‘Plagiarism and How to avoid it’ - Guidelines for Students.

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‘Plagiarism and How to avoid it’ - Guidelines for Students.
‘Plagiarism and How to avoid it’ Guidelines for Students.
Guidelines on academic writing and referencing, to help you use the
work of others effectively, without committing plagiarism
Academic Session 2005/6
Napier University Business School
School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
This document is for the use of all parts of Napier University during Session
2005/2006. It emerges from good practice evolved within, and is authored by
the Quality Committee of, the School of Marketing & Tourism, Napier
University Business School.
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
Contents:
Introduction
3
1. Definition
3
2. Copying, Collaboration and Collusion
4
3. Academic Writing
7
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
Quotation
Paraphrasing and Summarising
The misuse of Cut-and-Paste
Critical Review
9
12
14
16
4. Referencing
17
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
Referencing in the text – Citation
Referencing at the end: the List of References
Referencing Books
Referencing Journals
Listing Double References
Referencing Electronic Sources
Referencing in Exams
17
18
20
21
21
22
23
Procedures for dealing with Academic Misconduct at Napier
23
5.1
5.2
23
5
5.3
Student Disciplinary Regulations
The Plagiarism Code of Conduct and the role of the
Academic Conduct Officer
Detecting Plagiarism: Turnitin® UK
24
24
6
References (for publications cited in this document)
25
7
Further Reading
25
8
Disclaimer
26
Appendix 1 Checklist of Reference contents
27
Appendix 2 Napier University Plagiarism Detection Service
Turnitin® UK: Information for Students
28
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
INTRODUCTION
To prepare or submit an assignment, or sit an examination, at Napier
University you need to know about Plagiarism. If you don’t, there is a
possibility that you will commit an offence of Academic Misconduct.
This would render you liable for punishment under Napier’s Student
Disciplinary Regulations. This could have serious consequences for
your degree. So make sure you read and understand this document.
This advisory document has been prepared for students with the aim of
helping you write confidently, referencing your work correctly and thus
avoiding plagiarism.
Plagiarism is considered a serious form of academic misconduct. This applies
whether the plagiarism was deliberate or, as we believe often happens, was
committed accidentally because students were not aware of exactly what
plagiarism is. As with the law, lack of knowledge is not considered an excuse.
At Napier, plagiarism and collusion are called Academic Misconduct and are
punished as a disciplinary offence. Rather than listing the penalties of varying
severity taken against students who commit Academic Misconduct (you can
find these in the Student Disciplinary Regulations (see Section 5)), we have
taken a different approach. Namely, that the best method of avoiding
plagiarism is by raising awareness of it and how to avoid it in the first place.
That is what this document aims to do – so please read it.
Please note – this document will help you extensively with avoiding plagiarism
in your coursework. It is also of relevance to exams, but conventions for
referencing in exams vary slightly - see 4.7.
1. DEFINITION
A common definition of Plagiarism is as follows:
“Plagiarism is passing off someone else’s work, whether intentionally or
unintentionally, as your own for your own benefit.” (Carroll, 2002, 9)
This definition includes copying and collusion (where the “someone else” is
other student/s) as well as passing off the work of published authors. It also
highlights that plagiarism may be unintentional, which makes no difference to
whether you will be penalised for it.
Napier's Plagiarism Code of Conduct (2005, 2) defines Plagiarism thus:
Plagiarism is defined … as the
‘unacknowledged incorporation in a student’s work either
in an examination or assessment of material derived from
the work (published or unpublished) of another’.
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Plagiarism therefore includes:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
The use of another person’s material without
reference or acknowledgement,
The summarising of another person’s work by
simply changing a few words or altering the
order of presentation without
acknowledgement,
The use of the ideas of another person without
acknowledgement of the source,
Copying of the work of another student with or
without that student’s knowledge or agreement
and/or
Use of commissioned material presented as
the student’s own.
In incidences of plagiarism:
3.2.1 Minor misconduct is deemed to include:
i)
ii)
iii)
Limited use made of another’s material
Limited summarisation without
acknowledgement
Copying of a minor part of another student’s
work
3.2.2 Major misconduct is deemed to include:
‘Substantial or wholesale copying and presentation of
another’s work without acknowledgement’.
The use of italics here indicates that the Code is quoting directly from the
Student Disciplinary Regulations, available at:
http://www.napier.ac.uk/depts/registry/Regulations/SDRegs.pdf
Note that the "work" or "material" of others referred to above can include
ideas, research data, files, algorithms and computer code. The work of others
can be taken from any source - including electronic sources such as the
internet.
Further minor offences of plagiarism can be committed when the format used
is misleading - such as when the format used implies paraphrasing, but the
material is in fact a quotation, i.e. you are passing off an author's words as
your own. This is explained in more detail in 3.3.
2. Copying, Collaboration and Collusion
Napier considers collusion as part of Plagiarism. Put simply, it is that part of
plagiarism, which is related to the work of other students, rather than to
published sources. It also introduces a difficulty: what is the difference
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
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between Collaboration (seen as acceptable) and Collusion (unacceptable).
Before we examine these activities, let’s look at a particularly easy-tounderstand form of Collusion - Copying.
Copying other students' work
When you copy all or part of another student's work, this is not acceptable.
z
As you cannot reference the work of another student, it is almost never
acceptable. The only exception, where you can use the work of a student
- with reference - would be an unpublished dissertation from a student,
who studied in a previous year to your own.
z
Copying applies not only to the content, but also to the structure and / or
ideas that are contained within the work. Copying normally occurs as the
copying of the exact words of another student, and occasionally as
copying other students’ ideas.
z
You must bear in mind that, unless you are informed otherwise, it is your
thoughts that are being asked for, not those of your colleagues. If you
present someone else's work as your own you are failing to satisfy the
module requirement, and foregoing the opportunity to receive valuable
feedback upon your own work.
Copying from another student WITH their consent
Copying from another student with their consent is just copying in the
University’s eyes, and will be penalised.
z
z
z
What’s more, the penalty will also be applied to the student who let
someone copy their work.
If your friends ask you for ideas and you let them have a copy of what
you have done, there is a strong possibility that they WILL copy it, even if
they say they won’t. In the University’s eyes, you did this willingly, so you
are just as guilty of collusion as the person who copied. (That’s what
collusion is – an arrangement between two or more people). So don’t do
it.
However, swapping work after submission and marking may help with
your revision and deepen your understanding. So it is permissible.
Copying from another student WITHOUT their consent
Copying from another student without their consent is a form of theft. You risk
someone copying from you if you do any of the following:
z
z
z
Save your work onto the hard drive of a computer where other
students might access it.
Lose a disk or leave a disk or a printed draft of your coursework lying
around where other students might find it.
Ask someone else to hand in your coursework for you, especially if
you are submitting it early.
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None of the above is very likely, but they have been known to happen.
z
z
In the above situation, the student who has had their work stolen is
likely to be accused of collusion too. A lot of effort will then have to
go into establishing the truth.
If you believe that someone has accessed or removed your work
prior to submission you should inform the module leader. This may
minimise the risk of your being accused of collusion.
Collaboration and Collusion
Collaboration is when a group of you work on a task together, sometimes in
informal groups.
z
This is often a good way of working, as you can bounce ideas off each
other and often achieve a better understanding than if you each just
worked by yourselves.
z
Educationally we recognise this is good. This is why we’ve built
opportunities to collaborate into our learning strategies in the form of
tutorials. Here you get a chance to work together on things and to hear
each others’ points of view. You are using this as an opportunity to
develop your own knowledge and ideas through sharing and discussing.
z
However, if as a result of collaborating, you develop common ideas, a
common structure and, in many cases, common words for your analysis
and proposals, and then each use these, this becomes a problem. The
likelihood is that your essays will be very similar, even identical in some
places. This would not happen in the normal course of independent
study.
z
You will then find yourself charged with collusion – passing off
something as your own when it was actually developed in a group. You
can’t even defend yourself by saying you played the major role in the
group, because everyone in the group is seen as having colluded.
Avoiding Collusion
z
The only way round this is not to do all the work in a group.
z
One way is to do it all yourself, which is the safest way.
z
Another way, if you really benefit from group-working, is to do some of
the initial work in a group, and then to move away from the group to finish
it off and write it up. Spending more time working alone may be beneficial
if you find it difficult to separate yourself from the ideas of the study
group.
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z
In some instances you may agree with what has been said by some of
the group members, or want to use textbooks or articles that have been
recommended. What you must do is use these in an original manner,
ensuring that you do not simply include the same sections or the same
points.
z
Look up some more literature yourself, find some examples of your own,
think through your own ideas.
z
Doing this is likely to make your essay significantly different to everyone
else’s (and largely your own work) and you won’t be charged with
Collusion.
Groupwork
When your assessment is based on people submitting groupwork, such as for
a group project or group presentation, then, of course, collaboration is
expected and will not be considered collusion.
z
In such a situation, the ideal submission is the opposite of collusion – it is
where the work of individuals cannot be identified. The report looks like a
unified and consistent whole.
z
If groupwork is expected, your tutor, your module details and the
assignment brief will all have told you this.
3. ACADEMIC WRITING - USING QUOTATION, PARAPHRASING,
SUMMARISING AND CRITICAL REVIEW
When we use published sources, we usually do so through quotation,
paraphrasing or summarising. To do this correctly, we must reference them.
Doing any of these four things wrongly may result, intentionally or
unintentionally, in Plagiarism.
Knowledge about the above techniques and good use of them are essential to
avoid plagiarism. Below, we explain the principles of quotation, paraphrasing,
summarising and critical review, with plenty of examples to help
understanding. Although we will describe citation (inserting the in-text
reference) here, compiling the List of References is covered in detail in 4.
The text below is drawn from a textbook on the European Union by
McCormick (2002) (see section 6 for References). It forms the foundation text
on which the examples in sections 3.1 to 3.4 are based.
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BASE TEXT FOR EXAMPLES
At first glance, the European Union looks much like a standard International
Organisation (IO). It is a voluntary association of states in which many
decisions are taken as a result of negotiations among the leaders of the
states. Its taxing abilities are limited and its revenues small. It has few
compelling powers of enforcement, and its institutions have little
independence, their task being to carry out the wishes of the member states.
None of its senior officials are directly elected to their positions, most being
either appointed or holding ex officio positions (for example, members of the
Council of Ministers are such by virtue of being ministers in their home
governments).
However, on closer examination, it is obvious that the EU is much more than
a standard IO. Its institutions have the power to make laws and policies that
are binding on the member states, and in areas where the EU has authority
EU law overrides national law. Its members are not equal, because many of
its decisions are reached using a voting system that is weighted according to
the population size of its member states. In some areas, such as trade, the
EU has been given the authority to negotiate on behalf of the 15 member
states, and other countries work with the EU institutions rather than with the
governments of the member states. In several areas, such as agriculture, the
environment, and competition, policies are driven by more decision making at
the level of the EU than of the member states.
Where cooperation leads to the transfer of this kind of authority, we move
away from intergovernmentalism and into the realms of supranationalism.
This is a form of cooperation within which a new level of authority is created
that is autonomous, above the state and has powers of coercion that are
independent of the state. Rather than being a meeting place for governments,
and making decisions on the basis of the competing interests of those
governments, a supranational organization rises above the individual interests
of its members and makes decisions on the basis of the interests of the
whole.
Debates have long raged about whether the EU is intergovernmental or
supranational, or a combination of the two. At the heart of these debates has
been the question of how much power and sovereignty can or should be
relinquished by national governments to bodies such as the European
Commission and the European Parliament. Britons and Danes (and even the
French at times) have balked at the supranationalist tendencies of the EU,
while Belgians and Luxembourgers have been more willing to transfer
sovereignty.
(McCormick, 2002, 4-6)
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Please note that the examples above and below are shown in boxes. This is
purely to distinguish them from the rest of the text. You should not yourself
put your examples in boxes. Examples of poor practice have that heading on
top of their box.
3.1 Using quotation
A quotation quotes text exactly as it was originally written.
•
•
•
•
The quotation should be clearly identified by being differentiated from the
surrounding text. Short quotations embedded in your text should have
"inverted commas" (often called quotation marks) at the beginning and
end.
Longer quotations, of more than 50 words or 3 lines, may be identified by
indenting the paragraph. The quotation is centred and indented 5 spaces
both left and right. When using indented quotes, inverted commas are not
necessary. (Leki, 1998, 201)
All quotations should be referenced in the text - this is a citation. The
citation should include the page number. The page number may take one
of three forms, shown in the citations below:
• It may be preceded by a p for page (or pp for pages) eg (Leki, 1998
p201);
• or by just the date and a comma eg (Leki, 1998, 201);
• or by the date and a colon eg (Leki, 1998: 201).
• The last version is usually preferred nowadays, but the version used
varies by user (and by academic journal). Any of these versions is
acceptable as long as you are consistent in using the same method
throughout your document. We have used the middle version in this
document.
Quotations should not be used extensively. Only quote when you wish to
emphasise the original words, or they are particularly important. See 3.4
below for the dangers of over-quoting. The proportion of a piece of written
work which is taken up by quotations varies according to the work, but a
common guideline is 2% to 5%.
The examples below are of a short and a longer quotation, with surrounding
non-quoted text.
EXAMPLE: A SHORT QUOTATION
The European Union is frequently described as a "supranational" organisation
rather than a "standard" international one (McCormick 2002, 4).
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
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EXAMPLE: A LONGER QUOTATION
The European Union bears many of the characteristics of a standard
International Organisation (IO). But it can be argued that it can be classified
differently.
However, on close examination, it is obvious that the EU is much
more than a standard IO. Its institutions have the power to make
laws and policies that are binding on the member states, and in
areas where the EU has authority EU law overrides national law.
Its members are not equal, because many of its decisions are
reached using a voting system that is weighted according to the
population size of its member states.
(McCormick, 2002, 4)
The author goes on to argue that the EU also bears characteristics of a
supranational organisation.
•
•
It would be possible to miss out parts of the original text. This must be
indicated by the use of a set of three dots (ellipsis points) … as in the
example below.
Please remember that you not should not attempt to change the
meaning of the text quoted by using this method.
EXAMPLE OF … (ELLIPSIS POINTS)
“…it is obvious that the EU is much more than a standard IO… Its members
are not equal…”
•
•
It is up to you whether you use “double inverted commas” for your
quotations or ‘single inverted commas.’ But you should be consistent.
A further, rather specialist consequence of this is explained as follows.
King (2000) states that there is no absolute regarding the use of single
or double quotes but that if the author uses double quotation marks as
the standard device, then s/he should use single quotation marks when
inserting a quote within a quote. Similarly, if the author elects to use
single quotation marks as standard, then s/he should use double marks
when quoting within a quote and so on.
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EXAMPLE: A QUOTE WITHIN A QUOTE
The rather complex concept of supranationalism “does not mean the exercise
of authority over national governments by EU institutions, but rather that it is a
process or a style of decision making in which ‘the participants refrain from
unconditionally vetoing proposals and instead seek to attain agreement by
means of compromises upgrading common interests’” (Haas, 1964, 66 in
McCormick, 2002, 6).
APPLYING A QUOTATION WRONGLY could include:
•
•
•
•
Not quoting the words exactly as the original.
Missing out a phrase in the quote and forgetting to put in the three dots.
Forgetting to indicate a reference.
Failing to differentiate the quote or use inverted commas, as below:
EXAMPLE: NOT REFERENCING A QUOTE
But it can be argued that it can be classified differently. It is obvious that the
EU is much more than a standard IO. Its institutions have the power to make
laws and policies that are binding on the member states.
In the example above we are passing off someone else's words as our own,
which is plagiarism.
•
•
•
Not referencing something implies that we are saying ”these are our
words and our idea.” If a paragraph really is your idea in your own words,
and you can't find a way of making sure that the reader understands that,
or you think they might not believe it was your idea, you can insert yourself
into the paragraph as "the author". E.g. "For the reasons given, the author
believes that…" Or you may simply use the passive voice e.g. “It can be
concluded that…”, or “it may be reasoned that…”.
Referencing something as a quotation implies that we are saying "this
is someone else's idea in their own words".
Referencing something without quotation marks or indentation
implies that it is a paraphrase - that we are saying "this is someone else's
idea, which I have put into my own words." If it was really a quotation, then
we are once again committing plagiarism - passing off someone else's
words as our own. This point is elaborated in 3.3.
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3.2 Paraphrasing and summarising
Paraphrasing is where you decide not to make a direct quotation but instead
to put an author's argument into your own words. It is important that all, or the
majority, of what you write is in your own words rather than the author's. If it
were in the author's, you could still be accused of plagiarism even if you
reference it correctly. Paraphrasing uses roughly the same number of words
as the original.
More commonly, you may wish to summarise and shorten the argument. Like
paraphrasing, you do this in your own words - in fact, the term paraphrasing is
often used to include both paraphrasing and summarising.
To avoid using too many of the author's words and terms, the best way to
paraphrase or to summarise is to read the paragraphs you wish to reflect
several times, then put them aside and write your own summary. You should
check it against the original text again afterwards.
Paraphrasing is cited differently to quotation
•
•
•
Paraphrasing and summarising aren't indented or in inverted commas.
Like quotations, Paraphrases and summaries should have citations. The
reference can appear in the text (see the example below), or at the end of
the paragraph. It must always be clear which section of text is
paraphrasing or summarising the original; referencing in the text often
makes this clearer.
Page numbers are not necessary in the reference.
Our extract from McCormick could be summarised as follows. (It is so long
that it would not be useful to paraphrase it at the same length).
EXAMPLE: SUMMARISING
McCormick (2002) states that the EU bears many of the characteristics of any
International Organisation (IO). Its institutions do not generally operate
independently of the member states whose interests they serve and their
members are not usually elected. But the EU does appear to go further than
this. It can make laws which are binding on its member states and override
their laws. It can act on behalf of its members in trade negotiations and
effectively makes policy in a number of areas, such as agriculture, the
environment and competition.
This has led, he points out, to the EU being termed a supranational
organisation, with decision-making powers of its own. These powers are often
resented. There are frequent debates amongst members and within member
states as to the extent to which they have given up sovereignty to the EU and
its institutions.
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Note how the referencing at the beginning makes it clear that the paragraph is
summarising an argument. To make sure that the reader realises that the next
paragraph is a continuation of this summary, the phrase "he points out" has
been inserted. This is a reporting phrase. Similar commonly used phrases,
often with slightly different meanings, include such terms as "he states", "he
claims", "he asserts", "he goes on to say", "he develops this argument by
stating" and so on.
It is often quite difficult to find alternative words or phrases and you may feel it
is essential to keep certain phrases as the original. In these cases a small
quotation can be inserted into the text, as in the example below (which has
been termed "paraphrasing" as it is close to the length of the original). Note
how the use of quotation means page numbers must be used in the
referencing:
EXAMPLE: PARAPHRASING WITH SMALL QUOTATIONS
McCormick (2002, 4) states that the EU bears many of the characteristics of
a "standard" International Organisation (IO). Its institutions operate with "little
independence" of the member states whose interests they serve and their
members are not usually elected. But the EU does appear to go further than
this. It can make laws which are binding on its member states and override
their laws. It can act on behalf of its members in trade negotiations and
effectively makes policy in a number of areas, such as agriculture, the
environment and competition.
This has led, he points out, to the EU being termed a supranational
organisation, with decision-making powers of its own. In a supranational
organisation "a new level of authority is created that is autonomous, above the
state and has powers of coercion that are independent of the state." (ibid, 5)
These powers are often resented. There are frequent debates amongst
members and within member states as to the extent to which they have given
up sovereignty to the EU and its institutions.
PARAPHRASING WRONGLY is mainly due to:
•
•
•
Using mainly the author's words rather than your own
Not referencing
Leaving it unclear as to which text is paraphrasing someone's argument
and which is your own argument
Below is an example of using mainly the original author's words i.e.
paraphrasing poorly. Compare it to the original to see the commonality.
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
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EXAMPLE: PARAPHRASING TOO CLOSELY
McCormick (2002) states that the EU looks much like a standard International
Organisation (IO). Its institutions operate with little independence of the
member states whose wishes they must carry out and their members are not
usually elected. But the EU is obviously much more than a standard IO. It can
make laws which are binding on its member states and, in areas where the
EU has authority, EU law overrides national law. It can act on behalf of its
members in trade negotiations and in several areas, such as agriculture, the
environment and competition, policies are driven more by decision making at
the EU level than that of the member states.
Some academics argue that the best way to avoid paraphrasing incorrectly is
to not do it at all! This recognises the difficulty of putting things into different
words and still retaining the original meaning. However, it is unlikely that you
will be able to avoid paraphrasing and summarising. You should just try to do
it well. And remember - paraphrasing should always be correctly referenced.
3.3 The Misuse of Cut-and-Paste
The internet has given students a whole new temptation - to simply cut and
paste a useful paragraph into their work and to pretend it is their own work, or
their own words.
However, the rules for material taken from the internet are the same as for
printed material. If you cut and paste a paragraph from an electronic source
into your coursework (or copy it into your exam paper):
•
•
It must be presented as a quotation, i.e., it should be indented
It must be referenced as a quotation
This is because it is using the same words as the original.
In recent student work this practice has given rise to a number of variations of
types of plagiarism, of varying degrees of seriousness. Three common ones
are:
•
•
"Standard" plagiarism. This involves cutting and pasting extracts from
articles into the answer with no reference at all in the text (no "citation")
nor in the Bibliography. This is sometimes known as “Patchwork Texting”.
"Bibliography-only" plagiarism. This involves cutting and pasting as
above, with no reference in the text but with an entry in the List of
References or Bibliography at the end. In the text, the marker is wrongly
given the impression that the words are your own. Moreover, they have no
idea whether the Bibliography entry has been used in the text, or where.
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
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•
"False paraphrasing" plagiarism. This involves cutting and pasting as
above, but with a reference both in the text and in the Bibliography.
However, this cut and paste is not presented as a quotation, but just
appears as normal paragraphs. This means that you are claiming that it is
a paraphrase or summary; that it is in your own words, when in fact it is
not.
Because it is derived from the internet, material used in the above ways is
particularly susceptible to being detected by the Turnitin® UK software, which
searches the internet for sources, (see 5.3 and appendix 2 for more
information).
Bibliography-only and false paraphrasing are considered poor practice and
are sometimes penalised in the marking rather than treated as academic
misconduct. This is because they are more likely to have been caused
through carelessness and because an attempt has been made to indicate the
source. However, students who commit these offences often do so
extensively - over 50% of their piece of work may be derived in this way. As
penalties take into account the extent of an offence as well as its nature, the
penalty can often end up being severe, causing failure of the assessment.
Remember, even if you had correctly referenced 50% of your work as
quotations, it would exceed the 2-5% guidelines mentioned in 3.1 and would
have been penalised in the normal course of the marking. (See also 3.4
below).
These forms of offence reflect the types of referencing mentioned at the very
end of 3.1. An example of false paraphrasing is shown below, using
McCormick's text. You would need to compare it with the base text at the
beginning of 3. to see that it is in fact a direct copy.
EXAMPLE: FALSE PARAPHRASING
At first glance, the European Union looks much like a standard International
Organisation (IO). It is a voluntary association of states in which many
decisions are taken as a result of negotiations among the leaders of the
states. Its taxing abilities are limited and its revenues small. None of its senior
officials are directly elected to their positions, most being either appointed or
holding ex officio positions (for example, members of the Council of Ministers
are such by virtue of being ministers in their home governments).
(McCormick, 2002, 4-5)
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3.4 Critically reviewing rather than over-using quotation, paraphrasing
and summary
Sometimes it may be appropriate for you to simply summarise arguments.
However, on many other occasions we wish you to go beyond summary and
into some of the areas listed below. In these situations, even if quotation,
paraphrasing and summarising are carried out, with referencing, in a
technically correct manner, they can be over-used. This occurs when very
little of your own argument appears in your work and you are over-reliant on
others. There is a danger that you will just string together a series of quotes
or paraphrased ideas with just linking sentences between them. There is very
little of “you” in the work. It would take too long to give an example of this poor
practice here. Let's just say that we wish to see you do some, or all, of the
following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identify common themes in arguments, or schools of thought in the subject
discipline
Show how each author differs and where they disagree with each other
Show how thought in the area has evolved
Show how you would classify differing arguments
Evaluate authors' arguments and indicate any shortcomings in those
arguments, showing why you consider them to be shortcomings
Indicate how much more work would need to be done to be sure certain
arguments are valid
Synthesise the evidence and arguments of several authors to reach a
conclusion
This ability to critically review and evaluate arguments of others will be
asked of you more and more the further you go through your degree. In an
undergraduate degree it gets more emphasised in third year and then more
again in Honours year. It is even more important at Masters level. Naturally, it
is a major component of your Honours or Masters dissertation, where it is
important in your Literature Review and Discussion of findings. It is not
restricted to your Dissertation, however. So when and how often to use
quotations and to paraphrase, and how much time and text to devote to your
own evaluation, is a skill you'll learn as you progress through your course.
Here's an example of how McCormick summarises thought in the area, which
is the subject of the section of his book which we have been using. He's not
putting much of his own evaluation of arguments here (this comes later in his
book) but he is trying to summarise objectively and briefly, through both
quotation and paraphrasing, the different schools of thought in this area:
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
16
EXAMPLE: SUMMARISING THOUGHT IN THE AREA
Some observers question the assumption that intergovernmentalism and
supranationalism are the two extremes of a continuum (Keohane and
Hoffman, 1990), that they are a zero-sum game (one balances or cancels out
the other), that supranationalism involves the loss of sovereignty, or that the
EU and its member states act autonomously of each other. It has been
argued, for example, that governments cooperate out of need, and that this is
not a matter of surrendering sovereignty, but of pooling as a much of it as is
necessary for the joint performance of a particular task (Mitrany, 1970). The
EU has been described as ‘an experiment in pooling sovereignty, not in
transferring it from states to supranational institutions’ (Keohane and
Hoffmann, 1990, 277).
It has also been argued that it is wrong to assume that ‘each gain in capability
at the European level necessarily implies a loss of capability at the national
level’, and that the relationship between the EU and its member states is more
symbiotic than competitive (Lindberg and Scheingold, 1970, 94-5). Ernst
Haas argues that supranationalism does not mean the exercise of authority
over national governments by EU institutions, but rather that it is a process or
a style of decision making in which ‘the participants refrain from
unconditionally vetoing proposals and instead seek to attain agreement by
means of compromises upgrading common interests’ (Haas, 1964, 66).
(McCormick, 2002, 6)
4. REFERENCING
In this section the principles of good referencing are discussed, including
referencing books, journal articles, chapters in edited books and electronic
references.
This section can be used for explanation and as a quick guide to referencing.
A two-page quick guide to referencing formats will be produced and
distributed separately, but it will refer the reader to this Section 4 for detail.
4.1 Referencing in the Text - Citation
Referencing is a process which involves creating a brief reference in the text,
which refers to a more detailed list elsewhere (normally a Bibliography or List
of References).
So Referencing always has two elements:
• The reference in the text - called a citation.
• The listing, with appropriate detail, in the Bibliography/ List of References.
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
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•
The format of the reference in the text and its entry in the References
section or Bibliography must both be correct. They are also related - the
first part of the citation (author, year of publication) forms the first part of
the entry in the List of References.
•
The idea behind this is that the reader, when they come across a citation
which interests them, could turn to the Bibliography/ list of References
and, using the citation, find the entry immediately.
The format for a Citation varies according to whether the citation is a
quotation or paraphrase:
•
•
Quotation: (First Author, year of publication, page number) - see 3.1
Paraphrase or summary: (First Author, year of publication) - see 3.2
See the sections mentioned for more detail on citation.
The above method is based on the Harvard Method of referencing. Another
common method of referencing is to put a number next to the cited text and
then give the citation, or even the full reference, at the bottom of the page in a
footnote. This is called the British Standard (or Oxford) method. This is not
recommended in most Napier Schools, although some subject areas, such as
Law, do use it. Most lecturers will accept it if done correctly. If in any doubt,
check with your lecturer.
You may come across a number of short cuts using Latin, which are often
used in the Oxford system:
et al: this roughly means "and all the rest". It is sometimes used in a Citation
to indicate that the first author is just one of multiple authors e.g. McCormick
et al 2003. It is not essential. It does not affect the full references in the List of
References, where all authors are listed (see 4.2 "multiple authors").
ibid: this roughly means "the text last cited, just above". E.g. ibid, 5 which
means page 5 of the last text cited, which was McCormick 2002.
op cit: this roughly means "the text by this author last cited". It refers to the
full reference and uses the author’s name e.g. McCormick op cit, so could not
be used in the Harvard system
4.2 The List of References - general
It is now appropriate that we give some thought to how you should list your
references at the end of your document. Any references that you cite within
the text, whether quotations, paraphrasing, summaries or concepts, must be
listed at the end of the document. These are listed in a separate section
which is given the title References (and often referred to as the List of
References, or sometimes the References section). You may also want to list
a Bibliography, but, if so, keep it separate from the references. A
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
18
bibliography is generally viewed as a list of books or articles that have helped
your understanding of the topic but to which you have not made direct
reference. However, you may just use one list and call it either References or
Bibliography. If you do, all the entries in it should have at least one reference
in the text. Remember, as you do your preparatory work, keep a list of your
references as you go along. Otherwise you won’t be able to find them.
There are a number of different methods of referencing, but the one that is
mainly used in academic and business writing is the Harvard method. This is
the preferred method at Napier and it is this method that you are advised to
adopt unless instructed otherwise. The formats for citations already described
used this method; so do the following formats for References.
The following remarks use books as an example but give some of the general
principles of referencing applying to all formats.
References in the List of References or Bibliography are listed firstly in
alphabetical order. Where you have used different books or articles by the
same author then these are grouped in date order with the earliest first. The
date is the last copyright date, not the last date of reprinting. Hence:
Aardvark, A. (2000) The Life of the Anteater, Edinburgh, Animal Press Ltd.
Aardvark, A. (2001) Adventures of an Anteater, Edinburgh, Animal Press Ltd.
Note that the title of the book is underlined. You may chose to use italics for
the book title instead of underlining, but you should not use both and be
consistent, do not switch between italic and underlining. An italic example is
shown here:
Aardvark, A. (2000) The Life of the Anteater, Edinburgh, Animal Press Ltd
If you have cited texts by the same author that share the same year date
then these are identified in the text using letters, e.g. the first citation would be
given the suffix a, the second the suffix b and so on. These letters are then
used in the reference section to identify which book or article relates to which
citation. Hence:
Aardvark, A. (2000a) The Life of the Anteater, Edinburgh, Animal Press Ltd.
Aardvark, A. (2000b) Ants and Where to Find Them, Edinburgh, Animal Press
Ltd.
Often, of course, there are multiple authors. They are separated by full stops
and commas after the initials, but with the last two separated by the word
“and” instead.
eg:
Aardvark, A., Armadillo, N. and Tapir, U. (2003) Finding ants: Art or Science?
Edinburgh, Animal Press Ltd.
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19
Having dealt with the issue of alphabetical order, it is worthwhile thinking
about the general rules that apply to presenting the details of individual
references. To do this, we are going to develop some templates that can be
applied to most situations. The templates provide you with the order in which
the information should be listed and also how you punctuate the reference. If
you find yourself in a situation that is not covered by these templates, then the
important thing to remember is that you should make a record of all of the
information relating to the source; this way you cannot be accused of trying to
hide your sources.
We will look at how to list books, journal articles, double referencing and
referencing from electronic sources. You will find examples of good practice
in the academic journals stocked in the library, and so the more you read the
more proficient you should become.
Other sources which you may also reference, in the most appropriate format,
include case study materials, lecture notes, Government Reports, algorithms
and computer code. The first two are usually similar to books or journal
articles. If you are in doubt about the others it is worth consulting a specialist
publication such as Fischer, D and Hanstock, T, 1998 Citing References,
London, Blackwell at £1.00. Or Pears, R and Shields, G 2004 Cite them
right: referencing made easy Northumbria University Press at £3.50.
4.3 Listing References from Books
The following format should be used when listing a textbook. The example
also shows how you indicate an edition:
Author’s (or Editor’s) surname, Initial(s) (Date) Book Title, Edition, Place of
Publication, Publisher
Aardvark, A. (2002) The Life of the Anteater, (2nd ed), Edinburgh, Animal
Press Ltd.
Near the front of the book, usually around the second or third leaf, you may
find that there are a list of locations relating to the publisher’s offices. If this is
the case, then you chose and list the location that is nearest to where you
obtained the book.
Where the book is a collection of chapters, you will use the Editor's, or Chief
editor's name, followed by (ed). However, you will normally be quoting a
chapter from a book and so should use the format shown in 4.5.
4.4 Listing References from Journal Articles
The method of listing a journal article is similar to that used for books, for
example, the presentation of the author(s). Similarly, the journal title is either
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
20
underlined or italicised (not the article title, this is contained in single
apostrophes). Issue numbers are included but not the Publisher. The following
format should therefore be used when listing a journal:
Author’s surname, Initial(s) (Date) ‘Article Title’, Journal Title, Volume Number
(Issue Number/Title), page numbers.
eg:
Aardvark, A. and Armadillo, N. (2001) 'Ants and their nesting habits,' Journal
of Ant Behaviour, Vol 5 (Issue 3), 272 – 278.
When listing more than one page number you state the first page and the last
page numbers of the article, separating them with a hyphen.
Where the article is in a magazine and there is no named author, then Anon
should be substituted for the author's name. Here there will often be no
volume number either, but the date of issue can be quoted e.g.:
Anon (2003), 'Red ants of the Amazon' Ant World Monthly, June, 32 - 37.
4.5 Listing Double References
Occasionally you may want to cite a reference that you have taken from
another article rather than having read the original yourself. This is
acceptable practice, although it is preferred that you read the original yourself.
However, it has to be acknowledged in the reference section. In such a case
you will have two sets of authors. This situation would also apply when citing
references from edited books, in this case you would list the chapter author
and the editor(s). Here are some examples:
Journal Article in Book
Author’s surname, Initial(s) (Date) ‘Article Title’, Journal Title, Volume
Number (Issue Number/Title), page numbers in Author’s Surname, Initial,
(Date) Book Title, Place of Publication, Publisher.
eg:
Aardvark, A. and Armadillo, N. (2001) 'Ants and their nesting habits,' Journal
of Ant Behaviour, Vol 5 (Issue 3), 272 – 278 in Aardvark, A. (2002) The Life of
the Anteater, (2ed), Edinburgh, Animal Press Ltd.
Journal Article in Journal Article
Author’s surname, Initial(s) (Date) ‘Article Title’, Journal Title, Volume
Number (Issue Number/Title), page numbers in Author’s Surname, Initial
(Date) ‘Article Title’, Journal Title, Volume Number (Issue Number/Title),
page numbers.
eg:
Aardvark, A. and Armadillo, N. (2001) 'Ants and their nesting habits, Journal
of Ant Behaviour, Vol 5 (Issue 3), 272 – 278 in Aardvark, A. (2003) 'The
habitats of ants', Journal of Ant Behaviour, Vol 7 (Issue 2), 168 – 175.
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
21
Chapter in Edited Book
Chapter author’s surname, initial (date) ‘Chapter Title’ in Editor’s Surname,
Initial (ed) Book Title, Chapter page numbers, Place of Publication, Publisher
Note that you identify the editor (s) using the abbreviation ed(s) as well as by
the position in the list.
eg:
Armadillo, N. (2003) “Anthills and their construction” in Aardvark, A (ed)
(2004) Ant habitats around the world, pp 86 – 98, Edinburgh, Animal Press
Ltd.
4.6 Listing Electronic References
The format used for electronic references will depend upon the nature of the
document that you are referencing. If it is, for example, an academic journal
sourced electronically then it is acceptable to adopt the standard format
shown previously for a journal. Likewise, if you are referencing an article that
provides the author’s name, then you would list the author and date, but
instead of naming a journal or book you would list the web address.
Where no specific author is given there are two approaches that are
acceptable. The first is to list the ‘author’ as Anon (short for anonymous) and
then the detail, including the web page and web address. The second is to list
the web page title as a substitute for the author (this would be the standard
approach if you were citing an organisation’s homepage).
Students sometimes have difficulty finding the page number when they wish
to quote from an electronic journal on an academic database. If you encounter
this, try accessing the PDF version of the document, where the page number
should be visible.
To help clarify here are some examples. With these, the in-text citation is also
given, as students often fail to realise that it can be just as straightforward with
electronic media as with conventional media.
Author’s surname, Initials (Date of work, if given) ‘Article title’, web address
e.g. <http://www…> (Date of message or date website was accessed) eg:
Aardvark, A. (2003) “Red ants”, <http://www.antdigest.com> (July 24th 2003)
Citation: (Aardvark 2003)
Anon (Date of work, if given) ‘Article title’, web address e.g. <http://www…>
(Date of message or date website accessed)
eg:
Anon (2003) “Ants of the rainforest”, <http://www.antdigest.com> (July 29th
2003)
Citation: (Anon 2003)
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Web page Title (Date of work, if given), <http://www…> (Date website
accessed)
eg:
Ant Locomotion (2004), <http://www.antdigest.com> (January 21st 2004) or:
Citation: (Ant Locomotion 2004)
Antdigest (2004). Homepage. <http://www.antdigest.com> (January 21st 2004)
Citation: (Antdigest 2004)
If in doubt, decide on the full reference and then make the citation the first
words of that. As with the previous examples, the first stage is to record for
yourself the source details as you find and use them. This way, even if you
make a mistake in the referencing format, you will be able to demonstrate that
you have not attempted, intentionally or otherwise, to pass someone else’s
work off as your own.
An easy-to-use checklist of what to include in references is found in Appendix
1.
4.7 Referencing in Exams
The procedure being adopted currently in the School of Marketing and
Tourism is that in examinations citations are required (but without page
numbers), but that Lists of References/ Bibliographies are not required. This
may be changed shortly, particularly if the University adopts a common policy.
Further guidance may be issued by your School in the second half of the
semester. If written guidance is given – make sure you read it.
5. PROCEDURES FOR DEALING WITH ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT AT
NAPIER
5.1 Student Disciplinary Regulations (SDRs)
Academic Misconduct is dealt with through the disciplinary framework rather
than the normal assessment ones to ensure consistency of evaluation and
penalty, rather than individual lecturers deciding for themselves how they will
penalise it.
These procedures are formally laid out in some detail, with definitions and
indication of typical penalties, under “Academic Misconduct” in the Student
Disciplinary Regulations. These can be found in the Freedom of Information
website (accessed from the Napier homepage www.napier.ac.uk) in
Publication Scheme/ Student Administration & Support, Document 13.17.
They should also be in your Public Folders on Outlook once you have signed
in.
These Regulations cover Plagiarism under Academic Misconduct. Nonacademic misconduct is also included in the SDRs.
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
23
5.2 Napier University Plagiarism Code of Conduct and the Academic
Conduct Officer
The University has taken the trouble to lay out its Disciplinary procedures
related to Plagiarism in more detail in a Plagiarism Code of Conduct – check
out the Registry web pages to find it.
This is a helpful document which quotes the SDRs where necessary, but tries
to go into detail on the procedures which will be followed in detecting and
investigating cases of suspected plagiarism and then imposing penalties if the
case is found proven.
However, this Code of Conduct does not go into the ways of avoiding
Plagiarism, or Referencing techniques, as this Avoiding Plagiarism document
does. Hence these two documents are seen as complementing each other.
A brief overview of the procedures described in the Code of Conduct is:
Detection: This is done by the academic member of staff who marks your
coursework (or the Invigilator in exams). They get a colleague to check.
Evaluation: Your work and their findings is then passed for further
investigation, confirmation and evaluation to a designated member of staff for
the School owning the module on which the alleged offence was committed.
This is the Academic Conduct Officer (ACO). You are likely to be invited for
interview before a final decision is made. (In overseas programmes, your
input is likely to be sought by email). If you cannot attend interview a decision
will be made in your absence.
Application of Penalty: If it is decided that a plagiarism offence has been
committed, the ACO (for a case of Minor Academic Misconduct) or a School
Disciplinary Committee (Major Misconduct) will apply a suitable penalty.
Penalties often involve reduction of marks, but in extreme cases they can
even involve expulsion from the University. The range of penalties is included
in the Code; the definitions were reproduced in section 1 of this document.
You are strongly advised to read this Code of Conduct, which can be found at:
www.napier.ac.uk/depts/registry/regulations.htm
5.3 Detecting Plagiarism - Turnitin® UK
The University uses “Turnitin® UK”, a software programme
provided for universities throughout the UK by JISC [Ref.]. It is “a plagiarism
detection software” based on a sophisticated computer system into which
your piece of: “written” work can be loaded. This system scans the internet
and looks for matches between your work and any material on the internet (it
archives material on a regular basis) and in some academic databases. It also
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
24
compares it to work handed in by other students. (and, if all your classmates’
work was input to the system, your own classmates).
If it detects a match, your lecturer or the ACO will decide if that match is a
justified, properly-referenced quotation or if it represents plagiarism. So this
system is extensively used at the investigation stage. It is for this reason that
you may be asked for a copy of your work electronically. Your work is treated
confidentially, under the principles of the UK Data Protection Act: as
described further in the Turnitin® UK Napier University Student Information
Document, appendix B.
This system is designed to help students check whether they have
inadvertently committed plagiarism. So it is possible for a student to input their
own work and, when satisfied with their final draft, refer the lecturer to it. Or
the lecturer may simply grant the student access to their own file during an
investigation. Napier is hopeful that this system can help students avoid
plagiarism and it is hoped that its co-operative use will develop in the manner
described.
6. REFERENCES
Carroll, J (2002) A Handbook for Deterring Plagiarism in Higher Education,
Oxford, Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development
King, G. (2000) Good Writing. Glasgow, Harper Collins Publishers
Leki, I. (1998) Academic Writing. Exploring Processes and Strategies.
Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (pp. 199-202)
McCormick, J. (2002) Understanding the European Union. New York,
Palgrave (pp. 1-6)
7. FURTHER READING
http://www.plagiarism.com
Uses the Glatt Plagiarism Teaching Programme which is a self-teaching
package to help students learn not to plagiarise
http://nulis.napier.ac.uk/StudySkills/
Going into this and selecting Bibliographies and referencing gives you a range
of links to documents on referencing, including comprehensive guides to
various referencing systems. This is on the Library’s own website.
http://www.unn.ac.uk/central/isd/cite/
The Plagiarism website of the University of Northumbria, which is very good.
Fischer, D and Hanstock, T (1998) Citing References, London, Blackwell.
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
25
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2004) Cite them right: referencing made easy
Northumbria University Press
Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) homepage, available at
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/ (Sept. 12, 2005)
JISC is a national body supporting HE and FE institutions to use ICT in
teaching, learning and research.
JISC Plagiarism Advisory Service (JISC PAS) homepage, available at
http://www.jiscpas.ac.uk (Sept. 12, 2005)
This is the JISC site for educating and advising students and staff on all
issues of plagiarism, its prevention, and detection.
Napier University Student Disciplinary Regulations (2005) available at
http://www.napier.ac.uk/depts/registry/Regulations/SDRegs.pdf (Sept. 12,
2005)
Registry Services Student Records Information available at
http://www.napier.ac.uk/depts/registry/studatajisc.html (Sept. 12, 2005)
Napier Plagiarism Code of Conduct (2005) available at
www.napier.ac.uk/depts/registry/regulations.htm (Sept. 12, 2005)
8. DISCLAIMER
The information contained in these pages was written and compiled in 2003
by Stephen Doyle, Dr. Monika Foster and John Revuelta on behalf of the
Quality Committee of the School of Marketing & Tourism, Napier University. It
was updated and added to in 2004 and again in 2005 by John Revuelta, Dr
Monika Foster and Martin Robertson.
None of the above-named people nor the above-named Quality Committee
are responsible for any use of the information contained within these pages
and any losses or consequences which may arise from the use of the
information.
All information is used at the user’s own risk.
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26
APPENDIX 1
A checklist of what needs to be included in references for different information source types (adapted from Pears, R &
Shield, G (2004) “Cite them right: referencing made easy” Northumbria University Press: 2)
Issue
Title of Title of
Author Year
Of
article/ publication Information
Publication chapter
3
3
3
Place
Publisher Edition Page
URL Date
Numbers
accessed
Of
Publication
3
3
3
Chapter
from book
3
3
3
3
3
Journal
Article
3
3
3
3
3
3
Electronic
Journal
Article
Internet
Site
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Newspaper/ 3
Magazine
Article
3
Book
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
3
3
3
3
3
27
APPENDIX 2
NAPIER UNIVERSITY
PLAGIARISM DETECTION SERVICE: TURNITIN® UK
INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS
What is Turnitin® UK? (A JISC Service)
JISC is the Joint Information Systems Committee, an organisation funded by
the UK Higher and Further Education Funding Councils (HEFCE) and
JISCPAS is the JISC Plagiarism Advisory Service. In common with many
Universities across the UK, Napier has subscribed to one of the JISCPAS
tools called Turnitin ® UK, for the new academic session 2005/06. This is a
software package available to staff to assist them in the prevention and
detection of plagiarism.
How does it work?
Turnitin ® UK helps academic staff address a number of common but difficult
to identify issues related to citation and collaboration in coursework
assessments. It enables tutors and you as students, to identify the original
source material included within student work by searching a database of
several billion pages of reference material gathered from professional
publications, student essay websites and other student works. It is used as a
tool to help provide better information and feedback to students about the
work they have submitted.
The tool does not make decisions about the intention of work it identifies as
unoriginal, nor does it determine if unoriginal content is correctly cited or
indeed plagiarised. It simply highlights sections of text that have been found
in other sources. In many cases this will lead an academic member of staff to
provide feedback to you on how to improve your coursework submissions and
citations. All assessment decisions will continue to be made by a module
leader who will review the entire work.
What is the benefit of using the service?
Napier University wishes to help encourage you as students to behave with
honesty and integrity at all times. The correct citation of work and the
authenticity of assessments is a cornerstone, not just of our education
system, but of the trust and value held in each of our education institutions by
employers and the public at large. Napier wishes the use of Turnitin ® UK,
along with other methods of maintaining the integrity of the academic process,
to help maintain academic standards and fairness in assessment.
How will your data be used?
Use of Turnitin ® UK during session 2005/06 is at the discretion of individual
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
28
lecturers. For the service to work, your assignments will be submitted to
Turnitin ® UK where they will be stored together with all or a selection of your
first and last initials, student email address, course details and institution.
Once your material has been uploaded it will be stored electronically in a
database and compared against work submitted from Napier or from other UK
institutions using the service.
Your tutor will receive an Originality Report from the service. In most cases
this feedback will be used by your tutor to help you with the process of citation
and the importance of maintaining academic standards. In some cases,
dependent on extent, level and context, the University may decide to
undertake further investigation which could ultimately lead to disciplinary
action, should instances of plagiarism be detected. Such decisions are
entirely at the discretion of the University. The identity of students who have
submitted work to the service will not be revealed to other institutions either by
JISC or Napier.
How long will the service keep your work?
The service will seek to retain submissions until the termination of
Turnitin ® UK or its successor, thus helping to accumulate as large a
database as possible against which to compare submissions.
Who owns the copyright to the work you have submitted?
HEFCE has no interest in acquiring the intellectual property rights for the
content submitted by you. The University does not normally claim ownership
of work produced by undergraduate students. However the University
reserves the right to require any student engaged in research or development
work to assign to the University all rights to that work. For further information
on this please consult the University’s Intellectual Property Policy by using this
link Intellectual Property Policy
The service will help to protect your work from future plagiarism and thereby
help maintain the integrity of any qualification you receive.
What are your rights under the Data Protection Act?
As the data subject you have the right to see what personal information is
held about you in relation to this or any other service that stores your personal
information and you have certain rights to object to your data being used. For
further information regarding your rights please refer to the Plagiarism
Advisory Service website (www.jiscpas.ac.uk and click on Detection Service
and then Data Protection) and also to the University’s Data Protection Code of
Practice at www.napier.ac.uk/deptsmas/sms/publications/Data Protection.pdf .
Code of Conduct on Plagiarism
The University has developed a Code of Conduct on Plagiarism for
introduction in the new session 2005/06. You can view this on the intranet
under Resources or on the Registry Services website at
www.napier.ac.uk/depts/registry/regulations.htm.
EdDev/S & MS
Revised August 2005
Napier University Business School, School of Marketing and Tourism Quality Committee, September 2005
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