Ukulele Lessons Chord Substitution on Ukulele

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Ukulele Lessons Chord Substitution on Ukulele
UkuleleLessons
by Curt Sheller
20101223.0930.1.1• UL80
Created: April 2006 • Updated December 2010
Chord Substitution on Ukulele
A chord substitution is when one chord replaces another chord or is used in addition to a
chord.
Direct Substitution
A direct substitute is when the root of the substitute chord matches the root of the original
chord and the harmonic function of the chord does not change.
There are two categories of direct substitutions, replacement and expansion. They may be
superimposable or non-superimposable.
Replacement
The original chord is removed and replaced with the substitute in the same time frame.
Original
G
? ? ? ?
C
? ? ? ?
Substitution
G7sus4
? ? ? ?
Cmaj7
? ? ? ?
Expansion
Original chord remains plus the substitute in the same time frame.
Original
G
? ? ? ?
C
? ? ? ?
Substitution
G
G7
? ? ? ?
Cadd9
? ? ? ?
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Superimposable
Upper partials (9, 11 and 13) can be used as a direct substitute without changing the
harmonic function of a chord. Superimposed substitutions are direct substitutions, either
replacing or expanding an existing chord.
Non-Superimposable
lterations such as b5, #5, b9, #9, #11, b13 are non-superimposable, direct substitutions,
A
either replacing or expanding the existing chord.
Exchange Substitution
ote substitutions are direct substitutions, either replacing or expanding the existing chord.
N
The harmonic function of the chords depends on the substitution used.
6 for maj7, 6/9 for maj7, m6 for m7, min-maj7 for m7.
Direct substitutes
Original
Substitute
Major
add9
sus4
maj7
Minor
m7
m6
min-maj7
7th
7sus4
6
7*
* A seventh chord for a major chord gives a progression a blues feel
Harmonic Analysis for Scale Selection and Chord Substitution
Harmonic Analysis is the understanding of the functional sequence of chords. It is the process used to
analyze the harmonic structure of a progression, song or composition. This analysis is then used to make
scale selections for improvisation and chord substitution.
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Chord Substitution on Ukulele
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Key of C Major Direct Substitutes
Original*
Substitute
C
Cadd9
Csus4
Cmaj7
Dm
Dm7
Dm6
Dm add9
Em
Em7
Em6
EmL7
F
Fadd9
Fsus4
Fmaj7
G
G7
Gsus4
G7sus4
Am
Am7
Am6
Dm add9
C6
C7
F6
F7
* Bdim and Bm7b5 are beyond the scope of this lesson.
QUICKSTART Scale Fingerings for Ukulele
Volume I, C Tuning
Six essential scales for ukulele. Covers the Blues, Pentatonic, Dorian, Mixolydian, Aeolian and Ionian scales for a
standard “low G” tuned (G C E A) Soprano, Concert and Tenor ukulele.
Scale Fingerings for Ukulele is a highly organized, efficient system of scale fingerings. Each fingering pattern is
shown with a fingerboard shape, TAB and standard music notation. Related chords are also explained for each
scale.
Master these fingerings and unlock your potential as a ukulele player.
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Example Ukulele Chords, C Tuning
O
O
C
Dm
O
O
Em
O
Cadd9
O
Dm7
O
Em7
O
O
Cmaj7
Csus4
O
O
O
Dmadd9
O
O
EmL7
O
C6
O
O
O
O
C7
O
O
O
Dm6
O
Emadd9*
Em6*
* Not all substitutes may be appropriate in a particular key or style.
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More Example Chords
O
F
O
G
O
O
Am
O
Fadd9
O
O
O
O
G7
O
Am7
O
O
O
O
Fsus4
O
AmL7
O
F6
F7
G7sus4
Gsus4
O
Fmaj7
O
O
Amadd9
O
O
Am6*
O
O
* Not all substitutes may be appropriate in a particular key or style.
Chord Substitution on Ukulele
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Example Progression I IV V I
Using the C, F and G chords from the key of C. These are the famous I, IV and V chords.
The primary chords in the key of C major.
C
4
4
F
G
C
Replacement Substitution - G7 for G
The G7 is a direct replacement the G. The G7 serves the same harmonic function as G.
C
4
4
F
G7
C
Expansion Substitution - G7 and G
C
4
4
G
?
6
F
?
?
?
G7
?
?
?
?
C
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The G7sus4 is a expansion substitute for the G. The harmonic function of G remains the
same.
C
4
4
F
G
G7
?
?
G7sus4
?
C
?
Multiple Substitutions
C
Cmaj7
4
4 ? ? ? ?
G7
? ? ? ?
C6
Cmaj7
G7sus4
G7
F
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
C
Csus4
Fadd9
? ? ? ?
C
? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
This extreme substitution works great with particular rhythmic styles.
Cadd9 C Cmaj7 C Cmaj7 C6 Cmaj7 C
4
4 ? ? ? ?
G7
?
? ? ? ?
F Fadd9 F
? ? ? ?
G7sus4 G7 Gadd9 G7 G7sus4 G7 Gadd9 C
?
?
? ?
? ?
F6
Csus4
F Fadd9 F
F6
? ? ? ?
C
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Harmonic Analysis for Scale Selection and Chord Substitution
Harmonic Analysis is the understanding of the functional sequence of chords. It is the process used to
analyze the harmonic structure of a progression, song or composition. This analysis is then used to make
scale selections for improvisation and chord substitution.
Chord Substitution on Ukulele
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Example Progression I VI II V
In the key of C major a I, VI, II, V chords are: C, Am, Dm and G or G7.
Basic Chords
4
4
C
Dm
Am
G
4-part Contemporary, or “Jazz” Chords
4
4
Dm7
Cmaj7
Am7
G7
All the progressions in this lesson used the key of C and its associate chords. Any note
from the C major scale can be added to chords functioning in the key of C to create melodic
interest and movement.
CDE FGABC’
A Guide to Blues Chord Progressions for Ukulele A to Z
Studying the blues chord progressions presented in this book will open a wealth of creative possibilities
for exploring chord progressions in all styles of music, not just blues.
The volume cover the keys of C, including a detailed accompanying text explaining the principles
behind each progression.
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Chord Substitution on Ukulele

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