifolds, including the emergency reserve
manifolds, may be located within the same room.
Manifold rooms should be located on an external
wall(s) to facilitate ventilation, which will be
required at high and low level. Internally sited
manifold room and cylinder stores may require
mechanical ventilation.
14.4 The emergency/reserve manifold for liquid oxygen
systems has traditionally been located within the
VIE compound, but it is preferable to site the
manifold separately. For new installations, these
emergency/reserve manifolds should be located
separately.
14.5 In the case of surgical air the volume of gas used
is relatively small even though the instantaneous
flow rates are high. Therefore, it may be more
convenient to include the manifold within the
operating department.
14.6 The surgical air 700 kPa manifold room may be
used as the ready-use store for a small number of
spare cylinders to be used on anaesthetic machines.
114
Note
It is permissible to accommodate medical compressed
air plant, vacuum plant and AGS disposal system
pumps in general plant areas accommodating such
equipment as air handling units, water service systems
etc. They should not, however, be located with heating
or hot water service equipment or equipment likely to
produce any fumes or odour.
Access
14.7 Access to manifold rooms should be from the open
air, not from corridors or other rooms.
14.8 Normal commercial lorry access is suitable for gas
cylinder delivery vehicles, but consideration should
be given to the provision of a raised level loading
bay to reduce cylinder handling hazards.
14.9 Two doors should preferably be provided in a
manifold room. One should be large enough to
facilitate cylinder handling and must be in an
outside wall. Exits must be free of all obstructions.
Doors must open outwards. All doors must
normally be locked to prevent unauthorised access,
but should be provided with means of entry and
exit in an emergency (for example by a push-bar
arrangement on the inside).
14.10Internal walls and ceilings, including any internal
doors of the manifold room, should be of a suitable
non-combustible two-hour fire-resistant material as
defined in BS 476-4:1970 and BS 476 Parts 20–23
(1987). Internal doors should be avoided where
practicable. Smoke detectors should be provided.
Automatic fire suppression should be considered.
Manifold rooms should not be located near highdependency wards.
14 Accommodation
Construction and layout of manifold rooms
14.11 The manifold room will contain the manifolds
as well as cylinder racks holding sufficient spare
cylinders to replace one bank of each manifold
and the emergency/reserve manifold. (For nitrous
oxide/oxygen manifolds, sufficient spare capacity
for two banks of cylinders should be provided.)
Further replacement cylinders should be supplied
from the medical gas cylinder store. The size of the
manifold room should therefore be determined by
the risk assessment. Adequate space should also be
allowed for cylinder handling.
14.12 A typical automatic manifold with two duty and
two stand-by cylinders is 1.8 m long and 0.6 m
deep. One extra cylinder on each bank adds
approximately 0.5 m to the overall length, so that
a 2 x 6 manifold is approximately 4 m long.
14.13 All medical gas manifolds may be installed in
the same room. Additional floor area should be
provided to accommodate separate storage racks
for each gas. The racks should be designed along
the lines of those on the manifolds, but the stored
cylinders may be closer together. Racks should
conform to ISO 32:1977. With the exception of
small cylinders of N2O/O2 mixtures, under no
circumstances should rooms contain gas cylinders
other than those appropriate to their manifolds.
Heating and ventilation
14.14 Ventilation louvres should be provided at both
high and low level for all manifold rooms, to allow
circulation of air. As a guide, separated openings
equivalent to at least 1.5% of the total area of the
walls and floor should be provided. For example,
given a manifold room 5.0 x 4.0 x 2.4 m with a
total area of the walls and ceiling of 63.2 m2, the
total free open area for ventilation required is
1 m2.
14.15 Air intakes for compressor inlets should, if
possible, be located externally. However, they
should not be installed as an alternative to the
provision of adequate ventilation for cooling
purposes.
14.16 All ventilation louvres should be vermin/bird-
proof.
14.17 PSA and medical air compressors liberate, under
maximum flow conditions, considerable heat.
Moreover, these plants aspirate air for breathing
purposes. Generous natural ventilation should be
provided, and where this is not possible if the
plantroom is deep-plan, mechanical ventilation
should be provided. The ambient temperature
of manifold rooms and plantrooms should be
maintained within the range of 10–40°C. The
ventilation rates should ensure that the plantroom
temperature does not exceed ambient temperature
by more than 10°C.
14.18 Manifold rooms may be used to store small
numbers of nitrous oxide/oxygen cylinders
intended for portable use; these are taken from the
main cylinder store for the purpose of temperature
equilibration, before being delivered to wards etc.
14.19 To achieve temperature equilibration, additional
heating may be required; the natural ventilation
must not be reduced. Where such heating is
provided, it should be by indirect means, for
example steam, hot water or warm air. Naked
flames and exposed electric elements should not be
used, and excessive surface temperature should be
avoided. If necessary, cylinders should be protected
from excessive heat. Any primary heat source
should be located in a safe position, preferably
remote from the manifold room.
14.20 Cylinder recognition charts, supplied by the
medical gas supplier, should be prominently
displayed as appropriate.
Lighting
14.21 Manifold rooms should be provided with lighting
to an illumination level of 150 lux by means of
bulkhead lighting fittings to BS EN 60529:1992.
Plantrooms other than manifold rooms should be
provided with a lighting level of 200 lux.
Noise control
14.22 Plantrooms should be designed and constructed to
ensure the satisfactory control of noise emission.
The effect of two vacuum pumps or compressors
running together, in the case of duplex
installations, and three or more in the case of
multiplex installations, will be to increase the freefield noise level outside the plantroom by 5 dBA
for each additional pump or compressor operation
over and above the specified limits. Consideration
should be given to providing acoustic enclosures to
reduce the free-field noise levels in noise-sensitive
areas adjacent to plantrooms.
14.23 Acoustic enclosure and/or plantroom design
must not inhibit normal cooling functions or
maintenance activities.
115
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
14.24 Free-field noise levels should be given to the
architect to assist in acoustic design of the
plantrooms.
14.25 The discharge from some vacuum pumps may
require silencing.
14.26 Compressors and pumps should be mounted on
properly-selected anti-vibration mounting, where
necessary, to minimise transfer of noise and
vibration to the structure of the building.
14.27 All pipework and electrical conduits connected to
the plant should be fitted with flexible connectors
116
where necessary to prevent the transmission of
noise and vibration along the pipelines and
conduits. Electrical bonding will be required.
Labelling/signage
14.28 Labelling for medical gas systems, equipment and
accommodation should be in accordance with
Appendix K.
15
Validation and verification
15.1 This chapter covers the validation and verification
and filling for use of MGPS. The requirements for
AGS disposal systems are also covered in paragraphs
15.169–15.178.
15.2 This chapter describes the tests required and the
test methods. The contractor should provide
instrumentation for the functional tests. The
Quality Control Pharmacist normally provides
instrumentation for the quality tests. Calibration
certificates should be available for all
instrumentation. Tests are listed in Appendix A
with the associated forms.
15.3 The objective of testing and commissioning is to
ensure that all the necessary safety and performance
requirements of the MGPS will be met. Testing and
commissioning procedures will be required for new
installations, additions to existing installations and
modifications to existing installations. The scope of
work will dictate the specific test programme
required. This is described in more detail in
paragraphs 15.12–15.14.
15.4 For modifications and extensions (except for the
final connection), all work should be performed
with an inert gas shield; thus, it is essential that a
physical break is employed between the pipeline
being modified/extended and the system in use.
(This will usually be by deploying “spades” in
AVSUs and LVAs, or by cutting and capping the
pipe.) Prohibition labels should be affixed to all
terminal units in the system affected in occupied
areas.
15.5 For small extensions comprising fewer than 20
brazed joints per gas service, all the tests may be
performed with the working gas – the carcass
pressure tests being replaced by a system leakage
test of the complete extension. An extension
comprising more connections would, however, be
deemed to be a small installation, requiring all the
appropriate tests to be carried out, up to the final
connection; the final connection would be tested at
pipeline distribution pressure. For the purpose of
ascertaining the number of joints, a straight
coupling comprises two joints and a “T” comprises
three joints. On a minor modification, from which
existing terminal units would not be removed, the
carcass pressure test can also be omitted. All other
tests would be required, including a working
pressure test.
15.6 The programme of tests is divided into three
phases:
a. tests and checks on the pipeline carcass;
b. tests and commissioning of the complete
pipeline system (with terminal units installed)
for safety, performance and particulate
contamination using test gas;
c. filling of the systems with specific gases for the
purposes of identity and quality tests of the
specific gases prior to use for patient care.
15.7 The basic rationale for the tests is depicted as a
decision tree in Figure 36.
Notes
Systems that are not to be taken immediately into use
should be filled with medical air and maintained at
operating pressure. Systems other than medical,
surgical or dental air supplied from compressors
should be filled with medical air from cylinders.
Commissioning of liquid supply systems prior to
handover should be avoided. (Under “no flow”
conditions, liquid will evaporate and oxygen will blow
off to atmosphere.)
15.8 The personnel and test equipment needed for these
tests are listed together with the test requirements
in Table 27. The particulate contamination test for
all pipeline systems may be checked using medical
air to establish that the pipeline has been
constructed correctly and is not contaminated.
Successful completion of the commissioning tests
normally indicates the end of the installation
contract. The systems may then be left under
pressure, filled with medical air, for an indefinite
period. Responsibility for the system during this
117
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Figure 36 Decision tree for testing and commissioning
Pre-Contract Works
Completely
new system?
Extension/
modification to
existing system
No
Yes
Prepare total
system
performance
specification
Install system
to carcass/first
fix stage
Carry out
remedial work
visual checks
Valves
leakage
cross-connection
Carry out
carcass tests
No
Test existing
system for
performance
Pass?
Yes
Yes
Remedial
work to
carcass?
No
Complete
installation to
2nd fix stage
Carry out
remedial work
leakage
cross-connection
AVSU/TU/NIST function & performance
pipeline system performance
Carry out
system tests
No
Pass?
No
OK to
purge
installation
only?
supply system performance
safety valves
alarm systems
Yes
Yes
Purge with
test gas or
working gas
Carry out
particulate test
No
Pass?
No
System
to be taken
into use
now?
Yes
No
OK to
purge
installation
only?
Purge and fill
with working
gas
Yes
Carry out gas
identity and
quality tests
No
Pass?
Yes
No
Pass?
Yes
Carry out
performance
tests of total
system
No
Completely
new system?
Yes
Remove
Construction
labels
System
available for
use
118
No
Connect to
medical air
supply source
Fill to working
pressure and
leave pressurised
System now to
be taken into
use?
Has
system been
maintained
under
pressure?
Yes
15 Validation and verification
period needs to be clearly defined in the contract;
the Authorised Person (MGPS) ultimately
responsible for the day-to-day management of the
MGPS after handover should be permitted access
during contract work. This should be included in
the contract agreement.
Table 27 Personnel and test equipment requirements
Paragraph
Test
Personnel
Equipment
15.12: Pipeline carcass
Labelling and marking
CSO and CR
Visual
Sleeving and supports
CSO and CR
Visual and tape
Leakage
CSO and CR
Pressure-measuring device
Cross-connection
CSO and CR
Pressure-measuring device
Leakage
CSO, CR and AP
Pressure-measuring device
Closure of AVSUs and LVAs
CSO, CR and AP
Pressure-measuring device
Zoning of AVSUs and
terminal unit identification
CSO, CR and AP
Open probes or special test device
Cross-connection
CSO, CR and AP
Open probes or special test device
Flow and pressure drop at
individual terminal units,
mechanical function and
correct installation
CSO, CR and AP
Special test device, certified probes
NIST connectors
CSO, CR and AP
Full bore NIST probes and nut
System performance
CSO, CR and AP
Metered leaks and special test device
Supply systems
CSO, CR and AP
Visual
Pressure safety valves
CSO, CR and AP
Visual
Warning and alarm systems
CSO, CR and AP
Visual
As-fitted drawings
CSO and AP
Visual
Purging and filling
CSO and CR
Gas source and delivery equipment
15.13: Pipeline system
Particulate contamination (see CSO, CR, AP and Particulate matter test device (PMTD)
note after paragraph 15.8)
QC (MGPS)
Gas quality
CR, QC (MGPS)
and AP
PMTD, oil, moisture, CO, CO2, SO2 and
N2 oxides measuring devices, O2 and N2O
analysers
Gas identification
CR, QC (MGPS)
and AP
O2 analyser and N2O meter
AGS disposal systems
CR and AP(1)
Metered leaks and AGS test device
Key:
CR
Contractor’s representative.
AP
Authorised Person (MGPS).
CSOContract Supervising Officer (for tests on the pipeline distribution system, CSO responsibility would normally
involve witnessing of the test documentation).
QC (MGPS)
Quality Controller (Medical Gas Pipeline Systems)
Note:
1. The QC (MGPS) can perform this test
119
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Note
In some circumstances an MGPS may not be taken
into use immediately after construction and will be
left filled with medical air. In these circumstances, the
particulate contamination and odour/taste tests may be
carried out before purging and filling with the working
gas (see paragraphs 15.81–15.82).
15.9 All supply systems and their major components
should have certificates (as specified in Model
Engineering Specification C11 – ‘Medical gases’)
which show that they meet the design requirements
of the pipeline system.
15.10Only contractors who are registered to BS EN ISO
9001:2000/BS EN ISO 13485:2003 with their
scope of registration defined to include
commissioning should undertake engineering
validation and verification.
Note
BS EN ISO 9001:2000 registration is also
recommended for independent medical gas testing
agencies but is not necessary for appropriately trained
and appointed hospital-based QCs (MGPS).
(A national register of QCs (MGPS) is to be prepared
during the lifetime of this Health Technical
Memorandum.)
15.11 All relevant tests should be carried out by the
persons listed in Table 27 and witnessed by the
appropriate persons, who must record the results
of the tests in writing for the hospital authority.
Summary of tests
Tests and checks on the pipeline carcass
15.12 The following tests must be carried out after
installation of the pipeline carcass but before
concealment:
15.13 The following tests and checks must be carried out
after complete installation of the pipeline system:
a. tests for leakage on each MGPS;
b. tests of AVSUs for closure, correct service
and control of the terminal units in the zone:
checks for correct labelling of AVSUs for zone
reference and identity of terminal units
controlled and flow direction indication;
c. tests of LVAs for closure and identification;
d. tests for cross-connection, flow, pressure drop,
mechanical function and correct identity of the
terminal units: checks for correct labelling and
association with AVSUs (this is only required
when, within a specific area, there are separate
circuits for the same service, for example dual/
split circuits);
e. tests for mechanical function and identity of
NIST connectors;
f. performance tests of the pipeline system;
g. functional tests of all supply systems;
h. checks of safety valve certification;
j. tests of warning systems;
k. tests for particulate contamination/odour/taste:
these may be carried out immediately after
installation, using medical air, or after purging
and filling with the specified gases. It is
intended that the Quality Controller (MGPS)
is handed over a system that is purged clear of
gross particulate contamination before being
filled with the working gases. However, it is
accepted that this may not always be possible.
If the system is not to be taken into immediate
use, the tests for particulate contamination and
odour/taste should be carried out with medical
air, and the system then left under pressure (see
paragraph 15.93);
a. visual check of pipeline labelling, marking,
sleeving and support;
Note
b. leakage test;
Nitrous oxide and nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture are
not tested for odour.
c. tests for cross-connection;
d. valve tests for closure, zoning and leakage.
(These tests will be repeated as part of the
pipeline system tests and the contractor may
wish to defer closure and leakage, but may
choose to carry out a zoning check.)
120
Tests on the pipeline system
m.tests for anaesthetic gas scavenging disposal
systems.
15 Validation and verification
Tests before use
15.14 The following tests must be carried out after
purging and filling with the working gas:
a. tests for particulate contamination (see
paragraphs 15.93 and 15.130–15.136);
b. tests for gas identity;
c. tests for gas quality.
General requirements for testing
15.15 The tests described in this document are
generally carried out, in the order given, for new
installations. It may be necessary to amend the test
programme for modifications or extensions to
existing systems. Care must be taken, however,
to ensure that the basic principles are followed.
Paragraphs 15.32–15.44 give details of the tests
required for modifications/extensions to existing
systems.
Note
When tests and/or purging are/is carried out on
systems fed by sources serving an operational hospital,
it is essential to ensure that the flows generated during
any tests do not result in interruption of continuity or
impairment of adequacy of supply in the operational
areas.
15.16 Testing for leakage is normally carried out in two
stages: the first to the pipeline carcass, the second
to the completed distribution system, which will
include terminal units and medical supply units as
appropriate.
15.17 Purging and testing must be carried out with
clean, oil-free, dry air or nitrogen, except for those
tests where medical air or the specific working
gas is prescribed. All test gases must meet the
particulate contamination requirements set out in
paragraphs 15.130–15.136. The shield gas may be
used for the tests on the pipeline carcass described
in paragraphs 15.49–15.56. Cylinders of medical
air will normally be used as the source of test gas
for oxygen, nitrous oxide, nitrous oxide/oxygen
and helium/oxygen systems in order to prevent the
possibility of contamination with oil.
15.18 However, in the case of a large oxygen system, for
example a new-build, the use of cylinders will be
impracticable for the total system performance
test. As it may be undesirable to commission the
liquid supply system, the total system performance
test can be carried out by using the medical air
compressor system, provided that the quality tests
have been satisfactorily carried out to demonstrate
that the criteria set out in Table 30 have been met
and that the air supply plant is continuously
monitored for moisture during the test.
15.19 Such a compressor system can also be used for the
single point performance tests etc and for initial
purging and particulate testing of these systems.
Once tests have been completed, the system
should be maintained under pressure by means of
air supplied from medical gas cylinders until filled
with the working gas, when full QC checks will be
carried out.
Note
The use of portable, non-medical air compressors is
not appropriate. Not only should a Quality Controller
(MGPS) check all compressors before use, but also
QC checks during use are important. Preferably, an
on-line dew-point meter should be fitted to the plant
or pipeline system.
15.20 When employing compressors for this type of test,
it is important that the system demand should not
exceed the maximum flow capacity of the dryers,
otherwise wet air will result. It is suggested that the
total flow required by the system under test should
not be more than 75% of the flow capacity of the
dryers.
15.21 It is also important not to introduce such a
compressor after identity checks have taken place.
15.22 Special care will be required when carrying out
QC checks, as some synthetic oils cannot be
detected using portable equipment.
15.23 Special connectors will be needed to introduce test
gas into different pipeline systems. These must
be of distinctive construction and permanently
labelled with their function and the contractor’s
name. The location of special connectors on the
site must be recorded and should be subject to
routine inspection under a planned preventative
maintenance (PPM) system. They should be
removed from site when work is complete and the
contractor should record their removal.
15.24 New terminal units are supplied with “Do not use”
labels. These labels should remain in place until
the final identity and quality tests have been
completed. They are then removed by the
Authorised Person (MGPS).
121
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
15.25 In the case of existing systems, “Do not use” labels
should be affixed to all terminal units within the
section being modified.
15.26 The results of all tests must form part of the
permanent records of the hospital and should show
details of the services and areas tested. Examples of
the appropriate forms are given in Appendix A. All
signatories are entitled to copies of the test forms.
The procedure for filing and retaining these forms
should be included in the local MGPS operational
policy.
15.27 For total system pressure tests on oxygen, nitrous
oxide and nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture, the
system under test must be physically isolated from
the source of supply (for example by the use of
spades). In the case of compressed air and vacuum
systems, the pressure at the plant must be
respectively below and above pipeline distribution
pressure.
15.28 All errors found during testing must be rectified,
and the relevant systems must be retested as
appropriate before the records are signed.
15.29 The contractor (MGPS) must provide all
engineering forms, labour, materials, instruments
and equipment required to carry out the tests
described in this chapter. In the case of engineering
tests, this must include all cylinders of test gas
together with “open” bore NIST connector probes,
pressure-measuring equipment and gas specificity/
flow pressure testing device(s), metered leaks and
AGS disposal system test equipment. The Quality
Controller (MGPS) will be responsible for
supplying all QC forms, unless otherwise
requested by the trust, calibrated test equipment,
connections etc.
Note
If there is to be a delay between completion of the
MGPS and when it is taken into use, it will be
necessary to carry out the particulate and odour test
prior to purging and filling with specific gases. In such
cases the contractor must also provide labour, materials
and equipment to carry out these tests.
15.30 The Quality Controller (MGPS) should provide
the test equipment specified in Appendices D, E
and F. The Quality Controller (MGPS) should
provide all equipment for gas quality and identity
testing. It should be regularly serviced and
calibrated to an appropriate standard and the
Quality Controller (MGPS) should maintain
122
calibration records. On-site pre- and post-testing
calibration of equipment against an appropriate
standard will be performed at the discretion of the
Quality Controller (MGPS).
15.31 In a completely new installation, flow meters,
anaesthetic trolleys etc should not be moved into
rooms until validation and verification tests have
been satisfactorily completed.
Note
In existing installations, particular care must be taken
to ensure that medical gas equipment left in areas
where work or testing is taking place is, and remains,
disconnected from the system.
Medical and nursing staff should be made aware of this
situation by the posting of appropriate exclusion
notices and terminal unit “Do not use” labels.
Modifications, extensions or repairs to
existing systems
15.32 Where modifications, extensions or repairs to
existing systems are carried out, the tests and the
sequence of tests summarised in paragraphs 15.12–
15.14 should be followed as far as possible.
15.33 The permit-to-work system should always be
followed whenever any work is carried out on an
existing system. The Authorised Person (MGPS)
should act on behalf of the management and
therefore would not normally be a member of the
installation contractor’s staff.
15.34 Whenever modifications or extensions are carried
out, it may be advisable but not always possible to
test both the existing system and the new system
separately before the break-in is made. Existing
systems should, if possible, be tested to determine
their performance and to identify any potential
limitations that may arise as a result of
modifications.
15.35 Where there is any doubt as to the cleanliness,
it is in the interest of both the contractor and
management for particulate tests to be carried out
on the existing system prior to any break-in, and
it is the responsibility of the hospital authority to
ensure that these tests are carried out prior to the
design phase of any modifications or extensions.
15.36 It is the responsibility of the hospital’s
management to ensure that any required remedial
work is carried out on an existing system before
extensions are added.
15 Validation and verification
15.37 No system should be modified during the process
of testing. It is important that any modifications
are documented and that any additional testing
required, as a consequence of those modifications,
is performed.
15.38 A permit-to-work (or another form of appropriate
document) must be issued if additional works
are to be carried out during the commissioning
process, even though a permit will not have been
issued for the original commissioning.
15.39 The tests for particulate contamination of any
extension or modification may be carried out with
medical air, prior to connection and handover
to the Quality Controller (MGPS), although in
extensions comprising fewer than 20 joints, the
working gas will generally be used to perform all
tests.
15.40 The Quality Controller (MGPS) will normally
carry out all checks, including a repeat of the
particulate matter test, using the working gas.
15.41 The exact tests to be carried out will depend
on the nature of the modification/extension.
A specification should be prepared for the
performance of the completed system. This
specification should be as close as possible to that
given in Table 28.
15.42 Some older compressed air systems will have been
designed to provide 250 L/min at the terminal
unit in accordance with Health Technical
Memorandum 22 (1978). It may not be possible
for such systems to provide 350 L/min, as specified
in Table 19, and there may be circumstances where
this would be acceptable. This should be clearly
stated in the specification for the performance of
the completed system. However, every effort
should be made to comply with the performance
and quality specifications given here, although
particular care must be taken to avoid degradation
of air quality arising from dryer units working at
flow rates above their design specification.
15.43 It may be necessary to repeat some of the system
performance tests (such as flow and pressure drop)
at selected terminal units on the completed system
to demonstrate satisfactory performance (see
paragraph 15.77). To ensure a valid result from
such a test, it should be performed when flows in
the system are representative of typical maximum
demands.
15.44 The break-in to the existing system should be
carried out with an inert gas shield where possible,
for example where AVSUs have been installed, and
a downstream blanking plate has been deployed.
A leak test must be carried out using a suitable
leak detection fluid on this final joint at working
pressure, and the joint purged with the working
gas.
15.45 Connection of the upstream side of the AVSU into
the existing system will usually be made without
use of the shield gas. This joint can be purged with
the working gas (exiting via the AVSU upstream
NIST).
Note
In some articulated pendant fittings, it is not always
possible to achieve the specified pressure requirements
for surgical air and vacuum. In the case of surgical
air, it is most likely to be a potential problem in
orthopaedic operating rooms. As these normally
include an ultra-clean system into which can be
incorporated surgical air (and other terminal units),
supplied by rigid pipework, there may not be a
problem in practice. If the static pressure exceeds the
nominal pressure during flow by more than 25%,
the possibility of installing hoses with a greater bore
should be considered. In the case of vacuum, the flows
required during surgery are less than those used during
testing.
Requirements for pipeline carcass tests
15.46 If sectional testing is performed, it is essential that
as-fitted drawings are available so that the extent of
the system(s) under test can be identified. For the
purpose of the leakage test, all pressure gas systems
may be interlinked, provided that the test can be
performed at the highest pressure required. (This
also has the advantage that the pipeline carcass
could be assigned to a different service.)
Notes
In the event of a leak, it will be necessary to test each
system separately.
It is advantageous to perform the tests with nitrogen,
since – in the event of a leak or cross-connection –
remedial action can be taken immediately.
When connecting systems together, vacuum systems
should not be included, as particulates from an
unpurged vacuum system may be drawn into any
part of any pressure gas system by venturi effects.
123
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Table 28 Validation and verification: pressure during pipeline system tests
Medical
gas
Nominal pipeline
distribution
pressure (kPa)
O2
Test flow
(L/min)
(measured
at terminal
unit outlet)
100
400
N2O
400
Medical air
(400 kPa)
Surgical air
(700 kPa)
Operating rooms (ORs) and
anaesthetic rooms (ARs)
Min. pressure
at design flow
measured on the
test gauge (kPa)
Plant pressure
(kPa)
380
430–490
10
All other terminal units
15
All terminal units
380
430–490
80
Critical care areas, SCBU, HDU,
ORs and ARs
380
430–490
20
All other terminal units
700 kPa at
350 L/min (max
900 kPa at no flow
conditions)(1)
See Chapter 4
430–490
400
700
Test location
350
All terminal units
275
LRDP rooms (inhalationary gasps)
310(2)
20
All other terminal units
380
380
O2/N2O
mixtures
400
He/O2
400
80
Critical care areas only
Vacuum
55.3 kPa (400 mm
Hg) below standard
atmospheric
pressure of
101.3 kPa
(760 mm Hg)
40
All terminal units
400 kPa
(300 mm Hg)
430–490
550–650 mm
Hg (typical plant
operating range)
Notes:
1. Downstream of the local regulator measured at the terminal unit.
2. The peak flow of 275 L/min must be achieved for 5 seconds at a minimum pressure of 310 kPa (310 kPa is the minimum
pressure required for the operation of a demand regulator).
Labelling and marking
Leakage
15.47 A visual check must be made on each pipeline
15.49 The aim of this test is to establish that there is no
system to ensure that the pipelines are labelled in
accordance with the contract specification, and
that the terminal unit base blocks are marked in
accordance with BS EN 737-1:1998. The results
of the checks are recorded on Form B1.
Sleeving and supports
15.48 A visual check must be made on each pipeline
system to ensure that the pipelines are sleeved,
where required, and supported in accordance with
Table 25. The results of the checks are recorded on
Form B1.
124
leakage from the piped medical gas systems. This
is demonstrated by the use of electronic pressuremeasuring equipment with a minimum resolution
of 0.2 kPa in 1000 kPa and 0.5 kPa in 2000 kPa.
Note
With suitable equipment it is possible to carry out this
test during a relatively short period to minimise the
effect of temperature change.
15.50 During a test period of two hours, the maximum
pressure loss should be less than 0.2 kPa for
400 kPa systems and vacuum, and 0.5 kPa for
700 kPa systems. No allowance is normally made
for variation of pressure with temperature; if,
however, the accuracy of the available pressure-
15 Validation and verification
measuring equipment is in doubt and recourse is
made to a 24-hour test, Appendix B contains
information on the method of calculation. Systems
must be tested at a working pressure of 18.0 bar
for medical compressed air systems for surgical use,
10.0 bar for all other compressed medical gas
systems and 5.0 bar for vacuum systems
constructed in copper (1 bar for systems
constructed in plastic).
15.51 This test should be carried out with AVSUs, LVAs
and other service valves open; any safety valves and
pressure-sensing devices installed may be removed
and the connections blanked off. The results of the
test may be recorded on Form B1.
Cross-connection
15.52 Before performing these tests, any links between
systems should be removed and all pipelines
should be at atmospheric pressure with all AVSUs
etc open.
15.53 A single pressure source should be applied to the
inlet of the system to be tested and at least one
terminal unit base block on all other systems
should be fully open.
15.54 Each terminal unit base block on the pipeline
under test should be opened in turn, checked for
flow and then re-blanked. (To permit refitting of
blanking caps, it is necessary to partially open at
least one base unit – but it is still necessary to
achieve a detectable flow.) When the test on one
pipeline has been completed, the pressure source
should be removed and the pipeline should be left
open to atmospheric pressure by removing at least
one base block blanking plate.
15.55 The test is repeated for other systems, one at a
time.
15.56 The results may be recorded on Form B2.
Requirements for pipeline system tests
15.57 There must be no links between the pipeline
systems. Engineering (pressure) tests should be
carried out with electronic pressure-measuring
equipment with a minimum resolution of 0.2 kPa
in 1000 kPa, and 0.5 kPa in 2000 kPa.
15.58 The scope of the system and scale of provision of
terminal units, AVSUs, LVAs and warning and
alarm system panel indicators should be checked
for compliance with Table 11 and any deficiencies
noted.
Leakage from total compressed medical
gas systems
15.59 This test must be carried out on the completed
system with all terminal units, AVSUs, pressure
safety valves and pressure transducers fitted. Once
the test pressure has been applied, the system
should be isolated from the plant. For the purpose
of this test, the supply system extends from the last
valve(s) nearest to the plant detailed on the
appropriate schematic drawing. This point should
be identified on the contract drawings. The test is
performed at pipeline distribution pressure.
15.60 During a test period of two hours, the maximum
pressure loss should be less than 0.2 kPa for
400 kPa systems and vacuum, and 0.5 kPa for
700 kPa systems. The test results may be recorded
on Form B3.
Leakage into total vacuum systems
15.61 Prior to testing, the vacuum plant should be
operated to allow any moisture in the system to
evaporate. With the system at pipeline distribution
pressure and with the source isolated, the pressure
increase in the pipeline must not exceed 1 kPa
after one hour. There is no additional allowance
for temperature correction in this test.
15.62 The test results may be recorded on Form B4.
Closure of area valve service units and
line valve assemblies
15.63 For pressurised systems, the system upstream of
the closed AVSU under test must be maintained at
pipeline distribution pressure and the downstream
line pressure should be reduced to about 100 kPa.
The downstream pressure must be recorded, and
there should be no change in pressure over a
period of 15 minutes.
15.64 For vacuum systems, the systems on the supply
plant side of the closed valve must be maintained
at pipeline distribution pressure and the terminal
unit side should be at about 15 kPa. The upstream
(terminal unit side) pressure must be recorded, and
there should be no change in vacuum over a period
of 15 minutes.
15.65 For LVAs, a similar test procedure is adopted.
There is no change in the time for vacuum.
125
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Note
Notes
The reduced residual pressure is intended to take into
account any potential terminal unit leakage on the
assumption that it is unlikely any such leakage would
equate to that of the valve under test; there would be
less certainty if the pressures were reduced to zero.
These tests can be performed at the same time as the
cross-connection/terminal unit pressure drop tests.
15.66 The test results may be recorded on Forms B5A
and B5B.
Where pneumatically activated pendant fittings are
installed, a check should be made to ensure that the
source of air has been taken from the correct AVSU
zone.
15.69 The test results may be recorded on Forms B5A
and B5B.
Zoning of AVSUs and terminal unit
identification
Cross-connection
15.67 This test is performed to ensure that each AVSU
15.70 All systems must be checked to ensure that there is
in the pipeline controls only those terminal units
intended by the design. Each terminal unit must
be checked to ensure that it is for the correct
service and that it is in accordance with BS EN
737-1:1998; unambiguous cross-referenced
labelling of AVSUs and terminal units controlled
by them is essential. It is particularly important
to establish correct identification where dual or
separate circuits have been installed; often it is not
obvious by the spatial relationship of AVSUs and
terminal units which of the AVSUs controls which
terminal unit arrays.
Notes
The contractor may wish to carry out this test as part
of the carcass tests before any section of the pipeline is
“enclosed”.
Terminal-unit first-fix back blocks inadvertently
fitted upside-down will result in inverted second-fix
components, unless gas-specific components are
deliberately removed. Therefore, a selection of terminal
unit second-fixes, for example one per ward area,
should be removed and examined to ensure that no
gas-specific components have been removed.
15.68 The test is performed by turning off an individual
AVSU and venting the zone to atmospheric
pressure. A check is then made to establish that
only those terminal units controlled by the AVSU
are at atmospheric pressure. All other terminal
units, including those for other gas services, should
be at the operating pressure. Once a zone has been
vented, it is not necessary to repressurise. The
other AVSUs are then tested successively.
126
no cross-connection between pipelines for different
gases and vacuum. The tests should not commence
until all installations are complete and plant
operational. (The tests can be performed using
“test” gas or “working” gas.)
Note
Oxygen and vacuum can be tested simultaneously,
followed by medical air and surgical air simultaneously,
followed by the other gases, that is, nitrous oxide and
nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture. (Helium/oxygen
mixture usage is increasing, and pipeline systems may
be encountered. Also, carbon dioxide pipelines are
being installed.)
15.71 The sequence of the test is, first, to open all valves
on all systems (for example AVSUs, LVAs and any
other valves). For oxygen and vacuum systems, the
main plant isolation valves should be opened (the
main plant isolation valves on other systems
remain closed). A check must be made to ensure
that there is a flow at every oxygen terminal unit
and suction at every vacuum terminal unit, and
that the systems are at the correct operating
pressure; there must be no flow at any other
terminal unit for the other gases.
15.72 For the next stage, the main isolation valves for
medical air and surgical air, if present, are opened.
(It is not necessary to return the oxygen and
vacuum systems to atmospheric pressure.) A check
is made to ensure that there is a flow at every
medical air terminal unit and every surgical air
terminal unit and that the operating pressure is
correct; there must be no flow from the nitrous
oxide and/or nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture
terminal units, if present, and helium/oxygen,
if present.
15 Validation and verification
15.73 The process is then repeated for nitrous oxide –
again there is no necessity to return any of the
previously tested systems to atmospheric pressure.
A check is made to ensure that there is flow at
every nitrous oxide terminal unit and that the
operating pressure is correct; there must be no flow
from the nitrous oxide/oxygen terminal units and
helium/oxygen terminal units (if present).
15.74 The process is then repeated for nitrous oxide/
oxygen mixture, and finally helium/oxygen
mixture. (If other medical gases are encountered,
for example carbon dioxide, the sequential testing
methodology will continue.) As before, there is
no necessity to return any of the previously tested
systems to atmospheric pressure. Checks are made
to ensure that there is no flow from any system
that is still isolated at the plant.
Note
The tests can be carried out on a total system basis,
departmental basis or sub-departmental basis, having
previously checked for cross-connection up to the
appropriate AVSUs. When carrying out the tests on a
sectional basis, it is essential that as-fitted drawings are
available such that the extent of the system(s) can be
established.
15.75 This test must be repeated in full if any subsequent
modifications are made to the pipeline system.
15.76 The test results may be recorded on Form B6.
Flow and pressure drop at individual
terminal units, mechanical function and
correct installation
15.77 These tests can be carried out as part of the cross-
connection tests above using appropriate test
devices as described in Appendix C with the
correct probes inserted for the pipeline(s) under
test. The pressure must achieve the values given in
Table 28 at the specified flows.
Note
When performing these tests as part of the crossconnection tests, there is the possibility that the
400 kPa and vacuum test devices could be connected
to the incorrect service, particularly a vacuum and
oxygen reversal. The instruments used, therefore,
should include appropriate directional check valves.
(There is a possibility of damaging the gauges.
Alternatively an open probe can be used to determine
pressure or vacuum.)
15.78 It must be demonstrated for each terminal unit
that the appropriate gas-specific probe can be
inserted, captured and released, and it should be
visually confirmed that an anti-swivel pin is
present, or absent, in terminal units with a
horizontal or vertical axis, respectively.
Notes
Terminal units to BS EN 737-1:1998 need not be
challenged with the full complement of BS 5682:1998
test probes.
The terminal unit should be fitted complete with bezel
plates etc. The clearance hole should be reasonably
concentric with the terminal unit rim – it must not be
in contact.
15.79 The results of the tests may be recorded on
Form B7A.
15.80 All NIST connectors must be checked to ensure
that gas flow is achieved when the correct NIST
probe is inserted and mechanical connection
made. The correct identification of gas flow
direction should be confirmed for AVSUs (that is,
which are the upstream and downstream NIST
connectors). NIST connectors can be checked
when performing other tests on AVSUs and LVAs.
Note
Whereas it should not be necessary to carry out
these tests on AVSUs bearing a CE Mark, in
certain circumstances factory-assembled units are
dismantled for installation purposes and can be
subsequently incorrectly re-assembled. In the case of
LVAs (whether or not CE marked), disassembly and
subsequent incorrect re-assembly or, indeed, insertion
into an incorrect line, is also possible.
The primary purpose of the test is to ensure that
whenever it is necessary to make a connection, the
appropriate connectors will be to hand; the test is
a further safety aid, although it is assumed that
personnel making connections to NIST fittings are
appropriately qualified and authorised to do so.
15.81 It must be demonstrated (except for vacuum) for
each NIST connector that the self-sealing device
substantially reduces the flow of gas when the
connector is removed without hazard to personnel
or reduction in pipeline pressure.
127
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Note
Note
Personnel should take care not to stand in front of the
NIST connector when performing this test.
In principle it is permissible, although unlikely to be
practicable for large installations, to test all systems
simultaneously, particularly oxygen and vacuum,
where terminal units are installed in pairs and where
they require different metered leaks (this includes
vacuum when testing oxygen will not significantly
increase the time needed).
15.82 The results may be recorded on Form B7B.
Performance tests on the pipeline
system
15.83 The performance of individual pipeline systems is
measured by introducing a sufficient number of
calibrated metered leaks (with orifice sizes
providing different flows that replicate the range of
medical devices for which the pipeline is designed;
see Table 12) to represent the total “diversified”
system design flow, less the flow generated by the
test device. Thereafter, a representative number
of terminal units (see note below) are tested for
pressure and flow: the diversified flows should be
derived from the data in Tables 13, 15, 16, 18, 20
and 21.
Notes
In a 28-bed ward module a representative number
would be in the order of two terminal units furthest
from the AVSU, two near the entrance, and the
treatment room, if applicable for each gas and vacuum.
In an operating department, a representative number
would be one terminal unit in each operating suite and
20% of terminal units in recovery for each gas and
vacuum. For oxygen, one metered leak should be
100 L/min to represent oxygen “flush”.
It is not necessary to insert metered leaks into the
actual number of terminal units used to calculate the
“diversified” design flow, provided the numbers used
are evenly distributed and orifice sizes are selected to
achieve this flow.
15.84 The metered leaks should be stamped or similarly
be identified to show the flow (air equivalent) at,
for example, 10, 20, 100, and 275 L/min for
400 kPa systems, and 350 L/min for 700 kPa
systems; the results of the tests may be recorded on
Form B8.
Functional tests of supply systems
15.85 All supply systems must be tested for normal
and emergency operation, according to the
manufacturers’ manuals and contract
specifications. For the purpose of the tests, the
systems must be connected to both the normal and
stand-by power supplies. The results of these tests
should be recorded on Form B9.
Pressure safety valves
15.86 Pressure safety valves are not tested. They should
be examined to ensure that they are correctly rated
for the pipeline system and are in accordance with
the contract specification. Each should be provided
with a test certificate confirming the certificated
discharge pressure. Records of safety valve details
should be noted on Form B10.
15.87 Check that the specified pressure safety valves, line
valves and non-return valves have been fitted.
15.88 Verify that the pressure safety valves are certified
to operate in accordance with the contract
specification and conform to BS EN ISO 4126-1:
2004.
Warning and alarm systems
15.89 The operation of warning and alarm systems
should be tested in all normal operating and
emergency modes. Particular attention should be
paid to the following:
a. that all systems operate within the specified
tolerance limits at all operating parameters and
fault conditions, and can be seen and heard as
specified in Tables 23 and 24;
b. that systems react correctly following return to
normal status;
c. that all indicator panels and switches are
correctly marked;
128
15 Validation and verification
d. that all functions on all indicator panels operate
correctly;
e. that the system will operate from the essential
supply stand-by power source;
f. that all indicator panels are labelled to show the
areas they serve, or as detailed in the contract
specifications.
15.90 The following tests should also be carried out:
a. for central indicator panels, check that the
operation of the mute switch cancels the
audible alarm and converts the flashing signals
to steady, for all systems and conditions;
b. for repeater indicator panels, check that the
mute switch cancels the audible alarm and that
the flashing signals are converted to steady only
on the central alarm panel, for all systems and
conditions;
c. for area indicator panels, check that the
operation of the mute switch cancels the
audible only, for all systems and conditions;
d check power failure operates red “system fault”
indicator and the audible alarm;
e. check that a contact line fault operates the
“system fault” indicator, the main alarm
displays and the audible alarm;
f. check audible reinstatement for each alarm
panel;
g. check that the audible signal can be
continuously muted via operation of the
internal push-button for gas service alarm
conditions only;
h. check for correct identification of each gas
service on alarm panels and “departmental” or
plant specifying labels;
j. check that each alarm panel emits the correct
(two-tone) audible alarm. (Some manufacturers
supply panels set for a single tone – in use, staff
may confuse this sound with that emitted by
some models of patient monitoring
equipment.)
15.91 The results of the tests are recorded on Form B11.
drawings have been recorded and the results may
be recorded on Form B12.
Filling with medical air
15.93 An indefinite time may elapse after completion
of the MGPS before the system is taken into use.
The installation contract may be written in the
expectation that this will happen. In such
circumstances the contract should require that
the particulate contamination and odour tests
specified in paragraphs 15.130–15.136 are carried
out as an interim measure, using medical air as
the test gas. Satisfactory completion of these
particulate contamination and odour tests may
then signify the completion of the construction
contract.
15.94 It is the responsibility of the client to ensure that
proper provision is made in a specific contract for
the maintenance of the systems, their integrity, and
any special connectors that may be required during
this interim period.
15.95 All MGPS should be left filled with medical air at
pipeline distribution pressure until they are filled
with the specific working gas shortly before use.
The medical vacuum pipeline need not be
maintained under vacuum.
15.96 Provision should be made for regular running and
maintenance of all supply plant during such an
interim period.
15.97 Details of the work carried out, as well as records
of the system pressures, should be recorded. This
information is required in order to demonstrate
that the systems have been satisfactorily
maintained under pressure during this interim
period. Tests for particulate contamination should
be carried out after the systems are filled with the
specific gas. The extent of the tests is at the
discretion of the Quality Controller (MGPS).
15.98 The “Danger – do not use” label should remain
affixed to each terminal unit until all testing is
completed.
15.99 When the construction contract has finished, the
contractor should record the removal of all special
connectors and cylinders from site.
Verification of as-fitted drawings
15.92 The as-fitted drawings should be checked to
ensure that all variations from the contract
129
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
has been completed satisfactorily under a permitto-work system.
Note
Special connectors and cylinders may be required to
maintain the systems under pressure. This may be
some time prior to the admission of patients. In such
circumstances some contracts require systems to be
completed and certificated for the purpose of practical
completion and handover to the client.
15.104 Three types of work are identified:
a. new;
b. extension/upgrade; and
c. repair.
Purging and filling with specific gases
15.100 Each pipeline system must be purged with the
specific working gas shortly before use. The
following conditions should apply:
a. all sources of test gas must be disconnected;
b. all special connectors must be removed from
site;
c. each pipeline system must be at atmospheric
pressure with all AVSUs open;
d. each system must be filled to pipeline
distribution pressure with the specific gas
from the supply system;
e. with the supply system on, each terminal unit
must be purged at a known flow with a
volume of gas at least equal to the volume of
the pipeline section being tested;
f. all oxygen, nitrous oxide, nitrous oxide/
oxygen mixtures and helium/oxygen mixture
discharged during the process must be
released to a safe place.
15.101 The results of the purging process may be
recorded on Form B13.
15.102 Purging is not necessary for vacuum systems.
Note
It may be possible to carry out the tests outlined in
paragraphs 15.57–15.90 with the working gases,
either sequentially or consecutively, followed by the
appropriate pharmaceutical test. After the tests,
“certification” arrangements should be put in place
such that the client takes over responsibility for
managing the system.
Pharmaceutical testing
15.103 When modifying existing systems, the test
programme is agreed by the Quality Controller
(MGPS) and Authorised Person (MGPS) and the
system is taken back into use only after testing
130
For new installations, for example a new ward, a
new department, or a complete hospital, the
Quality Controller (MGPS) will prepare a report
containing details of tests carried out and an
inventory of outlets tested.
15.105 For extensions, upgrades and repairs, the permit
will provide the minimum report, although a
longer report may be provided at the discretion of
the Quality Controller (MGPS).
15.106 Inclusion of details such as the mounting order of
terminal units observed at the time of test should
be confirmed by signature of the Authorised
Person (MGPS) on the report.
15.107 This inventory should be checked by the
Authorised Person (MGPS) to ensure that all
terminal units have been identified and tested.
NIST connectors will also need to be identified.
The Authorised Person (MGPS) should then
amend a copy of the Quality Controller (MGPS)
report, confirming in writing that the system can
be taken into use.
15.108 Although a structured approach to testing should
be adopted, access and time limitations to parts
of the MGPS may lead to some disruption of
proposed test regimes.
Note
Important: These tests are described in the context
of commissioning and repair/alteration to existing
systems. However, it must be remembered that
quarterly testing is also required by this Health
Technical Memorandum and in accordance with
Tables 28 and 29 for medical air generated by on-site
air compressors, synthetic air from gas blending plant,
and oxygen from oxygen concentrators using
compressor plant. The Authorised Person (MGPS)
should liaise with the Quality Controller (MGPS) to
ensure that these tests are carried out and recorded.
15 Validation and verification
Notes
The role, responsibilities and relationships of
Authorised Persons (MGPS) – in the context of both
existing and new installations, where the Authorised
Person (MGPS) may not have responsibility for the
systems when in use – is covered in Part B.
Although precluded by adherence to the procedures
recommended in this Health Technical Memorandum,
there have been instances when a system undergoes
further modifications after a Quality Controller
(MGPS) has started testing. It is very important that
any modifications are documented and that any
additional testing required as a consequence of those
modifications is performed. Use of the permit-to-work
form should be considered in these cases.
If it is necessary to modify systems during or after
completion of testing, the Authorised Person (MGPS)
and Quality Controller (MGPS) will identify the
extent of retesting that is required.
If the system has been completed and all
documentation handed over to the client or operator
of the building, any further modification must be
carried out strictly in accordance with the permit-towork procedure.
The importance of NIST connectors in facilitating
engineering and pharmaceutical testing and their value
during shutdowns and emergency situations should
not be underestimated. All LVAs are fitted with
upstream and downstream NIST connectors.
Quality of medical gas systems
General
15.109 The objective of these tests is to establish whether
the pipeline has been contaminated during
construction or modification. The tests indicate
whether work has affected a gas, but they are
not tests that indicate compliance with
pharmaceutical specifications for licensed
products.
15.110 Particulate contamination and odour tests may
have been carried out prior to filling with the
working gas, particularly if the system has been
left for some time before use. However, the
Quality Controller (MGPS) will define the extent
of repetition of these tests, after the systems have
been filled with the specific working gas.
15.111 The Quality Controller (MGPS) will also define
the extent of all other pharmaceutical testing,
depending on such factors as the extent and
nature of the work and the age and condition of
the existing systems.
15.112 The Ph. Eur. should be seen as a basic minimum
standard when examining medical gas quality,
as its principal application is to the manufacture
and distribution of medicines according to wellestablished manufacturing processes. It is not
intended to deal with the endless possibilities for
contamination that are introduced by an MGPS,
or the types of failure that might occur with onsite generation of gases.
15.113 Occasionally, the Quality Controller (MGPS)
may need to resort to more sophisticated testing
than is permitted by the use of portable
equipment.
15.114 Oxygen, helium/oxygen mixture, nitrous oxide,
and nitrous oxide/oxygen mixtures discharged
during the process must be released to a safe
place. These tests are not required on a vacuum
system for any work including modifications or
new works.
15.115 These test procedures are based on existing
practice. The particulate contamination test is
subjective in that it requires the QC to make a
judgement on whether or not particles are visible
on the filter.
15.116 The oil, water, carbon monoxide and carbon
dioxide, sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen
tests can be carried out with detector tubes, but
advances in detection technology have produced
a range of suitable alternative instruments.
The use of detector tubes giving a quantitative
response is recommended, but if other equipment
is used for validation purposes, it must provide a
level of repeatability, resolution and accuracy at
least equivalent to that of detector tubes and
must be calibrated to appropriate Standards.
15.117 An electronic dew-point meter should be used in
preference to water content measurements.
15.118 Detector tubes give a quantitative response and
are not intended for re-use. They should be
agent-specific, since non-agent-specific (polytest)
tubes can respond to various agents such as
volatile inorganic compounds, giving misleading
results.
15.119 However, it is recommended that the use of
polytest tubes be considered as an optional
general test for contamination of pipelines on a
representative sample of terminal units.
131
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A
15.120 Users must be aware of the limitations of all types
of detection equipment, including ambient
operating conditions and cross-sensitivities
specified for each type of detector tube.
15.121 These tests must be carried out on a
representative sample of terminal units/NISTs in
each system at the discretion of the Quality
Controller (MGPS).
15.122 If terminal units are being tested, the sample
must include, as a minimum, the most distant
terminal unit on each branch. This may be the
first terminal unit to be tested, but care must
be taken to ensure, for example, that a new
extension connected to old pipework is first well
purged via a terminal unit/NIST connector as
close as possible to the junction of the systems so
as to avoid the spread of any contamination into
the extension.
15.123 It will not normally be necessary to test the most
distant terminal unit if distal NIST connectors
are provided.
15.124 Depending on the results of this test, the Quality
Controller (MGPS) should decide the number
and location of additional terminal units/NISTs
to be tested.
Note
Provision of NISTs throughout an MGPS is to be
encouraged, as this will greatly facilitate testing,
particularly QC testing.
15.125 These tests are summarised in Table 28.
15.126 All sources of supply should be tested for quality
before the pipeline distribution system is filled
with the working gas. This test is not intended
as a test of certificated gases but is to ensure
that supply source equipment (manifolds,
compressors, VIEs etc) does not compromise the
quality of such gases when delivering them to the
pipeline systems.
15.127 When extending existing systems, supply sources
will not normally be retested before being used to
fill the extension with the working gases.
15.128 For new installations, quality tests should be
carried out on the plant as well as on the pipeline
distribution system.
15.129 The results of the test may be recorded on
Form B14.
132
Particulate matter
15.130 MGPS should be free from particulate
contamination, as they have been constructed
using chemically cleaned, capped components
and joined in a controlled process using a filtered
shield gas.
15.131 However, on-site contamination can occur
from ingress of building materials, dust etc. The
presence of such particles can adversely affect the
quality of the delivered gases. Therefore, tests to
indicate their absence are important.
15.132 New systems should be purged until the
particulate filter is completely clear of visible
particles when viewed in a good light.
15.133 Older systems may exhibit particulates, even after
considerable purging, as they can be released or
carried along by the gas stream after disruption of
the system, reverse gas flow, pressure waves down
the pipe, or physical vibration.
Note
When connecting new pipework to an older (possibly
contaminated) system it may be advisable to perform
the first purge via the inlet NIST of the first AVSU, or
the first terminal unit of the new system, in order to
reduce the possible spread of contamination into the
new system.
15.134 Where it is evident that extended purging may
not completely clear the system of particulates,
a decision to accept the level of contamination
present, agree a cleansing procedure or, in very
exceptional circumstances, condemn the system
will be made.
15.135 The test for particulate matter should be carried
out at every terminal unit on a new system. It
can be carried out either after completion of
the construction phase using medical air (see
paragraph 15.93) or after the system has been
filled with the specified gas. Once the system is
filled with working gas, it would not normally be
necessary to repeat the test at every terminal unit.
The actual number of terminal units sampled is
at the discretion of the Quality Controller
(MGPS). It would, however, be necessary to
repeat the test in full where there is insufficient
evidence to show that the system has been
satisfactorily maintained under operating pressure
with medical air for the interim period.
15 Validation and verification
15.136 When tested with a membrane filter at a flow not
15.143 A representative sample of terminal units on both
new and modified medical compressed air and
oxygen concentrator systems supplied by
compressor plant may be checked at the
discretion of the Quality Controller (MGPS).
less than 150 L/min for 30 s, the filter must be
free from visible particles when viewed in good
light. A suitable test device is described in
Appendix D.
Notes
When testing surgical air terminal units, a flow of
350 L/min for 30 s should be used.
When testing nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture terminal
units, a flow of 275 L/min for 30 s should be used.
When testing helium/oxygen mixture systems, oxygenfree nitrogen is used at the manifold and this will
require special connectors.
When tests and/or purging is carried out with the
sources of supply serving an operational hospital, it
is essential to ensure that the test flows used are not
detrimental to the continuity or adequacy of supply in
operational areas. When a flow rate of 150 L/min or
more may not be possible without compromising the
hospital system, a lower flow rate should be used at the
discretion of the Quality Controller (MGPS).
Oil
15.137 This test should be carried out at the plant test
point of all newly installed medical/surgical
compressed air plant and for all medical/surgical
compressed air plant on a quarterly basis.
15.138 When break-ins to a tested (and compliant)
medical/surgical air system have been completed,
repetition of this test will not normally be
required.
15.139 Work involving strip-down of compressor plant
and subsequent replacement of oil-sealing
components may require a follow-up oil test,
at the discretion of the Quality Controller
(MGPS).
15.140 Oil may be present as liquid, aerosol or vapour,
and an appropriate test device is described in
Appendix E.
15.141 The total oil content should be in accordance
with Table 28.
15.142 It is desirable to carry out this test at a plant test
point before any pipeline system is supplied
by that plant so as to prevent inadvertent
contamination of the distribution system.
15.144 Care should be taken in siting the test point to
ensure a representative sample.
Water
15.145 This test is intended to identify contamination of
the pipeline system by moisture. It should not be
confused with the test for compressor plant dryer
performance, although it may indicate a failure in
the dryer system.
Notes
When testing terminal units supplied via low pressure,
flexible connecting assemblies, it is often found that
– on initial testing – moisture levels exceed the
0.05 mg/L limit; this is the result of desorption of
minute quantities of moisture into the gas stream. This
is particularly noticeable where the test flow is low, and
should not cause undue concern. The Quality
Controller (MGPS) should establish, however, that the
elevated readings at such terminal units result from
this effect and not water contamination of the
pipeline. (For example, the results should be compared
with the readings achieved at nearby terminal units
supplied by copper pipework.) New developments in
hose materials may lead to hoses with reduced water
vapour permeability characteristics.
The effects of flow rate through dryer units and
sampling times on detection equipment indications
should also be taken into account when measuring
water content.
15.146 The plant test point and a representative sample
of terminal units distributed throughout the
pipeline systems should be tested for total water
content. The water content must not exceed
67 vpm (equivalent to an atmospheric pressure
dew-point of approximately –46°C). The typical
water content of medical gas cylinders is normally
below 5 vpm. Water vapour content may be
measured using the appropriate test device
described in Appendix E (see also paragraph
15.117).
133
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A
Note
Older compressor/dryer combinations may fail to
meet the Ph. Eur. requirement of 67 vpm. In these
circumstances, the Quality Controller (MGPS) will
decide whether application of the older atmospheric
dew-point limit of –40°C (127 vpm) is acceptable
(Health Technical Memorandum 2022: 1997).
Carbon monoxide
15.147 The most distant terminal units on each branch
of a medical/surgical air pipeline system supplied
from a compressor plant and PSA systems must
be tested for carbon monoxide, although it would
not normally be necessary to test more than five
terminal units. The concentration of carbon
monoxide should not exceed 5 ppm v/v. This may
be measured at up to five terminal units in each
system using the appropriate test devices
described in Appendix E.
15.148 When break-ins to a tested (and compliant)
medical/surgical air system have been completed,
repetition of this test will not normally be
required.
Carbon dioxide
15.149 The most distant terminal unit on each branch
of a medical/surgical air pipeline system supplied
from a compressor or an oxygen concentrator
plant must be tested for carbon dioxide.
15.150 The concentration of carbon dioxide must not
exceed 500 ppm v/v in medical air or 300 ppm
v/v in oxygen from an oxygen concentrator plant.
15.151 When break-ins to a tested (and compliant)
medical/surgical air system have been completed,
repetition of this test will not normally be
required.
Notes
Increasing or fluctuating carbon dioxide readings in air
or PSA-generated oxygen can be an early indication of
dryer failure or poor compressor maintenance.
Carbon dioxide is no longer used as an inert shield gas
during pipeline brazing.
If carbon dioxide has been installed (see Chapter 11),
the test methodology should be at the discretion of the
Quality Controller (MGPS).
Sulphur dioxide
15.152 The most distant terminal units in medical/
surgical air pipeline systems supplied from a
compressor plant, and oxygen terminal units
supplied from a PSA plant, must be tested for
sulphur dioxide. (It will not normally be
necessary to test more than five terminal units in
a single system.) The concentration should not
exceed 1 ppm v/v.
15.153 When break-ins to a tested (and compliant)
medical/surgical air system have been completed,
repetition of this test (and those in paragraphs
15.111–15.114) will not normally be required.
Oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO2)
15.154 The most distant terminal units in medical/
surgical air pipeline systems supplied from a
compressor plant, and oxygen terminal units
supplied from a PSA plant, must be tested for
oxides of nitrogen. (It will not normally be
necessary to test more than five terminal units in
a single system.) The concentration should not
exceed 2 ppm v/v.
15.155 When break-ins to a tested (and compliant)
medical/surgical air system have been completed,
repetition of this test (and those in paragraphs
15.111–15.114) will not normally be required.
Important:
See Note (d) in Table 29 on disparity between Ph. Eur.
and EH40 with reference to acceptable levels of
sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen.
Nitrogen
15.156 Oxygen-free nitrogen is used as the inert gas
shield, and all terminal units of all gas systems
should be tested to ensure that the systems have
been adequately purged.
15.157 For oxygen systems and nitrous oxide/oxygen, an
oxygen analyser must be used to ensure that the
oxygen concentration is not less than that given
in Table 30.
15.158 For nitrous oxide systems, an instrument based
on thermal conductivity, or an infrared meter,
must be used to check that the system has been
adequately purged at every terminal unit.
15.159 If a thermal conductivity meter is used, it will be
necessary to prove absence of carbon dioxide
134
15 Validation and verification
(which could have been used inadvertently as a
shield gas) by the use of a chemical reagent tube.
Pipeline odour/taste
15.160 An odour test is performed because it
incorporates, qualitatively, many impurity checks,
as several contaminants are detectable by odour.
This test is normally carried out as the final test
with the working gases, except for nitrous oxide,
nitrous oxide/oxygen and carbon dioxide, which
should not be inhaled. The odour threshold of
particulate matter is approximately 0.3 mg/m3.
15.161 In certain circumstances (see paragraph 15.93),
it may be carried out as the first test after
completion of construction of the pipeline
installation using medical air as the test gas. In
such circumstances, a pipeline odour/taste test
can be carried out on nitrous oxide and nitrous
oxide/oxygen systems.
15.162 In addition to all new terminal units, a
representative sample of terminal units on
existing parts of the systems must be checked.
Notes
For some time it has been known that materials
used in the construction of low-pressure connecting
assemblies can present an odour. This was recognised
in the 1984 version of BS 5682:
“Plastics materials currently in use will release small
quantities of volatile organic matter into the gas stream
throughout the life of the plastics components of the
material. The quantities released appear to be below the
levels normally considered toxic but, as yet, insufficient
research has been carried out to be able to identify and
quantify these components, therefore no tests are
recommended.”
More recent work has shown that the quantities of
those agents that can be identified are significantly
below levels considered to be toxic. It is possible that
developments in hose material structure will result in
the reduction of odour (and moisture retention).
The Quality Controller (MGPS) should perform
additional oil and polytest analyses if indistinct odours
are detected where flexible hoses are not involved.
New developments in hose materials may lead to hoses
that are odour-free and do not leach chemicals into the
gas stream.
135
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A
Table 29 Quality specifications for medical gas pipeline tests (working gases)
Gas and
source
Particulates
Oil
Water
≤0.1 ≤67 vpm
mg/m3 (≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
CO
CO2
NO SO2
and
NO2
Polytest tube
(Optional)
Odour
≤5 mg/
m3;
≤5 ppm
v/v
≤300
ppm
v/v
≤2
≤1 No
None
ppm ppm discoloration
v/v
v/v
Oxygen
from PSA
plant
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
Nitrous
oxide
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
–
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
–
–
–
–
No
SAFETY
discoloration Not
performed
Nitrous
oxide/
oxygen
mixture
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
–
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
–
–
–
–
No
SAFETY
discoloration Not
performed
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
≤5 mg/
m3;
≤5 ppm
v/v
≤900
mg/
m3;
≤500
ppm
v/v
≤2
≤1 No
None
ppm ppm discoloration
v/v
v/v
≤0.1 ≤1020 vpm
mg/m3 (≤0.78 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –20°C)
≤5 mg/
m3;
≤5 ppm
v/v
≤900
mg/
m3;
≤500
ppm
v/v
≤2
≤1 No
None
ppm ppm discoloration
v/v
v/v
Medical
Free from visible
≤0.1
and surgical particles in a 75 L
mg/m3
air
sample (for medical
air) and 175 L
sample (for surgical
air)
Dental
Free from visible
compressed particles in a 75 L
air
sample
Synthetic
air
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
–
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
–
–
–
–
No
None
discoloration
Oxygen
from bulk
liquid or
cylinders
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
–
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
–
–
–
–
No
None
discoloration
Helium/
oxygen
mixture
O2, <30%
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
–
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
–
–
–
–
No
None
discoloration
Notes:
a. The quality of the gases delivered at the terminal units should also comply with the specifications given in the current
edition of the Ph. Eur. (see Table 30). Additionally, contamination introduced by the MGPS, and not limited by the Ph. Eur.
specification, should not exceed levels that might pose a threat to patients. It should be borne in mind that the safe levels for
medical gases delivered to patients are likely to be significantly lower than those permitted for healthy individuals.
In addition to the monograph, the official standards section of the general notices should be read.
b. The tests for oil, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen are not normally carried out when
the source of supply is from cylinders or cryogenic systems, although it should be noted that rare instances of oil contamination
arising from the pipeline have occurred.
c. Synthetic air will be tested for identity as shown in Table 30. A GLC (gas-liquid chromatography) test for nitrogen is possible
but not without practical difficulties. Nitrogen content will, therefore, usually be inferred from oxygen analyser test results.
136
15 Validation and verification
d. The Health and Safety Executive has revised its guidance on exposure limits for sulphur dioxide, nitrogen monoxide and
nitrogen dioxide.
Occupational exposure standards (OESs) for nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide were removed from EH40 in
the Amendment of April 2003.
Time-weighted averages (TWAs) for nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide are now suggested as no greater than 1 ppm, and
limits for sulphur dioxide exposure as less than 1 ppm for both 8-hour TWA OES and 15-minute STEL (short-term exposure
limit).
Some breathing air standards seek to limit the levels of such contaminants to 10% of the 8-hour TWA, as medical gases
are intended for use by people who are not in the best of health. Therefore it is suggested, when testing for these specific
compounds, or any contaminants not listed in the Ph. Eur., that a limit of 10% of the OES should be confirmed.
e. See Note following paragraph 15.146.
Table 30 Ph. Eur. quality specifications for medical gases
Gas and
source
Oil
Water
CO
CO2
SO2
Oxygen from
bulk liquid or
cylinders
–
≤67 vpm (≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dew-point of
–46°C)
≤5 mg/m3;
≤5 ppm v/v
NO and
NO2
≤300 ppm
v/v
–
–
0.1
≤67 vpm (≤0.05 mg/L,
mg/m3 atmospheric dew-point of
–46°C)
≤5 mg/m3;
≤5 ppm v/v
≤300 ppm
v/v
≤2 ppm v/v ≤1 ppm v/v None
Oxygen from
PSA plant
Odour/Taste
None
Nitrous oxide
–
≤67 vpm (≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dew-point of
–46°C)
≤5 mg/m3;
≤5 ppm v/v
≤300 ppm
v/v
≤2 ppm v/v
–
N/A
Nitrous
oxide/oxygen
mixture
–
≤67 vpm (≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dew-point of
–46°C)
≤5 mg/m3;
≤5 ppm v/v
≤300 ppm
v/v
≤2 ppm v/v
–
N/A
0.1
≤67 vpm (≤0.05 mg/L,
mg/m3 atmospheric dew-point of
–46°C)
≤5 mg/m3;
≤5 ppm v/v
Medical and
surgical air
≤900 mg/m3; ≤2 ppm v/v ≤1 ppm v/v None
≤500 ppm
v/v
Synthetic air
–
≤67 vpm (≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dew-point of
–46°C)
–
–
–
–
None
Helium/
oxygen
mixture O2,
<30%
–
≤67 vpm (≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dew-point of
–46°C)
≤5 mg/m3;
≤5 ppm v/v
≤300 ppm
v/v
≤2 ppm v/v
–
None
Note
Particulate level tests and polytests are NOT included in the Ph. Eur.
137
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A
Gas identification
15.166 When testing pipelines for helium/oxygen
mixture, an initial test is carried out with nitrogen
connected after completing the particulate test.
An oxygen analyser is used and all terminal
units are tested. After a zero reading is achieved,
product cylinders are connected and the system
is purged. A second test is performed with an
oxygen analyser; the oxygen content should be as
in Table 31.
15.163 The identity of the gas must be tested at terminal
units on medical gas pipeline systems. This would
include all new terminal units, whether on a new
installation or a modification or extension, and
a representative sample of terminal units on an
existing system, which may have been affected by
the work. All systems must have been filled with
the specific gas according to paragraph 15.100.
15.167 The nominal gas concentration at specific
15.164 The composition of all compressed gases must be
terminal units is given in Table 31; vacuum must
be identified by observation of suction at the
terminal unit.
positively identified. This can be accomplished
using an oxygen analyser for oxygen, nitrous
oxide/oxygen and air, and a thermal conductivity
or infrared meter for nitrous oxide.
Test results
15.165 When checking the identity of nitrous oxide and
15.168 The test results for quality and gas identity may
nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture, the gas should be
discharged in a manner that minimises pollution
and personnel exposure.
be recorded on Form B15.
Table 31 Gas concentrations for identification purposes
Gas and source
Paramagnetic oxygen
analyser reading
Thermal conductivity
(TC)/infrared (IR)
instrument reading
Carbon dioxide detector
tube indication if TC meter
used
Vacuum probe
Oxygen from liquid or
cylinders
Minimum 99.5%
–
–
–
Oxygen from
concentrator
Minimum 94.0%
–
–
–
Nitrous oxide
–0.2%
Indicates “nitrous
oxide” or gives a
reading of 100% ±
2.0% (TC), ≥98% (IR)
≤300 ppm v/v
–
Nitrous oxide/oxygen
mixture
50.0% ± 2.0%
50.0% ± 2.0%
–
–
Medical, surgical and
dental air
20.9% ± 0.5%
–
–
–
95–105% of nominal
value of 21.0–22.5%
–
–
–
–
–
–
Suction present
0%
0% (IR)
–
–
–
–
Synthetic air
Vacuum
Nitrogen shield gas
Helium/oxygen
mixture:
Test 1.
Test 2.
0%
20.9% ± 0.5%
0%
20.9% ± 0.5%
Note:
The tolerance of the measuring instrument should be allowed in addition. For oxygen concentrator plant (PSA) supplied system,
the minimum concentration must be 94% oxygen. A vacuum gauge may be used to obtain a quantitative reading of vacuum level
and verify terminal unit performance.
138
15 Validation and verification
AGS disposal systems
15.174 The test should be carried out as described in
General
15.169 BS 6834:1987 specifies the tests to be carried out
on AGS disposal systems that comply with the
British Standard. The tests specified are designed
to ensure adequate performance and that the
safety provisions of receiving systems will be met.
15.170 The responsibility for the tests should be
clearly identified at the contract stage for new
installations, in the same way as for the medical
gas pipeline system. In general, the contractor
should carry out the tests, which should be
witnessed by the Authorised Person (MGPS).
Performance tests
15.171 All equipment should be tested to ensure that
it performs satisfactorily during continuous
operation under full load for one hour.
15.172 All electrically powered equipment should be
tested as follows:
• check for correct rotation;
• check the current through the powered device
at full load.
15.173 The disposal system should be tested to ensure
that it meets the requirements set out in the table
below, with the number of terminal units for
which it has been designed in use.
Disposal system standard
Pressure drop
BS 6834: ISO DIS
1987
7396-2:
2005
Flow rate
BS 6834:
1987
ISO DIS
7396-2:
2005
Maximum
1 kPa
1 kPa
130 L/min
80 L/min
Minimum
4 kPa
2 kPa
80 L/min
50 L/min
Maximum
static
pressure
20 kPa
(–ve)
15 kPa
(–ve)
This check is made
before performing the
flow tests
Note
Since the preparation of BS 6834:1987, developments
in anaesthesiology have resulted in reduced flows being
used. Depending on local circumstances, it may be
possible to commission systems for different flows in
accordance with ISO DIS 7396-2:2005. Details of the
test flows should be recorded in the commissioning
documentation.
Appendix K of BS 6834:1987. The test device
is inserted into each terminal unit in turn and
checked for pressure at flows of 80 L/min and
130 L/min for BS systems, and 50 L/min and
80 L/min for ISO systems. Adjustment is then
made if necessary.
15.175 The test device and a number of metered leaks
are then inserted into the system to replicate
the design flow. The measurements above are
repeated. If the test results are satisfactory, the test
device is removed and substituted by a metered
leak.
Note
The test device is designed to replicate either type of
receiving system for which the disposal system has
been designed (see paragraph 15.73).
15.176 The other terminal units are then tested in turn
by substituting the test device for each metered
leak including the test device.
Note
For the purposes of diversity, it may be assumed that in
any operating department only one receiving system
for each operating room is in use at any time. (In a
typical theatre suite with two terminal units in the
operating room and one in the anaesthetic room, the
total number of metered leaks used for testing is two;
that is, one being placed in an operating room
terminal unit and the other in the anaesthetic room
terminal unit.)
15.177 The operation of user-controlled switches, power-
on indicators and alarm systems should also be
checked.
15.178 AGSS terminal units should be checked for
correct mechanical operation and that the check
valve operates satisfactorily.
Requirements before a medical gas
pipeline system is taken into use
General
15.179 Before a system is used, the appropriate persons
must certify in writing that the tests and
procedures required in paragraphs 15.46–15.100
and 15.109–15.178 have been completed, and
that all systems comply with the requirements.
139
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A
This must include certification that all drawings
and manuals required by the contract have been
supplied and as-fitted drawings are correct (see
Form B16).
15.180 All certificates must be dated and signed by the
appropriate witnesses, by the contract-supervising
officer and by the representative of the contractor.
15.181 For modifications or extensions to existing
systems, the performance tests for flow and
pressure drop (as described in paragraphs 15.41–
15.43) should be carried out on the completed
system if practicable. If the performance is in
accordance with the specification prepared (as
described in paragraphs 15.32–15.44), the system
may be taken into use, provided that all the other
tests have been satisfactorily completed.
Note
In many cases, the extension/modification will be
relatively small and unlikely to significantly affect the
performance of the system.
140
Operational policy
15.182 A procedure must be available in accordance with
Part B, and must ensure continuity of supply of
cylinders and bulk liquid. This will incorporate a
procedure for recording delivery, handling and
storage of full and empty cylinders, with an
indication of who is responsible for these
activities. The supplier must certify the
composition of the cylinder contents. All
deliveries of bulk liquid oxygen should be
tested for conformance to the product licence
specification before dispatch by the supplier, and
should be supplied with a certificate indicating
compliance.
Cylinder storage and handling
15.183 There should be recorded visual checks for correct
labelling, including batch numbers (see Part B).
Removal of construction labels
15.184 When all tests have been completed satisfactorily,
the “Danger – do not use” labels affixed to
terminal units should be removed on the
authority of, or by, the Authorised Person
(MGPS).
Appendix A – Testing, commissioning and
filling for use: forms to be
completed during testing and
commissioning of piped medical
gases systems
Form
Summary of tests
B0
Carcass tests
Labelling and marking
Sleeving and supports
Leakage test
Cross-connection test
B1
B1
B1
B2
System tests
Leakage test
Vacuum leakage test
AVSUs – closure and zoning tests
LVAs – closure and zoning tests
Cross-connection test
Functional test of terminal units
Functional tests of NIST connectors
Design flow performance test
Functional test of supply system
Pressure safety valves
Warning systems
Verification of drawings
Purging and filling
Quality
Gas identification
B3
B4
B5A
B5B
B6
B7A
B7B
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
B13
B14
B15
Certificate of completion
B16
141
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Medical Gas Pipeline Carcass Tests
Form B0 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Summary of Tests
This is to certify that the following tests have been carried out:
System
Form
Test carried out satisfactorily
Carcass tests
Labelling and marking
B1
Sleeving and supports
B1
Leakage test
B1
Cross-connection test
B2
System tests
Leakage test
B3
Vacuum leakage test
B4
Area valve service units – closure and zoning test
B5A
Line valve assemblies
B5B
Cross-connection test
B6
Functional tests of terminal units
B7A
Functional tests of NIST connectors
B7B
Design flow performance tests
B8
Sources of supply
B9
Pressure safety valves
B10
Warning systems
B11
Verification of drawings
B12
Purging and filling
B13
Quality
B14
Gas identification
B15
Permit-to-work form
Construction labels removed
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
All appropriate tests satisfactorily carried out. System may now be taken into use.
Authorised Person (MGPS)
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
142
Appendix A – Test forms
Medical Gas Pipeline Carcass Tests
Form B1 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Part 1 – Leakage test, labelling and marking, sleeving and supports
This is to certify that a LEAKAGE test in accordance with paragraphs 15.49–15.51 was carried out on the piped system on this
scheme and that during the test, a pressure, as shown in column 2 below, was held as follows. A certified gauge number
was
used.
Section tested
Test pressure
(kPa)
Hours on test
Pressure drop
(kPa)
Pressure loss
(kPa/h)
Pass/Fail
<0.2/2h
(400 kPa systems)
<0.5/2h
(700 kPa systems)
Part 2 – Links between systems
For the purpose of carrying out this test, the following links have been made:
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
This is to certify that the above tests have been carried out and that the following links have been removed:
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
143
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Medical Gas Pipeline Carcass Tests
Form B2 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Cross-connection test
This is to certify that a CROSS-CONNECTION test in accordance with paragraphs 15.52–15.55 was carried out on the
following medical gas pipeline systems:
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
No cross-connections between these systems were found.
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
144
Appendix A – Test forms
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B3 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Leakage test from total compressed gas system
This is to certify that a LEAKAGE test in accordance with paragraphs 15.59–15.60 was carried out on the piped system on this
scheme and that during the test, a pressure of
was held for
hours with a pressure drop of
kPa.
Section tested
Test pressure
(kPa)
Hours on test
Pressure drop
(kPa)
Pressure loss
(kPa/h)
Pass/Fail
<0.2/2h
(400 kPa systems)
<0.5/2h
(700 kPa systems)
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
145
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B4 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Leakage into total vacuum system test
This is to certify that a LEAKAGE test in accordance with paragraph 15.61 was carried out on the piped vacuum system at a
system pressure of
kPa. The pressure increase after 1 hour was
kPa (max 10 kPa).
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
146
Appendix A – Test forms
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B5A (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Area Valve Service Units – closure and zoning tests
This is to certify that CLOSURE and ZONING of the AVSUs was tested in accordance with paragraphs 15.63–15.68 on the
pipeline system as follows:
AVSU number
Test pressure
(kPa)
Downstream/upstream
pressure change after
15 min (kPa)
Terminal units controlled
(total no)
Terminal unit labelling
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
147
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B5B (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Line Valve Assemblies – closure and zoning tests
This is to certify that CLOSURE and ZONING of the LVAs was tested in accordance with paragraphs 15.63–15.65 on the
pipeline system as follows:
LVA number
Test pressure
(kPa)
Downstream/upstream
pressure change after
15 min (kPa)
Terminal units controlled
(total no)
Terminal unit labelling
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
148
Appendix A – Test forms
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B6 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Cross-connection test
This is to certify that a CROSS-CONNECTION test in accordance with paragraphs 15.70–15.74 was carried out on the
following medical gas pipeline systems:
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................................................................
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
149
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B7A (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Functional tests of terminal units
(in accordance with the contract specification and paragraphs 15.77–15.78)
System ....................................................................................................................
Specified flow .................................. L/min
Terminal unit
number
Room number
Specified pressure drop . ................................. kPa
Specified flow
achieved
Yes/No
Specified pressure
drop achieved
Yes/No
Mechanical
function
Gas specificity
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
150
Appendix A – Test forms
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B7B (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Functional tests NIST connectors
(in accordance with the contract specification and paragraphs 15.80–15.81)
System ....................................................................................................................
NIST gas
Location or identification
Room
number
Gas specificity
Pass/Fail
Self-sealing
Adequate/Inadequate
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
151
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B8 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Design flow performance
(in accordance with paragraphs 15.83–15.84)
System gas . .............................................................. System design flow ................................ (L/min)
Total number of terminal units in system at test flow(s) of:
40 L/min
80 L/min
100 L/min
275 L/min
350 L/min
Total flow
L/min
Single point test flows
(Pass/Fail)
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
152
Appendix A – Test forms
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B9 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Functional tests of supply systems
This is to certify that the following sources of supply have been tested in accordance with paragraph 15.85 and the attached sheets
and found to comply with the specification.
Source of supply
Contractor’s Representative
Name/Signature
Contract Supervising Officer
Name/Signature
Manifold
Manifold
Manifold
Liquid oxygen plant
Air compressor
Vacuum plant
Oxygen concentrator
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
153
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B10 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Pressure safety valves
The pressure safety valves fitted to the pipeline systems have been inspected together with their certification and are in accordance
with the contract specification and paragraphs 15.86–15.88.
Location
Valve number
Position
Pipeline
distribution
pressure (A)
Certified discharge
pressure (B)
B/A (%)
If certificates are not provided, do not sign.
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
154
Appendix A – Test forms
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B11 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Warning systems
This is to certify that WARNING SYSTEMS on the following medical gas pipeline systems have been tested in accordance with
paragraphs 15.89–15.91 as follows:
System
O2
N2O
N2O/O2
MA-4
Surgical air
VAC
Specified warrning pressure
Observed warning pressure
Warning given
Return to normal
Marking
All functions on all stations
Stand-by power
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
155
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B12 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Verification of drawings
This is to certify that in accordance with paragraph 15.92, the as-fitted drawings of the following systems record all variations from
the contract drawings:
System
Drawing numbers
Contractor’s
Representative
Status/Name
Contract Supervising
Officer
Status/Name
Date
O2
N2O
N2O/O2
MA-4
Surgical air
VAC
AGS
Helium/oxygen mixture
Carbon dioxide
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
156
Appendix A – Test forms
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B13 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Purging and filling
This is to certify that medical gas systems have been purged and filled with medical air/O2 free nitrogen/the working gases (delete
as appropriate) in accordance with paragraphs 15.93–15.99 and/or 15.100–15.101 as follows:
Action
O2
N2O
N2O/O2
mixture
MA-4
Surgical
air
VAC
H2/O2
mixture
CO2
Special connectors/cylinders
removed from site
Filling
Purging all terminal units
Venting
Tick if particulate tests have been
performed and specifications met
Tick if odour tests have been
performed and specifications met
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
157
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B14 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Quality specifications for medical gas piepline tests (working gases). This is to certify that medical gas systems have been tested in
accordance with paragraphs 15.109–15.162 as follows:
Gas and
source
Particulates
Oxygen
from PSA
plant
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
Nitrous
oxide
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
–
Nitrous
oxide/
oxygen
mixture
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
–
Medical
and
surgical air
Free from visible
≤0.1
particles in a 75 L
mg/m3
sample (for medical
air) and 175 L
sample (for surgical
air)
Dental
Free from visible
compressed particles in a 75 L
air
sample
Oil
Water
CO
CO2
NO SO2
and
NO2
≤5
mg/
m3;
≤5
ppm
v/v
≤300
ppm
v/v
≤2
≤1 No
None
ppm ppm discoloration
v/v
v/v
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
–
–
–
–
No
SAFETY
discoloration Not
performed
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
–
–
–
–
No
SAFETY
discoloration Not
performed
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
≤5
mg/
m3;
≤5
ppm
v/v
≤900
mg/
m3;
≤500
ppm
v/v
≤2
≤1 No
None
ppm ppm discoloration
v/v
v/v
≤0.1 ≤1020 vpm
mg/m3 (≤0.78 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –20°C)
≤5
mg/
m3;
≤5
ppm
v/v
≤900
mg/
m3;
≤500
ppm
v/v
≤2
≤1 No
None
ppm ppm discoloration
v/v
v/v
≤0.1 ≤67 vpm
mg/m3 (≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
Polytest tube
(Optional)
Odour
Synthetic
air
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
–
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
–
–
–
–
No
None
discoloration
Oxygen
from bulk
liquid or
cylinders
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
–
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
–
–
–
–
No
None
discoloration
Helium/
oxygen
mixture
O2, <30%
Free from visible
particles in a 75 L
sample
–
≤67 vpm
(≤0.05 mg/L,
atmospheric dewpoint of –46°C)
–
–
–
–
No
None
discoloration
Tick when
parameters
are met
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Quality Controller
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
Appendix A – Test forms
Medical Gas Pipeline Total System Tests
Form B15 (Sheet
of
Sheets)
Hospital ........................................................................................ Scheme .............................................................................
File Number . ................................................................................ Date ..................................................................................
Identification of medical gas pipeline working gases
This is to certify that medical gas systems have been tested in accordance with paragraphs 15.163–15.167 and the results are as
follows (insert values for gases – tick for vacuum):
Gas and source
Paramagnetic oxygen
analyser reading
Thermal conductivity/
infra-red instrument
reading
Carbon dioxide
detector tube indication
if TC meter used
Vacuum probe
Oxygen from liquid or
cylinders
–
–
–
Oxygen from
concentrator
–
–
–
Nitrous oxide
–
Nitrous oxide/oxygen
mixture
–
–
Medical, surgical and
dental air
–
–
–
Synthetic air
–
–
–
–
–
Vacuum
–
Nitrogen shield gas
–
–
Helium/oxygen mixture
Test 1
Test 2
–
–
Contractor’s Representative
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Contract Supervising Officer
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Quality Controller
Status ............................................................................................. Signed ...............................................................................
Date ............................................................................................. Name ...............................................................................
Witnessed on behalf of .................................................................................................................................................................
By ............................................................................................. Status ...............................................................................
Signed ........................................................................................... Date ...............................................................................
159
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Certificate of Completion
Form B16
Hospital ........................................................................................ NHS Trust .........................................................................
Medical Gas Installations – Location . .........................................................................................................................................
This is to confirm that the following tests have been performed:
Mechanical functions tests
B1 to B11 inclusive
Quality and gas identity tests
B13 to B15 inclusive
in accordance with Health Technical Memorandum 02-01 Part A, Chapter 15, and that the results are satisfactory.
Signed .............................................................................................
Quality Controller (MGPS)
Signed .............................................................................................
Contractor’s Representative (MGPS)
Signed .............................................................................................
Authorised Person (MGPS) on behalf of Trust/other
Witnessed .......................................................................................
Trust/other Building operator/owner
Date ................................................................................................
We, Trust/FM Contractor
accept responsibility for the systems above and undertake to carry out any future work in accordance with the recommendations of
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01 and the permit-to-work procedures.
Signed .............................................................................................
Date ................................................................................................
160
Appendix B – Gas pressure variation with
temperature
General
1.
2.
3.
Tests are specified for leakage of the pipeline
carcass and the pipeline systems. During these tests,
pressure changes may occur that are caused by
temperature changes rather than leakage.
Pressure changes due to temperature difference may
be calculated according to the Gas Laws (see the
‘Glossary’ in Part B).
It is assumed that the temperature in the pipeline
is uniform in all branches. If substantial runs are
external, an average temperature should be chosen.
Calculation
5.
Care must be taken to express pressure and
temperature in absolute values.
6.
Pressure is normally expressed in “gauge” pressure:
Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + atmospheric
pressure.
7.
Temperature is normally expressed in °C.
Examples
8.
The carcass of a medical air pipeline is tested for
leakage at a working pressure of 14.0 bar pressure.
The temperature is 13°C at the beginning of the
test and 17°C at the end of the test:
P1 = 14.0 + 1.0 = 15.0 bar
T1 = 273 + 13 = 286 K
4.
The change in gas pressure with temperature is as
follows:
P1/T2 = P2/T1
T2 = 273 + 17 = 290 K.
where:
9.
Therefore, using Equation (1):
P1 = the initial absolute pressure of a fixed volume
of gas;
P2 = the final absolute pressure of a fixed volume of
gas;
P2 = (15 x 290)/286
= 15.21 bar (absolute pressure)
= 14.21 bar (gauge pressure).
T1 = the initial absolute temperature;
T2 = the final absolute temperature.
Therefore:
P2 = (P1 x T2)/T1.
10. That is, gauge pressure should read 14.21 bar at the
end of the test, assuming that no leakage has
occurred.
(1)
161
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Appendix C – Pressure-drop test device
General
1.
2.
Special test devices are required to measure the
pressure at specified flows at each terminal unit.
Suitable test devices are commercially available or
may be constructed in accordance with the outline
specification given below.
Measurement principle
3.
Flow at a specified pressure may be measured either
with a calibrated orifice or with a flowmeter.
4.
Pressure may be measured with a bourdon gauge.
5.
A gas-specific probe conforming to BS 5682:1998
should be used to connect the device to the
terminal unit.
6.
The test device is connected to the terminal unit
by the gas-specific probe and the pressure at the
specified flow is read on the gauge.
Functional requirements
7.
The test device should consist of the following
components:
• gas-specific probe to BS 5682:1998;
• body on/off valve pressure gauge;
• orifice or flowmeter.
8.
The body may be of a design that allows exchange
of the following components:
a. gas-specific probes;
b. calibrated orifices;
c. pressure gauges.
9.
An on/off valve may be incorporated into the body.
10. The complete assembly should be tested for leaks.
162
Orifices
11. The orifices should be selected from the
information on the manufacturer’s data sheets or
from practical testing.
12. These devices should be checked against a
flowmeter before use.
Flowmeter
13. A bobbin flowmeter calibrated to a flow of 40 L/
min may be used to measure flow under vacuum.
Pressure gauge
14. A 50 mm bourdon gauge with an appropriate full
scale reading and interval should be used as follows:
Test pressure kPa
Scale
Scale interval
400
0–7 bar
0.1 bar
700
0–11 bar
0.5 bar
Vacuum
0–100 kPa
(0–760 mm Hg)
5 kPa (50 mm Hg)
1 bar = 100 kPa
approximately
Note
Generally it is found that three separate test devices
for 400 kPa, 700 kPa and vacuum provide greater
convenience. Because the test methodology in
Chapter 15 has the potential for exposing the 400 kPa
and vacuum devices to pressure or vacuum, it is
desirable that they include an appropriate directional
check valve.
Appendix D – Membrane filter test device
General
1.
The function of this test device is to collect
particulate material which may be present in the
pipeline.
2.
Filter holders appropriate to the pressure
encountered are commercially available.
3.
The filter holder should be specified for use at
pipeline-distribution pressure and be oxygencompatible.
Test equipment
6.
The following equipment is required:
a. a membrane filter holder;
b. a supply of white hydrophobic membrane filters
of not more than 0.45 µm pore size and with
high mechanical strength;
c. a means of connecting the filter to the pipeline;
4.
A known volume of gas is passed through a
membrane filter that will collect all visible particles.
d. a means of controlling the flow through the
filter, which is connected downstream of the
filter. One method of achieving this is to use the
appropriate Amal jets to achieve a minimum
flow of 150 L/min at 400 kPa and 350 L/min at
700 kPa;
5.
Hydrophobic membrane filters of pore size
0.45 µm should be used.
e. all equipment must be oxygen-compatible and
hoses should be antistatic.
Measurement principle
163
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A
Appendix E – Equipment for contaminant
testing
General
1.
The function of these tests is to establish whether
the pipeline has been contaminated during
construction or modification. The specifications for
the permissible concentrations of each component
are summarised in Table 20.
2.
Simple equipment that is of the required sensitivity
and is suitable for use on site is commercially
available.
Measurement principle
3.
A known volume of gas is passed through a tube
packed with an absorbent, which is coated with
specific colorimetric reagents. The reagents react
quantitatively with the compound to be measured
and produce a colour change along the length of
the tube, which is proportional to the concentration
of the compound being measured.
4.
Tubes are available with appropriate sensitivities for
the measurement of oil, water, carbon monoxide
and carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, and higher
oxides of nitrogen.
Notes
Non-agent-specific detector tubes are difficult to
interpret and are not recommended because of their
qualitative and non-quantitative response.
164
Appendix F – Equipment for gas identification
General
1.
The function of these tests is positively to identify
medical gases by measuring their oxygen, nitrous
oxide and nitric oxide content.
2.
Portable equipment of the required specificity and
sensitivity is commercially available.
3.
Thermal conductivity meters do not give a positive
identification of nitrous oxide in the presence of
carbon dioxide, and should not be used as a sole
means of identification of nitrous oxide. A specific
nitrous oxide meter should be used. If carbon
dioxide pipelines are present, for example in IVF
(in vitro fertilisation) clinics, a carbon dioxide
detector tube should be used.
Specificity
Oxygen
4.
Nitrous oxide
5.
The nitrous oxide sensor should not give greater
than ±1% response in the presence of 100%
oxygen, 100% nitrogen or 100% carbon dioxide.
An infrared/fuel cell meter is now commercially
available.
Specification
6.
The equipment should be portable, preferably
battery-powered, with digital or analogue indication
of 0–100% to one decimal place. The battery
should give at least eight hours’ continuous running
between recharging or replacement.
7.
An accuracy better than ±1% is required, with a
zero stability of 2.5% per day.
8.
The response time must be not more than
15 seconds to 90% of the final reading.
Oxygen-specific sensors using different
measurement principles are currently in
manufacture. The oxygen sensor should not give
greater than ±1% response in the presence of 100%
nitrous oxide or 100% nitrogen.
Notes
A paramagnetic meter is the specified instrument for
identity of oxygen.
165
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A
Appendix G – Pressure loss data
Pipeline pressure-drop calculations
1.
Example: Calculate the pressure drop in a 15 mm diameter pipe, 12 m in length, carrying medical air at a design
flow rate of 800 L/min.
Solution
2.
The pressure drop Δp across the pipe can be calculated from the formula:
Measured length of pipe
Design flow
Δp = ×
× Pressure drop from Table A1
Nearest length of pipe from Table A1
Nearest flow from Table A1
(2)
3.
From Table A1, the nearest length to 12 m is 15 m and the nearest flow rate to the design flow of 800 L/min is
711 L/min in the 15 m column, at which there is a pressure drop of 21 kPa across a 15 mm diameter, 15 m
length of pipe.
4.
Using these values, Equation (2) gives a pressure drop across the 12 m pipe of:
[
]
2
[ ]
12 × 800 2 × 21
15
711
= 21.3 kPa.
5.
If this loss is unacceptable, use the next (higher) pipe size, that is 22 mm. The nearest flow rate to 800 L/min is
now 1135 L/min, representing a pressure loss of 7 kPa over 15 m.
6.
In this instance:
Δp = 2.8 kPa.
Table A1 Section of pressure drop table for medical air
Old BS
659 size
New British Standard size (BS EN 1057: R250, Table X)
Nominal
bore
(inches)
Outside
diameter
(mm)
Wall
thickness
(mm)
3/
8
12
0.6
10.8
½
15
0.7
¾
22
7.
166
Mean internal diameter
(mm) (inches)
Distance from source at 400 kPa for 7, 14 and
21 kPa (0.07, 0.14 and 0.21 bar) pressure loss
8 m (25 ft)
15 m (50 ft)
0.4252
311 455 564
209 307 382
13.6
0.5354
579 845 1038
391 572 711
0.9
20.2
0.7953
1677 2441 3023
1135 1656 2053
1
28
1.2
26.2
1.0315
3363 4881 6034
2283 3320 4109
¼
35
1.2
32.6
1.2835
6023 8720 10,758
4096 5943 7344
1½
42
1.2
39.6
1.5591
10103 14,587 17,963
6883 9963 12,290
It is possible to insert the above formula into a spreadsheet and use mathematical functions to calculate required
pressure drops (see Tables A2–A5).
Table A2 Pipeline pressure loss: 400 kPa (4 bar) pipelines
British Standard Size Tube
BS EN 1057: R250, Table X
Outside
Diameter
(mm)
12
15
22
28
35
42
54
8
15
30
61
91
122
152
183
213
244
274
305
335
366
396
427
457
Free air flow rate (L/min)
7
311
209
141
95
75
14
455
307
207
139
110
21
564
382
258
174
138
7
579
391
263
177
140
14
845
572
386
260
21
1038
711
481
7
1677
1135
14
2441
21
3023
7
64
56
50
46
43
40
37
35
34
32
31
30
94
82
74
68
63
59
55
52
50
47
45
44
117
103
93
85
78
73
69
65
62
59
57
55
119
105
94
86
80
75
70
66
63
60
58
56
207
175
154
139
127
118
110
104
98
93
89
85
82
325
258
219
192
173
159
147
137
129
122
117
111
107
102
768
518
411
349
307
277
254
235
220
207
196
186
178
170
164
1656
1123
759
604
513
451
407
373
345
323
304
288
274
262
251
241
2053
1395
945
751
638
562
507
465
431
403
379
359
342
326
313
301
3363
2283
1547
1047
832
706
622
560
514
476
445
419
397
378
361
346
332
14
4881
3320
2257
1530
1218
1035
912
823
754
699
653
615
583
555
530
508
488
21
6034
4109
2800
1901
1514
1287
1135
1024
938
870
814
767
726
691
660
633
609
7
6023
4096
2783
1886
1500
1275
1124
1013
928
861
805
758
718
683
653
626
602
14
8720
5943
4051
2752
2192
1865
1644
1483
1360
1261
1180
1111
1053
1002
957
918
883
21
10758
7344
5018
3415
2723
2317
2044
1845
1692
1569
1468
1383
1310
1248
1192
1143
1099
7
10103
6883
4685
3180
2533
2154
1899
1713
1570
1456
1362
1283
1215
1157
1105
1060
1019
14
14587
9963
6806
4633
3694
3145
2775
2504
2296
2130
1993
1878
1780
1694
1619
1553
1493
21
17963 12290
8421
5743
4584
3904
3446
3112
2855
2648
2478
2335
2213
2107
2014
1932
1858
7
14974 10588
7487
5294
4323
3743
3348
3056
2830
2647
2496
2368
2257
2161
2076
2001
1933
14
21176 14974 10588
7487
6113
5294
4735
4323
4002
3743
3529
3348
3192
3056
2937
2830
2734
21
25935 18339 12968
9169
7487
6484
5799
5294
4901
4585
4323
4101
3910
3743
3597
3466
3348
7
37754 26696 18877 13348 10899
9438
8442
7706
7135
6674
6292
5969
5692
5449
5236
5045
4874
14
53392 37754 26696 18877 15413 13348 11939 10899 10090
9438
8899
8442
8049
7706
7404
7135
6893
21
65392 46239 32696 23119 18877 16348 14622 13348 12358 11560 10899 10339
9858
9438
9068
8738
8442
Examples:
1 122 m of 28 mm pipe would carry 706 L/min of free air per minute with a pressure loss of 0.07 bar (7 kPa), or 1287 L/min with a loss of 0.21 bar (21 kPa).
ie: 122/122 x (706/706)2 x 7
167
2 A flow of 1200 L/min in 122 m of 28 mm pipe would result in a pressure loss of 18.26 kPa. ie: 122/122 x (1200/1287)2 x 21
3 140 m of 28 mm pipe would carry 800 L/min with a pressure loss of 9.92 kPa. ie: 140/152 x (800/912)2 x 14
Appendix G – Pressure loss data
76
Pressure loss
(kPa)
Distance from source (m) at 400 kPa for 7, 14, 21 kPa (1, 2, 3 psi) pressure loss
British Standard Size
Tube BS EN 1057:
R250, Table X
Outside Pressure
Diameter loss (kPa)
(mm)
12
15
22
28
35
42
Distance from source (m) at 700 kPa for 7, 14, 34 kPa (1, 2, 5 psi) pressure loss
8
15
30
61
91
122
152
183
213
244
274
305
335
366
396
427
457
Free air flow rate (L/min)
7
408
276
186
125
99
84
74
67
61
56
53
50
47
45
43
41
39
14
599
405
274
185
147
124
109
99
90
84
78
74
70
66
63
61
58
34
979
664
450
304
242
205
181
163
149
138
129
122
115
110
105
100
96
7
759
514
347
234
186
158
139
125
114
106
99
93
88
84
80
77
74
14
1112
754
510
345
274
232
205
184
169
156
146
138
130
124
118
114
109
34
1811
1231
836
566
450
383
337
304
279
258
242
227
215
205
196
188
180
7
2192
1488
1009
682
542
460
406
366
335
310
290
273
259
246
235
225
217
14
3198
2175
1478
1001
797
677
597
538
493
457
428
403
381
363
347
332
320
34
5180
3533
2410
1638
1306
1111
980
884
811
752
704
663
628
598
571
548
527
7
4387
2984
2027
1374
1093
929
819
739
677
628
587
553
524
498
476
456
439
14
6382
4351
2963
2013
1604
1364
1203
1086
995
923
863
813
771
734
701
672
646
34
10290
7038
4816
3283
2620
2232
1970
1779
1632
1514
1417
1335
1266
1205
1152
1105
1063
7
7841
5345
3638
2470
1968
1674
1476
1332
1221
1132
1059
998
945
900
860
825
793
14
11380
7775
5307
3612
2881
2453
2165
1954
1792
1662
1556
1466
1389
1323
1264
1212
1166
34
18271
12528
8599
5876
4696
4003
3536
3194
2931
2720
2547
2401
2276
2168
2073
1988
1912
7
13128
8964
6113
4159
3316
2823
2490
2248
2061
1912
1789
1686
1598
1521
1454
1394
1341
14
19010
13012
8901
6070
4847
4129
3646
3293
3021
2803
2624
2473
2344
2232
2134
2047
1969
34
30392
20892
14381
9849
7881
6723
5942
5371
4930
4577
4286
4042
3833
3651
3491
3349
3223
Examples:
1 122 m of 28 mm pipe would carry 929 L/min of free air per minute with a pressure loss of 0.07 bar (7 kPa), or 2232 L/min with a loss of 0.34 bar (34 kPa).
ie: 122/122 x (929/929)2 x 7
2 A flow of 1800 L/min in 122 m of 28 mm pipe would result in a pressure loss of 22.11 kPa.
3 140 m of 28 mm pipe would carry 1100 L/min with a pressure loss of 10.78 kPa.
ie: 122/122 x (1800/2232)2 x 34
ie: 140/152 x (1100/1203)2 x 14
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A
168
Table A3 Pipeline pressure loss: 700 kPa (7 bar) pipelines
Table A4 Pipeline pressure loss: 1100 kPa (11 bar) pipelines
British Standard
Size Tube BS EN
1057: R250, Table X
Outside Pressure
Diameter loss (kPa)
(mm)
12
15
22
28
35
42
Distance from source (m) at 1100 kPa for 7, 14, 34 kPa (1, 2, 5 psi) pressure loss
8
15
30
61
91
122
152
183
213
244
274
305
335
366
396
427
457
Free air flow rate (L/min)
487
356
252
177
144
124
112
102
94
88
84
79
75
72
69
67
65
689
503
355
249
204
177
158
144
133
124
118
111
106
102
98
94
91
34
1084
791
560
392
321
277
249
227
210
197
185
176
167
161
154
148
143
7
867
634
448
314
257
222
199
181
168
157
148
141
134
128
124
119
115
14
1226
895
633
444
363
314
281
257
238
222
209
199
189
181
174
168
162
34
1929
1409
996
698
572
494
443
403
373
350
330
313
298
285
275
264
256
7
2332
1703
1205
845
692
598
535
487
452
423
399
378
360
345
332
319
309
14
3294
2405
1701
1193
977
844
755
689
638
597
562
534
509
487
468
451
436
34
5185
3787
2678
1878
1537
1328
1189
1084
1005
939
886
840
801
767
737
710
686
7
4469
3263
2308
1618
1325
1145
1025
935
866
809
764
724
691
660
636
612
591
14
6311
4608
3259
2286
1872
1616
1448
1320
1223
1143
1078
1022
976
933
897
864
835
34
9935
7255
5130
3598
2946
2544
2279
2077
1926
1799
1698
1609
1535
1469
1412
1359
1315
7
7718
5636
3985
2795
2289
1976
1771
1614
1495
1397
1319
1250
1192
1141
1097
1056
1021
14
10898
7959
5628
3947
3231
2791
2500
2279
2112
1973
1862
1765
1684
1611
1549
1492
1442
34
17157
12530
8860
6213
5087
4394
3936
3587
3325
3107
2932
2779
2651
2537
2439
2348
2271
7
12550
9166
6481
4545
3721
3214
2879
2624
2432
2272
2144
2033
1940
1855
1784
1718
1661
14
17724
12944
9152
6418
5255
4538
4066
3706
3435
3209
3029
2871
2739
2620
2519
2426
2345
34
27902
20377
14409
10104
8273
7145
6401
5834
5407
5052
4768
4519
4312
4125
3966
3819
3692
Examples:
1 122 m of 28 mm pipe would carry 1145 L/min of free air per minute with a pressure loss of 0.07 bar (7 kPa), or 2544 L/min with a loss of 0.34 bar (34 kPa).
ie: 122/122 x (1145/1145)2 x 7
2 A flow of 2200 L/min in 122 m of 28 mm pipe would result in a pressure loss of 25.43 kPa.
3 140 m of 28 mm pipe would carry 1300 L/min with a pressure loss of 10.39 kPa.
ie: 122/122 x (2200/2544)2 x 34
ie: 140/152 x (1300/1448)2 x 14
169
Appendix G – Pressure loss data
7
14
British Standard
Size Tube BS EN
1057: R250, Table X
Outside Pressure
Diameter loss (kPa)
(mm)
12
15
22
28
35
42
54
76
108
1.3
2.6
3.9
6.5
1.3
2.6
3.9
6.5
1.3
2.6
3.9
6.5
1.3
2.6
3.9
6.5
1.3
2.6
3.9
6.5
1.3
2.6
3.9
6.5
1.3
2.6
3.9
6.5
1.3
2.6
3.9
6.5
1.3
2.6
3.9
6.5
Distance from source (m) at 59 kPa (450 mm Hg) for 1.3, 2.6, 3.9, 6.5 kPa (10, 20, 30, 50 mm Hg) pressure loss
8
15
30
61
91
122
152
183
213
244
274
305
335
366
396
427
457
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
42
57
44
67
86
117
81
122
156
213
138
208
265
361
284
428
545
742
735
1103
1402
1906
1919
3035
3750
4873
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
40
54
42
63
81
110
76
115
147
200
130
196
249
340
268
403
513
699
692
1038
1320
1796
2036
2879
3557
4623
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
51
40
60
76
104
72
109
139
190
123
185
236
322
253
381
485
662
655
983
1250
1701
1941
2745
3391
4408
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
49
–
57
73
99
69
103
132
180
117
176
224
306
241
363
462
630
623
936
1190
1619
1858
2628
3247
4220
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
46
–
54
69
95
65
99
126
172
111
168
214
293
230
346
441
601
595
894
1137
1547
1785
2525
3119
4055
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
45
–
52
66
91
63
95
121
165
107
161
205
280
220
332
423
576
570
857
1090
1483
1712
2422
2992
3889
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
43
–
50
64
87
60
91
116
158
103
155
197
270
212
319
406
554
548
823
1048
1426
1641
2325
2870
3730
Free air flow rate (L/min)
–
47
60
82
59
89
113
153
173
260
330
445
350
525
666
900
637
947
1198
1614
1074
1598
2016
2706
2191
3246
4083
5448
5521
8070
10041
13166
12874
18207
22494
29238
–
–
40
55
–
59
76
103
116
174
222
301
236
353
448
607
427
638
808
1091
724
1079
1363
1833
1480
2196
2766
3699
3773
5563
6968
9233
9140
12874
15905
20675
–
–
–
–
–
40
51
69
78
117
149
203
159
238
303
412
288
431
548
743
488
731
926
1254
1001
1493
1889
2549
2563
3807
4801
6439
6543
9235
11374
14708
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
46
52
79
100
137
106
160
204
278
193
290
369
503
328
493
626
851
674
1010
1281
1737
1733
2586
3274
4421
4552
6578
8114
10520
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
41
62
79
108
84
127
161
220
153
230
293
399
260
391
497
677
535
802
1019
1384
1377
2058
2609
3533
3732
5274
6509
8445
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
53
67
92
71
107
137
187
130
195
248
339
220
331
422
574
453
681
865
1176
1169
1749
2219
3009
3280
4552
5657
7343
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
46
59
81
63
94
120
164
114
171
218
298
194
291
371
506
399
599
762
1037
1029
1541
1957
2655
2879
4071
5030
6538
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
42
53
73
56
85
108
148
102
154
197
269
174
262
334
456
359
540
687
935
927
1389
1765
2396
2628
3716
4592
5968
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
49
67
51
78
99
135
94
141
180
246
160
240
306
417
329
494
629
856
849
1273
1617
2197
2433
3441
4251
5526
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
45
62
48
72
92
125
87
131
167
228
148
222
283
387
304
458
582
794
786
1179
1499
2037
2276
3219
3976
5169
Examples:
1 122 m of 28 mm pipe would carry 71 L/min of free air per minute with a pressure loss of 10 mm Hg (1.3 kPa), or 187 L/min with a loss of 50 mm Hg (6.5 kPa).
ie: 122/122 x (71/71)2 x 1.3
2 A flow of 120 L/min in 122 m of 28 mm pipe would result in pressure loss of 2.99 kPa.
3 140 m of 28 mm pipe would carry 90 L/min with a pressure loss of 2.20 kPa.
ie: 122/122 x (120/137)2 x 3.9
ie: 140/152 x (90/94)2 x 2.6
Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A
170
Table A5 Pipeline pressure loss (vacuum)
Appendix G – Pressure loss data
8.
Another alternative is to derive graphs from the tables, although it may be necessary to draw several graphs,
at different scales, to obtain accurate results.
9.
The graphs of flow vs pressure drop provide a pressure loss per metre of pipe, not a total pressure loss. This figure
must be multiplied by the length of the pipe in order to find the actual total pressure drop.
10. Because a pipe and the fittings in the system cause frictional resistance to the gas flow, a pressure loss occurs that
is greater than that which would occur if the gas were flowing through the same distance of straight pipe.
11. Each valve, fitting etc is allocated a “length” equivalent in frictional resistance to a straight piece of pipe of the
same diameter. This length is hence known as the equivalent length of the fitting.
12. To calculate design flows, the sum of the lengths of the straight runs of pipe plus the sums of the equivalent
lengths of all of the fittings etc in that run are added.
13. In practice many designers simply add 25–30% to the total measured length or use only 60–75% of the
allocated pressure drop when sizing.
14. Equivalent lengths of some fittings are given in Tables A6 and A7.
Table A6 Equivalent lengths for copper fittings
6 mm
8 mm
10 mm
12 mm
15 mm
22 mm
28 mm
35 mm
42 mm
54 mm
76 mm
Ball valve
0.10
0.10
0.20
0.30
0.30
0.60
0.90
0.90
1.10
1.20
1.20
Tee (Thru’)
0.12
0.15
0.18
0.21
0.32
0.42
0.54
0.70
0.82
1.05
1.56
Tee (Branch)
0.46
0.52
0.70
0.80
0.95
1.26
1.60
2.10
2.45
3.14
4.67
90° Elbow
0.17
0.20
0.25
0.33
0.47
0.63
0.80
1.05
1.23
1.58
2.36
Table A7 Equivalent lengths for ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) vacuum fittings
40 mm
50 mm
70 mm
100 mm
125 mm
Tee (Thru’)
0.95
1.23
1.65
2.20
2.56
Tee (Branch)
2.76
3.38
4.57
6.12
7.68
90° elbow
1.25
1.71
2.44
3.08
3.84
171
Appendix H – Checklist for planning/installing/
upgrading a cryogenic liquid
supply system
1.
2.
Information given in this Appendix can be used to
determine the need for a particular capacity or type
of supply system. Many of the factors described will
also apply to planning an upgrade to an installation
by way of increase in system size or a change of
system type.
Some factors that should be considered are outlined
below.
Delivery frequency
• Does current frequency cause logistical problems
for the supplier/your site?
Calculating consumption
• Consumption is rising at approximately 10%
per annum. It doubles in seven years.
• Use pharmacy records for cylinder/liquid
consumption. Look for peaks in demand, for
example winter influenza epidemics.
• When average and peak flow rates are known,
calculate the required size of the emergency
supply.
Age of current system
• The secondary supply of older VIE systems will
be a compressed gas cylinder manifold, which
may have very limited capacity. Consideration
should be given to either a single VIE plus fully
automatic manifold or, preferably, a dual VIE
system.
Siting of system and the site survey
• What planning restrictions apply (vessel size,
noise etc)?
• What are convenient locations for cylinder/
liquid delivery?
• Advantages of separating primary and secondary
supplies, if space is available.
172
• Will other facilities be lost/reduced, for example
car-parking space?
• It will be less economical in terms of delivery
charges and unit gas costs to deliver large loads
(for example 20 tons) using rigid vehicles
(maximum 12 tons). Articulated vehicles will
deliver the largest loads but may require
roadway/access modifications.
• Cranage access for vessels.
• When choosing liquid cylinder systems, will
adequate ventilation be available?
• Emergency supply location.
• Pipeline protection and possible need for dual
feeds.
• Pipeline extension into other sites if applicable,
for example two hospitals supplied from the
same VIE system. There are possible insurance
issues with this arrangement.
• Modifications to the alarm system may have to
be made.
• Alarm panel + telemetry in waterproof
enclosures.
• Are alarms compatible with the existing system?
• Alarm arrangement for dual (but separate) tank
installations.
• Cable ducts and trays: examine possible routes.
• Possible need to move gates/fences to install new
pipework.
• Clearance of trees/building.
• Sealing windows of adjacent buildings.
• Position of frame for valve tree (fix to fence for
rigidity?).
• Position of emergency gate.
• Position of fill couplings must allow driver to see
tank gauges.
Appendix H – Checklist for planning/installing/upgrading a cryogenic liquid supply system
• Cabling and alarm runs for the emergency
supply manifold (ESM).
• What, if any, commitment is required by the gas
company?
• Availability and presentation of alarms for ESM.
• How will gas prices vary during this period?
• Power and lighting during work.
• Is there any agreement to provide, for example,
modified roadway facilities if rigid vehicular
deliveries are too frequent to be convenient to
supplier? Or if such roadway modifications take
place within a defined timescale, new rates etc
may need to be negotiated.
• Drainage – catch pits, diversions, pad resizing.
Costs
• Make sure all costs are allowed for, for example:
• Check defects liability (usually 12 months).
(i) Site inspection.
(ii)Cost of continuing delivery using rigid
and non-articulated vehicles.
(iii)Gas charge/HCM (hundred cubic metres)
and any inflation likely.
• Examine the vulnerability of current system and
main feeds to hospital.
(iv)Facility charges (rental).
(v)Delivery charge for equipment.
• Consider minimum size of manifold plus
cylinder storage to meet four-hour supply
requirement. Is a second VIE a better option?
(vi)Loan charges and changes in interest rate
on any loan if the installer funds any part
of the installation.
• Operational requirements of ESM.
(vii)Road/compound loans will be seen as £x
added to gas price over y years.
• Alarm/monitoring systems and power supplies
for ESM and its accommodation.
(viii)Climate change levy.
(ix)Professional fees (consultancy).
(x)Planning permission.
(xi)Building Regulations clearance.
(xii)All civil engineering work.
(xiii)Quoted price for gas/facilities/delivery
charges may be dependent on payment
by direct debit.
(xiv)Introduction/modification and
maintenance of services, for example
lighting, power supplies, drainage.
(xv)Engineering and pharmaceutical testing.
(xvi)Additional emergency provision and any
associated cylinder charges.
(xvii)Modifications to alarm and telephone
systems.
(xviii) Security.
(xix)Charges for ESM cylinders during
installation (may have to be charged and
then recovered).
(xx) Cranage charges.
(xxi) Contingency 10%.
Emergency provision
• Protection/housing/security of ESM.
System shutdown during installation
• Often it will be necessary to interrupt site
supplies during connection of new plant.
How will this be managed?
• Disruption of two hospitals simultaneously if
plant to be upgraded is supplying both sites.
• Examine planned plant and pipework systems
carefully to ascertain the best way of minimising
downtime and facilitating engineering and
pharmaceutical testing.
• While installing, fit extra valves to allow
for future expansion and emergency supply
manifolds to protect vulnerable parts of the
system.
• Fit NIST fittings wherever this will facilitate
system purging.
• Fit test points/emergency inlet ports as
recommended in this guidance or investigate
any likely requirement for additional (local)
manifolds to support high-dependency areas.
173
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Paperwork
• Site survey details.
• Register of contractors with contact names/
telephone numbers.
• Keep a record of all dates, for example:
• Road base preparation, if required, must be
completed in an early phase of the work to allow
necessary access for cranes and, eventually,
delivery vehicles.
(i) tender invitation;
• Road surfacing/kerbing/drainage/lighting.
(ii) tender open;
• Retaining walls around compound if required,
for example on sloping sites.
(iii) tender close;
(iv) award and regret letters to tenderers.
• Copies of all letters to/from contractors.
• NICEIC (National Inspection Council for
Electrical Installation Contracting) test
certificate for electrics.
• Validation and verification results (engineering
and pharmaceutical).
• Health and safety policies of contractors.
• Method statements from contractors.
• Insurance agreement with gas supplier for VIE
system(s).
• MGPS operational policy protocols.
Health and safety
• Health and safety policy (contractors and
their employees, and subcontractors and their
employees, must comply when employed by the
trust and working on trust properties).
• Inform contractors of specific site hazards.
• Hazard notices on site and on final installation.
• Lighting during installation and for completed
compound.
• Road markings and signage.
Preparation
• Carefully plan phasing of building work to
maximise efficiency of installation programme.
(Remember concrete plinths will take three days
to harden before vessels can be sited.)
• Plan phasing of engineering and QC testing to
avoid wasting APs’/QCs’ time.
• Consider methods of maintaining supplies
during essential shutdowns. Cylinder supplies
may be needed during commissioning. Gas
174
supplier may be able to arrange multi-cylinder
pallets.
• Maintaining rights of way.
• Oxygen compound civil engineering work.
• If you are changing supplier, your original
supplier will need to remove old equipment
before plinth can be extended to fit new vessels.
• Electrics for alarms, tank, lighting and, possibly,
vehicle pump.
• Floodlighting and telephone line.
• Plan vehicular parking during (and after) work.
• The old plinth may require skimming to provide
a reasonable surface.
Installation
• If an ESM (as a third means of supply) is
installed first, this can be used to supply the
hospital system during vessel replacement.
• Decide who arranges emergency cylinder
supplies for ESM. When plinth extensions are
required, specify oxygen-compatible sealant for
gaps between old and new plinth sections.
• Remember to post health and safety notices
during the work.
• Alarm systems will not be fully functional until
system is fully commissioned. Therefore, all staff
must be kept aware of the different alarm
situation.
• Concrete will need two to three days to harden
on any pad extension.
• The first vessel filling is a very noisy procedure
with much vapour and can take several hours
(consider restrictions).
• Concrete sample testing will be required during
new plinth construction.
• Use temporary steel sheeting to support a new
vessel on tarmac alongside the plinth.
Appendix H – Checklist for planning/installing/upgrading a cryogenic liquid supply system
• Access for cranage must be kept open (car
parking control).
• Drainage (may have to move existing drains/
soakaways and create new pipe runs; remember
oxygen separation distances).
• Road markings and signage.
• Possible new kerbs/footpaths.
• Electrical supplies: single phase can be used for
lighting, alarms etc but three-phase 60 A supply
will be needed for delivery vehicle pump if
appropriate.
• Earth bonding/lightning protection for fences.
• Alarm interface/telemetry boxes at a sensible
height for viewing.
• Lagging of liquid lines.
• If using 200 bar unregulated cylinders for
supply during installation or on ESM, take
care that they are not mixed up with 137 bar
cylinders.
• Proximity of flammables and vital services
during installation – vulnerability to mechanical
damage (cutting discs etc), welding and cutting
flames/sparks.
• Power and lighting supplies during work.
• Water supply (washing and concrete) during
work.
Follow-up
• Routine maintenance and monitoring of
complete installation.
• Cylinder changes and stock management for
ESM.
• Establish system management arrangements for
vessels supplying more than one site (see Part B,
Appendix G).
• Update MGPS operational policy and any
relevant insurance policies.
175
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Appendix J – Upgrading surgical air systems
Background
1.
An increasing number of surgical air pipeline
systems are designed to operate at a line pressure
above the nominal 700 kPa, for example 1000–
1100 kPa. This enables the system to deliver 350 L/
min (at 700 kPa) at the front of the surgical air
terminal unit.
2.
Such a system will comprise a high-pressure supply
pipeline installation, in the order of 1000–1100 kPa
and local pressure regulation (for example adjacent
to the operating suite) such that the maximum
static pressure does not exceed 900 kPa.
3.
Existing Health Technical Memorandum 2022
systems run at a line pressure of 700 kPa and will
provide a flow of 250 L/min at the front of the
terminal unit.
4.
5.
Users must be made aware (preferably by written
report) that such systems will not meet the
demands of some modern air tools and that use
of such tools may result in both a lack of tool
performance and frequent low-pressure alarms on
the surgical air system.
Tools are available that require a flow up to 500 L/
min at an operating pressure of 1400 kPa. Such
tools will require discrete cylinder supplies.
Modifying “old” systems
6.
Increasing line pressure to meet the latest
recommended flow rates is often proposed, but
needs to take account of the following:
a. Is the compressor receiver suitable for use at
the proposed pressures?
A typical “old” 700 kPa system will employ a
receiver operating at typically 10 bar pressure.
A “new” system, with a typical line pressure
of 10.5 bar, requires a receiver operating at a
typical pressure of 13 bar.
Ensure that the test, design and working
pressures of the current receiver are acceptable,
and that the capacity of the receiver is
appropriate to the new demand.
176
b. Is the compressor plant capable of meeting
the increased duty cycle?
Overheating and premature plant failure may
result if this is not the case. The system may
be supplying both surgical and medical air.
Plant failure/flow reduction resulting from an
overburdened surgical air system may have
serious consequences in terms of medical air
provision, particularly as this is the
recommended driving gas for patients’
ventilators.
This guidance recommends the use of separate
plant for surgical air/medical air, but this may
not always be the case with older Health
Technical Memorandum 2022 plant.
c. Are the pressure safety valves (PSVs) suitably
rated?
PSVs on pipelines and the receiver will need
to be changed to meet the new operating
conditions. Certificated replacement PSVs
should be used.
d. Are pressure switches suitably rated and
adjusted?
Pressure switches on plant and pipelines will
need to be changed or adjusted accordingly.
e. Has the pipeline been suitably pressuretested?
There may be occasions when existing 4 bar
systems (or parts thereof ) are proposed for use at
7 bar or higher. 4 bar systems are only tested to
10 bar; they will need to be retested at 18 bar to
ensure a leak-free high-pressure system.
f. Will you still be insured?
If the pipeline system contains large diameter
pipe (120 mm or above), the insurance
company should be consulted to ascertain
whether the system would be capable of
withstanding not only the pipeline operating
pressure but also any test pressure that may
be applied during system refurbishment or
extension. Many insurance companies will not
allow testing of pipe diameters greater than
Appendix J – Upgrading surgical air systems
100 mm at 18 bar, as this pressure is likely to
compromise the pipe integrity.
The insurance company should be consulted on
any necessary amendments.
A new Written Scheme of Examination will
have to be prepared for the new system.
g. Labelling.
Ensure that all relevant labels are in place before
the system is accepted.
h. Other issues.
There may be other system defects discovered
during the upgrading process, for example lack
of pipeline support/protection.
There may also be a potential contamination
issue resulting from the transfer of particulate
matter from older, silver-soldered systems into
new inert gas shield brazed pipework, although
it should be noted that this is not an issue
limited to air systems. The Quality Controller
(MGPS) will advise on this and adopt
appropriate testing methods.
These issues will need to be addressed before the
system is accepted for use.
Ensure that any system amendments and
changes in working practices are documented in
the MGPS operational policy.
177
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Appendix K – Signage requirements
Location
Plantroom
Wording
Notes
Medical Gas Plant Room – No unauthorised Entry
Adjacent to or on external door
Fire action
On door/wall
External or internal
Keep locked
On door(s)
Noise Hazard (+ ear defender symbol)
Electric shock hazard
Permit-to-work must be used
Adjacent to, or on, external door
Plant is connected to essential electricity supply
“E” symbols can be used on switches etc
Danger 415 volts
On plant/switchgear
Danger 240 volts
On plant/switchgear
Danger rotating machines
Warning: These machines stop and start automatically without
warning
Guards must be in position
Do not isolate without a Permit
Posted adjacent to plant
Biological symbol
Vac filters and exhausts
Also for AGSS units/exhausts/drain
flasks
Medical air intake Do not obstruct
On external intakes only
Emergency Tel No
Gas Supplier
Estates
Pharmacy
Porters
External wall
Health and Safety Law
Internal wall
First aid
Internal wall
Notes:
“Bacteria filter change procedure” sign is not available commercially and will have to be made locally.
No “Danger medical gas/vac/AGSS exhaust” sign is commercially available but “Danger explosive gases, no smoking, no naked
lights” is available and would suffice.
“Danger 440/240 volts”, “Warning: These machines stop and start automatically/without warning” and “Biohazard” labels
would need to be added to AGSS plant remote from main plantroom, plus any relevant plantroom notices.
178
Appendix K – Signage requirements
Location
Manifold room
Wording
Notes
Medical gases manifold room – No unauthorised entry
Adjacent to or on external door
No parking
Adjacent to or on external door
Approved personal protective equipment must be worn
Adjacent to or on external door
Fire action
Internal/external wall
Cylinder status tag
On manifold cylinders
Valve open
On line valves/ERM cyls
Valve closed
On line valves/ERM cyls
Make sure cylinders are secure at all times
Internal, near cylinders
Danger No smoking
External (on door or wall)
Danger compressed gas
External (on door or wall)
Warning oxidising agent
External (on door or wall)
Danger oxygen
External (on door or wall)
Emergency Tel No
Gas suppliers
Estates
Pharmacy
Porters
External, on wall or door
Keep locked
On door
Notes:
Also required:
Cylinder ID charts, manifold cylinder change procedure, emergency manifold operating procedure.
Check with fire officer for any local fire brigade requirements for fitting “HAZCHEM” signs eg “HAZCHEM 2SE Cylinders”.
179
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Location
Main cylinder store
Wording
Notes
Medical gases cylinder store – No unauthorised entry
Adjacent to or on external door
No parking
Adjacent to or on external door
Keep loading bay/doors clear
Adjacent to or on external door
Approved personal protective equipment must be worn
Adjacent to or on external door
Make sure cylinders are secure at all times
Adjacent to cylinders
Fire action
Internal/external wall
Full cylinders
On bays
Empty cylinders
On bays
Emergency exit keep clear
May be already fitted
Danger No smoking
On door
Danger compressed gas
On door
Warning oxidising agent
External (on door or wall)
Danger oxygen
External (on door or wall)
Emergency Tel No
Gas suppliers
Estates
Pharmacy
Porters
External wall
Keep locked
On door
Push bar to open
Emergency exit and main door(s)
Notes:
“Danger liquid nitrogen” sign is available for a separate liquid nitrogen store (see BCGA CP30).
Cylinder ID chart(s) to be posted
Check with fire officer for any local fire brigade requirements for fitting “HAZCHEM” signs eg “HAZCHEM 2SE Cylinders”.
Location
Ready to use cylinder store
Wording
Note
Medical gases cylinder store – No unauthorised entry
Adjacent to or on external door
Make sure cylinders are secure at all times
Adjacent to cylinders
Emergency Tel No
Gas suppliers
Estates
Pharmacy
Porters
External wall
Danger No smoking
On door
Danger compressed gas
On door
Fire action
Internal/external wall
Notes:
Post cylinder ID chart(s) and cylinder change procedure.
Check with fire officer for any local fire brigade requirements for fitting “HAZCHEM” signs, eg “HAZCHEM 2SE Cylinders”
180
Appendix K – Signage requirements
Location
Wording
Notes
Medical gas cylinder parking area
Defines cylinder parking as per new Health
Technical Memorandum
Emergency Tel No
Gas suppliers
Ward (cylinder parking bay)
Estates
Pharmacy
Porters
External wall
Gas leak action
On nurses’ station
Notes:
Post cylinder chart(s) and cylinder change procedure.
Operational policy may dictate posting of AVSU emergency operation and MGPS alarm responses.
Location
Wording
Notes
Maintenance in progress
There may be other site safety notice requirements to fulfil
Medical gas test area
Work area
Confined space
Hot work in progress
Danger pressure test in progress
Danger nitrogen purging in progress
Notes:
These signs should be posted during installation/modification/maintenance of an MGPS.
Multiple signs may be required.
Location
Wording
Notes
Gas identity
Pipework
Flow direction
Location
Wording
Note
Gas identity
On pipeline label
Flow direction
Line valves
Key No
Location
Wording
Notes
In emergency break glass and shut off valve
On/off positions to be shown on AVSU body
Gas identity
AVSUs
Flow direction
Area controlled
Key No
Valve No
Location
Wording
Notes
Area monitored
Alarm displays
Gas names
Fault/normal/condition indicators
Location
VIE/ Liquid cylinders/PSA/synthetic air
Responses may be posted nearby, in accordance with MGPS operational
policy
Signage will be determined by the equipment supplier but will usually include
plant schematic, safety warnings and emergency actions
181
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Appendix L – Important notes for use of medical
vacuum and anaesthetic gas
scavenging
Infectious disease units
1.
Medical vacuum should neither be extended to an
Infectious Diseases Unit (IDU) nor provided to
such a unit from a central vacuum system.
2.
Portable suction units will be required.
Decontamination will require specialised protocols
and the advice of the infection control officer
should be sought.
flows are unsuitable for use as dental vacuum,
which operates at much higher flow rates (typically
300 L/min). Medical vacuum systems should not
be used to provide dental vacuum.
Anaesthetic gas scavenging (AGS)
Active AGS systems (medical)
6.
Systems already exist whereby an IDU is, by local
agreement, serviced via a central vacuum system.
Active anaesthetic gas scavenging systems operate
at relatively high flow rates (80–130 L/min in a
BS 6834:1987 system; and 50–80 L/min in an
ISO/DIS 7396-2:2005 system).
7.
If such agreements exist, or are to be accepted, great
care must be taken to ensure that the exhausts of such
a plant are kept well away from all air intakes and the
plant is labelled to indicate its function. Ideally, the
plant should be housed in separate accommodation
but, where this is not possible, safety signage and strict
operational protocols are extremely important.
It is unlikely that receiving systems designed for use
with these scavenging systems will operate correctly
with a medical vacuum system. Severe spillage of
waste gases into the operating area may occur.
Therefore, medical vacuum systems should not be
used as waste anaesthetic gas disposal systems.
Active AGS (dental)
Note
Personnel changing filters, or carrying out work
on such a system, should wear personal protective
equipment and follow protocols that have been devised
in liaison with the infection control officer.
Laser/surgical diathermy smoke
extraction
3.
4.
An additional contamination hazard can arise if
smoke from procedures employing laser or surgical
diathermy equipment is exhausted using a cannula
attached to the vacuum system.
Clinical staff should be advised against this practice
and either instructed to use dedicated laser smoke
removal units (incorporating dedicated, filtered,
portable vacuum pumps) or a specially designed
laser smoke filter fitted to a medical vacuum system
terminal unit.
Dental vacuum systems
5.
182
Medical vacuum systems operate at relatively low
flow rates at the terminal units (~40 L/min). Such
8.
Active AGS systems for use with dental nasal
scavenging masks operate by maintaining a flow of
air through the outer layer of a specially designed
concentric nose mask. Waste gases from the patient
pass from inner to outer layers of the mask and are
carried away to the exhaust termination by this air
stream.
9.
The flow rate necessary to achieve effective removal
of waste gases by such a method is in the order of
45 L/min, which is less than the flow rate achieved
at a medical vacuum system terminal.
10. Active dental scavenging systems using this type of
mask must therefore be driven (via a special flow
adjuster) from the dental vacuum system, a
dedicated separate high-flow vacuum system, or an
active medical AGS system. In the case of a medical
AGS system, the special flow adjuster would be
plugged directly into an AGS system wall terminal.
A receiver (air break) system would not be used
between the wall terminal and the special flow
adjuster.
Appendix M – Oxygen usage data
Average oxygen flows based on bed numbers
2000
Flow (L/min)
1500
1000
500
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
Lower graph shows average flows to be expected in a typical acute hospital.
Upper graph shows flows to be expected when the hospital has specialties using
larger amounts of oxygen, eg those with multiple large critical care areas (>20 beds)
and an increased use of CPAP (>5 machines).
NB These graphs are issued for guidance only. There will be hospitals for which
average flows will, for a given number of beds, be higher or lower than the maxima
and minima shown here.
NB The flows are representative of oxygen provided from a VIE plant and do NOT
take into account additional consumption from compressed gas cylinders.
183
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
Appendix N – Pressure conversion table
Pressure
Multiply units in left column by factor below
kPa
lb/in2
lb/ft2
int atm
kg/cm2
mm Hg
@0°C
in Hg
@0°C
ft water
@4°C
1 pound/sq in
6.895
1
144
0.0682
0.0703
51.713
2.0359
2.307
1 pound/sq ft
0.048
0.00694
1
0.0005
0.00052
0.01414
0.01602
1 int atmosphere
1 kilogram/sq cm
101.3
98.07
0.3591
14.696
2116.2
1
1.0333
760
29.921
33.9
14.223
2048.1
0.9678
1
735.56
28.958
32.81
1 mm Hg (1 torr)
0.133
0.0193
0.0013
0.00136
0.0394
0.0446
1 in Hg
3.387
0.4912
70.73
0.0334
0.0345
25.400
1
1.133
1 ft water
2.984
0.4335
62.42
0.0295
0.0305
22.418
0.8826
1
1 kilopascal (kPa)
1
0.145
20.92
0.0099
0.0102
7.519
0.295
0.3346
184
2.785
1
References
Acts and Regulations
(The) Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
Regulations 2002. SI 2002 No. 2677. HMSO, 2002.
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2002/20022677.htm
(The) Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulations
2005. SI 2005 No. 281. HMSO, 2005.
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2005/20050281.htm
(The) Medicines Act 1968. HMSO, 1968.
(The) Pressure Systems and Transportable Gas
Containers Regulations 1989. SI 1989 No. 2169.
HMSO, 1989.
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1989/Uksi_19892169_en_1.
htm
(The) Public Health Act 1961. HMSO, 1961.
(The) Public Health (Drainage of Trade Premises) Act
1937. HMSO, 1937.
(The) Water Industry Act 1991. HMSO, 1991.
(The) Water Resources Act 1991. HMSO, 1991.
British Standards
BS 88. Cartridge fuses for voltages up to and including
1000 V ac and 1500 V dc.
BS 341-3:2002. Transportable gas container valves. Valve
outlet connections. British Standards Institution, 2002.
BS 476-4:1970. Fire tests on building materials and
structures. Non-combustibility test for materials. British
Standards Institution, 1970.
BS 476-20:1987. Fire tests on building materials and
structures. Method for determination of the fire resistance
of elements of construction (general principles). British
Standards Institution, 1987.
BS 476-21:1987. Fire tests on building materials
and structures. Methods for determination of the fire
resistance of loadbearing elements of construction. British
Standards Institution, 1987.
BS 476-22:1987. Fire tests on building materials
and structures. Methods for determination of the fire
resistance of non-loadbearing elements of construction.
British Standards Institution, 1987.
BS 476-23:1987. Fire tests on building materials and
structures. Methods for determination of the contribution
of components to the fire resistance of a structure. British
Standards Institution, 1987.
BS 1710:1984. Specification for identification of
pipelines and services. British Standards Institution,
1984.
BS 3928:1969. Method for sodium flame test for air
filters (other than for air supply to IC engines and
compressors). British Standards Institution, 1969.
BS 5499-5:2002. Graphical symbols and signs. Safety
signs, including fire safety signs. Signs with specific safety
meanings. British Standards Institution, 2002.
BS 5682:1998. Specification for probes (quick
connectors) for use with medical gas pipeline systems.
British Standards Institution, 1998.
BS 6834:1987. Specification for active anaesthetic gas
scavenging systems. British Standards Institution, 1987.
BS 7671:2001. Requirements for electrical installations.
IEE Wiring Regulations. Sixteenth edition. British
Standards Institution, 2001.
BS EN 286-1:1998. Simple unfired pressure vessels
designed to contain air or nitrogen. Pressure vessels for
general purposes. British Standards Institution, 1998.
BS EN 737-1:1998. Medical gas pipeline systems.
Terminal units for compressed medical gases and vacuum.
British Standards Institution, 1998.
BS EN 737-2:1998. Medical gas pipeline systems.
Anaesthetic gas scavenging disposal systems. Basic
requirements. British Standards Institution, 1998.
BS EN 737-3:2000. Medical gas pipeline systems.
Pipelines for compressed medical gases and vacuum.
British Standards Institution, 2000.
BS EN 737-4:1998. Medical gas pipeline systems.
Terminal units for anaesthetic gas scavenging systems.
British Standards Institution, 1998.
185
Medical gases – HTM 02-01 Medical gas pipeline systems – Part A: Design, installation, validation and verification
BS EN 738-2:1999. Pressure regulators for use with
medical gases. Manifold and line pressure regulators.
British Standards Institution, 1999.
BS EN ISO 4126-1:2004. Safety devices for protection
against excessive pressure. Safety valves. British Standards
Institution, 2004.
BS EN 739:1998. Low-pressure hose assemblies for use
with medical gases. British Standards Institution, 1998.
BS EN ISO 9001:2000. Quality management systems.
Requirements. British Standards Institution, 2000.
BS EN 740:1999, BS 5724-2.204:1999. Anaesthetic
workstations and their modules. Particular requirements.
British Standards Institution, 1999.
BS EN ISO 11197:2004. Medical supply units. British
Standards Institution, 2004.
BS EN 837-1:1998. Pressure gauges. Bourdon tube
pressure gauges. Dimensions, metrology, requirements
and testing. British Standards Institution, 1998.
BS EN ISO 13485:2003. Medical devices. Quality
management systems. Requirements for regulatory
purposes. British Standards Institution, 2003.
BS EN 1044:1999. Brazing. Filler metals. British
Standards Institution, 1999.
BS EN ISO 15001:2004. Anaesthetic and respiratory
equipment. Compatibility with oxygen. British Standards
Institution, 2004.
BS EN 1057:1996. Copper and copper alloys. Seamlesss,
round copper tubes for water and gas in sanitary and
heating applications. British Standards Institution, 1996.
BS ISO 5011:2000. Inlet air cleaning equipment
for internal combustion engines and compressors.
Performance testing. British Standards Institution, 2000.
BS EN 1254-1:1998. Copper and copper alloys.
Plumbing fittings. Fittings with ends for capillary
soldering or capillary brazing to copper tubes. British
Standards Institution, 1998.
ISO 32:1977. Gas cylinders for medical use. Marking for
identification of content. International Organization for
Standardization, 1977.
BS EN 1412:1996. Copper and copper alloys. European
numbering system. British Standards Institution, 1996.
ISO 5145:2004. Cylinder valve outlets for gases and gas
mixtures. Selection and dimensioning. International
Organization for Standardization, 2004.
BS EN 13348:2001. Copper and copper alloys.
Seamless, round copper tubes for medical gases or
vacuum. British Standards Institution, 2001.
ISO 7396-1:2002. Medical gas pipeline systems.
Pipelines for compressed medical gases and vacuum.
International Organization for Standardization, 2002.
BS EN 60051-1:1999, IEC 60051-1:1997. Direct
acting indicating analogue electrical measuring
instruments and their accessories. Definitions and general
requirements common to all parts. British Standards
Institution, 1999.
ISO/DIS 7396-2:2005. Medical gas pipeline systems.
Anaesthetic gas scavenging disposal systems. CEN/TC
215.
BS EN 60529:1992. Specification for degrees of
protection provided by enclosures (IP code). British
Standards Institution, 1992.
Model Engineering Specification C11 – Medical gases.
HMSO. 1995.
BS EN 60898-1:2003. Circuit-breakers for overcurrent
protection for household and similar installations.
Circuit-breakers for ac operation. British Standards
Institution, 2003.
BS EN 60947-2:2003. Specification for low-voltage
switchgear and controlgear. Circuit-breakers. British
Standards Institution, 2002.
BS EN ISO 407:2004. Small medical gas cylinders. Pinindex yoke-type valve connections. British Standards
Institution, 2004.
BS EN ISO 3549:2002. Zinc dust pigments for paints.
Specifications and test methods. British Standards
Institution, 2002.
186
Department of Health publications
Model Engineering Specification C51 – Electrical
requirements for specified equipment. HMSO, 1997.
Firecode
Health Technical Memorandum 81 – Fire precautions
in new hospitals. HMSO, 1996.
Health Technical Memorandum 82 – Alarm and
detection systems. HMSO, 1996.
Health Building Notes (HBNs)
HBN 26 (Volume 1) – Facilities for surgical
procedures. The Stationery Office, 2004.
References
Health Technical Memoranda (HTMs)
Miscellaneous publications
Health Technical Memorandum 2007 – Electrical
services supply and distribution. HMSO, 1993. (issued
in four parts)
European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) 2005 (5th
edition). European Directorate for the Quality of
Medicines, 2005.
http://www.pheur.org
Health Technical Memorandum 2011 – Emergency
electrical services. HMSO, 1993. (issued in 4 parts)
Health Technical Memorandum 2014 – Abatement of
electrical interference. HMSO, 1993. (issued in 4 parts)
Health & Safety Executive (1996). Anaesthetic agents:
controlling exposure under COSHH. HSE Books,
1996.
Health Technical Memorandum 2015 – Bedhead
services. HMSO, 1994–95. (issued in 3 parts)
Health & Safety Executive (1996). EH40/2002 –
Occupational exposure limits 2002. HSE Books, 2002.
Health Technical Memorandum 2022 (Supplement 1)
– Dental compressed air and vacuum systems. The
Stationery Office, 2002
British Compressed Gases Association (BCGA) (2000).
Code of Practice 30 (CP30): The safe use of liquid
nitrogen dewars up to 50 litres. BCGA, 2000.
Health Technical Memorandum 2025 – Ventilation in
healthcare premises. HMSO, 1994. (issued in 4 parts)
British Compressed Gases Association (BCGA) (2002).
Code of Practice 19 (CP19): Bulk liquid oxygen
storage at users’ premises. Revision 3. BCGA, 2002.
Other Department of Health publications
European Commission. Directive 2001/83/EC of the
European Parliament and of the Council of 6
November 2001 on the Community code relating to
medicinal products for human use. Official Journal of
the European Communities. 28.11.2001, L 311/67.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2001/l_311/l_
31120011128en00670128.pdf
Advice on the implementation of the Health & Safety
Commission’s occupational exposure standards for
anaesthetic agents. Department of Health, 1996.
Medical gas pipe systems. Design and installation of QAS
3720.1/206). BSI/Department of Health, 1988.
187