antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi

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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
meToduri saxelmZRvanelo zogadsaganmanaTleblo
da umaRlesi saswavleblebisaTvis
mkiTxvelis sayuradRebod:
aRniSnul saxelmZRvaneloSi moyvanilia magaliTebi litvis respublikis
istoriidan, mxatvruli literaturidan, kanonebidan da kodeqsebidan. antikorufciuli ganaTlebis saswavlo programebSi (saskolo Tu sauniversiteto) integrirebiT dainteresebul pedagogebs SeuZliaT gamoiyenon msgavsi
magaliTebi saqarTvelos istoriidan, mxatvruli literaturidan, kanonebidan da kodeqsebidan.
antikorufciuli
aRzrda skolaSi
meToduri saxelmZRvanelo
zogadsaganmanaTleblo da
umaRlesi saswavleblebisaTvis
asociacia `skola-ojaxi-sazogadoeba“
2007
proeqtis damfinanseblebi:
fondi `Ria
sazogadoeba –
litva~
litvis resp.
specialuri
sagamoZiebo
samsaxuri
daniis
samefos
saelCo
litvaSi
ganaTlebis gaerTianebuli
gardaqmnis
erebis
fondi
ganviTarebis
programa
litvis
respublikis
mTavroba
litvis resp. Transparency
ganaTlebisa International-is
da
litvis
mecnierebis ganyofileba
saministro
ydis dizaini: alvidas ladiga
maketi: rokas galaJusi
ydaze – me-9 klaseli moswavlis, odeta patraviCutes, naxati
mTargmneli: manana xuciSvili
redaqtori: rusudan papava
daibeWda Sps `petitSi~
© litvis respublikis ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro, 2006
© Tanamedrove didaqtikis centri, 2006
sarCevi
Sesavali
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antikorufciuli aRzrdis
SesaZleblobebi skolaSi
winasityvaoba
11
mokled korufciis Sesaxeb
ra aris korufcia?
korufciis formebi
argumentebi korufciis `sasargeblod~ da `sawinaaRmdegod~
riT aris gamowveuli korufcia?
antikorufciuli strategia
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15
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antikorufciuli aRzrdis saSualebebi skolaSi
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antikorofciuli aRzrdis kursis ZiriTadi cnebebi
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skolaSi antikorufciuli aRzrdis Sinaarsi
konteqstualuri da viwro midgomebi
antikorufciuli aRzrdis ZiriTadi Temebi
antikorufciuli aRzrdis integrirebuli programa
integrirebuli programis danergvis magaliTi
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skolaSi antikorufciuli aRzrdis didaqtikuri rCevebi
informireba
damokidebulebebis Camoyalibeba
damokidebulebebis Secvla
moraluri da konvencionaluri perspeqtiva
antikorufciuli aRzrdis individualuri programis momzadeba
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sxvadasxva saganSi antikorufciuli aRzrdis programis
danergvis magaliTebi
istoria
samoqalaqo aRzrda, politologia
eTika, fsiqologia, religia
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36
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73
danarTi
rogor SeiZleba kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTarebis sqemis
mixedviT teqstebze muSaoba
korufciis fenomeni msoflioSi da litvaSi
eTikis kodeqsebi
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95
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101
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
winasityvaoba
korufciis fenomeni
iolanta piliponite
korufciis taqsonomia umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi
natalia rumianceva
antikorufciuli aRzrdis integrireba saswavlo programebSi
korufcia deviaciuri sociologiis TvalsazrisiT
deviaciuri sociologiis kursis moduli
arunas poviliunasi
korufcia, rogorc deviaciis forma
socialuri organizaciis kursis moduli
tadas tamoSunasi
korufcia, rogorc samarTlis obieqti
samewarmeo (komerciuli) samarTlis kursis moduli
vitalia skeruvene
korufcia da samarTali
samarTlis safuZvlebis kursis moduli
gintare Satene
samewarmeo eTikis aspeqtebi
samewarmeo (komerciuli) samarTlis kursis moduli
gintare Satene
kerZo interesebi da warmomadgenloba
uwyveti ganaTlebis strategiis kursis moduli
vaiva zuzaviCute
korufciaze, rogorc eTikuri kodeqsis problemaze, msjeloba
profesiuli eTikis kursis leqcia
romas prakapasi
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146
161
175
177
205
219
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227
arCeviTi kursis modulebi
korufcia da misi prevencia
tadas tamoSunasi
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ZiriTadi cnebebis leqsikoni
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gamoyenebuli literatura
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Sesavali
es wigni ori nawilisagan Sedgeba, romelic Seiqmna da gamoica litvur enaze 2005 wels. meToduri saxelmZRvanelo gankuTvnilia zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolebisa da umaRlesi saswavleblebis maswavlebelTaTvis.
saxelmZRvanelos pirveli nawili – `antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi: meToduri daxmareba” – im pedagogebisaTvisaa, romelTac survili aqvT da SeuZliaT antikorufciuli aRzrdis sakuTar sagnobriv programaSi integrireba. amisaTvis SesaniSnavad gamodgeba istoriis, samoqalaqo ganaTlebis, eTikisa da religiis gakveTilebi. aseve SesaZlebelia Sesabamisi Temebis/sakiTxebis gamoyeneba literaturisa da enis gakveTilebze. wignis pirvel nawilSi maswavleblebi miiReben rekomendaciebs
da miniSnebebs, Tu rogor SeiZleba amis gakeTeba gakveTilze, damatebiTi saaTis gamoyofis gareSe, ukve arsebuli programebis, saxelmZRvaneloebisa
da meToduri masalebis gamoyenebiT.
meore nawili – `korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavlebleebSi: Sexedulebebi, problemebi, gadaWris gzebi~ – gankuTvnilia umaRlesi saswavleblis
maswavlebelTaTvis, romelTa saswavlo programebi metad iZleva studentebSi korufciaze garkveuli warmodgenebis Seqmnisa da antkorufciuli ganaTlebis saSualebas. aseve, xels uwyobs sazogadoebrivad da moqalaqeobrivad aqtiuri pirovnebis Camoyalibebas. am nawilSi mocemulia, Tu rogor
SeiZleba antikorufciuli ganaTlebis integrireba saswavlo modulebsa da
programebSi. aseve, rogor SeiZleba ganviTardes antikorufciuli ganaTlebis programa damoukideblad.
am wignSi warmodgenilia Teoriuli masala, romelic mkiTxvels daexmareba sakvanZo sakiTxebisa da ganxiluli Temebis ukeTesad garkvevaSi. wignSi aseve moyvanilia Catarebuli kvlevebis masalebi, damatebiTi wyaroebi
da damxmare literatura.
wigni Seqmnilia praqtikosi pedagogebis mier. masSi moyvanili yvela magaliTi aprobirebulia saklaso oTaxebsa Tu auditoriebSi.
wigni ramdenime enaze iTargmna.
wignis Targmani ganapiroba ucxoeli partniorebis mxirdan didma interesma antkorufciuli aRzrdisa da litveli kolegebis gamocdilebisadmi
am sferoSi.
wignis avtorebi madlobas uxdian damfinanseblebs – gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis ganviTarebis programas litvaSi, litvis respublikis specialuri mokvlevis samsaxurs, Ria sazogadoebis institutis programas RE:
FINE , yvelas vinc garkveuli wvlili Seitana am wignis momzadebasa da gamocemaSi.
vimedovnebT, rom sxva qveynis pedagogebi am wignSi moiZieben sasargeblo
ideebsa da magaliTebs, romlebic daexmarebaT praqtikaSi da xels Seuwyobs
antikorufciuli aRzrdis gafarToebas maT qveynebSi.
daiva penkauskine
antikorufciuli
aRzrda
zogadsaganmanaTleblo
skolaSi
meToduri saxelmZRvanelo
aRniSnuli meToduri saxelmZRvanelo Seiqmna proeqtis
`ganaTleba korufciis winaaRmdeg~ (2002-2003w.w.) da
`antikorufciuli aRzrdis programis SemuSavebisa da gavcelebis programis~
masalebis safuZvelze.
proeqtis konsultantebi:
arne nilseni, PLS Ramboll Management, dania
evaldas bakonisi, ganaTlebis ganviTarebis centri
doqtori vaiva vaicekauskine, ganaTlebis ganviTarebis centri
arturas paluSisi, litvis specialuri gamoZiebis samsaxuri
aida martinkene, litvis specialuri gamoZiebis samsaxuri
ramune paukStene, litvis specialuri gamoZiebis samsaxuri
meToduri masalebis Semdgenlebi:
evaldas bakonisi, ganaTlebis ganviTarebis centri
doqtori vaiva vaicekauskine, ganaTlebis ganviTarebis centri
daiva penkauskine, Tanamedrove didaqtikis centri
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winasityvaoba
risTvis Seiqmna aRniSnuli meToduri saxelmZRvanelo?
winamdebare saxelmZRvanelo Seiqmna proeqtebis `ganaTleba korufciis
winaaRmdeg“ da `antikorufciuli aRzrdis programebis srulyofa da gavrceleba~ farglebSi SemuSavebuli masalebis safuZvelze. aRniSnuli proeqtebi warmoadgens litvis respublikis krufciasTan brZolis nacionaluri programis nawils, romlis ganxorcielebac dagegmili iyo 2000-2006 wlebSi. litvis respublikis seimma (parlamenti) daavaldebula mTavroba specialuri gamoZiebis samsaxurTan erTad korufciasTan brZolis nacionaluri
programa aqtiurad aemoqmedebinaT (2002w.).
programis ganxorcielebaSi aqtiuradaa CarTuli litvis respublikis
araerTi saministro, aseve danaSaulebaTa prevenciis centri da PHARE eqspertebi. programis ZiriTadi mizania – sazogadoebis ganaTleba, korufciis prevenciisa da antikorufciuli saqmianobebis Sesaxeb informaciis gavrceleba.
postkomunistur sivrceSi korufcia ufro aqtualuri problemaa, vidre dasavleTis sxva qveynebSi. komunisturi sistemebi korufcias eyrdnobodnen, rogorc konsolidirebul Zalas, xolo kleptokratia da klientizmi Cveulebriv normad aRiqmeboda. xsenebuli qmedebebi da azrovnebis stereotipebi xels uSlis jansaR konkurenciaze dafuZnebul kerZo seqtoris
ganviTarebasa da demokratiuli saxelmwifos Seqmnas. korufciuli danaSaulis specifikis da sirTulis gaTvaliswinebiT 1997 wlis Semodgomaze litvaSi Seiqmna korufciasTan brZolis specialuri organo – `specialuri gamoZiebis samsaxuri~ (s.g.s.).
litvis respublikis seimis mier damtkicebuli koruciasTan brZolis nacionaluri programis miznebi mxolod danaSaulis gamovleniT ar Semoifargleba, aramed igi mimarTulia korufciis prevenciasa da sazogadoebis
informirebaze. programa erT-erT mniSvnelovan amocanad isaxavs: `iyvnen
korufciuli gamovlinebebis mimarT ukompromisoni; am mizniT mWidrod iTanamSromlon arasamTavrobo organizaciebTan da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebTan; ganaTlebis sistemaSi Seqmnan da danergon specialuri sasawavlo programebi~. programis cxovrebiseul/yoveldRiur praqtikaSi danergvisa da gatarebis mizniT daigegma antikorufciuli aRzrdisaTvis meToduri rekomendaciebis momzadeba.
litvis respublikis seimis mier miRebuli kanonis me-10 muxli (`kanoni
korufciis prevenciis Sesaxeb, 2002) iTvaliswinebs zogadsaganamanaTleblo skolebis aqtiur monawileobas antikorufciul aRzrdaSi:
`1. sazogadoebis antikorufciuli aRzrda ganaTlebis sistemis ganuyofeli nawilia. litvis saxelmwifo xels uwyobs sazogadoebaSi moqalaqeobrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibebas, uflebebisa da movaleobebis
gacnobierebas da sazogadoebis winaSe pasuxismgeblobis aRebas yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi korufciis prevenciis mizniT.
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
`2. sazogadoiebis antikorufciuli aRzrda xorcieldeba yvela donisa
da tipis saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebaSi specialuri saganmanaTleblo programebis, masiuri informaciis saSualebebis meSveobiT da aseve sxva xerxebiT.~
meToduri masalebis momzadebaSi aqtiur monawileobas iRebdnen saxelmwifo saganmanaTleblo skolebi. proeqtSi skolebis SesarCev sakonkurso
ganacxads 70-ze meti skola gamoexmaura, maT Soris 11 skolidan sainiciativo jgufebi dakompleqtda, romelTa SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen fsiqologiis, eTikis, istoriis, politologiis da samoqalaqo aRzrdis maswavleblebi. treningis monawileebi antikorufciul Tematikebs gakveTilebze da
aRmzrdelobiT saqmianobaSic aqtiurad iyenebdnen. 2004 wels seminarebi Catarda im maswavleblebisTvis, vinc proeqtSi ar monawileobda maTi kvalifikaciis amaRlebis mizniT.
rogor SeiZleba gamoviyenoT aRniSnuli
meToduri saxelmZRvanelo?
saxelmZRvanelos Seqmqmnelebi imedovneben, rom gamocema daexmareba im
maswavleblebs, romelTac survili aqvT monawileoba miiRon korufciis
prevenciaze mimarTul saganmanaTleblo saqmianobebSi, miiRon meti codna
Tavad `korufciis~ ganmartebis Sesaxeb, gaecnon rogor SeiZleba antikorufciuli aRzrdis integrireba saswavlo programebsa Tu klasgareSe RonisZiebebSi, ufro aqtiurad da damajereblad gamoxaton sakuTari moqalaqeobrivi pozicia. wignSi mocemuli praqtikuli, samodelo gakveTilebi da
klasgareSe RonisZiebebi daexmareba ukeT gaigon da gaiazron antikorufciuli aRzrdis Sinaarsi da meTodebis gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba.
damatebiTi informaciis miRebis msurvelebs saSualeba eZlevaT sxva masalebi, miTiTebebi, Tu wyaroebi internet-gevrdze moiZion. kvalifikaciis
asamaRlebeli programiT `antikorufciuli aRzrdis SesaZleblobebi zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi~ dainteresebul pirebs SeuZliaT mimarTon
Tanamedrove didaqtikis centrs, misamarTze: vilniusi, studentus quCa 39401, LT-08106; tel/faqsi (8-5) 275 14 10 an eleqtronuli fostiT [email protected];
veb-gverdi: http://www.vpu.lt/sdc.
saqarTveloSi mimarTeT asociacias `skola – ojaxi – sazogadoeba~ misamarTze: sairmis q. #40; tel/faqsi: 36 28 83; el-fosta: [email protected]; vebgverdi: www.sfsa.org.ge
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mokled korufciis Sesaxeb
korufciaze bevrs saubroben, Tumca yvelaferi is, rac sazogadoebrivi
azriT da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebiT gamoixateba, korufcias ar
warmoadgens. meore mxriv, korufcia yovelTvis ar miiCneva, rogorc marTlsawinaaRmdego, danaSaulebrivi qmedeba. amis garda, zogjer zedapirulad da viwrod aris gagebuli korufciis gamomwvevi mizezebi, pirobebi, Sedegebi da masTan brZolis SesaZleblobebi. amitomac, iqamde, sanam maswavlebeli antikorufciuli aRzrdiT dakavdeba, kargad unda gaarkvios korufciis, rogorc movlenis, arsi.
ra aris korufcia?
odesRac, sityva `korufcia~ moralurad dacemas da garyvnilebas niSnavda. axla is Semdegnairad aixsneba: sazogadoebrivi Zalauflebis borotad
gamoyeneba piradi sargeblis miRebis mizniT. litvis respublikaSi korufciasTan brZolis nacionaluri programis mixedviTkorufciad iTvleba `saxelmwifo mosamsaxuris, an masTan gaTanabrebuli piris nebismieri qmedeba,
romelic ar Seesabameba masze miniWebul uflebamosilebas an qcevis dadgenil standartebs; agreTve iseTi qmedebis xelSewyoba, rac pirad sargebels
moutans mas an sxva pirs da amave dros zians miayenebs pirad an saxelmwifo
interesebs.~
arsebobs korufciis rigi ganmartebebi, Tumca misi, rogorc movlenis,
gansazRvreba sistematurad zustdeba. amitom korufciis amocnoba SeiZleba
ufro martivi iyos, Tu daveyrdnobiT ara mis gansazRvrebebs, aramed niSnebsa da gamovlinebebs. sxvadasxva ganmartebis Sedarebisas Cans, rom korufciad miCneuli qmedeba, xSirad Semdegi komponentebiT xasiaTdeba:
1) piri, romelsac aqvs uflebamosileba (Zala-ufleba) miiRos sazogadoebisaTvis mniSvnelovani gadawyvetilebebi;
2) maregulirebeli normebi (kanonebi, principebi, kriteriumebi, procedurebi);
3) xelsayreli gadawyvetilebiT dainteresebuli piri an pirTa jgufi;
4) gadawyvetilebis mimRebsa da miRebuli gadawyvetilebiT dainteresebul pirs an pirTa jgufs Soris urTierTsasargeblo SeTanxmeba;
5) gadawyvetilebis miRebis dadgenili normebis darRveva, rac sazogadoebas zians ayenebs (Van Duyne P., 2001, gv 74-76).
sxva sityvebiT, korufcia warmoadgens gadawyvetilebebis yidvas an gayidvas samarTlianobis darRveviT. samarTlianoba SeiZleba iyos rogorc
iuridiuli (rodesac irRveva dawerili norma), aseve moraluri (rodesac
qcevis konkretuli normebi ar aris damtkicebuli, magram aRiarebulia, rom
aseTi qmedeba usindisobaa).
zemoT moyvanili gansazRvrebebis Tanaxmad, korufciad iTvleba mxolod
saxelmwifo moxeleebisa da politikosebis mier `gayiduli~ gadawyvetilebebi da is SeiZleba iyos samsaxureobrivi an politikuri. Tumca, korufcia
Tavs iCens arasamTavrobo seqtorSic, rac igive danaSaulad unda CaiTvalos, Tu sazogadoebrivi interesebi irRveva.
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
korufciis formebi
`gasayidma~ gadawyvetilebebma SeiZleba Zalian bevr rameze iqonios gavlena (momsaxurebis SeTavazebaze, nebarTvebis gacemaze, vizirebaze, wardginebis daCqarebasa da gacemaze; samuSaoze daniSvnaze, ufro maRal Tanamdebobaze gadayvanaze, kanonis miRebaze, sasjelis gauqmebaze, danaSaulis dafarvaze, fuladi da sxva materialuri faseulobiT anazRaurebis daniSvnaze; dotaciaze; saxelmwifo SekveTaze, saidumlo informaciis gacemaze; gadasaxadebis dafarvaze da sxva), risTvisac `madlobis~ gadaxdis uamravi
forma moiZebneba. amgvarad, korufciis mravali forma arsebobs da maTi
klasificireba rTulia. amas arTulebs isic, rom sxvadasxva saxelmwifoSi
korufciul garigebad gansxvavebuli qmedebebia miCneuli (gamonaklisad SeiZleba CaiTvalos mxolod meqrTameoba). sxvadasxva saxelmwifoTa kanonmdeblobis mixedviT korufciul danaSaulad aRiarebulia:
1) qrTamis moTxovna, miReba da gacema;
2) saxelmwifo qonebis dataceba, uyairaToba;
3) saxelmwifo, konfidencialuri informaciis ukanonod gamoyeneba;
4) Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyeneba piradi sargeblis miRebis mizniT;
5) arCevnebSi ukanonod Careva, gaylbeba;
6) saxelmwifo moxeleebze aRZruli Ziebis SecdomaSi Seyvana cru informaciis gavrcelebis an miwodebis gziT;
7) aralegaluri gamdidreba;
8) tenderebSi ukanono Careva;
9) im pirebis dasja, romlebic saxelmwifo moxelis ukanono qmedebebs
amxelen;
10) Tanamdebobrivi movaleobebis Seusrulebloba;
11) saxelmwifo uwyebisaTvis zianis miyeneba (Grosse T.G., 2000).
p. van duini Seecada korufciuli gamovlinebebis klasificireba moexdina da SemogvTavaza sistema (Van Duyenene P., 2001, gv 76), romlis Tanaxmadac
korufcia SesaZlebelia arsebobdes sam sazogadoebriv saqtorSi – saxelmwifo, kerZo da politikurSi da aseve maT Soris:
saxelmwifo
seqtori
saxelmwifo seqtori
kerZo saqtori
politikuri seqtori
X
politikuri
seqtori
kerZo saqtori
X
X
X
X
X
warmodgenili klasifikaciis safuZvelze SeiZleba gamoiyos korufciuli danaSaulis 6 jgufi. danaSaulis erTi da igive forma (magaliTad qrTamis micema an aReba), SesaZlebelia TiToeul warmodgenil seqtorSi arsebobdes.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
argumentebi korufciis `sasargeblod~ da `sawinaaRmdegod~
korufciis Sedegebis sistemuri kvleva arc ise didi xnis win daiwyo. zogierTi ekonomisti da politikosi odesRac amtkicebda, rom korufcia momgebiania, radgan:
• aCqarebs gadawyvetilebis miRebas, `amoZravebs Seferxebul saxelmwifo manqanas~, riTac xels uwyobs ekonomikis zrdas;
• zogavs dros, xolo radganac `dro – fulia~, zogavs fulsac;
• Tavisufali bazris konkurenciis principebi saxelmwifo dakveTebis
sferoSi gadmoaqvs, ramdenadac SekveTis miRebisaTvis gaRebuli qrTami pirdapir ukavSirdeba firmis simZlavres;
• saxelmwifo moxeleebis dabali xelfasebis konpensacias axdens, amrigad zogavs saxelmwifo biujetis saxsrebs.
korufciis donisa da gamovlinebebis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva qveyanaSi Catarebulma kvlevebma aCvenes, rom misi zemoqmedebiT gamowveuli Sedegebi araerT sferoze axdenen uaryofiT gavlenas.
gavlena ekonomikaze:
• korumpirebul saxelmwifoebSi mewarmeebs uxdebad garkveuli Tanxebis qrTamad gaReba, rac amcirebs investiciebs da erovnul produqts;
• korufcia zRudavs Tavisufal konkurencias, ris Sedegadac gansakuTrebiT zaraldebian mcire mewarmeebi;
• konkurenciis SemcirebiT uaresdeba produqtis xarisxi da momsaxureba;
saxelmwifo
biujetSi mcirdeba gadasaxadebis Setana da SeiniSneba
•
`Crdilovani~ ekonomikis zrda;
• korufciisadmi tolerantuli midgomisas saxelmwifo moxeleebs rCebaT dabali xelfasebi, Tumca biujetidan am gziT dazogili Tanxebis
Sevseba moqalaqeTa jibidan gaRebuli qrTamebis saxiT xdeba;
• iklebs ucxoeli ivnestorebis ndoba saxelmwifosadmi da mcirdeba
maTi wvlili qveynis ekonomikis zrdaSi.
gavlena saxelmwifo marTvaze:
• mcirdeba investiciebi da saxelmwifo dakveTiT Sesrulebuli samuSaoebis efeqturoba;
• icvleba saxelmwifo moRvaweobis sferoebi da xarjebis struqtura:
korumpirebuli moxeleebi upiratesobas aniWeben da `wina planze~ weven iseT proeqtebs, romlebic momavalSi garantirebulad did Semosavls moitans;
• korumpirebuli mTavroba SeboWili da sustia;
• moxeleTa egoizmi saxelmwifo strategiul azrovnebaze maRla dgas,
rac qveyanas ekonomikuri da socialuri problemebis winaSe ayenebs;
uaresdeba
socialuri momsaxurebis xarisxi.
•
socialur-politikuri Sedegebi:
• ar endobian ra korumpirebul politikosebsa da Tanamdebobis pirebs,
moqalaqeebi undoblobas ucxadeben xelisuflebas;
• mcirdeba sazogadoebriv aqtivobebSi monawileoba, demokratiul
organoebSi muSaobis interesi;
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16
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
• klebulobs politikuri konkurencia, matulobs avtokratuli ideologia;
• izrdeba socialuri daZabuloba, mcirdeba politikuri stabiluroba;
riT aris gamowveuli korufcia?
korufciis ZiriTadi mizezi admianebis angarebaa. amitomac is ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos politikuri an gansakuTrebuli qcevis formad: yvela admiani
zrunavs sakuTar Tavze. korufciaSi CarTvis survili Cndeba maSin, rodesac piradi keTildReoba ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba, vidre sazogadoebis keTildReoba, an roca am ukanasknel cnebas saerTod iviwyeben. swored am dros
iwyeben politikosebi da saxelmwifo moxeleebi dakavebuli Tanamdebobebis sakuTari keTildReobisaTvis gamoyenebas. amis Semxedvare axalgazrdoba
saxelmwifo samsaxurs miiCnevs, rogorc cxovrebis mowyobis mosaxerxebel
da mimzidvel saSualebas. sazogadoeba uaryofiTad afasebs korufcias,
Tumca es pozicia orazrovani xasiaTisaa: ufro did aRSfoTebas iwvevs viRacis gamdidreba, vidre Tavad korufciis faqti.
miuxedavad adamianuri bunebis erTgvarovnebisa, sxvadasxva sazogadoebaSi korufciis done gansxvavebulia. korufciis done SeiZleba ukavSirdebodes sazogadoebriv kulturas, mentalitets da trdiciebs. magaliTad, protestantur sazogadoebaSi korufcia borotebad aRiqmeba, radgan
maTi eTikiT sazogadoebrivi da individualuri faseulobebi mkveTrad gamijnulia. cxovrebis wesisa da azrovnebis Secvla ufro rTulia iseT sazogadoebaSi, sadac korufcia TiTqmis dakanonebuli iyo, magaliTad klientizmi, rogorc komunisturi sistemis makonsolidirebeli Zala. korufcia
advilad ikidebs fexs dabali ganviTarebis donis sazogadoebaSi da moqalaqeTa arajansaR azrovnebaSi.
korufciam SeiZleba mTeli rigi socialuri da ekonomikuri faqtorebiT isazrdoos: susti ekonomika, samuSao adgilebis ukmarisoba, saxelmwifo biujetis araefeqturi xarjva, sxva, ufro Zlieri, saxelmwifoebisa da
korporaciebis Careva. saxelmwifo moxeleebis demoralizeba SesaZloa gamoiwvios dabalma xelfasebma, karierulma zrdam, rac ar aris dakavSirebuli muSaobis xarisxTan da produqtiulobasTan, xelmZRvanelTa da TanamSromelTa Soris qveSevrdomulma damokidebulebam, aseve organizaciaSi naTeli miznebis ararsebobam. aseTi urTierTobebi gamowveulia menejmentis
dabali xarisxiT, rasac safuZvlad udevs garantirebuli, grZelvadiani Tanamdeboba, erTpirovnuli mmarTvelobiT, kontrolisa da angariSvaldebulebis dabali doniT, gadawyvetilebebis miRebis meqnizmebis ararsebobiT.
garda amisa, korufciuli qmedebebi matulobs maSin, roca Tanamdebobis piri
flobs gadametebul Zalauflebas da mis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebi
monopolizirebuli da gasaidumloebulia.
korufciis xarisxze moqmedebs agreTve samarTlebrivi sistemis srulyofileba. korufciis zrdas xels uwyobs gaurkveveli, winaaRmdegobrivi
da sistematurad cvalebadi kanonmdebloba, sasamarTlo sistemis dabali
done, mowmeTa dacvis programis ararseboba da sazogadoebis mxridan samarTaldamcavi organoebis mimarT undobloba. im qveynebSi, sadac saxelmwifoebriobis, kanonmorCilebisa da demokratiis xangrZlivi tradiciebi arsebobs, korufciis done sagrZnoblad dabalia.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
antikorufciuli strategia
bolo xanebSi, demokratiul qveynebSi izrdeba korufciis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli politikuri da sazogadoebrivi iniciativebis raodenoba. specialurad korufciasTan brZolisaTvis Camoyalibda saerTaSoriso organizacia Transparancy International, romelic ikvlevs korufciis dones sxvadasxva qveyanaSi, agreTve SeimuSavebs da popularizacias uwevs antikorufciul standartebs. antikorufciul qmedebebs mxars uWeren iseTi organizaciebi, rogorebicaa: msoflio banki, saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi, evropis TanamSromlobisa da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis organizacia (OECD), evrokavSiri, gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia. litvis respublikaSi korufciasTan brZolis makoordinirebel ZiriTad organos warmoadgens specialuri
gamoZiebis samsaxuri (s.g.s.), romelic 1997 wels daarsda.
korufciis donis Semcireba rTuli da xangrZlivi procesia. korufcia
SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos urTierTdamokidebuli an damoukidebeli mizezebiT (cudi ekonomikuri politikiT, sazogadoebaSi informaciis naklebobiT, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis sisustiT, saxelmwifo organoebis mxridan
angariSvaldebulebis ukmarisobiT, qveynis tradiciebiT), korufciasTan
brZolis safuZvelSi gaTvaliswinebuli unda iyos sxvadasxva meqanizmebi.
cnobilia, rom korufcia sistemur danaSauls warmoadgens. miuxedavad amisa, dRemde saCvenebeli sasamarTlo procesebiT isjebian mxolod `gantevebis vacebi~, xolo sxvebi imave danaSaulisaTvis dausjelebi rCebian.
korufciis gamomwvevi mizezebis gaTvaliswinebiT, qveynis antikorufciul strategiaSi SesaZloa garkveuli meqanizmebi aisaxos, magaliTad:
• saxelmwifo moxeleTa samsaxurSi miRebisa da karieruli zrdis mkafio kriteriumebis, procedurebis damtkiceba;
• sazogadoebisa da saxelmwifosaTvis mniSvnelovani gadawyvetilebebis miRebis naTeli, gamWvirvale da miukerZoebeli procedurebis dadgena, romlebic orientirebulia moqalaqeTa keTildReobaze;
• partiuli da saxelmwifo Tanamdebobebis gamijvna. aekrZaloT TviTmmarTvelobis moxeleebs warmoadginon politikuri partiebi;
• aekrZaloT saxelmwifo moxeleebs komerciuli saqmianoba;
• politikuri partiebis Semosavlebisa da xarjvebis gamWvirvalobisa
da kanonierebis moTxovna;
politikosebis
Semosavlebis kontroli, saSemosavlo deklaraciebis
•
sajarooba;
• politikosebis mier miRebuli saCuqrebis registracia;
• sakanonmdeblo sistemis Sevseba saxelmwifo moxeleebisa da politikosebis eTikis kodeqsebiT;
• kanonmdeblobaSi korufciuli faqtebis/qmedebebis mkafio, zusti gansazRvrebis Setana, rac saxelmwifo moxeleebs ekrZalebaT;
• saxelmwifo moxeleebis mxridan gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani gadawyvetilebebis erTpirovnulad miRebis akrZlava;
• sajaro Sesyidvebis da saxelmwifo privatizaciis proceduraTa daxvewa.
litvaSi korufciasTan brZolis meTodebi gaTvaliswinebulia `korufciasTan brZolis nacionaluri programiT~. sazogadoebaSi samoqalaqo cnobierebis amaRlebisaTvis, ganaTleba erT-erT mniSvnelovan samuSao mimarTulebas warmoadgens.
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18
antikorufciuli
aRzrdis saSualebebi
skolaSi
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi SeiZleba formalurad an araformalurad mimdinareobdes. formaluri gulisxmobs antikorufciuli aRzrdis elementebis CarTvas zogadsaganmanaTleblo-saskolo programaSi, araformaluri – damatebiT ganaTlebaSi sxvadasxva saxis iniciativis mxardaWeras: samoqalaqo aqciebi, moswavleTa konferenciebi da sxva RonisZiebebi.
antikorufciuli aRzrdis ZiriTadi mizani samoqalaqo cnobierebis Camoyalibebaa. aqedan gamomdinare, programis integrireba ufro efeqturia
socialur disciplinebSi: samoqalaqo ganaTleba, politologia, istoria,
eTika. radgan korufciis problematika iuridiuli, politikuri, istoriuli da ekonomikuri mecnierebebis cnebebis gamoyenebiT ganixileba, misi kavSiri xsenebul sagnebTan gardauvalia.
antikorufciuli aRzrdis integrireba saskolo programebSi Sesabamisi Tematuri konteqstis gareSe SeuZlebelia. magaliTad, korufciiT gamowveuli problemis gaazreba rTulia saxelmwifo samsaxurebis daniSnulebis
ganxilvis an saxelmwifo moxeleebis mimarT eTikuri da samarTlebrivi moTxovnebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe. Tu aRniSnuli sakiTxebi ar ganixileba
samoqalaqo aRzrdis, an politologiis gakveTilebze, antikorufciuli
aRzrdis integrireba saswavlo programebSi rTuldeba. meore mxriv, antikorufciuli aRzrda mxolod antikorufciul ganaTlebas ar gulisxmobs,
aramed informirebasac iTvaliswinebs. antikorufciuli stereotipis Camosayalibeblad, Rirebulebebisa da faseulobebis gansaxilvelad SesaZloa
uamravi Tema gamoviyenoT.
yovelTvis, rodesac saswavlo programaSi axali Temebis CarTvis idea
Cndeba, maswavleblebi SeSfoTebas gamoxataven isedac gadatvirTul programebsa da drois ukmarisobasTan dakavSirebiT. Cveni wamowyeba, antikorufciuli aRzrdis integrireba saswavlo programebSi, gamonakliss ar warmoadgens. magram, Cven kargad viazrebT, rom ama Tu im sakiTxis integrireba
sxvadasxva saSualebiT aris SesaZlebeli. magaliTad, SesaZloa antikorufciuli aRzrdis problematika mkafiod Camoyalibdes da sxva Temebisgan
mkveTrad gaimijnos. am SemTxvevaSi unda SemuSavdes calke moduli, romelic ramdenime gakveTilisgan Seiqmneba; aseve, SesaZlebelia korufciis
problematika ganixilebodes rogorc sxva Temebis Semadgeneli nawili. qvemoT warmodgenilia ori magaliTi – integrirebuli modulisa da integrirebuli programis. mTavaria, rom antikorufciuli aRzrda winaaRmdegobaSi
ar modiodes sxva disciplinebTan.
antikorufciuli aRzrdis gansakuTrebuli problemaa – rogor aviciloT Tavidan saSiSroeba, rom es programa ar gardaiqmnes SesaZlebeli korumpirebuli qcevis swavlebis kursad. amitom, antikorufciuli aRzrda
maswavleblebisagan fsiqologiur alRosa da meTodur ostatobas moiTxovs.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
antikorufciuli aRzrdis mizania – im Rirebulebebisa da faseulobebis damkvidreba, romlebic aucilebelia mozardebSi moqalaqeobrivi cnobierebisa da antikorufciuli stereotipis CamoyalibebisaTvis.
antrikorufciuli aRzrdis amocanebi:
1. korufciis, rogorc movlenis, gacnoba; misi arsis, mizezebisa da Sedegibis gaanalizeba;
2. korufciasTan Seurigebloba;
3. korufciasTan brZolis SesaZleblobebis demonstrireba;
4. sakuTari wvlilis Setana erovnuli miznebis, saswavlo gegmisa da sagnis standartis SesrulebaSi:
• qveynis interesebis, tradiciebisa da Rirebulebebis mimarT saku-
•
Tari pasuxismgeblobis gaazreba. saskolo ganaTlebam unda ganuviTaros mozards unari, rom sworad gansazRvros sakuTari qveynis saxelmwifoebrivi, kulturuli, ekonomikuri da politikuri
interesebi, da misces mas saikeTo gadawyvetilebaTa miRebisa da
aqtiuri moqmedebis SesaZlebloba.
iyos Semoqmedi, Tavad Seqmnas Rirebulebebi da ar icxovros mxolod arsebulis xarjze. saskolo ganaTlebam unda uzrunvelyos mozardis im unarCvevebis ganviTareba, romlebic miscems mas saSualebas, ukve arsebuli gamocdileba da miRwevebi gamoiyenos axali
materialuri, inteleqturaluri Tu sulieri Rirebulebebis Sesaqmnelad. saskolo ganaTlebam unda Camouyalibos mozards uwyveti
ganviTarebis, mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi axali codnisa da Cvevebis damoukideblad SeZenis unari, raTa SeZlos sakuTari SesaZleblobebisa da sulieri midrekilebebis adekvaturad gansazRvra
da amis mixedviT sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi sakuTari adgilis damkvidreba.
mosalodneli Sedegebi – pirovnebis aRzrda, romelsac gaazrebuli aqvs
ra safrTxes uqmnis korufcia sazogadoebis keTildReobasa da saxelmwifos mdgradobas; romelic ar urigdeba korufciis gamovlinebas, mondomebulia da mimarTulia mis aRmofxvraze.
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20
antikorofciuli aRzrdis
kursis ZiriTadi cnebebi
korufcia – `saxelmwifo moxelis, an Tanamdebobis piris mier materialuri
an qonebrivi gamorCenis mizniT, pirdapiri an iribi sargebelis miReba an moTxovna (saCuqris, momsaxurebis, privilegiis da sxva saxiT) TavisTvis, an sxva
pirisaTvis dakavebuli Tanamdebobis Sesabamisad raime moqmedebis Sesrulebis an Seusruleblobis sanacvlod. agreTve, saxelmwifo moxelis, an masTan gaTanabrebuli piris qmedeba, an umoqmedoba, romelic ganpirobebulia
sapasuxo sargeblis miRebis surviliT. saxelmwifo moxelisaTvis, an masTan
gaTanabrebuli pirisaTvis pirdapiri an iribi SeTavazebebis gakeTeba, piradi qonebrivi an sxva saxis gamorCenis mizniT (saCuqari, momsaxureba, dapireba, privilegiis miniWeba) raime qmedebis Sesrulebis an Seusrulebis gamo;
aseve, zemoT aRniSnul qmedebebSi Suamavloba~
(litvis respublikis kanoni specialuri gamoZiebis samsaxuris Sesaxeb, 2000).
korufciis prevencia – korufciis gamomwvevi mizezebisa da xelsayreli
pirobebis gamovlena da aRmofxvra Sesabamisi zomebis SemuSavebiT da sistemuri danergviT. agreTve, pirovnebaze zegavlena korufciuli, danaSaulebrivi qmedebisadmi uaryofiTi damokidebulebis Camoyalibebis mizniT.
korufciuli xasiaTis danaSaulebrivi qmdeba – meqrTameoba, meqrTameoba Suamavlis daxmarebiT, mosyidva, sxva danaSaulebrivi qmedeba, romelsac adgili aqvs sazogadoebriv seqtorSi, TavisTvis an sxva pirebisaTvis
sargeblis miRebis mizniT: samsaxureobrivi mdgomareobis borotad gamoyeneba an uflebamosilebis gadaWarbeba, oficialuri uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyeneba, dokumentebis gayalbeba, TaRliToba, qonebis miTviseba, an gaflangva, samsaxurebrivi an komerciuli saidumlos gacema – gamoaSkaraveba, mogebis, an Semosavlebze araswori monacemebis wardgena, kanonis darRveviT SeZenili uZravi an moZravi qonebis legalizeba, saxelmwifo samsaxuris saqmianobaSi Careva, an sxva danaSaulebrivi qmedeba, rodesac cdiloben qrTamis gamoZalvas, mosyidvas, meqrTameobis faqtebis damalvas da SeniRbvas.
meqrTameoba – moxelis an masTan gaTanabrebuli piris mier pirdapir an arapirdapir, fulis, fasiani qaRaldis, sxva qonebis, qonebrivi sargeblis an sxva
raime aramarTlzomieri upiratesobis miReba an moTxovna, aseve aseTis Taobaze SeTavazebis an dapirebis miReba Tavis an sxva piris sasargeblod, raTa
am moxelem an masTan gaTanabrebulma pirma Tanamdebobrivi uflebamovaleobebis Sesrulebisas qrTamis mimcemis an sxva piris sasargeblod ganaxorcielos raime qmedeba an Tavi Seikavos raime qmedebis ganxorcielebisagan
an gamoiyenos Tavisi Tanamdebobrivi avtoriteti analogiuri miznis misaRwevad, agreTve ganaxorcielos samsaxurebrivi mfarveloba.
didi odenobiT qrTamad iTvleba fulis, fasiani qaRaldis, sxva qonebis
an qonebrivi sargeblis saxiT Tanxa aTi aTasi laris zeviT, xolo gansakuT-
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
rebiT didi odenobiT qrTamad – Tanxa ocdaaTi aTasi laris zeviT. (saqarTvelos 2006 wlis 25 ivlisis kanoni №3530 - ssm I, 2006w., №37, mux. 271. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi. muxli 338)
borotad gamoyeneba _ moxelis an masTan gaTanabrebuli piris mier samsaxurebrivi uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyeneba sajaro interesis sawinaaRmdegod, TavisTvis an sxvisTvis raime gamorCenis an upiratesobis misaRebad, ramac fizikuri an iuridiuli piris uflebis, sazogadoebis an saxelmwifos kanonieri interesis arsebiTi darRveva gamoiwvia (saqarTvelos 2006
wlis 25 ivlisis kanoni №3530 - ssm I, 2006w., №37, mux. 271. sisxslis samarTlis kodeqsi)
samsaxureobrivi gulgriloba _ samsaxurebrivi gulgriloba, ese igi moxelis an masTan gaTanabrebuli piris mier Tavisi samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Seusrulebloba an arajerovnad Sesruleba misdami daudevari damokidebulebis gamo, ramac fizikuri an iuridiuli piris uflebis, sazogadoebis an saxelmwifos kanonieri interesebis arsebiTi darRveva gamoiwvia (saqarTvelos 2006 wlis 28 aprilis kanoni №2937 – ssm I, 2006 w., №14, mux. 90.
sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi. muxli 342)
Tanamdebobis piri _ saxelmwifo Tanamdeboba aris saxelmwifo xelisuflebis organos pirveladi struqturuli erTeuli, romelic gansazRvravs
moqalaqis adgilsa da socialur SromiT rols sajaro samsaxuris sistemaSi, mis uflebebsa da masze dakisrebul movaleobebs. (saqarTvelos kanoni
sajaro samsaxuris Sesaxeb. gamoqveynebulia saqarTvelos parlamentis uwyebani 1997 - #45)
saxelmwifo moxele – moxele aris piri, romelic iniSneba an airCeva saxazino dawesebulebis saStato (StatiT gaTvaliswinebul) Tanamdebobaze.
moxeleebi iyofian saxelmwifo moxeleebad da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis moxeleebad.
(saqarTvelos kanoni sajaro samsaxuris Sesaxeb. gamoqveynebulia saqarTvelos parlamentis uwyebani 1997 - #45)
sajaro mosamsaxure _ sajaro mosamsaxure (Semdgom – mosamsaxure) aris
saqarTvelos moqalaqe, romelic am kanoniT dadgenili wesiT da dakavebuli Tanamdebobis Sesabamisad eweva anazRaurebad saqmianobas saxelmwifo an
adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis dawesebulebaSi.
(saqarTvelos kanoni sajaro samsaxuris Sesaxeb. gamoqveynebulia saqarTvelos parlamentis uwyebani 1997 - #45)
antikorufciuli standartebi – qcevis da sakanonmdeblo normebis erToblioba, korufciuli qcevis SezRudvis xelSewyoba.
sazogado interesebi – sazogadoebis daintereseba saxelmwifo moxeleebis mxridan samarTliani da miukerZoebeli gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi
(litvis respublikis kanoni kerZo da sazogado interesebis Tanxvedris
Sesaxeb, 1997).
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
kerZo interesebi – saxelmwifo samsaxuRSi myofi piris, an kandidatis qonebrivi an araqonebrivi daintereseba (an misi naTesavis, an ojaxis wevris),
romelsac unari Seswevs gavlena iqonios samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebisas miRebul gadawyvetilebaze. (litvis respublikis kanoni kerZo da
sazogado interesebis Tanxvedris Sesaxeb, 1997).
interesTa konfliqti – situacia, rodesac saxelmwifo moxele movaleobis an davalebis Sesrulebisas iRebs iseT gadawyvetilebas, rac mis pirad
interesebs ukavSirdeba, an monawileobs amgvari gadawyvetilebis miRebis
procesSi, an asrulebs aseT davalebas. (litvis respublikis kanoni kerZo
da sazogado interesebis Tanxvedris Sesaxeb, 1997).
lobizmi – procesi, romlis msvlelobisas xdeba informaciis gacvla, organizacia, an misi nawili gadaecema xelisuflebaSi Tanamdebobis pirs, raTa
man gavlena iqonios gadawyvetilebis miRebaze mis sasargeblod.
klientizmi – urTierTobaTa sistema, romelic urTierTsargeblian valdebulebebs efuZneba da sxva piris/pirebis (klientis) mfarvelobas gulisxmobs.
nepotizmi – naTesavebis, megobrebis, nacnobebis samuSaoze miReba/daniSvna konkursebis gverdis avlis gziT, riTac iqmneba qveSevrdomobis da `davalebuli~ kolegebis sistema. es damokidebuleba ki gamoiyeneba gadawyvetilebis miRebisas.
23
skolaSi antikorufciuli
aRzrdis Sinaarsi
konteqstualuri da viwro midgomebi
saskolo praqtikaSi antikorufciuli aRzrdis minimum ori meTodis gamoyeneba SeiZleba. pirveli meTodi gulisxmobs saskolo programaSi da fakultatur saqmianobaSi antikorufciuli ganaTlebis damatebas. programaSi
Setanili Temebi korufciasTan pirdapir kavSirSi unda iyos. es SedarebiT
advilad saorganizebelia da did dros ar moiTxovs. Tumca, amas erTjeradi aqciebisa da calkeuli CanarTebis saxe eqneba. meore meTodi gulisxmobs,
korufciis, rogorc movlenis da faseulobis gaanalizebas da arsebul saskolo programaSi integrirebas. amiT yuradReba gamaxvildeba iseT aspeqtebze, rasac swavlebisas sakmaod cota dro eTmoboda.
antikorufciuli ganaTlebis pirveli meTodi ara marto organizebis
TvalsazrisiT aris martivi, aramed advilad kontrolirebadia: sakmarisia
Semowmdes yvela skolaSi da klasSi Catarda Tu ara antikorufciuli RonisZiebebi. meore xerxi socialuri aRzrdis meTods efuZneba, romelic ramdenime wlis manZilze unda grZeldebodes. is, vinc am meTods irCevs darwmunebuli unda iyos, rom socialuri mecnierebis yvela pedagogs gacnobierebuli aqvs antikorufciuli ganaTlebis miznebi, Sinaarsi da SesaZleblobebi.
ra Tqma unda, SesaZlebelia mesame meTodis gamoyenebac – moswavleTa CarTva sazogadoebriv antikorufciul moZraobebSi da sazogadoebriv saganmanaTleblo programebSi. Tumca, es moZraobebi rTulad kontrolirebadia skolis mier. amitom, es meTodi aRniSnul saxelmZRvaneloSi ganxiluli ar aris.
am gamocemaSi warmodgenilia ori programa, romlebic skolaSi antikorufciuli aRzrdis orive SesaZlo meTods iTvaliswinebs – SemWidrovebuls
da masStaburs (integrireba). SemWidrovebuli programa Tavis TavSi moicavs
korufciis, rogorc movlenis gacnobas. masStabur programaSi miTiTebulia, Tu ra tipis sakiTxebTan SeiZleba iyos dakavSirebuli antikorufciuli aRzrda da rogor SiZleba maTi ganawileba. garda amisa, Tan erTvis integrirebuli programis ganxorcielebis gegma – am programasTan dakavSirebuli Temebis cxrili, romlebic sxvadasxva sagnisa da klasis saxelmZRvaneloebSi gvxvdeba.
antikorufciuli aRzrdis ZiriTadi Temebi
korufciis cneba. gansazRvrebaTa mravalferovneba. kriteriumebi, romelTa safuZvelzec korufciuli danaSauli sxva danaSaulebisagan gansxvavdeba. korufciuli saxis danaSaulebis subieqtebi da formaTa nairsaxeoba.
korufciis Sedegebi. korufciis ekonomikuri, socialuri, politikuri, samarTlebrivi da moraluri Sedegebi. xiluli da uxilavi ziani. korufciuli saxis danaSaulebis msxverpl(eb)i.
24
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
korufciis warmomavloba (genezisi). korufciis gavrceleba sazogadoebaSi, sxvadasxva epoqaSi, gansxvavebuli saxelmwifo
wyobisas. korufciis fsiqologiuri, kulturuli, socialur-ekonomikuri,
politikuri mizezebi. korufciis SesaZleblobebi demokratiul organizaciebSi (politikuri partiebis moRvaweoba, arCevnebi, parlamenti, mTavroba, sasamarTlo, TviTmmarTvelobebi). sajaro da kerZo interesebi.
korufciasTan brZolis SesaZleblobebi. samoqalaqo sazogadoebis roli
(TviTSefaseba, Seuwynarebloba, gacnobiereba). masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis roli (sajarooba). samarTlebrivi bazis gaZliereba: kanonebi, eTikis
kodeqsebi, normatiuli aqtebi. korufciis mizezebTan brZolis sxvadasxva meTodebisa da xerxebis gamoyeneba/gaTvaliswineba strategiaSi da programebSi.
korufciasTan brZolis problemuri aspeqtebi. korufciis done litvaSi
(kvlevebis Sedegebi). kvlevebis, an masobrivi saSualebebiT gamoaSkaravebuli faqtebis gavlena sazogadoebis damokidebulebaze sakuTari mTavrobis
mimarT. `msxvili~ da `mcire~ dasjadi da aradasjadi danaSaulebi. korufciuli danaSaulebis gaxsnasTan dakavSirebuli sirTuleebi. korufciasTan
brZola – usasrulo brZola.
antikorufciuli aRzrdis integrirebuli programa
pirovneba da qceva
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
sakuTari Tavis Sefaseba: rogori var da rogori minda viyo;
pirovnuli faseulobebi da principebi;
cxovrebis azris da miznebis gacnobiereba;
Sinagani gavlenebi: magaliTebi, avtoritetebi, socialuri rolebi;
kargisa da cudis, swori da araswori qcevis kriteriumebi;
arCevani da gadawyvetileba, mizezebi da Sedegebi;
pasuxismgebloba.
qcevis maregulirebeli normebi
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
moraluri normis gacnobiereba, moraluri sikeTe da boroteba;
morali da sazogadoebrivi normebi (konvencia);
Cvevebi, Cveulebebi da tradiciebi, rogorc socialuri normebi;
kanonieri da ukanono qmedeba;
moralisa da kanonmdeblobis urTierTkavSiri;
kanonmdeblobis srulyofis problema;
socialuri regulirebisa da pirovnebis Tavisuflebis normebis urTierTkavSiri.
samarTlianoba
•
•
•
•
samarTlianoba, rogorc Rirseba;
adamianis uflebebi, Tanasworoba da mukerZoebloba;
socialuri samarTlianoba;
samarTlianoba, rogorc kanonis Zala.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
brali da danaSauli
• zianis miyeneba da wyena, rogorc moraluri danaSauli;
• danaSauli, rogorc kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedeba;
• danaSaulis mizezebi;
• dasja da sxva sanqciebi;
• dasjis maregulirebeli kanonebi (sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi da sxva);
• samarTlianobis aRdgena.
samoqalaqo sazogadoeba da saxelmwifo
• demokratiis principebi: monawileoba, delegireba da reprezentacia,
•
•
•
samxelisuflebianoba;
saxelmwifo samsaxuri: valdebulebebi da uflebamosilebebi;
saxelmwifo kontroli: angariSvaldebuleba, informaciis miwodebis
valdebuleba;
masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi, rogorc meoTxe xelisufleba.
karieris dagegmva
•
•
•
•
ra minda da ra SemiZlia;
profesiis arCevis kriteriumebi;
samuSaos arCevis kriteriumebi;
samuSaoze miRebis kriteriumebi da procedurebi.
integrirebuli programis danergvis magaliTi
pirovneba da qceva
Tematuri
erTeuli
fsiqologia eTika
samoqalaqo istoria
aRzrda
pirovnuli
Taviseburebebi
pirovnebis
maxasiaTebeli niSnebi
(XIkl)
vin xar Sen? keTilSobi(Vkl)
luri qceva
raodenoba da (VIII kl)
erToblioba
(VIIIkl)
garemos
gavlena
qcevaze
socialuri
gamocdilebis Teoria
(XIkl)
qcevis
motivebi
(VII-VIII kl)
me damokidebuli var...
(VII kl)
piradi
normebi da
damokidestereotipebulebebi da bi (XI kl)
qceva
raimes qona da
gacema (VI kl)
sikeTismqmneli da
pirovnebis
nakli (V kl)
me vfiqrob da
virCev (VII kl)
qarizmatuli
pirovneba
(XI kl)
ssrk da
uZraobis
periodi
`qceva - sarkea,
romelSic Cven
Tavs vxedavT~
(VII kl)
`Tandayolili da SeZanili Tvisebebi~
(X kl)
politologia
absolutizmi safrangeTSi (VIII
kl)
xiluli da
uxilavi
Zalaufleba
(XI kl)
25
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
keTildReoba da bedniereba
pasuxismgebloba
Tematuri
erTeuli
samarTlianoba
26
fsiqologia eTika
sakuTar
socialuri wesebi,
Tavze
roli (XII kl) wesebi ...
valdebule(VII kl)
bis aReba da
sxvaze
dakisreba
samoqalaqo istoria
aRzrda
politologia
kanoni
bavSvis
uflebebis
dacvis
Sesaxeb
(VIII kl)
egoizmi da
altruizmi
movaleoba
(VIII da XI-XII
kl)
sakuTari Tavis winaSe aRebuli valdebulebebi
moTxovnilebebi da
survilebi
kargi
cxovrebis
da bednierebis
koncefcia
Sen da
skolis
sazogadoeba
(VIII kl)
moTxovnilebebi da
motivebi
nomenklatura socialistur banakSi (X kl)
fasi da faseulobebi (VI kl)
saerTo sikeTe (VI kl)
keTildReoba (VIII kl)
sakuTreba
(VII kl)
cxovrebis
azri (X-XI kl)
miznebi da
saSualebebi
`kargi
cxovrebis
koncefcia~
(Tavisufali
diskusia, VIII
da X kl)
ssrk-Si
deficitis
fenomeni
(X kl)
`mizani amarTlebs saSualebas~ (VIII kl)
samarTlianobis
moraluri
koncefcia
rogor vipovoT samarTali? (VI kl)
kargi kanonebi (VII kl)
samarTlianoba (VII-X kl)
samarTlianobis uflebrivi koncefcia
ufleba
(VII kl)
kanonis
Zalaufleba
kargi kanone- kanonebiTavisbi (VI kl)
Tavad ar muSakanoni (IX kl) oben (VIII kl)
Zala-ufleba
(X kl)
danaSaulis
koncefcia
danaSauli
da sasjeli
(VI kl)
politikuri
doqtrinebi
(XI kl)
samarTlebrivi baza
(X kl)
korufcia
danaSaulia?
(diskusia,
X kl)
Zala-ufleba
(XI kl)
legitimuroba (XI kl)
CauSeskusdiqtatura rumineTSi (X kl)
holokosti
(X kl)
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
moqalaqeoba
ufleba da Tavisufleba
Tematuri
erTeuli
samoqalaqo istoria
aRzrda
politologia
pozitiuri
da negatiuri uflebebi
kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba
uflebebis
darRveva da
dacva
bavSvTa uflebebi (V kl)
adamianis uflebebi(VIII-IXkl)
adamianis
uflebebi
(VIII da X kl)
safrangeTis
didi revolucia (VIII kl)
vin icavs
Tqvens
uflebebs?
(VIII kl)
mesame qveynebis ganviTarebis Taviseburebebi
sazogado,
saerTo da
sayovelTao
politika: idealebi da interesebi (X kl)
kanonisadmi
pativiscema
moqalaqe
var (X kl)
SorsmWvreteloba da
pasuxismgebloba
orerovan
respublikaSi reformis
mcdeloba
(VIII da XI kl)
demokratia romis
arCevnebi (XI
skolaSi, ojax- respublika kl)
Si da sazoga- (VII da XI kl)
doebaSi (VII kl)
monawileoba
demokratia
fsiqologia eTika
delegireba
da reprezentacia
vin da rogor postkomunis- arCevnebi (XI
marTavs saxel- turi qveyne- kl)
mwifos? (X kl) bis problematika (X kl)
sami saxelmwifoebrivi
Zalaufleba
ra aris
aSS-s konstidemokratia? tucia da da(VIII kl)
moukideblobis deklaracia (VIII kl)
sajaro
samsaxuri.
qcevis
kodeqsi
demokratia
politikaSi
(X kl)
gamWirvaloba,
informaciis miRebis
ufleba
masobrivi
informaciis
saSualebebis
rolidemokratiul sazogadoebaSi (X kl)
ndoba,
kontroli,
angariSvaldebuleba
ufro samarTliani sazogadoebis Seqmna (X kl)
demokratiuli
da diqtatoruli wyobisas, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi (XI kl)
27
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tematuri
erTeuli
saxelmwifo
qoneba da
misi marTva
ekonomika
28
fsiqologia eTika
samoqalaqo istoria
aRzrda
saxelmwifo, interesebis
rogorc
SeTanxmeba
mizani da
(X kl)
saSualeba
(VIII kl)
politologia
Tanamedro- aRmasrulebeli xelisufve saqarleba (XI kl)
Tvelos
problemebi
(X kl)
saxelmwifo
regulireba,
biurokratizmi
absolutiz- biurokratia
mi safran- (XI kl)
geTSi (VIII kl)
ssrk uZraobis periodSi (X kl)
korufciis
safasuri
beWdvis
akrZalva
interesebis
jgufebi
(XI kl)
29
skolaSi antikorufciuli aRzrdis
didaqtikuri rCevebi
informireba
antikorufciuli moZraoba, emociuri TvalsazrisiT, Zlier angaJirebul
moZraobas warmoadgens. es cudi ar aris, Tumca zogjer emociebi movlenebis bundovan da zedapirul codnas efuZneba, romlis mimarTac protesti
gamoixateba. amitom, am protestis matarebels, arsebiTad, arafris Secvla
ar SeuZlia. amrigad, skolaSi antikorufciuli aRzrdis erT-erTi ZiriTadi amocana imaSi mdgomareobs, rom misces moswavleebs aucilebeli codna,
romelic maT daexmareba:
• amoicnon korufciuli qmedeba da ganasxvaon danaSaulis sxva saxeebisagan;
argumentirebulad
imsjelon, ratom aris korufcia boroteba;
•
SeZlon
korufciis
donis
Semcirebis SesaZleblobebis demonstrireba.
•
antikorufciuli aRzrdisas swavlebis meTodebi ar aris gansxvavebuli.
am SemTxvevaSic gamoiyeneba iseTi strategiebi, rogorebicaa: leqcia, sxvadasxva wyarodan miRebuli informaciis analizi (statiebi, kvleviTi naSromebi, istoriuli wyaroebi da sxva); diskusiebi; sxvadasxva adamianebTan Sexvedrebi da saubrebi (samarTldamcavi organoebis TanamSromlebi, mowmeebi,
politikosebi, saxelmwifo moxeleebi); kinoCveneba da sxva. miuxedavad amisa,
antikorufciul aRzrdas yovelTvis emuqreba safrTxe, rom Tu swavleba mxolod informaciis miwodebis gziT moxdeba, es saSualebas miscems mozardebs
gaecnon korufciuli qcevis sxvadasxva saxes, Tu meTods. moswavleTa TvalSi gaufasurdeba is sazogadoeba da saxelmwifo, romelSic Cven vcxovrobT.
am safrTxis Tavidan acilebis mizniT moswavleebTan korufciaze saubrisas,
saWiroa zomiereba davicvaT, ar daviviwyoT, rom Cveni ZiriTadi amocana mdgomareobs ara imaSi, rom rac SeiZleba bevri ram icodes korufciis Sesaxeb, aramed hqondes amgvari qmedebebis sworad Sefasebis unari.
damokidebulebebis Camoyalibeba
damokidebuleba mniSvnelovan dispozicias warmoadgens, im ganzraxviT,
rom ama Tu im movlenis Sefaseba garkveuli wesiT moxdes. damokidebuleba
dafuZnebulia aRqmaze, emociur reaqciebze, ganzraxvaze da qmedebaze (zimbardo P.G., Leipte M.R. 1991). magaliTad:
qmedeba
ganzraxva
`me Cinovniks gadavuxade,
radgan ...~
damokidebuleba
`kidev unda `gamemaza~,
rom xmauri ar aetexa~
kognacia
`korufciasTan
brZola sasaciloa da
uazrobaa, Tumca ...~
`mudmivad unda vaZlio
qrTami, rom yvelaferi martivad gadawydes. aseve unda
moiqcnen Cemi axloblebic~
emociuri reaqciebi
`simarTle rom vTqva, sazizRrobaa, roca vinmes
unda `gaumazo~
30
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
xuTive elementi erTmaneTTan urTierTkavSirSia da urTierTCanacvlebadia. Cveni magaliTis SemTxvevaSi, emociuri reaqciebi disonansSi modian
Cveuli qcevis modelTan da kognaciasTan (gaazreba). amitom, prokorufciuli damokidebuleba kategoruli ar aris.
erTma Secvlilma elementma SeiZleba sxvac Secvalos. magaliTad: qcevam
SeiZleba Secvalos kognacia, emociuri reaqcia da damokidebuleba.
rodesac moswavleebs korufciis Sesaxeb esaubrebian, maswavleblebi cdiloben kognaciaze dayrdnobiT Camouyalibon damokidebulebebi. es rom SesaZlebeli gaxdes, moswavleebma unda:
1. gaigon da gaiazron miRebuli informacia. korufciisgan miyenebuli ziani, yvelaze xSirad mtkicdeba socialur-politikuri da ekonomikuri argumentebis moSveliebiT.
2. daimaxsovron. eWvgareSea, rom `gameoreba codnis dedaa~, magram erTi
sakiTxis samze metjer gameorebis SemTxvevaSi, adamians `danayrebis~
gancda uCndeba da misi Tavisufali arCevani safrTxis qveS dgeba. amitom, mizanSewonilia informaciis miwodebis formebis xSiri cvla. Tanac, miwodebuli informacia unda iyos rac SeiZleba moulodneli da
STambeWdavi formiT.
3. sakuTari Tavis darwmuneba. damokidebulebebi ufro myari da mtkicea, Tu isini Tavsmoxveuli ar aris, aramed maTi formireba moxda
intensiuri gansjisa da fiqris procesSi. gamodis, rom mxolod informacia sakmarisi ar aris. amave dros, ar Rirs moswavleebs `davuReWoT~,
rogor unda Seafason movlenebi. bevrad ufro qmediTi saSualebaa, Tavad moswavleebs mivandoT informaciis interpretacia, analizi, argumentebis moZieba da Sejameba. es niSnavs, swavlebis aqtiuri meTodika
gamoviyenoT.
`TviTdarwmunebis efeqti~ bevrad ufro Sedegiani iqneba, Tu aqtiuri diskusiebi Caiwera (daskvnebis, Tezisebis, rekomendaciebis da a.S. saxiT) da sazogadoebaSi gavrceldeba. cnobilia, rom adamianebs yovelTvis sjeraT imisi, rasac mkacrad icaven. amitomac, antikorufciuli aRzrdisaTvis ar gamodgeba debatebi, rodesac erTi mxare iZulebulia daicvas prokorufciuli damokidebulebebi: adamianis mier formulirebuli argumentebi xangrZlivad rCeba mis mexsierebaSi. Tu mainc gadavwyvetT am Temaze debatebis
mowyobas, maprovocirebeli mxare, romelic korufcias daicavs, SeiZleba
Tavad maswavlebelma warmoadginos. Tumca, aseTi tipis debatebic ki eTikur problemebs iwvevs (ris propagandas eweva maswavlebeli?).
damokidebulebebis Secvla
maswavleblebi, romlebic moswavleebSi garkveuli Rirebulebebis Camoyalibebas cdiloben, yovelTvis `ejaxebian~ maTSi ukve formulirebul faseulobebasa da stereotipebs, rac muSaobaSi xels uSliT. zogierT maTgans
uZlurebis grZnoba eufleba da am winaaRmdegobas emorCileba. sakuTar ZalebSi Tavdajerebuloba SeiZleba SesZinos Rirebulebebis cvlilebasTan
dakavSirebuli fsiqologiuri kanonzomierebebis codnam. sinamdvileSi,
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
ukve Camoyalibebuli stereotipi blokavs iseT informacias, romelic masTan winaaRmdegobaSi modis (magaliTad: `isev es dausrulebeli layboba korufciis Sesaxeb~). msgavsi blokirebis Tavidan asacileblad saWiroa informaciis gaufrTxileblad miwodeba (vTqvaT, winaswar ar SevatyobinoT gakveTilis Tema da miznebi) da gakveTilze raime `uCveulo~ meTodis gamoyeneba
(rogoricaa: TamaSi -eqsperimenti, paradoqsuli itoria da a. S.).
damokidebulebebis Secvlis meore strategia faqtebs eyrdnoba. codna
da damokidebulebebi mexsierebaSi erTmaneTisagan gancalkevebulad `inaxeba~ da garkveuli dro aris saWiro maTi SeTanxmebisaTvis. amitom, prokorufciul damokidebuelbebze darwmunebis gziT zemoqmedebis moxdena ar
Rirs. isini droTa ganmavlobaSi TavisTavad icvlebian, Tu maswavlebeli
axerxebs moswavleebisaTvis korufciis madiskreditirebeli informaciis
logikuri da damajerebeli formiT miwodebas da am informaciis aqtiurad
gaazrebis provocirebas. e. w. `vadis gagrZelebis efeqtidan~ gamomdinare,
informaciis pirveladi Sefaseba SeiZleba arasando iyos, Tumca droTa ganmavlobaSi kognacia sZlevs emociur damokidebulebebs.
moraluri da konvencionaluri perspeqtiva
antikorufciuli aRzrda, TavisTavad, Rirebulebebisa da damokidebulebebis formirebas gulisxmobs. am procesSi yovelTvis ver xerxdeba socialuri regulirebis formebis – moralisa da konvenciis, mkafiod gamijvna, amitom argumentebi da interpretacia SeiZleba mcdari aRmoCndes.
moralur filosofiaSi CauRrmaveblad, SeiZleba martivad aixsnas, rom
calkeuli pirovnebis azris miuxedavad, moraluri TvalsazrisiT, karg
qcevad iTvleba is, rac `sikeTed~ aRiqmeba. aseTi qmedeba universalur kategorias miekuTvneba da yvelasaTvis aucileblobas warmoadgens. moraluri TvalTaxedviT, kargi an cudi saqcieli imis mixedviT ganisazRvreba, Tu rogoria Sedegi: xom ar ayenebs aRniSnuli qmedeba sxva adamianebs
`tkivils~?, xom ar aris maTTvis zianis momtani an xom ar arRvevs samarTlianobas (Tanasworobas, miukerZoeblobas)? garda amisa, moraluri SexedulebiT, qcevis xarisxi SeiZleba intenciebis Tanaxmadac Sefasdes: qmedeba gasakicxia, Tu misi Camdeni ganzrax cdilobda vinmesTvis zianis miyenebas (maSinac ki, rodesac am qmedebas uaryofiTi Sedegi ar mohyolia),
xolo gamarTlebulia, Tu am qmedebis Camdeni sikeTis gakeTebas cdilobda, Tundac es ar gamouvida.
konvencia Tavis TavSi aerTianebs normebs, romlebic konkretul sazogadoebaSi da konkretul periodSi garkveul SeTanxmebebs efuZneba. amitom,
isini ar SeiZleba universalurad CaiTvalos da savaldebulo gaxdes sxva
sazogadoebis wevrebisTvisac. cxovrebaSi morali da konvencia SeiZleba
urTierTdakavSirebuli iyos: saerTo moraluri principebi konkretul
normebad gadaiqcevian (magaliTad: `ar moiparo~, `ar icruo~ an `iyavi yvelas mimarT samarTliani~), xolo sazogadoebisaTvis Zalzed mniSvnelovani
konvenciis darRvevam (magaliTad: micvalebulTa dakrZalvis ceremoniali)
SeiZleba moralis rRvevac gamoiwvios, radgan am tradiciis moSla tkivils
ayenebs sxva admianebs. miuxedavad amisa, konceptualurad morali da sazo-
31
32
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
gadoebrivi SeTanxmeba (konvencia) iseT sferoebs warmoadgens, romlebic
logikis gansxvavebul formebs efuZneba.
antikorufciuli aRzrdis procesSi ar unda daviviwyoT es gansxvavebebi, agreTve, konvencionalur da moralur Sexedulebebs Soris winaarmdegobebis arsebobis SesaZlebloba. konvencialuri SexedulebiT `daSvebulia
yvelaferi, rac akrZaluli ar aris~. moraluri SexedulebiT, qmedebis Sefaseba xdeba imis miuxedavad, arsebobs Tu ara misi maregulirebeli norma.
moraluri perspeqtiva ufro mgrZnobiarea adamianisaTvis miyenebuli zianis TvalsazrisiT, xolo konvencionaluri – SeTanxmebis, Tanmimdevrulobis, wesrigis, avtoritetis darRRvevis mxriv. moraluri principebis darRveva bevrad ufro mwvave reaqcias iwvevs (risxvas, ukmayofilebas, mowyenilobas, tkivils, danaSaulis, sircxvilis, TanagrZnobis gancdas), vidre konvenciis darRveva. adamiani, romelmac amoraluri saqcieli Caidina, patiebas iTxovs, cdilobs danaSaulis gamosyidvas, an Tavs icavs da am mizniT sakuTar saqciels amarTlebs: xsnis, rom es qmedaba gauazreblad Caidina da
amiT sxvisTvis araviTari ziani ar miuyenebia, rom man mxolod samarTlianiba aRadgina, imdenad, ramdenadac samagiero gadauxada warsulSi miyenebuli wyenisaTvis da a.S. Tavad moraluri principebi an maTi makonkretizirebeli normebi gansjas ar eqvemdebarebian. sazogadoebrivi SeTanxmebis (konvenciis) damrRvevi Tavs imiT imarTlebs, rom gmobs normasac da mis wyarosac. normebis damrRvev bavSvebTan muSaobis meTodebic gansxvavdeba: mas,
vinc morals arRvevs, yvelaze xSirad sTxoven sakuTari Tavi sxvis adgilze
warmoidginos (im adamianis/bavSvis, romelsac awyenina). konvenciis damrRvevs xSirad ubralod brals sdeben imaSi, rom is SeTaxmebas ar icavs. es
midgoma ar amarTlebs. am dros ar xdeba konkretuli situaciis gaTvaliswineba da pirovneba sxvebis mimarT upativcemulod iqceva. amrigad, adamianebi intuiciurad arCeven erTmaneTisagan morals da konvencias.
antikorufciuli aRzrdisas argumentirebis saSualebebis SerCevaze did
ganvlenas axdens universaluri da aucilebeli moraluri konvenciebi (sazogadoebrivi normebi), aseve maT darRvevebze gamoxatuli gansxvavebuli,
araerTgvarovani reaqciebi. samarTladmacav sferoSi korufciuli saxis danaSauli kanonis darRvevas gulisxmobs. maSin, rodesac sazogadoeba am qmdebaSi, pirvel rigSi, moralis darRvevas xedavs. aseTi ram gansakuTrebiT damaxasiaTebelia bavSvebisa da mozardebisaTvis: isini gansakuTrebiT mgrZnobiared reagireben wesebis darRvevaze, vidre ufrosebi da SedarebiT naklebad aqceven yuradRebas (vidre ufrosebi) sazogadoebriv SeTanxmebebs
(konvenciebs). argumenti – `korufcia – borotebaa, imitom rom is arRvevs
kanons~ SeiZleba maT yuardRebis miRma darCes.
moraluri da konvencionaluri azrovneba bavSvebSi da mozardebSi asakis matebasTan erTad viTardeba. Tumca, rogorc Cans, es procesebi paralelurad mimdinareoben, magram erTmaneTs ar emTxvevian. qvemoT mocemulia
cxrili, romelSic l. nucma (L. Nucci) da l. kolbergma (L. Kohlberg) moralis
ganviTarebis Teoriaze dayrdnobiT moraluri da konvencionaluri azrovnebis ganviTarebis procesebi gamoyves.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
moraluri da konvencionaluri azrovnebis ganviTarebis doneebi
(Nucci L. P. 2001)
asaki
moraluri are
konvencionaluri are
5-7 wlis ZiriTadi valdebulebebis aRiareba konvenciebi gamohyavT arsebuli
(sxva ar gaanawyenos), mgram kargi an praqtikidan (qalebma unda ataron
swori qceva aRiqmeba egoisturad. kaba, mamakacebma – ara)
8-10
wlis
cneba: kargi, an swori qceva uTanab- empiriuli gziT xdeba konvenciis
rdeba `samarTlian urTierTobebs~ uaryofiTi gageba (zogierTi qali
atarebs Sarvals, xolo Sotlandielebi – qvedakabas). iTvleba, rom konvencia aris Tavsmoxveuli (SeTanxmebadi). mxolod normebis arseboba
aRar iTvleba sakmaris safuZvlad
imisaTvis, rom mas daemorCilon.
10-12
wlis
kargi, an swori qcevis gageba scdeba `samarTlian urTierTobebs~ da
uTanabrdeba specialur saWiroebebs, gansakuTrebul situaciebs da
damsaxurebas.
12-14
wlis
samarTlianobisadmi, Tanasworobi- kovnecias miiCneven, mxolod rosadmi miswrafeba.
gorc socialur molodins. es amcirebs normebis arsebobis aucileblobas. qmedeba/saqcieli wesebisgan
damoukideblad fasdeba.
14-17
wlis
grZeldeba zemoT xsenebuli prin- xdeba socialuri struqturis sicipebis dacva.
temis gaazreba.
17-20
wlis
mozrdili adamianebis socialur negatiuri Sexeduleba yalibdeba
azrovnebaze gadasvla (ix. qvemoT) imaze, rom yvelasaTvis savaldebulo normebma unda uzrunvelyon socialuri sistemebis Tanafardoba.
konvcencia – socialur standartebs ar aRemateba; normebis sitema
SeTanxmebadia.
zrdasrulebi
samarTlianobisa da sikeTis cnebe- konvencia iTvleba standartad,
bi socialur sistemebze fiqrisas romelic sasargebloa socialuri
gamoiyeneba.
urTierTqmedebis koordinaciisas.
xdeba imis gaazreba, rom socialuri wesebi uzRunvelyofen wesrigs.
socialur avtoritetebad iTvlebian adamianebi, romlebic wesebs
adgenen.
Tu konvencionaluri azrovnebis ganviTarebis es modeli sinamdviles Seesabameba, maSin sxvadasxva asakis moswavleebisaTvis sxvadasxvagvarad aris
saWiro argumentirebuli mtkiceba imisa, rom korufcia borotebaa. 10-12
wlis bavSvi gaigebs, rom kanonebi krZalavs korufciul qcevas. 12-14 wlis
mozardi ver gaigebs socialuri an samarTlebrivi xasiaTis argumentebs, misTvis mniSvnelovania mxolod samarTlianobis principebi. 14-17 wlis mozar-
33
34
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
debs SeiZleba avuxsnaT, rom antikorufciuli standartebiT cxovreba yvela profesiis adamianisaTvis savaldebuloa, radgan igi icavs socialur sistemas. ufrosi asakis moswavleebi am mtkicebulebas SedarebiT skeptikurad
aRiqvamen, radgan isini normebs arsebul qcevis praqtikas ukavSireben.
umcrosklaselebTan SedarebiT, isini met yuradRebas aqceven gamokvlevis
Sedegebs, romelebic korufciis maRal dones adastureben, an imis mtkicebas, rom `qveyanaSi yvela korumpirebulia~. amitom, aseTi negatiuri informaciis gacnobis Semdeg, aucilebelia pozitiuri magaliTebis moyvana:
vTqvaT, saxelmwifo moxeleebis eTikuri kodeqsi, gamWvirvale, sajaro procedurebis gacnoba, Tanasworobis da miukrZoeblobis principebi da a.S.
eWvgareSea, sxvadasxva asakis moswavleebTan muSaobisas mudmivad wamoiWreba SekiTxva: ra aris korufcia – mxolod wesebis da SeTanxmebebis ugulebelyofa, Tu moraluri ziani (boroteba)?
antikorufciuli aRzrdis individualuri
programis momzadeba
antikorufciuli ganaTleba – es ar aris vinmes mier Sedgenili wesebis
krebuli, Tu rogor unda moiqce. korufcia, iseve rogorc danaSaulebrivi
qmedeba, arCevanis sakiTxia. ufrosebis amocana imaSi mdgomareobs, rom mozardebma arCevani gaakeTon imaze, rac sazogadoebis interesebSia. Cven unda
gavacnoT moswavleebs maTi uflebebi da movaleobebi. amas garda, moswavleebma unda iswavlon `ki~-s da `ara~-s Tqma.
antikorufciuli aRzrdis individualuri programis Sedgenis procesSi gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania dagegmvis sqemis gaTvaliswineba. igi gviCvenebs, ra unda gavakeToT, ram SeiZleba iqonios gavlena programis Sinaarsze da danergvis formaze:
mizani
samizne jgufi
mosalodneli Sedegebi
miznis miRwevis gzebi da saSualebebi
Semowmebis wyaroebi
(sad da rogor movipovoT informacia?)
meTodologia
(ra meTodebiTa da xerxdebiT vawvdiT informacias?)
gavlena
(rogor SevafasoT miRweuli Sedegebi?)
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
bunebrivia, rom moswavleebi erTmaneTisagan Zalzed gansxvavdebian. pirvel rigSi, maT Soris asakobrivi sxvaobaa. sabazo klasis moswavleebSi erTi
tendencia SeiniSneba – isini interess gamoxataven ufrosi Taobis cxovrebis stilisadmi da baZaven maT. am asakSi ufro xSirad idgmeba pirveli nabijebi `ufrosebis samyaroSi~: bavSvebi iwyeben sigaretis mowevas, alkoholis
miRebas da Cadian wvrilman danaSauls. amitom, Zalzed mniSvnelovania, rom
bavSvebs iqamde CamouyalibdeT sakuTari damokidebulebebi, sanam iseT situaciaSi aRmoCndebian, sadac arCevanis gakeTeba mouwevT.
ufrosklaselebisaTvis SeTavazebuli davalebebis magaliTebi:
• analizisaTvis damuSavdes masala skolaSi an adgilobrvi TemSi danaSaulebis xasiaTze da masStabebze;
• Segrovdes da damuSavdes kvlevis monacemebi, statistikuri masalebi;
• daigegmos da ganxorcieldes proeqti ufro dabali klasebis moswavleTaTvis;
• daigegmos proeqtis ganxorcielebis vadebi (RonisZiebebis Catarebis
konkretuli dReebi);
• Catardes kvleva, romel Rirebulebebs/faseulobebs aniWeben upiratesobas sxvadasxva asakobrivi jgufebi;
• momzaddes adgilobrivi tele an radio gadacema;
• moewyos suraTebis Ria gamofena.
• momzddes slaid-Sou `Tanamedrove axalgazrdoba da mimzidveli (macdunebeli) SesaZleblobebi~;
• momzaddes video masala Temaze: `danaSauli. ra iqneba Semdeg?~;
• gadaixedos da gaanalizdes sasamarTlo sxdomis dros gadaRebuli masalebi.
• momzaddes da Catardes sxvadasxva saxis RonisZieba mSoblebisaTvis.
35
36
sxvadasxva saganSi
antikorufciuli aRzrdis
programis danergvis magaliTebi
istoria
Tema
`romis respublikaSi korufciis
gamovlinebis faqtebi~
avtorebi: daiva truCinskine, istoriis maswavlebeli.
VII klasi
mizani:
1. moswavleebi gaecnon romis aristokratiul respublikas;
2. gamoavlinon faqtebi, rom im drosac xdeboda saxelmwifo moxeleTa
mosyidvebi, adgili hqonda meqrTameobas da qonebis datacebas;
3. gaiazron, ra aris korufcia.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
• Šetkus B., Pobedinska L. Senoves istorija: vadovelis 7 klasei. – Vilnius: Kronta, 2000,
42 paragrafas.
• Plutarchas. Rinktines biogra.jos. – Vilnius: Vyturys, 1996.
meTodebi/aqtivobebi: saxelmZRvanelosa da dokumentebze muSaoba, rolu-
ri TamaSi.
gakveTili msvleloba
gakveTilis dasawyisSi moswavleebi ecnobian romis imperiis mmarTvelobas. yuradReba maxvildeba imaze, rom romSi arsebobda aristokratiuli respublika, sadac srul Zalauflebas mdidari moqalaqeebi flobdnen, ramdenadac saxelmwifo moxeleebi anazRaurebas ar iRebdnen.
dafaze iwereba SekiTxvebi da davalebebi:
1. daamuSaveT dokumentebi da daamtkiceT, rom romis respublikaSi adgili hqonda korufcias. isaubreT, sad mJRavndeboda is.
2. ra ziani mohqonda kanonebis daumorCileblobas romis respublikis
moqalaqeebisaTvis?
3. SeadareT ciceronisa da veras qmedebebi, rodesac maT maRali Tanamdebobebi ekavaT. ra axdenda gavlenas maT qcevebze?
moswavleebi sam jgufad iyofian:
1. erTi jgufi dokumentebSi eZebs faqtebs, rodesac ciceroni veras adanaSaulebs.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
2. meore jgufi cdilobs gamoamJRavnos/gaarkvios veras aseTi qcevis mizezi.
3. mesame jgufi arkvevs ras warmoadgenen dazaralebulebi da ra ziani
miayenes maT.
ganzogadeba: dokumentebis Seswavlis Semdeg, moswavleebi miuTiTeben, rom
danaSauli veram Caidina; askvnian, rom romis respublikaSi kanonebs ar icavdnen, riTac moqalaqeebs zians ayenebdnen.
diskusiisas xazi gaesva im faqts, rom korufcia jer kidev antikur droSi arsebobda. moswavleebi msjeloben, Tu ra mniSvneloba aqvs korufcias
Cinovnikebis cxovrebaSi da amave dros, ra zians ayenebs is sazogadoebasa da
saxelmwifos.
danarTi
wyaro a
plutarqe ciceronis Sesaxeb:
`ciceroni arc Tu ise did, magram sakmaris qonebas flobda. gasakviri iyo,
rom arc anazRaurebas da arc saCuqars ar iRebda mis mier warmoTqmul
`dacvis sityvaSi~, gansakuTrebiT maSin, rodesac veras saqme mihyavda. adamianis, romelic siciliis propretori iyo, romelmac uamravi danaSauli Caidina da romlis mimarTac sicilielebma saqme aRZres. veras danaSauli ciceronma Tavisi gamosvliT ki ar daamtkica, aramed piriqiT, saerTod ar gamovida sityviT. pretorebi cdilobdnen veras winaSe Tavi gamoeCinaT da saqmis ganxilva bolo dRemde gadaavades. naTeli iyo, rom
erT dReSi sityviT gamosvla da gadawyvetilebis miReba gaZneldeboda.
maSin, ciceroni adga da Tqva, rom sityviT gamosvla ar iyo saWiro. gamoiZaxa mowmeebi da dakiTxa. Semdeg mosamarTleebs SesTavaza gadawyvetileba kenWisyriT mieRoT <...>~.
Plutarchas. Rinktines biografijos. – Vilnius: VyturYs, 1996. gv 140.
wyaro b
ciceronis sityvebidan veras Sesaxeb:
`veras pretorad yofnisas sicilielebisaTvis ar moqmedebda arc sakuTari kanonebi, arc Cveni senatis gadawyvetilebebi, arc adamianis uflebebi. siciliaSi TiToeul moqalaqes ekuTvneba mxolod is, razec ar vceldeboda am kacis usazRvro sixarbe da TviTneboba <...> sami wlis ganmavlobaSi yvela sasamarTlo saqme misi warbebis moZraobiT wydeboda; yvelanairi qoneba (memkvidreobiT miRebuli) CamoerTmeodaT moqalaqeebs sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT, veras brZanebis safuZvelze. <...> yvelaze
saSiSi damnaSaveebi marTlmsajulebisagan Tavisufldebodnen, xolo uaRresad keTilsindisier da pativsacem adamianebs brals sdebdnen, sasamarTlos gareSe gamohqondaT ganaCeni da gadasaxlebaSi agzavnidnen.~
Plutarchas. Rinktines biografijos. – Vilnius: VyturYs, 1996. gv 300.
37
38
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema
`marTveloba romis respublikaSi~
avtori: irena listianene. miaJeikskis saSualo skola `ventas~ istoriis mas-
wavlebeli.
XI klasi
miznebi da amocanebi
1. mmarTvelobis sqemebze dayrdnobiT gaanalizdes marTvis sistema romis respublikaSi; senatisa da saxelmwifos sxva Tanamdebobis pirebis
roli, plebeebsa da patriciebs Soris brZolis mizezebi.
2. argumentirebulad dasabuTdes, ratom iTvleba romis respublika
aristokratulad.
3. warmodgenili situaciis safuZvelze aixsnas, ra meTodebs mimarTavdnen romaelebi, raTa gamxdariyvnen Tanamdebobis pirebi, rogori adamianebi iyvnen isini, ra faseulobebs aniWebdnen upiratesobas. gairkves TavianTi saqmianobiT ra zians ayenebdnen saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebas.
saswavlo masalebi
• romis respublikis marTvis sqema, Tanamdebobis pirebis saqmianobis masalebi.
• maswavleblis mier momzadebuli masalebi gai valeria busikumasa da
mis Svil gaia umcrosis cxovrebasa da moRvaweobaze.
• saxelmZRvaneloebi:
Bakonis E,. Janusas J. Lietuva ir pasaulis: istorijos vadovelis 11 kl. – Kaunas: Šviesa,
2001.
Bakonis E,. Senoves civilizaciju istorija: mokomoji knyga 11 kl. – Kaunas: Šviesa, 1992.
meTodebi/aqtivobebi: roluri TamaSi, inscenirebis Semdgom diskusia.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. gavixsenoT, ra viTarebaSi da rodis gaxda romi respublika.
2. warmodgenilia marTvis sqema, Tanamdebobis pirTa saqmianobis amsaxveli masalebisa da sqemebis gamoyenebiT moswavleebTan erTad xdeba
mmarTvelobis sistemis ganxilva.
3. saubris msvlelobisas ganixileba plebeebsa da patriciebs Soris
brZolis mizezebi da Sedegebi.
4. moswavleebs eZlevaT SekiTxvebi:
• ra roli hqonda saxelmwifoSi saxalxo tribunasa da konsuls?
• ra gziT cdilobda gai umcrosi karieris Seqmnas? rogor moaxerxa
konsulad daniSvna?
• ratom Caeba gai umcrosi korufciaSi?
• raSi gamovlinda es? gairkves, Tu rogor esmiT moswavleebs korufciis cneba.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
• rogori iyo am adamianis bedi? rogor fiqrobT, ratom?
• ra faseulobebi iyo mniSvnelovani mamisaTvis da ratom ugulebelyo isini Svilma?
• vis miadga ziani gai umcrosis mmarTvelobis periodSi?
5. moswavleTa mcire jgufi winaswar momzadebul situacias gaiTamaSebs.
6. diskusia imarTeba inscenirebis win moswavleebisaTvis micemuli davalebis safuZvelze.
7. gakveTilis bolos xdeba Temis ganzogadeba. aqcenti keTdeba imaze, rom
romis imperia aristokratuli iyo.
antikorufciul aRzrdasTan kavSiri: mtkicdeba, rom korufcia antikur
periodSic arsebobda. mimdinareobs msjeloba mis mniSvnelobaze adamianis
cxovrebaSi da zianze, rasac sazogadoebas da saxelmwifos ayenebs.
danarTi:
gai valeri busikumi daibada samxreT italiaSi, qalaq teqsalikaSi, sadac
didi xani yvaoda zeiTunis zeTiT vaWroba. misi ojaxic am saqmiT iyo dakavebuli da warmatebiTac aviTarebda mas. misi mama, gai ufrosi, xelisuflebaSi didi xnis moRvaweobis Semdeg konsulis Tanamdebobaze airCies. gai ufrosi pativsacemi da patiosani konsuli iyo. romSi misi konsulobis periodSi mSvidoba sufevda. man araerTi samSvidobo xelSekruleba dado im saxelmwifoebTan, romlebic adre mtrebad iTvlebodnen. mas
surda Tavisi Svilic pativsacem mmarTvelad exila, magram gai umcrosi
agresiulobiTa da TavSeukaveblobiT gamoirCeoda. usaqmurad gatarebuli ramdenime wlis Semdeg gai umcrosma gadawyvita mamis kvals gahyoloda da xelisuflebaSi mosuliyo. magram mas ar surda, mamis msgavsad,
didxans lodini. amitom, cdilobda Tanamdebobis misaRebad misi gavlena
gamoeyenebina. Tavdapirvelad tribunes adgilis dakavebas cdilobda,
magram Tavisi absurduli gamosvlebiT da sxvadasxva mowodebebiT adamianebSi ironias iwvevda. rogorc yvebian tribuni dRe-Ramis nebismier momentSi SeiZleboda saWiro yofiliyo. Tu raime ubedureba moxdeboda, misi
gamoZaxeba nebismier dros SeiZleboda. tribunes SeeZlo umaRlesi xelisuflebis gadawyvetileba SeeCerebina. maT agreTve ekrZalebodaT romis
datoveba. es pirobebi ar moewona gais da gadawyvita aRar ecada tribunes adgilis miReba. ramdenime wlis Semdeg gais italiuri provinciis –
siciliis marTva miandes. Tavisi uazro da uadgilo gamosvlebisa da uwignurobis gamo igi maleve gaaTavisufles da iZulebuli gaxda romSi dabrunebuliyo.
romSi dabrunebis Semdeg konsulis Tanamdebobis miReba isurva. konsulebs krebis mowvevis ufleba hqondaT. misi mamis, konsul gai ufrosis
sikvdilis Semdeg Rirseuli memkvidris moZebna Zalzed Zneli iyo. axalgazrda gai umcrosi daJinebiT, yvela SesaZlo xerxis gamoyenebiT cdilobda am Tanamdebobis dakavebas. mxardaWeris SemTxvevaSi gai xalxs simdidres da karg cxovrebas pirdeboda. sabolood, sami wlis Semdeg, gai
valeri busikumi konsuli gaxda. romis mosaxleoba misgan danapirebis
39
40
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Sesrulebas eloda. cdilobda ra Tvisi gavlenisa da Zala-uflebis gaZlierebas, man senator tiperiis qaliSvili SeirTo colad. ramdenime
xnis Semdeg, gai valeri busikumi kvestorebTan erTad, romlebic saxelmwifo xazinas gankargavdnen, korufciul garigebebSi Caeba. maT orjer
Sumcires kariskacebs dafinanseba, xolo moqalaqeebs gadasaxadebi gauzardes. gai im miwebs, romlebic romis mier brZoliT iyo mopovebuli,
saidumlod yidda mtrebze. igi winaaRmdegi iyo, rom romis moqalaqeebs
sruli Tavisufleba hqonodaT. romSi ukve didi xniT adre apirebdnen
moqalaqeebs Soris simdidris Tanabrad gadanawilebasa da qonebrivi
uTanasworobis (mdidrebsa da Raribebs Soris) aRmofxvras. magram gaim
es ar dauSva, ris Sedegadac mdidrebisagan Zlieri mxardaWera miiRo. g.
v. busikumma korufciis meSveobiT didi simdidre SeiZina, magram amasTan erTad, adamianebis undobloba daimsaxura. sabolood, romis imperiaSi ajanyebam ifeTqa. xalxi sakuTari uflebebis aRdgenas cdilobda. maleve ajanyebulebma gai mokles da mis adgilas sxva konsuli airCies, romelmac Zveli kanonebi aRadgina da romelic romis moqalaqeTa
TavisuflebisaTvis ibrZoda.
University College Dublin: The Lives of Busicum and Gorius. –
www.ucd.ie/-classics/thirdyear/ancbiorg.htm
Tema
`romis imperiis siZliere~
avtori: edita galinaitite, #9 saSualo skolis istoriis maswavlebeli,
meTodisti.
VII klasi
mizani
1. romis imperiis mmarTvelobis Taviseburebisa da naklovanebebis gamovlena.
amocanebi
1. gaanalizdes oqtaviane avgustis mmarTvelobis dros romis imperiaSi
gatarebuli cvlilebebi da misi gavlena senatze.
2. gamovlindes romis imperiis mmarTvelobis uaryofiTi mxareebi: Tanamdebobis pirebis mosyidva, adamianebis usamarTloba, saxelmwifo
moxeleTa upasuxismgebloba.
gamoyenebuli literatura:
• Šetkus B., Pobedinska L. Senoves istorija: vadovelis 7 klasei. – Vilnius: Kronta, 2000.
• Senoves istorijos chrestomatija. – Kaunas: Šviesa, 1983.
gamoyenebuli meTodebi: analizi, dokumentur wyaroebze muSaoba.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. gameoreba: marTva romis imperiaSi;
2. romis respublikis da romis imperiis mmarTvelobis Sedareba sqemebis gamoyenebiT;
3. gameoreba: senatis movaleobebi romis respublikaSi;
4. klasi xuT jgufad iyofa;
5. moswavleebi ecnobian wyaroebs da Semdeg SekiTxvebze pasuxoben:
• rogor Seicvala senatis formireba romis imperiaSi respublikur
periodTan SedarebiT?
• vis da risTvis awyobda senatis amgvari formireba?
• ratom Sesustda senatis roli imperiis dros?
• ras fiqroben romaelebi senatis formirebaze imperiis periodSi?
ratom?
• ra ziani miayena romis sazogadoebas senatis aseTma formirebam?
• ra saxiT iyenebda borotad Zalauflebas oqtaviane avgustusi?
6. wyaroebze dayrdnobiT moswavleebs daskvnebi gamoaqvT senatis formirebaze da imperiis mzard gavlenaze romis imperiis periodSi.
antikorufciul aRzrdasTan kavSiri: moswavleebi adareben respublikis
da imperiis mmarTvelobas. ayalibeben respublikis mmarTvelobis uaryofiT
Taviseburebebs. msjelobis safuZvelze pasuxoben SekiTxvas – ratom moqmedebda saxelmwifoze uaryofiTad `mudmivi~ senatoroba. uaryofiTad afaseben romis imperiaSi senatorebis mosyidvis faqtebs, rac farTod iyo gavrcelebuli im dros.
danarTi
`didi xania senati gafarTovda da TavaSvebul brbod gadaiqca – masSi
aTasze meti wevri Sedioda, maT Soris iyvnen uRirsi adamianebic, romlebic
cezaris sikvdilis Semdeg, nacnobobiT an qrTamiT miiRes. xalxi maT `mudmiv~ senatorebs eZaxda.~
Senoves istorijos chrestomatija. – Kaunas: Šviesa,1983
Tema: `reformacia
evropaSi~
avtori: edita galinaitite, panaviJisis #9 saS. skolis istoriis maswavle-
beli, meTodisti.
VIII klasi
mizani:
1. moswavleebSi dokumenturi wyaroebis gaanalizebisa da daskvnebis gamotanis unarebis ganviTareba.
41
42
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
amocanebi:
1. gaanalizdes, ra gavlenas axdenen Tavadebi germaniis imperatoris Zalauflebaze;
2. gairkves cnebis `simonia~ azri;
3. gaanalizdes evropaSi reformaciis mizezebi;
4. gamovlindes imperatoris Zalauflebis sisustis mizezebi.
gamoyenebuli literatura
• Pasaulio ir Lietuvos istorija. VI–XVIII amžiai: vadovelis 8 klasei. – Vilnius: Kronta,
•
2002.
Viduriniu amžiu chrestomatija. D. 2. – Kaunas: Šviesa, 1977.
meTodebi: dokumenturi wyaroebis damuSaveba.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. moswavleTa jgufebSi gadanawileba;
2. saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemul teqstze dayrdnobiT (gv.39) moswavleebi
ixseneben, rogor xdeboda imperatoris Zalauflebis formireba germaniis imperiaSi;
3. moswavleebi ecnobian wyaroebs da Semdeg SekiTxvebze pasuxoben:
• rogor miiRo germaniis imperatorma Zalaufleba romis papisagan?
• vin da risTvis uxdida fuls romis paps?
• ratom hqonda germaniis imperators susti Zlaufleba?
• rogori Sexeduleba hqondaT germaniis macxovreblebs aseTi Zalauflebis warmoqmnaze?
4. winamdebare kiTxvebze dayrdnobiT, moswavleebi sakuTar azrebs gamoTqvamen da rac SeiZleba meti daskvna gamoaqvT germaniis imperiaSi
momxdar uaryofiT movlenebze.
antikorufciul aRzrdasTan kavSiri: moswavleebs uaryofiTi damokidebuleba uCndebaT Cinovnikebisa da mRvdelTmTavrebis mosyidvis faqtebis
mimarT, rac im periodis germanSi farTod iyo gavrcelebuli.
danarTi
`imisaTvis, rom romis gvirgvini dagedgaT Tavze, Cven Tavze aviReT pasuxismgebloba zogierTi Tavadis winaSe, romlebic mxolod me mendobodnen
da sxvas aravis; komisrebs sakmaod didi Tanxa gadavuxadeT xelze, saidanac
udidesi nawili Cveni megobrebisgan miviReT. naTelia, rom Cemi daxmarebis
gareSe Tqveni imperatoruli udidebulesoba ver SeZlebda romis gvirgvinis miRebas~
Viduriniu amžiu istorijos chrestomatija. – Kaunas: Šviesa, 1977
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
Tema
`TavadaznaurTa mbrZanebloba orerovan
respublikaSi~
avtori: irena lizdenene, istoriis maswavlebeli, moJeiskis saSualo sko-
lis meTodisti.
VIII klasi
miznebi da amocanebi:
1. ganimartos, rodis daiwyo TavadaznaurTa poziciebis gaZliereba orerovan respublikaSi da ra dokumentiT iyo es ganpirobebuli.
2. i. gruSas nawarmoebis, `Rekviem bajormas~, nawyvetebis safuZvelze aixsnas TavadaznaurTa ufleba-mosilebis gafarToebiT saxelmwifoze
uaryofiTi zemoqmedeba.
3. moswavleebma unda imsjelon, TviTnebobiT, kanonis darRveviTa da
dajgufebebis SeqmniT saxelmwifosaTvis miyenebul zianze.
gamoyenebuli literatura
• Pasaulio ir Lietuvos istorija: VI–XVIII amžiai: vadovelis 8 klasei. – Vilnius: Kronta,
1999.
• Rekviem bajorams // Grušas J. Raštai. T. 2. – Vilnius: Vaga, 1980.
meTodebi: axsna, teqstze muSaoba, diskusia.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. mokle gameoreba, rodis da ra viTarebaSi iyo xelmowerili lublianas unia1 , pirobebi da Sedegebi.
2. saxelmZRvanelos masalebis safuZvelze ganixileba orerovani respublikis mdgomareoba Jigimantasa augustis sikvdilis Semdeg.
3. ganixileba genrix valuas dapirebebi TavdaznaurTaTvis `pacta conventa~ da ,,liberum veto~-s ZalaSi Sesvlis Semdeg.
4. klasi iyofa 4 jgufad. TiToeuls eZleva nawyveti i. gruSas `Rekviem
bajormas~-s nawarmoebidan.
• aZlierebda Tu ara saxelmwifo TavadaznaurTa Zalauflebas, gansakuTrebiT ,,liberum veto~-s Semdeg?
• Zalauflebisadmi ltolvisas ra meTodebs iyenebdnen Tavadaznaurebi?
• rogor arkvevda Tavadaznauroba erTmaneTTan urTierTobebs?
• ra ziani miayena imdroindel saxelmwifosa da sazogadoebas TavadaznaurTa batonobam? romeli faseulobebis winaaRmdeg ilaSqrebda Tavadaznauroba?
• ra SegiZliaT TqvaT mefis Zalauflebaze amgvar saxelmwifoSi?
5. diskusiis Semdeg keTdeba daskvnebi, rom TavadaznaurTa batonoba orerovani saxelmwifos dasustebis erT-erTi mizezi iyo.
1
unia – kavSiri, gaerTianeba, xelSekruleba
43
44
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
antikorufciul aRzrdasTan kavSiri: vlindeba korufciis faqtebi XVIII
saukunis orerovan respublikaSi. yuradReba eqceva im movlenas, ramac saxelmwifos dacema gamoiwvia.
danarTi:
nawyveti i. gruSas dramidan `Rekviem bajormas~
Tema
`orerovani respublika: saxelmwifos dacema,
TavadaznaurTa anarqia~
avtori: daiva truCinskene, antanasa baranauskases saxelobis skolis isto-
riis maswavlebeli.
VIII klasi
gansaxilvel Temas eTmoba erTi sruli gakveTili
mizani da amocanebi
1. moswavleebi gaecnon orerovani respublikis dasustebis mizezebs.
2. ganixilon konkretuli magaliTebi. avuxsnaT, rom litvis didebul saTavadoSic ukve XVII-XVIII saukuneSi yvaoda korufcia, TavadaznaurTa TavaSvebuloba, loToba, rac did areulobas iwvevda da asustebda
saxelmwifos avtoritets.
3. gamovlindes TavadaznaurTa uflebebis uaryifiTi zemoqmedeba saxelmwifos ganviTarebaze.
gamoyenebuli literatura
• Pasaulio ir Lietuvos istorija: VI–XVIII amžiai: vadovelis 8 klasei – Vilnius: Kronta,
1999, paragrafi 51.
• Lietuvos istorija. – Vilnius: Mokslas, 1989.
meTodebi: gonebrivi ieriSi, dokumentebze muSaoba, cxrilebis Sevseba.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. gameoreba, rodis da ra viTarebaSi moewera xeli liublianas unias,
raSi gamovlinda litvis saxelmwifoebrioba liublianas uniis Semdeg?
2. saxelmZRvanelos masalebis da dokumentebis safuZvelze xazi esmeva
im faqts, rom orerovani saxelmwifos marTvaSi naklovaneba mefis Zalauflebis sisustem ganapiroba.
3. ismeba SekiTxva – `romeli sazogadoebrivi movlena asocirdeba `korufciis~ cnebasTan?~ moswavleTa azrebi dafaze an qaRaldis did
formatze iwereba (SeiZleba dafiqsirdes Semdegi mosazrebebi: qrTamis micema, Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyeneba, saxelmwifos fuladi
saxsrebis gaflangva, mosyidva da sxva.)
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
4. xdeba im faqtis Sexseneba, rom zemoT xsenebul movlenebs adgili hqonda litvis didebul saTavadoSi (lds), gansakuTrebiT liublianas SemoerTebis Semdeg.
5. moswavleebi jgufebSi nawildebian (4-5 moswavle), maT Semdegi davalebebi eZlevaT:
• romeli faqtebi adasturebs samefo xelisuflebis dasustebas?
• wyaroebis Seswavlisas gamoyaviT korufciis cnebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebi;
• SeecadeT daadginoT am naklovanebebis gamomwvevi mizezebi;
• ra zians ayenebda saxelmwifos TavadaznaurTa TviTneboba da `vetos~ wesis arseboba?
• rogor arkvevda Tavadaznauroba erTmaneTTan urTierTobas?
6. moswavleebi cxrils avseben (ix. cxrili)
daskvna: TavadaznaurTa TviTneboba da maTi batonoba orerovani respublikis dacemis erT-erTi mizezi iyo.
antikorufciul aRzrdasTan kavSiri: vlindeba korufciis faqtebi XVII
saukunis orerovan respublikaSi da ikveTeba maTi gavlena saxelmwifos dacemaze.
danarTi
wyaro a
`<...> respublikaSi mefes aranairi Zalaufleba ar hqonda. saerTod ar
arsebobda centraluri Zalaufleba, romelasac vinme angariSs gauwevda. Teoriulad, srul Zalauflebas Tavad moqalaqeebi flobdnen, e. i. Tavadaznauroba. magram sinamdvileSi didad verafers cvlidnen. maT Soris mudmivi
uTanxmoeba iyo, ris gamoc vercerTi partia ver axerxebda momZlavrebas. amis
gamo seimebi erTmaneTis miyolebiT iSlebodnen da mxare administraciisa
da Zalauflebis gareSe rCeboda; es ki TavadaznaurTa TviTnebobasa da ucxoelTa mosyidvas uwyobda xels <...>. <...> velmoJebi, maTgan Tavadaznaurebma mxolod qeifi da loToba iswavles. <...> TavadaznaurTa rigebSi gansakuTrebuli avtoritetiT sargeblobdnen is didebulebi, romlebsac yvelaze metis daleva SeeZloT da ar Tvrebodnen. mejlisze maspinZlis movaleoba iyo, yvela stumari ise daeTro, rom saxlSi msaxuris daxmarebis gareSe
ver wasuliyo.~
Lietuvos istorija. – Vilnius: Mokslas, 1989
wyaro b
`... seimiki. seimikSi politikuri cxovreba miedineboda. aq wydeboda vin
iyo TavadaznaurTagan ufro Zlieri da vis elodeboda usiamovnebebi seimis an tribunalis mxridan. amis gamo, didebulebi cdilobdnen TavianT mxares gadaebirebinaT TavadaznaurTa udidesi nawili. maTi gadabireba ki mxolod mudmivi proteqciebiTa da mamulebSi gamarTuli qeifebiT iyo SesaZlebeli. amave mizeziT seimekebs gareubnebidan mohyavdaT gaRaribebuli Tavadaznaurebi, vinaidan maTac, velmoJebis msgavsad, hqondaT xmis ufleba da
45
46
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
rac mTavaria, TavadaznaurTa niSani — maxvili, romelic SeeZloT nebismier dros gamoeyenebinaT, TavianTi batonis, an im adamianis azris dasacavad,
vinc kargad gadauxdida..~
Lietuvos istorija. – Vilnius: Mokslas, 1989
wyaro g
`seimebi. aSkaraa, rom amdeni gaRaribebuli wvrili Tavadaznauris Camoyvana mxolod velmoJebs SeeZloT. maTze iyo damokidebuli seimekebis Sedegebic. ase rom, saSualo fenis Tavadaznaurebs didebulebis garSemo unda
moeyaraT Tavi, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi dazaraldebodnen. amgvarad, velmoJebi maTTvis sasurvel warmomadgenlebs irCevdnen. erT mxares erTi gavleniani didebuli marTavda, meores – sxva. amitom, rodesac maTi warmomadgenlebi erTad iyridnen Tavs seimSi, bunebrivia uamrav sakiTxze ver Tanxmdebodnen. yovelTvis moiZebneboda vinme, vinc SesZaxebda - `veto~ da seimi unda
daSliliyo. magram es wyoba mainc namdvil Tavisuflebad miiCneoda. Tavadaznaurebi ufrTxildebodnen mas da fxizlad adevnebdnen Tvalyurs, rom
araferi Secvliliyo, radgan grZnobdnen, rom mxolod aseT wyobaSi SeeZloT kargad cxovreba da gamdidreba.~
Lietuvos istorija. – Vilnius: Mokslas, 1989
cxrili. korufciis gamovlineba lublianis uniis Semdeg
korufciis gamovlineba
korufciis faqtebis
gamovlinebis mizezebi
korufciis Sedegebi
orerovan saxelmwifoSi
meqrTameoba
angarebis mizniT kanonebis SemuSavebisaken
swrafva
moqmedi kanonebi moqalaqeTa mxolod garkveuli
nawilis interesebs
icavda
da sxva
Tema
`aralegaluri gamocemebis gavrceleba litvaSi~
avtori: irena lizdianene, miaJeiskis saSualo skola `ventas~ istoriis maswavlebeli.
IX klasi
miznebi da amocanebi
1. gamovlindes rusi Cinovnikebis pozicia, Tavganwirva, `knigonoSebis~
(litvuri aralegaluri beWdvuri sityvis gamavrceleblebi) sazrianoba, aralegaluri gamocemebis gavrcelebis xerxebi, `knigonoSTa~ sazogadoebis saqmianoba.
2. moswavleebSi masalis damoukideblad damuSavebisa da kritikulad Sefasebis unarebis ganviTareba.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
gamoyenebuli literatura
• litvuri aralegaluri gamocemebis gavrcelebis ruka
• cxrilebi:
•
•
•
•
a) sabaJoze dakavebuli litvuri wignebis raodenoba
b) garSvaiskeli `knigonoSebis~ sazogadoebis mier gavrcelebuli wignebis Sinaarsi
1887-1897 w. (Tyla A. Garšviu knygnešiu draugija. – Vilnius: Mintis, 1991, gv. 34);
`knigonoSi~ u. belinisas saqmianobis amsaxveli dokumentebi (1864–1904
m. – Vilnius: Valstybinis leidybos centras, 1992, gv. 50–51);
`knigonoSi~ i. vaiCekauskasis saqmianobis amsaxveli dokumentebi
ilustracia - `litvuri skola 1864-1904 wlebSi~ (“Ãîðåñòíàÿ øêîëà”)
Brazauskas J. Naujuju amžiu istorija: nuo Didžiosios prancuzu revoliucijos iki Pirmojo
pasaulinio karo pabaigos: vadovelis 9 klasei. – Vilnius: Kronta, 1999.
meTodebi: ganmarteba, rukaze muSaoba, cxrilebis, dokumenturi wyaroebi-
sa da TvasaCinoebebis gamoyeneba.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. litvaSi gamocemebis akrZalvis garemoebaTa Sesaxeb cnobebis gameoreba;
2. moswavleebi rukebis meSveobiT ikvleven prusiaSi litvis aralegaluri gamomcemlobis centrebs; litvaSi gamocemebis gavrcelebis meTodebs;
3. `knigonoSebis~ saqmianoba;
4. saukeTeso `knigonoSebis~ saqmianoba, xalxis keTildReobisaTvis maTi
Tavganwirva. warmodgenilia dokumentebi i.belinisis saqmianobis Sesaxeb (maTSi asaxulia Jandarmebis mier qrTamis aRebis faqtebi);
5. SekiTxvebi:
• ratom misca i.belinisma qrTami uradniks da pristavis cols?
• cdilobda Tu ara Tavad sargeblis miRebas?
• ra SegiZliaT TqvaT im drois rus Cinovnikebze? ra mosazrebebiT
iRebdnen isini qrTams? (XIX saukunis rusi Cinovnikebi Tvlidnen,
rom xelfass mxolod mefis samsaxurisaTvis iRebdnen, xolo Tu isini raime gadawyvetilebas rigiTi moqalaqeebis sasargeblod miiRebdnen, amaSi damatebiTi anazRaureba ekuTvnodaT);
• vin ayenebda sakuTari qmedebiT zians da vin zaraldeboda?
• ra Rirebulebebis matarebeli iyo i. belinisi? iyvnen Tu ara rusi
Cinovnikebic amave Rirebulebebis matarebelni?
6. `knigonoSebis~ moRvaweoba maJeikskis mxareSi (moswavleTa prezentaciebi winaswar Segrovil masalas efuZneba);
7. Temis ganzogadeba.
antikorufciul ganaTlebasTan kavSiri: ruseTis imperiaSi meqrTameobis, rogorc korufciis elementis, roli Cinovnikebis cxovrebaSi. aqcenti
keTdeba im zianze, rasac korufcia saxelmwifos ayenebs.
47
48
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema
`ssrk-s ganviTareba civi omis periodSi~
avtori: laima maminskene, vaiJgantas saxelobis radviliSskis gimnaziis
istoriis maswavlebeli
XII klasi, istoriis vrceli kursi
miznebi da amocanebi
1. ssrk-s magaliTze ganisazRvros XX saukunis meore naxevarSi totalitaruli qveynebis ganviTarebis mniSvnelovani mxareebi;
2. anegdotebis ganxilva moswavleebSi sabWoTa kavSiris ganviTarebaze
dagrovili codnis gamoyenebiT;
3. moswavleebma SeZlon:
• sabWoTa xelisuflebis sxvadasxva periodis problemebis Sedareba;
• maTi klasificireba, Tavad moswavleTa mier SerCeuli kriteriumebis mixedviT;
• ssrk-s socialuri, sameurneo da politikuri ganviTarebis Sefaseba civi omis periodSi;
• sabWoTa periodisa da litvis dRevandeli problemebis Sedareba.
4. sxvadasxva istoriuli periodisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli problemis
aqcentireba; korufciuli gamovlinebebis mimarT aqtiuri, Seurigebeli pirovnebebis aRzrda.
gamoyenebuli literatura
•
•
•
•
Lietuva ir pasaulis: istorijos vadovelis 12 klasei. – Kaunas: Šviesa, 2001, paragr. 39.
Žemaičiuos girdeti anekdotai. – Taurage: Tauragiškiu balsas, 1992, t. 8.
815 anekdotu apie valdžią, valdymą ir verslininkus. – Vilnius: Mintis, 1992.
Naujausiuju laiku istorijos pratybu sąsiuvinis 10 kl. – Vilnius: Pradai, 1998, gv. 34.
meTodebi: jgufuri muSaoba, wyaroebis (anegdotebis) damuSaveba, dapiris-
pireba, analizi, diskusia jgufebSi, prezentaciebi.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. moswavleebi 5 jgufad iyofian, (sxvadasxva feris baraTebis Sesabamisad).
2. TiToeul jgufs eZleva 9-10 anegdoti sabWoTa kavSirSi arsebul
problemebze (problemebi winaswar ar saxeldeba):
• I jgufs – ekonomikuri problemebi (anegdotebi eqstensiur meurneobaze, teqnologiur CamorCenaze, resursebis araracionalur gamoyenebaze, produqciis dabal xarisxze, soflis meurneobis CamorCenaze da a.S.)
• II jgufs – socialuri problemebi (anegdotebi loTobaze, qurdobaze da a.S.)
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
• III jgufs – biurokratia (anegdotebi `gaberil~ fasebze, arakompetentur Cinovnikebze, kancelariis TanamSromelTa simravlze
da a.S.)
• IV jgufs –korufcia (anegdotebi meqrTameobaze, nomenklaturis privilegiebze, saxelmwifo qonebis datacebaze da a.S.) (ix.
danarTi)
• V jgufs – propagandasa da realobas Soris sxvaoba (anegdotebi
ararsebul `gamarjvebebze~, partiisa da misi liderebis gandidebaze da a. S.)
3. davaleba: wakiTxvis da gansjis Semdeg jgufSi daasaxeleT problema,
romelic warmodgenil yvela anegdots aerTianebs.
4. problemebis dasaxelebis Semdeg maT baraTebi eZlevaT davalebiT,
romlis mixedviTac jgufma mokle moxseneba unda daweros (diskusiis
Semdeg).
IV jgufis davalebis baraTi
• anegdotebis safuZvelze daadgineT, ra formiT mJRavndeboda korufcia sabWoTa kavSirSi;
• sabWoTa kavSiris mosaxleobis romeli fena SeiZleba davukavSiroT korufcias? CamoTvaleT rigiTobis mixedviT (CamoTvla daiwyeT umaRlesi Tanamdebobis pirebiT);
• sabWoTa kavSiris Sesaxeb anegdotebSi Secdomaa daSvebuli: erTi anegdoti ar aris im periodSi Seqmnili, Tumca masSi saubaria swored sabWoTa droze. romelia es anegdoti? moiyvaneT argumenti;
• sabWoTa periodis romeli anegdoti Seesabameba litvis dRevendelobas? ratom?
5. jgufebi akeTeben prezentacias;
6. prezentaciis safuZvelze moswavleebs dakvnebi gamoaqvT XX saukunis
me-2 naxevarSi sabWoTa kavSirSi arsebuli problemis Sesaxeb; aanalizeben, romeli maTgani yvavis kvlavindeburad postkomunistur saxelmwifoebSi (litvis magaliTze dayrdnobiT);
7. saSinao davaleba:
• Caiweron sabWoTa periodis sazogadoebis 2-3 problema, romelTa
ganxilvac ar moxda am gakveTilze.
• moiZion anegdotebi ganxilul Temebze.
antikorufciul ganaTlebasTan kavSiri: gakveTilze ganixileba ssrk Ci-
novnikis mentalitetis Taviseburebebi, yoveldRiur praqtikaSi dakanonebuli korufcia. aRniSnuli informacia erTi mxriv, exmarebaT gaigon postsabWouri azrovnebis danatovari, meore mxriv – Seafason, ramdenad Seicvala sazogadoeba ssrk-s daSlis Semdeg.
49
50
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
danarTi
anegdotebi korufciaze
•
ssrk-s generaluri mdivani stumrobs aSS-s. mis sapativcemulod brwyinvale, mdidruli sadili ewyoba.
– saidan, aseTi Zvirfasi miRebisaTvis saxsrebi? – ukvirs stumars. aSS-s
prezidents is fanjarasTan mihyavs da eubneba:
– ai im xids xedav?
– vxedav.
– ai, aq aris damarxuli ZaRlis Tavi. am xidis mSeneblobaze mciredi ekonimia gavwieT.
erTi wlis Semdeg aSS-s prezidenti ewvia ssrk-s da masac ki, Tumca bevri
unaxavs, ukvirs maspinZlis xelgaSliloba. maSin ssrk-s xelmZRvanels
stumari fanjarasTan mihyavs:
– ai iq xids xedavT?
– ver vxedav.
– ai, aqac ZaRlis Tavia damarxuli.
•
– ratom dagiweres wina gakveTilze karnaxSi oTxiani da exla xuTiani, Secdomebi xom imdenivea?
– iciT, maSin mamaCemi mxolod mdivani iyo, axla ki is – direqtoria.
•
– direqtors qrTami SevTavaze, man ki karisken mimiTiTa.
– gagagdo?
– ara, ubralod karze mimiTiTa, vinmem ar gagvigos an ar dagvinaxos gasaRebis Wrilidano.
•
– riT daviwyoT revizia?
– koniakiT.
•
parlamentari eubneba biznesmens:
– Tqven me 50 aTasi momeciT da me Tqven milioners gagxdiT ...
•
meTevzem mdinareze xidis ageba gadawyvita. amisaTvis erTi vagoni cementi dasWirda. gagzavna saministroSi mgeli – man iymuvla, iymuvla, magram
uSedegod; gagzavna melia – ieSmaka, ieSmaka, magram uSedegod. bolos gagzavna viri. ar brundeba erTi kvira, meore, .. bolos da bolos dabrunda
cementis mTeli eSeloniT.
– rad ginda amdeni cementi?
– nu Relav. saministroSi uamrav nacnobs Sevxvdi da davumtkice, rom xidi
mdinaris gaswvriv unda avaSenoT.
•
moqalaqe kabinetis win dgas da kiTxulobs: `miiReba – 10-15~. am dros modis kinzulisi da kiTxulobs:
– naklebs ar miiRebs?
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
•
moqalaqe Cinovniks ramdenime kupiuras sTavazobs.
– es ra aris, qrTami? – gabrazda Cinovniki.
SeSinebuli moqalaqe fulis ukan aRebas cdilobs, magram Cinovniki amatebs:
– Tqveni bedi, rom meqrTame var.
•
warmogidgeniaT, Cvens sammarTveloSi qrTamis aRebisTvis ukve 50 kaci gaasamarTles.
– ooo! Cvens sammarTveloSi aseTi ram SeuZlebelia.
– TqvenTan yvela patiosania?
– saqme amaSi ar aris. Cvens sammarTveloSi sul 40 kaci muSaobs.
•
erTxel mefe parlamentis wevrebTan erTad sadilis dros ambobs, rom maRali gadasaxadebis miuxedavad saxelmwifo xazina carielia. maSin, erTma
xnierma parlamentarma Sampanuris Tasidan yinulis namsxvrevi aiRo, gverdiT mjdoms miawoda da sTxova mezoblisaTvis gadaewodebina. rodesac
yinulis natexi mefemde mivida, ukve damdnari iyo.
– ai, Tqveno aRmatebulebav, ratomaa xazina carieli – Tqva parlamentarma.
•
Seremetevos aeroportSi Jurnalisti italiel turistebs ekiTxeba:
– ra mizniT CamoxvediT ssrk-Si?
– Tqveni gamocdileba unda gaviziaroT soflis meurneobaSi.
– soflis meurneobaSi?
– diax. samuSaos aseTi organizebis Sesaxeb SeiZleba mxolod iocnebo. sabWoTa meurneoba (zavxozi) – ubralod fantastikaa! `Sefebis~ mxridan daxmareba – grandiozulia, miwas xnaven jariskacebi, farcxaven muSebi, mosavals iReben studentebi, axarisxeben profesorebi, docentebi da aspirantebi, da es yvelaferi ufasod. produqciis gasaRebis Semdeg `zavxozis~ direqtori acxadebs: `7 milionis zaralia~ da am milionebs unazRaureben. mama mia! Cven aseTi arc ki gvesizmreba!
– Tqven fermerebi xarT?
– rasakvirvelia! Cven italiuri mafiis wevrebi varT!
•
erTma qalbatonma 20 weli `samovarebis~ qarxanaSi imuSava, magram am xnis
ganmavlobaSi samovaris SeZena ver SeZlo. imedis dakargvis Semdeg komunisturi partiis centralur komitets miswera: `me ukve 20 welia samovarebis qarxanaSi vmuSaob, magram dRemde ar maqvs samovari~.
Zlier gaukvirda, roca, ramdenime xnis Semdeg pasuxi miiRo: `pativcemulo amxanago... dasanania, rom centraluri komiteti ver dagexmarebaT samovaris SeZenaSi, magram viRebT ra mxedvelobaSi Tqvens damsaxurebas da
staJs, uflebas gaZlevT yoveldRiurad qarxnidan erTi detali waiRoT
da samovari Tavad aawyoT~.
ramdenime wlis Semdeg qali isev wers werils ck-s: `me ukve yvelanairi
imedi davkarge. yvelaferi ise gavakeTe, rogorc Tqven mirCieT. yoveldRe samuSaodan momqonda TiTo detali da ra miviRe sabolood? bostanSi midgas ori raketa - `Çåìëÿ-çåìëÿ”, samovari ki kvlavac ar maqvs.
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
samoqalaqo aRzrda, politologia
Tema
`kanonieri da ukanono, samarTliani da usamarTlo~
avtorebi: regina piatraitene, gintautas piatraitisi, Saulaiskis saSualo skolis maswavleblebi.
VIII klasi
sagani: samoqalaqo sazogadoebis safuZvlebi
mizani: moqalaqeobrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibeba, kritikuli da analiti-
kuri azrovnebis ganviTareba.
damxmare masala
situaciebis nusxa (ix. danarTi)
meTodebi: mcire jgufebSi muSaoba, analizi, diskusia.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. moswavleebi jgufebad iyofian.
2. TiToeul jgufs eZleva baraTi, romelzec aRwerilia situacia (situaciebi mocemulia qvemoT).
3. dafaze Camowerilia SekiTxvebi:
a) Cans Tu ara mocemul situaciaSi dazaralebuli ? Tu ki, vin aris?
b) Cans Tu ara damnaSave? Tu ki, vin aris damnaSave?
g) Cadenilia Tu ara raime danaSauli?
d) Tu Cadenilia, ra saxis (qurdoba, TaRliToba, korufcia)?
4. TiToeuli jgufi Tavis situacias (situaciebs) aanalizebs da msjelobs masze (maTze).
5. TiToeuli jgufi situaciebze komentarebs (prezentaciis saxiT) mTel
klass uziarebs.
6. imarTeba diskusia: `rogor iqmneba danaSaulisaTvis xelsayreli garemo?~, `risi Secvlaa saWiro sazogadoebaSi, rom aseTi danaSaulebi
Semcirdes?~
mosalodneli Sedegi: situaciebis gaanalizebiT moswavleebi ukeT aRiq-
vamen gare samyaros; diskusiebis Sedegad swavloben: a) WeSmariti gzebis Ziebas da qmedebebis sworad Sefasebas; b) sakuTari azris gamoTqmas; g) xdebian ufro aqtiurebi.
antikorufciul ganaTlebasTan kavSiri: miuxedavad imisa, rom moswavleebi Teoriulad ecnobian, Tu ras warmoadgens korufcia, praqtikaSi mainc
uWirT misi gamovlena. konkretuli situaciebis analizi exmareba maT kritikulad Seafason realoba, eZebon masTan brZolis xerxebi (Tundac utopiuri) da iswavlon, rogor SeiZleba `sworad~, patiosnac cxovreba. moswav-
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
leebi Tavian warmosaxvaSi qmnian sazogadoebis models, romelSic yvela Tanabrad emorCileba kanonebs da iazrebs demokratiis arss.
danarTi
situaciebi
a) joni matarebelSi konduqtors uxsnis – imdenad gvian movida sadgurze, rom bileTis yidva veRar moaswro. konduqtori mas sTavazobs, bileTis safasuris naxevari gadaixados.
b) kompania `naTeli momavali~ monawileobas iRebs skolebis rekonstruqciis tenderSi. kompaniis warmomadgeneli komisiis wevrebs, samuSaos
Semsubuqebis mizniT, mobilur telefonebs sTavazobs.
g) rodesac onam marTvis mowmobis misaRebad gamocda ver Caabara,
instruqtorma mas garkveuli Tanxis gadaxda SesTavaza gamocdis gadabarebis sanacvlod.
d) saswavlo wlis damTavarebasTan dakavSirebiT, moswavleebma damrigebels yvavilebis didi Taiguli aCuqes.
e) gzatkecilze araswori moZraobisaTvis patrulma maikli daajarima.
jarima 20 lars Seadgenda. maikls es Tanxa jibeze ar aRmoaCnda da patruls jarimis gamowera mosTxova.
– jibeze ramdeni gaqvT? hkiTxa patrulis TanamSromelma
maikls 10 lari hqonda. policielma gamoarTva fuli da daemSvidoba.
v) patrulis TanamSromeli gzaze maRali Tanamdebobis pirs aCerebs da
marTvis mowmobas sTxovs. moqalaqe Tavisi Tanamdebobis damadasturebel mowmobas uCvenebs. patrulis TanamSromeli ubralod afrTxilebs
moqalaqes, momavalSi igive darRveva ar gaimeoros da emSvidobeba.
z) qalaq X-Si raionuli sabWos Tavmjdomaris ZmisSvili muzeumis direqtorad dainiSna.
T) beatra SeuTanxmda samSeneblo kompanias, rom Tu is raionSi saarCevno
kampanias daufinansebda, gamarjvebis SemTxvevaSi, kontraqtebs gauformebda da samSeneblo obieqtebs gadascemda.
i) biznesmeni mosamarTles restoranSi patiJebs. mas sagadasaxado kriminalSi adanaSauleben. mosamarTle restoranSi muqi saTvaliT Sedis,
rom veravin ver icnos.
k) ana eqims Sokoladebsa da vardebis Taiguls Cuqnis madlobis niSnad,
rom misi Svili gankurna.
l) klasma instruqtori unda airCios. gogonebs rouzis arCeva undaT, biWebs ki piteris. gogonebi raodenobrivad oriT metni arian, vidre bi-
53
54
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Webi. aqedan gamomdinare arCevnebis Sedegebis winaswar gansazRvra ukve
SeiZleba. biWebi ikribebian, msjeloben da gamosavals pouloben: isini or Tanaklasel gogonas miiwveven velosportsmenTa gundSi. gogonebs idea Zalian moewonaT. ori dRis Sedmeg aRmoCndeba, rom arCevnebSi piterma gaimarjva.
m) enisa da literaturis maswavlebeli bavSvebs davalebad bevr samuSaos aZlevs. imisaTvis, rom proeqtisaTvis kargad moemzadon, moswavleebma uamravi ram unda waikiTxon saRamos da SabaT-kvirac sul mecadineobaSi unda gaataron. jenis deda maswavlebelTan sasaubrod midis. aravin icis raze saubroben isini, magram maTi Sexvedris Semdeg
jeni yvelaze iol da martiv davalebebs iRebs.
n) ojaxi sami wevrisagan Sedgeba – deda, mama da tomasi. isini garkveul
wesebs emorCilebian: magaliTad, WurWels rigrigobiT recxaven, xolo
tomass saRamoobiT televizoris yurebis uflebas ar aZleven. WurWlis garecxva, ra Tqma unda, aravis moswons, gansakuTrebiT mamas.
erTxel, rodesac deda saxlSi ar iyo, mamas ki WurWeli unda gaerecxa,
tomasma SesTavaza: `WurWels Sens magivrad gavrecxav, samagierod Sen
saRamos televizoris yurebis uflebas momcem.~ mama tomass daTanxmda.
Tema
`me moqalaqe var~
avtori: eliana Jukauskene, Saulaiskis saSualo skolis maswavlebeli.
X klasi
saaTebis raodenoba: 3 saaTi
sagani: samoqalaqo ganaTleba
mizani da amocanebi
1. moswavleebma imsjelon samoqalaqo faseulobebsa da eTikur normebze;
2. moswavleebma iswavlon informaciis mopoveba, Sefaseba da gamoyeneba;
3. moswavleebma iswavlon damxmare, TvalsaCino saSualebebis Seqmna.
gamoyenebuli literatura
• Zaleckiene I. Mes: pilietines visuomenes pagrindai: vadovelis 10 kl. – Vilnius: Homo
•
•
liberr, 1999.
litvis satelevizio gadacemebis masalebi, adgilobrivi publikaciebi, piradi, axloblebis da nacnobebis cxovrebiseuli gamocdileba.
litvis respublikis specialuri gamoZiebis samsaxuris masalebi –
www. stt.lt
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
meTodebi: jgufebSi muSaoba, damoukidebeli samuSao, diskusia.
gakveTilisaTvis mzadeba: es ar unda iyos korufciisadmi miZRvnili pir-
veli gakveTili. moswavleebma ukve unda icodnen, Tu ra aris korufcia da
unda SeeZloT misi amocnoba.
I gakveTilis msvleloba
1. gakveTilis Tema dafaze iwereba;
2. formatze Camoiwereba da Semdeg ganixileba is mniSvnelovani normebi, romelTa dacvac moswavleTa azriT moqalaqeebisaTvis aucilebelia;
3. moswavleebi yvebian, romel samagido TamaSebs TamaSobdnen bavSvobaSi da romeli moswonT axlac;
4. eZlevaT davaleba: Seqmnan TamaSi, romelSic cxovrebiseuli realoba
aisaxeba – sxvadasxva situaciebi, swori da araswori, kargi da cudi
qmedebebi;
5. Tu TamaSis Tema konkretdeba, magaliTad `korufcia~, `kanondarRveva~, mieTiTeba wyaroebi, sadac damatebiTi informaciis mopoveba SeiZleba;
6. ganisazRvreba davalebis Sesrulebis vadebi da pirobebi. Cveulebriv,
samoqalaqo aRzrdas kviraSi erTi saaTi eTmoba. amitom, mizanSewonilia, am davalebis Sesrulebas ori gakveTili daeTmos;
7. moswavleebi pirvel-meoTxeze gadaiTvlian (es damokidebulia klasSi
moswavleTa raodenobaze) da jgufebSi gadanawildebian;
8. jgufebi msjeloben ra tipis TamaSis Seqmnas apireben, esaWiroebaT Tu
ara raime damatebiTi informacia amisaTvis da samoqmedo gegmas amzadeben;
9. moswavleebs Semdegi gakveTilisaTvis masalebis Segroveba evalebaT.
II gakveTilis msvleloba
1. jgufebi erTmaneTs masalebis Sekrebisa da momzadebis Sesaxeb gamocdilebas uziareben;
2. moswavleebi jgufebSi qmnian TamaSs;
3. saSinao davaleba: daasrulon da gaaformon TamaSi.
III gakveTilis msvleloba
1. TiToeuli jgufi Tavis namuSevars warmoadgens: acxadebs TamaSis pirobebs, saubrobs im sirTuleebze, rac misi Seqmnis procesSi warmoiqmna;
2. jgufebi TamaSebs erTmaneTSi cvlian, cdiloben iTamaSon mis SemqmnelebTan erTad da erToblivad azusteben gaurkvevel detalebs;
3. gakveTili mTavrdeba diskusiiT – miRebuli gamocdileba, eTikuri da
samoqalaqo Rirebulebebi. dafaze kvlav ekvreba formati, romelzec
pirveli gakveTilis msvlelobisas Camoiwera faseulobebi da CamonaTvalSi cvlilebebis Setana xdeba;
TamaSebi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT samoqalaqo aRzrdis gakveTilebze dabal klasebSic (magaliTad me-8 klasSi).
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
kavSiri antikorufciul ganaTlebasTan: muSaobis procesi xels uwyobs
moswavleebSi SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebis ganviTarebas da aswavlis maT masalis moZiebas.
Tu teqnikuri mizezebis gamo TamaSis Seqmna ver moxerxda, moswavleebi
erTmaneTs gamocdilebas da ideebs uziareben.
Tema
`TamaSi wesebis dacviT~
avtori: vaiva vaicekauskene, ganaTlebis ganviTarebis centris monitorin-
gis ganyofilebis ufrosi specialisti
X klasi
sagnebi: samoqalaqo ganaTlebis safuZvlebi, eTika.
miznebi: sxvaTa uflebebis pativiscema, analitikuri da kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTareba.
TvalsaCinoeba (damxmere masala)
I TamaSisaTvis
• ori erTnairi banqos Sekvra;
• qaRaldSi gadaxveuli kanfetebi, romelTa raodenoba 5-jer aRemateba moTamaSeTa raodenobas;
• kanfetebisaTvis WurWeli;
• TamaSis wesebis CamonaTvali (qsero-aslebi);
II TamaSisaTvis
• ramdenime (raodenoba damokidebulia moTamaSeTa raodenobaze) erTna-
•
iri samagido `mogzaurobis~ tipis TamaSi, amdenive saTamaSo kamaTeli. TiTo cali unikaluri saTamaSo figura (magaliTad kvercxi - `qinder siurprizi~);
TamaSis wesebis CamonaTvali da damkvirvebelTa instruqciebi.
meTodi: TamaSi-eqsperimenti, kritikuli analizi, saubari, diskusia.
ganmarteba: sinamdvileSi, pirvel TamaSs unda ewodos `usamarTlo TamaSi~,
radganac masSi maswavlebeli usamarTlo pirobebs qmnis, xolo meoreSi wesebs Tavad moTamaSeebi amaxinjeben; es TamaSebi realuri cxovrebis imitacias qmnian, amitom maTSi mocemuli garemoebebi moswavleebisaTvis winaswar cnobili ar unda iyos.
aRniSnuli TamaSebi SeiZleba gamoviyenoT motivaciis asamaRleblad, gamowvevis etapze, radgan sainteresod warimarTos diskusia korufciis Temaze.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
gakveTilis msvleloba
I TamaSi
1. TamaSisaTvis aucilebelia banqos erTi Sekvra. winaswar amoiReT yvela yvavi oris garda orianis, ise rom moswavleebma es ar SeamCnion da
SeavseT sxva kartebiT meore Sekvridan.
2. moswavleebi magidis garSemo dasviT, TiToeuls 5 kanfeti daurigeT
da gaafrTxileT, rom maTi Wama TamaSis dasrulebamde ar SeiZleba.
3. magidaze TamaSis wesebis ramdenime asli dadeT da instruqcia Tavadac waukiTxeT.
4. moilaparakeT, rodis dasruldeba TamaSi. magaliTad: garkveuli drois gasvlis Semdeg, TamaSidan ramdenime moTamaSis `gavardnis~ SemTxvevaSi, an Tu yvela kanfeti magidis SuagulSi aRmoCndeba.
5. magidis centrSi dadeT banqos Sekvra, ise rom karti ar Candes (2 yvavis karti TavSi moaqcieT), miujeqiT magidas da TamaSi moswavleebTan
erTad daiwyeT.
6. TamaSis bolos gamoacxadeT, rom saukeTeso moTamaSe Tqven iyaviT, gaimarjveT da yvela kanfeti Tqven gekuTvniT. aiReT isini da araviTar
SemTxvevaSi ar daurigoT danarCenebs.
7. isaubreT TamaSze, Sedegebze, mis `reJisuraze~ da moTamaSeTa grZnobebze.
kiTxvebi diskusiisaTvis:
1. am TamaSs mkafio wesebi hqonda. iyo Tu ara wesebi samarTliani?
2. SeiZleba Tu ara Tavad TamaSi samarTlianad CaiTvalos? ganmarteT
Tqveni Sexeduleba.
3. rogor grZnobdiT Tavs TamaSis msvlelobis dros? rogor grZnobT
Tavs TamaSis dasrulebis Semdeg?
4. gagonebT Tu ara es TamaSi raimes realuri cxovrebidan? Tu gagonebT,
ras?
5. arRvevs Tu ara es TamaSi Tqvens uflebebs? Tu arRvevs, romels?
II TamaSi
1. klasi jgufebad dayaviT (TiToeul jgufSi moswavleTa Tanabari raodenoba unda iyos). jgufSi erTi damokvirvebeli gamoyaviT.
2. jgufebs magidaze dauwyveT: TamaSis TiTo asli, saTamaSo kamaTeli,
figurebi.
3. moTamaSeebs instruqciebi daurigeT – naxevar jgufs varianti `a~, meore naxevars, varianti `b~. meTvalyureebsac gadaeciT TavianTi
instruqciebi.
4. wesebis gacnobis Semdeg, moswavleebs acnobeT, rom TamaSi daiwyon.
5. miuloceT jgufs, romelmac pirvelma daamTavra TamaSi, magram uTxariT, rom Tqven isic gainteresebT, Tu ramden xanSi daasruleben TamaSs danarCeni jgufebi. amitom maTac unda daelodoT.
6. rodesac yvela jgufi TamaSs daasrulebs, sTxoveT damkvirveblebs
Seajamon, Tu rogor icavdnen jgufebi wesebs. `a~ variantSi wesebis
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
darRvevis faqtebi ufro mkacrad SeafaseT, vidre `b~ variantSi, vinaidan `a~ variantSi isini akrZaluli iyo, xolo `b~ variantSi – naxsenebic ar iyo.
kiTxvebi diskusiisTvis:
1. romeli jgufi unda gamocxaddes gamarjvebulad da ratom?
2. cxovrebaSi adamianTa jgufebi xSirad iswrafian miznisaken urTierTkonkurenciis gziT. rogori konkurenciaa samarTliani da rogori
ara?
antikorufciul ganaTlebasTan kavSiri: konkurencia sazogado da Cata-
rebuli TamaSis wesebis darRvevis analogs warmoadgens. usamarTlo TamaSis magaliTiT ufro advilia korufciis arsis ganmarteba da imis Cveneba,
Tu rogor irRveva adamianis uflebebi.
danarTi
TamaSis wesebi
TiToeuli moTamaSe rig-rigobiT iRebs erT karts. ra unda moimoqmedos Semdgom damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra karti Sexvda:
guli – erTi kanfeti unda misces marjvniv mjom moTamaSes;
jvari – erTi kanfeti unda misces marcxniv mjdom moTamaSes;
aguri – kanfeti magidis centrSi mdgom WurWelSi unda Cados;
yvavi – SeuZlia ori kanfeti aiRos. Tu WurWeli Tavisufalia, SeuZlia nebismieri moTamaSis kanfeti aiRos;
visac kanfetebi gauTavdeba TamaSs tovebs. Tumca, SeuZlia magidasTan darCes da daelodos, rodis miiRebs kanfets zemoT xsenebuli wesis mixedviT.
TamaSis bolos maswavlebeli acxadebs, rom is iyo saukeTeso moTamaSe da yvela kanfets Tavad iRebs.
gamarjvebulad iTvleba is moTamaSe, romelsac yvelaze meti kanfeti aqvs TamaSis dasrulebis Semdeg.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
TamaSi `mogzauroba~; varianti (a)
es Cveulebrivi samagido TamaSia: TiToeuli monawile kamaTels agorebs da
Tavis figuras imdeni nabijiT gadaadgilebs win, ramdeni qulac miiRo. Tu figura im mindorze aRmoCndeba, sadac miTiTebulia ukusvla, ukan brundeba. finiSis mindorze figura maSin xvdeba, rodesac qulebis raodenoba im nabijebis raodenobas emTxveva, rac finiSamdea darCenili. Tu qulebi nabijebis raodenobaze metia, figura gadaadgildeba finiSamde da ukan brundeba imdeni
nabijiT, ramdeni qulac iyo zedmeti.
TamaSi jgufebSi mimdinareobs. gamarjvebulad is gundi iTvleba, romelic yvela figuras finiSamde miitans.
gundis wevrebi kamaTels erTi da igive TanmimdevrobiT isvrian. Tanmimdevrobis cvla dauSvebelia, Tu figurebis mdebareoba sxva moTamaSisaTvis xelsayrelia (magaliTad, mas ar dasWirdeba ukan dabruneba da maSinve moxvdeba
finiSis mindorze)
TamaSi `mogzauroba~; varianti (b)
es Cveulebrivi samagido TamaSia: TiToeuli monawile kamaTels agorebs da
Tavis figuras imdeni nabijiT gadaadgilebs win, ramdeni qulac miiRo. Tu figura im mindorze aRmoCndeba, sadac miTiTebulia ukusvla, ukan brundeba. finiSis mindorze figura maSin xvdeba, rodesac qulebis raodenoba im nabijebis raodenobas emTxveva, rac finiSamdea darCenili. Tu qulebi nabijebis raodenobaze metia, figura gadaadgileba finiSamde da ukan brundeba imdeni nabijiT, ramdeni qulac iyo zedmeti.
TamaSi jgufebSi mimdinareobs. gamarjvebulad is gundi iTvleba, romelic yvela figuras finiSamde miitans.
gundis wevrebi kamaTels erTi da igive TanmimdevrobiT isvrian.
TamaSi `mogzauroba~; meTvalyuris instruqcia
es Cveulebrivi samagido TamaSia: TiToeuli monawile kamaTels agorebs da
Tavis figuras imdeni nabijiT gadaadgilebs win, ramdeni qulac miiRo. Tu figura im mindorze aRmoCndeba, sadac miTiTebulia ukusvla, ukan brundeba. finiSis mindorze figura maSin xvdeba, rodesac qulebis raodenoba im nabijebis raodenobas emTxveva, rac finiSamdea darCenili. Tu qulebi nabijebis raodenobaze metia, figura gadaadgileba finiSamde da ukan brundeba imdeni nabijiT, ramdeni qulac iyo zedmeti.
TamaSi jgufebSi mimdinareobs. gamarjvebulad is gundi iTvleba, romelic yvela figuras finiSamde miitans.
gundis wevrebi kamaTels erTi da igive TanmimdevrobiT isvrian. Tanmimdevrobis cvla dauSvebelia, Tu figurebis mdebareoba sxva moTamaSisaTvis xelsayrelia (magaliTad, mas ar dasWirdeba ukan dabruneba da maSinve moxvdeba
finiSis mindorze). Seni amocanaa – Tvalyuri adevno imas, Tu rogor sruldeba es moTxovnebi. amis gakeTeba rom SeZlo, kargad daimaxsovre, romeli figuriT TamaSobs TiToeuli moTamaSe. CainiSne TiToeuli darRveva.
Sen ar gaqvs ufleba CaerTo TamaSSi, gaakeTo komentarebi, SeniSvna misce
moTamaSes sityvierad, JestiT an mimikiT.
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema
`masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebi~
avtori: elena Jukauskene, Saulaiskis saSualo skolis maswavlebeli.
X klasi
saTebis raodenoba: 2 saaTi
sagani: samoqalaqo ganaTleba
miznebi da amocanebi: moswavleebi gaigeben masobrivi informaciis cnebas
da mis sainformacio funqciebs. gaecnobian informaciis mopovebis saSualebebs. CamouyalibdebaT kritikuli damokidebuleba mopovebul informaciaze.
TvalsaCinoeba (damxmare masala)
• litvis respublikis konstitucia.
• Zaleckiene I. Mes: pilietines visuomenes pagrindai: vadovelis 10 kl. –Vilnius: Homo
•
liberr, 1999.
publikaciebi.
meTodebi: diskusia, dokumentebze damoukiudebeli muSaoba.
I gakveTilis msvleloba
1. terminis – `masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi~ mniSvneloba dafaze
iwereba.
2. ganixileba:
a) masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis simboloebi (adamiani . . . xelSi) – moswavleebi amTavreben frazas.
b) masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis daniSnuleba (masalebi litvis konstituciidan).
g) masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis funqciebi: sainformacio,
kulturuli da gasarTobi.
3. moswavleebi damoukideblad muSaoben masalebze.
4. moswavleebi ayeneben moTxovnebs: informaciisadmi (obieqturoba), SemecnebiT-gasarTobi funqciebisadmi (dasveneba, axali ambebis gacnoba, idealebis da faseulobebis formireba, sulieri samyaros gamdidreba, sazogadoebrivi faseulobebis gacxadeba, dadebiTi magaliTebis
demonstracia da a. S.)
5. ganixileba masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebis saxeebi: presa, radio, televizia.
6. moswavleebi avseben kiTxvars (ix. danarTi).
7. eZlevaT saSinao davaleba: TiToeulma moswavlem unda moipovos aqtualuri statia adgilobriv presaSi. davalebis Sesasruleblad eZlevaT erTi kvira.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
II gakveTilis msvleloba
1. ganixileba Sevsebuli kiTxvarebi da gamovlenili Sedegebi. ikveTeba
mniSvnelovani aspeqtebi da moswavleTa damokidebuleba masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebisadmi. ZiriTadi moTxovnebi dafaze iwereba:
obieqturoba, masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebis dominanturoba,
mniSvneloba, gadmocemis mxatvruli saxe da a. S.
2. moswavleTa mier SerCeuli statiebidan presis erTkviriani mimoxilva keTdeba.
3. gamoiyofa dominanturi Temebi da beWdviTi gamocemebi:
• qalaqis politika;
• sporti;
• saskolo cxovreba;
• axalgazrduli problemebi;
• kriminaluri qronika;
• kultura da ganaTleba;
• skandaluri isotriebi;
• sxva informaciebi.
4. vlindeba, ra ufro aRelvebs dRevandel axalgazrdobas. imarTeba diskusia Temaze: `Cveni qalaqis presa~. SesaZlo kiTxvebi diskusiisaTvis:
• rogoria Cemi qalaqi;
• am kviris umniSvnelovanesi movlenebi;
• rogor xdeba informaciis miwodeba;
• obieqturoba qalaqis presaSi;
• presa korufciis winaaRmdeg (moyvanili magaliTebi);
• sazogadoeba: qalaqis cxovrebis monawile, Tu damkvirvbeli?
• ras virCev: presas, radios Tu televizias?
5. daskvnebi Tavad moswavleebs gamoaqvT: sajarooba korufciasTan
brZolis erT-erTi pirobaa.
antikorufciul ganaTlebasTan kavSiri: moswavleebi swavloben faqte-
bisa da movlenebis Sefasebas, gaanalizebas, SesaZlo Sedegebis gansazRvras.
msjeloben, rogor SeiZleba masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebiT korufciasTan brZola.
danarTi
`masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebi~
kiTxvari
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
ra dros uTmob dRis ganmavlobaSi presas, radios, televizias?
masobrivi informaciis saSualebebSi romels aniWeb upiratesobas?
romel gazeTebs kiTxulob?
romel radios usmen?
romel satelevizio arxebs uyureb?
masobrivi informaciis romeli saSualeba gaZlevs ufro amomwurav
informacias?
7. romeli radio an satelevizio gadacemaa SenTvis ufro saintereso?
8. rogori saxis informaciebs iReb am gadacemebidan?
9. endobi Tu ara miRebul informacias?
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
10. rogori damokidebuleba gaqvs TviTnebobisa da Zaladobis scenebis mimarT?
11. rogori satelevizio (an radio) gadacemebis naklebobas grZob?
12. aris Tu ara yvela informacia obieqturi?
13. daasaxele yvelaze obieqturi gadacema
14. daasaxele gadacema, romelic Sen ar mogwons
15. rogoria sazogadoebis roli masobriv sainformacio saSualebebSi:
aqtiuri (monawileobs, wers, diskutirebs), pasiuri (mxolod kiTxulobs, Tvalyurs adevnebs).
16. ra rols asrulebs masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebi korufciis
gamovlenaSi?
17. SesaZlebelia Tu ara korufcia presaSi, televiziaSi, radioSi?
18. saWiroa Tu ara informaciis sajarooba?
19. daasaxele Seni yvelaze sayvareli Jurnalisti.
Tema
`korufcia~
avtori: daiva vilaikene, ”aJuolinas~ saSualo skolis istoriis maswav-
lebeli.
X klasi
saaTebis raodenoba: 2 saaTi
mizani da amocanebi: moswavleebma imsjelon korufciis cnebaze da misi
warmoqmnis istoriul pirobebze; gaaanalizon korufciis warmoqmnis mizezebi da Sedegebi; masTan brZolis meTodebi da saSualebebi; ganuviTardeT
kritikuli azrovneba.
damxmare masala: Teoriuli masala, ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni.
meTodebi: aqtiuri leqcia, diskusia, jgufuri muSaoba.
I gakveTilis msvleloba
1. gakveTilis dasawyisSi irkveva ra ician moswavleebma korufciisa da
misi arsis Sesaxeb. maswavlebeli informacias aqtiuri leqciis saxiT
awvdis. moswavleebs diskusiisaTvis Semdegi SekiTxvebi eZlevaT:
• SeuZlia Tu ara korufcias adamianis interesebis Selaxva?
• vlindeba Tu ara litvaSi korufciis faqtebi?
• SesaZlebelia Tu ara korufciis aRmofxvra?
2. moswavleebs davalebaT eZlevaT gaarkvion ojaxis wevrebis damokidebuleba korufciis mimarT:
• romel sferoSi Warbobs korufcia?
• korufciasTan brZolis ra meTodebs gvTavazoben ufrosebi?
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
II gakveTilis msvleloba
klasi jgufebad iyofa. TiToeuli jgufi furclebze wers ojaxSi Catarebuli gamokiTxvis Sedegad miRebul informacias. mniSvnelovani mosazrebebi dafaze iwereba. amis Semdeg, xdeba profesiebis jgufebze gadanawileba
(magaliTad: eqimebis jgufi, mosamarTleebis jgufi da a. S.) moswavleebi jgufebSi msjeloben da SeimuSaveben aRniSnul sferoebSi korufciasTan brZolis xerxebsa da saSualebebs. gakveTilis bolos jgufebi warmoadgenen prezentaciebs da imarTeba argumentirebuli msjeloba.
antikorufciul ganaTlebasTan kavSiri: moswavleebi sakuTari, mSoblebisa da ufrosebis Sexedulebebis analizis safuZvelze, cdiloben gaarkvion ra aris korufcia da ra mohyveba mas Sedegad. gamoTqvamen sakuTar mosazrebebs, argumentirebulad msjeloben da gamoaqvT daskvnebi.
Tema
`korufcia litvaSi~
avtori: neringa bitkovene, kedainskis saSualo skolis maswavlebeli.
X klasi
saaTebis raodenoba: 2 saaTi
sagani: samoqalaqo ganaTleba
miznebi:
1. moswavleebma gamoavlinon korufciis mizezebi litvaSi.
2. iswavlon sxvadasxva dokumentur wyaroze muSaoba.
gamoyenebuli literatura
• Ališauskiene R. Korupcija kaip pokomunistines visuomenes bruožas (Vilniaus universi•
•
•
•
•
tetas, “Baltijos tyrimai / GALLUP“).
Trumpa U. Korupcijos šaknu šalinimas – efektyvios kovos su korupcija pagrindai
(moxseneba konferenciaze `marTvis reformebidan korufciasTan
efeqtur brZolamde~, vilniusi, 20 ivnisi 2001 w.)
litvis korufciuli ruka, 2001
davalebis baraTebi
cxrili `korufciis aRqmis indeqsi TI, 2002~
Skaistys A. Korupcijos poveikis nacionaliniam saugumui.
meTodebi: mcire jgufebSi muSaoba, eqspertiza.
I gakveTilis msvleloba
1. moswavleebi 5 jgufad iyofian (3 wuTi).
2. maswavlebeli jgufebs statiebs da davalebis baraTebs urigebs. moswavleebi warmodgenil masalebs ecnobian da davalebis baraTs avseben
(20 wT; ix. davalebis baraTi).
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
3. jgufebi TavianT namuSevrebs warmoadgenen da maT dafaze gamofenen
(10 wuTi):
I jgufi – korufciis monawileebi;
II jgufi – korufciis gamomwvevi mizezebi;
III jgufi – korufciis gamovlinebebi;
IV jgufi – xelisuflebasa da sazogadoebaSi yvelaze korumpirebuli
sferoebi;
V jgufi – korufciis donis Semcirebis saSualebebi;
4. maswavlebeli ganazogadebs masalas da moswavleebTan erTad ganixilavs cxrils – `korufciuli aRqmis indeqsi TI, 2002~.
II gakveTilis msvleloba
1. jgufebis mier Sesrulebuli samuSaoebis mokle mimoxilva (5 wuTi).
2. maswavlebeli jgufebs sTxovs Seavson cxrili `korufciis Sedegad miRebuli sargebeli da ziani~ (20 wT. ix. cxrili).
3. jgufebi sakuTar namuSevrebs warmoadgenen. maTi naazrevebiT ivseba
dafaze gakruli cxrili – `korufciis Sedegad miRebuli sargebeli
da ziani~ (10 wT.).
4. imarTeba diskusia: `korufcia sasargebloa, Tu mavne?~ (10 wT.).
I jgufi – vin ufro metad aris gareuli korufciaSi?
II jgufi – risTvis mimarTaven korufcias?
III jgufi – rogor da raSi vlindeba korufcia?
IV jgufi – romel sferoSia ufro metad gavrcelebuli korufcia?
V jgufi – rogor SevamciroT korufciis done?
danarTi
korufcia
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
korufciis Sedegad miRebuli sargebeli da ziani
vin?
sargebeli
materialuri
moraluri
ziani
materialuri
moraluri
qrTamis gamcemi
qrTamis amRebi
saxelmwifo
sazogadoeba
Tema
`ras warmoadgens TavisTavad korufcia?~
avtori: neringa botkovene, istoriis maswavlebeli; iurate blinstrubai-
te, istoriis maswavlebeli; violeta vaitkiaviCene, eTikis maswavlebeli.
X klasi
miznebi
1. korufciis monawileTa gamovlena – maTi miswrafebebi da qmedebebi;
2. TanamSromlobis unaris ganviTareba;
3. Sesaswavli movlenebis mizezebisa da Sedegebis gaazreba.
damxmare masala: flomasterebi da furclebi, dasarigebeli masala – `korufciis gansazRvreba~.
meTodebi: gonebrivi ieriSi
muSaobis forma: individualuri da jgufuri
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. maswavlebeli dafaze wers termins `korufcia~ da moswavleebs sTxovs
sakuTari azrebi gamoTqvan, ra asociaciebi gauCndaT korufciasTan
dakavSirebiT. maT naazrevebs dafaze afiqsirebs. (daaxloebiT 3 wT.).
2. amis Semdeg, moswavleebi 5-6 kacian jgufebad iyofian. maswavlebeli
maT flomasterebs da furclebs urigebs da sqemis Sevsebas sTxovs
(15 wT.).
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
k
o
r
u
f
c
i
a
monawileebi
miswrafebebi, miznebi
qmedeba
Sedegi
3. jgufebi TavianT namuSevrebs warmoadgenen da prezentaciebs akeTeben (daaxloebiT 10 wT.)
4. jgufebSi muSaoba: furclebze warmodgenili inrformaciis safuZvelze formulirdeba korufciis arsi, monawileebi, maTi miznebi, qmedebebi da Sedegebi (daaxloebiT 5wT.).
5. maswavlebeli moswavleebs masalas urigebs – `korufciis gansazRvreba~ da sTxovs, TavianTi namuSevrebi masalaSi mocemul gansazRvrebas
Seadaron.
6. gakveTilis bolos imarTeba diskusia (daaxloebiT 5 wT.).
Tema
`TanamSromlis samsaxurSi miReba~
avtori: vaiva vaicekauskene, ganaTlebis ganviTarebis centris monitorin-
gis ganyofilebis ufrosi specialisti.
X klasi
sagani: samoqalaqo ganaTleba.
miznebi da amocanebi
1. gairkves, Tu ra principebiT unda xdebodes samsaxurSi TanamSromlis
miReba;
2. moswavleebma siRrmiseulad gaiazron samarTlianobis da usamarTlobis cnebebi.
damxmare masala:
• moTxroba `TiTqmis deteqtiuri istoria~;
• savarjiSo – `skolis pativcemuli direqtori~
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
meTodebi: dikusia, analizi, Txroba, mcire jgufebSi muSaoba.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. moswavleebi jgufebSi kiTxuloben moTxrobas – `TiTqmis deteqtiuri istoria~. kiTxvis dasrulebis Semdeg jgufis TiToeul wevrs SeuZlia gamoTqvas varaudi, Tu ra moxa sinamdvileSi, an dasvas kiTxvebi. maswavlebli maT mokled pasuxobs: `diax~, `ara~, `sworia~ an `ar aris
swori~. SesaZlebelia, aseve miniSnebebi misces:
• asaks, garegnobas, samoss da erovnebas araviTari mniSvneloba ara
aqvs;
• yvela kandidatma erTnairad kargad Seavso anketa;
• xelmZRvaneli arcerT kandidats ar icnobda.
moswavleebi iqamde fiqroben, sanam situacias ar gamoicnoben. Tu isini ver mivlen swor pasuxamde, maswavlebeli Tavad eubneba, ra moxda
sinamdvileSi.
2. dafaze Camoiwereba jgufebis mier warmoTqmuli yvela miniSneba da TiToeuli maTgani ganixileba:
• yvelaze metad raSi iyo eWvmitanili damsaqmebeli da dasaqmebuli?
• ra aris am eWvis safuZveli.
3. TiToeulma moswavlem unda:
a) Camoweros misTvis cnobili, an savaraudo xerxebi, romlebsac xelmZRvanelebi iyeneben TanamSromlis samuSaoze miRebis dros.
b) mocemuli nusxidan SearCios meTodebi, romlebiTac Tavad isargeblebda, Tu samsaxurSi TanamSromlis miReba mouwevda.
g) imsjelos da SearCios, Tavad ra meTodebiTa da kriteriumebiT surs
miiRon samsaxurSi.
moswavleTa pasuxebi qvemoT warmodgenil cxrilSi iwereba (Sevseba Sua
svetidan iwyeba, marcxena da marjvena svetebSi ki mxolod radikalis
niSani iwereba)
b. me rom damsaqmebeli
viyo, TanamSromels
Semdegnairad miviRebdi:
a. damsaqmeblebi axal
TanamSromlebs eZeben/
iReben samsaxurSi...:
g. samsaxurs rom
veZebde, visurvebdi,
miReba yofiliyo ...:
9
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
4. moswavleebi jgufebSi nawildebian, kiTxuloben da Sevsebul cxrilebs
erTmaneTs ucvlian.
5. TiToeul jgufs davalebad eZleva Semdeg SekiTxvebs upasuxon:
• rogor unda xdebodes saxelmwifo samsaxurSi TanamSromlis miReba?
• unda gansxvavdebodes Tu ara saxelmwifo samsaxurSi da kerZo sturqturaSi samuSaoze miRebis procedurebi? ratom?
SekiTxvebze pasuxebs da TavianT argumenrtebs jgufebi mTel klass
warudgenen.
6. TiToeul moswavles maswavlebeli urigebs savarjiSos furcels – `pativcemuli direqti~ da anketis Sevsebas sTxovs.
savarjiSos daniSnulebaa – kritikuli TviTanalizi.
danarTi
TiTqmis deteqtiuri istoria
es ambavi XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi moxda. erT kacs muSaobis dawyeba
undoda patara dawesebulebaSi. gamocxadebuli vakansiis Sesaxeb informacia gancxadebidan miiRo. rodesac xmaurian dawesebulebaSi mivida, mdivanma mas anketa miawoda Sesavsebad da sTxova Tavis rigs dalodeboda.
mis win kidev oTxi kandidati ijda. moulodnelad, oriode wuTis Semdeg,
igi adga da xelmZRvanelis kabinetSi Sevida, ris Semdegac xelmZRvanelma
sxva kandidatebs acnoba, rom man TanamSromeli ukve aiyvana. kandidatebi
aRSfoTdnen. isini mxolod maSin damSviddnen, rodesac xelmZRvanelma
auxsna maT, Tu ratom SearCia swored es kandidati.
Tqveni azriT, ratom moxda ase?
pasuxi: es xmauriani dawesebuleba telegrafi iyo (es xom XIX saukunis pir-
veli naxevaria). xelmZRvaneli telegrafists eZebda. es adamiani erTaderTi aRmoCnda, romelmac aseT xmaurSi gaigo `morzes anbaniT~ gadmocemuli cnoba: `mivmarTav misaRebSi msxdom kandidatebs! Tu gesmiT Cemi,
dauyonebliv SemodiT kabinetSi~. amgvarad, Semowmda kandidatis profesiuli unarebi.
savarjiSo: xSirad damsaqmebelebi TanamSromlebs samsaxurSi rekomenda-
ciebis safuZvelze iyvanen. warmoidgineT, rom erT mSvenier dRes, Tqveni skolis direqtori aseT werils iRebs:
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
pativcemulo direqtoro,
Tqveni skolis yofili moswavle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . samuSaos
eZebs im kompaniaSi, romelsac me vxelmZRvanelob. CemTvis cnobilia, rom
axalgazrdebs ise kargad aravin icnobs, rogorc maTi maswavleblebi.
did daxmarebas gagviwevT, Tu ramdenime SekiTxvaze gvipasuxebT da am
axalgazrdas dagvixasiaTebT. Tqvns mier mowodebuli informacia konfidencialuri iqneba da mxolod imisaTvis gamoviyenebT, rom obieqturad SevafasoT, ramdenad Seefereba kandidati am Tanamdebobas.
daxasiaTeba
ramdeni weli icnobdiT xsenebul pirs? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
rogor daaxasiaTebdiT mas? gTxovT, SemoxazoT Sesaferisi Tviseba da
Tqveni mosazreba daasabuToT:
a. patiosani/upatiosno
...............................................
b. Sromismoyvare/zarmaci.
...............................................
g. jgufSi muSaobis unari:
jgufSi yovelTvis kargad muSaobs/zogjer kargad muSaobs /
ver egueba jgufis wevrebs
d. jgufSi muSaobis wesebi (SeiZleba ramdenime pasuxi aRniSnoT):
a) exmareba sxvebs / ar exmareba
b) nerviulobs, wuxs, ganicdis saerTo samuSaos Sedegebs / wuxs mxolod sakuTar warmatebaze / saerTod ar aRelvebs Sedegebi.
g) TanamSromlobs / konkurencias uwevs.
e. lideris Tvisebebi:
a) miiswrafvis xelmZRvanelobisaken / ara aqvs xelmZRvanelobisadmi midrekileba / zogjer liderobs.
b) SeuZlia saerTo saqmis da sxvisi pasuxismgeblobis sakuTar Tavze aReba / ar iRebs pasuxismgeblobas sakuTar Tavze.
am anketis Sevsebisas ras dawerdnen Tqvenze maswavleblebi, an direqtori?
69
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema `korufciasTan brZola~
avtori: daiva truCinske, anastasia baranuskasis aniSCaiskis saSualo skolis istoriis maswavlebeli
gankuTvnilia: XI-XII klasebisaTvis
sagani: politologia
miznebi
1. moswavleebs gavacnoT korufciasTan brZolis meTodebi;
2. gavaanalizoT, rom TiToeul Cvenganzea damokidebuli korufciis
`ayvavebis~ masStabebi;
3. vaswavloT, cxovrebaSi swori/marTebuli gadawyvetilebebis miReba.
damxmare masala
• Petkevičiute A. Shell kompanijos patirtis kovojant su korupcija (moxseneba
•
konferenciaze `marTvis reformebidan korufciasTan efeqtur
brZolamde~, vilniusi, 20 ivnisi 2001 w.)
sqema – `korufciasTan brZolis gasaRebi~
meTodebi da muSaobis forma: dokumentebis damuSaveba, wyvilebSi muSaoba.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. gakveTilis dasawyisSi moswavleebi ecnobian cnebebs: `kanoni~, `qrTami~, `arCeva~, `danaSauli~, `gamdidrebisaken swrafva~.
2. TamaSi: `gauziare megobars~ – moswavleebi or wres kraven da erTmaneTis pirispir dgebian. wyvilebi erTmaneTSi ganixilaven cnebebs, magaliTad, `qrTami~. terminis gansazRvris Semdeg, gare wre datrialdeba da meore mewyvilesTan erTad sxva cneba ganixileba. wre iqamde
brunavs, sanam yvela cnebis ganxilva ar moxdeba.
3. TamaSis dasrulebis Semdeg moswavleebi, maswavlebelTan erTad, ganxilul cnebebs ganazogadeben. maswavlebeli yuradRebas amaxvilebs im
faqtze, rom yvela ganxiluli termini dakavSirebulia `korufciis~ cnebasTan. diskusiis Semdeg, dafaze korufciis gansazRvreba iwereba.
4. am gakveTilis Temaa - `korufciis winaaRmdeg brZola~, amitom udidesi yuradReba eTmoba masTan brZolis saSualebebsa da meTodebs.
dokumentebze muSaoba
moswavleebi moxsenebas jgufebSi kiTxuloben da korufciasTan brZolis
saSualebebs adgenen.
moswavleebi ecnobian `kompania Sellis korufciasTan brZolis gamocdilebas~:
`koncerni `Selli grupi~ samewarmeo saqmianobas msoflios 130 qveyanaSi
eweva <...> xangrZlivi moRvaweobis periodSi Sell-ma korufciasTan
brZolis politika SeimuSava <...>
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
kompaniaSi `wmendis~ Casatareblad Sell-is xelmZRanelobam, upirvelesad, biznes jgufis saerTo principebi aRadgina. isini gamoiyeneba aramarto kompaniis SigniT, aramed klientebTan, saxelmwifo organoebTan
da momwodeblebTan mimarTebaSic. <...>
ra principebia eseni? araferi gansakuTrebuli: momxmareblebs SesTavazon momsaxurebis maRali done da xarisxiani produqcia, ar daarRvion
qveynis kanonmdebloba, daicvan aqcionerebis investiciebi, awarmoon kerZo da `sufTa~ samewarmeo saqmianoba Tavisufali konkurenciis pirobebSi, <...> aucilebelia, saTanadod gakontroldes, icaven Tu ara kompaniis warmomadgenlebi dadgenil principebs.
yovelwliurad, TiToeuli muSaki valdebulia xeli moaweros samuSao
SeTanxmebas. agreTve, Sell-is biznes principebis darRvevis faqtebi xelmZRvanelobas acnobos.
1998 wels `Sell report~-is gamocema daiwyo. misi erT-erTi mTavari
mizania – ganxorcielebuli saqmianobebisa da sakuTar Tavze aRebuli moveleobebis Sesaxeb Semajamebeli angariSi warmoadginos. <...> rogorc
ityobinebian, 2000 wels 400-mde qrTamis aRebis SemTxveva gamovlinda,
(1999 wels mxolod 3 SemTxveva dafiqsirda), ris Sedegadac samuSaodan
Svidi TanamSromeli daiTxoves. qrTamis odenobam 89 000 dolari Seadgina. bevria es Tu cota 130 qveynisa da 90 000 muSakisaTvis? . . .
kompaniaSi Catarebuli wmendis Semdegac ki advili ar aris daumtkico
sazogadoebas, rom korumpirebuli ar xar <...>. dRes, Svidi wlis moRvaweobis Semdeg, Cven Tamamad SegviZlia ganvacxadoT, rom litvaSi SesaZlebelia patiosani, eTikuri biznes principebis Tanaxmad muSaoba <...>.
martivi magaliTi: 1996-97 wlebSi, yoveldRiuri gazeTebi aWrelebuli iyo
statiebiT koncern “maJeikiu nafta~-s umoqmedobaze da benzingasamarT
sadgurebze sawvavis maragis Semcirebaze. erT diliT benzingasamarT sadgurze erT-erTi saxelmwifo moxele mivida ori oclitriani WurWliT da
xmamaRla gamoacxada, rom sawvavis Semowmebas apirebda. ras akeTebs am
dros benzingasamarTi sadguris xelmZRvaneli? yvelaze martivi iqneboda WurWeli aevso da Tavazianad eTxova, sadguri ar SeemowmebinaT. am SemTxvevaSi xelmZRvanelic mSviad aris da Semmowmebelic. Tumca, benzingasamarTi sadguris xelmZRvanelma mas TiTo litri Causxa (kargad icoda,
rom SemowmebisaTvis sakamarisi iyo erTi litri sawvavi) da mSvidad moismina 15 wuTis ganamavlobaSi saxelmwifo moxelis xmamaRla gamoTqmuli
ukmayofileba da muqara, jarimis dakisrebis Taobaze. rogor fiqrobT,
dajarimda amis Semdeg `Sell litva~ sawvavis uxarisxobis gamo? ra Tqma
unda, ara. moindomebda is saxelmwifo moxele odesme imave benzingasamarT
sadgurze mibrunebas? ra Tqma unda, ara. xolo, Tu sadguris xelmZRvaneli pirvel variants airCevda da orive WurWels piramde aavsebda, `xarisxis Semmowmebeli~ mas kidev araerTxel estumreboda.
kidev erTi magaliTi, `Sell grupis~ saqmianobidan. aziis erT-erT qveyanaSi, gazis warmoebis platformis mSeneblobis dawyebamde saWiro gaxda Sveulmfrenis importireba, rac akrZaluli ar aris, radgan adgilze
misi daqiraevba rTulia. magram, aris kidev erTi niuansi: sabaJo samsaxurSi saSineli biurokratiaa – importirebamde aucilebeblia rigSi Cadgoma da amis Semdeg, kidev sami Tve unda elodo dokumentebis gaformebas.
71
72
antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Sveulmfrenis Semotanamde ki ori Tvis lodini iqneboda saWiro. erTi
TviT Seferxeba 2 milioni dolaris zarals iwvevda. sabaJos moxeleebisadmi pirveladma mimarTvam naTlad warmoaCina, rom damatebiTi safasuris gareSe `rigi ufro swrafad~ ar amoZravdeboda. `gverdis avlisaTvis~ ki damatebiTi Tanxis gaReba praqtikulad SeuZlebeli iyo <...> rogor SevuTanxmoT biznes-principebi saboloo Sedegebs? <...>
`Sell grupma~ problemis mogvareba patiosani gziT arCia. sabaJos
arcerTi moxele ar mousyidiaT, amitom Sveulmfrenis importi didxans
gagrZelda. saWiro gaxda zaralis oficialurad dafiqsireba. Tumca,
erTi detali ar unda daviviwyoT: im qveyanaSi `Sellis~ aqciebis 50%-s
saxelmwifo flobda. aqciebis aseTi Tanafardoba rogorc mogebis, aseve
zaralis Tanabrad gadanawilebas gulisxmobda. rogorc ki saxelmwifom
erTi milioniT izarala, maSinve daiwyo sabaJo sistemis reforma. naxevari wlis Semdeg, qveyanaSi sabaJo procedurebis gavla imdenad gamartivda, rom saerTod aRar iyo saWiro rigSi Cadgoma <...>
dokumenturi masalis gacnobis Semdeg moswavleebi davalebas asruleben:
`korufciasTan brZolis gasaRebi~. isini `gasaRebis~ cariel ujrebSi kompania `Sell~-is mier gamoyenebul, korufciasTan brZolis xerxebsa da meTodebs weren. bolos imarTeba diskusia.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
eTika, fsiqologia, religia
Tema
`piradi pasuxismgebloba – pasuxi ago sakuTar
da sxvebis qmedebebze~
avtori: ladas vaijulisi, eTikis maswavlebeli.
VI klasi
miznebi da amocanebi
1. sakuTar qmedebebze da qcevebze pasuxismgeblobis aReba.
2. diskusiis warmarTvisa da argumentirebis unaris ganviTareba.
meTodebi: Txroba, saubari, diskusia.
damxmare masala
• Etika 5–6 klasei. Demesys kitiems. – Vilnius: Alma littera, 1997.
• saskolo istoriebi
ZiriTadi cnebebi: me-5-6 klasebis moswavleebisaTvis korufciis cneba Se-
iZleba nawilobriv Seicvalos Semdegi analogiebiT: `gamoyeneba~, `momsaxurebis safasuri~, `dapireba~, `raimes molodini~, `maameblobis survili~.
gakveTilis msvleloba
maswavlebeli moswavleebs istorias mouTxrobs `gadaweraze~ (istoria exeba gadaweras, gadaweraze nebarTvas, zewolas, raTa neba darTon, rom gadaiweros da masTan dakavSirebul problemebs).
maswavlebeli moswavleebs SekiTxvebs usvams:
kargia es Tu cudi?
vin aris amaSi damnaSave?
SeiZleba orive damnaSave iyos?
vin aris ufro metad damnaSave?
riT SeiZleba es dasruldes?
risTvis iweren?
ratom rTaven gadaweris nebas?
diskusiis dros maswavlebeli cdilobs saubari Semdegi Temebisken mimarTos: sasargeblo da saziano; sxavaTa `gamoyeneba~ raRacis gamorCenis mizniT; rogor ar davuSvaT, rom vinmem `gamogviyenos~. sabolood saubari imarTeba – ras niSnavs iyo sakuTar Tavze da sxvebze pasuxismgebeli.
73
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema
`Sinagani pirovnuli konfliqtebi~
avtori: regina dirginCene, maJeiskis saSualo skolis eTikis maswavlebeli.
VIII klasi
miznebi da amocanebi
• moswavleebi gaecnobian, ra igulisxmeba cnebaSi - `Sinagani konfliqti~;
• gaiazreben, rogor unda daZlion Sinagani konfliqtebi;
• CauRrmavdebian sakuTar pirovnul Tvisebebs, survilebsa da Sinagan
•
konfliqtebs;
gaaanalizeben Sinagan pirovnul konfliqtebsa da korufciis movlenas Soris urTierTkavSirs.
damxmare saSualebebi
• Dirginčiene R., Saulyte A. Bendravimo etika: mokomoji knyga 8 klasei. – Šiauliai: K.
J. Vasiliausko im., 2003, ńňp. 105–106.
• Dirginčiene R., Saulyte A. Bendravimo etika: pratybu sąsiuvinis 8 klasei. – Šiauliai, K.
J. Vasiliausko im. 2003, ńňp. 78–80.
meTodebi: aqtiuri leqcia, diskusia, roluri TamaSi.
gakveTilis msvleloba
moswavleebi ecnobian cnebas – `Sinagani konfliqti~. ician, Tu ra igulisxmeba mocemul gamoTqmaSi, kamaToben (an marTaven diskusias), Tu rogor xsnian TavianT Sinagan konfliqtebs, gaiTamaSeben situaciebs, romelSic saWiroa mxari dauWiro Sinagani konfliqtis erT-erT mxares, ganmartaven sakuTari arCevanis motivs. gakveTilze Semdegi situaciebi ganixileba:
`moswavles amerikaSi gamgzavreba surs, risTvisac mas viza esaWiroeba. arsebobs ori varianti:
a. moswavle midis saelCoSi da yvela wesis dacviT cdilobs vizis miRebas, Tumca ar icis gamouva Tu ara es;
b. moswavle qrTams aZlevs konsuls da garantirebulad iRebs vizas.
moswavleebi samuSao rveulSi asruleben davalebas.
ganzogadeba: aRniSnuli gakveTili moswavleebs exmareba ukeT gaiazron sa-
kuTari pirovnuli Taviseburebebi, iseTebic ki, romlebsac isini naklebad
aqceven yuradRebas an saerTod uaryofen.
antikorufciul ganaTlebasTan kavSiri: `Sinagani konfliqtis~ Temis ganxilvisas moswavleebi arkveven korufciasTan damokidebulebas.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
Tema
`rogor vTqvaT – `ara~
avtori: regina dirginCene, maJeiskis saSualo skolis eTikis maswavlebeli.
VIII klasi
miznebi da amocanebi
•
•
•
•
moswavleebma gaacnobieron, ratom uWirT adamianebs uaris Tqma;
gaiazron ras grZnoben adamianebi, rodesac uars eubnebian;
CauRrmavdnen sakuTar Tavs (aseve Tanaklaselebs);
gaarkvion sakuTari damokidebuleba korufciasTan mimarTebaSi, iswavlon uaris Tqma.
damxmare masala
• Dirginčiene R., Saulyte A. Bendravimo etika: mokomoji knyga 8 klasei. – Šiauliai: K.
•
J. Vasiliausko im., 2003, gv. 80–82.
Dirginčiene R., Saulyte A. Bendravimo etika: pratybu sąsiuvinis 8 klasei. – Šiauliai: K.
J. Vasiliausko im. 2003, gv. 60–62.
meTodebi: aqtiuri leqcia, roluri TamaSi, diskusia, dausrulebeli wina-
dadebebis meTodi.
muSaobis forma: jgufuri
gakveTilis msvleloba
aqtiuri leqciis arsi: moswavleebs avuxsanT, rom `ara~-s Tqma niSnavs gaaZliero Sinagani damoukidebloba, iyo iseTi, rogoric sinamdvileSi xar. gakveTilze ganixileba iseTi situaciebi, romlis drosac adamianebs uaris Tqma
uWirT. maswavlebeli moswavleebs ganumartavs, ras niSnavs `ara~-s mdgomareoba. saxemZRvanelodan davalebebi sruldeba:
a) `ara~-s mdgomareoba;
b) rogor vTqvaT uari;
g) `ara, ar SeiZleba!~
davalebis antikorufciul TematikasTan adaptaciis mizniT, Semdegi situaciebi ganixileba:
`minda maTematikaSi gamocda warmatebiT Cavabaro. sakmarisi codna ar
maqvs, amitom gamocdis win maswavlebels saCuqars mivutan. ara! ar SeiZleba,
es xom qrTamia~.
moswavleebi davalebas samuSao rveulSi asruleben. gakveTilis bolos
tests avseben.
ganzogadeba: varkvevT, SegviZlia Tu ara `uaris~ Tqma, advilia Tu ara amis
gakeTeba.
antikorufciul aRzrdasTan kavSiri: irkveva piradi da sxvebis damoki-
debuleba korufciasTan mimarTebaSi. vswavlobT, rogor unda vuTxraT korufcias `uari~.
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema
`profesiis arCeva~
avtori: vaiva vaicekauskene, ganaTlebis ganviTarebis centris monitorin-
gis ganyofilebis ufrosi specialisti.
IX-X klasebi
sagani: eTika, fsiqologia (SeiZleba gamoviyenoT klasgareSe muSaobis
drosac)
miznebi da amocanebi
1. gairkves is kriteriumebi, romelTa gaTvaliswinebiTac moswavleebi
sakuTar karierul zrdas gegmaven;
2. Sefasdes da ganisazRvros profesiis/samuSaos arCevis kriteriumebi.
damxmare masala
dasarigebeli masala (ix. danarTi).
meTodebi: diskusia, debatebi.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. maswavlebeli moswavleebTan erTad saubrobs profesiis arCevaze (maswavleblis Sexedulebisamebr, konteqstis gaTvalisdwinebiT);
2. moswavleebs urigdeebaT samuSaos arCevis kriteriumebi da davaleba 1, 2;
3. pirvel davalebas moswavleebi individualurad asruleben, ris Semdegac klasSi diskusia imarTeba;
4. me- 2 davalebis individualurad Sesrulebis Semdeg xdeba Sedegebis
Sejereba, anu:
• testis mixedviT moswavleebi iTvlian qulebis jams (ramdeni qula
daagrova TiToeulma maTganma);
• sadac ufro naklebi qula dagrovda, miT ufro metia samuSaos mniSnveloba.
• maswavleblis xelmZRvanelobiT xdeba Sedegebis ganxilva.
5. moswavleebs mesame davaleba eZlevaT, romelic individualurad
sruldeba. magaliTad: me mainteresebs; yvelaze ukeT gamomdis...; minda imdeni gamovimuSao, rom ...; cxovrebas azri aqvs maSin, rodesac . . . ~
cxrilis Sevsebamde, sruldeba davaleba `ra xdis cxovrebas Rirseuls
imisaTvis, rom icxovro?~
6. `debatebi sahaero burTiT frenis dros~. am savarjiSos amocanaa –
moswavleebma Seadaron TavianTi arCeuli profesia sxvebis mier arCeuls, daasabuTon sakuTari arCevani, moiyvanon argumentebi. moswavleebi irCeven maTTvis Sesaferis profesias da Semdeg SekiTxvebze pasuxoben:
• ratom momwons es profesia?
• ra sargebloba moaqvs mas sxva adamianebisa da sazogadoebisaTvis?
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
moswavleebi 5 kacian jgufebad iyofian. maswavlebeli sTxovs, warmoidginon, rom TiToeuli jgufi sahaero burTiT mifrinavs, romelic
Zalze dabla eSveba. masSi mxolod erTi adamiani unda darCes. es adamiani is moswavle iqneba, romelic SeZlebs danarCenebs daumtkicos,
rom mas, rogorc garkveuli profesiis warmomadgenels, ufro meti
sargeblobis motana SeuZlia. TiToeul monawiles sasaubrod 4 wuTi
eZleva. SeTanxmebis gziT Tanaklaselebi gadawyveten 5 mgzavridan romeli unda darCes sahaero burTSi.
7. savarjiSos dasrulebis Semdeg klasSi imarTeba diskusia:
• ra gavige Cemi megobrebis Sesaxeb?
• axali ra aRmovaCine sakuTar TavSi?
antikorufciul ganaTlebasTan kavSiri: prokorufciuli damokidebuleba pirdapirkavSirSia Sromis eTikasTan, razec, Tavis mxriv, gavlenas
axdens TanamSromelTa motivacia. es Tema maswavlebels saSualebas aZlevs
ukeT gaigos, ra motivebiT gegmaven moswavleebi sakuTar karierul zrdas
da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, maT gegmebSi koreqtireba Seitanos.
danarTi
davaleba 1. qvemoT CamoTvlili kriteriumebidan, romels gaiTvaliswinebdiT samuSaos, an profesiis arCevisas?
a.
b.
g.
d.
g.
e.
v.
z.
T.
g.
fiqrob Tu ara moZebnoT iseTi samsaxuri, sadac:
SenTvis saintereso saqmiT iqnebi dakavebuli;
bevri axalgazrda, sasiamovno adamiani muSaobs;
`kargad ixdian~;
cota samuSaoa;
xangrZlivi Sesvenebebia da mokle samuSao kviraa;
muSaobis procesSi mudmivad unda iswavlo (izruno profesiul ganviTarebaze);
xelmZRvanelebi sasiamovno adamianebi arian;
samuSao Sens SesaZleblobebsa da unarebs Seesabameba;
kargadaa mowyobili samuSao garemo;
SeiZleba damatebiTi Semosavalic gqondes.
davaleba 2. prioritetebis mixedviT daalageT is mizezebi, romelTa gamoc adamianebi samuSaos arCeven. danomreT, yvelaze mniSvnelovanidan
umniSvnelosaken.
...... materialurad uzrunvelyo Senze damokidebuli adamianebi;
...... Seqmna raRac kargi, rasac mniSvneloba aqvs Seni qveynisaTvis;
...... gaxde pativcemuli, aRiarebuli, avtoriteti;
...... imuSao Seni mowodebiT;
...... Seiqmna martivi, sasiamovno cxovreba;
...... daicva ojaxuri tradicia, gaamarTlo mSoblebis molodini;
...... uwyvetad izruno profesiul zrdaze.
sxva (CawereT) ............................................................................................................
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
gTxovT, argumentebiT gaamyaroT Tqveni arCevani:
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
davaleba 3. samuSaos/profesiis arCevisas oTxi ZiriTadi kriteriumi gamoiyeneba: interesi, SesaZlebloba/unari, Semosavali, arsi. aRniSnuli
kriteriumebis gamoyenebamde, aucilebelia Tavad gaarkvioT ra gainteresebs – risi keTeba an Sesruleba SegiZlia kargad; rogori Semosavali
ginda gqondes; ra Zens Sens cxovrebas azrs.
me mainteresebs
yvelaze ukeT gamomdis
minda imdeni gamovimuSao, rom:
cxovrebas azri
aqvs, rodesac:
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airCieT da CamowereT ramdenime profesia an saqmianobis saxe. SeafaseT
isini cxrilSi mocemuli kriteriumebis mixedviT.
profesia/
saqmianoba
interesi
SesaZleblobebi
Semosavali
arsi
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antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
risTvis Rirs cxovreba?
davaleba. Tqveni azriT, qvemoT CamoTvlili punqtebidan, risTvis Rirs
cxovreba? SearCieT da prioritetebis mixedviT daalageT:
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adamianebs Soris urTierToba;
danazogi, saxli, koleqcia;
raRacis Seqmna, gamogoneba;
gvaris gagrZeleba;
mogzauroba, aRmoCenebis gakeTeba;
is, rom viRacas uyvarxar;
cnobadoba, avtoriteti;
sxvadasxva interesi (kompiuteri, manqana, magnitofoni, velosipedi da a. S.)
. . . . . . samyaros mSveniereba;
. . . . . . rwmena da maradiuloba.
Tema
`survilebi da moTxovnilebebi~
avtori: graJina grigonene, eleqtrenes `aJolinasis~ saSualo skolis eTi-
kis maswavlebeli
VIII-IX klasi
saaTebis raodenoba: 2 saaTi
miznebi da amocanebi
1. moswavleebma gaarkvion, riT gansxvavdeba moTxovnileba survilisagan.
2. ganixilon moTxovnilebisa da survilis realizaciis SesaZlo xerxebi.
3. gaaanalizon, ras niSnavs survilsa da moTxovnilebas Soris arakeTilsindisieri kavSiri da ras niSnavs, rodesac samsaxureobrivi TanamdebobiT sargeblob.
meTodebi: aqtiuri leqcia, situaciis analizi.
gakveTilis msvleloba
aqtiuri leqcia (10 wT)
maswavlebeli moswavleebs awvdis garkveul gansazRvrebebs survilebsa
da moTxovnilebebze, klasificirebas axdens da ganixilavs maTi realizebis SesaZlo xerxebs.
davaleba 1: moswavleebi adgenen survilebisa da moTxovnilebebis sias
(TiToeulma moswavlem 10 survili unda Camoweros, romlebic maT mniSvnelovnad miaCniaT). davalebis Sesrulebis Semdeg, TiToeuli moswavle misTvis mniSvnelovan survils asaxelebs. maswavlebeli am survilebs
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
dafaze Camowers. moswavleebi dafaze Camoweril nusxas moTxovnilebebisa da survilebis mixedviT ajgufeben. maTi azri SeiZleba yovelTvis
ar eTanxmebodes erTmaneTs. aseT SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba gaimarTos diskusia.
SekiTxvebi diskusiisaTvis:
1. riT gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisagan moTxovnileba da survili?
2. ratom aris mniSvnelovani sxva adamianebis moTxovnilebebze yuradRebis miqceva?
3. aris Tu ara fuli moTxovnileba (an survili)?
4. rogor aris dakavSirebuli moTxovnilebebi da survilebi arakeTilsindisierebasTan, samsaxureobrivi mdgomareobiT sargeblobasTan da
sxva.
maswavlebeli moswavleTa pasuxebs ganazogadebs, ufro Rrmad aanalizebs
moTxovnilebebisa da survilebis kavSirs arakeTilsindisierebasTan, samsaxurebrivi mdgomareobiT sargeblobisas.
davaleba 2: savarjiSo – `situaciebis tomara~. moswavleebi jgufebSi muSaoben. maswavlebeli calkeul furclebze sxvadasxva situacias aRwers
da patara tomaraSi alagebs. moswavleebi tomridan TiTo furcels iReben da mocemul situacias jgufSi ganixilaven, problemis gadaWris gzebs
saxaven. magaliTad:
1. Zalian minda prestiJul skolaSi vswavlobde, magram ar miReben, radgan dabali qulebi maqvs. ra vqna? sad veZebo daxmareba? vin SeZleba
damexmeros?
2. Cveni skolis yvelaze warmatebul moswavleebs SeuZliaT sazafxulo
ardadegebze sazRvargareT bankSi gaemgzavron. me erTi qula makldeba, rom warmatebulTa siaSi movxvde. ra vqna? maqvs Tu ara Sansi banakSi gavemgzavro?
3. mamaCemis manqaniT megobrebi diskotekaze waviyvane. gzaze policiam
gagvaCera. marTvis mowmoba jer ar amiRia. maqvs Tu ara Sansi am situaciidan Tavi daviZvrino? Tu ukeTesia pasuxismgebloba sakuTar Tavze
aviRo?
maswavlebelma SesaZloa moswavleebs sTxovos, Tavad moifiqron situaciebi, romlebic Semdeg mTel klasTan erTad ganixileba.
meore gakveTilis Semdeg maswavlebeli moswavleTa mier warmoTqmul mosazrebebs ganazogadebs.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
Tema
`Rirseuli, kargi cxovrebis cneba~
avtori: graJina grigonene, elektrenis saSualo skolis eTikis maswav-
lebeli.
IX-X klasebi
xangZlivoba: 2 saaTi
miznebi da amocanebi
1. moswavleebma gaaanalizon, riT gansxvavdeba cxovreba `kargi cxovrebisagan“.
2. imsjelon, kargi da patiosani cxovrebis normebisa da principebis Sesaxeb.
3. gaanalizon, socialuri pirobebis gaumjobesebiT, rogor aumjobesebs
adamiani cxovrebis dones.
4. Camoayalibon da gansazRvron Rirseuli cxovrebis cneba.
meTodebi: diskusis, analizi.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. moswavleebma saxlSi unda daweron Txzuleba – `rogor vicxovrebdi~,
an `Cemi cxovreba 20 wlis Semdeg~. maswavlebeli ramdenime moswavles
Txzulebas akiTxebs, xolo danarCenebi Tanaklaselis azrebs aanalizeben.
2. maswavlebeli baltrusa dagilisas (namdvili gvaria k. lakiackasi)
azrebs kiTxulobs: `adamiani TiTqos xea, romelsac Tavadac SeuZlia
aRmocendes (gaizardos), magram movlis gareSe mJave, momwaro, uvargis
nayofs iZleva; imisaTvis, rom misgan tkbili nayofi miviRoT, saWiroa
dargva, damynoba, zedmeti totebis moWra, mrude rom ar gaizardos –
sabjenze mimagreba, morwyva . . . ~ maswavlebeli am sityvebis arss xsnis.
3. davaleba 1: TiToeuli moswavle furcelze 9 mniSvnelovan sagans xatavs. Semdeg, sam naklebmniSvnelovans amoSlis. darCeba 6 sagani. kargad dafiqrdeba da Semdeg kidev 3 sagans waSlis. ase agrZeleben manam,
sanam erTi, yvelaze mniSvnelovani, sagani ar darCeba. TiToeuli maTgani sakuTar naxats uCvenebs Tanaklasels. es savarjiSo moswavleebs
sakuTari Tavis da sxvebis ukeT amocnobaSi exmareba. savarjiSos dasasruls moswavleebi msjeloben TavianT miswrafebebze da miznis miRwevis gzebsa da saSualebebze. maswavlebeli marTavs diskusias SekiTxvaze: yvela xerxi da saSualeba amarTlebs Tu ara mizans?
4. davaleba 2: maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs CamonaTvals (rasac
ufrosebi xSirad eZeben):
• kargi sabavSvo baRi, an ZiZa;
• prestiJuli skola;
• Sesaferisi profesia;
• sasargeblo kavSirebi;
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
• kargi bina;
• ekonomiuri manqana (CamonaTvali SeiZleba gaizardos);
imarTeba diskusia Temaze – ratom xdeba ase?
moswavleebi TavianT azrebs gamoTqvamen – ra surT, risken miiswrafvian, ra sWirdebaT, rogor SeuZliaT TavianTi miznebis miRweva, ra saSualebebi SeiZleba gamoiyenon amisaTvis.
maswavlebeli exmareba moswavleebs Rirseuli cxovrebis cnebis CamoyalibebaSi.
5. davaleba 3: maswavlebeli moswavleebs andazebs, gamonaTqvamebs, igavarakebsa da Tqmulebebs uyveba, moswavleebma ki unda ganmarton, rogor esmiT isini. magaliTad: `xeli xels bans~, `ZaRli ZaRlis tyavs ar
daglejs~, `vaSli xidan Sors ar vardeba~, `wyali qvas lesavs~, `rasac
dasTes, imas moimki~, `cxovrebisgan iReb imdens, ramdensac Cadeb~.
maswavlebels saubari SeumCnevlad miyavs antikorufciuli Tematikisaken, raTa moswavleebma am TvalsazrisiT ganixilon andazebi da
imsjelon.
Tema
`altruizmi, egoizmi~
avtori: griJina grigonene, elektrenskis saSualo skolis eTikis maswav-
lebeli.
IX-X klasebi
miznebi da amocanebi
1. cnebebis – `egoizmi~ da `altruizmi~ gaanalizeba;
2. altruistisa da egoistis Tvisebebis gansazRvra;
3. altruizmis propaganda.
meTodebi: `badis qsova~
muSaobis forma: wyvilebSi muSaoba
gakeTilis msvleloba
maswavlebeli ganazogadebs `altruizmis~ da `egoizmis~ cnebebs. axsenebs
litvis kulturis cnobil moRvawe-altruistebs: simonas daukantas (`Rataki Tagvi~), kazimeras buga (enisaTvis `Tavdaviwyebuli~), maria piaCkauskaite – Satriesi ragana (mfarvelobda oblebs, brZola umecrebasTan, iyo zneobis mqadagebeli) da sxva. maswavlebeli xazs usvams im garemoebas, rom sxvebis daxmareba – keTilSobilebaa, magram altruizmi ar unda iyos gauazrebeli, auwonavi da usazRvro, radgan am qvelmoqmedebis Sedegad mimRebi SeiZleba `parazitad~ iqces da miRebuli sikeTe borotad gamoiyenos. moswavleebs iseTi warmodgena unda SeeqmnaT, rom egoizmi TviTgadarCenis instiqtiT warmoiqmneba, rom admianis sicocxle ar aris usafrTxo da usafrTxoebis pirobebi maT Tavad unda Seqmnan. maswavlebeli ganmartavs, rom zneob-
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
rivi principebidan gamomdinare, adamianis sakuTar Tavze zrunva, swrafva,
rac SeiZleba bevri gamoimuSaos da SeZlebulad icxovros dasaZraxi ar aris,
magram problema SemdegSi mdgomareobs: am miznis misaRwevad nawilobriv xdeba nebismieri dasaSvebi normis darRveva.
davaleba 1: vxatavT `bades~. moswavleebi wyvilebSi muSaoben, furclis
centrSi weren sityvebs: `egoisti~ da `altruisti~, Camoweren rac SeiZleba bevr sityvas, romlebic, ase Tu ise, dakavSirebulia am cnebasTan da
xazebiT aerTeben. Semdeg, sityvebs Soris kavSirs eZeben da maT ise aerTeben, rogorc marTebulad miaCniaT. ase iqmneba bade. TiToeuli wyvili
kalss sakuTar bades warudgens. amis Semdeg dafaze SeiZleba saerTo bade
daixazos. moswavleebma altruistisa da egoistis SedarebiT unda gamoavlinon maTi msgavsi wyvili. SesaZlebelia, moswavleebs situaciebi SesTavazoT, romlebic maT saSualebs miscems gaaarkvion, Tu ras warmoadgenen korumpirebuli Cinovnikebi: egoistebs Tu altruistebs.
kiTxvebi diskusiisaTvis:
1. ojaxSi, mSoblebi, TavinTi STamomavlebis keTildReobisaTvis TavganwirviT iRwvian, magaram bavSvi umaduri, egoisti da mSoblebze damokidebuli izrdeba. ratom xdeba ase?
2. ratom aris dRes ase mniSvnelovani, rom TiToeulma adamianma, rogorc
kacobriobis nawilma, msoflio moqalaqed igrZnos Tavi da Tavisi moRvaweobiT mTeli kacobriobis interesebi daicvas?
maswavlebeli moswavleebis mier gamoTqmul azrebs ganazogadebs.
davaleba 2: moswavleebi damoukideblad ayalibeben cnebebs `altruizmi~ da `egoizmi~. saukeTeso formulirebebi dafaze iwereba.
Tema
`samarTlianoba~
avtori: iurgita valuntonene, pitras vileiSisis saxelobis gimnaziis eTi-
kis maswavlebeli.
X klasi
miznebi da amocanebi: samarTlianobis, rogorc Rirebulebis, cnebis ga-
azreba. moswavleebma ganixilon samarTlianobis ZiriTadi principebi, gaaanalizon, Tu rogor Seicvala samarTlianoba uZvelesi egviptidan dRemde.
meTodebi: Sedareba, analizi, jgufebSi muSaoba, wyaroebze muSaoba.
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. ganixileba samarTlianobis, rogorc Rirebulebis, cneba;
2. ganixileba samarTlianoba, rogorc pirovnuli Tviseba;
3. moswavleebi ixseneben samarTlianobis simbolos (Temida).
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
4. rogor fasdeba zogierTi adamianis ukanono qmedeba? ra ewodeba saxelmwifo moxelis ukanono qmedebas? ra aris korufcia da raSi vlindeba is?
5. maswavlebeli moswavleebs TamaSs sTavazobs: `gubeSi Cagdebuli qva~
an `sityvebis jaWvi~. SemTxveviT an specilurad SerCeuli sityva axal
asociaciebs iwvevs (saxeebi, mogonebebi, ocnebebi). maswavlebeli sTavazobs jgufis wevrebs sityvebiT grZeli matarebeli aawyon, romlis
TiToeuli vagonic calkeuli sityvisagan Sedgeba. sityvebi erTmaneTTan urTierTkavSirSi unda iyvnen.
TamaSi `sityvebis jaWvi~
maswavlebeli pirvel vagons ayenebs da masTan erTad ambobs: `rogoria
korufcia?~ (ayenebs vagons `korufcia~)
jgufis wevrebi: `binZuri~, `fuliani~, `usamarTlo~ (SeiZleba sami vagonis dayeneba).
maswavlebeli: `ra SeiZleba iyos binZuri?~.
jgufis wevrebi: `sindisi~, `perangi~, `azri~.
maswavlebeli: `rogori SeiZleba iyos azri?~ (warmoiTqmeba bolos naxsenebi sityva).
jgufis wevrebi: `Rrma~, `naRvliani~, `lamazia~, `frTiani~ . . .
TamaSi `orwevriani fantaziebi~
magidaze baraTebi awyvia (suraTebiT qveviT). TiToeul baraTze xatia tansacmeli, cxovelebi an sxva. jgufis wevri grovidan erT baraTs iRebs da
Tanaklaselebs uCvenebs. maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs, erTi an ramdenime sityviT gamoxaton is, rac baraTebzea gamosaxuli. roca bavSvebi
Sesabamis sityvas igoneben, magaliTad `fuli~ da `cixe~ SeiZleba maswavlebelma sTxovos, SeTxzan ambavi. mogonili winadadeba - `adamiani, romelmac ukanonod aiRo fuli, cixeSi aRmoCnda~ - SeiZleba kidev ganivrcos. moswavleebs SeuZliaT nebismieri sityvaTSeTanxmeba airCion da sakuTari ambavi moigonon.
Tema
`fuli~
avtori:
iurgita valungotonene, piatras vileinSis saxelobis pasvalskis gimnaziis eTikis maswavlebeli.
X klasi
mizani: moswavleebma gaiazron materialuri interesebisa da pirovnebis gan-
viTarebis harmoniuli Serwymis aucilebloba.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
amocanebi
1. gaaanalizon, rogor saqcils vuwodebT moralurs da amoralurs;
2. ganixilon biznesis eTikuri aspeqtebi;
3. ganixilon sazogadoebisaTvis korufciiT miyenebuli ziani;
meTodebi: Sedareba, analizi, wyaroebze muSaoba;
muSaobis forma: jgufuri
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. ganixileba moraluri da amoraluri qcevis principebi;
2. mimdinareobs msjeloba Semdeg sakiTxze: SeuZlia Tu ara adamianma Tavi
usafrTxod igrZnos ekonomikurad daucvel saxelmwifoSi?
3. maswavlebeli Semdeg SekiTxvebs svams: rogor fasdeba zogierTi adanianis ukanono qmedeba? ra ewodeba saxelmwifo moxelis ukanono qmedebas? ra aris korufcia, rogor vlindeba is? SeiZleba korifciul
qmedebas moraluri vuwodoT? ratom fiqrobT ase?
moswavleebi 5 jgufad iyofian da Semdeg davalebas asruleben:
CamowereT:
• xuTi Tviseba, romelic Tqveni azriT, moralurobas axasiaTebs;
• xuTi Tviseba romelic, Tqveni azriT, amoralur saqcielTanaa dakavSirebuli;
• rCeva: is Tvisebebi, romlebic ar SeiZleba erTmniSvnelovnad miakuTvnoT ama Tu im jgufs, calke CamowereT;
TiToeuli jgufi prezentacias akeTebs. SesaZlebelia saerTo Tvisebebis nusxa dafaze Camoiweros. imarTeba diskusia.
1. moswavleebi sityvebisgan `xids~ ageben. TiToeuli asaxelebs zedsarTav saxels an arsebiT saxels, romelic korufciasTan asocirdeba; aucilebelia SeTanxmeba `xidze~ sityvebis TanmimdevrobiT ganlagebaze; Semdeg xdeba sityvebis Cawera;
2. gakveTilis bolos yvela erTad pasuxobs kiTxvebs:
• SeTavsebadia Tu ara korufcia da morali?
• ra SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba SeTavsebadi iyos korufcia da morali?
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema `mizani da saSualebebi~
avtori: violeta vaitkiaviCine, kedainskis saSualo skolis eTikis maswav-
lebeli
X klasi
miznebi da amocanebi
1. dadgindes, ra ician moswavleebma korufciis Sesaxeb;
2. moswavleebma gaiazron, rom qmedebasa da Sedegs Soris ormxrivi mizez-Sedegobrivi kavSiri arsebobs;
3. moswavleebs ganuviTardeT kritikuli azrovneba.
mosalodneli Sedegebi
1. moswavleebi SesZleben Cvens sazogadoebaSi korufciis gamovlenas;
2. moswavleebi iswavlian TanamSromlobas;
3. gaiazreben mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirebs.
meTodi: alternatiuli gzebis/svlebis ruqa, diskusia
gakveTilis msvleloba
jgufis wevrebs miewodebaT situacia - `winaaRmdegoba~ (ix. danarTi). davalebis Sesrulebis Semdeg maT urigdebaT kiTxvebi diskusiisaTvis.
moswavleebi jgufebad (4-5 moswavle) iyofian. eZlevaT miTiTebebi, Tu sad
imyofeba mTavari moqmedi piri da ra mizani aqvs mas, romelsac unda miaRwios. moswavleebma miznisaken mimavali gzebi unda daxaton, aseve moZebnon rac
SeiZleba meti alternativa da miuTiTon is winaaRmdegobebi, romelsac moqmedi piri Sexvdeba.
situacia
pacienti eqims mimarTavs muxlis areSi tkivilis CiviliT. gamokvlevis Caterebis Semdeg eqimi askvnis, rom mas operacia esaWiroeba. pacienti operaciaze Tanxmdeba. eqimi afrTxilebs, rom rigSi kidev 73 pacientia da
Tu mas surs operacia Tavad saavadmyofom daafinansos, saukeTeso SemTxvevaSi, kidev naxevari weli mouwevs dacda. xolo, Tu pacienti Tanaxmaa
Tavad gadaixados (aseTi operacia daaxloebiT 4000-5000 liti Rirs), maSin lodini ar dasWirdeba. pacienti pasuxobs, rom mas ara aqvs sakmarisi
fuli da amdeni xnis lodinis SemTxvevaSi, SesaZloa misi mdgomareoba kidev ufro garTuldes.
ra SeiZleba moimoqmedos pacientma, rom operacia male Catardes?
SeecadeT ipovoT problemis gadaWris minimum ori gza.
kiTxvebi diskusiisaTvis:
1. vin arian situaciis monawileni?
2. hqonda Tu ara adgili arakeTilsindisier qmedebas?
3. miadga Tu ara ziani vinmes?
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
4.
5.
6.
7.
miiRo Tu ara vinmem sargebeli da ratom?
Seecada Tu ara pacienti miznis miRwevas?
SeiZleba Tu ara gavamarTloT situaciis monawileTa saqcieli?
Tu saxelmwifo damatebiT gadasaxads daawesebs mZime avadmyofebis samkurnalod, Seicvleba Tu ara rame am situaciaSi?
8. ras grZnoben Tqveni azriT situaciis monawileni?
danarTi
winaaRmdegoba – es obieqtebia (dawesebulebebi), romlebic unda gadalaxos pacientma.
pacienti
mizani:
Catarebuli
muxlis
operacia
Tema
`damokidebulebebi. damokidebulebebsa
da qcevebs Soris kavSiri~
avtori: iurate blinstrubaite, kedainskis saSualo skolis fsiqologiis
maswavlebeli, violeta vaitkiaviCene, kedainskis saSualo skolis eTikis maswavlebeli.
X klasi
miznebi da amocanebi: moswavleebi aanalizeben ra aris damokidebuleba,
rogoria misi komponentebi, adgenen mizez-Sedegobriv urTierTkavSirs damokidebulebebsa da qcevebs Soris.
meTodebi: ganmarteba, diskusia, kuTxeebi
muSaobis forma: jgufuri
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. maswavlebeli ganmartavs, ras niSnavs damokidebuleba da misi komponentebi.
damokidebuleba – es aris piradi emocia da SegrZneba, romelic amzadebs
adamians garkveulad aRiqvas sagnebi, movlenebi, pirovnebebi.
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
damokidebulebaTa komponentebi
kognituri
es aris piradi Sexedulebebi, romlebic konkretuli faqtis, movlenis an pirovnebis mimarT gagvaCnia. maTi meSveobiT ganvsazRvravT
ra aris swori da araswori, samarTliani da
usamarTlo da a. S.
afeqturi
qceviTi
Tavis TavSi gulisxmobs qceva, romelic Seesabapirad SexedulebebTan meba pirovnul SexedudakavSirebul dadebiT lebebs
an uaryofiT emociebs.
2. `damokidebulebebis komponentebis~ sqemaze dayrdnobiT maswavlebeli magaliTs ganixilavs:
`baton staponases Zlian moswons kurSskis isaraze dasveneba, magram
mSoblebisgan memkvidreobiT miRebuli miwa paniaveJskis raionSi mdebareobs da ara mis sayvarel kurSskis isaraze. staponass eCveneba, rom
batoni aleqsasi, romelic miwadmowyobis samsaxurSi muSaobs, arc Tu
ise patiosani da wesieri moqalaqea (damokidebulebis kognitiuri komponenti). mocemul situaciaSi, staponasi gamouval mdgomareobaSia
(afeqturi komponenti), radganac mas ar SeuZlia iyidos miwa kurSskis
isaraze. savaraudod, igi qrTams miscems (qceviTi komponenti) baton
aleqsas, imisaTvis rom mSoblebis danatovari paniaveJskis raionidan
kurSskis isaraze gacvalos.~
3. ganxilul magaliTze dayrdnobiT moswavleebi sakuTar istorias
Txzaven.
4. moswavleebma unda daadginon ra kavSiria damokidebulebasa da qcevas Soris.
I varianti
damokidebuleba
qcevis mizezi
qceva
II varianti
qceva
damokidebulebis mizezi
damokidebuleba
III varianti
damokidebuleba
ormxrivi kavSiris mizezi
qceva
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
5. arCeuli variantis Sesabamisad, moswavleebi sam jgufad iyofian (kuTxeebis meTodi). jgufebi TavianT arCevans ganixilaven. Semdeg TiToeuli jgufi argumentebs warmoadgens. moswavleebi, romlebmac TavianTi azri Seicvales im jgufSi gadadian, romlis Sexedulebasac eTanxmebian.
6. maswavlebeli jgufebs Soris warmarTul diskusias ganazogadebs da
miuTiTebs, rom damokidebulebebsa da qcevas Soris ormxrivi kavSiri
arsebobs.
antikorufciul ganaTlebasTan kavSiri: msjelobis dros, Tu ras war-
moadgens damokidebuleba, rogoria misi komponentebi, moswavleebi iazreben ormxriv mizez-Sedegobriv kavSirs damokidebulebasa da korumpirebul
qcevas Soris. agreTve imas, Tu ratom iqcevian adamianebi ukanonod.
Tema
`movaleobisa da valdebulebis dakisreba,
socialuri roli~
avtori: ruta lukoSene, gargJdaiskis, gimnazia `vaikorikStes~ fsiqolo-
giiis maswavlebeli.
XI-XIIklasebi
miznebi
1. moswavleebma gaiazron, rogor SeuZlia socialur rolsa da socialuri rolebis konfliqts xeli Seuwyos korufcias.
2. sworad airCion prioritetuli roli korufciul garemoSi.
meTodebi: argumentirebuli diskusia, analizi.
gakveTilis msvleleoba
aRniSnuli gakveTili saxelmZRvanelos mixedviT warimarTeba, Tumca magaliTebi icvleba.
1. socialuri rolis gansazRvrisaTvis maswavlebels Semdegi magaliTi
mohyavs: `warmoidgineT, Tavdauzogavad momuSave medikosi – altruisti, romelic aseve aris mama, ojaxis ufrosi da romlis Semosavalic
ojaxis arsebobis mTavar wyaros warmoadgens~.
2. saubrisas, Tu rogori socialuri rolebi arsebobs (biologiuri, naTesauri, profesiuli, asakobrivi da a.S.) aRiniSneba, rom eqimis roli
(profesiuli), gansazRvrulia hipokrates ficiT, e.i is valdebulia
nebismier situaciaSi da SemTxvevaSi adamians daxmareba gauwios.
3. mniSvnelobis mixedviT arsebobs ZiriTadi da meorexarisxovani socialuri rolebi. magaliTad, eqimis profesionalizmi didad aris damokidebuli imaze, pirvelxarisxovnad mamobas Tvlis, Tu sakuTar profesias.
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
4. rolebs Soris konfliqtebze saubrisas ganixileba, Tu ra xdeba maSin,
roca mamis roli ar emTxveva eqimis rols. magaliTad, eqimis Svils, romelsac arc ise didi Semosavali aqvs, surs swavla sazRvargareT gaagrZelos. magram es sakmaod Zviri jdeba. bavSvis momavali sasworze devs:
is an moaxerxebs daeuflos misTvis saintereso profesias da cxovrebaSic bevrs miaRwevs, an iseT specialobas airCevs, romelic misTvis
sasurveli ar aris da Tavs ubedurad igrZnobs. eqim mamas yovelgvari
jafis gareSe SeuZlia qrTami aiRos da Svili saswavleblad gaamgzavros, magram rogor daarRvios hipokrates fici? is xom Tavdauzogavad unda emsaxuros yvela pacients?
5. klasi or jgufad iyofa da imarTeba diskusia. erTma jgufma unda moifiqros argumentebi TezisisaTvis – `eqimma unda aiRos qrTami~, meorem ki - `eqimma ar unda moiTxovos qrTami~.
6. TiToeuli jgufi rigrigobiT asaxelebs arumentebs. bolos jamdeba
romelma jgufma ufro meti argumenti moiyvana.
7. ganixileba SemTxveva, romelsac meti zianis motana SeeZlo.
8. imarTeba diskusia: rogor igrZnobdnen Tavs moswavleebi Svilis an pacientis adgilas rom yofiliyvnen?
9. ganixileba socialuri rolisa da pirovnebis Tanafardoba. mTavaria,
sxvadasxva rolis Sesrulebisas, adamianma ar dakargos identuroba,
aseve yovelTvis icodes, vin aris da ra faseulobis matarebelia. am
SemTxvevaSi, konfliqtis warmoqmnisas, ar aris rTuli gadawyvetilebis miReba.
Tema
`ganaTleba korufciis winaaRmdeg~
avtori: daiva kuprionene, religiisa da eTikis maswavlebeli.
V klasi
sagani: religia
miznebi da amocanebi: gunduri muSaobis da erToblivad gadawyvetilebe-
bis miRebis unaris gamomuSaveba; diskusiisa da SemoqmedebiTi azrovnebis
ganviTareba;
meTodebi: formaluri teqstis Sedgena, TamaSi, inscenireba.
muSaobis forma: jgufuri
resursebi: wminda werili, baraTebi, TeTri furclebi, flomasterebi, sxva-
dasxva saskolo nivTi.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
gakveTilis msvleloba
1. bruno fereros moTxrobis – `zRarbebis ojaxi~ – wakiTxva.
`zafxulis dadgomisTanave WalaSi zRarbebis ojaxi dabinavda. Tbili
dReebi iyo, zRarbebi xeebis CrdilSi erTobodnen. xandaxan tyidanac gamidiodnen da mindorSi mxiarulobdnen, yvavilebs Soris daxuWobanas TamaSobdnen da gamosakvebad buzebs iWerdnen. Rame mSvidad iZinebdnen TavianT bunagSi.
erT dRes maT dainaxes, rogor cvioda xidan foTlebi – Semodgoma axlovdeboda. zRarbebma axali gasarTobi moigones – mofarfate foTlebs iWerdnen. dRiTidRe ufro mkacri sicive igrZnoboda. mdinares yinulis Txeli fena gadaefara. Tovlma foTlebi dafara. zRarbebi sicivisagan kankalebdnen da Ramec ki veRar iZinebdnen.
erT Rames gadawyvites erTmaneTs Caxutebodnen da ase gamTbariyvnen, magram es cda uSedego aRmoCnda, radgan eklebiT erTmaneTs TaTebi da drunCebi dauCxvlites. kidev erTxel scades, magram amjeradac uSedegod. saWiro iyo gamosavali epovnaT, rom gamTbariyvnen. Citebi, baWiebi da sxva
cxovelebi xom ase Tbebodnen. amotom, zRarbebma erTmaneTTan miaxloebisas nel-nela eklebis damalva daiwyes. Tavdapirvelad, es Zneli iyo, magram zRarbebi yovel saRamos cdilobdnen erTmaneTTan miaxloebas, vidre sawadels ar miaRwies. civi saRamoebi aRar aSinebdaT; erTmaneTTan Caxutebul zRarbebs Tbilad da tkbilad eZinaT.~
davaleba: moswavleebi jgufebad iyofian da baraTebi urigdebad ferebis mixedviT.
TiToeulma jgufma SeTanxmebis aTi wesi unda moifiqros.
daTqmuli drois gasvlis Semdeg isini wesebs kiTxuloben.
wesebi SeiZleba aseTi iyos:
1. vinaidan sinaze aciskrovnebs cxovrebas, Rirs yoveldRiurad miviswrafvodeT misken;
2. aucilebelia, yoveldRe vesaubroT erTmaneTs;
3. dauRalavad, erTad unda miviswrafvodeT srulyofilebisaken;
4. pativi vceT sakuTar Tavs: arasodes gadavabijoT zRurbls `WuWyiani
fexiT~;
5. unda viyoT Tavmdabalni;
6. adamianebSi kargi Tvisebebi unda veZeboT, maSinac ki, rodesac isini
amis dafarvas cdiloben;
7. ar unda gveSinodes azrTa sxvadsxvaobis: mxolod gulgrili adamianebi ar kamaToben;
8. viyoT Tavazianebi;
9. ar unda gagvaRizianos yvela wvrilmanma;
10.nu dagvaviwydeba, rom unda gaviRimoT – Rimili guls sasicoxlo Zalas aZlevs.
2. moswavleebi nawyvets kiTxuloben axali aRTqmidan – luka 12, 38-44.
kiTxvebi:
1. axloblisadmi siyvaruliT SegviZlia Tu ara Tavis gawirva?
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
2. SegiZliaT Tu ara Tqveni `eklebis~ damalva?
arsi: iswavlo oqros wesiT cxovreba: `rogorc gindaT, rom Tqven geqceodnen adamianebi, iseve moeqeciT maT~
3. jgufebma saxelmwifo moxeleebs unda misweron werili TxovniT, rom
skolas gamouyon kompiuterebi:
I jgufi: TxovniT mimarTon;
II jgufi: megobrulad sTxovon;
III jgufi: oficialurad moiTxovon;
IV jgufi: saqmiani winadadebiT mimarTon;
4. TamaSi `ojaxi~
baraTebze weria gvari da pirovnebis roli ojaxSi.
malinauskasi (didi babua, didi bebia, babua, bebia, mama, deda, vaJiSvili,
qaliSvili, lekvi, knuti). danarCeni gvarebi erTmaneTis msgavsia: mulinauskasi, maliniauskisi, melinauskisi. bavSvebi baraTebs iReben, sadac miTiTebulia gvari da roli. oTx skamze isini erTmaneTs kalTaSi ujdebian
gvarebis mixedviT, zemoT miTiTebuli TanmimdevrobiT.
daniSnuleba: Sejibrebis drosac ki SesaZlebelia megobrulad TamaSi.
5. saTamaSo situacia
• 1 da 3 jgufebisaTvis: `gzaze gafuWebili avtomanqanaa, romlis mZRolic Zalzed arasimpatiuri kacia~
• pirveli jgufi: inscenirebas akeTebs, rogor SeiZleba gulwrfelad,
yovelgvari gasamrjelos gareSe, daexmaro arasasiamovno garegnobis
adamians.
• me-3 jgufi: inscenirebas akeTebs, rom daxmarebas gauwevs mxolod im
SemTxvevaSi, Tu daxarjuli drois sanacvlod materialur kompensacias miiRebs.
• me-2 da me-4 jgufebi: `mZimed avadmyofi, yru moxuci vaJiSvilis ojaxTan erTad cxovrobs~.
• me-2 jgufi: gaiTamaSebs moxucis istorias bednieri dasasruliT.
• me-4 jgufi: gaiTamaSebs moxucis istorias naRvliani dasasruliT.
daskvna
rogori adamianebi arian yvelaze lamazebi da yvelaze modurebi? isini, romlebic sikeTisa da ubraloebis samoss atareben.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
vaiJgantasis saxelobis, radviliSiskis gimnaziis
fsiqologiis maswavleblis, redi masialskenes,
azrebi antikorufciuli ganaTlebis Sesaxeb
fsiqologiis gakveTilze
moswavleebTan korufciaze saubari SesaZlebelia Semdegi Temebis ganxilvisas:
• socialuri aRqma: damokidebulebebi da stereotipebi;
• socialuri damokidebuleba: socialuri rolebi da fsiqologiuri TamaSebi;
• fsiqologiuri janmrTeloba: adamianis moTxovnilebebi da motivebi.
damokidebulebebi da korufcia
damokidebulebebis bunebaze saubrisas moviyvanoT korufciasTan dakavSirebuli magaliTebi moswavleebis an maTi mSoblebis cxovrebidan. magaliTad, moswavlem danaSauli Caidina, mas skolis Secvlas sTavazoben, magram
mis mSoblebs amis gakeTeba ar surT, radganac es skola prestiJulad iTvleba. isini yvela SesaZlo xerxis gamoyenebiT cdiloben, rom maTi Svili imave
skolaSi darCes. mSoblebi `megobrebs~ eZeben, romlebic daexmarebian maT
`saerTo gamonaxon~ direqtorTan an romelime TanamSromelTan, oRond
problema moagvaron.
es da sxva SemTxvevebi ganixileba damokidebulebebis komponentebis safuZvelze: SemecnebiTi, afeqturi da qceviTi.
stereotipebi da korufcia
stereotipebi: `mamakacebi ukeT atareben manqanas~, `mewarmeebi da bankirebi matyuarebi arian~, `eqimebi – meqrTameebi~ da a.S. stereotipebis warmoSobaze, socialur rolebze an maT Secvlaze saubrisas korufciasTan dakavSirebuli stereotipebi ganixileba.
korufcia da socialuri roli
Temaze - `socialuri roli da piradi damokidebuleba~ saubrisas SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva magaliTis ganxilva: morcxvi, mSvidi, patiosani, mSvidobismoyvare adamiani xdeba xelmZRvaneli, rac mis principebs ewinaaRmdegeba. Tu unda dadgenili wesebiT icxovros – aiRos qrTami da a.S. ese igi unda
iyo iseTi, rogoradac yofna ar surs; aucileblia Seicvalos, amasTan SeiZleba ewinaaRmdegebodes sakuTar Tavs – individualobas da sakuTar bunebas, cxovrebiseul idealebs. Sedegad – itanjeba Tavad da itanjebian misi
koleqtivis wevrebic.
adamianis moTxovnilebebi da motivebi
aRniSnuli Temis ganxilvis procesSi SeiZleba yuradReba daeTmos korufciis gavlenas da mis Sedegebs. TandaTanobiT, moTxovnilebaTa ierarqiul kibeze asvlisas, rac SeiZleba farTod unda ganvixiloT korufciis
TemasTan daavSirebuli momentebi. SeiZleba TamaSi-diskusiis organizeba
`korufciis Zafis gorgali~.
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
TamaSi mrgavli magidis garSemo Zafis gorgaliT mimdinareobs, romelic
xelidan-xelSi gadadis. am TamaSsac unda hqondes Tavisi wesebi, romlebic
TamaSis dawyebis win cxaddeba. wamyvani iRebs Zafis gorgals da iwyebs korufciaze saubars: `rogor fiqrobT, dRes SesaZlebelia patiosnad cxovreba, korufcis gareSe?~ azris gamoTqmis msurveli gorgals iRebs da am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sakuTar azrs gamoTqvams. Semdeg is gadascems Zafis
gorgals sxavas, amgvarad, gorgali TiToeul moTamaSesTan midis, romelsac mosazrebis gamoTqmis da sxvebisaTvis gaziarebis survili aqvs. saubris
dasasruls xdeba Sejameba. TamaSis dros SesaZlebelia ori sxvadasxva feris Zafis gamoyeneba, romelTa ferebic dadebiTi da uryofiTi Sexedulebebis Sesabamisi iqneba.diskusiis bolos jamdeba, ramdeni dadebiTi da uaryofiTi azri iyo gamoTqmuli. kvlav grZeldeba msjeloba.
TamaSi `grZnobebis kvadrati~
moswavleebs qaRaldis TiTo furceli urigdebaT, romelic didi formatis nawilia. am furcelze maT unda aRweron is grZnobebi an SegrZnebebi,
romlebic maT daeuflaT. weris dasrulebis Semdeg, TiToeuli nawili misTvis gankuTvnil adgilze ideba da grZnobebis kvadrati keTdeba.
imarTeba diskusia. SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva feris qaRaldebis gamoyenebac dadebiTi da uaryofiTi grZnobebis gamosaxatad. TamaSis bolos gamoCndeba, Tu romeli grZnobis kvadratia ufro didi. imarTeba msjeloba.
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danarTi
rogor SeiZleba kritikuli
azrovnebis ganviTarebis sqemis
mixedviT teqstebze muSaoba
evaldas bakonisi
teqsti:
Bogdanovicius A. Korupcija sukuria valdžia (a. bogdanoviCiusi. korufcias warmoSobs Zalaufleba) // http://www.lrinka.lt/Leidinys/korupcija/1998.6.andriusb.phtml
bevri adamiani ubralod Tavs aridebs korufciaze saubars - `arafris Secvla ar SeiZleba~, `ukve yvela saSualebaa gamoyenebuli – dawyebuli
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damTavrebuli
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........................................................................................................................................... magram, arsebiTad araferi ar icvleba. is vinc qrTams iRebda, kvlavac
agrZelebs amis keTebas; is vinc qrTams iZleva, gakvirvebulia `tarifebis~
zrdiT. zogjer, qrTamis odenoba gamaogneblad didia. es gamowveulia imiT,
rom raRacis sanacvlod Tanxis aReba did riskTan aris dakavSirebuli, rac
saqmis `Cawyobis~ safasurs zrdis.
korufciis faqtebi marto litvaSi ar mJRavndeba – es globaluri movlenaa. nuTu korufcia da meqrTameoba sazogadoebis ganuyofeli nawilia?
Rirs ki Tavad scado eZio saSualebebi, romlebic dagvexmareba am Cvevis
aRmofxvraSi, maSin, rodesac am gzebs ver pouloben iseTi demokratuli qveynebi, romelTa kanonmdeblobasac Cven sanimuSod miviCnevT? korufciis Sedegebi, romlebsac sazogadoeba uaryofiTad afasebs: .......................................
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da mainc, gvaiZulebens es saSualebebi veZioT, radgan Sedegi brZolad
Rirs.
korufciis aRmofxvraze mimarTuli qmedebebis efeqturoba
SeiZleba ki imis mtkiceba, rom meqrTameoba aRmoifxvreba Tu sasjeli gacilebiT mkacri iqneba? gamokiTxvis Sedegebi, romelic litvis Tavisufali bazris institutma Caatara, gviCvenebs, rom efeqturobis TvalsazrisiT,
es saSualeba mesame adgilzea, biurokratiis Semcirebisa da ekonomikaSi saxelmwifos Carevis Semdeg. sasjeli ornairad moqmedebs: erTi mxriv, is moq-
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antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
medebs maTze, vinc meryeobs – isargeblos Tu ara sakuTari SesaZleblobiT
(TanamdebobiT, statusiT da sxva); meore mxriv, visac gadawyvetili aqvs
qrTamis aReba, maTze sasjelis saSiSroeba erTmniSvnelovnad moqmedebs –
iZulebulia `momsaxurebis~ safasuri gazardos. amrigad, jarimebi meqrTameobis, rogorc korufciis erT-erTi formis, Semcirebis ZiriTadi saSualeba ar aris.
SeiZleba Tu ara korufciasTan brZola CinovnikebisaTvis xelfasis da
socialuri garantiebis gazrdiT? maRalma xelfasma, iseve rogorc Zalin
mkacrma sasjelma, SeiZleba `qraTamis aramRebTa~ raodenoba gazardos. meore mxriv, `tarifebi~ izrdeba iseT korufciul SemTxvevebze, romelTa gamovlena, dasabuTeba da damtkiceba sakmaod Znelia. gamokiTxvis Sedegebi
gviCvenebs, rom sazogadoeba xelfasis zrdis efeqturobas meoTxe adgilze
ayenebs. sainteresoa, rom Tavad politikosebic eTanxmebian am pozicias da
aRiareben, rom xlefasebis zrda korufciasTan brZolis yvelaze efeqturi
saSualeba ar aris.
korufciasTan bZolis recepti
sinamdvileSi, korufciis aRmofxvris erT-erTi qmediTi saSualeba ara
dasja, sazriani Cinovnikebis Zebna an samarTaldamcavi organoebis principuli saqmianoba, aramed adamianebis aRzrda da maTSi damokidebulebebis Camoyalibebaa. yvelaze qmediT zomebs korufciis wyaroebis SezRudva da
aRmofxvra warmoadgens.
riT daviwyoT?
• Siqmnas da dainergos biznesis ganviTarebis da SeRavaTiani kreditebis gacemis programebi. saxelmwifos mxridan nebismieri saxis mxardaWera xels uwyobs `momgebiani biznesis~ Camoyalibebas arasabazro pirobebSi. warmoiqmnas/Camoyalibdes da iarsebos `momgebianma biznesma~ arasabazro pirobebSi. korufciis faqtebis Semcirebis msurvelebma samudamod unda Tqvan uari biznesis mxardaWeraze.
tendeciuri
sagadasaxado kanonebis miRebiT xelisuflebas SeuZlia
•
sagadasaxado sistemiT manipulireba. sagadasaxado SeRavaTebis miniWebiT ki TiTqos specialurad xlarTavs gadasaxadis gadaxdis wesebs
– yovelive amis Sedegad ki sagadasaxado inspeqtori erT-erTi mTavari figura xdeba. amotom, aucilebelia Semcirdes gadasaxadebis raodenoba, dazustdes dabegvris wesebi, gamartivdes sagadasaxado aRricxva, ar daiSvas gamonaklisebi.
sabanko
da komunaluri gadasaxadebis seqtorSi, araferi rom ar
•
vTqvaT energetikiaze, saavadmyofoze, skolaze da msgavs instituciebze – saxelmwifo moqmedebs, rogorc mewarme. erovnul banks SeuZlia arc Tu ise warmatebul biznesze gasces krediti. saxelmwifo sawarmos SeuZlia arc Tu ise iafi da xarisxiani nedleuli SeiZinos. misi
araefeqturi funqcionireba problemas ar warmoadgens. amgvari sawarmo mainc garantirebulad SeinarCunebs Tavs bazarze, radganac xelisufleba misTvis gansakuTrebul pirobebs qmnis. aucilebelia saxel-
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
mwifo sawarmoebis sistemis daSla – saxelmwifo unda gaemijnos bizness da unda moxdes saxelmwifo sawarmoebis privatizeba.
zemoT moyvanili magaliTebi arasrulia . . .
arCevanis ufleba
sazogadoebas arwmuneben, rom korufciasTan brZola SesaZlebelia mxolod iseTi xerxebiT, rogorebicaa: politikuri liderebis valdebuleba da
xelisuflebis gamWvirvaloba. Tu amas davumatebT sasjelis gamkacrebul
zomebs, CinovnikebisaTvis xelfasebis gazrdas da mewarmeebis aRzrdas, miviRebT korufciasTan brZolis saSualebaTa `klasikuri~ meTodebis pakets.
es meTodebi bevr qveyanaSi gamoiyeneba, Tumca arcerT maTganSi korufcia
jerjerobiT daZleuli ar aris.
ramdenad efeqturia `klasikuri~ saSualebebi, vidre Cvens mier SemoTavazebuli – es mkiTxvelis gadasawyvetia. magram, Tu dinebas mivyvebiT da xelisuflebis warmomadgenelTa mier SemoTavazebul efeqtur, magram arapopularul saSualebebs ignorirebas gavukeTebT – es SeiZleba Zvirad dagvijdes.
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korufciis fenomeni
msoflioSi da litvaSi
korufciis fenomeni: korufcia – piradi sargeblis
miRebis mizniT sajaro samsaxuris borotad gamoyenebaa
adamianis uflebebisaTvis da Tqveni (TiToeuli adamianis) usafrTxoebisaTvis korufcia realur safrTxes warmoadgens. korumpirebuli Tanamdebobis pirebi maTze mindobil samsaxurs bedis anabara toveben. mosyiduli inspeqtori nebas rTavs nebismiers safrTxis qveS daayenos Tqveni sicocxle da janmrTeloba. korufciis Sedegad SeiZleba dairRves Tqveni ZiriTadi uflebebi: janmrTeloba, ganaTleba, kerZo sakuTrebis ufleba da Tundac sufTa haeriTa da wyliT sargeblobis ufleba.
1995 wels koreaSi savaWro centri daingra. gairkva, rom qvemoijarem mSeneblobisas uxarisxo betoni gamoiyena, qalaqis Tanamdebobis pirebma ki
qrTamis safasurad neba darTes mSeneblebs usafrTxoebis wesebi daerRviaT. 1998 wels TurqeTSi miwisZvram mravali Senoba daangria. gansakuTrebiT
mZimed dazianda saxelmwifo skolebi da saavadmyofoebi. mSeneblobaSi uamravi xarvezi iqna aRmoCenili, ramac eWvqveS daayena samSeneblo inspeqtorebisa da sxva Tanamdebobis pirTa keTilsindisiereba.
korufciis gamo Cven ufro naklebi fuli gvaqvs, vidre SeiZleboda rom
gvqonoda. es imitom ki ara, rom Cven sul axlaxan gaveciT qrTami, aramed imitom, rom korufcias SeuZlia nebismieri saxelmwifo investiciis Rirebuleba 30%-iT gazardos. es niSnavs, rom axali skola an saavadmyofo, romelsac sazogadoeba aSenebs, SesaZlebelia samjer Zviri dajdes. saxelmwifo Sesyidvebis an investiciebis sferoSi korufciis gamo gaberili fasebi, kidev
ufro zrdis erovnul vals. magaliTad, keniaSi wamlebis korumpirebuli
gziT Sesyidvis Sedegad, rasac jan-dacvis saministro akeTebda, saxelmwifom, daaxloebiT, milioni dolari dakarga.
korufciis gamo rTulia biznesis dawyeba. is amaxinjebs sabazro ekonomikas da araTanabar pirobebSi ayenebs mewarmeebs. bevri maTgani mzadaa
qrTami gaiRos im imediT, rom 100-dan 95 SemTxvevaSi sasurvel Sedegs miaRwevs. magram ra iqneba Semdeg, Tu korumpirebuli moxele SemdgomSi
ufro mets moiTxovs? ra iqneba, Tu konkurentebi ufro did fuls gadaixdian? ra moxdeba, Tu korufciuli gegmebi dairRveva samarTaldamcavi
organoebis TanamSromlebis mier? magaliTad, ruseTSi mewarmeebs ufro
xSirad uwevT Tanamdebobis pirebisaTvis qrTamis micema, vidre maT polonel kolegebs, radgan ruseTSi, poloneTisagan gansxvavebiT, daaxloebiT oTxjer meti droa saWiro imisaTvis, rom Seni biznesi daaregistriro. garda amisa, iq orjer ufro xSirad amowmeben da ajarimeben mewarmes,
vidre poloneTSi.
korufciis gamo saxelmwifo biujetSi Semosavlebi mcirdeba. ramdeni
adamiani aridebs Tavs jarimebisa da gadasaxadebis gadaxdas Cinovnikebis
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
daxmarebiT? saerTo azriT, filipinebze korumpirebuli gziT gadasaxadebis gadaxdis Tavidan acileba niSnavs imas, rom Raribebi orjer ufro
mets ixdian, vidre mdidrebi, xolo importis 63% sabaJo gadasaxadebiT ar
ibegreba.
korufciis gamo qveyanaSi naklebad Semodis ucxouri investicia. xSir SemTxvevaSi, korufcia moqmedebs rogorc gadasaxadi, romliTac pirdapir ibegreba ucxouri investicia. magaliTad, korufciis zrdis done SedarebiT nakleb korumpirebuli singapuridan – Zlier korumpirebul meqsikamde, sagadasaxado normebis zrdis 20%-is eqvivalenturia, romliTac investori ibegreba. Tu bangladeSis respubnlika Tavisi biurokratiuli aparatis Segnebasa da muSaobis efeqturobas urugvais donemde aamaRlebs, maSin investiciebi 5%-iT gaizrdeba. daaxloebiT aseTi paralelis gavleba SeiZleba litvasa da saqarTvelos mimarTac.
1999 wels kompania ”Vilmorus”-is mier Catarebulma sociologiurma kvlevam gamoavlina, rom gamokiTxulTa 74,1% uaryofiTad afasebs korufcias,
rogorc movlenas, magram 60,4% mzad iyo wamoWrili problemebis mosagvareblad, Tundac erTxel, gaeRo qrTami; aseve gairkva, rom umravlesobis
cnobierebaSi saCuqris gacema da miReba yovelTvis ar aris gaigivebuli korufciasTan, xolo iaffasiani saqonlis ganbaJebis gareSe Semotana, xSirad
ar aRiqmeba kontrabandad. gamokiTxulTa 71,1%, romelTac ufro didi Semosavali aqvT, mzad arian gaiRon qrTami. axalgazrdebs Soris ki, qrTamis
gasacemad mzad aris 71,5%.
2001 wels, organizacia `Transparency International~-is litvis ganyofilebis
mier Catarebulma vilniusis skolis moswavleTa gamokiTxvam aCvena, rom
ufrosklaselebi ufro eTanxmebian mosazrebas, rom `biznesSi SeiZleba Semosavlebis dafarva gadasaxadebisagan Tavis aridebis mizniT~. sxva gamokvlevebma gviCvenes, rom xSirad Cven Tavad vcdilobT mivceT qrTami Tanamdebobis pirebs. sazogadoebrivi azrisa da sabazro gamokvlevebis kompaniis (Spinter) mier, 2001 wels, xuT qalaqSi Catarebuli gamokiTxvebis Sedegebi Semdeg
monacemebs gvawvdian: moqalaqeTa 64% amtkicebs, rom qrTams, pirdapiri an
iribi gziT, Tavad saxelmwifo Cinovnikebi moiTxoven, xolo 36% aRniSnavs,
rom qrTamis micema Tavad dainteresebuli piris iniciativiT xdeba.
umravlesoba Tvlis, rom korufcia saxelmwifo organoebis Tandayolili mankieri Tvisebaa, romelic sruliad ar aris damokidebuli mTavrobis wevrebis nebasa da kontrolze.
2002 wels arasamTavrobo organizaciis (`Transparency International~) mier Catarebulma saerTaSoriso kvlevam gviCvena, rom litvaSi korufciis aRqmis
indeqsi igive rCeba, rogorc es gasul wels iyo – 4,8 qula. mewarmeebisa da
saerTaSoriso eqspertebis gamokiTxvis Sedegad miRebuli maCveneblebiT
irkveva, rom litva im qveynebs Soris imyofeba, romlebsac seriozuli problemebi aqvT korufciis TvalsazrisiT: 0,2 qula ar hyofnis 5 qulamde, romlis Semdegac ganlagebulia naklebad korumpirebuli qveynebi. litva, belorusiasTan, samxreT afrikis respublikasTan da tunisTan erTad 36-39
adgilebs inawilebs. 102 qveynisagan Semdgar cxrilSi bolo adgilebs ika-
99
100 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
veben – angola, madagaskari, paragvai, nigeria da bangladeSi, xolo pirvel
aTeulSi Sedian – fineTi, dania, axali zelandia, islandia, singapuri da
SvedeTi.
1999 wels, organizaciis `Transparency International~ mier Sedgenil cxrilSi,
litvas 50-e adgili ekava. sami wlis ganmavlobaSi is 14 adgiliT dawinaurda.
litvaSi daaxloebiT aTamde kanoni miiRes, romelic korufciis prevenciis
saSualebas iZleva. SemuSavda da ganxorcielda korufciasTan brZolis ramdenime programa. magram, rogorc Cinelma filosofosma, men-Zim (372-289)
Tqva – kanonebi TavisTavad ar muSaoben.
korufcia = monopolias + saidumloeba – pasuxismgebloba
korufcia vlindeba maSin, rodesac erTpirovnuli gadawyvetilebebi miiReba saidumlod da Sedegebze piradi pasuxismgeblobis gareSe.
wyaro: litvis respublikis specialuri sagamoZiebo samsaxuri – ix.gv 107
101
eTikis kodeqsebi
maswavleblis profesiuli eTika
(proeqti)
profesiuli kompetenturoba
pedagogiuri karieris manZilze, maswavleblebi unda cdilobdnen
miaRwion kvalifikaciis maRal dones zogadad ganaTlebis sferoSi
da konkretulad im disciplinebSi, romelsac aswavlian. ganaTlebis
sistemaSi mimdinare uwyveti cvlilebebi, kerZod, swavlebisa da swavlis axali midgomebi, axali erovnuli saswavlo gegmebis SemuSaveba,
danergva da ganaxleba maswavleblebisgan moiTxovs profesionalizmis mudmiv amaRlebas.
kolegialoba
efeqtiani swavleba moiTxovs kolegialobis maRal dones da amitomac, maswavleblebma xalisiT, Zaldautaneblad unda iTanamSromlon kolegebTan, mSoblebTan da saganmanaTleblo sferos sxvadasxva organizaciebTan da warmomadgenlebTan. maswavleblebma unda gauziaron erTmaneTs TavianTi Sexedulebebi, codna da gamocdileba
da ecadon Camoayalibon iseTi profesiuli garemo, romelic xels Seuwyobs moswavleTa socialur, inteleqtualur, sulier, moralur,
emociur da fizikur ganviTarebas.
Tanabari SesaZleblobebi
maswavleblebma TavianTi saqmianobiTa da TanamSromlobiT unda
uzrunvelyon Tanabari SesaZleblobebis principebis dacva adamianis uflebebis fuZemdebluri saerTaSoriso aqtebis Sesabamisad.
valdebulebebi
maswavlebelTa umTavresi movaleobaa moswavleTa ganaTleba,
aRzrda da maT keTildReobaze zrunva. maswavleblebi valdebulni
arian mzrunvelobiT, pasuxismgeblobiT, pativiscemiTa da sifrTxiliT miudgnen moswavleebs, mSoblebsa da kolegebs, ndobisa da konfidencialurobis principebis dacviT.
samarTlebrivi CarCo
maswavleblebs gacnobierebuli unda hqondeT is samarTlebrivi garemo, romelSic uwevT saqmianoba aRmzrdelobiTi da administraciuli valdebulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT. maT unda daicvan saxelmwifoSi moqmedi kanonebi da profesiis Sesabamisi eTikuri kodeqsi, miuxedavad imisa miTiTebulia Tu ara isini maT SromiT xelSekrulebaSi.
102 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
moswavleTa individualur saWiroebebze reagireba
maswavlebeli unda iyos gulisxmieri moswavleTa individualuri
saWiroebebisadmi da unda eZios moswavleTa CarTvis gzebi im gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi, romlebic xels Seuwyobs moswavleebis mier
maTi asakisa da SesaZleblobebis Sesabamisi ganaTlebis miRebas.
profesiuli urTierTobebi
individualuri Tu koleqtiuri problemis wamoWrisas maswavlebelma, unda eZios problemis gadaWris gzebi Sesabamisi proceduruli normebis gaTvaliswinebiT.
profesiuli patiosneba
maswavleblis piradi cxovreba xelSeuxebelia. amave dros, maswavlebeli unda acnobierebdes, rom misi adamianuri Rirsebebi, sulieri da samoqalaqo faseulobebi misabaZi unda iyos moswavleebisaTvis. maswavleblis qmedeba Zlier zegavlenas axdens moswavleebis qcevaze rogorc saklaso oTaxSi, aseve mis gareT. maswavlebelsa da moswavleebs Soris unda arsebobdes jansaRi TanamSromlobis urTierToba.
103
qarTuli biznesis qcevis kodeqsi
I. saerTo debulebebi
Cven, saqarTvelos kerZo seqtoris warmomadgenlebi vadasturebT Cvens
gadawyvetilebas qarTveli Tu ucxouri partnioris da mTlianad qarTuli
sazogadoebis mimarT vimoqmedoT da warvmarToT Cveni samewarmeo saqmianoba saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mier aRiarebuli eTikis normebis Sesabamisad. aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, Cven miznad visaxavT xeli SevuwyoT saqarTveloSi iseTi biznes garemos Camoyalibebas, romelSic eTikuri biznes
qmedeba da gonivruli mmarTveloba iqneba dafasebuli, waxalisebuli da biznes gadawyvetilebaTa miRebis ZiriTadi safuZveli gaxdeba. Sesabamisad, Cveni saqmianobisas veyrdnobiT mocemul qarTuli biznes qcevis kodeqss, romelic amave dros warmoadgens saqarTveloSi moqmedi mewarmeebis TviTSefasebisa da TviTregulirebis instruments.
qarTuli biznesis qcevis kodeqsi xels uwyobs qarTul saqmian wreebSi
biznesis warmoebis saukeTeso praqtikis danergvas. korporatiuli da socialuri pasuxismgeblobis zrda, axali faseulobebis damkvidreba da biznesis Sida organizaciuli kulturis gaumjobeseba dadebiT gavlenas moaxdens saqarTvelos biznes garemoze da gaaumjobesebs qarTuli kompaniebis
imijs investorebsa da partniorebs Soris.
qarTuli biznesis qcevis kodeqsi warmoadgens saxelmZRvanelo dokuments saqarTveloSi moqmedi yvela im mewarmisaTvis, romelsac surs pasuxismgebluri korporatiuli qcevis mqone piris reputaciiT warsdges qarTuli sazogadoebis winaSe. igi gansazRvravs samewarmeo seqtoris ganviTarebis eTikur CarCoebs, uwyobs ra xels eTikis programisa da qcevis kodeqsis SemuSavebas calkeuli sawarmosaTvis. kodeqsi saqarTveloSi moqmedi sawarmoebisTvis ayalibebs zogad samuSao principebs da emsaxureba konkretuli sawarmos mier sakuTari qcevis kodeqsis SemuSavebas.
ZiriTadi faseulobebi
qarTuli biznesis qcevis kodeqsi efuZneba Semdeg faseulobebs:
•
•
•
•
•
•
angariSvaldebuleba – sakuTar qmedebebze pasuxismgeblobis unari
keTilsindisiereba – dainteresebul mxareebTan TanamSromlobisas
samarTlianoba – yvela urTierTobaSi
patiosneba da erTianoba – patiosneba, gundis erTianoba, aRebuli valdebulebebis Sesruleba.
gamWvirvaloba – Riad moqmedeba da informaciis gaziareba
sandooba – sakuTari qmedebebiT ndobisa da saimedobis reputaciis Camoyalibeba
aRniSnuli faseulobebi exeba mocemul dokumentSi Camoyalibebul biznes urTierTobebs da warmoadgens yvela biznes urTierTobis safuZvels.
104 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
II. biznesi da sazogadoeba
qarTuli biznesis qcevis kodeqsis faseulobebs biznesi iyenebs im qmedebebSi, romlebic gavlenas axdenen sazogadoebaze.
• biznesi mudmiv kontaqtSia da TanamSromlobs sazogadoebasTan.
• biznesi iTvaliswinebs momxmarebelTa uflebebs, awarmoebs usafrTxo
produqcias da moqmedebs kanonis farglebSi.
• biznesi tolerantulia da Tavis saqmianobaSi ar eweva religiuri, kulturuli, sqesobrivi, rasobrivi, erovnuli, asakobrivi Tu sxva niSniT
diskriminacias.
• bizness Tavisi wvlili Seaqvs sazogadoebrivi problemebis gadaWraSi
im TemSi, sadac mas uwevs muSaoba.
• biznesi pativs scems uflebebs inteleqtualur sakuTrebaze.
III. biznesi biznesTan
kompaniebi erTmaneTTan urTierTobebSi eyrdnobian qarTuli biznesis
qcevis kodeqsis faseulobebs.
• kompania icavs samarTliani konkurenciis principebs.
• kompania zrunavs im informaciis konfidencialobaze, romelic miRebul iqna misi saqmiani urTierTobebis Sedegad da ar gaaxmaurebs kerZo Tu sxva konfidencialur informacias garda kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli SemTxvevebisa.
• kompania pativs scems kontraqtebisa da biznes urTierTobebis uzenaesobas.
IV.
biznesi da kanoni
biznesi icavs kanons da qarTuli biznesis qcevis kodeqsSi dadgenil faseulobebs iyenebs mTavrobasTan urTierTobaSi.
• qarTuli biznesis qcevis kodeqsi aRiarebs saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobas da ar cdilobs mis Canacvlebas.
biznesi
pativs scems da emorCileba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobas.
•
biznesis
urTierTobebi saxelmwifo struqturebTan da politikur
•
partiebTan aris gamWvirvale da mWidro.
• saxelmwifo struqturebTan problemebis mosagvareblad biznesi yvela kanonier saSualebas iyenebs. maT Soris, lobirebas kanonis farglebSi. biznesi ar Seecdeba aramarTlzomieri zegavlenis moxdenas politikur procesebze Tu politikur liderebze Tavisi biznes interesebis sasargeblod. amasve moiTxovs politikuri liderebisgan da
politikur procesebSi monawile sxva pirebisagan.
biznes
davebi wydeba davaTa alternatiuli gadawyvetis meqanizmis an
•
sasamarTlos gziT.
• biznesi axorcielebs samewarmeo saqmianobasTan dakavSirebuli kanonmdeblobis cvlilebebis monitorings biznes sazogadoebis sxva warmomadgenlebTan partnioruli TanamSromlobis farglebSi da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi erTveba kanonproeqtebis momzadebis procesSi.
biznesi
pativs scems saqarTvelos erovnul interesebs da zrunavs
•
qveynis saerTaSoriso imijis zrdaze.
• biujetTan angariSsworeba aris gamWvirvale.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
V. biznesi da media
biznesi mas mediasTan urTierTobaSi eyrdnoba qarTuli biznesis qcevis
kodeqsis faseulobebs.
• sazogadoebrivi da mediasTan urTierTobebi biznesis saqmianobis ganuyofeli nawilia.
• biznesi aqveynebs yovelwliuri socialuri pasuxismgeblobis angariSs.
• biznesi uars ambobs arakeTilsindisieri sareklamo kampaniis warmoebaze.
VI. biznesis Sida garemo
biznesi dainteresebul mxareebTan da dasaqmebulebTan urTierTobebSi
eyrdnoba qarTuli biznesis qcevis kodeqsis faseulobebs.
• biznesi awarmoebs Ria politikas samuSaos anazRaurebasTan, premieb-
•
•
•
•
•
Tan da sxva pirobebTan dakavSirebiT, rac Cadebulia koleqtiur da
individualur dasaqmebis kontraqtebSi, kompaniis Sinaganawessa da
sxva msgavs Sida dokumentebSi.
Tanabari samuSao pirobebi, jansaRi da usafrTxo samuSao garemos Seqmna da aradiskriminaciuli politikis gatareba mniSvnelovani garantia daqiravebis, dawinaurebis, anazRaurebis, damatebiTi socialuri
garantiebis, TanamSromelTa profesiuli zrdisa da maTi mxridan biznesisadmi loialobis waxalisebisaTvis.
biznesi ebrZvis genderuli diskriminaciis faqtebs, miiswrafvis genderuli Tanasworobisadmi, rac TanamSromlebs Soris Tanabari konkurentuli garemos Seqmnis erT-erTi pirobaa.
biznesi uzrunvelyofs xelmZRvanel pirTa xelmisawvdomobas da gaxsnilobas TanamSromelTa mxridan saqmian winadadebaTa mimarT.
TanamSromelTa mier biznesis saxelisa da aqtivebis gamoyeneba xdeba
biznesis sasikeTod.
biznesiT dainteresebuli mxareebi – maT Soris mmarTvelebi, sabWos
wevrebi da muSa-mosamsaxureebi – Tavs arideben potenciur interesTa konfliqts. potenciuri interesTa konfliqti maSin warmoiqmneba,
roca dainteresebul mxares pirdapiri an iribi gare interesi amoZravebs, rac konfliqtSi modis biznesisadmi mis pasuxismgeblobasTan an
negatiurad moqmedebs masze am pasuxismgeblobis ganxorcielebisas.
105
106 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
rekomendaciebi qarTuli biznesis qcevis kodeqsis
gansaxorcieleblad
yvela sawarmos, romelsac surs saerTaSoriso biznesis sazogadoebis nawili gaxdes, vurCevT ganaxorcielos Semdegi qmedebani qarTuli biznesis
qcevis kodeqsis mixedviT:
• daadginos Sesabamis qmedebebze pasuxismgebeli konkretuli piri;
• mocemuli kodeqsis principebis safuZvelze Camoayalibos faseulobebi an biznesis qcevis kodeqsi da Seusabamos isini im konkretul garemoebebs, romlebSic mas uwevs muSaoba;
• SeimuSavos strategia, saxelmZRvanelo, eTikuri normativebi da sawarmos TanamSromelTa wvrTnis programa kodeqsSi Camoyalibebul moTxovnaTa Sesrulebisa da praqtikuli ganxorcielebis mizniT;
• warudginos SemuSavebuli qcevis kodeqsi sawarmos yvela axal TanamSromels da moTxovos masze xelis mowera Sromis xelSekrulebasTan
erTad;
• sawarmos TiToeuli TanamSromlisaTvis SeimuSavos Tanamdebobrivi
instruqcia da gaacnos masze dakisrebuli movaleobebi;
• uzrunvelyos biznesis warmoebis sajarooba. saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi
mas medias miawodos Sesabamisi masalebi da publikaciebi.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
saqarTvelos prokuraturis muSakTa
eTikis kodeqsi
(nawyveti)
Tavi 1.
zogadi debulebani
muxli 1. kodeqsis mizani
1. saqarTvelos prokuraturis muSakTa eTikis kodeqsi (SemdgomSi – kodeqsi) ayalibebs prokuraturis muSakTa qcevis iseT standartebs, romlebic Seesabameba sajaro interess.
2. kodeqsis mizania prokuraturis muSakTa qcevis normebis damkvidreba, romlebic xels uwyoben:
a) Tanamdebobis Sesabamisi pasuxismgeblobisa da samarTlianobis
principebis ganmtkicebas prokuraturis muSakis saqmianobaSi;
b) prokuraturis muSakis mier samsaxurebriv movaleobaTa profesionalur ganxorcielebas;
g) adamianis uflebaTa dacvas sayovelTaod miRebuli standartebiT;
d) samarTliani, efeqturi, miukerZoebeli da kvalificiuri sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ganxorcielebas;
e) marTlmsajulebis upirobo da efeqturi aRsrulebis miznebisa da
amocanebis Sesrulebas;
v) profesiul da pirad saqmianobaSi prokuraturis muSakis mier kanonis moTxovnebis ganuxrel dacvas;
z) saqarTvelos prokuraturis mimarT sazogadoebis ndobisa da pativiscemis ganmtkicebas.
Tavi 2.
zogadi eTikuri normebi
muxli 4. moraluri standartebi
1. prokuraturis muSaks gacnobierebuli unda hqondes, rom sakuTari profesiis mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare, mas sazogadoebis winaSe gaaCnia sajaro mosamsaxurisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli eTikuri valdebulebebi.
2. prokuraturis muSaki unda moqmedebdes patiosnebisa da pasuxismgeblobis maRali standartebiT. igi Tavis saqmianobaSi unda xelmZRvanelobdes kulturis, Tavazianobis, Rirsebis, urTierTpativiscemis,
ndobis, miukerZoeblobis, samarTlianobisa da obieqturobis principebiT, sayovelTaod aRiarebuli eTikis normebiT. prokuraturis muSaki xels unda uwyobdes prokuraturis mimarT sazogadoebis rwmenisa da ndobis ganmtkicebas.
muxli 5. adamianis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacva
1. prokuraturis muSaki unda acnobierebdes, pativi unda sces da icavdes saqarTvelos konstitutuciT, kanonmdeblobiT da saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebiT aRiarebul adamianis uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs. pirovnebis Rirsebis pativiscemis sayovelTao principi savaldebuloa prokuraturis muSakisaTvis.
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2. prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia xeli Seuwyos nebismieri saxis diskriminaciis aRmofxvras.
muxli 6. sazogadoebasTan urTierToba
1. sazogadoebasTan urTierTobisas prokuraturis muSaki pativiscemiT
unda moepyros Tanamosaubreebs, sakuTari mosazrebebis gamoTqmisas
taqtianad unda gamoxatavdes dasabuTebul kritikas. prokuraturis
muSaki valdebulia pativi sces sxva piris sityvis, azrisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas, Tu amiT ar ilaxeba mesame pirTa uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi.
2. dauSvebelia iseTi Sexedulebebis gamoxatva, romelic miznad isaxavs
piris SezRudvas an Seuracxyofis miyenebas rasis, kanis feris, enis,
sqesis, religiis, politikuri Tu sxva Sexedulebebis, erovnuli, eTnikuri Tu socialuri kuTvnilebis, qonebrivi da wodebrivi mdgomareobis niSniT.
muxli 7. damoukidebloba da gavlenisagan Tavisufleba
1. prokuraturis muSaki Tavisufali unda iyos masobrivi informaciis
saSualebebis da calkeul pirebis (maT Soris, Tanamdebobis pirTa) gavlenisagan da daemorCilos mxolod kanons, sasamarTlo praqtikas, Sidauwyebriv miTiTebebsa da zogad sajaro interess.
2. prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia sruli pasuxismgebloba aiRos Tavis qmedebebze. dauSvebelia sakuTar gadawyvetilebaze pasuxismgeblobis moxsna zemdgomi Tanamdebobis piris mier gacemul davalebaze
miTiTebiT.
3. prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia Tavi Seikavos romelime politikuri partiisa Tu gaerTianebis mimarT sakuTari damokidebulebis sajarod gamoxatvisagan. dauSvebelia prokuraturis muSakis mier religiuri kuTvnilebis an politikuri mrwamsis niSnebis aSkara demonstrireba.
Tavi 3.
prokuraturis muSaki profesiuli movaleobis Sesrulebisas
muxli 8. samsaxurebrivi mdgomareobis gamoyeneba
1. prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia misTvis miniWebuli uflebamosileba gamoiyenos mxolod kanoniT mkacrad gansazRvruli miznebisaTvis.
2. dauSvebelia:
a) samsaxurebrivi mdgomareobis gamoyeneba nebismier pirze ukanono
zewolisaTvis;
b) samsaxurebrivi mdgomareobis gamoyeneba produqciisa Tu momsaxurebis reklamisaTvis;
g) samsaxurebrivi droisa da qonebis, aseve sxva TanamSromelTa droisa da qonebis gamoyeneba arasamsaxurebrivi miznebisaTvis (es wesi
ar vrceldeba samsaxurebriv-saStato iaraRisa da samsaxurebrivi
transportis gamoyenebaze);
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
d) piradi interesebisaTvis im informaciis gamoyeneba, romelic misTvis cnobili gaxda samsaxurebrivi movaleobis SesrulebasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu es zians miayenebs saqarTvelos prokuraturis interesebs;
e) SeRavaTebiT sargebloba produqciisa da momsaxurebis SeZenisas im
pirisagan, romelic axorcielebs saqarTvelos prokuraturisaTvis produqciis an momsaxurebis miwodebas.
muxli 9. damoukidebloba, miukerZoebloba da samarTlianoba
1. samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebisas prokuraturis muSaki mkacrad unda icavdes kerZo interesebisagan damoukideblobis, miukerZoeblobisa da samarTlianobis principebs. konkretul sisxlis samarTlis saqmesTan dakavSirebiT igi ar unda moeqces calkeul pirebis (maT
Soris, Tanamdebobis pirTa), masobrivi informaciis saSualebebisa Tu
sazogadoebrivi azris gavlenis qveS. prokuroris muSaoba nebismier
sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze unda akmayofilebdes samarTlianobis, miukerZoeblobisa da efeqturobis standartebs.
2. prokuraturis muSaki pativs unda scemdes udanaSaulobis prezumfciisa da kanonis winaSe Tanasworobis principebs, rogorc uzenaes samarTlebriv Rirebulebebs.
muxli 10. efeqturoba da profesionalizmi
1. prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia profesionalizmis maRali xarisxiT da pasuxismgeblobiT Seasrulos masze kanoniT dakisrebuli movaleobebi.
2. prokuraturis muSaki profesiuli movaleobis Sesrulebisas unda
unergavdes yvela mxares marTlmsajulebisadmi pativiscemas.
3. samsaxurebrivi movaleobis ganxorcielebisas prokuraturis muSaki
valdebulia gaufrTxildes saqarTvelos prokuraturis qonebas, iyenebdes mas mxolod samsaxurebrivi miznebisaTvis. samsaxurebrivi moZiebis Sedegad Tu gamovlindeba prokuraturis muSakis pasuxismgeblobis safuZveli, am ukanasknelma unda aanazRauros prokuraturisaTvis miyenebuli materialuri ziani saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT
dadgenili wesiT.
muxli 11. iuridiuli daxmareba
prokuraturis muSakma Tavi unda Seikavos samarTlebrivi konsultaciebis micemisa da iuridiuli daxmarebis gawevisagan nebismieri pirisaTvis, Tu es ewinaaRmdegeba kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebs an saqarTvelos prokuraturis interesebs.
muxli 12. kolegebTan urTierToba
1. kolegebTan urTierTobisas prokuraturis muSaki unda xelmZRvanelobdes profesiuli solidarobis principiT.
2. prokuraturis muSaki:
a) xels unda uwyobdes kolegebs Soris urTierTndobis damkvidrebas
da Tavs unda aridebdes piradi Tu sxva saxis konfliqtebis warmoSobas an gaRvivebas;
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b) sakuTar gamocdilebas unda uziarebdes im kolegebs, romelTa kvalifikacia da samuSao gamocdileba amas saWiroebs;
g) Tavs unda ikavebdes kolegis saqmianobaSi Carevisagan;
d) ar unda iTxovdes kolegisagan iseTi momsaxurebis gawevas, romelic gaarTulebs misTvis dakisrebuli movaleobis Sesrulebas;
e) winaswar ganzraxulad ar unda Seiyvanos kolega SecdomaSi;
v) taqtianad unda gamoxatavdes ukmayofilebas kolegis Secdomasa da
xarvezebze;
z) unda iTvaliswinebdes profesiuli solidarobis da jansaRi samuSao garemos SeqmnisaTvis aucilebel sxva principebsa da normebs.
muxli 13. konfidencialuri informacia
dauSvebelia prokuraturis muSakis xelT arsebuli konfidencialuri informaciis gamoyeneba kerZo interesebis sasargeblod. prokuraturis muSakma aqtiurad unda imoqmedos, raTa ar dauSvas konfidencialuri informaciis gamoyeneba mesame pirTa interesebisaTvis.
muxli 14. komentarebi sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze
1. dauSvebelia prokuraturis muSakis mier misi an prokuraturis sxva
muSakis warmoebaSi arsebul sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze komentarebis
gakeTeba, Tu es zians miayenebs gamoZiebis interesebs.
2. dauSvebelia prokuraturis muSakis mier misi an prokuraturis sxva
muSakis warmoebaSi arsebul sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze komentarebis
gakeTeba, Tu es zians miayenebs procesis romelime monawiles, garda
im SemTxvevisa, rodesac sajaro interesi moiTxovs sazogadoebis
informirebas mocemul sakiTxze an informaciis gamoqveyneba emsaxureba saxelmwifo braldebis mxardaWeris mizans.
3. prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia sajarod ar gamoxatos iseTi Sexeduleba, romelic ewinaaRmdegeba braldebis oficialur pozicias konkretul sisxlis samarTlis saqmeze.
muxli 15. sisxlis samarTlis procesis monawileebTan urTierToba
1. sisxlis samarTlis procesis monawileebTan urTierTobisas prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia ixelmZRvanelos am kodeqsiT, Sidauwyebrivi normebiT da standartebiT, romlebic mimarTulia sisxlis samarTlis procesSi monawile mxareTa mimarT eTikuri da profesionaluri qcevis uzrunvelyofisaken.
2. prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia saqmis ganxilvis winasasamarTlo
da sasamarTlo stadiaze Tavi Seikavos saqmis ganmxilvel mosamarTlesTan rogorc profesiuli, ise araprofesiuli motiviT urTierTobisagan, (uSualod saqmis sasamarTlo ganxilvis stadiis garda),
droulad gamocxaddes sasamarTlos sxdomaze, daicvas oficialuri
Cacmulobis stili sasamarTloSi, Tavi Seikavos damamcirebeli an Seuracxmyofeli qmedebebisagan an gancxadebebis gakeTebisagan, procesis nebismieri monawilis mimarT gansakuTrebiT keTilganwyobili an
zedmetad negatiuri damokidebulebis gamoxatvisagan, aseve saqmisadmi
piradi damokidebulebis gamovlenisagan.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
muxli 16. Seuferebeli mdgomareoba
1. prokuraturis muSaki samsaxurebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebisas, ar
unda imyofebodes alkoholuri Tu sxva Zliermoqmedi nivTierebis zemoqmedebis qveS, an sxva mdgomareobaSi, romelic Seuferebelia prokuraturis muSakis RirsebisaTvis.
2. prokuraturis SenobaSi alkoholuri sasmelis miReba dasaSvebia mxolod oficialur RonisZiebaTa farglebSi.
muxli 17. samsaxurebrivi-saStato iaraRisa da samsaxurebrivi daniSnulebis piradobis mowmobis gamoyeneba
1. prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia daicvas saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis moTxovnebi samsaxurebrivi-saStato iaraRis da samsaxurebrivi daniSnulebis piradobis mowmobis Senaxvisa da tarebisas.
2. prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia Tavi Seikavos samsaxurebriv- saStato iaraRisa da samsaxurebrivi daniSnulebis piradobis mowmobis
sazogadoebaSi demonstrirebisagan saWiroebis gareSe.
3. prokuraturis muSaks ekrZaleba kanoniT dadgenili wesis darRveviT
sxva pirs gadasces masze gapirovnebuli samsaxurebrivi-saStato iaraRi an samsaxurebrivi daniSnulebis piradobis mowmoba.
Tavi 4.
masobrivi informaciis saSualebebTan urTierToba
muxli 18. sajaro gancxadeba
1. masobrivi informaciis saSualebebiTa da sajaro gamosvlebis dros
gakeTebuli oficialuri werilobiTi an sityvieri gancxadebebi unda
iyos saqmiani da kargad gaazrebuli. mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli is faqti, rom es gancxadebebi SeiZleba aRqmuli iqnes, rogorc saqarTvelos prokuraturis pozicia.
2. prokuraturis muSaks, romelic akeTebs gancxadebas masobrivi
informaciis saSualebebisaTvis, ar ekrZaleba, saqmis garemoebaTa
gaTvaliswinebiT, miawodos masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs im moculobis obieqturi informacia, romelic am droisaTvis misTvis
aris cnobili.
Tavi 5.
interesTa SeuTavsebloba
muxli 19. Seuferebeli saqmianoba
prokuraturis muSaki valdebulia Tavi Seikavos nebismieri qmedebis
ganxorcielebisagan, ramac SeiZleba obieqturad eWvqveS daayenos misi
damoukidebloba an gavlena iqonios mis samsaxurebriv saqmianobaze.
muxli 20. interesTa SeuTavsebloba
1. prokuraturis muSakma unda daicvas `sajaro samsaxurSi interesTa
SeuTavseblobisa da korufciis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis moTxovnebi.
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2. prokuraturis muSaki, romelsac gaaCnia saqarTvelos prokuraturis
kompetencias mikuTvnebuli sakiTxis mimarT qonebrivi an sxva piradi
interesi, valdebulia kanoniT dadgenili wesiT ganacxadosTviTacilebis Sesaxeb da ar miiRos monawileoba sakiTxis ganxilvasa da gadawyvetaSi.
muxli 21. saCuqari
1. kanoniT akrZaluli saCuqris miReba isjeba saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobiT.
2. prokuraturis muSakma Tavi unda Seikavos saCuqris miRebisagan, Tu
amgvari qmedeba warmoadgens masze zegavlenis moxdenis mcdelobas, an
SesaZloa momavalSi moaxdinos aseTi zegavlena.
3. SesaZlo interesTa SeuTavseblobis SemTxvevaSi prokuraturis muSakma Tavi unda Seikavos iuridiuli an fizikuri pirisagan nebismieri saxis sargeblis miRebisagan.
Tavi 6.
kodeqsis aRsrulebis meqanizmebi
muxli 22. kodeqsis aRsruleba
1. am kodeqsis moTxovnaTa darRveva ganixileba, rogorc prokuraturis
muSakisaTvis Seuferebeli saqcieli, rac gamoiwvevs `prokuraturis
Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos organuli kanoniT gaTvaliswinebul disciplinur pasuxismgeblobas.
2. prokuraturis muSaks ufleba aqvs daasabuTos sakuTari qmedebis Sesabamisoba eTikis kodeqsis ZiriTad principebTan da warmoadginos
aRniSnuli qmedebis motivacia.
3. am kodeqsis moTxovnaTa darRvevis faqtebze saqarTvelos generaluri prokuraturis generaluri inspeqcia atarebs samsaxurebriv moZiebas da saqarTvelos generalur prokurors warudgens moZiebis masalebs, aseve winadadebebs prokuraturis muSakis mimarT disciplinuri pasuxismgeblobis RonisZiebis gamoyenebis mizanSewonilobis Taobaze.
4. saqarTvelos generaluri prokurori uflebamosilia samsaxurebrivi moZiebis masala Sesaswavlad gadasces prokuraturis sabWos, romelic afasebs konkretuli saqcielis Seusabamobas am kodeqsis moTxovnebTan da sakuTar daskvnas warudgens generalur prokurors.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis qcevis kodeqsi
(nawyveti)
Cven viswrafviT davicvaT:
sizuste – davadginoT simarTle da zustad avsaxoT mimdinare movlenebi.
daveyrdnoT utyuar faqtebs, zust monacemebs da sando wyaroebs. ar SeviyvanoT SecdomaSi auditoria Seumowmebeli informaciis gavrcelebiT.
miukerZoebloba – viyoT miukerZoeblebi. SeviswavloT da samarTlianad
avsaxoT gansxvavebuli poziciebi sakamaTo sakiTxis Sesaxeb. davicvaT balansi da ar gamovxatoT arc erTi poziciis mxardaWera. uyuradRebod ar davtovoT arc erTi sagulisxmo da Rirebuli azri.
saredaqcio damoukidebloba – davicvaT saredaqcio damoukidebloba da
miviRoT politikuri, komerciuli Tu sxva interesebisgan Tavisufali gadawyvetilebebi. Cveni qmedebiT ar SevlaxoT sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis miukerZoebloba da damoukidebloba.
keTilsindisiereba – keTilsindisierad da Tavazianad moveqceT respon-
dents. mivceT mas pasuxis gacemis saSualeba. logikuri dasabuTebis SemTxvevaSi, davicvaT respondentis anonimuroba.
piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxebloba – pativi vceT da ar davarRvioT piradi
cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis ufleba. dausabuTeblad, sazogadoebrivi interesis gareSe, ar vaqcioT individis piradi cxovrebis detalebi sajaro msjelobis sagnad.
sazogadoebrivi faseulobebi – samarTlianad avsaxoT sinamdvile, ada-
mianuri gamocdilebis dadebiTi da uaryofiTi aspeqtebi, magram pasuxismgeblobiT movekidoT iseTi sakiTxebis gaSuqebas, romlebic sazogadoebis
garkveuli jgufebisTvis SeiZleba saziano an Seuracxmyofeli iyos.
bavSvebi – vizrunoT arasrulwlovanTa ganviTarebaze. davicvaT bavSvebi
maTTvis saziano da Seuferebeli masalisagan.
mravalferovneba – samarTlianad gavaSuqoT qveyanaSi mcxovreb umciresobebsa da sazogadoebriv jgufebTan dakavSirebuli Temebi.
Tanasworoba – ar davuSvaT adamianTa diskriminacia religiuri, eTniku-
ri, rasobrivi, genderuli Tu seqsualuri orientaciis niSniT
angariSvaldebuleba – vixelmZRvaneloT sazogadoebis interesebiT. da-
vexmaroT mas informirebuli gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi. movusminoT maT rCevebs da pretenziebs. daufaravad da dauyovnebliv gamovasworoT Secdomebi. mudam gvaxsovdes, rom
Cven vmuSaobT sazogadoebisTvis da sazogadoebasTan erTad
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saqarTvelos samosamarTlo eTikis kodeqsi
Tavi I.
kodeqsis miznebi da amocanebi
muxli 1
es kodeqsi adgens saqarTvelos saerTo sasamarTloebis mosamarTleTaTvis samosamarTlo eTikis ZiriTad principebs, qcevis wesebsa da standartebs, romlebic mosamarTlem unda daicvas rogorc samsaxureobrivi movaleobis Sesrulebis, ise sxva saqmianobis ganxorcielebisas da pirad
cxovrebaSi.
muxli 2
kodeqsis mizania, xeli Seuwyos marTlmsajulebis damoukideblobis, miukerZoeblobisa da sasamarTlo xelisuflebis erTianobis ganmtkicebas,
sasamarTlo xelisuflebisadmi sazogadoebis ndobisa da rwmenis amaRlebas, mosamarTlis Tanamdebobis prestiJisa da avtoritetis dacvas.
muxli 3
samosamarTlo eTikis normis darRveva kanonmdeblobiT dadgenil SemTxvevaSi iwvevs mosamarTlis disciplinur pasuxismgeblobas.
Tavi II.
samosamarTlo eTikis zogadi principebi
muxli 4
mosamarTle unda iyos kanonis, mosamarTlis ficisa da movaleobis
erTguli, marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisas – kanonisa da samarTlis
uzenaesobis garanti.
muxli 5
mosamarTle unda ganamtkicebdes sazogadoebriv rwmenas marTlmsajulebis damoukideblobis, Seuvalobis, samarTlianobis, siwmindisa da miukerZoeblobisadmi.
muxli 6
mosamarTle unda ufrTxildebodes marTlmsajulebis prestiJs da ar
iqceodes
sasamarTlos avtoritetisa da mosamarTlis wodebisaTvis Seufereblad.
muxli 7
mosamarTle sajarod ar unda gamoxatavdes uaryofiT azrs an Sexedulebas sxva
mosamarTlisa da kolegis profesionalizmsa Tu pirad Tvisebebze.
muxli 8
mosamarTle upativcemulod ar unda ixseniebdes sxva mosamarTlis mier
saqmeze miRebul gadawyvetilebas.
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
muxli 9
mosamarTlem azris gamoTqmis, rwmenisa da gaerTianebis uflebiT sargeblobisas
ar unda Selaxos marTlmsajulebis Rirseba, miukerZoebloba da damoukidebloba...
muxli 10
mosamarTlem, romelic daarRvevs samosamarTlo eTikis normas, unda
izrunos misi
qmedebiT gamowveuli zianis gamosasworeblad.
Tavi III.
mosamarTlis qcevis wesebi samosamarTlo
uflebamosilebebis ganxorcielebisas
muxli 11
mosamarTle marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisas damoukidebelia da gadawyvetilebas iRebs mxolod kanonis, saerTaSoriso samarTlis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli principebisa da normebis Sesabamisad.
muxli 12
mosamarTle samosamarTlo uflebamosilebas unda axorcielebdes Rirseulad,
keTilsindisierad, uangarod da miukerZoeblad.
muxli 13
mosamarTle gadawyvetilebis gamotanisas unda iyos damoukidebeli da
Seuvali; misi azri ar unda meryeobdes politikuri, socialuri, mxaris
interesis, sazogadoebrivi zemoqmedebis an sxvagvari urTierTobis zegavlenis gamo, anda kritikis SiSiT.
muxli 14
samosamarTlo movaleobis Sesrulebisas mosamarTle Tavisufali unda
iyos yovelgvari winaswar Seqmnili an akviatebuli azris, Sexedulebis,
crurwmenisa Tu ganwyobisagan. igi unda moeridos iseT qcevas (mimikas,
gamometyvelebas, Jestikulacias da sxva), romelsac procesis monawileni aRiqvamen winaswar Seqmnil an akviatebul Sexedulebad.
muxli 15
dauSvebelia, rom mosamarTlis rasobriv, erovnul, eTnikur, enobriv, wodebriv,
Tanamdebobriv, qonebriv, religiur, sqesobriv kuTvnilebasTan, invalidobasTan,
seqsualur orientaciasTan, wodebriv-Tanamdebobriv statusTan an sxva
garemoebebTan dakavSirebuli Sexedulebani gavlenas axdendnen gadawyvetilebis kanonierebasa an sxva movaleobis saTanadod ganxorcielebaze.
muxli 16
dauSvebelia, mosamarTle konkretul saqmeze winaswar aTanxmebdes misaReb gadawyvetilebas, anda raime formiT angariSs abarebdes am gadawyvetilebis gamo.
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muxli 17
mosamarTlem ar unda Seasrulos iseTi davaleba Tu rekomendacia, romelic raime formiT xelyofs mis damoukideblobas.
muxli 18
mosamarTle pativiscemiT, yuradRebiT da koreqtulad unda moekidos
presisa da masobrivi informaciis sxva saSualebebis warmomadgenelTa
interess, moipovon da gaavrcelon informacia marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis, sasamarTlos saqmianobis an konkretuli saqmis Sesaxeb.
muxli 19
mosamarTle sajarod ar unda gamoTqvamdes azrs an iZleodes ganmartebebs gansaxilveli an ganxilvis procesSi arsebuli saqmis Sesaxeb, Tu es
ar Seexeba saqmis warmoebis organizaciul da teqnikur mxares.
muxli 20
mosamarTle sajarod an pirad saubarSi unda moeridos iseT gancxadebas, romelsac SeuZlia warmoSvas safuZvliani winapiroba, rom es gancxadeba xels SeuSlis saqmeze kanonieri gadawyvetilebis miRebas.
muxli 21
mosamarTle sajarod an pirad saubarSi ar unda gamoxatavdes Tavis dadebiT an
uaryofiT ganwyobas gansaxilvel, ganxilvis procesSi arsebul an ukve
ganxilul
saqmeSi monawile romelime mxaris mimarT.
muxli 22
mosamarTle ar unda iyenebdes Seuracxmyofel, damamcirebel sityvebsa
da gamoTqmebs an rasistul Tu Sovinistur terminologias.
muxli 23
mosamarTle unda iyos yuradRebiani, gulisxmieri da koreqtuli im moqalaqis mimarT, romelic sasamarTlos mimarTavs.
muxli 24
mosamarTle sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilvisas Semosili unda iyos mantiiT.
muxli 25
mosamarTle RirsebiTa da Tavazianad unda epyrobodes procesis monawileebs.
muxli 26
mosamarTlem profesiuli movaleobis ganxorcielebisas mopovebuli
informacia ar unda gamoiyenos aradaniSnulebisamebr.
muxli 27
mosamarTle pativs unda scemdes sasamarTlos personals.
muxli 28
mosamarTle Tvalyurs unda adevnebdes, rom sasamarTlos moxele icavdes profesiuli eTikis normebs, TavSekavebulad moqmedebdes, ar iCen-
antikorufciuli aRzrda zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolaSi
des raime mikerZoebas, ar avlendes gansxvavebul damokidebulebas mxareebis mimarT an ar amJRavnebdes winaswar Seqmnil ganwyobas.
muxli 29
mosamarTle valdebulia, reagirebdes sasamarTlos moxelis mier profesiuli eTikis normis darRvevaze da axorcielebdes Sesabamis RonisZiebebs.
muxli 30
mosamarTle sistematurad unda imaRlebdes profesiuli codnis dones.
muxli 31
mosamarTle xels unda uwyobdes sasamarTlos moxeleTa profesionalizmisa da
kompetenturobis amaRlebas, aZlevdes maT saWiro rCeva-darigebas.
Tavi IV.
mosamarTlis arasamosamarTlo moRvaweoba
muxli 32
mosamarTlis saqmianoba, romelic ar ukavSirdeba samsaxurebriv movaleobas, dasaSvebia, Tu igi ar ewinaaRmdegeba mosamarTlisa da sasamarTlos
damoukideblobis principebs, ar uqmnis safrTxes sasamarTlos avtoritets, ar qmnis eWvis safuZvels samosamarTlo saqmianobis ganxorcielebisas mis obieqturobasa da mousyidvelobaSi, ar ewinaaRmdegeba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobasa da am kodeqss.
muxli 33
mosamarTlisaTvis samosamarTlo movaleobani upirvelesia. mosamarTle
ar SeiZleba eweodes raime anazRaurebad saqmianobas, garda pedagogiuri, samecniero an SemoqmedebiTi saqmianobisa, Tu igi xels ar uSlis samosamarTlo uflebamosilebis saTanadod ganxorcielebas.
muxli 34
mosamarTlem monawileoba ar unda miiRos mis samsaxurebriv statussa da
movaleobasTan SeuTavsebel garigebaSi.
muxli 35
mosamarTle ar SeiZleba gaxdes wevri iseTi gaerTianebisa, romelic
erTgulebis ficis dadebas moiTxovs, anda eWvqveS ayenebs mosamarTlis
reputacias, zians ayenebs sasamarTlos avtoritets.
muxli 36
mosamarTle ar unda eweodes politikur saqmianobas. igi ar SeiZleba iyos
politikuri organizaciis wevri an asrulebdes partiul davalebas, an
politikuri organizaciis saxeliT gamodiodes sityviT.
muxli 37
mosamarTle sajarod ar unda amJRavnebdes Tavis politikur Sexedulebas. akrZalulia misi mxridan nebismieri politikuri propaganda rogorc
sasamarTlo darbazSi, ise mis gareT.
117
118 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
muxli 38
mosamarTlem sajarod an sxva formiT mxari ar unda dauWiros kandidaturas saxelmwifo politikur Tanamdebobaze an gamovides mis winaaRmdeg.
muxli 39
mosamarTles ekrZaleba gaficva. mas ara aqvs ufleba, raime motiviT, koleqtiurad Tu individualurad, uari Tqvas an sxvas mouwodos samsaxurebrivi da profesiuli movaleobis Seusruleblobisaken.
muxli 40
mosamarTlem sasamarTlos moxelesac unda urCios, rom Tavi Seikavos politikuri saqmianobis an politikuri Sexedulebis demonstrirebisagan.
muxli 41
mosamarTles ufleba aqvs, gamoxatos pozicia sakuTar an sxva qveyanaSi
profesiuli movaleobis SesrulebisaTvis mosamarTlis an sxva iuridiuli profesiis adamianis Seviwroebis, devnis, daucvelobis, zewolis an
mis saqmianobaSi ukanono Carevis gamo.
muxli 42
mosamarTles ufleba aqvs, ekavos raime Tanamdeboba sazogadoebriv sawyisebze an monawileobdes iseT saxelmwifo, an sazogadoebriv komisiaSi, romelic dakavSirebulia sakanonmdeblo saqmianobasTan, marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis srulyofasTan, sxva samarTlebriv an iseT arasamarTlebriv sakiTxebTan, romlebic am kodeqsis moTxovnas ar ewinaaRmdegeba.
muxli 43
mosamarTles ufleba aqvs, kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi, warmoadgendes qveyanas an mis romelime administraciul erTeuls
oficialur ceremonialze, kulturul – saganmanaTleblo RonisZiebaze an Rirssaxsovar TariRTan dakavSirebiT.
muxli 44
mosamarTles ufleba aqvs, iyos Tavisi an ucxo qveynis (qalaqis an sxva
administraciuli erTeulis) sapatio moqalaqe.
korufciis kvleva
umaRles saswavleblebSi
Sexedulebebi, problemebi, gadaWris gzebi
meToduri saxelmZRvanelo Seiqmna korufciis winaaRmdeg brZolis
erovnuli programisa da gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis mier
dafinansebuli proeqtis – `korufciis prevencia ganaTlebis,
sazogadoebis informirebisa da TviTSegnebis amaRlebis gziT~ –
safuZvelze.
masalebze muSaobdnen:
iolanta piliponite, `Transparency International~ litva;
doqtori arunas povilunasi, vilniusis universiteti;
doqotri romas prakapasi, litvis pedagogiuri universiteti;
natalia rumianceva, vanderbiltis universiteti;
vitalia skeruvene, kaunasis kolegia;
gintare Satene, Saulaiskis universiteti;
doqtori tadas tamoSunasi, vilniusis pedagogiuri universiteti;
vaiva zuzaviCute, vitautas didis saxelobis universiteti.
Semdgeneli:
daiva penkauskine, Tanamedrove didaqtikis centri
recenzentebi:
profesori, doqtori iuzas bagdanaviCusi
docenti, doqtori valdone indraSene
121
winasityvaoba
meToduri saxelmZRvanelo – `korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi: Sexedulebebi, problemebi, gadaWris gzebi~ – gankuTvnilia umaRlesi
saswavleblebis pedagogebisa da studentebisaTvis. gamocemaSi warmodgenilia: orwliani proeqtis – `korufciis prevencia ganaTlebis, sazogadoebis informirebis da cnobierebis amaRlebis gziT~ – Sedegebi; saswavlo
programebi da gegmebi, romlebic socialur mecnierebebSi antikorufciuli aRzrdis SesaZleblobas asaxaven. proeqti gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis ganviTarebis programisa da litvis respublikis mTavrobis mxardaWeriT xorcieldeboda da masSi gaTvaliswinebuli iyo korufciis winaaRmdeg brZolis erovnuli programis debulebebis SemuSaveba. gamocemis
mizania mocemuli programiT xeli Seuwyos – `korufciis nebismieri gamovlinebisadmi Seuwynareblobas /.../, mocemuli saswavlo programebis SemuSavebasa da danergvas ganaTlebis sistemaSi~.
meToduri saxelmZRvanelos mkiTxvelebs saSualeba eZlevaT ara marto
gamoiyenon SemuSavebuli saswavlo programebi, aramed amomwuravi informacia miiRon msoflioSi, litvaSi da ufro konkertulad, umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi korufciis gamovlinebebis Sesaxeb. isini gaecnobian korufciisdmi studentebisa da maswavleblebis damokidebulebas. gamocemis bolos mocemulia ZiriTadi cnebebis leqsikoni da gamoyenebuli literaturisa da wyaroebis nusxa.
saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli masala proeqtis monawileTa saavtoro
naSromebs warmoadgens. TiToeuli maTgani amzadebda programas Tavisi
saswavleblis moTxovnebis, specifikisa da mocemuli sagnis SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebiT. proeqtis monawileebs da programebis avtorebs
gaTviTcnobierebuli hqondaT, rom maTi naSromebi sacdeli xasiaTisaa da
imedovneben, rom sxva umaRlesi saswavleblebis pedagogebi mocemul gamocemaze dayrdnobiT axal, originalur programebsa da sakuTar modulebs SeimuSaveben.
Semdgeneli
123
iolanta piliponite
korufciis fenomeni
Sesavali
bolo dros ganuwyvetliv gvesmis, vxedavT da Zalauneburad vgrZnobT,
rom korufcia nisliviT exveva Cveni saxelmwifos TiToeul kuTxes, Cvens
ezosac ki. maSinve ibadeba kiTxva: ra aris es – epidemia Tu, ubralod, postmodernistuli arsebobis morigi orWofoba? am SemTxvevaSi Zalze mniSvnelovania masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis, gansakuTrebiT ki, televiziis roli. advilad SesamCnevia, rom Cven TiTqmis yoveldRiurad gvawvdian informacias korufciis gamovlinebis Sesaxeb sxvadasxva samTavrobo doneze Tu pirad cxovrebaSi. amgvarad, bolo dros, korufciis Tema Zalze aqtualuria. litvis sazogadoeba da saqmiani wreebis warmomadgenlebi
erTsulovanni arian imaSi, rom korufcia sakmaod Zlier dabrkolebas warmoadgens qveynis cxovrebisa Tu samewarmeo saqmianobisaTvis. Tumca, paradoqsulia is faqti, rom Cveni qveynis moqalaqeTa da mewarmeTa umravlesoba SekiTxvaze – miscemdnen Tu ara isini qrTams? – dauyovnebliv pasuxoben:
`diax~ (korufciuli ruka..., 2004, gv.13). ibadeba kiTxva, rogor ganvsazRvroT da avxsnaT es mravalferovani da, SesaZloa, orazrovani korufciis movlena da ra unda moimoqmedos samoqalaqo sazogadoebam?
statiis mizania korufciis gansazRvrebasTan dakavSirebuli problematikis ganxilva, korufciis analizis Teoriuli perspeqtivebis gamomJRavneba, korufciis diagnostikis, rogorc misi kontrolisa da prevenciis erTerTi efeqturi saSualebis, ganxilva, korufciis prevenciisa da masSi samoqalaqo sazogadoebis rolis Sesaxeb j. popis sistemuri Sexedulebis
axsna. statiis pirvel nawilSi ganixileba korufciis gansazRvris aspeqtebi da, agreTve, amaSi kanonmdeblobis, sajaro interesisa da sazogadoebrivi azris roli. meore nawili eZRvneba korufciis gansazRvris procesSi warmoqmnil problemaTa analizs. mesame nawilSi ganxilulia ori Teoriuli
perspeqtiva: korufciis erT-erTi yvelaze gavleniani mkvlevaris –
a. haidenhaimeris Sexeduleba, romlis meSveobiTac ganixileba korufciis
yvela saxeoba da warmoebs maTi analizi. agreTve, moyvanilia warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis Sexeduleba, romelic xsnis, Tu ra xdeba, rodesac warmdgeneli Zalauflebas wardgenils gadascems. meoTxe nawili eTmoba diagnostikas, romelic korufciis susti sferoebis dadgenis saSualebas iZleva da, amgvarad, qmediTi antikorufciuli programebis formirebas uwyobs
xels. mexuTe nawilSi ganxilulia samoqalaqo sazogadoebis roli da
j. popis sistemuri Sexeduleba korufciis prevenciaze. statiis daskvniT
nawilSi mocemulia ganxiluli Sexedulebebis Sejameba.
korufciis gansazRvris ZiebaSi
korufciis mkvlevar norvegiel mecnierTa azriT, aRniSnuli rTuli movlena sxvadasxva Teoriuli modelebis gamoyenebiT, kvlevebis CatarebiT,
124 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
korufciis calkeuli faqtebisa da skandalebis detaluri analiziT, transdisciplinarul konteqstSi unda ganixilebodes. am sityvis farTo gagebiT, `avtorebi, romlebic korufcias ikvleven da mis Sesaxeb weren, SeiZleba sam jgufad daiyos~:
1. mecnierTa umravlesoba korufciis movlenis im ganmartebas eyrdnoba, romelic `oqsfordis inglisuri enis leqsikonSia~ mocemuli da
sajaro samsaxuris valdebulebaTa koncefcias ukavSirdeba.
2. mecnierTa meore jgufma Camoayaliba korufciis ganmarteba, romelic
moTxovnilebis, gamoyenebisa da gacvlis cnebebs efuZneba da ekonomikur Teoriamdea dayvanili.
3. korufciis Sesaxeb diskusiebSi mesame jgufi sajaro interesis ideas
eyrdnoba.
martivad rom vTqvaT, korufcia aris sajaro moxleTa TanamdebobasTan
Seusabamo qceva. arasamTavrobo antikorufciuli organizacia `Transparency
International~ korufcias axasiaTebs, rogorc `sajaro Zalauflebis borotad
gamoyeneba piradi sargeblis miRebis mizniT~. es aris msoflioSi korufciis erT-erTi yvelaze gavrcelebuli gansazRvreba.
SegviZlia moviyvanoT korufciis gamovlinebis Semdegi magaliTebi: meqrTameoba, nepotizmi, proteqcionizmi, klientizmi, ukanono lobizmi, sazogadoebrivi resursebis ukanono ganawileba da gadanawileba, ukanono
privatizacia, ararsebuli proeqtebis Seqmna, ukanono Semosavlebis dagroveba, gadasaxadebis damalva, politikur partiaTa ukanono dafinanseba
da sxva.
rogorc aRiniSna, korufcia xSirad xasiaTdeba, rogorc sajaro moxeleTa uRirsi da standartebTan Seusabamo qceva. ielis universitetis politikur mecnierebaTa profesori, j. s. skoti agreTve im mosazRebas iziarebs, rom korufcia aris qceva, romlisTvisac damaxasiaTebelia garkveuli standartebisagan gadaxra. igi svams SekiTxvas: `ra kriteriumebiT vxelmZRvanelobT aRniSnuli standartebis dadgenisas?~. ganvixiloT am problemis Semdegi aspeqtebi: samarTlebrivi, sajaro interesi da sazogadoebrivi azri.
kanonmdeblobis roli korufciis gansazRvraSi
j. s. skotis kiTxvaze sapasuxod, TiToeuli Cvengani, albaT, samarTlebrivi dokumentebis mkafio kriteriumebs mimarTavda. magaliTad, Tanamdebobis piris kanoniT akrZaluli qmedeba miCneulia ukanonod, anu korufciulad. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, aseTi qmedeba ar aris korufciuli maSinac ki, Tu SeimCneva Zalauflebis borotad gamoyeneba an eTikis darRveva.
iuristebi dadebiTad afaseben amgvar, formalurad mkafio, ganmartebas.
cxadia, sajaro moxeleebi, iseve rogorc rigiTi moqalaqeebi, unda icnobdnen aseTi tipis akrZalvebsa an moTxovnebs.
miuxedavad imisa, rom sxvadasxva qveynis kanonmdeblobaSi korufcia mkafiod aris gansazRvruli, profesori j. s. skoti Semdegi problemebiT interesdeba:
• yovelTvis Seesabameba Tu ara eTikur normebs is, rac kanonieria?
• arsebobs saSiSroeba, rom gansxvavebuli sakanonmdeblo bazis arse-
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
•
bobis gamo, identuri qmedebebi sxvadasxva qveyanaSi sxvadasxvagvarad
SeiZleba aRiqmebodes.
rTulia korufciis donis Sedareba qveynebSi, romelTa saxelmwifo
seqtoris moculoba gansxvavebulia. (magaliTad, erT qveyanaSi mosaxleobis umetesoba muSaobs saxelmwifo seqtorSi, meoreSi ki – kerZo
seqtorSi).
sajaro interesis aspeqti korufciis gansazRvrisas
dasawyisSi moviyvanoT j. gardineris ori magaliTi, romelic korufciis samarTlebrivi gansazRvrebis problemas asaxavs:
• II msofio omis dros, germaniaSi moqmedebda kanoni, romelic ebraelTa emigracias krZalavda. Tu ebrauli ojaxi inspeqtors 1 000 germanul markas gadauxdida, mas qveynidan gamgzavreba SeeZlo. aris es korufcia? fulis sanacvlod inspeqtori ukanono gadawyvetilebas
iRebda. magram SeiZleba Tu ara es korufciad miviCnioT? SeiZleba Tu
ara gavamarTloT inspeqtoris amgvari qmedeba? umravlesoba, albaT,
ityoda, rom ebraelTaTvis kanonis gamkacreba saziano iyo, xolo zemoT moyvanili kanonis darRveva, anu ebraelTaTvis qveynis datovebis nebarTvis micema – eTikuri nabiji.
• moyvanili magaliTi cxadyofs, rom ukanono qmedeba yovelTvis ar aris
korufciuli. Semdegi magaliTi sruliad sapirispiro situacias asaxavs, rodesac kanonieri qmedeba SeiZleba korumpirebuli iyos. 19501960-ian wlebSi, rodesac aSS-is qalaqebi kriziss ganicdidnen, kongresma qalaqebis ganaxlebis programa SeimuSava, romlis mixedviTac
saxelmwifo saagentoebi dasangrev zonebSi arsebul miwebs gamousadegad cnobdnen, Senobebs iRebdnen, xolo miwas yiddnen. aRniSnuli
saxelmwifo programis meSveobiT miwis nakveTebis umravlesoba `gamococxlda~. rogorc wesi, es iyo Raribebis, an erovnuli umciresobebis warmomadgenelTa miwebi. im teritoriaze Sendeboda mdidruli
saxlebi da dawesebulebebi. unda aRiniSnos, rom Cinovnikebi yvela aucilebel proceduras icavdnen. amgvarad, iyo Tu ara es qmedeba korufciuli? j. s. skotis azriT, qalaqebis ganaxlebis programa saSualo da zeda fenis warmomadgenelTaTvis xelsayreli iyo. Seuwyo Tu
ara xeli am programam qalaqebis ekonomikuri problemebis gadawyvetas? cxadia, rom mosaxleobis naklebad SeZlebuli fena dazaralda,
xolo mdidrebi ki kidev ufro gamdidrdnen. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom `qalaqebis ganaxlebis aRniSnuli programiT amerikis politikur cxovrebaSi korufciis xorcSesxma moxda~. meore mxriv, ar aris mizanSewonili termini korufciis mudmivad gamoyeneba, rodesac iseT politikur procesebze vsaubrobT, romlebic uTanasworo SesaZleblobebsa Tu sargebels ganapirobeben. pirveli magaliTi azrTa sxvadasxvaobas ar iwvevs. rac Seexeba meore magaliTs, SeiZleba `korufciul qmedebebze~ gansxvavebuli Sexedulebebi gamovyoT.
amgvarad, Cven gvainteresebs: ra SeiZleba iTqvas korufciis ganmartebis Sesaxeb moyvanili magaliTebis safuZvelze? sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, aris
Tu ara:
125
126 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
• sajaro interesis saziano qmedeba korufciuli im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu
is kanonieria?
• sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo qmedeba arakorufciuli im SemTxvevaSi, Tu is kanonsawinaaRmdegoa?
orive magaliTi, anu ori oficialuri saxelmwifo dokumentis Sedegi,
SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc individTa doneze (ojaxi, romelsac surs
emigrireba; mosaxleoba, romelTa sacxovrebeli saxlebic daangries), aseve ufro farTo, sazogadoebriv doneze. ganzogadebisaTvis unda aRiniSnos, rom `sajaro interesze korufciis zegavlena ar SeiZleba ganixilebodes mTeli rigi aspeqtebis gaTvaliswinebis gareSe~.
korufciis movlenis analizi politikuri procesis konteqstisagan ganuyofelia. kargia, miviCnioT, rom yvelaferi kanonmdeblobazea damokidebuli, Tumca saWiroa kritikuli xedva. korufcia, iseve rogorc nebismieri ukanono qmedeba, asustebs an abaTilebs sakanonmdeblo miznebs. magram,
Tu vaRiarebT, rom kanonmdeblebma SeiZleba Seqmnan cudi kanoni, miT umetes, Tu kanonis Seqmnisas saxelmwifoSi sistematurad ar aris daculi romelime socialuri jgufis interesebi, an ugulvebelyofilia sazogadoebrivi azri, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom garkveuli korufciuli qmedebebi gardauvalia. `es sajaro interesis aspeqtisa da korufciis gansazRvrebis dakavSirebis saSualebas gvaZlevs~.
sazogadoebrivi azris mniSvneloba korufciis gansazRvrisas
saxelmwifos mier korufciis gansazRvrisa da misi ubralo moqalaqeebis mier aRqmas Soris aSkara gansxvaveba arsebobs. aseT pirobebSi SeiZleba
Seiqmnas viTareba, rodesac saxelmwifo moxeleebi sazogadoebis azrs ufro
gaiTvaliswineben, vidre kanons daicaven. amis garda, j. gardineris mixedviT, efeqturi antikorufciuli qmedebebi SeuZlebeli, an rTuli gansaxorcielebelia, Tu korufciis mimarT sazogadoebis ganwyoba da misi samarTlebrivi ganmarteba mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba.
prokurorebisa da mkvlevarebisaTvis cnobilia, rom moqalaqeebi, romlebSic korufcia garkveul SiSs badebs, ufro metad arian midrekilebi:
• amxilon danaSauli;
• daexmaron gamoZiebas;
• xma miscen `patiosan~ politikosebs da ar amoirCion `TaRliTebi~;
• imoqmedon kanonis Tanaxmad da ar SesTavazon qrTami.
`xsenebuli mizezebidan gamomdinare, korufciis Sesaxeb sazogadoebis
azri mniSvnelovania, rodesac saubaria korufciis winaaRmdeg mimarTul
samarTaldamcavi organoebis efeqtur moqmedebebze~.
korufciis gansazRvris problemebi
ramdenic ar unda vimsjeloT, cxadia, rom korufciis gansazRvrisas garkveul sirTuleebs vawydebiT. Teoretikosebi Semdeg ZiriTad problemebs
gamoyofen:
• arsebobs gansxvaveba saxelmwifo samarTlebriv dokumentebSi korufciis ganmartebasa da imas Soris, Tu rogor aRiqmeba korufcia da ra
gavlena aqvs sazogadoebaze.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
• aSkara Seusabamoba warmoiqmneba imasTan dakavsirebiTac ki, Tu rogor aRiqmeba da ganisazRvreba zemoT xsenebuli problemebi sxvadasxva qveyanaSi.
qvemoT korufciis ganmartebis Sesaxeb ramdenime mosazrebas ganvixilavT. klasikurad miiCneva harvardis politikis profesoris j. s. nais gansazRvreba: korufcia aris `arCevnebis Sedegad sajarod dakisrebuli an miniWebuli formaluri valdebebulebisagan Tavis arideba an qmedeba, piradi (ojaxuri, jgufuri) sargebelis da sasurveli statusis misaRebad~. moyvanili ganmartebis zogierTi momenti Zalze mniSvnelovania. umravlesoba
albaT daeTanxmeba, rom am gansazRvrebaSi naTlad Cans sazogadoebis roli.
korufcia SesaZlebelia mxolod Tanamdebobis piris mier samsaxurebrivi,
sazogadoebrivi movaleobis Sesrulebis dros. rac Seexeba j. s. nais mier
naxseneb pirad sargebels, avtori xazs usvams borotmoqmedebas, romelic
pirad an finansur sargebels ukavSirdeba. mocemul gansazRvrebaSi naTqvamia, rom fuli Cndeba Tanamdebobis pirebis an maTi naTesavebis jibeebSi,
magram ar aris ganxiluli politikuri partiis, eTnikuri jgufisa da a.S.
sargebelis misaRebad Cadenili borotqmedebis SemTxvevebi. j. s. nais gansazRvrebis sxva nakli is gaxlavT, rom igi korufciad miiCnevs `qmedebas,
romelic arRvevs dadgenil wesebs an ar Seesabameba miRebul, Cveulebriv,
sazogadoebriv valdebulebebs~. swored es ganapirobebs sxvadasxva saxelmwifoSi korufciis gavrcelebis gansxvavebul interpretacias. zogierT
qveyanaSi ar arsebobs formaluri wesebi, romlebic saxelmwifo moxeleebis moqmedebis reglamentirebas axdenen. zogan ki yuradRebaSi miiReba is,
rom politikosebs da saxelmwifo moxeleebs SeuZliaT biznesTan dakavSirebuli kerZo saqmianobisa da oficialuri valdebulebebis Serwyma. niSnavs Tu ara es, rom zog qveyanaSi grakveuli qmedeba ver Tavsdeba j. s. nais
gansazRvrul korufciis formalur CarCoebSi, xolo sxva qveynebSi korufciad ganixileba? aseT kiTxvas svams profesori j. gardineri.
sxva mniSvnelovani kategoriaa – Tanamdebobis pirebis mier Zalauflebis borotad gamoyeneba. misi zusti gansazRvra, albaT, SeuZlebelia. mecnieri, kanadeli politikosi k. gibsoni, gamoyofs qmedebebs, romlebic SeiZleba Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebad CaiTvalos:
• saxelmwifo moxele Tanamdebobaze niSnavs Tavis naTesavs da ar iyvans
ufro maRalkvalificiur kandidats (nepotizmi);
• arCevnebSi gamarjvebis Semdeg, politikuri partia dakavebuli Tanamdebobebidan gaaTavisuflebs im saxelmwifo moxeleebs, romlebic
arCevnebSi opoziciur partias uWerdnen mxars (patronati);
• sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebi ganageben wiaRiseulis mompovebeli kompaniis resursebs da mxars uWeren kanonproeqts,
romlis mixedviTac, aseTi tipis sawarmoebs sagadasaxado SeRavaTebi
ekuTvniT (sakanonmdeblo interesTa konfliqti);
• arsebul monacemebsa da informaciaze dayrdnobiT saxelmwifo moxeleebi konsultaciebs uweven kerZo pirebs (biurokratiuli interesTa konfliqti).
k. gibsonis mier moyvanil sias SeiZleba davamatoT:
• mTavrobasTan aliansSi Sesvla, `politikuri sponsoroba~;
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• sazogadoebisaTvis da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebisaTvis cru
informaciis miwodeba;
• politikuri kampaniebis dafinansebis sxvadasxva formebi da sxva.
sajaro Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebis kategoriebze saubris bolos
unda aRiniSnos, rom misi araerTazrovani ganmarteba Zalze aqtualuria.
aseTi qmedeba mTel rig qveynebSi akrZalulia. Tu es asea, da j. s. nais gansazRvrebis meore moTxovna (anu Tanamdebobis piri Rebulobs sargebels) dakmayofilebulia, aseTi tipis qmedebebi SeiZleba korufciis sxva formebs
gautoldes. iqac ki, sadac amgvari qmedeba kanonis zRvars ar scildeba, Tanamdebobis pirebis qceva, sul mcire, araeTikuradaa miCneuli da maT mimarT ukmayofileba gamoiTqmeba.
aseTi saxis Teoriul gaurkvevlobas aqvs adgili korufciis gansazRvrebis dros. am sakiTxze kamaTi SeiZleba saerTaSoriso doneze gaimarTos.
SomdgomSi ganvixilavT korufciis analizis Teoriul SesaZleblobebs.
a. haidenhaimeris Sexeduleba makroanalitikur dones Seesabameba, xolo
warmdgenis da wardgenilis modeli – mikro donis Teorias.
korufciis Teoriuli gaanalizebis perspeqtivebi
a. haidenhaimeri _ sistemuri Sexeduleba
korufciaze Catarebul kvlevaTa Soris a. haidenhaimeris Sexeduleba
erT-erTi yvelaze ufro gavleniania. mas korufciis sxvadasxva saxis ganxilvisas da SedarebiTi analizis warmoebis dros mimarTaven.
korufciis gansazRvris amosavals, romelsac a. haidenhaimeri Tavis naSromebSi iyenebs, sajaro samsaxuri warmoadgens. amis garda, avtori sazogadoebrivi azris kvlevebs eyrdnoba, romlebic mas korufciuli qmedebebis konkretuli saxeobebis axsnaSi exmarebian.
a. haidenhaimeri ikvlevs korufciis gavrcelebas sxvadasxva sazogadoebaSi da winaswarmetyvelebs, Tu ra saxis korufcia iCens Tavs gansakuTrebiT. politikur valdebulebebTan dakavSirebuli urTierTobebidan gamomdinare, avtori sazogadoebas oTx jgufad yofs:
• tradiciuli, ujaxur urTierTobebze damyarebuli sazogadoeba (magaliTi –e. banfildis naSromebSi aRwerili montegranis sazogadoeba);
• mfarvelebisa da mfarvelobis qveS myofTa tradiciuli sazogadoeba
(mflobelebi da klientebi) (anTropologebis – j. boisevainisa da j. k.
qambelis mier gamokvleuli siciliisa da saberZneTis sazogadoebebi).
• xelmZRvanelebisa da daqvemdebarebulebis Tanamedrove sazogadoeba (amerikis wina saukunis dasawyisis msxvili qalaqebi).
• samoqalaqo kulturis mqone sazogadoeba (amerikisa da didi britaneTis saSualo zomis qalaqebi da maTi Semogareni).
mocemuli modeli imis demonstrirebas axdens, Tu ramdenad gavrcelebulia saxelmwifo moxeleebs Soris iseTi politikuri qceva, romelic dasavluri elitis mier korufciulad ganxileba. es modeli agreTve saSualebas
iZleva ganvsazRvroT, raoden mkacrad an lmobierad afasebs garkveuli sazogadoeba da misi elita qcevas, romelic oficialurad korufciulad aris
miCneuli. upirveles yovlisa, mecnierebi korufciis sam saxes gamoyofen:
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
• wvrilmani;
• rutinuli;
• fesvgadgmuli.
aseTi dayofa korufciis ganviTarebis, masStabisa da sixSiris kriteriumebs efuZneba. amasTan, mxedvelobaSi miiReba sazogadoebaSi misi gavrcelebis efeqti da is, aris Tu ara korufciuli qceva Cveulebrivi movlena
politikuri valdebulebebis sxvadasxva sistemebSi.
imis gaTvaliswinebiT, Tu rogor afasebs sazogadoeba garkveul qmedebebs da rogor aRiqvams is korufcias sxvadasxva politikur sistemaSi,
a. haidenhaimeri korufciis Semdeg saxeebs gamoyofs:
• Savi;
• ruxi;
• TeTri.
Savi korufcia iseT qmedebebs gulisxmobs, romlebic rogorc elitis,
aseve sazogadoebis umetesi nawilis mier korufciuladaa aRiarebuli. ruxi
korufciis Sualeduri cneba moicavs qmedebebs, romelTa Sesaxeb ar aris
Camoyalibebuli mkafio Sexedulebebi, an isini imisdamixedviT icvleba, miiCnevs Tu ara sazogadoeba, rom msgavsi qmedebebi dasjadi unda iyos. zogierTi jgufi, rogorc wesi elita, garkveul qcevas ukanonod miiCnevs da
imisken miiswrafvis, rom is dasjadi iyos. sxva socialur jgufebs gansxvavebuli Sexeduleba aqvT. umravlesobis azri xSirad ubralod gaurkvevelia. a. haidenhaimeris mixedviT, ruxi korufciis gamovlenis SemTxvevaSi
elita, rogorc wesi, ukmayofilebas gamoTqvams, xolo sazogadoeba indiferentuli rCeba. TeTr korufcias profesori uwodebs movlenas, romlis
drosac rogorc elita, aseve sazogadoebis umetesi nawili, garkveuli korufciuli qmedebis mimarT Semwynarebelia. aseTi qcevis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli qmedebebi iSviaTad pouloben aqtiur mxardaWeras. gaaerTiana ra mis
mier gamoyofili korufciisa da sazogadoebis tipebi, a. haidenhaimerma daaskvna, rom Tanamedrove samoqalaqo kulturis sazogadoebaSi fesvgadgmuli korufciis SemTxvevebi Zalze iSviaTia, an aratipiuria da isini unda daxasiaTdes, rogorc Savi korufcia. sazogadoebis danarCeni sami tipis SemTxvevaSi sruliad sawinaaRmdego viTarebaa. rutinuli korufcia aq SemTxveviTia da xasiaTdeba, rogorc Savi korufcia. saCuqrebisa da nepotizmis SemTxvevebi rux korufciadaa miCneuli, Tu garigebebi koleqtiur xasiaTs atarebs (magaliTad, partiebis dafinanseba). wvrilman korufcias
ufro xSirad aqvs adgili da is agreTve rux korufciad iwodeba.
rogorc Svedi mecnieri andersoni aRniSnavs, korufciis analizis dros
a. haidenhaimeris modelis gamoyenebisas unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom korufciis maxasiaTebelTa umetesoba samxreT evropidan, amerikidan da didi britaneTidan aris Semosuli. meore mxriv, es iZleva saSualebas, mecnieris mier
SemoTavazebuli hipoTezebi gadavamowmoT da Teoriis gamoyenebis SesaZleblobebi gavafarTovoT. ramdenime wlis win, Tavad a. haidenhaimerma aRniSna
sazogadoebaSi globaluri cvlilebebis gavlena korufciis gansazRvrebaze. misi azriT, globalizaciis procesSi korufciis aRqma ufro fragmentuli da orazrovani xdeba. es gulisxmobs, rom TeTri, ruxi da Savi korufciis amsaxveli modeli moklebulia korufciuli qcevis asaxvis unars.
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ganzogadebisaTvis upriani iqneba gavixsenoT, rom a. haidenhaimeris Sexeduleba misaRebia rogorc SedarebiTi kvlevebisaTvis, ise calkeul SemTxvevaTa Seswavlisas. mocemuli Teoriis mTavari upiratesoba is aris, rom
avtori ar Semoifargleba mxolod korufciis samarTlebrivi cnebiT. misTvis mniSvnelovania mocemuli movlenis ufro farTo xedvac. aseTi aspeqti korufciis sxvadasxva saxis ganxilvis saSualebas iZleva. aRniSnuli poziciis naklovan mxared SeiZleba miviCnioT klasifikaciis ukve sakmaod moZvelebuli sistema da konteqstisa da moqmed pirTa ugulvebelyofa. amitomac, Semdgom, Cven ganvixilavT sxva Sexedulebas, romlis RerZsac moqmedi
pirebi da informacia warmoadgens.
mikrodone: warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis modeli
warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis modelis arsi gacvlis Teoriis erT-erT
ganStoebaSi, racionaluri arCevanis TeoriaSi devs. es ukanaskneli maqsimizirebuli arCevanis Teorias unda mivakuTvnoT. ekonomikuri perspeqtivis gaTvaliswinebiT, racionaluri arCevanis Teoria aanalizebs pirovnebis strategiul qmedebebs, romelTa meSveobiTac is keTildReobisaken da
materialuri moTxovnilebebis dakmayofilebisaken miiswrafvis. yuradRebis koncentrireba xdeba pirovnebis (magaliTad, korumpirebulis) konkretul mdgomareobaze, rodesac mimdinareobs yvela dadebiTi da uaryofiTi
argumentis awon-dawona.
aRniSnuli modelis pirvandeli daniSnuleba – kerZo seqtorSi damqiraveblisa da daqiravebulis urTierTobebis analizia. amave dros, cxadia, rom is SeiZleba iyos gamoyenebuli samTavrobo seqtorSic. korufciis movlenis kvlevebSi warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis Sexedulebas iyenebdnen cnobili amerikeli mecnieri, s. rouz-akermani da ekonomistebi –
klitgardi, jaini da sxvebi.
warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis Sexeduleba mikrodonis Teoriaa, romelic xsnis, Tu ra xdeba, rodesac warmdgeneli wardgenils Zalauflebas aniWebs. wardgenili, rogorc wesi, informacias an unarebs flobs, romlebic
sakmarisad ar gaaCnia warmdgenels. aRniSnuli modelis arCevisas, unda gvaxsovdes, rom warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis interesebi xSirad erTmaneTs
ar emTxveva. `warmomadgenlobis problema warmoiqmneba maSin, rodesac warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis interesebi da prioritetebi gansxvavdeba da,
agreTve maSin, rodesac wardgenilma SeiZleba ukeTesi da ufro amomwuravi informacia moipovos, vidre warmdgenelma~.
Tanamedrove demokratiis politikuri sistema, xelisuflebis yvela doneze, Zalauflebis delegirebis SesaZleblobiT xasiaTdeba. amgvarad, mocemuli Teoriuli perspeqtivis upiratesobas uflebamosilebaTa jaWvis
gaanalizebis SesaZlebloba warmoadgens. garda amisa, is uflebamosilebaTa jaWvis susti da Zlieri aspeqtebis mizezebis ganxilvis saSualebas iZleva. uflebamosilebaTa gadacemis procesis Seswavlisas ramdenime saintereso kiTxva Cndeba:
• namdvilad icis Tu ara warmdgenelma, rom wardgenili masze dakisrebul valdebulebebs asrulebs?
• sandoa Tu ara wardgenilis informacia Tavisi saqmianobis Sesaxeb?
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
zemoT CamoTvlili kiTxvebi gvafiqrebs imaze, rogori unda iyos wardgenilis angariSvaldebuleba warmdgenelis winaSe, imisaTvis, rom am ukanasknelma misi gakontroleba SeZlos da mis mimarT ndoba ar dakargos. gadamwyveti faqtori, am SemTxvevaSi, informaciis xelmisawvdomobaa. rogorc
wesi, Zalauflebis gadamcemi mxare naklebad aris informirebuli, vidre
is mxare, visac Zalaufleba gadaecema.
miuxedavad imisa, rom warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis Teoria kritikis
sagania, is ufro popularuli xdeba korufciis Seswavlis dros. rogorc
s. andersoni amtkicebs, individTa arCevanis mniSvnelobis sakiTxebi ar unda
miviCnioT pirvelxarisxovnad instituciur faqtorebTan SedarebiT. Tumca, maT SeuZliaT, ganavrcon da ganmarton savaraudo mizani. korufcia ar
aRiqmeba, rogorc garkveuli individualuri arCevanis Sedegi konteqstis
gareSe. piriqiT, gadawyvetilebis miRebisas mniSvnelovania socialuri konteqsti. korufciis Sesaxeb kvlevebSi, warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis modelebis umravlesobaSi ekonomikuri modelebis antecedentebi arsebobs.
analizis aTvlis wertilia informaciis asimetria, urTierTobebSi angariSsworebis wesi an gadawyvetilebis miReba da arCevani.
warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis modelebis umravlesoba sajaro administrirebaSi gvxvdeba. SvedeTSi korufciuli riskis zonebis Seswavlisas,
s. andersoni iyenebda mocemul models uflebamosilebaTa gadacemis jaWvis analizisas da, agreTve, sajaro administrirebis sferoSi naklovani mxareebis gamosavlenad. igi amtkicebda, rom uflebamosilebaTa jaWvis saerTo struqturis kvlevis procesSi, konkretuli myidvelisaTvis potenciur mogebasa da fasTan erTad, wamdgenelisa da wardgenilis Teoria saSualebas gvaZlevs, ukeTesad gavigoT korufciuli riskis zonebi da gavamdidroT korufciul movlenaTa kvlevebis meTodebis nusxa, romelic orientirebulia ara raodenobaze, aramed processa da xarisxze.
korufciis diagnostika
korufciis kontrolisa da prevenciis erT-erT yvelaze qmediT meqanizms
diagnostika warmoadgens. igi xels uwyobs korufciis TvalsazrisiT yvelaze susti adgilebis dadgenasa da, Sesabamisad, qmediTi antikorufciuli programebis SemuSavebas. ganvixiloT msoflioSi da litvaSi Catarebuli korufciis umniSvnelovanesi kvlevebi.
saerTaSoriso done
korufciis aRqmis indeqsi
korufciis diagnostikis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes meTodikas saerTaSoriso antikorufciuli organizaciis `Transparency International~-is mier yovelwliurad gamoqveynebuli korufciis aRqmis indeqsi (kai) warmoadgens.
aRniSnuli kompleqsuri maCvenebeli, romelic pirvelad 1995 wels gamoqveynda, saqmiani wreebis warmomadgenelTa gamokiTxvisa da eqspertTa mier
Catarebuli sxva saxis kvlevebis safuZvelze dgindeba. es `kvlevaTa kvleva~ saSualebas gvaZlevs davaxarisxoT saxelmwifoebi korufciis gavrcelebis TvalsazrisiT. mocemuli indeqsis Tanaxmad, litva ar aris im `suf-
131
132 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Ta~ saxelmwifoTa Soris, romelTa maCvenebelic 5 qulas aRemateba. 2003
wels litvis korufciis aRqmis indeqsi 4,7 qulas Seadgenda da 133 saxelmwifos Soris 41-e adgili ekava. xolo 2004 wels – 4,6 qulas (146 saxlmwifos Soris, 44-e adgili).
meqrTameobis indeqsi
`Transparency International~-is mier Catarebuli kidev erTi kvleva meqrTameobis indeqsiis dadgenas gulisxmobda, romlis gamoTvlac 1999 wels daiwyo. meqrTameobis indeqsi warmoadgens informacias:
• mravalerovnul korporaciaTa meqrTameobisadmi midrekilebis Sesaxeb;
• meqrTameobisadmi midrekilebis mqone samewarmeo seqtoris Sesaxeb;
• imis Sesaxeb, ramdenad icnoben sazRvargareTis qveynebis msxvil korporaciaTa Tanamdebobis pirebi meqrTameobis winaaRmdeg ekonomikuri
TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis (OECD) konvencias;
• imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor axorcieleben umsxvilesi korporaciebi meqrTameobis winaaRmdeg (OECD) konvencias;
• arapatiosani biznesis sxva savaraudo praqtikis Sesaxeb, romelsac
firmebi SekveTebis miRebis mizniT mimarTaven.
aRniSnuli indeqsi asaxavs biznesis sferoSi liderTa Sexedulebebs.
2002 wels meqrTameobis indeqsi 15 qveyanaSi dadginda: argentina, brazilia, filipinebi, indoeTi, indonezia, kolumbia, poloneTi, maroko, meqsika, nigeria, samxreT afrika, samxreT korea, ruseTi, tailandi da ungreTi.
CamoTvlili qveynebi CarTulia mravalerovnuli firmebis vaWrobis sistemasa da sainvesticio proeqtebSi. litva ar CarTula meqrTameobis
indeqsis gamokvlevaSi.
korufcia saxelmwifosa da mewarmeTa urTierTobebSi evropasa
da Sua aziaSi
korufciis diagnostikis kidev erTi cnobili meTodi warmoadgina msoflio bankma Tavis angariSSi `korufciasTan brZola gardamavali periodis
qveynebSi: wvlili politikur debatebSi~ (2000w.). aRniSnul angariSSi CamoTvlilia korufciis analizis Catarebis meTodebi da moyvanilia monacemebi
korufciis Sesaxeb gardamavali periodis qveynebSi. meore angarSi `korufciasTan brZola gardamavali periodis qveynebSi: saxelmwifo korufcia da
korufcia biznesis sferoSi 1999-2002 wlebSi~ warmoadgines 2002 wels. masSi mocemulia korufciuli tendenciebis Sefaseba da mcdeloba, aixsnas warmoqmnili cvlilebebi.
pirveli angariSi momzadda korufciis Sesaxeb 1999 wels mewarmeTa da
sawarmoTa saqmianobis Seswavlisa da gardamavali periodis 24 saxelmwifos
(TurqeTis CaTvliT) 4 000-mde sawarmoTa mflobelisa da xelmZRvanelis gamokiTxvis Sedegad miRebuli monacemebis safuZvelze. aRniSnuli kvlevis
meore etapi 2002 wels Catarda. gamokiTxvaSi monawileobda gardamavali periodis 26 qveynis (TurqeTis CaTvliT) 6 500 sawarmos mflobeli da xelmZRvaneli.
aRniSnul kvlevaSi qveynebis dajgufeba xdeba administraciuli korufciis masStabebis mixedviT, rac meqrTameobis sixSiriT da, agreTve, saxel-
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
mwifoSi korufciis gavrcelebis masStabebis mixedviT ganisazRvreba. korufciis zemoxsenebuli tipi, romelic saxelmwifos `TamaSis wesebze~
axdens gavlenas, Sefasebulia rogorc sawarmoTaTvis miyenebuli gaTviTcnobierebuli ziani.
aRmosavleTisa da centraluri evropis qveynebi korufciis zemoxsenebuli formebis sakmaod dabali maCvenebliT xasiaTdeba. litvaSi, iseve rogorc CexeTsa da estoneTSi, dafiqsirebulia administraciuli korufciis indeqsi, romelic 2,2 utoldeba, xolo saxlemwifoSi korufciis gavrcelebis indeqsi – 0,32.
sxva kvlevebi
SegviZlia gavixsenoT `Transparency International~-is mier gamoqveynebuli
kvleva `korufciis msoflio barometri~, romelSic 47 saxelmwifom miiRo
monawileoba. imave wlis bolos msoflio ekonomikurma forumma Caatara
kvleva, romlis farglebSic gamoikiTxa 102 qveynis lideri kompaniis xelmZRvaneli warmoebis sferoSi. 2004 wlis 9 dekembers gamoqveynda `Transparency International~-isa da `Gallup International~-is mier axali erToblivi kvlevis, `korufciis msoflio barometris~, Sedegebi.
yvela zemoxsenebuli kvleva Zalze mniSvnelovania korufciis saerTaSoriso, regionalur da nacionalur doneze gavrcelebis saerTo problemebis dasadgenad. samwuxarod, konkretuli qveynis problemebi am kvlevebSi, rogorc wesi, ar aisaxeba. amitom, qvemoT moyvanilia litvaSi Catarebuli korufciis kvlevebis maxasiaTeblebi da warmodgenilia ukanaskneli
kvlevebis Sedegebis mokle ganxilva.
nacionaluri done
`litvis korufciuli ruka~
2001-2002 wlebSi, antikorufciuli organizacia `Transparency International~is litvis ganyofilebis iniciativiT litvaSi Catarda korufciis pirveli
diagnostikuri kvleva – `korufciuli ruka~. sociologiuri dakvirveba or
jgufze xorcieldeboda: litvis mosaxleobasa da biznes seqtoris warmomadgenlebze. kvlevis mizani iyo – nacionaluri sociologiuri gamokiTxvis
safuZvelze korufciis gavrcelebis institucionaluri da geografiuli
monitoringis ganxorcieleba, korufciisadmi mgrZnobiare sferoebis dadgena, litvaSi moqmedi im organizaciebis gamovlena, romlebic korufciaSi
`cxel wertilebs~ warmoadgenen. litvis uaxlesi korufciuli ruka 2004
wlis noemberSi iqna warmodgenili.
kvlevis Sedegad Sefasda:
• respondentTa damokidebuleba korufciisadmi, misi done da roli sazogadoebaSi;
• korufciis faqtebTan (meqrTameoba) piradi Sexebis SemTxvevebi;
• korufciis Sesaxeb informaciis wyaroebi;
• antikorufciuli zomebisadmi damokidebuleba.
rogorc gairkva, korufciis gavrcelebis specifikis (pirvel rigSi, korufciis ZiriTadi formis – meqrTameobis) dasadgenad, litvaSi institucionaluri monitoringi sakmarisi ar aRmoCnda. `rogorc litvis moqalaqeebi, aseve mewarmeebi, araoficialurad uxdian ara marto konkretuli
133
134 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
organoebis warmomadgenlebs, aramed ixdian konkretuli momsaxurebisaTvisac. aseT `momsaxurebas~ zogjer ramdenime organos warmomadgeneli
axorcielebs, amitom respondentebi konkretulad ver asaxeleben, vis uxdian isini araoficialurad~.
korufciis dawvrilebiTi kvleva
2002 wels korufciis `siRrmiseuli kvleva~ Catarda, romlis mizans warmoadgenda socialuri da samewarmeo saqmianobis ganxorcielebisas meqrTameobis meqanizmebis dadgena. Sedegebma gamoavlina kvlevis aucilebloba
da mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana litvis korufciuli rukis SeqmnaSi. 2004
wels, `Transparency International~-is litvis ganyofilebisa da litvis respublikis specialur gamoZiebaTa samsaxuris mier Catarebuli kvlevis – `korufciis gamovlena qveynis masStabiT, SerCeul raionebsa da masSi arsebul
TviTmmarTvelobebSi~ – mizans warmoadgenda mniSvnelovani socialuri momsaxurebebisaTvis araoficialuri gasamrjelos odenobis dadgena.
adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis done
`Transparency International~-is litvis ganyofileba muSaobs specialuri meTodikis Seqmnaze, romlis meSveobiTac unda dadgindes mosaxleobis korufciisadmi damokidebuleba, misi roli (done) sazogadoebaSi, agreTve moqalaqeebis korufciasTan (meqrTameoba) Sexebis piradi gamocdileba. am meTodikis saSualebiT SesaZlebeli gaxdeba TviTmmarTvelobebis doneze korufciis gavrcelebis formebis dadgena da antikorufciuli zomebis qmediTobis Sefaseba.
kvlevis Sedegebi
warmogidgenT litvaSi Catarebuli kvlevebis Sedegebis mokle mimoxilvas.
kvleva - `2004 wlis litvis korufciuli ruka~
kvleva (litvis mosaxleobisa da mewarmeebis sociologiuri gamokiTxvebi) 2004 wlis martSi Catarda. masSi monawileoba miiRo 1015 moqalaqem da
1047 sawarmos xelmZRvanelma. kvlevis farglebSi Catarda individualuri
anonimuri gamokiTxvebi. litvis mosaxleobis da sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebis reprezentatiul gamokiTxvebs sazogadoebrivi azris kvlevis britanul-litvuri kompania `Baltijos tyrimai~ atarebda. moxda miRebuli Sedegebis
Sedareba 2001-2002 wlebSi Catarebuli analogiuri gamokiTxvebis SedegebTan. monacemTa analizi da angariSi momzadda `Transparency International~-is
litvis ganyofilebis eqspertis, a. dobrininis mier. kvlevis Sedegad ramdenime ZiriTadi faqtori gamovlinda.
Sexeduleba korufciis masStabebis Sesaxeb
• 2001-2002 wlebSi Catarebul kvlevis SedegebTan SedarebiT sagrZnoblad imata im sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebis ricxvma, romlebic miiCneven, rom korufcia biznesisaTvis seriozul dabrkolebas ar warmoadgens da bolo 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi litvaSi misi masStabi ar Secvlila an ar Semcirebula.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
• 2004 wels Semcirda im pirTa ricxci, vinc miiCnevs, rom iseTi organo-
•
•
ebi, rogoricaa samTavrobo struqturebi, seimi, sasamarTloebi da,
agreTve, arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, `Zalze korumpirebulni~ arian. Sesabamisad, gaizarda im pirTa ricxvi, vinc amtkicebs, rom prezidentis aparati da masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebi `Zalze korumpirebulni~ arian.
litvis moqalaqeebi da mewarmeebi mainc amtkiceben, rom qrTami problemebis gadaWras uwyobs xels, xolo gamokiTxulTa ori mesamedi mzad
aris Tavad gaiRos qrTami. Tumca, 2002 welTan SedarebiT, 2004 wels
gaizarda im biznesmenTa ricxvi, vinc miiCnevs, rom qrTami problemis
gadaWras ar uwyobs xels da uars acxadeben mis micemaze.
2004 wels ufro metad gaizarda televiziis, rogorc sazogadoebisaTvis korufciis Sesaxeb informaciis mimwodeblis, roli.
gamocdileba
• biznes sawarmoTa warmomadgenlebi yvelaze xSirad fuls ixdian (qrTamis saxiT) Semdeg organizaciebSi:
- sagzao policia;
- sabaJoebi;
- saxelmwifo sagadasaxado inspeqcia;
- saqalaqo da raionuli TviTmmarTvelobebi;
- avtomobilebis teqnikuri daTvalierebis centrebi (sawarmoTa
xelmZRvanelebis gamocdileba).
• moqalaqeebs yvelaze xSirad uwevT qrTamis micema:
- poliklinikebSi;
- adgilobriv da respublikur saavadmyofoebSi;
- sagzao policiaSi;
- avtomobilebis teqnikuri daTvalierebis centrebSi.
2002 welTan SedarebiT, 2004 wels sagrZnoblad iklo zemoT xsenebul
organizaciebSi meqrTameobis SemTxvevebis Taobaze respondentTa Setyobinebebis ricxvma.
• qrTamis gamoZalva, iniciativa, efeqturoba
sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebs yvelaze xSirad fuls sZalavdnen
sagzao policiis TanamSromlebi. qrTami yvelaze kargad `Wrida~ sabaJoebze. litvis moqalaqeebs yvelaze xSirad qrTamis gaReba saavadmyofoebSi da avtomobilebis teqnikuri daTvalierebis centrebSi
uwevdaT.
antikorufciuli potenciali
• rogorc moqalaqeebi, aseve biznesmenebi miiCneven, rom pasuxismgeblobis umetesi nawili qrTamis amRebs ekisreba.
• sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebisa da moqalaqeebis absolutur umravlesobas bolo 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi ar miucia qrTami, radgan:
- problemis gadaWra amis gareSe moxerxda;
- maTgan qrTami ar mouTxoviaT;
• mxolod sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebis 9 procentsa da moqalaqeTa 3
procents ar miucia qrTami imitom, rom es kanonsawinaaRmdego qmede-
135
136 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
•
ba iqneboda, xolo imis gamo, rom es maT pirovnul principebs ewinaaRmdegeboda – sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebis 18 procents da moqalaqeTa
12 procents.
sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebi, iseve rogorc moqalaqeebi, ufro metad
mxars uWeren prevenciul, vidre damsjel antikorufciul zomebs.
korufciis gamovlena qveynis masStabiT, raionebsa da
TviTmmarTvelobebSi
kvleva (litvis mosaxleobis sociologiuri gamokiTxva) 2004 wlis martSi Catarda. masSi monawileoba litvis 3026 moqalaqem miiRo (18 wlis asakidan). kvleva Catarda 18 qalaqsa da 56 sofelSi. respondentTa gamokiTxva
intervius wesiT moxda. kvlevis Sedegebis statistikuri xarvezi 1,8 procents ar aRemateba 95%-iani sizustis pirobebSi. kvleva Catarda sazogadoebrivi azrisa da bazris kvlevis centris `Vilmorus~ mier. monacemTa analizi da angariSi moamzada `Transparency International~-is litvis ganyofilebis eqspertma, a. dobrininma. kvlevis Sedegad ramdenime ZiriTadi momenti
gamovlinda.
mosazreba korufciis gavrcelebis Sesaxeb
2002 wlis kvlevis SedegebTan SedarebiT, Semcirda im pirTa ricxvi, vinc
litvaSi korufciis gavrcelebas kritikulad miiCnevda. Tumca, gamokiTxulTa or mesameds korufciis gavrcelebasTan dakavSirebiT pesimisturi Sexedulebebi aqvT. litvis moqalaqeebis azriT, korufciam sazogadoebrivi administrirebis yvela sferoSi SeaRwia da arRvevs Cveni saxelmwifosadmi ndobas, rogorc moqalaqeebSi, ise ucxoelTa Soris.
korufciis mizezebi
litvis moqalaqeTa azriT korufcia ganpirobebulia:
• Tanamdebobis pirebze da sxva sajaro moxelebze dakisrebuli pasuxismgeblobisa da angariSvaldebulebis naklebobiT;
• Tanamdebobis pirTa da sxva sajaro moxeleTa moraluri pasuxismgeblobis naklebobiT;
• susti samarTlebrivi baziT.
araoficialuri gasamrjelo gaweuli samsaxurisaTvis
araoficialuri gasamrjelo gansakuTrebiT gavrcelebulia samedicino dawesebulebebSi, sagzao policiaSi da im dawesebulebebSi, romlebic
momsaxurebas uweven moqalaqeebs uZrav qonebaze sakuTrebis uflebis
aRdgenasTan da aRniSnul gancxadebebze gadawyvetilebis miRebasTan dakavSirebiT.
`teqnologiaTa~ ganzogadebisas mtkicdeba, rom araoficialur gasamrjelos, xSir SemTxvevaSi, Rebuloben saSualo rgolis Cinovnikebi. yvelaze gavrcelebul formas fuladi gasamrjelo warmoadgens; araoficialuri gasamrjelos iniciatorebi Tavad moqalaqeebi arian, romelTa qcevac,
maTi azriT, sxva pirebis mieraa nakarnaxevi.
gamokiTxvis Sedegebis mixedviT, litvis mosaxleoba mzad aris, kvlavac
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
gaiRos araoficialuri gasamrjelo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu maT msgavsi xasiaTis problemebis gadawyveta mouwevT.
zemoT ganxiluli kvlevis Sedegebis Sejamebisas cxadi xdeba, rom korufcia kvlav sicocxlisunariani rCeba. aSkaraa, rom mosaxleobisa da mewarmeTa umravlesoba `aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi~ mzad aris gaiRos qrTami.
Teoretikosebi amtkiceben, rom korufciisadmi daundobeli moqalaqeebi ufro xSiarad acxadeben korufciuli danaSaulis Sesaxeb da xels uwyoben gamoZiebas. amomrCevlebi, romlebic ar emxrobian korufcias, ufro xSirad aZleven xmas patiosan politikosebs da ar irCeven TaRliTebs. saboloo jamSi, moqalaqeTa Rirebulebebi da korufciis aRqma maTive qcevas ganapirobebs. korufciis prevenciisa da masze kontrolis erT-erT yvelaze
mniSvnelovan saSualebad sazogadoebrivi azris ganmtkicebaa miCneuli. amitomac, modiT, kidev erTxel gadavavloT Tvali litvis antikorufciul
potencials da vimsjeloT imaze, ra unda gakeTdes mosaxleobaSi korufciisadmi Seuwynareblobis waxalisebis mizniT.
samoqalaqo sazogadoebis CarTva
antikorufciuli potenciali dRes
korufciisadmi damokidebuleba
`2004 wlis litvis korufciuli rukis~ Seqmnis dros, moqalaqeebs ekiTxebodnen, korufciaze SemoTavazebul SexedulebaTagan, romeli ufro metad Seesabameboda maT azrs. cxadia, rom respodentTa umetesoba iziarebda im azrs, rom korufcia sazogadoebisaTvis did dabrkolebas warmoadgens. (ix. suraTi 1).
70
60
55,5
61,3 59,2
50
40
30
20,8
20
18,6 19,8
10
14,7
6,3 6,0 5,7
0
korufcia
warmoadgens
sazogadoebrivi
cxovrebis
did winaRobas
korufcia
korufcia
warmoadgens, xels ar uSlis
ufro sazo- sazogadoebriv
gadoebrivi
cxovrebas,
cxovrebis
magram arc
winaRobas
exmareba mas
2001 w.
2002 w.
8,7 8,6
4,5
1,4 3,6
1,3 1,8 2,1
korufcia
ufro exmareba
sazogadoebas
problebebis
gadaWraSi
korufcia
exmareba
sazogadoebas
problemis
gadaWraSi
ar ician,
pasuxi ar
gauciaT
2004 w.
sur. 1. mosaxleobis damokidebuleba korufciisadmi (2001-2004 ww. procentebi)
137
138 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
informaciis wyaroebi
`litvis korufciuli ruka~ korufciisadmi adamianTa damokidebulebis,
anu korufciasTan Sexebis konkretuli SemTxvevebis dadgenis SesaZleblobas iZleva. movlenebis Sesaxeb mosaxleobis Sexedulebebis formireba imis
mixedviT xdeba, Tu ra aqvs wakiTxuli an gagonili masobrivi sainformacio
saSualebebis meSveobiT. Tumca, socialuri problemebis umravlesoba, maT
Soris korufciac, xSir SemTxvevaSi, mas-mediis mier arasaTanadod aris Sefasebuli an gazviadebulia. litvis mosaxleobisaTvis korufciis Sesaxeb
informaciis miwodebis ZiriTadi wyaroebi naCvenebia meore sqemaze. am SemTxvevaSi aSkara lideria televizia, xolo respublikurma presam, rogorc
Cans, mosaxleobis ndoba dakarga.
42,3
45
40
32,3
23,9
2001 w.
2002 w.
0
6,7
5,1
0,7
1,3
2,0
interneti
1,9
1,1
0,6
seminarebi, konfe- 0,7
renciebi, specia- 0,3
luri RonisZiebebi 0,2
adgiloblivi
beWdviTi
organo
radio
megobrebis,
axloblebis
gamocdileba
respublikuri
beWdviTi
organo
piradi
gamocdileba
televizia
0
Specialised
publications
reports
3,0
3,2
5
2,1
3,0
5,1
7,6
10
ar ician,
pasuxi ar gauciaT
15
18,1
20
16,3
17,6
21,9
22,8
15,6
17,6
25
26,8
30
33,4
35
2004 w.
sur. 2. korufciis Sesaxeb informaciis wyaroebi (2001-2004 ww. procentebi)
meqrTameobis gamocdileba
rogorc aRiniSna, socialur problemaTa umravlesoba masobrivi sainformacio saSualebebis mier arasaTanadod aris gaSuqebuli an gazviadebulia. amitom, mosaxleobis azri korufciis Sesaxeb, romelic televiziis
xelSewyobiT Camoyalibda, xSir SemTxvevaSi, realur viTarebas zustad ar
asaxavs. Sesabamisad, moqalaqeTa korufciuli gamocdileba ufro mniSvnelovan arguments warmoadgens. litvis moqalaqeebs dausves SekiTxva, gauRiaT Tu ara maT qrTami bolo 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi (ix. sur. 3)?
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
mogiwiaT Tu ara Tqven ukanaskneli xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi qrTamis micema?
60
50
59,5
53,8
48,4
40
30
20
14 13,9 11,4
10
17,4 19,3 17,5
4,4 5,5 5,2
0
ara, arc
erTxel
diax, erTxel
2001w.
diax, 2-3 jer
2002 w.
8
2,5 3,6 1,9
diax, 4-9 jer
diax, 10 da
metjer
9,3
4,5
pasuxi ar
gauciaT,
ar ician
2004 w.
sur. 3. litvis mosaxleobis ganawileba kiTxvaze pasuxis mixedviT (mogiwiaT Tu ara
Tqven ukanaskneli xuTi wlis ganmavlobaSi qrTamis micema?) (2001-2004 ww. procentebi)
kvlevis Sedegebi cxadyofs, rom bolo 5 wlis ganmavlobaSi litvis mosaxleobis 36%-s qrTami gauRia. ra sakvirvelia, unda gaviTvaliswinoT is
faqti, rom zog SemTxvevaSi maT qrTami mosTxoves. Tumca, sxva SemTxvevebSi, isini Tavad iyvnen iniciatorebi, anu dainteresebulni, rac SeiZleba
swrafad (kanondarRveviT) gadaelaxaT dabrkolebebi. umniSvnelod gaizarda im moqalaqeTa raodenoba, visac arasodes miucia qrTami. amave dros, Semcirda im pirTa raodenobac, vinc uari Tqva pasuxis gacemaze.
amis Semdeg litvis moqalaqeebs ekiTxebodnen, ratom ar gauRiaT qrTami
(ix. sur. 4)?
ratom ar migiciaT qrTami?
11,2
pasuxi ar gauciaT
radgan ar ician es rogor gaekeTebinaT, ar ician msgavs
situaciaSi moqceva
7,3
16,4
radgan maT amisaTvis fuli ar hqondaT
2,9
radgan amiT isini kanons daarRvevdnen
12,2
radgan es ewinaaRmdegeba maT Sexedulebebs
8,1
radgan ar sjerodaT, rom es gadaWrida maT problemebs
26,9
radgan aqamde yvela problemas Wridnen qrTamis gareSe
38,2
radgan ar yofila iseTi situacia, romelSic maTgan
moiTxovdnen qrTamis micemas
0
5
10 15 20
25
30 35
40 45
sur. 4. mosaxleobis ganawileba kiTxvaze pasuxis mixedviT (ratom ar migiciaT qrTami?)
(2004 w., procentebi)
139
140 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
umravlesoba amtkicebda, rom ar aRmoCenila iseT viTarebaSi, sadac mas
qrTams mosTxovdnen. litvis mosaxleobis mesamedma ubralod SeZlo yvela
sakiTxis gadaWra qrTamis gareSe. moraluri Sexedulebebidan gamomdinare, litvis mosaxleobis mxolod 12% ar ixdis fuls qrTamis saxiT. gacilebiT sagangaSoa sxva maCvenebeli – kanons pativs scems mosaxleobis mxolod 3%.
rogorc cnobilia, kanonmdeblobiT pasuxismgebloba ekisreba rogorc
qrTamis gamcems, aseve mimRebs. mxolod gamokiTxulTa meoTxedi anawilebs
pasuxismgeblobas Tanabrad. respondentTa naxevari miiCnevs, rom qrTamis
amRebis pasuxismgebloba uTuod metia (ix. sqema 5). SesaZloa, swored amis
gamo ar mcirdeba im pirTa ricxvi, vinc qrTamis micemas kvlavac apirebs (ix.
sur. 6)
vis ekisreba meti pasuxismgebloba qrTamis aRebis SemTxvevaSi?
7
pasuxi ar gauciaT, ar ician
11,5
damokidebulia garemoebaze
24,6
qrTamis mimcemze da qrTamis amRebze Tanabrad
50,5
qrTamis mimcemze
6,4
qrTamis amRebze
0
10
20
30
40
50
sur. 5. mosaxleobis ganawileba kiTxvaze pasuxis mixedviT (vis ekisreba meti pasuxismgebloba qrTamis aRebis SemTxvevaSi?) (2004 w., procentebi)
qrTamis micemaze xalxis damokidebuleba
80
75
73
70
60 59
60
50
40
30
21 22
20
11
14
13
19 19
13
10
0
diax
ara
a/a
exmareba Tu ara qrTami problemis gadaWraSi?
2002 w.
diax
ara
a/a
miscemdiT Tu ara Tqven qrTams?
2004 w.
sur. 6. mosaxleobis ganawileba qrTamis micemasTan damokidebulebaze
(2001 da 2004 w.w., procentebi)
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
rogorc irkveva, litvis yoveli meeqvse moqalaqe mzad aris `aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi~ qrTami gaiRos. kvlavac iTvleba, rom damatebiTi Tanxis gadaxda xels uwyobs problemis gadaWras. namdvili antikorufciuli potenciali, anu is, vinc ar miscemda qrTams kanonisa da moralis pativiscemis gamo,
mxolod 15% Seadgens. aseTia realoba im moqalaqeTa gadasaxedidan, romlebic ar rCebian gulgrilni aRniSnuli problemis mimarT. ra daskvna SeiZleba
gamovitanoT? sazogadoebrivi azris gamokiTxvis safuZvelze SeiZleba vimsjeloT, rom litvis moqalaqeebs ara aqvT sakanonmdeblo Zalauflebisa da
politikuri partiebisadmi ndoba. isini naklebad endobian samarTaldamcav
da sxva organoebs, anu saxelmwifos im sayrdens, romelic mowodebulia sazogadoebriv interesebs emsaxuros, uzrunvelyos usafrTxoeba da moqalaqeTa keTildReoba. ibadeba bunebrivi kiTxva – ra unda gakeTdes?
sazogadoebrivi organizaciebis roli
korufciis prevenciisa da kontrolis procesSi sul ufro aqtiurad
erTvebian moqalaqeTa jgufebi. erT-erTi magaliTia, berlinSi 1993 wels dafuZnebuli sazogadoebrivi organizacia `Transparency International~. man SeimuSava qcevis martivi kodeqsi, romelic saerTaSoriso savaWro palatisa da gaeros naSroms efuZneba. ekvadoris mTavrobam da `Transparency International~-ma
gamoiyena aRniSnuli kodeqsi im Tanamdebobis pirTa da kerZo sawarmoebis mimarT, romlebic sajaro tenderebSi monawileoben. sawarmoTa xelmZRvanelebma piroba dades, ar gadaixadon damatebiTi Tanxa qrTamis saxiT, xolo saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis pirebma – ar moiTxovon da ar aiRon qrTami.
amgvarad, is saerTaSoriso organizaciebi, romelTa saqmianoba uSualod
ukavSirdeba korufciisadmi Seuwynareblobis waxalisebasa da antikorufciul moRvaweobas, magaliTad `Transparency International~ da iseTi organizaciebi, rogoricaa msoflio banki, evropis ganviTarebisa da TanamSromlobis organizacia, gaero, korufciis prevenciis sxvadasxva meTods gvTavazoben. maTgan erT-erTi yvelaze Rirebuli – sazogadoebrivi azris Camoyalibeba da ganmtkicebaa.
mkvlevarTa azriT, sxvadasxva reformisa da antikorufciuli programis warmateba damokidebulia Zlier, cvlilebebisadmi momzadebul, momwifebul samoqalaqo sazogadoebaze. korufciaze kontroli ar iqneba qmediTi, Tu am socialur daavadebaze pasuxismgeblobas moqalaqeebi mxolod saxelmwifo da sxva pasuxismgebel organizaciebs daakisreben, Tavad ki aqtiurad ar iqnebian CarTulni korufciis prevenciis procesSi.
`Transparency International~-is erT-erTi wamyvani ideologis, j. popis mixedviT, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis kompetencia sazogadoebrivi problemebisadmi yuradRebas moicavs. amgvarad, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis WeSmariti
roli mdgomareobs sakuTari ZiriTadi Rirebulebebis gamoxatvasa da dacvaSi. es ZiriTadi funqcia ar unda daeTmos xelisuflebas.
rigiTi moqalaqis gadasaxedidan Cans, rom korufcia daucvelobis
grZnobas aZlierebs, Trgunavs erTobis SegrZnebas. Sesabamisad, Zalze mniSvnelovania aragulgril moqalaqeTa CarTva, raTa maT korufciisadmi daundobloba sajarod da mtkiced gamoxaton. rogori SeiZleba yofiliyo
maTi konkretuli moqmedeba? TvalsaCinoebisaTvis moviyvanT hong-kongSi
korufciis prevenciis SesaniSnav magaliTs:
141
142 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
1. moqalaqeTa damoukidebeli komisiis dafuZneba, romelic sakuTar
ideebs gamoTqvams da konkretul winadadebebs SeimuSavebs.
2. korufciis kontrolis procesSi pativsacemi da sazogadoebisaTvis
cnobili saxeebis aqtiuri CarTva, maTi daintereseba, korufciis sakiTxebSi mrCevlebad an damoukidebel mosamarTleebad maTi daniSvna.
aseve mniSvnelovania:
• samoqalaqo valis moxdis, korufciis SemTxvevebis gacxadebis mniSvnelobis xazgasma;
• gamWirvalobis, rogorc samoqalaqo faseulobis, popularizacia da
masze saubari.
is, rom sazogadoebrivi faseulobebi da sazogadoebis sifxizle (anu aragulgrili moqalaqeebis Segneba) korufciis prevenciis sistemis safuZvelia, Cans k. popis mier warmodgenil erovnuli integralobis sistemis koncefciaSi.
sistemuri Sexeduleba korufciis prevenciaze
erovnuli integralobis sistemis koncefciis prezentaciis dros, antikorufciuli organizaciis `Transparency International~ erT-erTma damfuZnebelma, j. popma korufciis movlenis aRqmis erToblivi Sexeduleba waradgina. misi koncefcia orientirebulia korufciis prevenciaze da ara sasjelis zomebze. erovnuli integralobis sistemis aRwerisas is 11 elements
gamoyofs (ix. sur. 7): sakanonmdeblo xelisufleba, aRmasrulebeli xelisufleba, samarTaldamcavi da marTlwesrigis damcavi organoebi, saxelmwi-
balansirebuli
ganviTareba
kanonis
uzenaesoba
crovrebis
done
sazogadoebis sifxizle
sazogadoebrivi faseulobebi
suraTi 7. nacionaluri integrirebis sistema
saerTaSoriso organizaciebi
kerZo seqtori
samoqalaqo sazogadoeba
masobrivi sainformacio
saSualebebi
saxelmwifo moxeleebi da
TviTmmarTvelobis moxeleebi
dacvis saagentoebi
ombudsmeni
saxelmwifo kontroli
kanonis dacva da
marTlwesrigi
aRmasrulebeli xelisufleba
sakanonmdeblo xelisufleba
nacionaluri integrireba
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
fo kontroli, saxalxo damcveli, adamianis uflebebis dacvis sazedamxedvelo organoebi, sajaro da TviTmmarTvelobis moxeleebi, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi, samoqalaqo sazogadoeba, kerZo seqtori da saerTaSoriso organizaciebi.
rogorc suraTze Cans, am berZnuli taZris msgavsi Senobis saxuravze sami
wrea, romlebic `dabalansebul ganviTarebas~, `kanonis uzenaesobasa~ da
`cxovrebis dones~ warmoadgenen. taZris Ziri saZirkvels eyrdnoba: sazogadoebriv faseulobebs, sifxizlesa da sazogadoebis Segnebas. Tu sazogadoeba fxizelia, xolo sazogadoebrivi faseulobebi myari – taZris kolonebi mtkice iqneba. magram, Tu sazogadoeba apaTiuria da masSi faseulobaTa ukmarisoba igrZnoba, taZris (sistemis) saZirkveli susti, xolo sabrjenebi – carieli da arafunqcionaluri xdeba. j. popi aRniSnavs, rom, Tumca
am Senobis yvela sabrjeni urTierTkavSirSia, maTi simtkice SeiZleba gansxvavebuli iyos. waqcevisas, erT Sesustebul sabrjens danarCenebis dazianebac SeuZlia. Tu ramdenime sabrjenia Sesustebuli, iqmneba saSiSroeba,
rom waqcevisas isini danarCenebsac waaqceven da maSin es mSvenieri Senoba
mTlianad daingreva (ix. sur. 8).
balans
irebul
i
ganviT
areba
naci
onal
kanoni
s
uzenae
soba
uri
inte
grir
crovr
ebis
done
eba
sazogadoebis sifxizle
sazogadoebrivi faseulobebi
suraTi 8. nacionaluri integrirebis sistemis Camongreva
mxedvelobaSi unda miviRoT, rom gamosaxuli sabrjenebi sxvadasxva sazogadoebaSi SeiZleba gansxvavdebodes: zogi ufro myari, zogi ki ufro susti iyos. magram, yovelTvis arsebobs balansi. magaliTad, singapurSi, presis arasakmarisi Tavisuflebis kompensireba Seupovari da aqtiuri antikorufciuli samsaxurebis xarjze xdeba.
143
144 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
j. popi aRniSnavs, rom erovnuli integralobis sistemas warmoadgenen
aramarto instituciuri sabrjenebi, aramed, Sesabamisi wesebi da praqtikuli moRvaweoba. es ukanaskneli sxvadasxva instituciebis gamaZlierebelia. aseTi wesebisa da praqtikis ukmarisoba indikatorebis sisustis aSkara maCvenebelia. amgvari praqtika mxolod erT romelime konkretul `sabrjens~ ar Seesabameba: magaliTad, saxelmwifo kontroli sazogadoebis winaSea pasuxismgebeli, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi informaciis xelmisawvdomobas uzrunvelyofen, sakanonmdeblo xelisufleba samarTlian
arCevnebs uzrunvelyofs, saxalxo damcveli mniSvnelovan ganacxadebs akeTebs, antikorufciuli da sxva saagentoebi – sazogadoebis darajebi – kanonebis Sesrulebas akontroleben da a.S.
rogorc j. popi acxadebs, wesebTan da maT gamoyenebasTan erTad, instituciuri `sabrjenebi~ erovnuli integralobis srul sistemas Seadgenen.
zemoT xsenebuli sistemuri xedva korufciis diagnostikisa da masTan brZolis axal SesaZleblobebs xsnis. erovnuli integralobis koncefcia ar gulisxmobs konkretul instituciebze (magaliTad, marTlwesrigisa da samarTaldamcav struqturebze) da maT mier ganxorcielebul RonisZiebebze (magaliTad, sisxlis samarTliT gaTvaliswinebuli zomebi) koncentrirebas,
aramed iTvaliswinebs programebis SemuSavebas da damoukidebeli reformebis ganxorcielebas. j. popi Tvlis, rom yuradReba unda gamaxvildes:
• urTierTkavSirebze;
• urTierTdamokidebulebaze;
• erTobliobaze.
daskvna
daskvniT nawilSi kidev erTxel unda aRiniSnos, rom bolo periodSi, korufciis mkvlevarTa da praqtikosTa yuradReba sul ufro xSirad eqceva
korufciis prevernciisa da kontrolis Semdeg or meTods:
• korufciis diagnostika;
• sazogadoebis ganmtkiceba pirovnuli faseulobebis dacvis gziT.
korufciis prevenciaze da kontrolze sistemuri xedva unda arsebobdes, romelic gamoirCeva gamoyenebuli zomebis efeqturobiT, urTierTdamokidebulebiTa da urTierTkavSirebiT. korufciis movlena ixsneba da analizdeba aramarto rogorc samarTalisa da sisxlis samarTlis obieqti, aramed ufro farTe, politikur, socialur, ekonomikur da kulturul konteqstSi. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom:
• korufciis uamravi ganmarteba arsebobs;
• korufciis gansazRvrisas gamoiyofa sxvadasxva aspeqti: sajaro samsaxuri, sajaro interesi, moTxovnileba, daintereseba da a.S.;
• sirTuleebi warmoiqmneba korufciis samarTlebriv ganmartebasTan
da sazogadoebaSi mis aRqmasTan dakavSirebiT;
• arsebobs Teoriuli analizis mikro da makro doneebi, romlebic korufciis sxvadasxva saxis gamokvlevis, maTi SedarebiTi analizis (sistemuri xedvis) da agreTve Zalauflebis delegirebis Sedegebis ganxilvis (warmdgenelisa da wardgenilis Sexeduleba) saSualebas iZleva.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
literatura
1. Andersson S., Corruption in Sweden. Exploring Danger Zones and Change. Umea
University, Departament of Political Science, 2002.
2. Andvig J. Ch., Fjeldstad O. H., Research on Corruption. A Policy Oriented Survey. Ch.
Michelsen Institute & Norwegian Institute of International A.airs, 2000.
3. Anticorruption in Transition 2. Corruption in Enterprise-State Interactions in Europe
and Central Asia 1999–2002. The International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development / The World Bank, 2004.
4. Anticorruption in Transition. A Contribution to the Policy Debate. Washington, D. C.:
The World Bank, 2000.
5. Dobryninas A., Virtuali nusikaltimu tikrove. Vilnius: Eugrimas, 2001.
6. Gardiner J. A., “De.ning Corruption”, in A. Heidenheimer, M. Johnston (ed.), Political
Corruption. Concepts & Contexts. Third edition. New Brunswick and London:
Transaction Publishers, 2002.
7. Gibbons K., “Variations in Attitudes toward Corruption in Canada”, in A. Heidenheimer,
M. Johnston, V. LeVine (ed.), Political Corruption: A Handbook. New Brunswick:
Transaction Publishers, 1989.
8. Global Corruption Report 2004. Special Focus: Political Corruption. Transparency
International. London: Pluto Press, 2004.
9. Heidenheimer A., Johnston M., “Terms, Concepts, and De.nitions”, in A. Heidenheimer,
M. Johnston (ed.), Political Corruption. Concepts & Contexts. Third edition. New
Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 2002.
10. Heidenheimer A., “Perspectives on the Perception of Corruption”, in A. Heidenheimer,
M. Johnston (ed.), Political Corruption. Concepts & Contexts. Third edition. New
Brunswick and London: Transaction Publishers, 2002.
11. Klitgaard R., Maclean-Abaroa R., Parnis H. L., Corrupt Cities. A Practical Guide to
Cure and Prevention. California: Institute for Contemporary Studies, 2000.
12. Korupcijos apraiškos šalies mastu atrinktose apskrityse ir jose esančiose savivaldybese.
Parenge A. Dobryninas. Vilnius: “Transparency International” Lietuvos skyrius, 2004.
13. Lambsdor. J. G., How Corruption in Government A.ects Public Welfare. A Review of
Theories. Gottingen: Center for Globalization and Europeanization of the Economy,
2001.
14. Lietuvos korupcijos žemelapis 2004. Parenge A. Dobryninas. Vilnius: “Transparency
International” Lietuvos skyrius, 2004.
15. Nye J. S., “Corruption and Political Development: A Cost Bene.t Analysis”, in A.
Heidenheimer, M. Johnston, V. LeVine (ed.), Political Corruption: A Handbook. New
Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1989.
16. Pope J., TI Source Book. Confronting Corruption: The Elements of a National Integrity
System. Transparency International, 2000.
17. Porta D., Vannucci A., Corrupt Exchanges, Actors, Resources, and Mechanisms of
Political Corruption. New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1999.
18. Scott J., Comparative Political Corruption. Englewood Cli.s: Prentice-Hall, 1972.
19. www.transparency.org
145
146
natalia rumianceva
korufciis taqsonomia umaRlesi
ganaTlebis sistemaSi
Sesavali
rogorc sxvadasxva kvlevidan Cans, ekonomikis zrdaze ganaTleba dadebiT da mniSvnelovan zegavlenas axdens. mas SeuZlia sazogadoebas aramarto ekonomikuri, aramed aramaterialuri sargebeli moutanos, rogoricaa,
magaliTad, socialuri gaerTianeba. es WeSmaritebaa, magram, rogorc yvelgan, aqac arsebobs gamonaklisebi. ganaTlebis sistemas SeuZlia iqonios uaryofiTi gavlena ekonomikis ganviTarebaze da, agreTve, daasustos socialuri gaerTianeba, Tu misi organizaciuli struqturebi moZvelebulia,
saswavlo programebi ar Seesabameba moTxovnebs, profesura sustad aris
momzadebuli, an mis rigebSi korufcia sufevs. Tu umaRlesi ganaTlebis
sferoSi korufcia ikidebs fexs, es aramarto vnebs sazogadoebas, aramed
aferxebs mocemul dargSi reformebis gatarebas an mis sxva gziT ganviTarebas.
ras warmoadgens korufcia umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi?
korufciis tradiciuli ganmarteba – Tu Cven SegviZlia tradiciuli
movlena vuwodoT korufcias – dRes amgvarad JRers: materialuri sargeblis miRebis mizniT Zalauflebis borotad gamoyeneba.
zemoT xsenebuli ganmarteba, aramarto oficialurad aris Camoyalibebuli sxvadasxva gamocemaSi, aramed namdvilad asaxavs imas, Tu rogor aRiqvams ubralo xalxi am movlenas. arada, sazogadoebas ukeT SeuZlia gansajos Tu ra aris korufcia, vinaidan maT, gansakuTrebiT ki imas, vinc ganviTarebad saxelmwifoSi cxovrobs, – cxovrebis TiTqmis yvela sferoSi, yoveldRiurad uxdeba am socialur movlenasTan Sexeba. sityvis farTo mniSvnelobiT, korufcia SegviZlia Semdegnairad ganvmartoT: `dakavebuli Tanamdebobis samsaxurTan Seusabamod gamoyeneba~. korufciis universaluri ganmarteba ar arsebobs, amitom aucilebelia gaviazroT, rom sxvadasxva
saxelmwifoSi korufciad SeiZleba miCneuli iyos absoluturad gansxvavebuli SemTxvevebi. magaliTad, rodesac ganviTarebul qveynebze vsaubrobT, korufciis martivi ganmarteba SeiZleba garTuldes. aseT SemTxvevaSi ufro marTebuli iqneboda Semdegi ganmarteba – `sadac dafinansebaa,
iq korufciac aris~, an – `iq sadac dafinanseba ar aris, korufcias mainc
aqvs adgili~. rogoc wesi, bevri ram, rasac Cven korufciad aRviqvamT, kanonierebis zRvarzea, an mis miRma imyofeba.
radgan Tavisi mniSvnelobiT ganaTleba, gansakuTrebiT ki umaRlesi ganaTleba, mniSvnelovan sazogadoebriv faseulobas warmoadgens, Zalze mniSvnelovania pirad materialur sargebelTan dakavSirebuli korufciis sxva
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
aspeqtis gaTvaliswineba. heinemani ganaTlebis sferoSi korufciis Semdeg
ganmartebas gvTavazobs – `es aris piradi da materialuri sargeblis miRebis mizniT Zalauflebis borotad gamoyeneba~. garda amisa, korufciis cnebaSi unda CavrToT kidev erTi elementi – profesiul qcevis normebTan Seusabamoba. es exeba SemTxvevebs, rodesac pedagogi cdilobs Tavs moaxvios
studentebs piradi faseulobebi, safasurs iTxovs mis mier gamravlebuli
masalis sanacvlod da a.S.
erT dros adgili hqonda diskusias imis Taobaze, korufcia unda ganixilebdes `qerclad~ Tu `zeTad~. greim da kaufmanma gamoTqves mosazreba, rom
am fenomenis moklevadian perspeqtivaSi ganxilvis dros, SeiZleba mogeCvenoT, rom korufcias SeuZlia biurokratiuli procesis daCqareba da amitomac moqmedebs rogorc sistemis `zeTi~. magram, mis greZelvadian perspeqtivaSi ganxilvisas, cxadi xdeba, rom operaciis SesrulebisaTvis zedmeti xarjis zrdis gamo, korufcia moqmedebs rogorc `qercli~, xolo ekonomikuri
Sedegebi sistemis araproduqtiulobas asaxaven. miuxedavad amisa, umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi korufcia moklevadian perspeqtivaSic ki ver iqneba
ganxiluli `zeTad~, vinaidan am sistemis ZiriTad mizans warmoadgens ara garkveuli moqmedebebis da operaciebis daCqareba, aramed sazogadoebisaTvis
sando da Tavis sferoSi kargad garkveuli specialistebis momzadeba.
sad gvxvdeba korufcia ganaTlebis sferoSi?
imisaTvis, rom korufciasTan brZolis efeqturi saSualebebi movipovoT, upirveles yovlisa, aucilebelia viwinaswarmetyveloT, Tu sad SeiZleba iCinos man Tavi. rogorc tanaka (mkvlevari) varaudobs, korufciuli
movlenebi yvelaze xSiria: saswavlo dawesebulebebis administraciebSi,
SesyidvebSi da pedagogTa Soris.
korufcia saswavlo dawesebulebis administraciaSi
saswavlo dawesebulebis administraciaSi korufcia savaraudoa misaRebi da gamosaSvebi gamocdebis dros, samuSaoze axali pedagogebisa da profesorebis miRebisas, agreTve, Senobis materialur-teqnikuri baziT aRWurvisas.
miReba
uamrav qveyanaSi misaReb gamocdebze korufciuli garigebebi sakmaod
Cveulebrivi movlenaa. ivaraudeba, rom universitetebi yvelaze ufro niWier kandidatebs arCeven, romlebsac SeuZliaT efeqturad gamoiyenon ganaTlebaze gamoyofili Tanxebi da, Sesabamisad, gaxdnen TavianT sferoebSi
saukeTeso specialistebi. moklevadian perspeqtivaSi, SerCevis damaxinjebul proceduras sargebeli moaqvs administraciis muSakebisaTvis, Cagravs
niWier, magram materialurad naklebad uzrunebelyofil students. xolo,
grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi, uTuod ziani moaqvs sazogadoebisaTvis.
umaRles saswavleblebSi studentebis miRebis dros korufcia mTel
msoflioSia gavrcelebuli. gardamavali periodis saxelmwifoebSi, ekono-
147
148 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
mikuri pirobebis gauaresebisa da universitetebis pedagogebisa Tu profesorebisaTvis xelfasebis mkveTrad Semcirebis pirobebSi, misaRebi gamocdebis dros korufcia Cveulebriv movlenad iqca. umaRlesi ganaTlebis qronikaSi naTqvamia, rom `sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg korufcia
erT-erTi im movlenaTagania, romelic farTod aris gavrcelebuli centraluri da aRmosavleTi evropidan dawyebuli baltiis zRvamde, kavkasiidan
centralur aziamde~. rodesac saqarTvelos umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemas akvirdebi, geufleba SegrZneba, `rom yvelafris yidva SeiZleba da yvela iyideba~, studentebis CaTvliT (umaRlesi ganaTlebis qronika, 48-e qveTavi). magaliTad ukrainaSi, yvelanairi proceduris gavlis gareSe, universitetSi Cabarebis msurvelma, daaxloebiT, 3000 dolari unda gadaixados,
maSin, rodesac mSobelTa saSualo xelfasi 50 dolars ar aRemateba (umaRlesi ganaTlebis qronika, gv. 44).
indoeTSi, sadac mosaxleoba miliards aRemateba, ganaTlebaze Zalze
mcire saxsrebi gamoiyofa, maSin, rodesac samecniero wodebebze moTxovnileba uzarmazaria. dReisaTvis aq umaRles ganaTlebas Cveulebriv `produqtad~ganixilaven da yidva-gayidvis sagnad miiCneven. rogorc umaRlesi
ganaTlebis qronikaSi aRiniSneba, misaReb gamocdebze gadasaxdeli Tanxa
80 dolaridan iwyeba da 500 dolaramde adis (gaaCnia fakultets da sagans).
umaRlesSi moxvedris kidev erTi saSualebaa – nacnoboba da kavSirebis gamoyeneba. zogjer, ganaTlebis sistemis maregulirebel kanonebSi iseTi xarvezebia, romlebic korufciis gaRvivebas uwyoben xels. savalaloa indoeTis samedicino saswavleblebSi Seqmnili viTarebac.
CexeTis respublikaSi 750 wlis win daarsebul erT-erT yvelaze msxvil
da prestiJul universitetSi, iuridiuli fakultetis studentebi maT mier
ukve Cabarebul misaReb gamocdebs 50 000 kronad (1 500 dolari) yididnen.
Tu momaval studentebs aramarto sagamocdo kiTxvebis, aramed maTze pasuxebis SeZena surdaT, maT orjer metis gadaxda uwevdaT.
studentebis miRebis procesSi SesaZlebelia korufciasTan brZolis
gansxvavebuli meTodebis arCeva. xelisuflebam SeiZleba ufro safuZvlianad Seamowmos sagamocdo procesebi, raTa aRkveTos qrTamis micemisa da
raime saxis zewolis faqtebi, an CamoarTvas universitets misaRebi gamocdebis Catarebis ufleba da damoukidebel sagamocdo dawesebulebebs gadasces, ise, rogorc es amerikis SeerTebul Statebsa da did britaneTSi
xdeba. Tumca, damoukidebeli sagamocdo dawesebuleba, rogorc organo, ar
aris imis garanti, rom gamocdebis dros korufcia aRkveTili iqneba. ganaTlebis sistemis restruqturizaciis an sxva cvlilebebis gatarebis garda, yuradReba unda gamaxvildes sxva, aranakleb mniSvnelovan sakiTxebze:
rogor unda moxdes pedagogebis maRali Semosavalebis, maTi moraluri da
eTikuri standartebis uzrunvelyofa.
korufcia adamianuri resursebis marTvis sferoSi
ganaTlebis sistemis erT-erT umTavres komponents kompetenturi da
unariani studentebis SerCeva warmoadgens. Tumca, maRalkvalificirebuli pedagogebi aranakleb mniSvnelovani elementia. samwuxarod, ganviTarebad qveynebSi kadrebis SerCevis sferoSi korufciis SemTxvevebi fakultetebis donezec gvxvdeba. universitetebSi adamianuri resursebis marTvis
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
sferoSi ramdenime konkretul Temas gamovyofdi, sadac korufciis Tavidan acileba sakmaod rTulia: fakultetze pedagogTa ayvana, samuSao datvirTvis gadanawileba, agreTve, pensiebisa da xelfasebis gacema. raoden gasakviric ar unda iyos, aRniSnul sferoebSi korufciis formebi, sxvadasxva qveyanaSi regionis ekonomikuri da kulturuli konteqstis mixedviT,
mkveTrad gansxvavdeba. moviyvan ramdenime magaliTs:
CexeTis respublikaSi, gamocdili pedagogebi, maT Soris isinic, vinc
sxvadasxva dasavleT evropuli fondebidan iReben dafinansebas da ar saWiroeben Tavad universitetis biujetidan xelfasis gadaxdas, dasaqmebis
problemas awydebian. takeris (2000) mixedviT, CexeTis universitetebSi fakultetebis dekanebi uflebamosilni arian samsaxurSi miiRon momavali pedagogebi, Tumca isini iSviaTad asaqmeben kompetentur leqtorebs. xSirad,
kandidatis SerCeva winaswar xdeba da mxolod amis Semdeg cxaddeba konkursi, Tumca masSi monawileobis miRebis msurvelebi universitetebs ar mimarTaven, vinaidan ician, rom vakanturi adgili ukve dakavebuli iqneba. takeris dakvirvebiT, Cexebi ufro realurad aRiqvamen aRniSnul situacias, vidre italielebi, vinaidan es ukanasknelni mainc agzavnian TavianT reziumeebsa da samotivacio werilebs, TumcaRa ician, rom gancxadebaSi miTiTebuli vakansia, savaraudod, ukve dakavebulia. CexeTis universitetTa kvlevebSi sakmaod bevri masalaa mocemuli adamianuri resursebis efeqturad
marTvis Sesaxeb. dekanebi xSirad pedagogebs ar aZleven saSualebas aswavlon is sagnebi, raSic isini kargad erkvevian, ar uzrunvelyofen maT saTanado resursebiT, iqneba es sacxovrebeli Tu saswavlo masalis daqseroqseba. garda amisa, maT mier wayvanili kursebi Setanilia arCeviTi sagnebis
siaSi, raTa studentebs ar hqondeT motivacia, airCion konkretulad is leqciebi, romlebsac SesaZloa fakultetis saukeTeso pedagogebi atareben.
komunisturi droidan SemorCenili aseTi arasaTanado qcevis ZiriTadi mizani ufrosi pedagogebis damokidebulebaa: maT ar surT, TavianTi privilegirebuli Tanamdebobebi ufro kvalificirebul axalgazrda pedagogebs
dauTmon, romlebsac Tanamedrove codna da unarebi aqvT. swored amitom
xdeba vakanturi adgilebis `sasurveli pirebiT~ Sevseba.
umaRlesi ganaTlebis qronikis Tanaxmad, kolumbiis erT-erT yvelaze
prestiJul universitetSi, sadac 18 000 studenti swavlobs, universitetis muSakTa meoTxedi (administraciis personali, profesorebi, rigiTi muSakebi) saerTod ar asrulebs sakuTar movaleobas. maTi umravlesoba dReSi ramdenime saaTs muSaobs, an ubralod megobrebTan saubarSi atarebs
dros. ramdenime iseTi profesori iRebda xelfass, romlebic samsaxurSi
wlobiT ar gamoCenilan. sabuTebis gayalbebisa da universitetis pasuxismgebel Tanamdebobis pirTaTvis qrTamis micemis gziT zogierTi profesori, administraciis muSaki da rigiTi muSa imaze maRal pensiebs iRebdnen,
vidre maT ekuTvnodaT.
ganaTlebis seqtorSi aseTi tipis korufciis damkvidrebis mizezi cudi
saorganizacio struqtura da susti samarTlebrivi saxelmwifoa. korufciis waxaliseba xdeba materialuri sargeblis miRebiT, Tumca aramaterialuri sargebeli, rogorc socialuri qselis SenarCuneba, agreTve mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs.
149
150 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
diplomebis gayidva
Tu ganaTlebis sistema da misi Rirebulebebi damaxinjebul formas
iZens studentTa miRebisa da fakultetze pedagogTa ayvanis korumpirebuli wesis gamo, diplomebiT vaWrobis saSualebiT myidvels SeuZlia saerTod aaridos Tavi umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemas, vinaidan mas SeuZlia
SeiZinos ganaTlebuli adamianis statusis damadasturebeli yvela aucilebeli sabuTi da isargeblos am privilegiiT umaRles saswavlebelSi
swavlis gareSe.
magaliTad, CineTSi, xaidianis raionSi, quCaSi yalbi beWdis mqone universitetis diplomis SeZena 25 dolarad SeiZleba. TaRliTobisa da falsifikaciis farTod gavrcelebis gamo, diplomi dRes aRar aris iseTi Rirebuli. pekinis teqnikuri universitetis mecnier-TanamSromelTa gamoTvlebiT,
saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi naxevar milionamde TanamSromels yalbi mecnieruli xarisxi aqvs.
diplomebiT vaWroba Cveuli movlenaa yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebSic. Tumca aq, namdvili diplomis fasi ufro maRalia, vidre CineTSi. unda
aRiniSnos, rom ukrainaSi yalb diplomebs xSirad ucxoelebzec yidian, rac
ukrainis umaRlesi ganaTlebis saimedoobas ara marto qveyanaSi, aramed mis
farglebs gareTac amcirebs da, agreTve, zians ayenebs, rogorc ukrainis,
ise ucxo qveynebis ekonomikas. garda amisa, ruseTisa da ukrainis msgavs qveynebSi, axladmiRebul aspirantebs, momaval filosofiis doqtorebs SesaZenad Zvel sakandidato disertaciebs sTavazoben. sul raRac 200 dolarad SesaZlebelia gasuli saukunis 70-80-ian wlebSi dawerili `oTxi~ `meored gamoyenebuli~ disertaciebis `nakrebis~ SeZena. agreTve, SesaZlebelia
biznesis ganviTareba da gamouyenebeli disertaciis TanakurselebisaTvis
miyidva.
akrZalvebis meSveobiT aseTi tipis korufciis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi naklebad savaraudoa raime Sedegis miReba, Tanac diplomebiTa da disertaciebiT vaWroba dRes ukve akrZalulia. aRniSnuli problemis gadaWris erTerTi SesaZlo gza avtonomiuri saakreditacio organos dafuZnebaa, romelmac unda gamoscados diplomis mqone yvela piri da informacia kandidatis
kvalifikaciis Sesaxeb damqiravebels miawodos. Tu diplomis mflobels
ecodineba, rom dasaqmebis win mas mainc mouwevs gamocdis Cabareba, SesaZloa, yalbi diplomis SeZenis stimuli Semcirdes.
akreditacia
umaRlesi saswavleblebi sazogadoebriv aRiarebas mxolod akreditaciis sistemis oficialuri procedurebis gavlis Semdeg iZenen. imisaTvis, rom
universitetma aRiareba moipovos, igi garkveul standartebsa da moTxovnebs unda akmayofilebdes.magram, Tu akreditaciis sistema korumpirebulia, `dabali xarisxis institutebs SeuZliaT diplomebis gacema im pirebze, romelTa codna da unarebi, SesaZloa, ar Seesabamebodes arsebul profesiul standartebs~. agreTve Zalze mniSvnelovania pirTa akreditacia.
magaliTad, iseT qveynebSi, rogoricaa ukraina, sadac xSiria korufcia studentTa miRebisa da diplomebiT vaWrobis sferoSi, akreditacias Tavad universitetebi atareben, rac miniWebuli samecniero xarisxis Rirebulebas
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
eWvqveS ayenebs da misi sandoobis gadamowmebis saSualebas ar tovebs. zogjer, korufcias adgili aqvs gamosaSvebi gamocdebis dros, rodesac sasurveli niSnis misaRebad studenti gamomcdels qrTams aZlevs. amitom, damqiravebels uWirs umaRlesi saswavleblis axladdamTavrebuli piris ganaTlebis donis gansazRvra. aseT dros, korufciis donis Semcireba mxolod
damoukidebel saakreditacio dawesebulebas SeuZlia, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu
Tavad am dawesebulebaSi ar iqneba korufciis faqtebi.
pedagogiuri korufcia
pedagogiuri korufcia kidev erT mwvave problemas warmoadgens, vinaidan am problemaSi CarTulni arian da yvelaze metad zaraldebian uSualod
studentebi. ganviTarebad qveynebSi urTierToba studentTa da pedagogTa Soris ar SeiZleba daxasiaTdes, rogorc Tanasworuflebiani (horizontaluri urTierToba). piriqiT, es urTierToba ierarqiul xasiaTs atarebs
(vertikaluri) da masSi pedagogi studentze maRla dgas. aseT dominantobaze dafuZnebul garemoSi korufciis ganviTarebas Sedegad studentTa gamoyeneba moyveba. pedagogTa Soris korufcia ar qmnis ganaTlebis miRebis
Tanabar SesaZleblobebs. magaliTad, zogierT SeZlebul students umaRles saswavlebelSi ganaTlebis miRebis SesaZlebloba mxolod gadaxdili
Tanxis gamo eZleva, riTac naklebad SeZlebuli studentebi zaraldebian.
zogjer, pedagogi iRebs qrTams mxolod uunaro studentebisagan, visac damoukideblad ar SeuZlia saswavlo programis aTviseba. am SemTxvevaSi, WeSmaritad niWier da Sromismoyvare studentebs SesaZlebloba aqvT ar miscen qrTami. magram, zogjer, pedagogi qrTams TiToeuli studentisagan
iTxovs, ganurCevlad misi monacemebisa. is, vinc ar ixdis, Sedegad ver abarebs gamocdas. aseTi praqtikis gamo Cndeba uamravi uunaro specialisti.
amasTan, iqmneba dabrkolebebi, romlebic aferxebs perspeqtiuli liderebis mier maTi potencialis gamoyenebas. pedagogiur korufcias, xSirad,
profesiuli normebis Seusabamo qcevas uwodeben. magaliTad, rodesac pedagogi zewolas axdens studentebze da aiZulebs maT SeiZinon mis mier momzadebuli da gamocemuli masala. Semdeg ki, adgenen `Sav sias~, sadac Seyvanilia yvela is studenti, romelmac uari Tqva saxelmZRvanelos SeZenaze.
meore sagangaSo aspeqti imaSi mdgomareobs, rom saswavlebelSi xangrZlivma korufciam SeiZleba studentebze moaxdinos gavlena da isinic momavalSi korumpirebul moqalaqeebad Camoyalibdnen.
pedagogiuri korufcia da arasaTanado profesiuli qceva – es msoflioSi yvelaze gavrcelebuli movlenaa. yofili sabWoTa kavSiris respublikebi, CineTi, kolumbia, indoeTi da CexeTis respublika – maT SeuZliaT mogviTxron pedagogebze, romlebic sasesio gamocdebis dros studentebisgan
qrTams iReben; pedagobebze, romlebic Tavs axveven studentebs sakuTar
azrs politikur wyobaze da sxva, aramaterialuri samsaxuris gawevis an miRebis Sesaxeb (mag. dasvenebis dReebSi studenti muSaobs pedagogis agarakze, sanacvlod ki, es ukanaskneli damatebiT amecadinebs mas da studenti
avtomaturad warmatebiT amTavrebs kurss). sainteresoa, rom CexeTis respublikis kanoni umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb ar krZalavs aseTi tipis, iseve rogorc bevri sxva saxis korufcias, romelzedac ukve visaubreT. es gva-
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fiqrebs imaze, rom SesaZlebelia, es ar iyos akrZaluli sxva saxelmwifoebSic, gansakuTrebiT yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebSi. saxelmwifoebSi, sadac damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg axali kanonmdeblobis Camoyalibeba xdeboda, saganmanaTleblo sferoSi momuSave Tanamdebobis pirebi ar
ufiqrdebodnen ganaTlebis sistemaSi arsebul korufciis SemTxvevebs da
misgan miRebul Sedegebs. garkveuli mizezebis gamo, isini dResac ar fiqrdebian amaze.
meore mxriv, pedagogiuri korufciis prevencia uSualod pedagogTa
xelfasis odenobasTan aris dakavSirebuli. maTi xelfasi unda aRematebodes saarsebo minimums. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, am sferoSi korufciasTan
brZola uSedego iqneba. aRniSnul situaciaSi, moralur da eTikur aspeqtebTan dakavSirebiT Cndeba kiTxva: rogor unda ganisazRvros is zRvari,
romlis qvemoTac pedagog-maswavlebelTa xelfasi imdenad mcirea, rom SesaZlebeli iqneba qrTamis aRebis faqtis gamarTleba, da rodis aris pedagogis qceva ubralo angareba.
korufcia Sesyidvebis sferoSi
rodesac saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebi da maTi muSakebi imis gansazRvrisas, Tu romeli kompania miawvdis maT saswavlo masalas, eyrdnobian
ara mowodebuli masalis xarisxs, aramed konkurent dizainerTa an mewarmeTa mxridan qrTamebs an sxva saxis sargebels, isini xels uwyoben Sesyidvebis sferoSi korufciis gaRvivebas.
rodesac Sesyidvebis sferoSi korufciis Sesaxeb vsaubrobT, aucilebelia gavigoT misi motivacia. SekveTis miRebaSi dainteresebuli mxare qrTams
im mxares sTavazobs, romelic pasuxs agebs saukeTeso arCevanis gakeTebaze. qrTamis micema xdeba imitom, rom mxarem, romelic arCevans akeTebs, SekveTa aucileblad im momwedebels unda misces. aseTi qcevis Sedegi SeiZleba gamoixatebodes iseTi saqonlisa da momsaxurebis SeZenaSi, romelic ar
Seesabameba standarts an SesyidvisaTvis gamoyofil Tanxas. saganmanaTleblo sistemis konteqstSi, SeZenili saqonlisa da momsaxurebis saboloo klientebs studentebi (moswavleebi) warmoadgenen. umetesad, swored isini zaraldebian standartebisaTvis Seusabamo masalis Sesyidvebis gamo.
rogorc heimanma aRniSna, Sesyidvebis sferoSi korufcia yvela qveyanaSi arsebobs, miuxedavad misi ekonomikuri ganviTarebis donisa, dawyebuli
keniiT, ugandiT da damTavrebuli – dalasiTa da niu-iorkiT.
korufciis tipebi
mas Semdeg, rac ganisazRvreba is sferoebi, sadac SeiZleba adgili hqondes korufcias, Zalze mniSvnelovania masSi monawile mTavari moqmedi pirebis gamovlena da maTi motivaciis dadgena. es SesaZlebelia tanakas mier
SemoTavazebuli korufciis tipebis analizis gziT:
• moculoba: msxvili korufcia / wvrilmani korufcia;
• adgili: saministro / TviTmmarTveloba / kancelaria / skola / klasi;
• gareSe pirTa monawileoba;
• riTi aris ganpirobebuli korufcia (moTxovna da SeTavazeba).
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
korufciis moculobis analizi xels uwyobs korumpirebuli sistemis diagnostikas. aRniSnuli aspeqti SeiZleba daemTxves qrTamis amRebis motivacias: xdeba Tu ara qrTamis aReba angarebis gamo, Tavis gatanis mizniT, Tu
orive aRniSnuli mizeziT. mcire masStabebiT korufciis SemTxvevaSi, qrTamis amRebis motivacias Semosavlis, an raime saCuqris miReba warmoadgens,
rac aanazRaurebda mcire an dagvianebiT gadaxdil xelfass. aseTi tipis korufcia pedagogiur korufcias Seesabameba da xSir movlenas warmoadgens
gardamaval periodSi myof saxelmwifoebSi. pedagogebi ubralod gadarCenisaTvis ibrZvian da cdiloben sakuTari ojaxebi uzrunvelyon. Tu mTavroba dainteresebulia saxelmwifoSi mtkice da saimedo umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis SeqmniT, man unda gamonaxos saSualeba, uzrunvelyos pedagogebisaTvis iseTi xelfasi, rac arsebobisaTvis sakmarisi iqneba. tanakam
gamoTqva azri, rom iseT viTarebaSi, rodesac xelfasi sacicocxlo minimumze dabalia, korufciis ubralo akrZalva, xelfasis asamaRleblad garkveuli zomebis miRebis gareSe ara Tu uSedego iqneba, aramed SeiZleba viTarebis gamwvaveba gamoiwvios.
korufciis SemTxvevebis adgilebis dadgena mniSvnelovania ori aspeqtis gamo. upirveles yovlisa, es xels uwyobs korumpirebuli pirebis fizikur dadgenas. amgvarad, SeiZleba gamovlindnen is pedagogebi an administraciis muSakebi, romelTac gadametebuli Zalaufleba gaaCniaT. magaliTad, Tu aRiarebulia, rom pedagogi korumpirebulia da qrTams iRebs iq,
sadac gamocdebi tardeba, SesaZlebeli gaxdeba Semdegi qrTamis aRebis faqtis aRkveTa. garda amisa, aucilebelia korufciis procesSi monawile yvela gareSe piris dadgena. korufciis winaaRmdeg brZolis saintereso programa xorcieldeba azerbaijanSi. is iTvaliswinebs konkretul adgils da
im ZiriTad pirebs, romlebsac SeuZliaT qrTamis aReba.
azerbaijanSi moqmedebs unikaluri sistema, romlis analogi postsabWour sivrceSi ar arsebobs. am sistemis idea, nawilobriv, TurqeTidan aris
gadmotanili. saxelmwifo sagamocdo komisiis wevrebi yovelwliur misaReb gamocdebamde ramdenime dRiT adre da gamocdebis Semdeg bunkerebSi
Tavsdebian, raTa maT ar hqondeT momavali gamocdebis kiTxvebis gamoaSkaravebis, Canacvlebis an aslebis gayidvis saSualeba. sagamocdo kiTxvebis
dedanis adgilze mitana gamocdis wina dRes xdeba, SeiaraRebuli eskortis
TanxlebiT. maTi momzadeba ki sxvadasxva adgilas warmoebs, aradainteresebuli mesame pirebis zedamxedvelobis qveS. amasTan, kompiuteris meSveobiT xdeba kiTxvebis kombinaciaTa SerCeva. erTi SexedviT es ukidures prevenciul zomebs hgavs. magram, zemoT xsenebuli zomebi namdvilad qmediTia
da Tu maT saboloo mizans umaRlesi ganaTlebis saimedo sistema warmoadgens, SesaZlebelia sxva qveynebSi am gamocdilebis gamoyeneba. umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi korufciasTan brZolis ZiriTadi mizania iseTi sistemis Seqmna, romelSic korufciis faqtebs adgili ar eqneba (an isini iSviaTi
iqneba) da saWiro aRar gaxdeba auditoriis mkacri kontroli.
sxva aspeqtis – moTxovniTa da SemoTavazebiT ganpirobebuli korufciis analizi korumpirebuli sistemis konturis danaxvis saSualebas iZleva
da im problemebis gamovlenas uwyobs xels, romelTa winaaRmdeg, SemdgomSi, saWiro iqneba prevenciuli programebisa da zomebis meSveobiT brZola.
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saerTo jamSi, rodesac qrTamis amReb pirs dakisrebuli aqvs meti Zalaufleba, vidre qrTamis mimcems – moTxovniT ganpirobebul korufcias uwodeben. maSin, rodesac saxezea ZalaTa balansi qrTamis amReb da mimcem pirTa Soris, saubaria SemoTavazebiT ganpirobebul korufciaze. pedagogiuri korufcia, romlis drosac studenti aZlevs qrTams, rogorc wesi, moTxovniT aris ganpirobebuli, anu misi iniciatori Tavad pedagogia. Tumca,
arsebobs gamonaklisic. umaRlesi ganaTlebis qronikaSi moyvanilia pekinis universitetis pedagogis mier gadmocemuli namdvili ambavi. gamosaSveb gamocdebamde ramdenime xniT adre mas erT-erTma studentma mimarTa,
romelsac surda filosofiis doqtori gamxdariyo. es studenti xSirad
acdenda leqciebs. cariel auditoriaSi man pedagogisaTvis Tanxis gadacema scada. rodesac pedagogma qrTamze uari Tqva, jiuti studenti mis saxlTan fuliT savse konvertiT mivida. es mcdelobebi mxolod maSin Sewyda,
rodesac pedagogma konverti aiRo, is derefanSi moisrola da students
kari miuxura. korufciis SemTxvevebi CineTis universitetebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli rom ar yofiliyo, zemoT moyvanili SemTxveva komikuri iqneboda. SemoTavazebiT ganpirobebuli korufciis am konkretulma SemTxvevam sadamsjelo zomebis miReba ar gamoiwvia, miuxedavad imisa, rom universitetis administraciis sul mcire erTi muSakisaTvis mainc es ambavi cnobili iyo. SemoTavazebiT ganpirobebuli korufciis pirobebSi, damrRvevsa
da qrTamis mimcem pirs ufro xelsayreli pirobebisTvis erTmaneTTan konkurencia SeuZliaT. magaliTisaTvis, gavixsenoT is SemTxveva, rodesac SekveTis miRebis mizniT aRWurvilobis da saswavlo masalis mwarmoeblebi sakmaod did qrTams aZleven SemkveTebs.
korufciis mizezebi da Sedegebi
mizezebi da prevenciuli zomebi
saganmanaTleblo sferoSi korufciis arsebobis mizezebis gaanalizeba
sam doneze unda moxdes: instituciur, saorganizacio da calkeul individTa doneze. agreTve, unda gamovarCioT is faqtorebi, romlebic korufciisa da misi motivaciis safuZvels warmoadgens.
universitetTa mmarTvelobis arasrulyofili sistema da misi naklovanebebi xSirad korufciis safuZvels qmnian. faqtia, rom umaRlesi saswavleblebi erTmaneTs konkurencias ar uweven da sazogadoeba TiTqmis ar aris CarTuli universitetTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebis procesSi;
ar xdeba fakultetebisa da maTi muSakebis mxridan universitetis prestiJze, Sida politikasa da gadawyvetilebis miRebis procesze zrunvis waxaliseba. instituciur doneze, korufciis aRmavlobaze did gavlenas axdens
agreTve akreditaciasTan dakavSirebuli faqtori. SeiZleba moxdes ise, rom
saganmanaTleblo dawesebuleba ar iyos akreditirebuli an Sefasebuli, rogorc arasaTanado xarisxis swavlebis uzrunvelmyofi dawesebuleba. instituciur doneze korufciaze gavlenis mqone faqtorebis dawvrilebiTi nusxa konkretulad saxelmwifos konteqstSi unda momzaddes.
universitetebSi `jansaRi~ instituciuri garemos Seqmna xangrZlivi da
neli procesia. konkretuli rekomendaciebis micema SeiZleba mxolod mas
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
Semdeg, rac adgilobrivi umaRlesi saswavleblebis xelmZRvanelebTan mWidro TanamSromlobis safuZvelze, konkretul geografiul regionSi momuSave mecnier-TanamSromlebis mier warmodgenili iqneba daskvna.
saorganizacio doneze korufciis winapiroba da motivebi arasrulyofil struqturas moicavs, romelic gzas uxsnis korufcias; agreTve, arasakmaris angariSvaldebulebasa da kontrols da araswor samotivacio
struqturas, maT Soris materialur da aramaterialur waxalisebas. saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebsa da Sesyidvebis sferoSi korufcia, SesaZloa,
msoflios sxvadasxva wertilSi susti saorganiozacio struqturis gamo
warmoiqmnas. angariSvaldebulebis ararseboba aseve uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyenebis winapirobas qmnis. aseT situaciaSi ukanono qmedebebSi
CarTva saSiSi aRar aris. Tumca, kontrolsa da saTanado doneze Camoyalibebul struqturaze metad mniSvnelovania swori samotivacio struqturis Seqmna, romelic saarsebo minimumze maRal anazRaurebas da iseT moTxovnaTa dakmayofilebas gulisxmobs, rogoricaa Tavmoyvareoba an sakuTari unarebis demonstrireba. organizaciaTa Teoriis Tanaxmad, Tu organizacias ar Seswevs sakuTar TanamSromelTa motivirebis unari, is ver
uzrunvelyofs mWidro TanamSromlobis pirobebs.
vfiqrob, administraciuli struqturisa da samotivacio sistemis sauniversiteto garemosadmi Tanamedrove moTxovnebTan Sesabamisad ganaxleba, Seamcirebs korufciis SemTxvevaTa ricxvs.
Tu instituciur da saorganizacio sistemebTan dakavSirebuli problemebis gadaWris Semdeg korufcia mainc iCens Tavs, es imaze metyvelebs, rom
aRniSnuli faqtori universitetis fakultetTa muSakebis pirovnul Tvisebebs ukavSirdeba. pirovnul doneze korufciis mizezebi SeiZleba ganpirobebuli iyos iseTi faqtorebiT, rogoricaa profesiuli siamaye an misi
uqonloba, angareba, sixarbe, riskis gawevis survilis arqona da a.S. universitetis fakultetTa TanamSromlebis piradi TvisebebiT SeiZleba rogorc
korufciis waqezeba, ise misi aRmofxvrac. zemoT aRniSnuli Tvisebebi, rogorc wesi, momaval pedagogTa universitetSi swavlis periodSi viTardeba. Tu universitetSi saswavlo procesebi araswored mimdinareobs da adgili aqvs arasaTanado profesiul qcevas, momaval pedagogebs pedagogis swori qcevis Sesaxeb SeiZleba mcdari warmodgena CamouyalibdeT.
pedagogTa arasaTanado qcevis problemis gadaWra SesaZlebelia specialuri leqciebis organizebis meSveobiT, agreTve, Sesabamisi zneobrivi faseulobebisa da moraluri standartebis propagandis gziT.
Sedegebi
saerTaSoriso savaluto fondis samuSao dokumentebSi aRniSnulia, rom
korufcias SeuZlia `bevr qveyanaSi gazardos fasebi da SezRudos xelisuflebis SesaZleblobebi iseTi momsaxurebis uzrunvelyofisa da dafinansebis sferoSi, rogorebicaa jandacva da ganaTleba~. korufcia, marTlac,
uaryofiT gavlenas axdens ekonomikis ganviTarebaze. da mainc, ganaTlebis
sferoSi is sxva arasasurvel Sedegebsac iwvevs.
saganmanaTleblo sistemas mniSvnelovani socialuri funqciebi akisria.
kerZod: igi socialuri mobilurobis arxs warmoadgens. idealur SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba, rom kandidatTa guldasmiT SerCevis safuZvelze umaR-
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lesi ganaTlebis sistemam unda moamzados momavali saxelmwifo liderebi.
iTvleba, rom SerCevis procesi (rogorc miReba, ise Semdgomi SerCeva) efuZneba akademiuri Canawerebis warmoebas, testebSi miRebul niSnebsa da sxva
saSualebebs, romlebic kandidatTa akademiuri unarebis demonstrirebas
axdens. Tumca, korumpirebul akademiur sistemaSi SerCevis arsebuli forma
fuliT ganpirobebuli SerCeviT icvleba. qrTamis mimcemi piri umaRles saswavlebelSi iricxeba. amrigad, kandidatis an studentis Rirsebebi, misi motivacia da gulmodgineba mxedvelobaSi miRebuli ar aris. momaval saxelmwifo liderTa SerCevis korumpirebul procesSi, Rirseul kandidatTa
umetesoba konkursSi ver gadis. maT adgilebs damsaxurebis armqone pirebi
ikaveben. es uaryofiTad moqmedebs qveynis momaval xelmZRvanelobaze, rac,
Tavis mxriv, saerTo ekonomikur da socialur ganviTarebazec negatiur gavlenas axdens.
garda amisa, umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi korufciam, SesaZloa, sakmaod uaryofiTi gavlena moaxdinos konkretuli sazogadoebis keTildReobaze. magaliTad, korumpirebuli samedicino dawesebulebebis arsebobis pirobebSi, umaRlesi SeiZleba daamTavros momavalma qirurgma, romelsac damoukideblad arasdros Caubarebia gamocda da yovelTvis gavleniani
axloblebis `daxmarebiT~ sargeblobda. is, Tu ra zianis motana SeuZlia korufcias ganaTlebis sferoSi, naTlad Cans ramdenime xnis win ukrainaSi momxdari SemTxvevis magaliTidan, rodesac SemTxveviT gadaurCa afeTqebas rovenis atomuri eleqtrosadguri da kinaRam ganmeorda Cernobilis katastrofa. aseTi saSiSi situaciis warmoqmnis mizezebis analizis Semdeg, sagamoZiebo komisiam daaskvna, rom atomur reaqtorze pasuxismgebel muSakebs
ar gauvliaT saTanado momzadeba, xolo odesis politeqnikuri institutis diplomi maT umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemis gverdis avliT SeiZines. samwuxarod, ukrainaSi msgavsi `samsaxuris~ gawevis uamravi faqti moiZebneba.
korufcia umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi udaod zianis momtani movlenaa. misi gavlena sazogadoebaze, xSir SemTxvevaSi, Znelad SesamCnevia da
arapirdapiri saSualebebiT xorcieldeba. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, is zians
ayenebs sazogadoebis keTildReobas da sTavazobs problemis moklevadian
gadaWras maT, visac miniWebuli aqvs sakmarisi Zalaufleba da korufciaSi
CarTvis ar eSinia.
globalizacia da korufcia
dRevandel pirobebSi, roca sazRvris gadakveTa sul ufro martivi xdeba, Zalze mniSvnelovania imis gacnobiereba, rom korufcia umaRles saswavleblebSi mowinave qveynebisTvisac problemad iqceva. umaRlesi ganaTlebis qronikis mixedviT, amerikeli profesor-maswavleblebi da mecnierebi
aRar endobian ganviTarebadi saxelmwifoebis mier TavianTi saganmanaTleblo sistemebisa da moqmedi gacvliTi programebis daxvewis deklarirebul
miswrafebas. vinaidan, sul ufro meti ucxoeli studenti mimarTavs amerikul kolejebs, Cndeba kiTxva: `xom ar ecdeba is, vinc miCveulia arapatiosani gziT niSnis miRebas, igive gaimeoros CvenTanac?~
magaliTisaTvis moviyvanoT aSS-Si damkvidrebuli doqtoranturaSi SerCevis procedura. manamde, vidre ganixileba is, Tu ramdenad Seesabameba doq-
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
toranturaSi Cabarebis survilis mqone piri aseTi tipis swavlebis moTxovnebs da aris Tu ara mizanSewonili misi dafinanseba, kandidatma unda warmoadginos rekomendaciebi, niSnebis furceli da GRE-sa da TOEFL-is testebSi miRebuli qulebi. magram, rogor moviqceT im SemTxvevaSi, Tu CineTSi yvela zemoT xsenebuli sabuTis SeZena Riad aris SesaZlebeli? aucilebelia Tu ara ekonomikurad Zlieri saxelmwifoebis mxridan qveyanaSi Camosuli ucxoeli studentebis akademiuri Canawerebis kontrolis gamkacreba xarisxobrivad Seusabamo kandidatebis miRebis Tavidan acilebis mizniT?
swored aseTi kontroli xorcieldeba zogierT saxelmwifoSi, magaliTad
germaniaSi. ganviTarebadi qveynebidan Camosulma studentebma, romlebsac
surT magistraturis an doqtoranturis gavla, aucileblad unda Caabaron
gamocdebi. amave dros, amerikuli universitetebi SedarebiT daucvelni arian sazRvargareTis umaRles saswavleblebSi arsebuli korufciis Sedegebis
winaSe. Tumca, bolo dros, Seiqmna kompiuteruli programebi, romelTa saSualebiTac SesaZlebelia TOEFL-is, GRE-is, GMAT-isa da sxva testebis Cabareba da testirebis Sedegebis gayalbebis Tavidan acileba. aseTi standartizebuli testebis Sedegebis falsificireba mainc xerxdeba. sianteresoa
imis garkveva, rogor axerxeben Cineli TaRliTi studentebi (an isini, vinc
maT magivrad abareben gamocdebs) saimigracio formebis I-20 da IAP-66-is gayalbebas, rac gacvliTi programiT Camosul studentebs aSS-is vizis mopovebis saSualebas aZlevs (kerZo saubris dros miRebuli informacia).
empiriuli savarjiSo
erTi empiriuli savarjiSo Sevasrule da vanderbiltis universitetis
ramdenime ucxoeli studenti gamovkiTxe. ZiriTadi kiTxva exeboda imas, hqoniaT Tu ara Sexeba korufciasTan maTi qveynis umaRles saswavlebelSi. gamokiTxvaSi monawileoba sul rva studentma miiRo, romelTagan ori laTinuri
amerikidan iyo, xolo eqvsi – saqarTvelodan, ukrainidan da ruseTidan.
laTino-amerikeli studentebi, romelTagan erTi meqsikis, xolo meore
braziliis kerZo universitetSi swavlobdnen, uaryofdnen maT umaRles saswavlebelSi korufciis arsebobis faqtebs. Tumca, acxadebdnen, rom gagonili hqondaT maTi qveynis saxelmwifo universitetebSi korufciis SemTxvevebis Sesaxeb.
saqarTvelosa da ukrainis respondentebma ar aRiares, hqoniaT Tu ara
piradi Sexeba korufciasTan, Tumca moiyvanes maTi mSobliuri qveynis universitetebSi korufciis ramdenime magaliTi. respondentma ruseTidan, romelic Tavad iyo erT-erTi universitetis pedagogi, aRiara, rom mis praqtikaSi yofila SemTxvevebi, rodesac studentTa mSoblebi gamocdebis dros
mis moqrTamvas cdilobdnen.
TiToeul maTganTan kerZo saubarSi gairkva, rom umaRlesi ganaTlebis
sferoSi korufciisadmi damokidebuleba gansxvavdeba regionebis mixedviT.
rogorc Cans, saqarTvelosa da ukrainaSi am sferoSi korufcia ukve normad, Cveul movlenad iqca. respodenti ruseTidan (moskovis mcxovrebi)
amtkicebda, rom mis universitetSi korufcia problemad iyo miCneuli da
reqtori mis aRmosafxvrelad sxvadasxva zomebs mimarTvada.
157
158 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
saerTo jamSi, rTulia studentisagan utyuari informacia miiRo imis
Sesaxeb, Tu rogori piradi Sexeba hqonia korufciasTan. pedagogis an universitetis administraciis TanamSromlisgan aseTi informaciis miReba kidev ufro rTuli iqneba. obieqturi informaciis misaRebad unda gamoikiTxos adamianTa maqsimaluri raodenoba, raTa SesaZlebeli gaxdes sakmarisi magaliTebis mogroveba da saTanado daskvnebis gamotana. studentebis
gamokiTxva araoficialur atmosferoSi unda moxdes. aucilebelia, agreTve, maTi anonimurobis garantireba.
daskvna
korufcia umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi – es aris movlena, romelic msofios yvela saxelmwifoSi gvxvdeba. is SeiZleba sruliad gansxvavebuli
formisa da tipis iyos, gamovlindes saswavlo procesis nebismier etapze
da universitetis saqmianobis araerT sferoze moaxdinos gavlena – iqneba
es saswavlo procesi Tu organizaciis akreditacia.
korumpirebuli umaRlesi saswavleblebi uSveben arakvalificirebul,
arasaTanadod momzadebul specialistebs, rac uaryofiT gavlenas axdens
sazogadoebis ekonomikur da socialur ganviTarebaze, rogorc moklevadian, ise grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi. korufciis analizi unda moxdes misi
sami donis gaTvaliswinebiT: instituciuri, saorganizacio da individTa
korufcia. calke aRebuli qveynis konteqstSi Seswavlilma TiToeulma donem SeiZleba gvikarnaxos, Tu ra prevenciuli zomebis gatareba iqneba marTebuli korufciis SemcirebisaTvis.
unda gvaxsovdes, rom korufcia, rogorc movlena, sazogadoebisa da dawesebulebis saorganizacio struqturis arasrulyofilebis Sedegs warmoadgens. amitomac, masTan brZola unda moxdes mecnierul midgomebsa da
sxvadasxva kvlevis safuZvelze da ara ubralo xmamaRali lozungebis meSveobiT, riTac Cvens damokidebulebas gamovxatavT aRniSnul sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi.
korufcia umaRlesi ganaTlebis sferoSi dRes gansakuTrebiT aqtualuria. man metad gansxvavebuli da rafinirebuli formebi SeiZina, romlebic rTulad eqvemdebarebian analizs da romelTa ubralo ignorirebac ki Zalze saSiSi xdeba. korufciis faqtebs, misaRebi gamocdidan dawyebuli da gamosaSvebi gamocdiT damTavrebuli, saswavlo procesis nebismier etapze vawydebiT. yovelive aman, SesaZloa, rogorc uSualo ise
arapirdapiri gavlena iqonios studentze. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania
umaRlesi ganaTlebis sistemaSi korufciasTan dakavSirebuli problemis
gadaWra im CamorCenil an saSualod ganviTarebul qveynebSi, sadac korufcia gansakuTrebiT aris ganviTarebuli. swored aseTi saxelmwifoebis sazogadoeba yvelaze metad saWiroebs efeqturad moqmed saganmanaTleblo
sistemas, raTa axalgazrda specialistTa meSveobiT moxdes qveynis ekonomikis ganmtkiceba.
rac mTavaria, unda iyos imis garantia, rom ar moxdeba arsebuli organuli resursebis gaflangva arakvalificiur studentebze da qveynis momavali liderebi Ria da samarTliani konkursis gziT iqnebian arCeulni.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
literatura
1. Christian Science Monitor. December 1993. “Corruption Undermines Education in
India.”
2. Greenwald, Igor. 1996. “Corruption and Shortage hamper higher Education in Ukraine.”
Chronicle of Higher Education 42:A44
3. Gupta, Sanjeev, Hamid Davoodi, and Erwin Tiongson. 2000. “Corruption and the
Provision of Health Care and Educational Services” IMF Working Paper
4. Heyneman, Stephen (forthcoming) “Education and Corruption”
5. Tanaka, Shinichiro. 2001. “Corruption in education sector development: a suggestion
for anticipatory strategy.” The international Journal of Educational Management 15/
4:158-166
6. The Chronicle of Higher Education. December 2001. “Corruption, Con.ict, and Budget
Cuts A.ict Academe in Former Soviet Republics.” 48/21:A40-A42
7. The Chronicle of Higher Education. August 2002. “In China, Bribery and Fakery Lower
the value of Degrees.” 48/47: A33
8. The Chronicle of Higher Education. August 2002. “In Colombia, Decades of Graft
Cripple a University.” 48/47:A32
9. The Chronicle of Higher Education. August 2002. “In Georgia, Professors Hand Out
Price Lists.” 48/47:A34
10. The Chronicle of Higher Education. August 2002. “In India, Suitcases of Money Buy
Admission to College.” 48/47:A36
11. The Chronicle of Higher Education. September 2001. “Corrupt Admission Alleged in
China.” 48/03:A51
12. The Chronicle of Higher Education. August 2002. “Corruption Plagues Academe Around
the World.” 48/47:A32
13. Tucker, Aviezer. 2000. “Reproducing Incompetence: The Constitution of Czech Higher
Education.” Eastern European Constitutional Review. 94-99
159
antikorufciuli aRzrdis integrireba
saswavlo programebSi
161
arunas poviliunasi
korufcia deviaciuri sociologiis
TvalsazrisiT
deviaciuri sociologiis kursis moduli
modulis mizani
korufciis movlenis ganxilva deviaciuri sociologiis TvalsazrisiT.
modulis amocanebi
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
deviaciis interpretaciebSi gansxvavebebis gamovlena;
deviaciebis subieqturi da obieqturi cnebani;
korufciis movlenis, rogorc deviaciis daxasiaTeba;
korufciis ganmartebaTa mravalferovnebis gacnoba;
im faqtorTa gamovlena, romelzedac damokidebulia korufciis sxvadasxvagvari ganmarteba.
I leqcia. deviaciis
obieqturi da subieqturi cnebebi
sociologia socialur urTierTobebs ganixilavs. sociologebi ikvleven, Tu rogor yalibdeba xalxSi maTi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb erTiani warmodgena da ganmarteba; Tu rogor yalibdeba jgufebi zemoT xsenebuli ganmartebebis safuZvelze; rogor dgindeba qcevis wesebi; rogor gansazRvraven adamianebi erTmaneTis socialur rolebs da rogor aiZuleben sxvas sakuTari wesebis dacvas. sociologebis mier ganxiluli yvela es kiTxva aris
erTi, ufro zogadi xasiaTis kiTxvis nawili: rogor Cndeba (an warmoiqmneba) da narCundeba socialuri wesrigi (wyobileba)?
deviacia (gadaxra/gamonaklisi) socialuri normebis darRvevas an daucvelobas warmoadgens. deviaciis analizis meSveobiT, SesaZlebelia socialuri wesrigis Taviseburebebis ukeT aRqma. misi ganxilvisas irkveva, rogor warmoiqmneba da razea damokidebuli gadaxris mqone cxovrebis modelebi.
deviaciis, rogorc socialuri movlenis cneba, SeiZleba, sul mcire, ori
TvalsazrisiT iyos ganxiluli. zogi mkvlevari deviacias obieqtur realobad miiCnevs, sxvebi ki xsnian mas, rogorc subieqtebis urTierTobaTa
Sedegs. deviaciis pirvel cnebas obieqturs uwodeben, meores ki – subieqturs.
deviaciis obieqturi cneba
sociologebi, romlebic deviacias obieqtur realobad miiCneven, gansazRvraven sazogadoebis normebs da maTgan gadaxras deviaciad miiCneven.
isini sami winapirobiT xelmZRvaneloben:
1. mTlianobaSi, sazogadoeba Tanxmdeba normebze, amitomac mocemuli
Sexedulebis momxreebisaTvis, gadaxra SedarebiT ioli aRmosaCeni da
aRsaniSnavia.
162 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
2. gadaxrebi, rogorc wesi, sanqciebs ukavSirdeba. aseTi sanqciebis magaliTebia ignorireba, Worebi, samarTlebrivi qmedebebi da a.S.
3. socialuri wesrigis damrRvevi piris mimarT sasjelis dakisreba jgufisaTvis aris kidev erTi dasturi imisa, rom jgufis wevrebi gansazRvruli saerTo normebiT arian dakavSirebulni.
deviaciis obieqturi cnebidan Semdegi umniSvnelovanesi kiTxvebi warmoiSveba:
1. rogori kulturuli da socialuri garemoebebiT aris gamowveuli deviaciebi?
2. ra aris imis mizezi, rom miuxedavad sanqciebisa, adamianebi mainc
arRveven normebs?
3. ra iqneboda deviaciis minimumamde Semcirebis da misi kontrolis saSualeba?
zemoT CamoTvlili winapirobebisa da kiTxvebis safuZvelze deviaciis
Seswavlis ramdenime procedura Camoyalibda:
I etapi: unda CamoiTvalos, risi gakeTeba `SeiZleba~ jgufisaTvis da risi
`ara~.
II etapi: unda SeviswavloT oficialuri sabuTebi da sxva masalebi, romlebic exeba sazogadoebaSi Camoyalibebuli wesebisa da normebis damrRvev pirebs.
III etapi: unda gavesaubroT aseT dokumentebSi miTiTebul pirebs da gaviaroT konsultacia socialuri organos iseT warmomadgenlebTan,
rogorebic arian policielebi da mosamarTleebi.
IV etapi: unda gavarkvioT, riT gansxvavdebian deviantebi aradeviantebisagan (SesaZloa, pirveli jgufis pirebi arSemdgari ojaxebidan
iyvnen), imisaTvis, rom davinaxoT is socialuri da kulturuli pirobebi, romlebSic normebidan gadaxra metad aris mosalodneli.
V etapi: SevqmnaT deviaciis amxsneli Teoria da SemdgomSi gamoviyenoT
is aRniSnuli movlenis prevenciisa da koreqtirebisaTvis.
deviaciis obieqturi cnebis Sefaseba
deviaciis obieqturi cnebis upiratesoba mkafiod formulirebul kiTxvebSi mdgomareobs, xolo naklovanebebi ki, zemoT CamoTvlil, ZiriTad
winapirobebs ukavSirdeba. sazogadoebaSi imdenad bevri mravalferovani
jgufi da azrovnebis wesia, rom adamianebi xSirad ver Tanxmdebian imaze,
Tu ra unda CaiTvalos normad. swored am mizeziT da, agreTve, imis gamo,
rom bevri adamiani socialuri kontrolis organoebis yuradRebis sferoSi eqceva, xolo zogi Tavs aridebs amas, xSirad rTulia imis dadgena, vin
aris devianti da vin – ara. garda amisa, socialuri kontrolis organoebis
umetesoba gamorCeul jgufebTan muSaobs. amitomac, ufro didi albaTobaa, rom adamianTa garkveuli jgufi normebidan gadaxris gamo daisjeba.
Sesabamisad, deviaciis buneba, misi mizezebi da Sedegebi ar aris martivi da
erTgvarovani.
deviaciis subieqturi cneba
sociologebi, romelTa yuradReba gadatanilia deviantebis socialur
diferenciaciaze, aqcents sxva winapirobebze akeTeben:
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
1. isini amtkiceben, rom xdeba xalxisa da jgufebis urTierTqmedeba da
urTierToba. isini iyeneben yvelasTvis saerTo simboloebs (zepiri
ena, sxeulis ena, samosis stili da a.S.). simboloebis meSveobiT komunikacia xalxs saSualebas aZlevs, daadginon garkveuli tipebi, miakuTvnon erTmaneTi am tipebs da Sesabamisad imoqmedon.
2. sociologebi gamoTqvamen mosazrebas, rom deviacia yvelaze kargad
SeiZleba iyos aRqmuli da ganmartebuli erTmaneTTan urTierTqmedebis TvalsazrisiT da garkveul tipTan mikuTvnebis gziT. isini miiCneven, rom miniWebuli iarliyi – `devianti~ – aris simbolo, romelic adamianebis diferenciaciasa da stigmatizacias axdens.
3. am mosazrebis momxreebi miiCneven, rom adamianTa qceva ganpirobebulia aseTi gansazRvrebebiT. deviantebs adamianebi gansxvavebulad miiCneven da Sesabamisad eqcevian maT.
aRniSnuli cnebis momxre sociologebi ZiriTad yuradRebas socialur
ganmartebebze, definiciebze da socialur urTierTobebze maT gavlenaze
amaxvileben.
erTi mxriv, isini siRrmiseulad ganixilaven imaT Sexedulebebsa da moqmedebebs, romlebic garkveul pirebs deviantebad miiCneven.
isini ganixilaven:
1) im garemoebebs, romelSic adamians meti Sansi aqvs deviantad iyos miCneuli;
2) rogor xdeba adamianisaTvis deviantis rolis miniWeba;
3) ra zomebs mimarTaven sxvebi pirovnebis aseTi gansazRvrebis safuZvelze;
4) ra Sedegi moyveba aseT qmedebas.
meore mxriv, zemoT xsenebuli sociologebisaTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania deviantad miCneuli adamianis Sexedulebebi da reaqcia. isini ikvleven:
1) ra reaqcia aqvs adamians misTvis gamotanil aseT ganaCenze;
2) rogor iRebs is sakuTar Tavze deviantis rols;
3) rogor icvleba misi damokidebuleba jgufis wevrebis mimarT;
4) rogor icvleba deviantis TviTSegneba.
subieturi deviaciis cnebis Sefaseba
interaqtiuli cnebis mixedviT, deviacia axsnilia ara rogorc adamianis nebis miRma obieqturad arsebuli movlena, aramed rogorc adamianTa
urTierTqmedebis Sedegi. amitomac, deviantebi ganixilebian, rogorc garkveuli wesiT socialurad tipizirebuli adamianebi. aseTi tipizacia, rogorc wesi, ukavSirdeba aSkarad aratipiuri qmedebebis aRqmis mcdelobasa
da misTvis Sinaarsis miniWebas. aseTi qmedebebis gagebis mcdelobisas, adamianebi iwyeben stereotipul interpretirebas da konkretul pirs garkveul tips miakuTvneben. isini deviantis motivebs moraluri TvalsazrisiT
afaseben da, amasTan, gansazRvraven imasac, Tu rogor unda moeqcnen mas.
deviaciis subieqturi da obieqturi cnebebis Sedareba
deviaciis obieqturi cneba, upirveles yovlisa, koncentrirdeba deviantisaTvis damaxasiaTebel im pirobebsa da Taviseburebebze, ramac gamo-
163
164 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
iwvia normebTan Seusabamo qmedeba an qceva. subieqturi ki, pirvel adgilze
ayenebs, rogorc Tavad deviantebis gansazRvrasa da qmedebebs, ise im pirebs,
romlebic maT `deviants~ uwodeben. aseve ganixileba maTi urTierTqmedeba. amitomac am ukanasknel cnebas interaqtiuls uwodeben.
II leqcia. saofise
danaSauli
1939 wels, amerikel sociologTa sazogadoebisa da amerikis ekonomistTa asociaciis erTobliv RonisZiebaze, erT-erTma amerikelma sociologma waikiTxa leqcia Temaze – `saofise danaSauli~ (ingl. white collar crime;
inglisuri termini white collar, romelic arafizikur Sromas niSnavs (fizikur Sromas, Sesabamisad, blue collar ewodeba), xSirad sityva-sityviT iTargmneba – TeTri sayelo). white collar crimes – es aris ofisebsa da dawesebulebebSi Cadenili danaSauli, romelic dakavSirebulia maT saqmianobasTan. aseTi danaSaulis mniSvnelovani Tavisebureba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom is Cadenilia sakmaod gavleniani adamianebis mier, romlebic xSirad maRali socialuri fenis warmomadgenlebi arian. amitomac, ofisebSi momuSave da saofise danaSaulis Camden pirebs saofise damnaSaveebs uwodeben, xolo maT
qmedebas – saofise danaSauls.
saofise danaSaulis kvlevis procesSi, e. sazerlendma kolegebTan erTad
diferencialuri asociaciebis Teoria Seqmna, romelic Semdeg ZiriTad debulebebs efuZneba:
1. danaSaulebrivi qmedeba ar aris Tandayolili, aramed is aTvisebadia;
2. danaSaulebrivi qmedebis aTviseba xdeba sxva adamianebTan urTierTobis procesSi;
3. danaSaulebrivi qcevis aTviseba xdeba mcire jgufebSi, romlebic
mWidrod arian dakavSirebulni erTmaneTTan;
4. danaSaulebrivi qcevis aTvisebis procesSi xdeba, rogorc danaSaulis procesis, ise masTan dakavSirebuli miswrafebebis, Sexedulebebisa da racionalizaciis meTodebis aTviseba;
5. motivebisa da miswrafebebis aTvisebis procesSi xdeba kanonebis diferencireba – misaRebad da miuReblad, anu im kanonebad, romelTa
dacva aucilebelia da imaT, romelTa dacvac saWiro ar aris;
6. individi devianti an damnaSave xdeba maSin, rodesac misTvis kanonis
dacvis principis nacvlad dominantad iqceva is principi, rom kanonis dacva aucilebeli ar aris. aseT SemTxvevaSi Cven saqme gvaqvs diferencialur asociaciasTan. individis qmedeba danaSaulebrivi xdeba, vinaidan is mudmivad awydeba danaSaulebriv qmedebebs Tavis garemocvaSi da praqtikulad ara aqvs Sexeba aradanaSaulebriv qcevasTan;
7. diferencialuri asociaciebi SeiZleba gansxvavdebodes rogorc sixSiriTa da xangrZlivobiT, ise mniSvnelobiTa da intensivobiT;
8. danaSaulebriv qcevas swavloben iseve, rogorc sxva saxis qcevas.
amgvarad, danaSaulebrivi qceva ar aris mxolod mibaZva an imitacia;
9. danaSaulebrivi qceva garkveuli saerTo faseulobebisa da normebis
gamomJRavnebaa. Tumca, zemoT aRniSnuli normebisa da faseulobebis
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
saSualebiT misi ganmarteba yovelgvar safuZvels aris moklebuli,
vinaidan aradanaSaulebrivi qmedeba imave faseulobebsa da normebs
efuZneba.
sazogadoeba saofise danaSauls naklebad saSiSad miiCnevs, vidre quCis
danaSauls, magaliTad, yaCaRobas, gaupatiurebas, qurdobas da a.S. sinamdvileSi ki, viTareba sxvagvaria: saofise danaSauli ufro saxifaToa, vinaidan uzarmazari finansuri zaralis garda, aseT danaSauls SeiZleba msxverplic mohyves.
saofise danaSaulis oTx tips gamoyofen:
1. danaSauli kompaniis winaaRmdeg. maTi umravlesoba kompaniis TanamSromlebis an klientebis mier aris Cadenili. es aris samuSao adgilze TanamSromlis mier Cadenili qurdoba. aseTi tipis qurdoba xasiaTdeba Semdegi niSnebiT:
• TanamSromlis mier Cadenili qurdoba ufro xSiria msxvil da iSviaTia kerZo kompaniebSi. msxvil kompaniaSi qurdoba naklebad SesamCnevia.
• aseTi qurdoba ufro xSiria im kompaniebSi, romelTa TanamSromlebi eqspluatirebulad grZnoben Tavs, mcire xelfasi aqvT da arasaTanadod arian waxalisebulni. TanamSromeli aRiqvams qurdobas,
rogorc damsaxurebul gasamrjelos an gaweuli samsaxurisaTvis
kompensacias.
• TanamSromlebma SeiZleba daiwyon qurdoba, raTa monotonur samuSaos mravalferovneba SesZinon.
• TanamSromlebi, romlebic samuSaoze qurdoben, Tavs damnaSaveebad
ar miiCneven.
2. TanamSromelTa winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSauli. kompaniebi valdebulni arian uzrunvelyon usafrTxo da jansaRi samuSao garemo. magram, xSirad isini ar akmayofileben aRniSnul moTxovnebs. aseTi qceva
Semdegi mizezebiT aris ganpirobebuli:
• maqsimaluri da swrafi mogebis survili – TanamSromelTa usafrTxoebisa da janmrTelobis uzrunvelyofa damatebiT xarjebs moiTxovs;
• TanamSromlebi kargaven individualobas da isini iseT komponentebad ganixilebian, romelTa Secvlac SesaZlebelia;
• aseTi tipis danaSauls saxelmwifo organoebi praqtikulad ar
aqceven yuradRebas.
3. danaSauli klientis winaaRmdeg
aseTi danaSauli mravalferovnebiT gamoirCeva. maTgan yvelaze ufro
xSiria: klientebis motyueba, cru reklama, janmrTelobisaTvis saSiSi produqtiT vaWroba, TaRliToba, fasebis ganzrax zrda.
4. sazogadoebis winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSauli. es danaSauli, xSir SemTxvevaSi, garemos dabinZurebas ukavSirdeba.
saofise danaSaulis Sedegad gamowveuli zarali SeiZleba sam jgufad
daiyos:
1. ekonomikuri zarali. aseTi danaSauli uzarmazari finansuri zaralis
mizezi xdeba. rogorc wesi, am danaSaulis Sedegad dabali fenebis warmomadgenlebi da asakovani adamianebi zaraldebian.
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2. fizikuri zarali. saofise danaSauliT gamowveuli fizikuri zarali
ufro rTuli, naklebad piraduli da Znelad gamosaZiebelia, vidre
quCis damnaSaveTa mier miyenebuli ziani.
3. socialuri zarali. saofise danaSauli asustebs socialur institutebs, amcirebs maT mimarT ndobas, xdeba sazogadoebis zneobrivi dakninebis mizezi, aRvivebs socialur antagonizms.
saofise danaSauli quCaSi Cadenili danaSaulisagan imiT gansxvavdeba,
rom is racionalurad mzaddeba, gulmodgined aris dagegmili da didi zaralis mizezi xdeba. aseTi danaSaulis Taviseburebis ganmsazRvreli faqtorebia:
1. danaSaulis obieqtma, xSir SemTxvevaSi, arc icis, rom ofisSi dagegmili danaSaulis Tanamonawile xdeba;
2. sazogadoeba gulgrilia saofise danaSaulis mimarT;
3. gamoaSkaravebul saofise danaSaulTa ricxvi mcirea, radgan damnaSaveebi politikurad da ekonomikurad gavleniani pirebi arian;
4. saofise damnaSaveebi stereotipuli damnaSaveebisagan gansxvavdebian. isini pativsacemi, gavleniani pirebi arian.
saofise danaSaulis Cadenis motivebi sami aspeqtiT SeiZleba aixsnas:
1) xazgasmulia fsiqologiuri faqtorebi (wesebis gareSe moqmedebis
survili, winaaRmdegobis gawevis unaris arqona, liderobisa da fulis nebismieri gziT mopovebis nevrotuli survili da sxva);
2) gamoiyeneba diferencialuri asociacia (E. Sutherland-is Tanaxmad, piri
iTvisebs danaSaulebriv qcevas, Tu im jgufisaTvis, romelsac is ekuTvnis, aseTi qceva ufro damaxasiaTebelia, vidre aradanaSaulebrivi);
3) danaSaulebrivi qceva baTildeba (danaSaulis Camdeni pirebi ar miiCneven Tavs namdvil damnaSaveebad da axdenen sakuTari qmedebis racionalizacias an gabaTilebas). D. Matza gabaTilebis xuT saSualebas gamoyofs:
• pasuxismgeblobis uaryofa. damnaSave miiCnevs, rom mas ar SeuZlia
socialur Zalebsa da garemoebebTan dapirispireba: damnaSavea mSobeli, alkoholi, damqiravebeli, Tavad kompania da a.S.
• zianis uaryofa. danaSaulis Camdeni piri amtkicebs, rom mis mier
miyenebuli ziani umniSvneloa.
• msxverplis uaryofa. damnaSave acxadebs, rom is axorcielebs marTlmsajulebas da sjis msxverpls.
• samarTaldamcavi organoebis uaryofa – `isini Tavad damnaSaveebi
arian~.
• yuradRebis gadatana ufro mniSvnelovan faseulobebsa da movaleobebze. sxva momentebi: ojaxisaTvis, megobrebisaTvis da a.S. daxmarebis gawevis aucilebloba – rac kanonis moTxovnebs aRemateba.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
III leqcia. korufciis
gansazRvreba
miuxedavad imisa, rom TiTqmis yvela mkvlevari iziarebs im azrs, rom korufcia nebismier sazogadoebas, wyobasa Tu qveyanas axasiaTebs, kvlevebma
cxadyo, rom korufciis gansazRvris, Sefasebisa da ganmartebis Sesaxeb
arsebuli Sexedulebebi Zalze gansxvavebulia. empiriuli kvlevebis Catarebis dros yovelTvis warmoiqmneba sul mcire ori faqtori, romlebic korufciis movlenis aRqmas aferxeben.
1. ar arsebobs korufciis zusti gansazRvreba. rogorc socialuri mecnierebebis bevri sxva cneba, korufciis cnebac ar aris mudmivi, cvalebadia da istoriul, socialur da kulturul pirobebzea damokidebuli.
2. korufciis masStabi da aRqma xSirad icvleba socialuri konteqstidan gamomdinare. am movlenis masStabis Sefaseba, da is normebi, romelTa safuZvelzec misi daxasiaTeba xdeba, icvleba droisa da adgilis mixedviT.
sxvadasxva qveyanaSi korufciis gansazRvreba mkveTrad gansxvavdeba.
pirvelad am problemis Sesaxeb anTropologebma ganacxades. maT miuTiTes
im gansxvavebebze, romlebic ganpirobebulia araerTgvarovani socialuri,
religiuri da kulturuli konteqstiT. garda amisa, korufcia warmoadgens konkretul politikur movlenas, amitom misi daxasiaTeba rTuldeba.
politologTa gansazRvreba gansxvavdeba korufciis im cnebebisagan, romlebsac Tanamedrove sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsebSi vxvdebiT.
socialur mecnierebaTa gansazRvrebebi
socialur mecnierebebSi arsebuli korufciis Zalze gansxvavebuli gansazRvrebebi SeiZleba sam ZiriTad jgufad daiyos. es gansazRvrebebi xazs
usvamen:
1) sajaro samsaxurebs;
2) sabazro urTierTobebs;
3) sazogadoebriv interesebs;
korufciis gansazRvrebebi, romlebic xazs usvamen sajaro samsaxurs
mecnier-politologTa umravlesoba tradiciulad irCevs iseT qcevasa Tu praqtikaze orientirebul gansazRvrebebs, romlebic sajaro samsaxuris saqmianobis maregulirebel samarTlebriv normebsa Tu formebs
arRveven.
im gansazRvrebebis meSveobiT, romlebic sajaro samsaxurs usvamen xazs,
SesaZlebeli iqneboda am rTuli movlenis axsna da korufciis usazRvro
gansazRvrebebis dayvana aSkara, konkretul SemTxvevebamde. sinamdvileSi,
is normebi, romlebic gamoiyeneba aRniSnuli jgufis gansazRvrebaSi sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis normebisagan didad ar gansxvavdeba. korufciis
Semcirebis mizniT ganxorcielebuli samarTlebrivi reformebi, xSir SemTxvevaSi, ubralod farTod gavrcelebul korufciis faqtebTan SebrZolebis mcdelobaa. rodesac korufciis garkveuli SemTxvevebi vrceldeba
da maTi gakontroleba rTuli xdeba, sajaro samsaxuris maregulirebeli
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normebi mkacrdeba an gadaixedeba. es politikosebisa da saxelisuflebo
struqturebisadmi undoblobas iwvevs.
sajaro samsaxuris xazgamsmeli gansazRvrebebi stabiluri, obieqturi
da amis gamo politologebs Soris sakmaod popularulia. samarTlebrivi
reduqcionizmi normatiuli aspeqtebis gamartivebas iwvevs. damtkicebulia, rom samarTlebrivi normebi realur da, Sesabamisad, sagrZnob faseulobaTa sistemas asaxaven, romlebic SeiZleba apriori adaT-wesebisa da,
agreTve, sazogadoebis samarTlebrivi da eTikuri struqturis gamovlenad CaiTvalos.
kritika
aseT pirobebSic ki, SeuZlebelia samarTlebriv normebSi interpretaciuli xasiaTis gansxvavebebisa da maTi droTa ganmavlobaSi Secvlis Tavidan arideba. ibadeba kiTxva, sajaro samsaxuris maregulirebeli normebis
romeli formulireba unda iyos gamoyenebuli.
avtorTa umravlesoba miiCnevs, rom korufciis gansazRvris kriteriumebi unda moiZebnos sakanonmdeblo, sasamarTlo da sxva saxelisuflebo
organoebis normatiul diskursSi. unda gaviTvaliswinoT isic, rom samarTlebrivi normebi yvelaze metad asaxaven konkretuli jgufis – mmarTveli elitis standartebsa da eTikur normebs da amitom, socialuri TvalsazrisiT SeiZleba sakamaTo iyos da Secvlas saWiroebdes.
sxva gansazRvrebebTan SedarebiT, zemoT xsenebul gansazRvrebas is upiratesoba gaaCnia, rom maTi meSveobiT SesaZlebelia sxvadasxva qveynis, sazogadoebisa da wyobis Sedareba. miuxedavad amisa, bevri momenti ganusazRvreli da, Sesabamisad, auxsneli rCeba.
sabazro urTierTobebis xazgamsmeli korufiis gansazRvrebebi
mecnierTa Zalze mcire nawili korufciis axsnis dros ekonomikur Teoriebs mimarTavs. anu, isini korufcias ganmartaven, rogorc mosyidvis gziT
miRebul politikur gadawyvetilebebs. es ganmarteba efuZneba sajaro arCevanis Teorias imis Sesaxeb, rom socialuri agentebi, Tavisi privilegirebuli mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, piradi sargebelis miRebas cdiloben.
aseTi gansazRvreba damajerebelia, rodesac vsaubrobT korufciis iseTi SemTxvevebis Sesaxeb, romlebSic samarTlebrivi kriteriumebi arc Tu
ise naTelia (meqrTameoba, ukanono gziT mopovebuli fuladi saxsrebis nawilis zeda eSelonebSi miwodeba). korufcia ganixileba, rogorc gacvlagamocvla sajaro moxeleebsa da kerZo biznesmenebs Soris.
kritika
Tu korufcias ganvmartavT, rogorc piradi sargeblis miRebis mizniT
racionalur qmedebas, maSin ra iwvevs fuladi anazRaurebis miRebas, Tu is
kanonsawinaaRmdegoa? aseTi gansazRvreba moraluri mxaris ignorirebas
axdens da gavlena aqvs socialuri agentebis logikur argumentaciaze. am
gansazRvrebis zogierTi momxre, romelic aqcents sabazro urTierTobebze akeTebs, kanondarRvevis moralur fass aRiarebs. amave dros, ar aris ganmartebuli, ra igulisxmeba am fasSi. sabazro urTierTobebis gaTvaliswi-
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
nebisas Cven gvaviwydeba is principebi, romlebic sajaro moxeleebsa da Tanamdebobis pirebs garkveul valdebulebebs akisrebs. korufciis bazris
ganmarteba (sadao cnebaa) SeiZleba iyos gansazRvruli, rogorc paraleluri gacvla, romlis drosac sargebeli nawildeba aralegalurad da gavlenas axdens Sida politikaze (e.w. Savi bazari). aseTi gansazRvreba SesabamisobaSi ar modis Tavisufali bazris meqanizmebTan. TviT ganmarteba `Savi~
ewinaaRmdegeba arCevanis Tavisuflebas, rac sabazro ekonomikisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia.
gansazRvreba, romelic xazs usvams sazogadoebriv interess
bolo dros, socialuri mecnierebis warmomadgenlebi sul ufro xSirad
varaudoben, rom zemoT xsenebuli tipis ganmartebebi viwrodaa gagebuli.
erTi mxriv, ganmartebebi, romlebic xazs usvamen sabazro urTierTobebs
gamosadegia im SemTxvevaSi, roca saqme korufciul garigebebs exeba, magram arasakmarisia socialuri gacvlis dros. aseve, moraluri Sedegebis
mniSvnelobisaTvis. meore mxriv, arsebobda korufciis, rogorc saxelmwifo samsaxuris mier reglamentirebuli normebis, axsnis tendencia. sajaro
interesebis klasikuri gageba aRorZinda. sajaro interesi ubiZgebs xalxs,
daZlion egoizmi, sakuTari moTxovnilebebi sxvebis moTxovnilebebTan SeaTavson.
kritika
ibadeba kiTxva: visi moraluri RirebulebebiT unda vixelmZRvaneloT?
moraluroba aRiqmeba, rogorc socialuri konstruqti da imis gansazRvra,
aris Tu ara is korufcia, damokidebulia konkretul pirovnebaze.
kritikosTa gancxadebiT, sajaro interesi sust referencias warmoadgens, vinaidan xSirad gaurkvevelia, ras niSnavs es termini. aRniSnuli cneba SeiZleba farTod iyos interpretirebuli, amitomac SedarebiTi Sefasebisas cdiloben Tavi aaridon mas. Tumca, es xels ar unda uSlides imis
axsnas, Tu ratom iyenebs sxvadasxva sazogadoeba korufciis gansazRvris
dros sxvadasxva normas, an ratom icvleba es normebi droTa ganmavlobaSi.
IV leqcia. korufciis
ganmartebis ganviTareba
korufcia, rogorc `samarTliani~ saxelmwifos daknineba
dasavluri politikuri azrovnebis iseTi fuZemdeblebisaTvis, rogorebic arian – platoni da aristotele, korufcia samarTliani wyobis gadagvarebas gulisxmobda, rodesac mmarTveloba piradi sargeblis miRebis
mizniT xorcieldeba (anu tirania, oligarqia, demagogia). es tradicia dasavluri politikuri azris Camoyalibebis mTel periodSi grZeldeboda
(iqneba es Toma akvineli, Jan-Jak ruso, monteskiu, burki Tu XX saukunis filosofosebi, an demokratiis Tanamedrove Teoretikosebi).
II msoflio omis Semdeg dawyebulma dekolonizaciam msoflio politikur rukaze uamravi axali subieqti gamoaCina, romelTa demokratiuli faseulobebi ar emTxveva dasavleTis demokratiis istoriulad Seqmnil faseulobebs.
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korufcia Tanamedrove socialuri Teoriebis TvalsazrisiT
vaniWebT ra korufciis kvlevebs konkretul Teoriul skolebs da mimarTulebebs, Cven ar vcdilobT gavamartivoT SexedulebaTa da meTodTa
is mravalferovneba, romelic aRniSnuli movlenis sirTulis aRqmaSi gvexmareba. TiToeuli Teoriuli Sexedulebis specifika damokidebulia interpretaciisaTvis SerCeul ganmartebebze. maTi evolucia am movlenis dasaxelebis meTodebis cvalebadobas gviCvenebs.
funqcionaluri Sexeduleba
funqcionalistebis TvalsazrisiT, korufcia politikuri zegavlenis
kidev erTi formaa. XX saukunis 60-ian wlebSi funqcionalizmi tolerantulad iyo ganwyobili korufciis formebisadmi. funqcionalistebi amtkicebdnen, rom es movlena ekonomikur da politikur integracias amyarebda.
kulturulma relativizmma meti Tavisufleba mogvaniWa, radgan amtkicebda, rom korufcia zogierTi kulturisa da sazogadoebis Tavisebureba iyo.
aq SeiZleba makiavelis gavlenis SemCneva. rogorc florencielma moazrovnem aRniSna, xelisuflebisa da misi SenarCunebisaTvis brZola ar Semoifargleba mxolod samarTlebrivi da eTikuri normebiT. funqcionalistebi kidev ufro Sors wavidnen, roca ganacxades, rom korufciam dadebiTi gavlena moaxdina politikur sistemaze.
kritika
dRes rTuli iqneba korufciis konvenciuri formebis sargeblis damtkiceba, romlebmac politikuri sistemis ngrevisaTvis niadagi moamzades.
istoriulad mcdari aRmoCnda Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb, rom CamorCenil ekonomikur regionebSi korufcia ekonomikis zrdas uwyobda xels. funqcionalistebi arasodes xsnidnen korufciis uaryofiT zegavlenas.
sabazro xedva
sabazro xedva emyareba korumpirebul garigebebs biurokratiul doneze. amgvarad, ekonomikuri Teoria araliberalur saxelmwifo Teoriebs uerTdeba. Teoretikosebi, romlebic mkveTrad akritikebdnen funqcionalistebis azrs korufciis sargeblis Sesaxeb, cdilobdnen moraluri sakiTxebisaTvis gverdi aevloT. e.i. korufcia or umniSvnelovanes faqtors emyareba:
arsebuli SesaZleblobebis struqturas da maTi aRmocenebis mizezebs.
uzrunvelyofili saxelmwifoebis krizisma da socialisturi ekonomikis
kraxma xelsayreli pirobebi Seqmna korufciis konceptualizaciisaTvis.
amtkicebdnen, rom korufcia vrceldeboda iq, sadac saxelmwifo uSualod
iyo CarTuli bazarSi. SemoTavazebuli zomebi Zalze martivi iyo: korufciis gavrceleba nakarnaxevi iyo saxelmwifos zedmeti CareviT sabazro ekonomikaSi. e.i. saWiroa privatizacia da regulirebis Sewyveta. XX saukunis 80wlebSi, sabazro urTierTobebis momxreebi neoliberalebs uWerdnen mxars.
maTi azriT, rac ufro pataraa saxelmwifo, miT naklebia korufcia. msoflioSi mimdinare privatizaciisa da regulirebis uaryofis procesma korufciis ganviTarebisaTvis axali SesaZleblobebi Seqmna. korufciis gamoZiebaSi politikur ekonomistTa wvlili xels ar uSlis neoliberalebs, gansazRvron korufciis motivacia, rogorc sazogadoebis arCevani.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
kritika
Teoriuli TvalsazrisiT, racionaluri arCevanis cnebam pirovnebis eTikuri normebi gaaufasura. sinamdvileSi, TiToeuli adamianis patiosnebis
normebi, romlebsac sajaro samsaxurebi eToss daarqmevdnen, mogebis kalkulaciis farglebs scildeba da mniSvnelovani elementi xdeba korufciis cnebis gansazRvrisaTvis. korufciis aseTi axsnis Teoriuli arastabiluroba ganpirobebulia saxelmwifoSi neoliberaluri Teoriis naklovanebiT.
sistemuri (neokritikuli) Sexeduleba
am Sexedulebis momxreebi gaurbian demokratiuli procesebis axsnis gamartivebul da meqanikur interpretacias imis Sesaxeb, rom demokratia ara
mxolod procedurebis da organoebis nakrebia, aramed normativTa sistemacaa. mis saboloo mizans sazogadoebam unda miaRwios. demokratiuli Teoriis Tanamedrove literatura yuradRebiT aanalizebs normatiul aspeqtebs da Taviseburebebs, maT paTologiebs. ase xdeba ara imitom, rom korufcia demokratias axasiaTebs, aramed imis gamo, rom uaryofiTi Sedegebi demokratiis principebs ufro azaralebs, rogorebicaa: Tanasworoba, pasuxismgebloba, sajaro gadawyvetilebaTa gamWvirvaloba da a. S.
aRorZinebuli moralisturi Sexeduleba Tanaarsebobs im azrTan, rom
bolo aTwleulebSi demokratiis eTikuri safuZvlebi ingreva. civi omis Semdeg gavrcelebuli akademiuri daintereseba mWidrod aris dakavSirebuli
saxelmwifos ngrevis procesebTan.
korufcia ara SemTxveviTi, aramed sistemuri movlenaa, romelic xSirad
ufro efeqturia, vidre kanonieri politikuri sistema, romliTac is sazrdoobs. es ar aris gamonaklisi, es ufro wesia: korufcia demokratiis safuZvlebs uqmnis safrTxes, xels uwyobs organizebul danaSauls da sazogadoebaSi politikis mimarT nihilistur damokidebulebas zrdis. korufcia
eTayvaneba ekonomikisa da Zalauflebis erTianobas: fuli Zalauflebis xelSi Cagdebis, xolo Zalaufleba – gamdidrebis did saSualebas iZleva.
socialuri Teoretikosebi mowodebulni arian kritikulad gadaxedon sakuTar ganmartebebs da korufciis empiriul gansazRvrebaSi normatiuli
aspeqtebi CarTon. institutebis politikurma krizisma da reformam gamoavlina korufciis normatiuli analizis Catarebis aucilebloba. sazogadoeba aRar aris Semwynareblurad ganwyobili politikuri korufciis mimarT.
XX saukunis 90-ani wlebis dasawyisSi korufcia gadawyvetilebebis miRebis yvela doneze (adgilobriv, regionalur, erovnul Tu saerTaSoriso)
msjelobis sagnad iqca. demokratiuli qveynebis umravlesobaSi, masobrivi
informaciis saSualebebSi mxilebebis, skandalebis, politikuri gamoZiebebisa da sasamarTlo procesebis talRa agorda. is xelisuflebebic ki, romlebic korufcias `sxvebis problemad~ ganixilavdnen, reagirebas axdendnen
imaze, rac xdeboda –kontrolis sxvadasxva saxis zomebs awesebdnen.
miuxedavad amisa, saerTaSoriso samTavrobo (evropis sabWo, evrokavSiri, evropis TanamSromlobis da uSiSroebis organizacia, msoflio banki,
saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi) da arasamTavrobo organizaciebSi korufciis zrdis gamo SeSfoTeba matulobda.
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korufcia da sajaro politika
dResdReobiT, kvlevebis Catarebis dros, udides interess iwvevs korufciis gavlena mTavrobis mier gadawyvetilebebis miRebaze. erTi sityviT –
korufcia da kargi marTva erTmaneTTan SeusabamobaSia.
korufcia ara marto moralis, aramed sajaro politikis problemasac
warmoadgens. is sufevs iq, sadac saxezea sazogadoebrivi eTikis daknineba.
saxelmwifos araTanmimdevruli xasiaTi, sajaroobasa da pirad cxovrebas
Soris praqtikulad gamqrali gansxvavebebi, korufciasTan dakavSirebuli
problemebis RerZs warmoadgens. es aiZulebs politikosebs, yuradReba miaqcion kontrolis gaZlierebas da sajaro cxovrebis normebs gadaxedon.
gaeroSi mudmivad saubroben korufciaze da akritikeben mas, xedaven masSi cudi politikisa da susti mmarTvelobis Sedegebs. saerTaSoriso organizaciebi, rogorebicaa – saerTaSoriso savaluto fondi, msoflio bani da
sxva, aseve aRiareben, rom maTi programebis Sesruleba mxolod kvalificirebuli ekonomistebis meSveobiT SeuZlebelia da rom aucilebelia specifiuri, socialuri, kulturuli, politikuri da instituciuri faqtorebis gaTvaliswineba. CamorCenili qveynebis finansuri daxmareba xels ar
uwyobs maT ganviTarebas, aramed ayalibebs korumpirebul elitas. evropis
komisia daJinebiT moiTxovs, rom CamorCenili qveynebis gansazRvris kriteriumad miCneuli unda iyos efeqturi marTvis struqturebi.
V leqcia. korufciis
empiriuli kvlevebi
litvaSi Catarebuli korufciis kvlevebis Sedegebi gamoqveynebulia
organizaciis `Transparency International~ litvis ganyofilebis veb-gverdze:
www.transparency.lt
litvaSi mudmivad tardeba korufciis orgvari empiriuli kvlevebi. ukve
eqvsi welia xdeba korufciis aRqmis indeqsis gazomva (ix. tab. 1), xolo 2001
wlidan tardeba kvleva – `litvis korufciuli ruka~.
korufciis aRqmis indeqsi aCvenebs, ramdenad aris aRqmuli gamokvleuli qveynis mier sajaro moxeleebs, TviTmmarTvelobis moxeleebsa da politikosebs Soris arsebuli korufcia. korufciis aRqmis indeqsi aris kompleqsuri maCvenebeli, romelic dgindeba mewarmeTa warmomadgenlebis gamokiTxvisa da eqspertTa mier Catarebuli kvlevebis safuZvelze. saerTaSoriso politikuri organoebi, biznesisa da safinanso struqturebi korufciis aRqmis indeqss informaciis mniSvnelovan wyarod miiCneven.
cxrili 1. litvis korufciis aRqmis indeqsi 1999-2004 ww.
weli
korufciis
indeqsi
gamokvlevebis
raodenoba
sul qveyana,
litvis adgili
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
3,8
4,1
4,8
4,8
4,7
4,6
6
4
5
7
10
9
99/50
90/43
91/38
102/36
133/41
146/44
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
kvlevis mizania korufciis gavrcelebis instituciuri da geografiuli dakvirveba, romelic tardeba litvis mosaxleobisa da mewarmeTa warmomadgenlebis sociologiuri gamokiTxvis safuZvelze. kvleva moicavs: 1.
korufciisadmi, sazogadoebaSi misi donisa da rolisadmi litvis moqalaqeTa da mewarmeTa warmomadgenlebis damokidebulebis analizs; 2. korufciis (meqrTameobis) SemTxvevebTan Sexebis piradi gamocdilebis ganzogadebasa da korufciis Sesaxeb informaciis wyaroebs. 3. sazogadoebis antikorufciuli potencialis Sefasebas.
romeli qveyanaa ufro korumpirebuli? iyo Tu ara korufciis done XX
saukunis bolos ufro maRali, vidre 80-ian wlebSi? socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa warmomadgenlebs sul ufro xSirad ainteresebT korufcia, rogorc qmedeba, romelsac mohyveba aRniSnuli movlenis ufro farTo, empiriulad dasabuTebuli SedarebiTi ganmarteba.
dasaxul mizanTa Soris pirvelia korufciis donis Sefaseba. magram, am
miznis miRwevis procesSi garkveul sirTuleebs vawydebiT. gansxvavebuli
samarTlebrivi da moraluri normebis mqone qveynebis korufciis donis Sefasebis mcdeloba kritikis sagani xdeboda, vinaidan is kritikuli stereotipizaciis zomad iyo miCneuli. stereotipizaciis problema warmoiqmneba operacionalizaciis doneze, magram isic Sesadarebel parametrebTan
aris dakavSirebuli. sxvadasxva qveynis marTva gansxvavebuli wesebisa da
normebis safuZvelze xdeba. amitomac, ibadeba kiTxva, visi standartebi da
normebi unda CaiTvalos aTvlis wertilad Sedarebis dros?
amgvarad, Cven vubrundebiT problemas: rogor unda moxdes `kulturuli relativizmis~ Tavidan acileba? aucilebelia kulturaTa specifiurobis gaTvaliswineba. Tumca, es xSirad korufciis sxvadasxva formebisadmi
Semwynareblobis mizezi xdeba, vinaidan aseTi formebi konkretuli sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblod aris miCneuli. amasTan dakavSirebiT eqspertebi xazs usvamen imas, rom konkretul qveyanaSi korufciis Sefasebis dros
mxedvelobaSi unda iyos miRebuli korufciis aRqmis indeqsis qulebi da
ara is, Tu romel adgilzea qveyana. rogorc qulebi, aseve qveynis adgili,
SeiZleba Seicvalos Cveulebrivi meTodologiuri kvlevis Sedegad.
socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa warmomadgenlebi gvirCeven visargebloT zemoT xsenebuli indeqsiT da gamoviyenoT is korufciis Semdgomi gamovlenisa da dazustebis aTvlis wertilad.
samwuxarod, korufciis donis xarisxobrivi Sefasebis Catarebis, misi
kontrolirebis RonisZiebebis sistemaTa daxasiaTebisa da kontrolis qmediTobis Sefasebis mcdeloba arc Tu ise xSiria. saboloo jamSi, korufcia,
rogorc politikuri sakiTxi, erToblivi saswavlo procesis Semadgenel
nawils warmoadgens. xdeba korufciis kontrolis, misi warmatebebisa da warumateblobebis warsuli gamocdilebis dagroveba. arsebuli gansazRvrebebis mravalferovneba SeiZleba empiriuli kvlevebis warmoebisaTvis dabrkolebad iqces. alternativad gvesaxeba cnebis operacionalizacia, rac
sirTules warmoadgens. korufciuli donis gansazRvrisas, empiriul kvlevebSi safuZvlad xSirad miiReba samarTlebrivi an formaluri kriteriumebi. rogorc wesi, es kriteriumebi imis mudmivi da zusti maCvenebelia, Tu
ras warmoadgens korufciis done garkveul sazogadoebaSi da garkveul
173
174 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
dros. miuxedavad amisa, samarTlebrivi normebic ar aris erTgvarovani. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviT ganmartebuli korufciis cneba arc Tu
ise gansxvavdeba sxva saxis iseTi danaSaulisagan, rogoricaa TaRliToba,
gaflangva, yaCaRoba. garda amisa, adgili aqvs korufciis gansazRvrebis gafarToebis tendencias im mizniT, rom masSi CarTuli iyos rac SeiZleba meti
gavrcelebuli movlena (mag. arafuladi motivacia, pasiuri da aqtiuri iniciativebisa da kanonieri da ukanono Sedegebis gamijvna).
samarTlebrivi kriteriumebic ar warmoadgenen zust maCvenebels. korufciuli garigebebis umetesoba uxilavi da gasaidumloebulia. korufciis koncefciidan sazogadoebrivi reaqciis gamoricxvis SemTxvevaSi Cndeba samarTlebrivi diqotomiis saSiSroeba (mag. samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT arakorumpirebuli, xolo arasamarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiT – korumpirebuli). garda amisa, ar aris aucilebeli, rom yvelaferi, rac kanonieria samoqalaqo sazogadoebis moraluri mxardaWeriT sargeblobdes.
korufcia agreTve SexedulebebTan aris dakavSirebuli. adamianTa
umravlesoba mas araerTgvarovnad aRiqvams. korufcia politikur iaraRadac SeiZleba iyos gamoyenebuli. sazogadoebrivi azriT, misi dagmobis sxva
aspeqts warmoadgens is, rom miuxedavad Camoyalibebuli samarTlebrivi
normebisa, korufciad sxvadasxva qceva aRiqmeba. sazogadoebis mier korufciis aRqma damokidebulia imaze, Tu ra magaliTebi gaxda misTvis TvalsaCino. sazogadoebrivi azri arastabiluria da iolad eqceva politikuri zegavlenis qveS. xSir SemTxvevaSi, is aris arasakmarisi kriteriumi, romelic
cvalebad, bundovan da SeiZleba iTqvas, urTierTgamomricxav standartebs
efuZneba, romlebic sazogadoebis sruliad gansxvavebul Sexedulebebs moicavs. miuxedavad amisa, kritika ver Seedreba xarisxobrivi gansxvavebebis
moqnil, alternatiul Sefasebas.
korufciis gansazRvra mxolod sazogadoebriv azrze dayrdnobiT ar SeiZleba. sazogadoebis mxridan wayenebuli braldebebi ufro Sors midis,
vidre msxvili gazeTebis mier gazviadebuli eWvebi, winasaarCevno kampaniaTa ritorika an mxurvale saparlamento debatebi. dagmoba SeiZleba gadaizardos sisxlissamarTlebriv devnaSi. korufcia ar SeiZleba iyos gansazRvruli mxolod sazogadoebrivi azris an samarTlis kriteriumebze dayrdnobiT. warmoadgens ra qcevas gadaxriT, korufcia dakavSirebulia sajaro samsaxuris mareglamentirebeli normebisa da wesebis rRvevasTan,
farTod aRiarebuli arakodificirebuli eTikuri normebis ugulebelyofasTan.
literatura
1. Mény Y., Sousa de L., Corruption: Political and Public Aspects, Encyclopaedia of
Social and Behavioural Sciences. Elsevier Ltd., 2004.
2. Rubington E., Weinberg M. S., Deviance: The Interactionist Perspective. Allyn and
Bacon, 1996.
3. Thio A., Deviant Behavior. HarperCollinsPublishers, 1988.
4. www.transparency.lt
175
tadas tamoSunasi
korufcia, rogorc deviaciis forma
socialuri organizaciis kursis moduli
socialuri organizaciis daniSnulebaa socialuri wesrigisa da uwesrigobis Seswavla. aRniSnuli aspeqtebis meSveobiT xdeba socialuri institutebis, agentebis, struqturebis, socialuri qcevebis da problemebis
Seswavla. aRniSnul kursSi korufcia warmodgenilia, rogorc uwesrigobis gamomwvevi faqtori, deviaciis (dauSvebeli qcevis) forma. misi analizi
xdeba kursSi ukve ganxiluli socialuri organizaciis cnebis safuZvelze. Tema socialur mecnierebaTa fakultetis (upirveles yovlisa, sociologiisa da politologiis) studentebisaTvis aris gankuTvnili. leqciebs 6 saaTi eTmoba, damoukidebel samuSaos – 8 saaTi.
integrirebuli kursis miznebi
1. studentebi unda gaecnon korufciis cnebas da mis gamovlinebas socialuri cxovrebis sxvadasxva sferoSi; unda ganixilon igi deviaciuri analizis konteqstSi.
2. unda gamoimuSaon korufciis gamovlinebis amocnobis unari da gaaZlieron antikorufciuli qceva.
kursis struqtura
I Tema. korufciis cneba
korufciis gansazRvreba. korufciis tipebi. korufciuli faqtorebi:
saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri globalizacia, privatizacia, sajaro Sesyidvebi, RirebulebaTa fardobiToba, politikur partiaTa da kompaniaTa dafinansebis arasakmarisi gamWvirvaloba, nepotizmis tradicia da sxva. korufciis aRqmis fardobiToba. korufciis Sefaseba funqciaTa da disfunqciaTa aspeqtebisa (`ki~ da `ara~ argumentebi) da, agreTve, deviaciis Semadgeneli nawilebis (qceva, normebi, Semfasebeli) TvalsazrisiT.
II Tema. korufciis gazomvis meTodika da litvaSi arsebuli viTareba
bolo wlebSi Catarebuli sociologiuri kvlevebis Sedegebi da maTSi
momxdari cvlilebebi. korufciisadmi sazogadoebis damokidebulebis winaaRmdegobrioba da araerTgvarovneba. litvaSi arsebuli korufciisadmi
saerTaSoriso organizaciebis damokidebuleba. qveyanaSi korufciis ZiriTadi Sedegebi: investiciebis efeqturobis daqveiTeba, konkurenciis SezRudva, amoRebuli gadasaxadebis Semcireba, saxelmwifo organoebisadmi
ndobis Semcireba da sxva.
III Tema. korufciis prevencia
korufciis prevenciis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi. korufciis prevenciaSi CarTuli ZiriTadi organizaciebi. korufciis prevenciis kompleqsuri
xasiaTi. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis wevr
qveynebsa da litvaSi antikorufciuli iniciativebi. samoqalaqo sazogadoebis mniSvneloba. masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi, rogorc koufciis prevenciis faqtori. antikorufciuli ganaTlebis gamocdileba da mniSvneloba.
176 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
literatura
1. Grosse T. G., Antikorupciniai veiksmai ekonominio bendradarbiavimo ir pletros
organizacijos (OECD) šalyse (1 d.), http://www.stt.lt/lt/.les/antikorup_1_dalis.pdf
2. Grosse T. G., Antikorupciniai veiksmai ekonominio bendradarbiavimo ir pletros
organizacijos (OECD) šalyse (2 d.), http://www.stt.lt/lt/.les/antikorup_2_dalis.pdf
3. Law on Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Lithuania, http://www.stt.lt/lt/.les/
korupcijos_prevencijos_ist.pdf
danarTi.
interaqtuli mecadineoba `korufciis funqciebi da disfunqciebi~
deviaciis formebis analizis procesSi xSirad ganixileba maTi funqciebi
da disfunqciebi. amasTan, pirveli aRiqmeba, rogorc socialuri cxovrebis
dadebiTi movlena, meore ki – rogorc uaryofiTi. funqciebisa da disfunqciebis ganxilva mniSvnelovania korufciis movlenis ganxilvis drosac, vinaidan es xels uwyobs mis ukeT Seswavlas, Camoyalibebuli stereotipebis ufro
kritikul Sefasebas, gansakuTrebiT sajaro cxovrebaSi. es aqtiuri mecadineoba gamosadegia modulis pirveli TemisaTvis. misi xangrZlivobaa 45 wuTi.
mecadineobis msvleloba
1. cxaddeba korufciis funqciebisa da disfunqciebis Sesaxeb sadiskusio Tema. studentebi jgufebad iyofian (umjobesia jgufebis raodenoba luwi iyos), TiToeuli maTgani irCevs Tavmjdomares, romelic
diskusias warmarTavs da mdivans, romelic jgufis Tezisebs afiqsirebs. jgufebs urigdebaT didi formatis furclebi da eZlevaT davaleba: jgufis nawilma unda CamoTvalos korufciis funqciebi, xolo
danarCenebi ki asaxeleben mis disfunqciebs da mokle Tezisebis saxiT afiqsireben maT qaRaldze. Caweril TezisTa Soris rCeba adgili
komentarebis gasakeTeblad.
2. 15 wuTis ganmavlobaSi jgufebi msjeloben argumentebis Sesaxeb, weren korufciis funqciebs da disfunqciebs. amis Semdeg, jgufebis warmomadgenlebi acnoben sxvebs TavianT Tezisebsa da maT damadasturebel argumentebs. sxva jgufebi, pedagogis Txovnisda mixedviT, komentarebs ar akeTeben.
3. prezentaciebis Semdeg, korufciis disfunqciebis makomentirebeli
jgufebis furclebs pedagogi im jgufebs gadascems, romlebic korufciis funqciebs warmoadgendnen, da piriqiT. davaleba Semdegia:
kontrargumentebis formulireba da maTi Camowera arsebuli Tezisebis qveS. muSaobis xangrZlivoba – 15 wuTi.
4. kontrargumentebis wardgena rig-rigobiT xdeba. amjerad diskusiaSi monawileobs jgufis yvela wevri. muSaobis am etapze sasurvelia
korufciis Sedegebis gamoyofa da modelireba, misi, zogjer uxilavi
gavlenis gansazRvra. SeiZleba iyos moyvanili argumenti (funqcia),
rom korufcia agvarebs biznesTan dakavSirebul pirad saqmeebs. aseT
SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania aRniSnuli qcevis arapirdapiri gavlenisa da misi Semdgomi zemoqmedebis ganxilva. amisaTvis SeiZleba daisvas kiTxva: rogor izrdeba biznesis danaxarjebi am SemTxvevaSi? da
a.S.. diskusiis Sedegi damokidebulia pedagogis winaswar momzadebaze, vinaidan korufciis mxardamWeri da mis winaaRmdeg arsebuli argumentebi winaswar SeiZleba iyos gansazRvruli.
177
vitalia skeruvene
korufcia, rogorc samarTlis obieqti
samewarmeo (komerciuli) samarTlis kursis moduli
aRniSnuli sagani samarTlisa da komerciuli samarTlis safuZvlebisagan Sedgeba. is gaTvaliswinebulia studentebisaTvis, romlebic swavloben iseT specialobebze, rogoricaa: biznes-menejmenti, turizmi da sastumro servisi da sxva. aRniSnul sagans studentebi ori semestris ganmavlobaSi swavloben. meoTxe semestris (II kursi) ganmavlobaSi – samarTlis safuZvlebi, xolo mexuTe semestris (III kursi) ganmavlobaSi – komerciuli
samarTali. moculoba – oTxi krediti, orive semestris ganmavlobaSi – 160
saaTi (leqciebi – 56 saaTi, praqtikuli mecadineobebi – 56 saaTi, damoukidebeli swavleba – 72 saaTi). mocemuli sagnis kursSi 60 saaTi antikorufciul aRzrdas eTmoba. programaSi Teoriuli masalis miwodebis garda gaTvaliswinebulia praqtikuli saqmianobebic.
sagnis mizani da amocanebi
studentebi gaecnon konstitucias, samarTlis Teoriebs, SromiT, samoqalaqo, administraciul, litvis respublikis sisxlis samarTlisa da biznesis sferoebSi; CamouyalibdeT logikuri azrovnebis unari; gaecnon litvis antikorufciul politikas.
sagnis swavlebis meTodebi
safuZvels qmnis Semdegi sqema: gamowveva – Sinaarsis realizeba – refleqsia.
Teoriuli leqciebi praqtikul saqmianobasTan aris Sexamebuli. leqciebis mizania Teoriuli codnis gaazreba. imarTeba diskusiebi, rac studentebs ubiZgebs, upasuxon kiTxvebs, gaanalizon da imsjelon problemis gadaWris gzebze.
Sefaseba
praqtikuli muSaoba – 10%,
damoukidebeli muSaoba – 20 %,
sakontroloebi – 20%;
gamocda – 50%.
178 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
leqcia 1-6. samarTlis Teoria (6
akademiuri saaTi)
Tema 1. `samarTlebrivi wyaroebi da maTi saxeobebi. normatiuli samar-
Tlebrivi aqtebi~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
miznebi
1. samarTlebrivi wyaroebis gacnoba;
2. normatiuli samarTlebrivi aqtebis gageba, maTi Ziebisa da analizis
warmoeba;
3. studentebSi logikuri azrovnebis ganviTareba
meTodebi
leqcia, wyaroebTan muSaoba, analizi, diskusia
gamowveva
mecadineobis dasawyisSi studentebs usvamen kiTxvas, ra ician maT samarTlebrivi wyaroebisa da maTi gansxvavebebis Sesaxeb. mocemul Temaze imarTeba diskusia.
Sinaarsis realizeba
leqciis gegma:
1. ZiriTadi samarTlebrivi wyaroebi samarTlis istoriaSi (samarTlebrivi wesi, samarTlebrivi precedenti, normatiuli xelSekrulebebi,
normatiuli samarTlebrivi aqti).
2. normatiuli samarTlebrivi aqtebi.
2.1. kanonmdebloba, konstituciuri da zogadi kanonmdebloba, kanonebis miReba (sakanonmdeblo iniciativis wesi; kanonproeqtis ganxilva; kanonis miReba da gamoqveyneba).
2.2. kanonqvemdebare samarTlebrivi aqtebi; zogadi kanonqvemdebare
aqtebi, adgilobrivi kanonqvemdebare aqtebi, uwyebrivi kanonqvemdebare aqtebi, Sidaorganizaciuli kanonqvemdebare aqtebi.
refleqsia
SeiZleba Tu ara samarTlebrivi principebis samarTlebriv wyaroebTan
mikuTvneba? riT gansxvavdeba Zveli da axali redaqciis samarTlebrivi
aqtebi?
studentebma pasuxi unda gascen Semdeg kiTxvebs
1) samarTlis istoriis romel wyaroebs icnobT?
2) riT gansxvavdeba samarTlebrivi aqti normatiuli xelSekrulebisagan?
3) riT gansxvavdeba kanoni kanonqvemdebare aqtisgan?
4) ra etapebi axasiaTebs kanonis miRebis process?
5) rogor xdeba samarTlebrivi aqtebis klasifikacia maTi gamoyenebis
sferoebisa da mimRebi organoebis (subieqtebis) mixedviT?
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
Tema 2. korufcia da kanonmdebloba (4 saaTi)
damoukidebeli muSaobis miznebi da amocanebi:
1. samarTlis realizebis formebis gacnoba;
2. korufciis prevenciis mareglamentirebeli zomebis samarTlebrivi
wyaroebis gacnoba;
3. korufciis cnebis gansazRvra;
4. studentebSi kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTareba;
meTodebi
diskusia, SedarebiTi analizi, damoukidebeli muSaoba.
gamowveva
SegiZliaT Tu ara erTi sityviT gamoxatoT qvemoT moyvanili citatis
Sinaarsi? `...piris ganzrax qmedeba, romlis meSveobiT, pirdapiri an iribi
formiT xdeba dapireba, SeTavazeba, micema, an ukanono gasamrjelos miReba
piradi an sxva pirebisaTvis garkveuli funqciebis Sesruleba-SeusruleblobisaTvis sargeblis miRebis mizniT~
Sinaarsis realizeba
diskusia – `ra gsmeniaT korufciis Sesaxeb?~ studentebi ecnobian korufciis prevenciis mareglamentirebel samarTlebriv wyaroebs. esenia,
litvis respublikis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi da litvis respublikis kanoni korufciis prevenciis Sesaxeb. studentebs eZlevaT davaleba: Seadaron korufciis cnebebi.
korufcia (ganmarteba, romelic moyvanilia litvis respublikis `specialur gamoZiebaTa samsaxuris Sesaxeb~ kanonSi) aris – `politikosisTvis, Tanamdebobis pirisa Tu sajaro moxelisaTvis romelime piris mier
raime saxis ukanono gasamrjelos dapireba, SeTavazeba an micema; agreTve politikosis, Tanamdebobis piris an sajaro moxelis mxridan pirdapiri an iribi formiT, garkveul funqciaTa Sesruleba-SeusruleblobisaTvis raime saxis gasamrjelos moTxovna misTvis an romelime sxva pirisaTvis; aseTi gasamrjelos miReba an mis Sesaxeb SeTavazebis an dapirebis miReba.~
saubari kanonierebis principebis Sesaxeb: kanonis uzenaesoba; kanonis
mTlianoba, kanonierebis sayovelTaoba, samarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis
gardauvaloba, kanonierebisa da mizanSewonilobis Sesabamisoba, adamianis
uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis garantia.
diskusia imarTeba Semdeg sakiTxebze:
ratom aris damtkicebuli samarTlebrivi normebi kanonebsa da kanonqvemdebare samarTlebriv atqebSi?
• maTi moTxovnebis realuri ganxorcielebisaTvis;
• imisTvis, rom vicodeT aseTi samarTlebrivi normebis arsebobis
Sesaxeb.
179
180 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
ratom aris saWiro samarTlebrivi normebis dacva?
• raTa ar moxdes samarTlebrivi normebiT dadgenili moTxovnebis
darRveva;
• kanonsawinaaRmdego qmedebis Tavidan asacileblad.
savaldebuloa Tu ara samarTlis aRsruleba?
• SeiZleba Tu ara gadasaxadebisgan Tavis arideba?
• SeiZleba Tu ara avtosatransporto saSualebis arafxizel mdgomareobaSi marTva?
samarTlis gamoyeneba aris:
• normatiuli aqtebiT miniWebuli SesaZleblobis gamoyenebis
ufleba;
• garigebis dadebis SesaZleblobis arCeva.
ras niSnavs samarTlis gamoyeneba:
• samarTlebrivi normebiT dadgenili moTxovnebis ganxorcieleba
kompetenturi saxelmwifo organoebis mier;
• pirTa moqmedeba darRveuli uflebebis dasacavad.
aris Tu ara saxelmwifos mier uflebamosili organo samarTlis gamoyenebis subieqti?
• mxolod kompetenturi saxelmwifo organoebi;
• moqalaqeTa uflebebi SezRudulia.
vis da ra safuZvelze SeuZlia Zalis gamoyeneba?
• sasamarTlos;
• prokuraturas;
• policias;
• arbitraJs;
• specialuri uflebamosilebiT aRWurvili mmarTvelobis organoebs;
• moqalaqeebs aseTi ufleba ar gaaCniaT.
aqvT Tu ara moqalaqeebs samarTlis gamoyenebaSi monawileobis miRebis
ufleba, da Tu aqvT, ra gziT?
• mTlianobaSi ar SeiZleba imis mtkiceba, rom moqalaqeebs SeuZliaT samarTlis gamoyeneba;
• moqalaqeebis kanonis gamoyenebis ufleba SezRudulia. mowmis saxiT maTi gamosvlis SemTxvevaSi (sasamarTloSi saqmis ganxilvis
dros), danaSaulis damalvisaTvis gaTvaliswinebulia sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgebloba da a.S.
SeuZliaT Tu ara moqalaqeebs samarTaldarRvevis aRkveTa da ra gziT?
• SeuZliaT gaafrTxilon sxva piri, an SeaCeron is samarTaldarRvevisas.
• samarTaldarRvevis Sesaxeb miawodon informacia Sesabamis organoebs.
ra mniSvneloba aqvs kanonierebas samarTlebrivi normebis cxovrebaSi
gatarebisaTvis?
• igi samarTlebrivi normebis moTxovnaTa praqtikul realizaciad
aRiqmeba.
• is aRiqmeba, rogorc saerTo samarTlebrivi principi, romelic gulisxmobs samarTlis yvela subieqtisadmi moTxovnas samarTlebrivi normebis aucilebeli Sesrulebis Sesaxeb.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
romel dokumentebSi gvxvdeba Semdegi cnebebi: meqrTameoba, korufcia,
biurokratizmi, Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyeneba, mosyidva?
• litvis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsSi;
• litvis respublikis korufciis Sesaxeb kanonSi;
• litvis respublikis kanonSi sajaro samsaxuris Sesaxeb;
• litvis respublikis kanonSi operatiuli saqmianobis Sesaxeb.
rogoria kanonierebisadmi ZiriTadi moTxovnebi?
• is aucilebeli unda iyos ara marto rigiTi moqalaqeebisa da organizaciebisaTvis, aramed, gansakuTrebiT, saxelmwifoebrivi organoebisaTvis da Tanamdebobis pirebisaTvis.
• kanonierebis principebis xorcSesxma: kanonis winaSe Tanasworoba,
kanonierebis sayovelTaoba, kanonis uzenaesoba, samarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis gardauvaloba.
refleqsia
sufevs Tu ara Cvens qveyanaSi korufcia? SegviZlia Tu ara Cven, am qveynis moqalaqeebs, korufciasTan brZola, da Tu SegviZlia, ra gziT?
daskvnebi
korufcia aris saxelmwifo Zalauflebis borotad gamoyeneba piradi
sargeblis miRebis mizniT.
samarTliT sargebloba – es aris aqtiuri qmedebebi, romelTa meSveobiT
xdeba miniWebuli samarTlebrivi SesaZleblobebis gatareba.
samarTlis realizacia – es aris samarTlebrivi normebis, dadgenili moTxovnebisa da SesaZleblobebis gatareba samarTlebrivi subieqtebis praqtikul saqmianobaSi (saxelmwifo organoebis, arasamTavrobo organizaciebis, Tanamdebobis pirebis, moqalaqeebis). mxolod amgvaradaa SesaZlebeli
samarTlebrivi normebis miznebis miRweva, samarTlebrivi regulirebis qmediTobis uzrunvelyofa.
samarTlis dacva – es aris samarTlebrivi normebiT akrZaluli qmedebebisagan Tavis arideba.
samarTlis gamoyeneba – es aris samarTlis realizaciis gansakuTrebuli forma, rodesac kompetenturi saxelmwifo organoebi uzrunvelyofen
samarTlebrivi normebiT dadgenili moTxovnebis Sesrulebas samarTlebrivi normebis maregulirebeli individualuri aqtebis miRebis meSveobiT.
samarTlis ganxorcieleba – es aris qmedebebi, romelTa Sesrulebas samarTlebrivi normebi moiTxovs. mniSvnelovania, rom kanonierebis principi iyos daculi, ara marto rigiTi moqalaqeebisa da organizaciebis, aramed saxelmwifo organoebisa da Tanamdebobis pirebis mier. aseT principTan SeusabamobaSia saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis pirTa iseTi qmedebebi, rogoricaa meqrTameoba, mosyidva, Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyeneba da a.S., radgan isini mniSvnelovnad asusteben saxelmwifo organoebis avtoritets.
181
182 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
leqcia 7-34. sakonstitucio samarTali (28 akademiuri saaTi)
Tema 1. `adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebi, Tavisuflebebi da valdebule-
bebi~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
leqciis mizani da amocanebi:
1. sakonstitucio samarTlis normebis gacnoba da maTi gaanalizeba;
2. adamianis konstituciuri uflebebis, Tavisuflebebisa da valdebulebebis gacnoba;
3. studentebSi samoqalaqo cnobierebis Camoyalibeba.
meTodebi
diskusia, jgufuri muSaoba.
gamowveva
diskusia Temaze – `ra iciT adamianis uflebebis, Tavisuflebebisa da
valdebulebebis Sesaxeb?~
`Ria da harmoniuli sazogadoebisa da samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis procesSi samarTali sul ufro mniSvnelovan socialur faseulobad iqceva. meore mxriv, adamianis Tavisuflebis done damokidebulia
imaze, Tu ramdenad icnobs is saxelmwifos konstitucias, mis kanonmdeblobasa da sxva samarTlebriv aqtebs. ramdenad acnobierebs is maTi dacvis aucileblobas~.
Sinaarsis realizeba
jgufuri muSaoba. masalis gacnoba da Semdeg Temebze diskusiisaTvis
momzadeba:
1. adamianis uflebebi litvis respublikis konstituciaSi;
2. adamianis uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi;
3. politikuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi;
4. socialur-ekonomikuri uflebebi;
5. pirovnebis valdebulebebi.
mniSvnelovania vicodeT
litvis respublikis konstituciis 28 muxlSi formulirebulia Semdegi zogadi principebi: uflebebis gamoyenebis dros adamianma unda daicvas
konstitucia da kanonmdebloba, ar Selaxos sxva adamianis uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. sakonstitucio sasamarTlos 2002 wlis 8 maisis dadgenilebaSi aRniSnulia, rom `konstituciis mocemuli muxliT dadgenilia erTerTi fuZemdebluri principi, romelic gulisxmobs, rom adamianis kanonieri qmedeba ar aris SezRuduli da absoluturad Tavisufalia. adamiani,
rogorc socialuri arseba, cxovrobs sazogadoebaSi, Tanaswori uflebebis mqone adamianTa garemocvaSi. yvela adamians aqvs valdebulebebi im sazogadoebis winaSe, romelSic SesaZlebelia misi Tavisufali da sruli ganviTareba. am valdebulebaTa Soris mTavaria, ar SezRudo sxvisi uflebebi
da Tavisuflebebi.~
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
refleqsia
irRveva Tu ara Cveni uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi?
saSinao davaleba
1. gaecaniT bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb gaeros konvencias.
2. gaecaniT litvis respublikis kanons bavSvTa uflebebis dacvis safuZvlebis Sesaxeb.
Tema 2. `adamianis uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis samarTlebri-
vi garantiebi~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi:
1. sakonstitucio samarTlis normebis gacnoba da maTi analizi;
2. informaciis miReba im kompetenturi saxelmwifo organoebis Sesaxeb,
romlebsac SeiZleba mivmarToT sakuTari uflebebis dasacavad.
3. studentebis mier maTi uflebebis dacvisa da nakisri valdebulebebis Sesrulebis gaanalizeba.
meTodebi
diskusia, analizi, jgufuri muSaoba.
gamowveva
diskusia Temaze:
1. litvaSi bavSvTa uflebebis darRvevis ra SemTxvevebs icnobT?
2. irRveva Tu ara litvaSi adamianis uflebebi?
Sinaarsis realizeba
litvis respublikis bavSvTa uflebebis dacvis Sesaxeb kanonSi moyvanili adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis ganxilva: `... sicocxlis ufleba, janmrTelobis ufleba, individualobisa da misi SenarCunebis ufleba, piradi cxovrebis ufleba, bavSvis qonebrivi uflebebi, xelSeuxeblobisa da Tavisuflebis ufleba, sacxovreblis ufleba, ganaTlebis ufleba~ da a. S.
jgufuri muSaoba. studentebi or jgufad iyofian.
erTi jgufi kiTxulobs litvis respublikis konstitucias da aRniSnavs
adamianis uflebebis Sesaxeb Sesabamis muxlebs:
• konstituciaze dayrdnobiT, yvelas aqvs sakuTari uflebebis dacvis
ufleba (muxli 6.).
• saxelisuflebo organoebi emsaxurebian adamianebs (muxli 5).
• pirs, romlis konstituciuri uflebebi irRveva, ufleba aqvs mimarTos sasamarTlos. kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulia materialuri da moraluri zaralis anazRaureba.
• pirs aqvs dacvis ufleba.
• sajaro moxeleebis mxridan biurokratizmisa da Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebis faqtebze moqalaqeTa saCivrebi ganixileba seimis kontroliorebis mier.
183
184 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
meore jgufi ecnoba litvis respublikis kanons peticiebis Sesaxeb
(1999 w.) da litvis respublikis kanons saxelmwifo organoebis ukanono
qmedebebiT miyenebuli zaralis anazRaurebis Sesaxeb (2002 w.).
mniSvnelovania vicodeT
2002 wels miRebulia litvis respublikis kanoni saxelmwifos mier garantirebuli samarTlebrivi daxmarebis Sesaxeb. pirs, romelsac ara aqvs
saxsrebi, raTa miiRos saTanado samarTlebrivi daxmareba samoqalaqo da
sisxlis samarTlis saqmeebSi da ar SeuZlia mimarTos sasamarTlos Tavisi
uflebebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi, SeuZlia isargeblos am kanoniT.
refleqsia
SemiZlia Tu ara damoukideblad davicva Cemi uflebebi da rogor gavakeTo es?
saSinao davaleba
Tavisufali kiTxva:
1. litvis respublikis konstitucia
2. adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebis evropuli konvencia
Tema 3. saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis sistema (2 akademiuri saaTi).
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi:
1. saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis sistemis gacnoba.
2. litvis respublikis seimis konstituciuri statusis, qveynis prezidentis, respublikis xelisuflebisa da sasamarTloebis kompetenciebis gacnoba.
3. studentebSi samoqalaqo cnobierebis Camoyalibeba.
meTodebi
aqtiuri leqcia, diskusia.
gamowveva
azrTa gaziareba Temaze, risi Secvla SeuZlia litvis respublikis prezidents, rogorc saxelmwifo meTaurs, qveyanaSi?
Sinaarsis realizeba
leqcia mimdinareobs Semdegi gegmis mixedviT:
1. xelisuflebis gadanawilebis principi (litvis konstituciis muxli 25.).
2. seimi.
2.1. litvis respublikis konstituciuri statusi (muxl. 55, 64, 67).
2.2. litvis respublikis seimis struqtura.
3. litvis respublikis prezidenti.
3.1. prezidenti – saxelmwifos meTauri (muxl. 77);
3.2. litvis respublikis prezidentis arCevnebi da misi uflebamosilebis vada;
3.3. litvis respublikis kompetenciebi.
4. litvis respublikis mTavroba.
4.1. litvis respublikis mTavrobis formireba da Semadgenloba.
4.2. litvis respublikis mTavrobis kompetencia.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
4.3. litvis respublikis mTavrobis uflebamosilebis aRdgena da gadayeneba.
5. sasamarTloebi. litvis respublikis sakonstituciuri sasamarTlo.
refleqsia
zogierTi partia gvTavazobs garkveuli Sesworebebi SevitanoT litvis
respublikis konstituciaSi da gavzardos prezidentis uflebamosilebani. rogor fiqrobT, aris es saWiro? ra uflebebi unda gavzardoT? ergeba
Tu ara litvas xelisuflebis gadanawilebis principi?
daskvna
saxelmwifo organoebis struqtura da saqmianoba garkveul princips
eyrdnoba – es aris saxelmwifo aparatis Seqmnis idea. es principebi – sajarooba da gamWvirvaloba, mosaxleobis interesebis dacva, profesionalizmi, kompetenturoba, kanoniereba, Zalauflebis gadanawileba – mniSvnelobas socialur konteqstSi iZens.
saSinao davaleba
moiZieT da waikiTxeT litvis respublikis kanoni sasamarTloebis Sesaxeb.
Tema 4. `sasamarTlo sistema litvaSi. samarTaldamcavi organoebi~
(2 akademiuri saaTi)
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi:
1. sasamarTlo sistemis da sasamarTloebis kompetenciis gacnoba.
2. samarTaldamcavi organoebis da maTi kompetenciis gacnoba.
3. studentebSi analizis unaris ganviTareba.
gamowveva
waikiTxeT davaleba da upasuxeT kiTxvas:
`ori studenti diliT sakuTari avtomobiliT leqciaze miiCqaroda. isini sagzao policiis TanamSromlebma gaaCeres da siCqaris gadaWarbebaSi
daadanaSaules, Tumca studentebs siCqarisTvis ar gadauWarbebiaT. vinaidan axalgazrdebi aucileblad unda daswrebodnen leqciebs, maT policielebs 20 liti misces da aRSfoTebulebi gaemarTnen universitetisaken. visTan an sad SeuZliaT studentebs Tanamdebobis piris ukanono qmedebis gasaCivreba?~
Sinaarsis realizeba
jgufuri muSaoba
I jgufi kiTxulobs litvis respublikis konstitucias da emzadeba imis
gansaxilvelad, ra gaiges axali litvis sasamarTlo sistemis da sasamarTloebis kompetenciis Sesaxeb.
• pirveli instanciis sasamarTloebi.
• saolqo sasamarTloebi.
• litvis respublikis saapelacio sasamarTlo.
• litvis respublikis uzenaesi sasamarTlo.
• administraciuli sasamarTloebi.
185
186 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
II jgufi kiTxulobs Sesabamis kanonebs da emzadeba Semdegi sakiTxebis
gansaxilvelad:
• litvis respublikis prokuratura da misi ZiriTadi funqciebi.
• litvis respublikis policia.
daskvna
sasamarTlo sistema qmnis imis SesaZleblobas, rom xorci Seesxas litvis respublikis moqalaqeebis konstitucuri uflebis dacvas – sasamarTlos gziT daicvan im uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis xelyofa, romlebic
dakanonebulia konstituciiT, kanonmdeblobiT da SeTanxmebebiT. konstituciis Tanaxmad, pirovnebas ufleba aqvs, misi saqme samarTlianad iqnas ganxiluli damoukidebeli da miukerZoebeli sasamarTlos mier. sasamarTlo
mTeli Tavisi saqmianobiT, samarTlianobis dacviT, sajarod da umokles
vadebSi ganxilvis garanti unda iyos.
refleqsia
namuSevrebis prezentacia.
praqtikuli samuSao
studentebi weren referatebs (5-7 gverdi) miTiTebul Temebze da prezentaciebisaTvis emzadebian.
Tema 5. `socialur-ekonomikuri uflebebi~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
praqtikuli samuSaos miznebi
1. im samarTlebrivi aqtebis codna, romlebic aregulireben socialur
dacvas.
2. sxvadasxva wyaroebze muSaobis unaris ganviTareba.
3. prezentaciis unaris ganviTareba.
leqciis msvleloba
studentebi weren referats gansaxilvel Temaze da emzadebian prezentaciebisaTvis.
gegma:
1. Sromis ufleba litvis respublikis konstituciasa da Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis konvenciebSi.
2. ufleba socialur dacvaze.
2.1. socialuri dacva da evropis socialuri qartia.
2.2. samarTlebrivi aqtebi, romlebic aregulirebs socialur dacvas.
3. kulturuli uflebebi.
3.1. ganaTlebis ufleba.
3.2. im pirTa uflebebis dacva, romlebic erovnul umciresobebs miekuTvnebian.
diskusia – `namdvilad aris Tu ara daculi litvis respublikis konstituciis principi, romelic uzrunvelyofs im moqalaqeTa ufaso ganaTlebis uflebas, romlebic swavloben umaRles saswavleblebSi da kargi miRwevebi aqvT?~
namuSevris wardgena maswavleblis mier dasmuli SekiTxvebis mixedviT.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
daskvna
socialuri dacva – es aris saxelmwifos mier dadgenili socialur-ekonomikuri RonisZiebebis erToblioba, mosaxleobisaTvis fuladi daxmarebis gawevis, SeRavaTebis, socialuri momsaxurebis gaweva specializirebuli sazogadoebrivi fondebidan.
Sromis ufleba sxvadasxva aspeqtebSi reglamentirebulia Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciis konvenciebiT. evropis Secvlil socialur qartiaSi formulirebulia erT-erTi ZiriTadi principi: yovel adamians unda
hqondes SesaZlebloba, moipovos arsebobisaTvis saWiro saxsrebi im saxis
SromiT, romelsac TviTon amoirCevs.
socialur daxmarebaSi igulisxmeba RonisZiebaTa kompleqsi, romelic
aerTianebs socialur momsaxurebebs da fulad daxmarebas. socialuri momsaxurebebis ZiriTad mizans warmoadgens pirovnebis saarsebo moTxovnilebebis dakmayofileba da adamianuri Rirsebis Sesabamisi sasicocxlo pirobebis Seqmna, roca mas TviTon ar SeuZlia amis gakeTeba.
literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.
Birmontiene T., Jarašiunas E., Kuris E. ir kt., Lietuvos konstitucine teise. Vilnius, 2002.
Čiočys P., Teises pagrindai. Vilnius, 2002.
litvis respublikis kanoni umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb (2002 w.).
litvis respublikis konstitucia, Ses., 1992, # 33-1014.
Tema 6. `politikuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
praqtikuli samuSaos miznebi
1. Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi wyaroebis moZieba.
2. im samarTlebrivi aqtebis gacnoba, romlebic aregulirebs politikur uflebebs da Tavisuflebebs.
3. samoqalaqo cnobierebis Camoyalibeba.
leqciis msvleloba
studentebi weren referats warmodgenili gegmis mixedviT da emzadebian mis warsadgenad:
1. sakuTari qveynis marTvaSi monawileobis miRebis ufleba.
2. saxelmwifo dawesebulebebis da Tanamdebobis pirebis muSaobis kritikis, maTi gadawyvetilebebis gasaCivrebis ufleba.
3. mSvidobiani Sekrebebis ufleba.
4. gaerTianebebSi, politikur partiebSi an asociaciebSi Tavisufali gawevrianebis ufleba.
diskusia – `gvaqvs Tu ara ufleba, monawileoba miviRoT sakuTari qveynis marTvaSi?~
namuSevris wardgena maswavleblis mier dasmuli SekiTxvebis mixedviT.
daskvnebi
politikur uflebebs SeiZleba miekuTvnos litvis respublikis konstituciaSi deklarirebuli ufleba, pirdapir an demokratiuli gziT arCeuli
warmomadgenlebis saSualebiT monawileoba miviRoT sakuTari qveynis marTvaSi. igi Tavis TavSi moicavs arCevnebSi monawileobis, referendumis ini-
187
188 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
cirebis, samoqalaqo sakanonmdeblo iniciativis, peticiis, saxelmwifo dawesebulebebis da Tanamdebobis pirebis muSaobis kritikis, maTi gadawyvetilebebis gasaCivrebis uflebebs. politikur uflebebs aseve miekuTvneba politikur partiebSi gawevrianebis, da saxelmifo samsaxurze Tanaswori xelmisawvdomobis ufleba (ix. litvis respublikis konstituciis naw.1, mux. 33).
literatura
1. Čiočys P., Teises pagrindai. Vilnius, 2002.
2. litvis respublikis kanoni administraciuli saqmianobis
samarTalwarmoebis Sesaxeb, Ses., 2000.
3. litvis respublikis konstitucia, Ses.,, 1992, # 33-1014.
4. litvis respublikis kanoni peticiis Sesaxeb, Ses., 1999.
5. litvis respublikis kanoni Sekrebebis Sesaxeb, Ses., 1993.
Tema 7. `saxelmwifo kontrolis konstituciuri statusi. seimis makon-
troleblebi~ (4 akademiuri saaTi)
praqtikuli samuSaos miznebi
1. Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi wyaroebis moZieba.
2. saxelmwifo kontrolis da seimis makontroleblebis uflebamosilebebis gacnoba.
3. kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTareba.
leqciis msvleloba
studentebi weren referats: `saxelmwifo kontrolis konstituciuri
statusi. seimis makontroleblebi~.
diskusia iwyeba kiTxviT – iTvleba Tu ara seimis makontroleblebis muSaoba sasargeblod da saWirod qveynis moqalaqeebisaTvis?
naSromis prezentacia Semdegi sakiTxebis gaTvaliswinebiT xdeba:
1. saxelmwifo kontrolis sistema da misi damtkiceba.
2. saxelmwifo kontrolis ZiriTadi miznebi.
3. seimis makontroleblebis ufleba-mosilebebi.
daskvnebi
rogorc litvis respublikis saxelmwifo kontrolis Sesaxeb kanoniT
aris dadgenili – `litvis respublikis saxelmwifo kontroli warmoadgens
ekonomikuri, finansuri kontrolis uzenaes organos, romelic angariSvaldebulia litvis respublikis seimis winaSe, romelic iZiebs, Tu ramdenad
kanonierad imarTeba da gamoiyeneba saxelmwifo qoneba, rogor sruldeba
saxelmwifo biujeti. saxelmwifo kontroli warmoadgens iuridiul pirs,
romelsac aqvs saangariSsworebo angariSi litvis bankSi da beWedi litvis
saxelmwifos gerbiTa da dasaxelebiT `litvis respublika. saxelmwifo kontroli~ (mux. 2).
saxelmwifo kontroli Tavis saqmianobaSi xelmZRvanelobs litvis respublikis konstituciiT, kanonmdeblobiT, litvis respublikis saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebiT da SeTanxmebebiT, sxva samarTlebrivi aqtebiT
(gv. 3).
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
konstituciiT agreTve damtkicebulia seimis makontroleblebi –
ombudsmenebis organo, romlis ZiriTadi mizania moqalaqeTa saCivrebis ganxilva saxelmwifo da TviTmmarTvelobis moxeleebis mier Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebisa da biurokratizmis Sesaxeb. seimis makontroleblebis
kompetenciaSi ar Sedis respublikis prezidentis, seimis, sakonstitucio
sasamarTlos da sxva sasamarTloebis wevrebis, premier-ministris, saxelmwifo kontrolis da mTavrobis, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis sabWoebis saqmianobis, agreTve prokurorebis, gamomZieblebis, momkvlevebis gadawyvetilebebis kanonierebis da procesualuri saqmianobis safuZvlianobis ganxilva.
seimis makontroleblebis Sesaxeb litvis respublikis kanoniT dadgenilia:
1. yovel moqalaqes ufleba aqvs Seitanos seimis makontrolebelTan saCivari saxelmwifo an TviTmmarTvelobis organos Tanamdebobis piris
mxridan Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebis an biurokratizmis gamovlinebis Taobaze, romelic Sedis makontroleblis kompetenciaSi.
2. seimis makontrolebeli agreTve ganixilavs seimis wevrebis mier misTvis gadacemul litvis respublikis moqalaqeTa saCivrebs, romlebic Seesabameba am kanonis moTxovnebs. mas agreTve SeuZlia ganixilos
ucxo qveynebis moqalaqeebis an moqalaqeobis armqone pirebis saCivrebi (mux. 15).
seimis makontroleblebis Sesaxeb litvis respublikis kanonidan cxadad
Cans, rom rigiT moqalaqes SeuZlia saCivari Seitanos Tanamdebobis piris
mxridan Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebis Sesaxeb da xsenebuli organos
TanamSromlebis daxmarebiT daicvas sakuTari interesebi.
literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Birmontiene T., Jarašiunas E., Kuris E. ir kt., Lietuvos konstitucine teise. Vilnius, 2002.
Čiočys P., Teises pagrindai. Vilnius, 2002.
litvis respublikis konstitucia, Ses.,, 1992, # 33-1014.
litvis respublikis kanoni seimis kontroliorebis Sesaxeb (2002 w.).
litvis respublikis kanoni saxelmwifos kontrolis Sesaxeb.
Tema 8. `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba da mmarTveloba~ (2 akademiuri
saaTi)
praqtikuli samuSaos miznebi
1. Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi wyaroebis moZieba.
2. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis da maTi kompetenciis
gacnoba.
leqciis msvleloba
studentebi weren referats maswavleblis mier SeTavazebuli sakiTxebis mixedviT da emzadebian prezentaciisTvis.
1. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis cneba da samarTlebrivi regulireba.
2. TviTmmarTvelobis principebi.
3. TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi da maTi kompetencia.
189
190 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
4. TviTmmarTvelobis ekonomikuri safuZveli.
5. TviTmmarTvelobis saqmianobis samarTlebrivi garantiebi.
Tavdapirvelad, studentebma Semdeg SekiTxvaze unda gascen pasuxi – yofila Tu ara SemTxveva, roca studentebs an maT axloblebs miumarTavT
TviTmmarTvelobis organoebisTvis raime sakiTxis Sesaxeb da hqoniaT Tu
ara imedgacrueba TviTmmarTvelobis TanamSromlebis muSaobis gamo.
namuSevris prezentacia maswavleblis mier dasmuli SekiTxvebis mixedviT.
daskvnebi
TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis sturqtura da saqmianoba demokratiuli wyobis safuZvels warmoadgens. misi samarTlebrivi safuZvelia saxelmwifo kanonmdebloba, TviTmmarTvelobis saqmianobis reglamentebi da sxva
samarTlebrivi aqtebi. TviTmmarTvelobis urTierTobebis ZiriTadi principebi regulirdeba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis evropuli qartiiT.
moqalaqeTa ufleba, monawileoba miiRon sajaro saqmeebis marTvaSi, demokratiis erT-erT principad iTvleba. amitom, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis evropuli qartiiT gaTvaliswinebulia, rom adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis principi aRiarebuli unda iyos qveynis Sida kanonmdeblobiT, xolo
sadac saWiroa – konstituciiTac.
literatura
1.
2.
3.
4.
Birmontiene T., Jarašiunas E., Kuris E. ir kt., Lietuvos konstitucine teise. Vilnius, 2002.
Čiočys P., Teises pagrindai. Vilnius, 2002.
litvis respublikis konstitucia, Ses.,, 1992, # 33-1014.
litvis respublikis kanoni adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobebis
Sesaxeb, Ses., 2000, # 91-2832.
Tema 9. `uflebebi, valdebulebebi da maTi dacvis meTodebi~ (6 akade-
miuri saaTi)
miznebi da amocanebi:
1. konstituciuri samarTlis normebis gacnoba da maTi analizis unaris ganviTareba.
2. imisi codna, Tu romel kompetentur saxelmwifo organoebs unda mivmarToT sakuTari Selaxuli uflebebis dasacavad.
3. movuwodoT studentebs, analizi gaukeTon sakiTxs, irRveva Tu ara
maTi uflebebi da asruleben Tu ara isini TavianT movaleobebs.
4. studentebSi moqalaqeobrivi cnobierebis Camoyalibeba.
gamowveva
gonebrivi ieriSi – `darRveula Tu ara odesme Tqveni konstituciuri
uflebebi? Tu darRveula, romeli?~
Sinaarsis realizeba
studentebi weren referatebs miTiTebul Temebze da emzadebian prezentaciisaTvis:
1. socialur-ekonomikuri uflebebi.
2. politikuri uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
3. saxelmwifo kontrolis konstituciuri statusi. seimis makontroleblebi.
4. adgilobrivi TviTmmarTveloba da mmarTveloba.
refleqsia
SevZlebT, rom momavalSi davicvaT Cveni uflebebi?
Tema 10. `konstituciuri samarTali~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi
1. litvis respublikis konstituciis gacnoba.
2. analizis da Sefasebis unaris ganviTareba.
3. kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTareba.
gamowveva
gonebrivi ieriSi – `yvelasTvis savaldebuloa Tu ara konstituciis debulebebi?~
Sinaarsis realizeba
diskusia Semdeg sakiTxebze:
1. adamianis ZiriTadi uflebebi, Tavisuflebebi da movaleobebi litvis respublikis konstituciaSi.
2. adamianis uflebebis da Tavisuflebebis dacvis samarTlebrivi garantiebi.
3. evropis adamianis uflebaTa konvenciis ZiriTadi debulebebi.
4. xelisuflebis dayofis principebi.
5. sasamarTlo sistema litvaSi.
6. samarTaldamcavi organoebi.
refleqsia
jgufuri muSaoba
1. isurvebdiT Tu ara, rom konstituciaSi Sevides cvlilebebi an damatebebi?
2. rogor unda moviqce: rogorc moqalaqe Tu rogorc Tavisufali adamiani?
3. SeuZlia Tu ara aqtiur samoqalaqo sazogadoebas raimes Secvla?
leqcia 35-44. administraciuli samarTali (10
akademiuri saaTi)
Tema 1. `administraciuli samarTali~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi
1. administraciuli samarTlis cnebis da misi wyaroebis gacnoba.
2. sajaro marTvis koncefciis da sajaro marTvis organoebis sistemis
gacnoba.
3. administraciuli samarTliT da samarTlis sxva dargebiT regulirebad samarTlebriv urTierTobebs Soris gansxvavebis povna.
4. problemis gadaWris unaris ganviTareba.
191
192 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
gamowveva
gonebrivi ieriSi – `ratom ar unda bevr students universitetSi Seiswavlos sajaro administrireba? sad SeiZleba imuSaon maT am specialobis
Seswavlis SemTxvevaSi? riT gansxvavdeba sajaro marTva sajaro administrirebisgan?~
Sinaarsis realizeba
aqtiuri leqcia Semdegi gegmis mixedviT:
1. administraciuli samarTlis cneba.
2. sajaro marTvis cneba.
3. sajaro administrirebis organoebis sistema.
4. saxelmwifo samsaxuri.
eZlevaT davaleba, waikiTxon litvis respublikis kanoni saxelmwifo samsaxuris Sesaxeb da gaecnon saxelmwifo samsaxuris da saxelmwifo moxelis
cnebebs. studentebma unda icodnen, ra saxiT nawildeba saxelmwifo moxeleTa Tanamdebobebi.
refleqsia
davaleba:
1. administraciuli samarTlis da samarTlis sxva sferoebis gamijvna.
2. aris Tu ara korufcia sajaro marTvis sferoSi?
mniSvnelovania icodeT:
administraciuli samarTali – aris samarTlis sfero, romlis normebiTac regulirdeba is sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebi, romlebic sajaro marTvaSi warmoiSveba.
sajaro marTva – marTvis garkveuli organoebis saqmianobaa, romelic
moicavs sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela umniSvnelovanes sferos, marTvis
sferoSi moqalaqeebis kuTvnili uflebebis, Tavisuflebebis da valdebulebebis Sesrulebis uzrunvelyofas.
sajaro marTvis organoebi – mTavroba, saministroebi, saxelmwifo dawesebulebebi, TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi da sxv.
sajaro marTvis organoebis umniSvnelovanesi daniSnulebaa, kanonebis
da saxelmwifo marTvis organoebis mier miRebuli sxva aqtebis cxovrebaSi
gatareba da maTi Sesrulebis organizeba.
Tema 2. `administraciuli pasuxismgebloba~ (4 akademiuri saaTi)
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi
1. administraciul pasuxismgeblobaze gadacemis safuZvlebis gacnoba.
2. imisi codna, romel Tanamdebobis pirebs SeuZliaT ganixilon saqmeebi administraciuli samarTaldarRvevebis Sesaxeb.
3. studentebs gamoumuSavdeT analizis da Sefasebis unari.
gamowveva
diskusia – `kanonis arcodna ar aTavisuflebs pirovnebas pasuxismgeblobisgan~.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
Sinaarsis realizeba
leqcia Semdegi gegmis mixedviT:
1. administraciuli pasuxismgeblobis cneba, safuZveli da Taviseburebebi.
2. administraciuli samarlis darRvevis subieqti.
3. administraciuli sasjelis saxeebi da daniSnuleba.
4. adminstraciuli samarTaldarRvevebis klasifikacia.
5. Tanamdebobis pirebi, romlebsac ufleba aqvT ganixilon saqmeebi
adminstraciuli samarTaldarRvevebis Sesaxeb.
refleqsia
riT gansxvavdeba adminstraciuli pasuxismgebloba sisxlis samarTlis
pasuxismgeblobisgan?
studentebi Semdeg SekiTxvebs pasuxoben:
1. rodis warmoiqmneba adminstraciuli pasuxismgebloba?
2. vin aris pasuxismgebeli administraciul samarTaldarRvevaze?
3. rogori administraciuli sasjelebi arsebobs?
4. romel Tanamdebobis pirebs SeuZliaT ganixilon saqmeebi adminstraciuli samarTaldarRvevebis Sesaxeb?
daskvna
adminstraciuli pasuxismgebloba – samarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis
saxe, romelic warmoiqmneba administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis SemTxvevaSi. damnaSave pirs administraciul saxdels akisreben kanonmdeblobiT
uflebamosili saxelmwifo organoebi (Tanamdebobis pirebi) da sasamarTlo,
Sesabamisi administraciuli saxdelis saSualebiT (gafrTxileba, jarima,
specialuri uflebebis CamorTmeva da a.S.).
adminstraciuli pasuxismgeblobis subieqti SeiZleba iyos Seracxadi fizikuri piri (moqalaqe, Tanamdebobis piri), romelsac administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis momentisaTvis Seusrulda 16 weli. arasrulwlovanis
mier kanonis normis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi administraciuli saxdeli daekisreba mis mSoblebs an maT Semcvlel pirebs.
administraciuli korufcia – aris arsebuli kanonebis, wesebisa da debulebebis ganzrax damaxinjeba aRsrulebis procesSi, roca saxelmwifo
moxeleebi ukanono gziT iReben pirad sargebels. korufciis mocemuli saxeobis erT-erT ZiriTad mizezs warmoadgens saxelmwifo moxeleebis uflebamosileba, romelic saSualebas iZleva sakuTari mosazrebis mixedviT warmoadginon garkveuli privilegiebi, daadginon prioritetebi sajaro momsaxurebis sferoSi an gadawyviton vis mimarT SeiZleba iqnas gamoyenebuli
wesebi da debulebebi da visTvis daiSvas gamonaklisebi. umaRlesi donis saxelmwifo moxeleebs, borotad iyeneben ra dakavebul Tanamdebobas, SeuZliaT Seqmnan normatiuli aqtebi, romlebic arasworad axorcieleben saxelmwifo politikas im mizniT, rom gaaumjobeson sakuTari an axloblebis
finansuri mdgomareba.
193
194 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema 3. `administraciuli samarTaldarRvevebi, romlebic safrTxes
uqmnian mmarTvelobis wesis dadgenas~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi
1. administraciuli samarTaldarRvevebis gacnoba, romlebic safrTxes
uqmnian mmarTvelobis wesis dadgenas.
2. studentebSi problemis gadaWris unarebis gamomuSaveba.
gamowveva
diskusia – `seimis makontroleblebi ganixilaven moqalaqeTa saCivrebs
saxelmwifo da TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis warmomadgenlebis mxridan
Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebis da biurokratizmis Sesaxeb.~
Sinaarsis realizeba
jgufebSi muSaoba. studentebi emzadebian diskusiisaTvis Semdeg sakiTxebze:
1. seimis makontroleblis moTxovnebis Seusrulebloba.
2. qalTa da mamakacTa Tanabari uflebebis sakiTxebze momuSave makontrolebelTa samsaxuris Tanamdebobis piris moTxovnebis Seusrulebloba.
3. TviTneboba.
4. saxelmwifo kontrolis Tanamdebobis pirisTvis xelis SeSla.
5. TviTmmarTvelobis makontroleblisaTvis xelis SeSla.
6. kerZo dokumentebis ukanono gaformeba.
7. xelis SeSla pirisaTvsi, romelsac surs gaecnos sakuTar monacemebs
da maTze informacias.
mniSvnelovania:
seimis makontroleblebi mniSvnelovan rols TamaSoben adamianebis
uflebebis uzrunvelyofaSi: maT ufleba aqvT SesTavazon sasamarTlos
damnaSave Tanamdebobis pirebis moxsna dakavebuli Tanamdebobidan. seimis makontroleblebis kompetencia mkveTrad aris gansazRvruli: saxelmwifo da TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis warmomadgenlebis mxridan Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebis da biurokratizmis SemTxvevebis gamoZieba.
refleqsia
diskusia.
Tema 4. `administraciuli samarTali~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
sakontrolo samuSaos miznebi da amocanebi
1. konkretuli situaciebis garCevis codnis da unaris Semowmeba.
2. kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTareba.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
msvleloba
sakontrolo samuSao. studentebi pasuxoben SekiTxvebs Semdeg Temebze:
1. administraciuli samarTlis cneba;
2. sajaro administrirebis organoebi;
3. administraciuli pasuxismgeblobis cneba, safuZveli da Taviseburebebi;
4. administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis saqmeebis ganxilvis uflebis
mqone Tanamdebobis pirebi;
5. seimis makontroleblis moTxovnebis Seusrulebloba;
6. saxelmwifo kontrolis Tanamdebobis pirisTvis xelis SeSla;
7. TviTmmarTvelobis makontroleblisTvis xelis SeSla;
8. kerZo dokumentebis ukanono gaformeba.
refleqsia
Sedegebis ganxilva.
leqcia 45-52. sisxlis samarTali (8
akademiuri saaTi)
Tema 1. `sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgebloba~ (4 akademiuri saaTi)
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi
1. danaSaulebrivi qmedebis saxeebis gacnoba.
2. sisxlis samarTlis pasuxisgebaSi gadacemis safuZvlebis gacnoba.
3. analizis unaris ganviTareba.
gamowveva
diskusia – `administraciul, samoqalaqo, disciplinarul da sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobebs Soris msgavseba-gansxvavebebi.~
Sinaarsis realizeba
aqtiuri leqcia Semdegi gegmis mixedviT:
1. sisxlis samarTlis cneba da sistema;
2. samarTaldarRvevis niSnebi da Semadgenloba;
3. danaSaulis CadenaSi Tanamonawileoba;
4. garemoebebi, romlebiTac aRmoifxvreba sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgebloba;
5. sasjelis sistema da saxeebi.
daskvnebi
sisxlis samarTlis normebis daniSnuleba – sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebis garkveuli jgufis (garkveuli sikeTis) dacva xelyofisagan, risi ganxorcielebisaTvisac saWiroa dadgindes sanqciebi, romlebiTac isjeba danaSaulis Camdeni. sisxlis samarTlis normebi orientirebulia kanondamrRvevze, visTan mimarTebaSic Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis gaTvaliswinebulia garkveuli saxis piradi an qonebrivi xasiaTis SezRudvebi.
qmedeba, saSiSroeba, kanonTan Seusabamoba – urTierTdakavSirebuli niSnebia. Tundac erTi CamoTvlili niSnis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi ar arsebobs
danaSauli, an sisxlis samarTlebrivi qmedeba.
195
196 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
saSinao davaleba
aris Tu ara sisxlis samarTali erTaderTi zoma, romelic gamoiyeneba
sisxlis samarTlis samarTaldarRvevis SemTxvevaSi?
rogoria danaSaulebrivi qmedebis niSnebi?
studentebi gaecnon litvis respublikis kanons saxelmwifo samsaxuris
Sesaxeb, gaiazron misi ZiriTadi cnebebi.
Tema 2. `saxelmwifo samsaxuris da sajaro interesebis winaaRmdeg mimar-
Tuli danaSaulebi da sisxlis samarTlis darRvevebi~ (4 akademiuri saaTi)
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi
1. saxelmwifo samsaxuris da sajaro interesebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulebi da sisxlis samarTlis darRvevebis gacnoba.
2. korufciuli xasiaTis danaSaulebrivi qmedebebis gacnoba.
3. korufciis prevenciis miznebisa da amocanebis gaazreba.
gamowveva
SeafaseT Semdegi situaciebi:
1. Tanamdebobis piri yovelwliuri Svebulebis dros piradi miznebisTvis iyenebs samsaxuris avtomobils.
2. qalaqis meri did SekveTebs sTavazobs samSeneblo firmas, Tu is amis
sanacvlod misi partiis winasaarCevno kampanias daafinansebs.
3. gamocdis win studentebma dabadebis dRe miuloces maswavlebels da
yvavilebis Taiguli miarTves.
Sinaarsis realizeba
diskusia – `vin aris saxelmwifo moxele da masTan gaTanabrebuli piri?~
litvis respublikis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 230-e muxlis cnebebis
ganmarteba:
1. saxelmwifo samsaxuris Sesaxeb kanonis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo moxeleebi arian saxelmwifo samsaxurSi momuSave pirebi: politikosebi, sajaro administraciis moxeleebi; agreTve sxva pirebi, romlebic
muSaoben saxelmwifo organoebSi, TviTmmarTvelobis dawesebulebebSi, sasamarTlo, samarTaldamcav organoebSi, saxelmwifo kontrolis
da zedamxedvelobis an maTTan gaTanabrebul organoebSi, asruleben
xelisuflebis warmomadgenlis funqcias an miniWebuli aqvT administraciuli uflebamosilebebi, agreTve oficialuri kandidatebi aseT
Tanamdebobebze.
2. saxelmwifo moxelesTan gaTanabrebulia piri, romelsac miniWebuli
aqvs gansazRvruli uflebamosilebebi ucxo saxelmwifos organoebis,
saerTaSoriso sajaro organizaciebis an saerTaSoriso sasamarTlo
organos mier, agreTve, aseT Tanamdebobaze wardgenili oficialuri
kandidati.
3. garda amisa, saxelmwifo moxelesTan gaTanabrebulia piri, romelic
muSaobs nebismier saxelmwifo, arasaxelmwifo an kerZo dawesebulebaSi, warmoebaSi an organizaciaSi, an dakavebulia profesiuli saqmi-
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
anobiT da miniWebuli aqvs Sesabamisi uflebamosilebebi sajaro administrirebis sferoSi, an dakavebulia sajaro momsaxurebis SesrulebiT, im pirebis gamoklebiT, romlebic asruleben sameurneo an teqnikur funqciebs.
leqciis gegma
1. saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulebis da sisxlis samarTlis qmedebebis xasiaTi.
2. sisxlis samarTlis konvencia korufciis winaaRmdeg (litvam xeli moawera 1999 wels).
1. saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulebis da
sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulebrivi qmedebebis xasiaTi.
litvis respublikis konstituciis me-5 muxlis me-3 nawilSi dadgenilia,
rom `xelisuflebis organoebi xalxs emsaxurebian~. adamianis uflebebis
da Tavisuflebebis dacva da Sesruleba damokidebulia saxelmwifo samsaxurSi momuSave pirTa patiosnebaze, pasuxismgeblobasa da Semsruleblobaze. rogorc saxelmwifo samsaxuris Sesaxeb litvis respublikis kanonis
me-3 statiis I nawilSia dadgenili, litvis respublikis saxelmwifo samsaxuri dafuZnebulia kanonis uzenaesobis, Tanasworobis, keTilsindisierebisa da karieris principebze. xsenebuli principebis dacva saxelmwifo samsaxurSi realurad uzrunvelyofs uflebebis, Tavisuflebebis da adamianis kanonieri interesebis dacvas, kanonierebas sazogadoebisa da saxelmwifos cxovrebaSi.
litvis respublikis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis XXXIII Tavis normebiT
gaTvaliswinebulia dacva msgavsi xasiaTis xelyofisagan imdenad, ramdenadac saxelmwifo samsaxuri mniSvnelovnad zaraldeba, roca misi TanamSromlebi danaSauls Cadian.
saxelmwifo samsaxuris da sajaro interesebis winaaRmdeg danaSaulis
Cadenis SemTxvevaSi irRveva konstituciis debuleba imis Sesaxeb, rom saxelmwifos xelisuflebis movaleobaSi Sedis xalxis samsaxuri, ikargeba
xalxis ndoba ara mxolod saxelmwifo samsaxuris, aramed mTlianad saxelmwifos mimarT, irRveva saxelmwifo da TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis normaluri funqcionireba, ilaxeba maTi avtoriteti.
saxelmwifo samsaxuris da sajaro interesebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSauli – es aris im pirTa saxifaTo qmedeba, romlebic sargebloben sakuTari TanamdebobebiT da amiT did zians ayeneben saxelmwifo interesebs an
sxva pirebs. aRniSnuli danaSaulebi da sisxlis samarTlis danaSaulebrivi
qmedebebi yovelTvis dakavSirebulia subieqtis samsaxuroebriv mdgomareobasTan. saxelmwifosTvis, an sxva pirebisaTvis didi odenobiT zaralis miyeneba – es mniSvnelovani niSania, amitom zaralis xasiaTi da zoma dgindeba
konkretuli saqmis garemoebebis gaTvaliswinebiT (xasiaTi, dazaralebulTa ricxvi, qmedebis xangrZlivoba, dakavebuli Tanamdebobis mniSvneloba
da a.S.).
saxelmwifo samsaxuris da sajaro interesebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSauli (samsaxureobrivi valdebulebebis Seusruleblobis garda) nawilobriv vlindeba rogorc qmedeba, roca saxelmwifo organoebSi samsaxuri ga-
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moiyeneba imisaTvis, rom miRebuli iqnas qonebrivi an sxva piradi sargebeli
sakuTari TavisTvis, an sxva pirisaTvis, anda moTxovnil iqnas aseTi sargebeli; agreTve, roca es qmedebebi ewinaaRmdegeba samsaxureobriv interesebs.
zemoT xsenebuli danaSaulebi xasiaTdeba rogorc korufciuli qmedeba.
2. sisxlis samarTlis konvencia korufciis winaaRmdeg
danaSaulebi da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg SeiZleba saerTaSoriso xasiaTsac atarebdnen.
1975 wlis 15 dekembers, gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam miiRo rezolucia korufciis dagmobis Sesaxeb da qveynebis xelisuflebebs mocemuli movlenis winaaRmdeg brZolisaken mouwoda.
1999 wels evropis sabWom miiRo sisxlis samarTlis konvencia korufciis winaaRmdeg (27 ianvari) da samoqalaqo samarTlis konvencia korufciis
winaaRmdeg (4 noemberi). litvam sisxlis samarTlis konvencias korufciis
winaaRmdeg xeli 1999 wels moawera. am dokumentSi xazgasmulia, rom korufcias adgili aqvs rogorc sajaro, aseve kerZo seqtorSic.
romel danaSaulebriv qmedebas aqvs korufciuli xasiaTi? esenia – meqrTameoba, mosyidva da Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyeneba.
romeli saxelmwifo samarTaldamcavi dawesebulebebia dakavebuli korufciis prevenciiT, korufciuli danaSaulebis gamoZiebiTa da gaxsniT?
studentebi litvis respublikis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 225, 227, 228
muxlebidan iweren meqrTameobis, mosyidvis da borotad gamoyenebis cnebebis gansazRvrebebs, iniSnaven xsenebuli danaSaulebis Semadgenel nawilebs.
meqrTameoba (sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi, muxli 225)
qrTamis aRebis arsi (obieqti) – mosyiduli saxelmwifo moxele piradad
an sxva pirebis saSualebiT iRebs qrTams, ris safuZvelzec Tavisi samsaxureobrivi qmedebiT (umoqmedobiT), anda samsaxureobrivi mdgomareobiT
unda/an cdilobs, daakmayofilos qrTamis mimcemis an sxva piris piradi
interesebi. qrTamis amRebi subieqti SeiZleba iyos mxolod saxelmwifo moxele an Tanamdebobis piri.
qrTamis aRebis saSualebebi (danaSaulis obieqturi mxare) Semdegi qmedebebia: 1) qrTamis aReba; 2) qrTamis moTxovna; 3) qrTamis aRebis dapireba.
danaSauli Cadenilad iTvleba saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis piris an mosamsaxuris mier Rirebulebis nawilis an mTliani Rirebulebis miRebis Semdeg
(Tu saxelmwifo moxelem ipova datovebuli qrTami da amis Sesaxeb Seatyobina samarTaldamcav organoebs, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 225 muxlis
gamoyenebis safuZveli aRar arsebobs).
qrTami SeiZleba gadaeces Ria an faruli formiT (wageba, zedmeti premiis gadaxda, materialuri keTildReobis miniWeba da sxv.).
qrTamis moTxovnis formebi SeiZleba mravalgvari iyos. am mizniT damnaSave SeiZleba imuqrebodes ukanono qmedebiT an im qmedebis SeusruleblobiT, romelic unda Seesrulebina Tavisi kompetenciidan gamomdinare. qrTamis moTxovna SeiZleba farul xasiaTs atarebdes: saxelmwifo moxele usafuZvlod aWianurebs gadawyvetilebis miRebas, atarebs xSir Semowmebebs,
ayenebs xelovnur moTxovnebs sawarmos registraciis dros. garda amisa,
qrTami SeiZleba mieces umoqmedobisTvisac.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
subieqturi mxare – mxolos pirdapiri ganzraxva. damnaSave gaiazrebs,
rom qrTamis mimcemisagan mis mier miRebuli materialuri gamorCena arakanonier saCuqrad iTvleba. es aris angarebis mizniT Cadenili danaSauli,
imdenad, ramdenadac qrTamis amReb Tanamdebobis pirs esmis, rom am gziT
igi mdidrdeba da aqvs kidec amisi survili.
mosyidva (sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis muxli 227)
mosyidvis obieqti – aris saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis pirze an saxelmwifo
moxeleze qrTamis micema fulis, materialuri Rirebulebis saxiT, an/da SeTanxmeba amis gakeTebaze an pirobebis Seqmna saimisod, rom qonebrivi sargebeli miiRos saWiro qmedebis, gadawyvetilebis, kenWisyris an saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis piris an saxelmwifo moxelis mier momsyidvel pirze misTvis sasargeblo azris gamoqTmis sanacvlod.
mosyidvis obieqturi mxare – 1) qrTamis gadacema; 2) molaparakeba misi
gadacemis Taobaze. mosyidva Cadenilad iTvleba zemoT xsenebuli erT-erTi
qmedebis Semdeg.
qrTami SeiZleba gadaeces Ria an dafaruli formiT, Suamavlebis saSualebiT. qrTamis aRebas adgili eqneba im SemTxvevaSic, roca mas iRebs piri,
romelic arakompetenturia Cadenil qmedebaSi, romliTac dainteresebulia qrTamis mimcemi.
mosyidvis subieqturi mxare – mxolod pirdapiri ganzraxva. momsyidveli piri acnobierebs, rom ukanonod aZlevs qrTams Tanamdebobis pirs an saxelmwifo moxeles konkretuli ukanono qmedebis Casadenad mis an sxva piris sasargeblod.
Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyeneba (sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis muxli 228)
borotad gamoyenebis obieqtad iTvleba saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis piris
an saxelmwifo moxelis mier samsaxureobrivi mgdomareobis ganzrax gamoyeneba piradi sargeblis da angarebis mizniT, rac ewinaaRmdegeba samsaxurebriv interesebs da zians ayenebs saxelmwifos an moqalaqeebs. Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebis subieqti specifikuria – saxelmwifo moxele
an saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis piri. borotad gamoyenebis obieqturi mxare –
aqtiuri moqmedeba (damnaSave ukanono gziT iRebs sargebels TavisTvis an
sxva pirebisTvis, saxelmwifos an TviTmmarTvelobis qonebis xarjze, an
eqsploatacias uwevs mis daqvemdebarebaSi myof pirebs da sxv.).
zogierT SemTxvevaSi, Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyeneba iTvleba Cadenilad saxelmwifos interesebisaTvis an calkeuli pirebisaTvis didi zianis miyenebis SemTxvevaSi. yvelaze xSirad irRveva saxelmwifos da TviTmmarTvelobis dawesebulebebis qonebrivi interesebi.
did zianad, rogorc wesi, iTvleba saxelmwifo moxeleebis an saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis pirTa mxridan Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyeneba adamianis konstituciuri uflebebis da Tavisuflebebis darRvevis sferoSi (ganaTlebis, ufaso samedicino momsaxurebis ufleba).
borotad gamoyenebis subieqturi mxare – pirdapiri ganzraxva, samsaxurebrivi mdgomareobis gamoyeneba im interesebis sasargeblod, romlebic
ewinaaRmdegeba samsaxurs. am SemTxvevisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia ramdenime
fsiqologiuri momenti:
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200 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
damnaSave:
1. acnobierebs Tavisi moqmedebis saSiSroebas; icis, rom ar asrulebs
kanonis moTxovnebs da arRvevs maT;
2. esmis, rom misi saqcieli ewinaaRmdegeba samsaxurebriv interesebs;
3. fiqrobs, rom aseTi qmedebiT zarali miadgeba saxelmwifos an calkeul pirebs;
4. mas surs aseTi Sedegebi.
refleqsia
rogor ganvasxvavoT danaSauli saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg sxva
saxis danaSaulisagan?
vin zaraldeba zemoT aRniSnuli danaSaulebis an danaSaulebrivi qmedebebis Cadenis dros?
gaixseneT korufciis prevenciis miznebi da amocanebi.
saSinao davaleba
1. saxelmwifo samsaxuris da sajaro interesebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulebis da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebis cnebebis damuSaveba.
2. korufciis prevenciis miznebis da amocanebis gageba.
damoukidebeli samuSao
davaleba 1. iuridiuli pirebis registraciis mmarTvelma, p. ionaitisisgan miiRo dokumentebi S.p.s.-s registraciisaTvis. dokumentebi
momzadebuli iyo litvis respublikis samoqalaqo kodeqsis 2.64 muxlis Sesabamisad. p. ionaitisma registris mmarTvels sTxova dauyovnebliv Seemowmebina, Seesabameboda Tu ara dokumentebi moTxovnebs.
registris mmarTvelma moimizeza, rom uamravi samuSao hqonda,
uTxra, rom konsultacias ver gauwevda da meore dRes misvla SesTavaza. p. ionaitisi meore dRes mivida, magram igive pasuxi miiRo.
garda amisa, registris mmarTvelma TiTqos sxvaTa Soris uTxra – TiToeuli momsaxureba fuli Rirso. p. ionaitisi mivida erTi kviris
Semdeg, mmarTvelis magidaze dado 200 liti da dokumentebis Semowmeba sTxova. registris mmarTvelma aiRo fuli da zrdilobianad upasuxa – `dokumentebi moTxovnebs Seesabameba da S.p.s. erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi daregistrirdeba.~
mieciT kvalifikacia mocemul qmedebas litvis respublikis sisxlis
samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviT.
davaleba 2. qalaqis merma TviTmmarTvelobis Senobis kapitaluri remontis Catarebaze tenderi gamoacxada. konkursSi monawileobas iRebda
2 kandidati: S.p.s. “Remontas” da S.p.s. “Statybos paslaugos”. konkursSi S.p.s.
“Remontas”-ma gaimarjva, Tumca am firmis warmomadgenelTa mier wardgenili gaangariSeba (600 000 liti) orjer aRemateboda S.p.s. “Statybos
paslaugos”-s warmomadgenlebis mier warmodgenil biznes-gegmas. S.p.s.
“Statybos paslaugos”-is xelmZRvanelma gaigo, rom S.p.s. “Remontas”-is direqtori qalaqis meris biZaSvili iyo. man sasamarTlos mimarTa konkursis ukanonod Catarebis Taobaze, Tumca saremonto samuSaoebi
ukve Sesrulebuli iyo da merias ukve gadaxdili hqonda gaangariSebiT gaTvaliswinebuli Tanxa.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
sasamarTlom konstatacia gaukeTa im faqts, rom S.p.s. “Remontas” amavdroulad aremontebda qalaqis meris vaJis sacxovrebel saxlsac. sasamarTlos mier daniSnulma eqspertebma daadgines, rom meriis Senobis remontze mxolod 200 000 liti daixarja.
mieciT kvalifikacia mocemul qmedebas litvis respublikis sisxlis
samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviT.
leqcia 53-60. samoqalaqo samarTali (8
akademiuri saaTi)
I Tema. `samoqalaqo uflebebis dacva~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi
1. samoqalaqo uflebebis dacvis principebis da saSualebebis gacnoba.
2. gaazreba, Tu ras warmoadgens samoqalaqo samarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba samoqalaqo samarTaldarRvevebis SemTxvevaSi.
3. Sesabamisi samarTlebrivi normebis moZebnis da gamoyenebis unaris
ganviTareba.
gamowveva
Tqveni azriT, romeli principebis Sesabamisad xdeba samoqalaqo urTierTobebis reglamentireba?
Sinaarsis realizeba
aqtiuri leqciis gegma:
1. samoqalaqo uflebebis da valdebulebebis gamovlinebis safuZvlebi.
2. samoqalaqo uflebebis ganxorcieleba da valdebulebebis Sesruleba.
3. samoqalaqo uflebebis dacva.
refleqsia
rogor SeuZliaT adamianebs isargeblon TavianTi samoqalaqo uflebebiT?
rogor SeiZleba daicvas sasamarTlom samoqalaqo uflebebi?
Tema 2. `samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis cneba da saxeebi (SeTanxmebiTi da
delikaturi)~ (2 akademiuri saaTi)
gamowveva
pasuxismgeblobis romeli saxeebia TqvenTvis cnobili?
Sinaarsis realizeba
1. samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis cneba da saxeebi.
2. SeTanxmebiTi pasuxismgebloba.
3. delikaturi pasuxismgebloba.
refleqsia
riT gansxvavdeba SeTanxmebiTi pasuxismgebloba delikaturisagan?
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202 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema 2. `pasuxismgebloba zianisaTvis, romelic miyenebulia uxarisxo
produqtebiT an miuRebeli xarisxis momsaxurebiT. tyuili reklamiT miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba~
damoukidebeli samuSao da seminari (2 akademiuri saaTi)
waikiTxeT litvis respublikis samoqalaqo kodeqsis me-6 wignis me-4 da
me-5 ganyofilebebi da moemzadeT diskusiisaTvis Semdeg sakiTxebze:
1. pasuxismgebloba zianisTvis, romelic miyenebulia uxarisxo produqtebiT an miuRebeli xarisxis momsaxurebiT.
1.1. mwarmoeblis da momsaxurebis gamwevis pasuxismgebloba.
1.2. produqtis da momsaxurebis cneba.
1.3. miuRebeli xarisxis cneba.
1.4. pasuxismgeblobis pirobebi.
1.5. solidaruli pasuxismgebloba.
1.6. dazaralebuli piris danaSauli.
1.7. pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisufleba.
1.8. zarali, romelic eqvemdebareba anazRaurebas.
1.9. sasaCivro xandazmuloba.
2. tyuili reklamiT miyenebuli zianis anazRaureba
2.1. tyuili reklamis cneba.
2.2. pasuxismgeblobis subieqti.
2.3. pasuxismgeblobis pirobebi.
2.4. tyuili reklamis akrZalva da gamarTleba.
leqciis nimuSi:
samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis cneba da saxeebi
leqciis miznebi da amocanebi
1. samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis cnebasTan da saxeebTan gacnoba.
2. SeTanxmebiTi da delikaturi samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis saxeebis
garCeva.
3. analizis da Sedarebis unaris ganviTareba.
samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis cneba da saxeebi
samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba – qonebrivi valdebulebaa, romlis erT mxares ufleba aqvs moiTxovos zaralis (zianis) anazRaureba an pirgasamtexlo gadasaxadi (jarima), xolo meore mxare valdebulia, aanazRauros zarali (ziani) an gadaixados pirgasamtexlo gadasaxadi (jarima) (litvis respublikis samoqalaqo kodeqsis muxli 6.245). mocemuli gansazRvreba im daskvnis gamotanis saSualebas iZleva, rom arsebobs samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis ori forma – zaralis anazRaureba da pirgasamtexlo gadasaxadi.
arsebobs samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis ori saxe: SeTanxmebiTi da delikaturi. SeTanxmebiTi samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba aris qonebrivi valdebuleba, romelic warmoiSveba SeTanxmebis Seusruleblobis an arasakmarisi Sesrulebis Sedegad, romlis erT mxaresac ufleba aqvs moiTxovos zaralis anazRaureba da pirgasamtexlo (jarima) gadasaxadi, xolo meore mxare valdebulia
aanazRauros SeTanxmebis Seusruleblobis an arasakmarisi Sesrulebis Sedegad miyenebuli zarali an gadaixados pirgasamtexlo (jarima). delikaturi
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba aris qonebrivi valdebuleba, romelic zians ukavSirdeba da ar aris dakavSirebuli SeTanxmebasTan, garda kanoniT dadgenili
SemTxvevebisa. delikaturi samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba warmoiSveba agreTve
winaswar SeTanxmebuli qmedebis SemTxvevaSi, romelmac ziani moutana erT mxares (magaliTad, roca mxareebi Tanxmdebian gadazidvebze, Cuqebaze da a. S.).
samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis niSnebi:
• SeTanxmebis darRveva;
• zaralis anazRaureba da pirgasamtexlo.
delikaturi samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis niSani – mxolod zianis anazRaurebas gulismobs.
mocemuli saxis samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi:
• sasaCivro xandazmulobis gansxvavebuli vadebi;
• danaSaulis gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobebi: solidaruli pasuxismgebloba SesaZlebelia mxolod kanoniT an xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevebSi;
• gansxvavebulia mesame piris qmedebisaTvis pasuxismgebloba.
samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba warmoiSveba kanoniT an xelSekrulebiT dadgenili valdebulebebis Seusruleblobis SemTxvevaSi (ukanono umoqmedoba)
an iseTi qmedebis dros, romelic akrZalulia kanoniT an xelSekrulebiT (ukanono qmedeba), anda zogadi xasiaTis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi (litvis respublikis samoqalaqo kodeqsis muxli 6.246 `ukanono qmedebebi~).
samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba warmoiSveba mxolod maSin da pasuxismgeblobis amRebi piri iTvleba damnaSaved, garda kanonmdeblobiT da xelSekrulebiT gaTvaliswinebuli SemTxvevebisa, roca samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba warmoiSveba danaSaulis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi (litvis respublikis samoqalaqo kodeqsis statia 6.248, `danaSauli, rogorc samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis piroba~). magaliTad, cxovelis mier miyenebul zarals anazRaurebs
misi patroni (litvis respublikis samoqalaqo kodeqsis muxli 6.267).
pirobebi, romlebic aucilebelia samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis warmoSobisaTvis:
• zianis an zaralis miyeneba;
• ukanono qmedeba;
• mizezobrivi kavSiri movalis qmedebasa da zians an zarals Soris;
• danaSauli.
zianad iTvleba pirovnebis mier qonebis dakargva an masze zianis miyeneba,
gaRebuli xarjebi (pirdapiri zarali), agreTve miuRebeli Semosavlebi, romlebic SeiZleboda mieRo pirs arakanonieri qmedebis ararsebobis SemTxvevaSi. zianis fuladi gamoxatulebaa zarali. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu mxares ar SeuZlia zaralis sididis zusti damtkiceba, igi dgindeba sasamarTlos mier.
xelSekrulebiTi pasuxismgebloba
mxareebis urTierTdamokidebuleba regulirdeba xelSekrulebiT. movalis
pasuxismgebloba gamomdinareobs xelSekrulebidan. samoqalaqo kodeqsiT
dadgenilia, rom TiToeuli piri valdebulia jerovnad da droulad Seasrulos nakisri saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebi (litvis respublikis samoqalaqo kodeqsis muxli 6.256, naw. I). piri, romelic ar asrulebs an jerovnad ar asrulebs nakisr saxelSekrulebo valdebulebebs, movalea, meore mxares aunazRauros mis mier miyenebuli zarali, gadaixados pirgasamtexlo (jarima).
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204 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
delikaturi pasuxismgebloba
valdebuleba miyenebuli zianis anazRaurebaze:
1. TiToeuli piri valdebulia daicvas qcevis wesebi, raTa Tavisi qmedebebiT (qmedebiT, umoqmedobiT) ziani ar miayenos sxva pirs.
2. ziani, romelic miadga pirs, qonebas, da agreTve, kanoniT dadgenil
SemTxvevebSi, araqonebrivi zianic, unda aanazRauros pasuxismgebelma
pirma (litvis respublikis samoqalaqo kodeqsis muxli 6.263).
TiToeuli piri valdebulia moiqces faqizad da yuradRebiT. mocemuli
valdebulebis xasiaTi da xarisxi nawilobriv reglamentirebulia sxvadasxva samarTlebrivi aqtiT, profesiuli eTikis wesebiT da a.S. magaliTad, sasamarTlos zedamxedveli Tavisi moqmedebiT miyenebuli zianis gamo piradad agebs pasuxs sasamarTlos zedamxedvelebis Sesaxeb litvis respublikis kanonis me-16 muxlis Sesabamisad.
samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis kompensaciis funqciis arsi gamoixateba
zianis sruli anazRaurebiT, anu samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobis gamoyenebis
mizania, dazaralebulisaTvis qonebrivi danakargis kompensacia – misi dabruneba iseT qonebriv mdgomareobaSi, rogorSic is iqneboda zaralis armiyenebis SemTxvevaSi. mTlianad anazRaurdeba mxolod qonebrivi ziani, xolo
araqonebrivi zianisaTvis es principi ar gamoiyeneba, vinaidan maTi Sefaseba rTulia. (pasuxismgeblobaze waikiTxeT litvis respublikis samoqalaqo kodeqsis muxli 6.264 – 6.279 da SeadgineT cxrili).
delikaturi pasuxismgebloba aris:
• TanamSromlebis damqiravebeli piris pasuxismgebloba;
• pasuxismgebloba sxva pirebisaTvis zianis miyenebis gamo;
• mflobelis statikuri pasuxismgebloba;
• pasuxismgebloba cxovelebis mier miyenebuli zaralisaTvis;
• pasuxismgebloba zianisaTvis fizikuri piris mier, romelsac ar SeuZlia gaaTviTcnobieros sakuTari moqmedebis mniSvneloba;
• pasuxismgebloba zianisaTvis, romelic miyenebulia gaZlierebuli saSiSroebis mqone wyaros mier;
• pasuxismgebloba zianisaTvis, romelic warmoSobilia aucilebeli moTxovnilebis Sedegad;
• pasuxismgebloba 14 wlamde arasrulwlovanis mier miyenebuli zianisaTvis;
• pasuxismgebloba 14-dan 18 wlamde arasrulwlovanis mier miyenebuli zianisaTvis;
• zianisaTvis, romelic miyenebulia ramdenime piris mier;
mniSvnelovania:
saxelSekrulebo samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba warmoadgens qonebriv
valdebulebas, romelic warmoiSveba xelSekrulebis Seusruleblobis, an
jerovnad arSesrulebis gamo.
delikaturi samoqalaqo pasuxismgebloba warmoadgens qonebriv valdebulebas, romelic warmoiSveba zaralis safuZvelze, rac ar aris dakavSirebuli xelSekrulebasTan, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca kanonmdeblobiT
dadgenilia mocemuli pasuxismgeblobis warmoSoba da romelic saxelSekrulebo urTierTobas ukavSirdeba.
205
gintare Satene
korufcia da samarTali
samarTlis safuZvlebis kursis moduli
kursi studentebisaTvis, romlebic swavloben `sajaro administrirebis~, `biznesis marTvis~ da `ekonomikis~ specialobebze.
kursis daniSnuleba
1. saxelmwifos Teoriis ZiriTad aspeqtebTan gacnoba;
2. iuridiuli mecnierebebis sistemis garkveva;
3. saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis organoebis saqmianobis Tvisebebisa da maTi
sistemis ganxilva;
4. samarTlis calkeuli sferoebis gacnoba da maTi Taviseburebebis ganxilva;
5. samoqalaqo cnobierebis, pasuxismgeblobis, sakuTari da sazogadoebrivi interesebis SeTanxmebis aucileblobis Camoyalibeba.
sagnis – `samarTlis safuZvlebi~ – daniSnulebis me3-5 punqtebSi CamoTvlili miznebi unda mivusadagoT korufcias, rogorc saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis da saxelmwifo samsaxuris problemas, misi gamovlinebis mizezebs da
saxelmwifos mier gatarebul antikorufciul politikas.
saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis da saxelmwifo samsaxuris sferoSi korufciis ganxilvisas, saWiroa Semdegi qveTemebi gamovyoT:
1. saxelmwifo samsaxurSi korufciis cneba da problema;
2. korufciis gavrceleba (done da masStabi) litvaSi;
3. korufciis mizezebi da Sedegebi;
4. danaSaulebi da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg da maTi daxasiaTeba;
5. saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenil danaSaulebTan da danaSaulebriv qmedebebTan dakavSirebuli praqtikuli situaciebis analizi da sisxlis samarTlebrivi Sefaseba;
6. saxelmwifos mier gatarebuli korufciis prevenciuli zomebi da misi
maregulirebeli samarTlebrivi aqtebi.
literatura
1. Budbergyte R., Šakočius A., Žilinskas D., Lietuvos Respublikos valstybes tarnybos
istatymo komentaras. Vilnius: Lietuvos viešojo administravimo institutas, 2004.
2. “Lietuvos Respublikos korupcijos prevencijos istatymas”, Žin., 2002, Nr. 57-2297.
3. “Lietuvos Respublikos specialiuju tyrimu tarnybos istatymas”, Žin., 2003, Nr. 38-1657.
4. “Lietuvos Respublikos valstybes tarnybos istatymas”, Žin., 2002, Nr. 45-1708.
5. Pivoriunas A., “Nusikaltimai valstybes tarnybai ir korupcija – problemos ir ju sprendimo
budai”, Justitia, 1997, Nr. 6.
206 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
1. leqciebi
1.1 iuridiuli mecnierebebis sistema. sakonstitucio samarTlis cneba da normebi. saxelmwifos da samarTlis warmoSoba da niSnebi.
1.2 samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis reglamentireba saxelmwifo samarTlebrivi aqtebiT. saxelmwifo mmarTvelobis organoebis sistema,
romlebic axorcieleben saxelmwifo samsaxuris marTvas, maTi saqmianobis niSnebi da kompetencia.
1.3 administraciuli samarTali, rogorc samarTlis sfero, romelic
ganixilavs mmarTvelobas. normatiuli aqtebi, rogorc administraciuli samarTlis wyaroebi. administraciuli pasuxismgeblobis Taviseburebebi, misi subieqtebi da safuZvlebi.
1.4 administraciuli kanonmdebloba, rogorc sajaro administrirebis
safuZveli.
1.5 administraciuli sasjelis saxeebi, maTi daniSnuleba da Sesruleba.
1.6 sisxlis samarTlis cneba da sistema. sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis mniSvneloba da gamoyeneba.
1.7 sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis cneba da misi miznebi. sasjelis daniSnuleba. sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisufleba.
1.8 procesualuri iZulebis RonisZiebebi. winaswari gamoZieba. pirveli instanciis sasamarTloebSi saqmeebis ganxilvis procesi.
1.9 SromiTi samarTlis wyaroebi da subieqtebi. SromiTi mowyoba. SromiTi xelSekrulebis cneba da Sinaarsi, SromiTi xelSekrulebis damTavreba.
1.10 Sromis da dasvenebis dro. gamomuSavebuli xelfasi. Sromis anazRaurebis sistemebi da saxeebi. garantiebi da kompensaciebi. SromiTi
disciplina. materialuri pasuxismgebloba. Sromis usafrTxoeba.
1.11 damqiraveblis pasuxismgebloba janmrTelobisaTvis miyenebuli zianis gamo. zianis anazRaureba samsaxurSi momxdari ubeduri SemTxvevebis gamo.
1.12 samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis sistema da gamoyeneba.
1.13 sajaro samarTlis cneba. qorwineba. fiqtiuri qorwineba.
1.14 meuRleTa uflebebi da movaleobebi. qorwinebis dasruleba.
1.15 mSoblebisa da Svilebis uflebebi da movaleobebi. Svilad ayvana. meurveoba. meurvis da mzrunvelis samarTlebrivi mdgomareoba.
1.16 sawarmos cneba. sawarmo, rogorc samarTlebrivi subieqti. sawarmos dafuZnebis wesis regulireba.
1.17 sawarmos reorganizacia da likvidacia.
1.18 saerTaSoriso privatuli samarTali. amocanebi, gamoyeneba.
1.19 fizikuri da iuridiuli pirebi. warmomadgenloba.
1.20 sakuTrebis uflebis mopoveba da dakargva.
1.21 samemkvidreo samarTlis cneba, memkvidreebi, memkvidreobis formebi.
1.22 begaris cneba da misi warmoSobis safuZvlebi.
1.23 begaris saxeebi, Suamdgomloba, garantia, restitucia. xelSekrulebebis Zala da forma.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
2. praqtikuli samuSao
2.1 sakonstitucio samarTali da misi socialuri daniSnuleba.
2.2 administraciuli samarTlis amocanebi da wyaroebi, administraciul-procesualuri urTierTobebis Taviseburebebi da elementebi.
2.3 sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis daniSnuleba da gamoyeneba.
2.4 SromiTi samarTlis principebi. koleqtiuri SromiTi urTierTobebi.
2.5 Sromis anazRaureba da xarisxi.
2.6 samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis struqtura da daniSnuleba.
2.7 saerTaSoriso samoqalaqo urTierTobebis regulireba.
2.8 begaris samarTlebrivi principebi.
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. Abramavičius A., Mikelenas V., Imoniu vadovu teisine atsakomybe. Vilnius, 1998.
2. Budbergyte R., Šakočius A., Žilinskas D., Lietuvos Respublikos valstybes tarnybos
istatymo komentaras. Vilnius: Lietuvos viešojo administravimo institutas, 2004.*
3. Laurinavičius A., Bendruomenes ir teisesaugos instituciju bendradarbiavimas. Vilnius:
LTA, 2000.
4. Lietuvos konstitucine teise. Vilnius: Lietuvos teises universitetas, 2001.
5. Lietuvos konstitucines teises ivadas. Vilnius: Justicija, 2001.
6. Petkevičius P., Administracine atsakomybe. Vilnius, 1996.
7. Pivoriunas A., “Nusikaltimai valstybes tarnybai ir korupcijai – problemos bei ju
sprendimo budai”, Justitia, 1997, Nr. 6.*
8. Pumputis A., Europos žmogaus teisiu ir pagrindiniu laisviu apsaugos konvencija ir jos
igyvendinimo mechanizmas. Vilnius: LTA, 2000.
9. Sartori G., Lyginamoji konstitucine inžinerija. Vilnius: Poligra.ja ir informatika, 2001.
davaleba 1.
situaciis Sefaseba, romelic Tan erTvis leqcias – `sisxlis samarTlis
cneba da sistema. sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis daniSnuleba da gamoyeneba~, im cvlilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlebic gaCnda antikorufciuli ganaTlebis winamdebare modulTan integrirebis safuZvelze.
situacia 1. soflis macxovrebeli qalbatoni, oTxi mcirewlovani Svilis
deda, moqalaqe X sakuTari Svilis mkvlelobaSi daadanaSaules. igi garSemomyofebTan malavda, rom fexmZimed iyo. yvelasgan ganmartoebiT tyeSi
imSobiara da axalSobili gaguda. Tavisi moqmedeba man imiT axsna, rom aranairi saSualeba ar hqonda kidev erTi bavSvis gasazrdelad. mis aseT saqciels qmarmac dauWira mxari. garda amisa, danaSaulis Cadenis momentSi is meuRlis gverdiT imyofeboda. marTalia, mas Tavad ar mouklavs bavSvi, magram cols cxedris damarxvaSi daexmara. bavSvTa uflebebis samsaxurma warmoadgina cnoba imis Taobaze, rom es ojaxi asocialuria, ar uvlis Tavis
Svilebs, orive meuRle loTobs.
207
208 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
aRwerili danaSauli arRvevs adamianis Semdeg uflebebs da Tavisuflebebs:
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situacia 2. policiaSi momuSave ori Tanamdebobis piri, romlebmac icod-
nen sad gaCerdnen ukrainidan litvaSi aralegalurad Camosuli msubuqi yofaqcevis qalebi, maT saxlSi miadgnen da piradobis damadasturebeli sabuTebi mosTxoves. gogonebs dokumentebi ar aRmoaCndaT, romliTac litvaSi
yofnis ufleba eqnebodaT. policielebma maT aTasi litis gadaxda SesTavazes deportaciis sanacvlod. gogonebs arc fuli hqondaT, magram daTanxmdnen, rom usasyidlod daemyarebinaT maTTan seqsualuri kavSiri. Sedegad, roca xsenebuli SemTxvevis faqtze sisxlis samarTlis saqme aRiZra,
gairkva, rom policielebi ramdenime Tvis ganmavlobaSi sargeblobdnen gogonebis momsaxurebiT.
aRwerili danaSauli arRvevs adamianis Semdeg uflebebs da Tavisuflebebs:
........................................................................
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situacia 3. dabadebis dRis aRniSvnis dros SemTxveviT mZimed daiWra ada-
miani. gamoZiebis msvlelobisas dadginda, rom alkoholuri zemoqmedebis
qveS myofi policieli, moqalaqe b. saRamoze Tavs iwonebda samsaxuris pistoletiT da SesaTvaliereblad gadasca qalbaton v.-s. man iaraRis xelSi
aRebisas SemTxveviT Caxmaxs gamohkra TiTi. pistoleti gavarda da tyvia
gverdiT mdgom mamakacs moxvda. gogona amtkicebda, rom adre iaraRi arasodes unaxavs, ar icoda, rom is datenili iyo da verc mixvda, rogor moxda
es yvelaferi.
aRwerili danaSauli arRvevs adamianis Semdeg uflebebs da Tavisuflebebs:
........................................................................
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davaleba 2.
situaciis Sefaseba, romelic Tan erTvis leqcias `sisxlis samarTlis
cneba da sistema. sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis daniSnuleba da gamoyeneba~, im cvlilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlebic gaCnda antikorufciuli ganaTlebis winamdebare modulTan integrirebis safuZvelze.
rogor fiqrobT, SeiZleba Tu ara aRwerili SemTxvevebi samarTlebriv
normebTan Seusabamod, korufciad CaiTvalos?
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
SemTxvevis aRwera
SeiZleba Tu ara
CaiTvalos korufciad? (ki an ara)
1. pirdapiri an iribi moTxovna saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis
piris, an im piris mier, romelic asrulebs saxelmwifoebriv funqciebs nebismieri fuladi Rirebulebis mqone nivTis micemaze an miRebaze, an sxva sargebeli, miRebuli saCuqris, momsaxurebis, dapirebis, piradi an sxva pirisTvis,
an kanonis Sesabamisad dawesebuli subieqtisTvis privilegiebis miRebis saxiT, mis mier dakavebuli Tanamdebobis Sesabamisi qmedebis Sesruleba an arSesruleba.
2. pirdapiri an iribi SeTavazeba an gadacema saxelmwifo
Tanamdebobis pirze an im pirze, romelic asrulebs saxelmwifoebriv funqciebs, nebismieri fuladi Rirebulebis
mqone nivTis an sxva sargebelis, romelic miRebulia saCuqris, momsaxurebis, dapirebis, piradi an sxva pirisTvis,
an kanonis Sesabamisad dawesebuli subieqtisTvis privilegiebis miRebis saxiT, mis mier dakavebuli Tanamdebobis Sesabamisi qmedebis Sesruleba an arSesruleba.
3. saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis piris, an im piris, romelic
asrulebs saxelmwifoebriv funqciebs Tanamdebobrivi qmedeba an maTi Seusrulebloba, roca es keTdeba sargeblis
miRebis mizniT sakuTari TavisTvis an mesame mxarisaTvis,
Tumca amasTan erTad irRveva kanonis debulebebi.
4. saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis piris, an im piris, romelic
asrulebs saxelmwifoebriv funqciebs Tanamdebobrivi qmedeba an maTi Seusrulebloba, roca es ar keTdeba sargeblis miRebis mizniT sakuTari TavisTvis an mesame mxarisaTvis, Tumca amasTan erTad irRveva kanonis debulebebi.
5. 1,2 da 3 SemTxvevebSi aRwerili ukanono qmedebebis gziT
SeZenili qonebis gamoyeneba, an aseTi qonebis damalva.
6. monawileoba korufciul moqmedebebSi mTavari moqmedi piris, Tanamonawilis, wamqezeblis, Semsruleblis an
damxmares saxiT, an nebismieri saxis monawileoba, monawileobis ganzraxva, TanamSromloba an dafarva.
leqciis magaliTi `sisxlis samarTlis cneba da sistema. sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis daniSnuleba da gamoyeneba~, im cvlilebebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlebic gaCnda antikorufciuli ganaTlebis winamdebare modulTan integrirebis safuZvelze.
sisxlis samarTali – es aris samarTlebrivi normebis sistema, romelic
regulirebis normebis qmediTunarianobis uzrunvelyofis
mizniT:
1) amtkicebs saxelmwifos sisxlis samarTlis principebs;
2) gansazRvravs regulirebis normebis darRvevisas romeli qmedebebi
unda CaiTvalos danaSaulad an sisxlis samarTlebriv qmedebad;
209
210 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
3) adgens, ra aris damnaSave pirTaTvis sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobaSi micemis safuZvlebi da pirobebi.
4) amtkicebs sanqciis saxeebs, danaSaulis formebs da a.S.
sisxlis samarTlis daniSnuleba – samarTlis sxva sferoebiT dadgenili akrZalvebis garantia. sisxlis samarTlis regulirebis ZiriTadi meTodi – imperatiulia (gamoxatuli brZanebiTi formiT). sisxlis samarTlis ZiriTadi wyaroa – sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi, romelic zogadi da specialuri nawilebisagan Sedgeba.
sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis ZiriTad nawilSi:
1) reglamentirdeba saerTo mdgomareoba;
2) ganisazRvreba sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis moqmedebis sakiTxebi;
3) moyvanilia danaSaulisa da sisxlis samarTlebrivi qmedebis cnebebi;
4) saxeldeba da ganisazRvreba danaSaulebrivi qmedebis stadiebi da
formebi;
5) mtkicdeba sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis acilebis garemoebebi;
6) Tanxmdeba sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobidan gaTavisufleba;
7) moyvanilia sasjelis cneba, misi daniSnulebis sakiTxebi;
8) ganixileba sisxlis samarTlebrivi zemoqmedebis meTodebi da maTi daniSnulebis SesaZleblobebi;
9) reglamentirdeba sasjelis sisruleSi moyvanis gadavadeba da pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisufleba;
10) moyvanilia arasrulwlovanTa sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis
Taviseburebebi;
11) reglamentirdeba sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis xandazmuloba;
12) saubaria nasamarTleobaze;
13) ganixileba samedicino xasiaTis iZulebiTi RonisZiebebi da maTi gamoyenebis Taviseburebebi.
sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis specialuri nawilis konkretul ganyofilebebSi ki mtkicdeba calkeuli danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi, romlebsac danaSauli da sisxlis samarTlebrivi qmedeba ewodebaT. zemoT xsenebuli danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi saxeobebis mixedviT jgufdeba, anu romeli samarTlebrivi keTildReoba da faseulobebi iqna darRveuli danaSaulebrivi
xelyofis Sedegad.
amgvarad, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis specialuri nawili warmoadgens
sisxlis samarTlis kanonis normebs, romlebic gansazRvraven im qmedebebis sistemas da niSnebs, romlebic aRiarebulia danaSaulebrivad, agreTve sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis zogadi nawilis principebis da Tezisebis
Tanaxmad dadgenil pasuxismgeblobas da sasjels im pirTan mimarTebaSi,
romelmac konkretuli qmedeba Caidina. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis specialuri nawilis normebi gansazRvraven sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis miznebs, moqmedebis sazRvrebs, sisxlis samarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis safuZvlebs, danaSaulis Cadenis formebs, adgenen dasjis sistemas,
maTi daniSnulebis wesebs, agreTve wyveten sxva zogad sakiTxebs, romlebic dakavSirebulia piris sisxlis samarTlis pasuxisgebaSi micemasTan da
mis dasjasTan.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
xazi unda gaesvas imas, rom sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis specialuri nawilis normebi adgenen konkretuli danaSaulis saxeobriv niSan-Tvisebebs, romlebic axasiaTebs danaSaulis Sesabamis Semadgenlobas, agreTve gansazRvraven sanqcias, romelic SeiZleba mivuyenoT realurad Cadenil danaSauls.
sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis specialuri nawilis normebi sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis zogadi nawilis normebTan SedarebiT gansazRvrul Taviseburebebs floben: Cveulebriv, isini qmedebebis daskvniT sias warmoadgenen, romlebic danaSauls an sisxlis samarTlebriv qmedebas miekuTvnebian.
amitom, imis gadawyveta, iTvleba Tu ara qmedeba danaSaulad (sisxlis samarTlebriv qmedebad), SesaZlebelia masze specialuri nawilis normebis
miyenebis saSualebiT.
Tanamedrove werilobiT wyaroebSi sisxlis samarTlis normebi, rogorc
wesi, dajgufebulia dasacavi keTildReobis Sesabamisad, anu danaSaulis
(sisxlis samarTlebrivi qmedebis) obieqtis saxeobis gaTvaliswinebiT. Tumca, SesaZlebelia isic, rom normebis garkveuli jgufi gaerTiandes TavSi
ara mxolod erTi, aramed ramdenime saxis obieqtis safuZvelze. tradiciulad, Tavebi ganlagebulia ufro saSiSi danaSaulebidan naklebad saSiSisaken. Tumca, zemoT xsenebuli sakiTxebis gadawyvetisas umalve wamoiWreba
aqsiologiuri (aqsiologia – filosofiis dargi, romelic swavlobs Rirebulebis raobas) problema: sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobiT daculi romeli sikeTe unda CaiTvalos ufro Rirebulad, da romeli – naklebad. litvis respublikis sisxlis samarTlis axal kodeqsSia mocemuli specialuri
nawilis Tavebis aseTi Tanmimdevroba:
1. danaSauli kacobriobis winaaRmdeg da samxedro danaSauli.
2. danaSauli litvis respublikis damoukideblobis, teritoriuli mTlianobis da konstituciuri wyobis winaaRmdeg.
3. danaSauli adamianis sicocxlis winaaRmdeg.
4. danaSauli adamianis janmrTelobis winaaRmdeg.
5. danaSauli, romelic safrTxes uqmnis adamianis sicocxles da janmrTelobas.
6. danaSauli adamianis Tavisuflebis winaaRmdeg.
7. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi adamianis seqsualuri TviTgamorkvevis da misi xelSeuxeblobis winaaRmdeg.
8. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi pirovnebis pativisa da Rirsebis winaaRmdeg.
9. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi bavSvisa da ojaxis winaaRmdeg.
10. danaSauli pirovnebis piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis winaaRmdeg.
11. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi pirovnebis Tanasworuflebianobis da sindisis Tavisuflebis winaaRmdeg.
12. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi moqalaqeTa amomrCevlis uflebis da litvis respublikis prezidentis, seimis sabWoebis da TviTmmarTvelobis arCevnebis an referendumebis winaaRmdeg.
13. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi pirovnebis socialuri uflebebis winaaRmdeg.
14. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi sakuTrebis, qonebrivi uflebebis da qonebrivi interesebis winaaRmdeg.
15. danaSauli inteleqtualuri da samrewvelo sakuTrebis winaaRmdeg.
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212 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
16. danaSauli sainformacio teqnologiis winaaRmdeg.
17. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi ekonomikis da samrewvelo saqmianobis wesis winaaRmdeg.
18. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi finansuri sistemis winaaRmdeg.
19. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi saxelmwifo samsaxuris da sajaro interesebis winaaRmdeg.
20. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi samarTlianobis winaaRmdeg.
21. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi sazogadoebrivi usafrTxoebis
winaaRmdeg.
22. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia iaraRis, sabrZolo masalebis, feTqebadi an radioaqtiuri nivTierebebis
flobasTan.
23. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia narkotikuli an fsiqotropiuli, momwamvleli an Zliermoqmedi nivTierebebis flobasTan.
24. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi garemopirobebis da xalxis janmrTelobis winaaRmdeg.
25. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi satransporto moZraobis usafrTxoebis winaaRmdeg.
26. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi sazogadoebrivi wesrigis winaaRmdeg.
27. danaSauli saxelmwifo moxelis an sajaro administrirebis funqciis
aRmasrulebeli piris winaaRmdeg.
28. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi mmarTvelobis wesis winaaRmdeg.
29. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi mmarTvelobis wesis winaaRmdeg,
romlebic ukavSirdeba dokumentebis an sazomi saSualebebis gayalbebas.
30. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi zneobis winaaRmdeg.
31. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi micvalebulis xsovnis winaaRmdeg.
32. danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi mxaris dacvis samsaxuris winaaRmdeg.
aRsaniSnavia, rom TiToeuli jgufis danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi arRveven ara marto kanoniT gansazRvrul maregulirebel samarTlebriv normebs, aramed litvis respublikis konstituciiT damtkicebul
uflebebs, Tavisuflebebs an adamianis kanonier interesebs (magaliTad,
piri, romelic Caidens qurdobas anu danaSuls, romelic gaTvaliswinebulia sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 28-e TavSi `danaSauli da danaSaulebrivi
qmedebebi sakuTrebis, qonebrivi uflebebis da qonebrivi interesebis winaaRmdeg~, imavdroulad, arRvevs sxva piris uflebas sakuTrebis xelSeuxeblobis Sesaxeb, romelic damtkicebulia konstituciis 23-e muxliT.), risTvisac sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsiT damrRvevis mimarT gaTvaliswinebulia zemoqmedebis Sesabamisi normebi (sanqciebi). amitom, SeiZleba moxdes
imis konstatireba, rom danaSaulebrivi qmedebebis siis damtkicebis saSualebiT, romlebic akrZalvis qveSaa, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi am saxiT
axorcielebs samarTlis mier Sesrulebul funqcias adamianis uflebebis,
Tavisuflebebis da kanonieri interesebis dacvis Taobaze.
warmodgenili masalebis safuZvelze gamomdinareobs daskvna, litvis
respublikis sisxlis samarTlis regulirebis obieqts warmoadgens dana-
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
Saulis formaluri aRniSvna, rogorc danaSaulebrivi qmedebis erT-erTi
forma: `danaSauli – es aris danaSaulebrivi qmedeba, romlis gamoc kanoniT gaTvaliswinebulia Tavisuflebis aRkveTa~.
ufro dawvrilebiT gavaanalizoT danaSaulis niSnebi:
1. danaSauli – es aris qmedeba, romelic safrTxes uqmnis Rirebulebebis arsebul sistemas. adamianis qmedebebis saSiSroeba aris danaSaulis pirveli niSani, qmedebis kriminalizaciis winapiroba, kanonmdeblis gzamkvlevi. arasaSiSi qmedebebi ar SeiZleba iyos kriminalizirebuli. qmedebis saSiSroeba xSirad warmoadgens danaSaulis niSans, vinaidan es iTvleba danaSaulis arsis maCveneblad. xsnis, ratom iTvleba adamianis qmedeba danaSaulad. litvis respublikis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi sityva `saSiSs~ Semdegnairad xsnis: `saSiSroebis gamomwvevi, zianis mimyenebeli, raRacaze Tavdamsxmeli an raRacis damrRvevi~. aranakleb mniSvnelovania isic, Tu raze
xdeba Tavdasxma, raze xdeba zianis miyeneba danaSaulebrivi qmedebiT – saxelmwifoze, pirovnebaze Tu sazogadoebaze.
yvela sazogadoebrivi faseuloba SeiZleba or jgufad daiyos, esenia:
• yvela adamianisaTvis saerTo faseulobebi, romlebsac cnobs demokratiuli sazogadoeba da pativs scems yvela politikuri partia (adamianis sicocxle, janmrTeloba, Rirseba, sakuTreba, sazogadoebrivi
usafrTxoeba). xsenebuli faseulobebi (didi an mcire Rirebulebis)
daculia (Tundac kanonis mixedviT) totalitarul saxelmwifoebSic.
• ideologiuri faseulobebi, romlebTan damokidebulebac sxvadasxva
partiebSi, rogorc wesi, gansxvavebulia. TiToeul sazogadoebas xom
faseulobebis sakuTari Skala gaaCnia.
maRali faseulobebi daculia sisxlis samarTliT, amitom, SeiZleba imis
mtkiceba, rom yvelaze saSiSi qmedebebi, romelTa gziTac xdeba maRali faseulobebis xelyofa, miCneulia danaSaulad.
danaSaulis saxifaTooba gansxvavebulia. is ori terminiT aRiniSneba: saSiSroebis xasiaTi da saSiSroebis xarisxi.
qmedebis
Cadenis
motivi
niSnebi, romlebiTac gamowveulia danaSaulis saSiSroebis xasiaTi
Tavdasxmis
obieqtis
Rirebuleba
danaSaulis
forma
danaSaulis
obieqti
qmedebis
Cadenis
xerxi
qmedebis
Cadenis
Sedegi
danaSaulis
subieqtis
Taviseburebebi
qmedebis
mizani
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214 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
saSiSroebis xasiaTi, nawilobriv, Tavdasxmis obieqtis RirebulebiTaa
ganpirobebuli. ase gansxvavdeba saSiSroebis xasiaTiT sxeulis dazianeba
qurdobisagan, ramdenadac sxeulis dazianeba ufro saSiS danaSaulad
iTvleba, vinaidan janmrTeloba ufro did Rirebulebas warmoadgens, vidre sakuTreba.
amave dros, ramdenime msgavsi an erTnairi tipis danaSauli saSiSroebis
xarisxiT gansxvavdeba, rac ganpirobebulia gansazRvruli niSnebis gamoxatvis masStabiT (sxeulis mZime dazianeba iTvleba ufro saSiSad, vidre msubuqi da a.S.).
2. qmedebis Seusabamoba sisxlis samarTlis kanonTan. danaSaulad iTvleba mxolod iseTi saSiSi qmedeba, romelic kanoniT aris kriminalizirebuli. es niSani aRniSnavs ara marto imas, rom CvenTvis saintereso qmedeba,
principSi, saSiSroebas warmoadgens romelime faseulobisaTvis, aramed imasac, rom arsebobs kanoni, romelic aRwers arasasurveli qcevis niSnebs da
iTvaliswinebs sisxlis samarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobas aseTi qmedebisaTvis. sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdebloba specifikuria im kuTxiT, rom masSi
formulirebulia ara savaldebulo, aramed amkrZalavi normebi. isini krZalaven im qmedebebis Cadenas, romlebic aRwerilia sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobaSi.
Tu aklia danaSaulis Tundac erTi niSani, maSin ar arsebobs arc danaSauli. danaSaulis niSnebi sisxlis samarTlis devnis dawyebis safuZvels warmoadgens:
1. Cadenili qmedeba miiCneva saSiSad
arsebuli faseulobebisaTvis, Tumca ar ewinaaRmdegeba sisxlis samarTlis kodeqss.
2. qmedeba ewinaaRmdegeba sisxlis samarTlis kodeqss, Tumca ar aris saSiSi
arsebuli faseulobebis sistemisaTvis,
mas zians ar ayenebs.
zogierTi danaSaulebrivi qmedebis mokle mimoxilva
cneba – `danaSauli adamianis sicocxlis da janmrTelobis winaaRmdeg~
(romelic safrTxes uqmnis adamianis sicocxles da janmrTelobas).
sisxlis samarTlis erT-erTi ZiriTadi amocana – adamianis da misi yvelaze ufro mniSvnelovani faseulobebis dacva danaSaulebrivi ganzraxvisagan. litvis respublikis konstituciaSi aRniSnulia, rom adamianis sicosxles icavs kanoni, adamianis Tavisufleba xelSeuxebelia, adamianis Rirseba kanoniT aris daculi. am debulebebs axorcielebs litvis respublikis
sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi.
obieqturad, adamianis uflebebi yoveli danaSaulisas irRveva, Tumca
adamianis pirovnebis winaaRmdeg Cadenil danaSaulad iTvleba danaSaulebis mxolod is jgufi, romelTa saxeobriv da uSualo (ara damatebiT) obieqts, individi warmoadgens. qveynebis umravlesobis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsebi aRiareben adamianis winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSaulis upirvelesobas. danaSaulis saxeobriv obieqtad iTvleba TviTon adamiani, anu biologiuri arseba, individi. zemoT aRniSnuli danaSaulebis uSualo obieqti SeiZleba iyos adamianis sicocxle, janmrTeloba da Rirseba. adamianis winaaRmdeg danaSaulis uSualo obieqtebi Semdegnairad iyofa:
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
1) danaSauli pirovnebis sicocxlis winaaRmdeg (winaswarganzraxuli
mkvleloba, TviTmkvlelobamde miyvana);
2) danaSauli adamianis janmrTelobis winaaRmdeg (sxvadasxva saxis sxeulis dazianebebi, ukanono aborti, daxmarebis gauwevloba adamianisTvis, romelic imyofeba sicocxlisTvis saSiS mdgomareobaSi;)
3) danaSauli adamianis Tavisuflebis winaaRmdeg (bavSvis gataceba an
Secvla, Tavisuflebis ukanono aRkveTa, mZevlebis ayvana);
4) sqesobrivi danaSaulebi (gaupatiureba, qalTan iZulebiTi seqsualuri kontaqtis damyareba, garyvnili qmedebebi);
5) danaSauli adamianis pativisa da Rirsebis winaaRmdeg (ciliswameba, Seuracxyofa).
danaSaulis da sisxlis samarTlebrivi qmedebebis cneba saxelmwifo
samsaxuris da sajaro interesebis winaaRmdeg
litvis respublikis sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 33-e muxliT damtkicebulia danaSaulis da sisxlis samarTlebrivi qmedebebis Semadgenloba
saxelmwifo samsaxuris da sajaro interesebis winaaRmdeg. litvis respublikis konstituciis me-5 muxliT gaTvaliswinebulia – litvis respublikaSi saxelmwifo xelisuflebas axorcielebs seimi, mTavroba da sasamarTlo. saxelisuflebo uflebamosilebebi gansazRvrulia konstituciiT. xelisuflebis organoebi xalxs emsaxurebian. saxelmwifo moxeleebi da Tanamdebobis pirebi valdebulni arian, jerovnad Seasrulon TavianTi samsaxureobrivi movaleobebi, daicvan dadgenili SromiTi da saxelmwifo disciplina. amgvarad, xazgasmulia saxelmwifo aparatis mniSvneloba – adamianis uflebebis da Tavisuflebebis dacvis da realizaciis garantiebi. saxelmwifos, sazogadoebis da adamianis cxovrebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania qmediTi, stabiluri konstituciis, kanonmdeblobis da sxva samarTlebrivi aqtebis Sesabamisad moqmedi saxelmwifo aparati, rac bevrad
aris damokidebuli saxelmwifo samsaxurSi momuSave pirebis patiosnebaze,
Semsruleblobasa da pasuxismgeblobaze. saxelmwifo samsaxuris Sesaxeb kanonis I nawilis me-4 statiiT dadgenilia, rom litvis respublikis saxelmwifo samsaxuri efuZneba kanonis uzenaesobis, Tanasworuflebianobis, politikuri neitralitetis, gamWvirvalobis da karieris principebs. samsaxurSi CamoTvlili principebis dacva iZleva adamianis uflebebis, Tavisuflebebis, interesebis dacvis, sazogadoebis, kanonierebis, ekonomikuri keTildReobis da a.S. realur garantiebs.
saxelmwifo samsaxuris TanamSromlebi valdebulni arian adamianebs Sesabamisi sajaro momsaxureba gauwion. Tumca, TavianTi movaleobebis Seusruleblobis, arajerovnad, arakeTilsindisierad Sesrulebis, an samsaxureobrivi mdgomareobis sakuTari interesebisaTvis gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, isini dezorganizacias ukeTeben, arRveven saxelmwifo samsaxuris muSaobas sxvadasxva sferoSi da sxvadasxva doneze, aCereben an xels uSlian mniSvnelovani proeqtebis, kanonebis ganxorcielebas. amgvarad, pirdapir an
iribad irRveva adamianis uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi, zaraldeba sazogadoebis yvela wevris materialuri keTildReoba da a.S. xazgasasmelia isic,
215
216 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
rom saxelmwifo samsaxuris danaSaulebrivi xelyofis Sedegebis masStabi
pirdapir kavSirSia damnaSavis mier dakavebul TanamdebobasTan: saxelmwifo samsaxuris ufro maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis mier Cadenili danaSaulebrivi qmedebebi ufro mZime Sedegebs iwveven, gansakuTrebiT politikuri TvalsazrisiT. Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulebi amaxinjeben an uaryofen konstituciis debulebebs imis Taobaze, rom saxelmwifo samsaxurebi unda emsaxurebodnen xalxs, rac xalxis ndobis dakargvas iwvevs ara marto saxelmwifo samsaxuris, aramed mTlianad saxelmwifos mimarT.
saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSauli im pirTa saSiS
qmedebas warmoadgens, romlebsac garkveuli Tanamdebobebi ukaviaT saxelmwifo samsaxurSi da sargebloben ra amiT, mniSvnelovan zarals ayeneben saxelmwifos interesebs an sxva adamianebs. zemoT aRniSnuli danaSaulebi yovelTvis dakavSirebulia subieqtis samsaxureobriv mdgomareobasTan. damnaSaves saxelmwifo samsaxurSi ukavia gansazRvruli Tanamdeboba da amitom
SeiZleba iTvlebodes aseTi danaSaulis subieqtad. amgvarad, danaSauli saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg, msgavsi danaSaulebisagan gansxvavebiT, magaliTad, ramdenime saxelmwifo danaSaulisgan an mmarTvelobis wesis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli danaSaulisgan, Cadenilia imave organoebis TanamSromelTa mier, anu maT normalur muSaobaze Tavdasxma Signidan xorcieldeba.
zustad samsaxureobrivi mdgomareoba aZlevs SesaZleblobas subieqts, dakavebuli iyos qmedebiT, romelic saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSaulis obieqturi mxaris niSnad iTvleba.
garkveuli saxis dakavebuli Tanamdebobebi da uflebamosilebebi saxelmwifo samsaxurSi danaSaulebrivi qmedebis, anu samsaxureobrivi interesebis sawinaaRmdego qmedebis Casadenad gamoiyeneba. aseTi moqmedebebi arRvevs saxelmwifo samsaxuris principebs, xels uSlis saxelmwifo samsaxuris organoebis normalur saqmianobas, ewinaaRmdegeba saxelmwifo samsaxuris movaleobebs da funqciebs. zogierT SemTxvevebSi, aseTi danaSauli
xdeba sakuTari samsaxureobrivi uflebamosilebis an kompetenciis pirdapiri gamoyenebis saSualebiT, sxva SemTxvevebSi – danaSaulebrivi qmedeba
xorcieldeba subieqtis ara samsaxureobrivi uflebamosilebis sferoSi,
magram sxva subieqtebis samsaxurze ukanono qmedebisaTvis zewolis saSualebiT. saxelmwifo samsaxurSi dakavebul Tanamdebobas, mis xasiaTs da mniSvnelobas, rogorc wesi, uSualo kavSiri aqvT danaSaulebrivi samsaxureobrivi darRvevis xasiaTTan, masStabTan da mis SedegebTan. amasTan erTad,
aRsaniSnavia, rom saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSaulis
Sedegad zaraldeba ara marto saxelmwifo samsaxuris mimarT wayenebuli
kanoniT damtkicebuli saerTo moTxovnebi, aramed ar sruldeba an arajerovnad sruldeba specialuri moTxovnebi, romlebic damtkicebulia sxva
samarTlebrivi aqtebiT, magaliTad, samsaxureobrivi wesdebebiT an Tanamdebobrivi instruqciebiT.
Tavad dasaxeleba – `danaSauli saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg~ – ara
marto xsnis xsenebuli danaSaulis saxeobriv obieqts, aramed gansazRvravs
sferos, romelSic SeiZleba iyos Cadenili danaSauli. saxelmwifo samsaxuris Sesaxeb litvis respublikis kanonis Sesabamisad, saxelmwifo samsaxu-
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
ri aris saxelmwifo moxeleebis saqmianoba saxelmwifo organoebSi an dawesebulebebSi, romlebic axorcieleben sajaro administrirebis, sameurneo an teqnikur funqciebs anda sajaro momsaxurebas uweven sazogadoebas.
saxelmwifo an TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi – warmomadgenlobiTi xelisufleba, saxelmwifos meTauri, aRmasrulebeli xelisufleba, sasamarTlo
xelisufleba, kontroli. amgvarad, saxelmwifo samsaxuri warmoadgens sajaro mmarTvelobis, keTilmowyobis da momsaxurebis sferos. saxelmwifo
samsaxuris saqmianobasa da urTierTobebSi pirvel adgilze dgas sajaro
interesi. sazogadoebis arsebobis da ganviTarebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi pirobaa sajaro interesis cxovrebaSi ganxorcieleba, romelic aRiarebulia saxelmwifos mier da sazogadoebrivi interesis samarTlebrivi
dacvis qveS imyofeba.
saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSaulis adgili ar aris
aucilebeli yovelTvis damnaSavis samuSao adgili iyos. damnaSaves, romelic samsaxureobrivi mdgomareobiT sargeblobs, kavSirebiT da avtoritetiT SeuZlia sxva pirebs danaSaulebrivi qmedebis Cadenisaken ubiZgos.
imdenad, ramdenadac, saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSauli (garda samsaxureobrivi movaleobebis Seusruleblobisa) yvelaze
xSirad gamovlindeba rogorc qmedeba, romlis Cadenis drosac saxelmwifo organoebSi samsaxuri gamoiyeneba angarebiani piradi miznebiT da es xdeba saxelmwifo interesebis winaaRmdeg, aseTi danaSaulebi xasiaTdeba,
agreTve, rogorc korufciuli. xazi unda gaesvas imasac, rom xsenebuli danaSaulebi xSirad atareben saerTaSoriso xasiaTs (magaliTad, ucxouri
investiciebis, kreditebis regulireba, xelSekrulebebis dadeba momsaxurebaze, SekveTebis miReba, privatizaciis procesi ucxouri kapitalis mozidviT).
saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSaulis cnebis Sesabamisad, maT saxeobriv obieqtad unda CaiTvalos samarTlebrivi saxelmwifos
Sesabamisi ltolva normaluri, efeqturi, avtoritetuli, konstituciis
Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobisaken. zemoT xsenebuli danaSaulebis uSualo obieqts calkeuli saxelmwifo dawesebulebebis da organoebis normaluri,
efeqturi, avtoritetuli saqmianoba warmoadgens, romelic xorcieldeba
konstituciis, kanonmdeblobis da sxva samarTlebrivi aqtebis Sesabamisad;
magaliTad, wesdebebis da Tanamdebobrivi instruqciebis Sesabamisad.
saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSaulis obieqturi mxare, rogorc wesi, mJRavndeba aqtiur moqmedebebSi. saxelmwifo samsaxuris
winaaRmdeg Cadenili zogierTi danaSaulis (qrTamis aReba, qrTamis micema
Suamavlis saSualebiT) Semadgenloba aRiwereba, rogorc formaluri. Tumca, es ar niSnavs imas, rom xsenebuli danaSaulebi ar iwveven Sedegebs. saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenili nebismieri danaSauli aucileblad xels uSlis saxelmwifo an municipaluri organoebis, dawesebulebebis normalur saqmianobas, azaralebs maT avtoritets. xSirad, Sedegebi
aSkara an sxvadasxvagvaria, xolo zogjer miiReba da sagrZnobi xdeba danaSaulebrivi qmedebis Cadenidan xangrZlivi drois Semdeg. amitom, isini ar
Sedian calkeuli danaSaulebis SemadgenlobaSi. amgvarad, xsenebuli danaSaulebis obieqtis SemadgenlobaSi, danaSaulis saSiSroebaSi, warmoqmnil
217
218 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
SedegebSi da Sedegebis gamovlinebebSi ivaraudeba saxelmwifo samsaxuris
winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSaulis specialuri subieqti – saxelmwifo samsaxuris TanamSromeli an saxelmwifo samsaxuris Tanamdebobis piri.
saxelmwifo samsaxuris Sesaxeb kanoniT dadgenilia, rom saxelmwifo moxele aris fizikuri piri, romelsac miRebuli aqvs saxelmwifo moxelis statusi, romelic damtkicebulia litvis respublikis kanoniT saxelmwifo
samsaxuris Sesaxeb da sxva kanonebiT; romelic asrulebs saxelmwifo da municipalur organoebsa da dawesebulebebSi sameurneo da teqnikur an sajaro administrirebis funqciebs an dakavebulia sajaro momsaxurebis gaweviT.
saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSaulis subieqturi mxare kanonSi daxasiaTebulia rogorc ganzraxva, xolo xsenebuli danaSaulebis SemadgenlobaSi aucilebel niSnad miTiTebulia angarebiTi an piradi
miznebi. saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenil danaSaulSi ganzraxvis Semadgenloba ramdenime momentisagan Sedgeba. damnaSaves:
1) gaazrebuli aqvs, rom aris saxelmwifo samsaxuris TanamSromeli;
2) gaazrebuli aqvs sakuTari uflebamosilebebi, valdebulebebi, funqciebi, romelTa Sesrulebasac avaldebulebs kanonmdebloba, sxva samarTlebrivi aqtebi, romlebic aregulireben saxelmwifo samsaxurs;
3) gaazrebuli aqvs, rom mis samsaxureobriv qmedebebs SeiZleba moyves
samarTlebrivi an sxva Sedegebi;
4) gaazrebuli aqvs, rom mis mier Cadenili (an ar Cadenili) qmedebebi
aWarbeben mis uflebamosilebas, kompetencias da ewinaaRmdegebian samsaxureobriv interesebs;
5) gaazrebuli aqvs, ra zianis miyeneba SeuZlia mis ukanono qmedebas samsaxureobrivi mdgomareobis gamoyenebisas;
6) gaazrebuli aqvs, rom aseTi qmedeba dakavSirebulia saxelmwifo samsaxurSi dakavebul TanamdebobasTan an warmoadgens mis ganuyofel nawils. amitom, sxva saziano Sedegebis garda azaralebs saxelmwifo samsaxuris avtoritetsac;
7) swrafva aqvs ukanono qmedebis Cadenisaken. SedegebTan mimarTebaSi
damnaSavis ganzraxva, ufro xSirad, ar konkretdeba. Tu aRwerilia saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenili danaSaulis formaluri Semadgenloba, damnaSavis fsiqikuri mdgomareoba xasiaTdeba mxolod
qmedebasTan mimarTebaSi.
saxelmwifo samsaxuris winaaRmdeg Cadenil calkeul danaSaulSi (magaliTad, qrTamis aReba, ukanono monawileoba sawarmoebis komerciul an finansur saqmianobaSi) angareba ar aris gamyarebuli aucilebeli niSniT. Tumca, zemoT xsenebuli danaSaulis Cadenis xasiaTi, garemoebebi da subieqturi mxare swored angarebian motivebs gulisxmobs.
219
gintare Satene
samewarmeo eTikis aspeqtebi
samewarmeo (komerciuli) samarTlis kursis moduli
sagnis daniSnuleba:
1. samewarmeo samarTlis cnebebis, wyaroebis da sistemis gacnoba.
2. samewarmeo sferoSi samarTlebrivi urTierTobebis ganxilva da samewarmeo samarTlis subieqtebi, maTi samarTlebrivi statusi.
3. sawarmoebis, dawesebulebebis reorganizaciis, saqmianobis licenzirebis, likvidaciis saxeebis gaanalizeba.
4. sawarmoebis gakotrebisa da likvidaciis procesis gacnoba.
5. pasuxismgeblobis sakiTxis ganxilva komerciul urTierTobebSi.
6. samewarmeo eTikis ZiriTadi aspeqtebis ganxilva (eTikis cneba, obieqti da funqciebi, misi mniSvneloba sajaro administrirebaSi da mewarmeobaSi, saxelmwifo moxeleebis profesiuli eTikis principebi da faseulobebi, sajaro administrirebis eTikis diskreciis mniSvneloba).
7. eTikuri problemebis da misi mizezebis gacnoba.
samewarmeo sferoSi korufciis ganxilvis mizniT damatebiT Semdegi qveTemebi unda gamoiyos:
1. korufcia, rogorc samewarmeo eTikis problema.
2. korufciis done da masStabi litvaSi.
3. korufciis mizezebi da Sedegebi.
4. saxelmwifo samsaxuris borotad gamoyeneba.
5. eTikasTan dakavSirebuli praqtikuli problemebis da situaciebis
analizi.
6. antikorufciuli saqmianoba, misi mimarTulebebi.
literatura
1. Bakenas L., “Valdininkai ir iššukis etikai”, Mokslas ir gyvenimas, 1996, Nr. 3.
2. Rose-Ackerman S., Korupcija ir valdžia: priežastys, padariniai ir reforma. Vilnius:
Vaga, 2001.
220 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
praqtikuli samuSao
davaleba 1. Tqveni azriT, ra mizezebi ganapirobebs korufcias? aRniSneT,
eTanxmebiT Tu ara qvemoT moyvanil mtkicebulebebs.
gare faqtorebi
Sida faqtorebi
• mentalitetis dabali done
• samoqalaqo cnobierebis dabali done
• sazogadoebis gaurkveveli da saeWvo
damokidebuleba korufciis mimarT
• sajaro moxeleebis mxridan korufciasTan brZolis dabali xarisxi
• moqalaqeebis pasiuroba antikorufciul RonisZiebebSi
• mankieri kanonmdeboba da kanonebSi
xSiri cvlilebebi
• dausjelobis sindromi
• kontrolis da mowmeTa dacvis programebis araefeqturi sistema
• iuridiuli procedurebis araefeqturad gatareba
• sajaro moxeleebis samsaxurSi araefeqturad miReba da daTxovna
• sajaro moxeleebSi profesionalizmisa da eTikuri normebis dabali done
• umuSevroba
• janmrTelobis dazRvevis araefeqturi sistema
• sajaro moxeleebis dabali xelfasi
• moqalaqeebis daucveloba informaciis borotad gamoyenebis TvalsazrisiT
• kontrolis dabali xarisxi
• samuSaos arasworad organizeba
• kvalifikaciis dabali done
• naTlad gamoxatuli Zalauflebis dabali done
• susti administrireba
• rotaciis principis ararseboba
• karieruli zrdis xelisSemwyobi sistema
• naklebad ganviTarebuli Sida da gare
audituri/Semowmebis sistema
• gamWvirvaled gadawyvetilebebis miRebis araefeqturoba
davaleba 2. SeafaseT, raze moaxdenen zegavlenas tradiciuli antikoruf-
ciuli RonisZiebebi.
korufciis donis Semcirebaze
mimarTuli RonisZiebebi
didi jarimebis dakisreba da pasuxismgeblobis gazrda
CinovnikebisaTvis xelfasis gazrda
spec-samsaxurebisaTvis dafinansebis
gazrda
`cxeli xazis~ amoqmedeba
sazogadoebis gaTviTcnobiereba (korufciis mimarT uaryofiTi damokidebulebis Camoyalibeba)
raze moaxdens zegavlenas? (CawereT)
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
davaleba 3. upasuxeT kiTxvebs:
1. sad gadis zRvari saCuqarsa da qrTams Soris?
2. rogor afasebT iaffasiani nivTebis Cuqebas – kalendari, Ria baraTi,
yava da a.S.?
3. SeuZlia Tu ara saxelmwifo moxeles miiRos saCuqari da gaakeTos amis
saxalxod demonstrireba?
4. aucilebelia Tu ara eTikuri kodeqsis Seqmna saxelmwifo moxeleebisaTvis?
5. ra RonisZiebebs unda mimarTon saxelmwifo samsaxuris organoebis
xelmZRvanelebma samagaliTo qcevis wasaxaliseblad da ra sanqciebi
unda gamoiyenon im xelqveiTebTan mimarTebaSi, romelTa qcevac ar Seesabameba miRebul normebs?
6. romeli RonisZiebebi da sanqciebi ar aris sakmarisi da romlebs SeiZleba kidev mivmarToT?
7. rogoria korufciasTan brZolis SesaZlo strategia?
221
222
vaiva zuzaviCute
kerZo interesebi da warmomadgenloba
uwyveti ganaTlebis strategiis kursis moduli
kursi gaTvaliswinebulia zrdasrulTa ganaTlebis fakultetis studentebisaTvis. leqciebs agreTve eswrebian fsiqologiis da sociologiis momavali bakalavrebi.
kursis zogadi aRwera
kursis daniSnulebaa – wyaroebze dayrdnobiT (mecnieruli literatura, dokumentebi da a.S.) warimarTos: diskusiebi kerZo interesebis sajaroobis da dacvis sakiTxebze; argumentirebuli msjeloba uwyveti ganaTlebis mniSvnelobaze.
modulis adgili kursSi
mas Semdeg, rac 90-ian wlebSi gamoqveynda j. delorsis angariSi evropaSi sazogadoebrivi da ekonomikuri ganviTarebis Sesaxeb, swavlebis ramdenime sfero gamoiyo, sadac xazgasmulia: muSaoba da Tanacxovreba, moqalaqeoba. Tanacxovreba – Sesabamisi socialuri Cvevebis ganviTarebas gulisxmobs, romlebic kulturaTaSoris urTierTobas da TanamSromlobas moicavs; moqalaqeobis swavleba (anu, rogor gavxde aqtiuri moqalaqe) – adgilobriv, erovnul da saerTaSoriso doneze sxadasxva saxis problemebis gadaWris swavlebas gulisxmobs. socialuri, ekologiuri da politikuri amocanebis gadawyveta or aspeqts ukavSirdeba – monawileobas da socialuri
erTianobis ganmtkicebas. moqalaqeobis swavlebaSi imis codna moiazreba,
Tu rogor gamoxatos sakuTari azri pirovnebam demokratiuli sazogadoebisaTvis misaRebi procedurebis daxmarebiT. moqalaqeobriobis arsi, rogorc sakuTari, aseve uaxloesi garemocvis, sxvadasxva gaerTianebis, moZraobebis, sazogadoebis interesebis dacvaSi, agreTve, yvelasTvis saerTo
an unikaluri socialuri faseulobebis, sakuTari da sxvisi uflebebis (marginaluri jgufebi, arasrulwlovnebi, invalidebi da a.S.) dacvaSi mdgomareobs. imis garantia, rom TiToeuli adamiani, Temis an sazogadoebis TiToeuli wevri samarTlebriv sazogadoebaSi moqmed normebs icavdes – umniSvnelovanesi pirobaa Tanabari SesaZleblobebis sazogadoebis SeqmnisaTvis.
Zalauflebis borotad gamoyeneba socialur-ekonomikuri mowyobis yvela
rgolSia SesaZlebeli: zrdasrul adamians SeuZlia Zalaufleba borotad
gamoiyenos bavSvTan mimarTebaSi, janmrTels – invalidTan, sruluflebian moqalaqes – imigrantTan da a. S. Catarebuli kvlevebidan Cans, rom Zalauflebis borotad gamoyeneba gavrcelebulia yvela saxelmwifoSi. evrokavSiris ganaTlebis politikasTan dakavSirebul dokumentebSi aRniSnulia, rom iseTi Tvisebebi, rogorebicaa – moqalaqeobrioba, uflebebis dacva, movaleobebis sakuTari nebiT Sesruleba – yovelTvis TavisTavad ar yalibdeba, amitom am sakiTxs gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
kursis gavlis Semdeg studentebi:
• erTmaneTisgan ganasxvaveben kerZo da sazogado interesebs;
• gaiazreben, ra daniSnuleba aqvs uwyveti swavlebis strategias individis da moqalaqis (TviT) ganaTlebaSi;
• gaiazron moqalaqeobriobis gansazRvreba demokratiul saxelmwifoSi;
saaTebis ganawileba
sagnis swavlebas sul eTmoba 8 saaTi (maTgan, 6 saaTi – leqciebi, 1 saaTi
– individualuri muSaoba, 1 saaTi – Sefaseba).
leqciis gafarToebuli gegma
leqcia 1.
1. demokratia: saerTo principebi da gagebis/aRqmis mravalsaxeoba.
2. kerZo da sazogadoebrivi interesi: konfliqti da SeTavseba.
etapi
meTodi
literatura, saxelmZRvanelo
wina leqcia
aqtiuri leqcia warmodgenili iyo argumentebis struqtura
l e q c i i s T v i s damoukidebeli wasakiTxi masala
momzadeba
samuSao (teqstebis analizi)
leqcia an kon- jgufuri dis- wakiTxuli masalis safuZvelze diskusiis dasawyebad sasultacia
kusiebi
Wiro kiTxvebi:
ras TvliT yvelaze mniSvnelovnad da ratom?
ra iwvevs eWvs, rasTan dakavSirebiT ikamaTebdiT?
daasabuTeT Tqveni Sexeduleba
kiTxvebi diskusiis gasaviTareblad:
rogor daaxasiaTebdiT kerZo da sazogadoebriv interesebs?
aRniSnuli TvalsazrisiT, ra ufro mniSvnelovania litvisTvis? ratom?
gamijnulia Tu ara Tqvens qveyanaSi sazogadoebrivi da
sajaro interesebi?
sad gadakveTen isini erTmaneTs?
romel sferoebSi unda gadaikveTon isini?
romel sferoebSi ar unda gadaikveTon isini da ratom?
diskusiis gan- kiTxvebi diskusiis ganzogadebisaTvis:
zogadeba
ra roli akisriaT ganaTlebis muSakebs, zrdasrulTa
maswavleblebs, im sferoebSi, sadac kerZo da sazogadoebrivi interesebi ar unda gadaikveTos?
ratom aris es msjeloba mniSvnelovani demokratiul sazogadoebaSi?
leqcia
adamianis uflebebis da moqalaqeobriobis konteqstTan
kavSirSi analizi ukeTdeba sajaro da kerZo interesebis cnebas, demokratiul sazogadoebaSi kerZo interesebis gamovlenis Sesabamis formebs
ganzogadeba
diskusiebsa da sakiTxav masalaze dayrdnobiT ganzogadeba xdeba, romeli kanonieri da sazogadoebisaTvis misaRebi saSualebiT iqneboda SesaZlebeli kerZo interesebis dacva da ratom aris es mniSvnelovani demokratiuli sazogadoebisaTvis?
223
224 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
leqcia 2.
1. warmomadgenloba demokratiul sazogadoebaSi.
2. kerZo interesebis gamovlenis formebi sazogadoebriv sivrceSi.
3. moqalaqeobrioba: warmoSoba, mravalgvaroba da ZiriTadi Semadgeneli cnebebi.
etapi
meTodi
literatura, saxelmZRvanelo
wina leqcia
aqtiuri leqcia
ganixileboda sajaro da kerZo interesebis
cnebebi
leqciisTvis momzadeba
damoukidebeli
muSaoba (teqstebis
da rekomendirebuli literaturis
analizi)
wasakiTxi masala
jgufuri diskusiebi
kiTxvebi diskusiis dasawyebad:
ras TvliT yvelaze mniSvnelovnad da ratom?
ra iwvevs eWvs, raze ikamaTebdiT?
daasabuTeT Tqveni azri.
kiTxvebi diskusiis gasagrZeleblad:
ra saxis problemebi eqmnebaT Cvens qveyanaSi
calkeul pirovnebebs da vin icavs maT uflebebs?
romel arasamTavrobo organizaciebs icnobT?
Tu Tqven CarTuli xarT romelime arasamTavrobo organizaciis saqmianobaSi, gagvacaniT misi
miznebi, saqmianobis formebi, miznobrivi jgufebi. gagviziareT gamocdileba, advilia Tu ara
sxvisi interesebis dacva?
aqtiuri moqalaqis (TviT)-aRzrdis ra saSualebebi arsebobs Cvens qveyanaSi uwyveti ganaTlebis strategiis TvalsazrisiT? moiyvaneT magaliTebi, rogor gamoxataven moqalaqeebi TavianT
nebas? ra mizezebiT ar iyeneben zogjer moqalaqeebi TavianT SesaZleblobebs an uflebebs?
diskusiis ganzogadeba
kiTxvebi diskusiis ganzogadebisaTvis:
piradi, socialuri an profesiuli saqmianobis
romeli aspeqtebis swavlebas unda iTvaliswinebdes uwyveti ganaTleba?
leqcia an konsultacia
aqtiuri leqcia
ganzogadeba
j. habermasis socialuri swavlebis Teoria; sazogadoebrivi organizaciebi demokratiul sazogadoebaSi; moqalaqeobriobis cnebis arsi da
mravalmxrivoba; samoqalaqo saqmianobis gamovlineba.
sakiTxavi teqstebis masalebis, diskusiebis da
leqciebis safuZvelze xdeba uwyveti ganaTlebis strategiis – samoqalaqo aqtivobis waxalisebis – ganzogadeba.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
leqcia 3.
uwyveti ganaTlebis strategiis moqalaqeobriobis memorandumi – xandazmuloba Tu aRzrdis procesSi gamovlenili momenti?
etapi
meTodi
literatura, saxelmZRvanelo
wina leqcia
aqtiuri leqcia
ganixileboda moqalaqeobriobis cneba, moqalaqeTa moRvaweoba, pasuxismgebloba, valdebulebebi, uflebebi da maTi gamoyeneba.
leqciisTvis momzadeba
damoukidebeli
muSaoba (momzadebuli teqstebis
da rekomendirebuli literaturis analizi)
wasakiTxi masala
leqcia an konsultacia
aqtiuri leqcia
socialuri cxovrebis mravalferovneba evrokavSirSi. uwyveti ganaTleba, rogorc identifikaciis da TviTdamkvidrebis saSualeba.
jgufuri diskusiebi
kiTxvebi diskusiis dasawyebad:
ra da ratom geCvenebaT yvelaze mniSvnelovnad?
ra iwvevs eWvebs, raze ikamaTebdiT?
daasabuTeT Tqveni azri.
kiTxvebi diskusiis gasagrZeleblad:
ra argumentebi arsebobs imis dasamtkiceblad,
rom uwyveti ganaTlebis yuradRebis centrSia
moqalaqeobrioba, erTad muSaobis unari, kultura?
Tanacxovrebis da erTad muSaobis swavlebis romel aspeqtebs gausvamdiT xazs gansakuTebiT?
ratom?
diskusiis ganzogadeba, leqciebi
teqstebis da diskusiebis safuZvelze xdeba TiToeuli adamianis unarebis da SesaZleblobebis
ganzogadeba, ramdenad SeuZliaT gaiRrmavon
profesiuli da piradi, aseve moqalaqeobrivi
kompetenciebi.
225
226 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
leqciis ganzogadeba
mas Semdeg, rac andragogikis (zrdasrulTa ganaTleba) specialobis momavali bakalavrebis saswavlo programaSi warmodgenili iqneba uwyveti ganaTlebis strategiis kursis moduli `kerZo interesebi da warmomadgenloba~, studentebs sTxoveT, ifiqron ganxilul Temebsa da warmarTul diskusiebze.
5-7 kacian jgufebSi muSaobisas studentebma unda miuTiTon, romel doneze SeuZlia andragogs, zrdasrulTa maswavlebels, sakuTari wvlili Seitanos samoqalaqo sazogadoebis formirebaSi:
• individis done: aq yvelaze mTavaria individis pasuxismgebloba;
• Temis done: aq mniSvnelovania rogorc individis, aseve aRmzrdelobiTi da saxelmwifo organoebis, agreTve araformaluri organizaciebis roli;
• ekonomikis done: harmoniuli da mdgradi ganviTarebis misaRwevad
mniSvnelovania profkavSirebis, organizaciebis mondomeba, agreTve
saxelmwifos mier SemuSavebuli efeqturi strategia.
zrdasrulTa maswavleblis pasuxismgebloba studentebma Semdegnairad
gansazRvres:
• motivacia – magaliTad: kompetenciis srulyofis mniSvnelobaSi adamianis darwmunebis gziT; organizaciaSi adamianuri resursis mniSvnelobis demonstrirebis gziT; cvlilebebisa da siaxleebis danergvis
aucileblobaSi darwmunebis gziT; axali kompetenciis praqtikasTan
kavSirSi demonstrirebis gziT;
• Tanadgoma swavlebis procesSi – magaliTad: drois sworad ganawilebis swavlebis gziT; damoukidebeli muSaobis Cvevebis CamoyalibebaSi
daxmarebis gziT; swavlebisaTvis realuri pirobebis Seqmnis gziT
(adgili, dro, saSualebebi); swavlebisaTvis aucilebeli da usafrTxo
garemos Seqmnis gziT (sasiamovno atmosfero, konfidencialoba); swavlebis mravalferovani SesaZleblobebis Sesaxeb informirebis gziT;
• moqalaqeobrivi pozicia – magaliTad: aRzrdisas ar ixelmZRvanelos
konkurenciis principebiT; waaxalisos moqalaqeobrivi aqtivoba; maswavleblebis momzadebisas yuradReba gaamaxvilos samoqalaqo pasuxismgeblobaze; daexmaros adamianebs organizaciebSi adaptirebaSi.
227
romas prakapasi
korufciaze, rogorc eTikuri kodeqsis
problemaze, msjeloba
profesiuli eTikis kursis leqcia
mizani
studentebi gaecnobian eTikur kodeqsebs, rogorc moraluri problemebis gadaWris wyaroebs.
mecadineobis msvleloba
1. studentebi iazreben, rom sxvadasxva sferos specialistebi TavianT
saqmianobas, rogorc wesi, garkveul dadgenil faseulobebze, SeTanxmebebze afuZneben; rom sxvadasxva organizaciis an profesiis warmomadgenlebi xSirad qmnian principebs, deklaraciebs, eTikur kodeqsebs da a.S. eseni garkveuli imperativebia, romlebic exmarebaT, formalurad uzrunvelyon konkretuli jgufis profesiuli qceva. palidauskaites azriT, eTikuri kodeqsis misia sazogadoebasa da calke
aRebuli profesiis an organizaciis warmomadgenelTa Soris formaluri urTierTobebis xelSewyoba da urTierTdamokidebulebis gansazRvraa. urTierTdamokidebulebis gansazRvris aucilebloba
mkveTrad vlindeba sxvadasxva saxis krizisis, skandalis da gansakuTrebiT – eTnikuri sakiTxebis gadawyvetis dros. problemebis umravlesoba xom nawilobriv gamowveulia garkveuli mosazRvre situaciebiT, roca dadgenili faseulobebi gadajaWvulia samarTlebriv
problemebTan (tyuili, korufcia, borotad gamoyeneba, interesTa
konfliqti da a.S.)
2. studentebi jgufebad iyofian. TiToeuli jgufi profesiuli eTikis kodeqss ganixilavs (yvela jgufi sxvadasxva kodeqsze muSaobs):
Seiswavlis, gamoyofs maT miznebs, faseulobebs, principebs, upiratesobebs da naklovanebebs.
3. jgufebi TavianT namuSevrebs warmoadgenen da amasTan erTad avseben
cxrils:
eTikis kodeqsi
miznebi
upiratesoba
faseulobebi
principebi
naklovaneba
228 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
diskusiis msvlelobisas gamoikveTeba eTikuri kodeqsebis ZiriTadi
miznebi (araeTikuri qcevebis gadakveTa; pasuxismgeblobis sazRvrebis gansazRvra; eTikuri qcevis waxaliseba; moraluri normebis Sesruleba; disciplinis gansazRvra; gadawyvetilebis miRebaSi CarTuloba; sazogadoebaSi ndobis mopoveba da profesiuli imijis amaRleba), faseulobebi da principebi (zrunva, keTilganwyoba, patiosneba,
angariSvaldebuleba, samarTlianoba, pativiscema, pasuxismgebloba,
moqalaqeobrioba da a.S.), upiratesobebi da naklovanebebi.
4. studentebs urigdebaT teqstebi, romlebic dakavSirebulia korufciis cnebasTan. miewodebaT sqema (korufcia=monopolia + saidumloeba – pasuxismgebloba), ris safuZvelzec korufcia (saCuqari, qrTami, individualuri an sistemuri korufcia) ganixileba, rogorc eTikuri problema.
korufcia
=
monopolia
+
saidumloeba
–
pasuxismgebloba
sur. 1. korufciis cnebis sqema
5. eTikuri kodeqsebis miznebis, faseulobebis, principebis gamovlenis
da korufciis cnebis garkvevis Semdeg, studentebi iReben davalebas:
eTikuri kodeqsebidan gamoyon korufciis prevenciis SesaZleblobebi. eTikis kodeqsebTan muSaobis procesSi jgufebi avseben cxrils.
korufciis gamovlineba
eTikis kodeqsSi mocemuli
prevenciis zomebi
6. jgufebis mier Sesrulebuli davalebebis Sedegebis Sejamebis da mosazrebebis plakatze gamosaxvis Semdeg, mimdinareobs korufciaze,
rogorc problemaze, msjeloba; imarTeba diskusia imaze, Tu ratom
ar icaven zogierTi profesiis warmomadgenlebi miRebul eTikur kodeqsebs.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
literatura
1. Code of Ethics of the Association of Financial Analysts, http://www..nansai.lt/
About_etika.htm
2. Code of Ethics of Lithuanian Journalists and Publishers, http://www.lzs.lt/
etikoskodeksas.html
3. Code of Ethics of Lithuanian Social Workers. Association of Lithuanian Social Workers,
1998.
4. Code of Conduct for Professional Lawyers, http://advokatas.tinklapis.lt/temos/
etikos_kodeksas. html
5. Code of Professional Ethics of Property Assessors, http://www.atvi.lt/tvt/tvprof.htm
6. Code of Ethics of Psychologists. Vilnius, 1997
7. Code of Ethics of Research Workers and Pedagogues of Kaunas Technological
University, http://www.ktu.lt/lt/ktu/kodeksas.html
8. Code of Honour of Notaries, http://www.notarai.lt/?act=taktai
9. Draft Code of Professional Ethics and Conduct of Lithuanian Politicians, http://
www3.lrs.lt/cgibin/preps2?Condition1=196440&Condition2=
10. Palidauskaite J., Viešojo administravimo etika. Kaunas: Technologija, 2001
11. “Pedagogu etikos kodeksas. Projektas”, Mokykla, 2000, Nr. 11-12, p. 13-16.
12. Phenomenon of Corruption, http://www.stt.lt
13. Socialinio darbo etikos normos ir principai. Kolumbas: TSDF, 1994.
229
arCeviTi kursis modulebi
231
tadas tamoSunasi
korufcia da misi prevencia
arCeviTi kursi
daniSnuleba, moculoba da sxva sagnebTan kavSiri
kursi gvacnobs korufciis cnebas, mis xasiaTs da gamovlinebebs sxvadasxva sferoSi: politika, ekonomika, marTlwesrigi da a.S. garda amisa, moyvanilia cnobebi korufciis prevenciis Sesaxeb, formulirebulia prevenciis Cvevebi. kursis Sinaarsi agebulia sociologiis, istoriis, samarTlis,
politologiis da sxva socialuri, Tu humanitaruli mecnierebebis safuZvelze. kursis xangrZlivoba – 80 saaTi (maTgan 32 saaTi – leqciebi da praqtikuli samuSaoebi, 48 saaTi – damoukidebeli muSaoba).
kursis aqtualoba
amcirebs ra ndobas saxelmwifos mimarT, aferxebs ra ekonomikur progress, zRudavs ra demokratiis ganviTarebas, arTulebs ra individebis saqmianobas sxvadasxva sferoSi, korufcia uaryofiT zemoqmedebas axdens qveynis ganviTarebasa da socialur Tanacxovrebaze. ganaTlebis institutis
prevenciuli SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebiT momavali specialistebisaTvis aqtualuria korufciis rTul movlenasTan ufro detaluri gacnoba. garda amisa, kursi sasargebloa socializaciis ufro farTo konteqstSi – TiToeul adamians xom met-naklebad aqvs Sexeba korufciasTan, xolo
aseT SemTxvevaSi, aucilebelia adekvaturi da kompetenturi reaqcia.
kursis amocanebi
1. korufciis cnebasTan da mis niSan-TvisebebTan gacnoba sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sxvadasxva sferoSi, misi gaanalizeba individis, sazogadoebrivi institutebis TvalTaxedviT.
2. korufciis prevenciis samarTlebrivi da organizaciuli safuZvlebis ganxilva, prevenciul iniciativebTan gacnoba litvaSi da sazRvargareT.
3. studentebSi korufciuli gamovlinebebis identificirebis unaris
formireba da maTSi moqalaqeobrivi, antikorufciuli poziciis ganmtkiceba.
kursis Sinaarsi
Tema 1. `korufciis cneba~
korufcia, rogorc universaluri istoriuli movlena. korufciis gansazRvris mravalferovneba da maTi kavSiri socialur da kulturul konteqstTan. korufciis gansazRvrebis gafarToeba da komentireba. ukanono
dapirebis, SeTavazebis da garigebis cnebis analizi.
232 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema 2.
`korufciis saxeebi da formebi~
korufciis gamovlenis parametrebi: formebi, gavrcelebis masStabi, gavlena. administraciuli, politikuri, saerTaSoriso korufcia, korufcia
kerZo seqtorSi.
Tema 3.
`korufciis faqtorebi da pirobebi~
saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri globalizacia, privatizacia, sajaro Sesyidvebi. moxmarebis kultura. postsabWoTa qveynebSi faseulobrivi relativizmi. politikuri partiebis da kampaniebis dafinansebaSi gamWvirvalobis
ukmarisoba. nepotizmis tradicia. samoqalaqo sazogadoebis simyife. im sazogadoebrivi institutebis sisuste, romlebic samarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobis garantias iZlevian.
Tema 4.
`korufciis mdgomareoba litvaSi~
korufciis gazomvis meTodika. sociologiuri kvlevebis Sedegebi da
maTi cvlilebebi ukanasknel wlebSi. Seusabamobebi sazogadoebriv azrSi.
saerTaSoriso organizaciebis damokidebuleba korufciasTan. korufciis ZiriTadi Sedegebi qveyanaSi: investiciebis efeqturobis Semcireba, konkurenciis SezRudva, Sekrebili gadasaxadebis Tanxis Semcireba, saxelmwifo organoebis mimarT ndobis gaqroba da a.S.
Tema 5.
`korufciis prevenciis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi~
korufciaze pirdapiri da iribi gavlena. interesTa konfliqtis prevenciuli RonisZiebebi. qonebis da Semosavlebis deklaracia. sameurneo urTierTobebis gamWvirvaloba. saCuqrebis miRebis da lobisturi saqmianobis
pirobebi. kanonis debulebebi saxelmwifo samsaxuris Sesaxeb. korufciasTan brZolis erovnuli programa. organizaciebi, romlebic muSaoben korufciis prevenciaze. korufciuli skandalebi litvaSi da maTi samarTlebrivi da politikuri Sefaseba. vis mivmarToT, raTa moxdes korufciis SemTxvevaze adekvaturi reagireba?
Tema 6.
`politikuri, samoqalaqo, saganmanaTleblo iniciativebi~
korufciis prevenciis kompleqsuri xasiaTi. antikorufciuli strategiebi ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis qveynebSi (OECD). masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi, rogorc korufciis prevenciis faqtori. sazogadoebis mxridan zemoqmedebis mniSvneloba korufciis prevenciaze. korufciis prevenciis kavSiri pasuxismgeblobasTan, demokratiasTan, kritikul azrovnebasTan da a.S. antikorufciuli aRzrda da
misi gamocdileba litvaSi.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
vrceli gegmebi Temebis mixedviT
Tema 1.
`korufciis cneba~
korufcia, rogorc universaluri istoriuli movlena. korufciis gansazRvris mravalferovneba da maTi kavSiri socialur da kulturul konteqstTan. korufciis gansazRvrebis gafarToeba da komentireba. ukanono
dapirebis, SeTavazebis da garigebis cnebis analizi.
amocanebi
1. moxdes korufciis martivi da amave dros amomwuravi gansazRvrebis
formulireba.
2. gamJRavndes korufciis movlenis sirTule da mravalwaxnagoba.
Sesavali leqcia (gegma)
1. korufciis sferoSi gamokvlevebis mniSvnelobis, mocemuli movlenis mokle gansazRvrebis (xelisuflebis borotad gamoyeneba piradi
interesebis dasacavad) gacnoba. aqcentis gakeTeba korufcis destruqciul gavlenaze. korufciis kompleqsuri buneba – postsabWoTa qveynebis ganviTarebis niSani. am konsteqstSi ganixileba t. g. grossis statia – `antikorufciuli RonisZiebebi ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis qveynebSi~, (statiis moZieba SesaZlebelia litvis respublikis specialuri gamoZiebebis samsaxuris
vebgverdze: http://www.stt.lt/lt/files/anticorup–1–dalis.pdf da http://www.stt.lt/lt/
files/anticorup–2–dalis.pdf ).
2. korufciis mimarT uaryofiTi damokidebulebis mniSvnelobis gaazreba. maswavleblis roli da funqcia korufciis prevenciaSi. xazgasmulia kritikuli analizis mniSvneloba, warmodgenilia ZiriTadi
argumentebi korufciis winaaRmdeg an mis sasargeblod (kvlav SeiZleba mimarToT t. g. grosses publikacias). korufcia moixsenieba socialuri institucionalizaciis konsteqstSic – masTan brZola nawilobriv iqceva interesTa gamovlinebis saSualebad (magaliTad, bevri politikosi sargeblobs korufciasTan brZolis devizebiT).
3. mJRavndeba korufciis istoriuli buneba: Zveli aRmosavleTi (administraciuli korufciis nimuSebi), orerovani respublika (politikuri korufciis nimuSebi), omis Sua periodis litvis respublika (gafxekili loris saqme, saxarinis saqme, safosto markebis saqme), sabWoTa kavSiri (administraciuli da politikuri korufciis nimuSebi).
xazgasmulia, rom korufciis sruli aRmofxvra SeuZlebelia, Tumca
SesaZlebelia misi donis daweva da kontroli.
4. warmodgenilia korufciis gansazRvrebebi, gaerTianebuli erebis
organizaciis warmomadgenlebis, “Transparensy International”, litveli da
ucxoeli avtorebis formulirebiT, litvis respublikis samarTlebrivi aqtebi (kanoni specialuri gamoZiebebis samsaxuris Sesaxeb).
233
234 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
Tema 6.
`politikuri, samoqalaqo, saganmanaTleblo iniciativebi~
korufciis prevenciis kompleqsuri xasiaTi. antikorufciuli strategiebi gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis qveynebSi. masobrivi informaciis saSualebebi, rogorc korufciis prevenciis faqtori. sazoagdoebis zemoqmedebis mniSvneloba korufciis prevenciaze. korufciis prevenciis kavSiri pasuxismgeblobasTan, demokratiasTan, kritikul azrovnebasTan da a.S.
antikorufciuli aRzrda da misi gamocdileba litvaSi.
amocanebi
1. Sefasdes korufciis prevenciis SesaZleblobebi.
2. ganmtkicdes antikorufciuli pozicia studentebSi.
xangrZlivoba
Temis ganxilvas eTmoba 8 akademiuri saaTi, xolo damoukidebel muSaobas – 10 saaTi.
Sesavali leqcia (gegma)
am leqciaze maswavlebeli axsenebs studentebs wina leqciis ZiriTad
Tezisebs `korufciis prevenciis samarTlebrivi safuZvlebi~ da xazs
usvams im faqts, rom korufciis prevenciis warmateba mis kompleqsurobazea damokidebuli, anu ar aris sakmarisi mxolod samarTlebrivi regulireba da devna, aramed aucilebelia sazogadoebis aqtiuri samoqalaqo
poziciis gamovlena, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis mxardaWera,
antikorufciuli ganaTleba da sxva iniciativebi. ganixileba masobrivi
informaciis saSualebebis iniciativebis magaliTebi korufciis faqtebis gamovlinebis dros (r. paksasTan, seimis wevrebTan dakavSirebuli skandalebi). korufciis kompleqsur xasiaTze saubrisas, upirvelesad aqcenti keTdeba samoqalaqo sazogadoebis simwifis mniSvnelobaze. patiosneba da kanonis dacva erT-erT ZiriTad faqtors warmoadgens, rac yvelaze
metad dasavlur demokratiaSi damkvidrda. samoqalaqo sazogadoebis simwifis mniSvnelobis dasamtkiceblad ganixileba italiis SemTxveva, romelic dawvrilebiTaa ganxiluli r. putnamis gamokvlevaSi – `imisaTvis, rom
demokratiam imuSaos~.
II. `vqmniT umaRlesi saswavleblebis maswavleblebis
(studentebis) eTikur kodeqss~
mecadineobis msvleloba
1. pirvel seminarze maswavlebeli bolo wlebSi Catarebul kvlevebis
Sedegebze saubrobs, romlebic cxadyofen, rom umaRles saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebebSi korufcia sistemur movlenad iqca da xazs
usvams eTikis kodeqsis mniSvnelobas. Semdeg studentebs sTavazobs
savarjiSos – `vqmniT umaRlesi saswavleblebis maswavleblebis (studentebis) eTikis kodeqss~. SemuSavebul kodeqsSi gaTvaliswinebuli
unda iyos korufciis prevenciac.
korufciis kvleva umaRles saswavleblebSi
2. studentebis raodenobis mixedviT iqmneba ori an oTxi jgufi (1+1 an
2+2) pirveli davaleba: jgufebi ganixilaven aseTi kodeqsebis funqciebs akademiur gaerTianebebSi (SeiZleba gamoiyenoT `gonebrivi ieriSis~ meTodi).
3. jgufebi warmoadgenen dikusiis msvlelobisas maT mier ganxiluli kodeqsebis funqciebs, maswavlebeli maT anzogadebs da aZlevs Semdeg
davalebas: Seiswavlon dokumentebi, romlebic gansazRvraven maswavleblebis da studentebis saqmianobas litvis respublikaSi (umaRlesi
saswavlo dawesebulebis wesdeba, kanoni ganaTlebis Sesaxeb, kanoni
umaRlesi ganaTlebis Sesaxeb) da sazRvargareT (magaliTad, ucxouri universitetebis wesdebebi). davalebis ZiriTadi mizania zemoT xsenebuli dokumentebidan im nawyvetebis amokreba, romlebic pirdapir
an iribad arian dakavSirebuli studentebis da maswavleblebis eTikis sakiTxTan.
4. meore seminaris pirveli davaleba – samuSao jgufebis mier saxlSi
moniSnuli nawyvetebis ganxilva, maTi Sesworeba da kodeqsebis damtkiceba. jgufebi warmoadgenen TavianT mosazrebebs, iweren SeniSvnebs da winadadebebs.
5. meore davaleba – xdeba momzadebis stadiaSi myofi kodeqsis poziciebis formulireba, romlebic ar Semoifargleba mxolod ganxiluli
formaluri dokumentebiT. yalibdeba moralis, eTikis debulebebi,
romlebsac xSirad aqvT SedarebiTi xasiaTi. amitom, aucilebelia mosazrebebis aqtiuri SeTanxmeba da ganxilva. samuSao jgufebi warmoadgenen TavianT formulirebebs, asabuTeben maT mniSvnelobas, ismenen kritikul SeniSvnebs. saSinao davaleba: Seitanon cvlileba-damatebebi da Semdeg seminarze warmoadginon redaqtirebuli teqstebi.
6. maswavlebeli acxadebs, rom momzadebuli kodeqsebis proeqtebi unda
Seafason maTma potenciurma momxmareblebma – maswavleblebma da studentebma, risTvisac SemoTavazebulia intervius meTodi. Seaxsenebs
intervius ZiriTad moTxovnebs.
7. maswavleblis rCevebze dayrdnobiT jgufis wevri valdebulia, interviu aiRos ramdenime maswavleblisgan da studentisgan, raTa gaarkvios maTi damokidebuleba momzadebul dokumentebTan mimarTebaSi. SesaZlebelia, gamoikiTxon administraciis warmomadgenlebic, magaliTad, kaTedris gamgeebi, dekanebi da a.S.
8. mesame seminari iwyeba interviuebis dros Sekrebili monacemebis ganxilviT. jgufis wevrebs cvlileba-damatebebi SeaqvT Seqmnil dokumentSi. Tu, rogorc maswavleblebis, aseve studentebis eTikuri kodeqsebis SeqmnaSi monawileobas iRebs or-ori jgufi, maSin muSaobis
mocemul etapze calke dro eTmoba Sexedulebebis SeTanxmebas da
erToblivi dokumentis momzadebas. kidev erTxel xdeba kodeqsebis
saboloo variantebis gadaxedva, stilisturi da gramatikuli Secdomebis Sesworeba.
9. maswavlebeli gadadis Seqmnili kodeqsebis prezentaciis momzadebis
etapze. prezentaciaSi monawileobas miiRebs samuSao jgufis yvela
wevri, romlebic rig-rigobiT gaacnoben sazogadoebas kodeqsebis
235
236 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
punqtebs da komentars gaukeTeben maT.
10.meoTxe seminari eTmoba momzadebuli kodeqsebis akademiuri gaerTianebis winaSe prezentacias, anu mowveuli maswavleblebis, administraciis warmomadgenlebis, studentTa kavSiris xelmZRvanelebis, studentebis winaSe. prezentacia mimdinareobs winaswar SeTanxmebuli
TanmimdevrobiT. mizanSewonilia, studentebma moiyvanon argumentebi, romelTa safuZvelzec moxda TiToeuli punqtis gaTvaliswineba,
magaliTad, respodentTa gamoxmaurebebi da sxva masalebi.
Sefaseba
fasdeba jgufis muSaobaSi monawileobis done, aRebuli interviuebis xarisxi, momzadebuli kodeqsebis prezentacia.
meTodis gaazreba
1. maswavleblebis (studentebis) eTikuri kodeqsis Seqmnis procesSi me
gavige, rom...
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........................................................................
2. maswavleblebis (studentebis) eTikuri kodeqsis Seqmnis procesSi me
viswavle (keTeba, moqmedeba da a.S.)...
........................................................................
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3. maswavleblebis (studentebis) eTikuri kodeqsis Seqmnis procesSi me
mivxvdi, rom...
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237
ZiriTadi cnebebis leqsikoni
antikorufciuli standartebi – qceviTi da samarTlebrivi normebis
erToblioba, romlebic xels uwyoben korufciuli qcevebis SezRudvas.
antikorufciuli ganaTleba – sazogadoebaSi antikorufciuli damokidebulebis formireba.
deviacia – sazogadoebis an jgufisaTvis miRebuli socialuri wesebis da
normebis rRveva.
meqrTameoba – moqmedeba, roca saxelmwifo moxele an masTan gaTanabrebuli piri sakuTari an sxvisi interesebis sasargeblod pirdapir an Suamavlis saSualebiT iRebs, pirdeba an molaparakebas awarmoebs, miiRos
qrTami, moiTxovos qrTamis micema an moaxdinos amis provocireba.
samomxmareblo kavSirebi, klientizmi – urTierTsasargeblo kavSirebi
mfarvelsa da sxva pirs an pirTa jgufs (momxmareblebs) Soris da maT Soris arsebuli valebulebebis sistema.
korufcia – saxelmwifo Zalauflebis borotad gamoyeneba piradi sargeblis miRebis mizniT.
korufciis saxeobebi saqmianobis sferoebis mixedviT – administraciuli, politikuri, kerZo, saerTaSoriso.
korufciis saxeobebi qmedebis mixedviT – biurokratiuli, saregulacio,
prevenciuli, malikvidirebeli Sedegebi.
korufciis amocnoba – korufciis gamovlenis drouli da yovelmxrivi
amocnobis SesaZlebloba.
korufciis prevencia – korufciis gamomwvevi mizezebis da faqtorebis
aRmofxvra.
korufciis gamovlena da samarTlebrivi devna – korufciuli qmedebebis
dadgena, sasjelis samarTlianobis da gardauvlobis principis ganxorcieleba.
lobisturi saqmianoba – lobistebis anazRaurebadi saqmianoba, romelic
mimarTulia zemoqmedebis gawevaze samarTlebrivi aqtebis an cvlilebebis, damatebebis, maTi araqmediTad aRiarebis sferoSi, axali samarTlebrivi aqtebis miRebaze an armiRebaze. aseTi saqmianobis mizania SemkveTis interesebis gatareba sakuTari uflebebis, an sazogadoebrivi da
saxelmwifo interesebis dacviT.
lobizmi – procesi, romlis drosac xdeba informaciis gacvla da jgufis,
organizaciis an misi nawilis azrebis mitana xelisuflebaSi myof Tanamdebobis pirebTan (rogorc arCeulebTan, aseve daniSnulebTan) sasargeblo gadawyvetilebis miRebaze gavlenis moxdenis mizniT.
lobisti – lobisturi saqmianobis uflebis mqone piri, sawarmo, dawesebuleba, organizacia, romelic Seyvanilia lobistebis siaSi kanoniT dadgenili wesiT.
nepotizmi – samuSao adgilze naTesavebis, megobrebis da nacnobebis daniSvna konkursebis gverdis avliT da TanamSromlis TanamdebobasTan Sesaferisobis principis darRveviT, amiT qveSevrdomobis sistemis Seqmna
fulis gaTeTreba – qmedeba, romlis daxmarebiTac xorcieldeba danaSaulebrivi gziT miRebuli fulis dakanonebis an warmomavlobis dafarvis
mcdeloba.
238 antikorufciuli aRzrda skolaSi
mosyidva – moqmedeba, romelic ukavSirdeba pirdapir an Suamavlebis saSualebiT qrTamis SeTavazebas, dapirebas an micemas saxelmwifo Tanamdebobis an masTan gaTanabrebuli pirisaTvis sasurveli miznis misaRwevad.
borotad gamoyeneba – moqmedeba, romlis saSualebiTac saxelmwifo moxele an masTan gaTanabrebuli piri borotad iyenebs samsaxureobriv mdgomareobas an aWarbebs Tavis uflebamosilebas, Tu amis Sedegad saxelmwifos, saerTaSoriso sazogadoebriv organizacias, iuridiul an fizikur
pirs miadgeba didi ziani.
piradi interesebi – saxelmwifos samsaxurSi myofi piris, misi naTesavis
an ojaxis wevris piradi qonebrivi an araqonebrivi daintereseba, romelsac SeuZlia gavlena moaxdinos gadawyvetilebis miRebaze samsaxureobrivi movaleobebis Sesrulebis dros.
samsaxureobrivi movaleobebis Seusrulebloba – saxelmwifo moxelis an
masTan gaTanabrebuli piris mxridan sakuTari movaleobebis Seusrulebloba an arajerovani Sesruleba, ris Sedegadac saxelmwifos, iuridiul
an fizikur pirs didi ziani miadgeba.
saxelmwifo moxele – saxelmwifo samsaxuris Sesaxeb kanonis Sesabamisad saxelmwifo samsaxurSi myofi piri, saxelmwifo politikosi, sajaro administrirebis saxelmwifo moxele, agreTve sxva piri, romelic muSaobs ra saxelmwifo an municipalur organoebSi an dawesebulebebSi, sasamarTlo an
samarTaldamcav organoebSi, saxelmwifo kontrolis an zedamxedvelobis
organoebSi an maTTan gaTanabrebul organoebSi, asrulebs xelisuflebis
warmomadgenlis funqcias, an aqvs administraciuli uflebamosileba.
saxelmwifo moxelesTan gaTanabrebuli piri – piri, romelsac miniWebuli
aqvs garkveuli uflebamosileba ucxo qveynebis dawesebulebebSi, saerTaSoriso sazogadoebriv organizaciebSi an saerTaSoriso sasamarTlo organoSi, agreTve oficialuri kandidati sxsenebul Tanamdebobebze. garda amisa, saxelmwifo moxeles uTanabrdeba piri, romelic muSaobs nebismier saxelmwifo, arasaxelmwifo, an kerZo dawesebulebaSi, organizaciaSi an sawarmoSi, an romelic eweva profesiul saqmianobas da aqvs garkveuli uflebamosileba sajaro administrirebis sferoSi, an eweva sajaro momsaxurebas, garda sameurneo an teqnikuri funqciebis Semsrulebeli pirisa.
sajaro interesebi – sazogadoebis daintereseba miukerZoebeli da samarTliani gadawyvetilebis miRebaze im pirebis mier, romlebic imyofebian
saxelmwifo samsaxurSi.
sajaro da kerZo interesebis konfliqti – situacia, romlis drosac saxelmwifo samsaxurSi myofi piri Tavisi movaleobebis aRsrulebisas valdebulia gadawyvetileba miiRos iseT davalebasTan dakavSirebiT, romelic agreTve dakavSirebulia mis pirad interesebTan.
sajaro administrireba – saxelmwifo organoebis da adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis kanonmdeblobiT reglamentirebuli saqmianoba, romelic mimarTulia samarTlebrivi aqtebis, adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis gadawyvetilebis ganxorcielebisaken, gaTvaliswinebuli
sajaro momsaxurebis administrirebisaken.
sajaro administrirebis principebi – kanonis uzenaesoba, obieqturoba,
Zalauflebis borotad argamoyeneba (ikrZaleba saqmianoba uflebamosilebis arqonis SemTxvevaSi an gadawyvetilebis miRebisas sxva miznebisken swrafva, garda kanonmdeblobiT dadgenilisa).
239
gamoyenebuli literatura
1. htpp://advokatas.tinklapis.lt/temos/etikos_kodeksas.html – advokatTa profesiuli kodeqsi
2. http://www..nansai.lt/About_etika.htm – finansuri analitikosebis asociaciis
eTikis kodeqsi
3. http://www.greco.coe.int – saxelmwifoebi korufciis winaaRmdeg (GRECO).
4. http://www.ktu.lt/lt/ktu/kodeksas.html – maswavlebelTa eTikis kodeqsi
5. http://www.lar.lt/Docs/etikoskodeksas.html – auditorTa profesiuli eTikis
kodeqsi
6. http://www.lzs.lt/etikoskodeksas.html – JurnlistTa da gamomcemelTa profesiuli eTikis kodeqsi
7. http://www.nobribes.org – veb-gverdi evropisa da aziis Sesaxeb, sadac ganTavsebulia uamravi saintereso antikorufciuli iniciativa, moqmedi kanonmdebloba da programebi.
8. http://www.notarai.lt/?act=taktai – notariusebis Rirsebis kodeqsi.
9. www.oecd.org – ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisa da ganviTarebis organizaciis veb-gverdi.
10. http://www.stt.lt – litvis respublikis specialuri gamoZiebis samsaxuri.
11. http://www.tils.lt – litvaSi saerTaSoriso organizaciis “Transparency International” veb-gveri.
12. http://www.worldbank.org – msoflio bankis veb-gverdi.
13. http://www3.lrs.lt/cgi-bin/preps2?Condition1=196440&Condition2 – litvis respublikaSi politikosTa profesiuli eTikis kodeqsi.

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