Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage Chapter 08 Performance Management
Human Resource Management:
Gaining a Competitive Advantage
Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
Identify major determinants of individual performance.
Discuss three purposes of performance management.
Identify five criteria for effective performance
management systems (PMS) .
Discuss four approaches to performance management,
specific techniques used in each approach and ways
these approaches compare with criteria for effective
Learning Objectives, cont.
Choose the most effective approach to performance
measurement for a given situation.
Discuss advantages and disadvantages of different
sources of performance information.
Choose the most effective sources for performance
Distinguish types of rating errors and explain how to
minimize each in a performance evaluation.
Conduct an effective performance feedback session.
Identify the cause of a performance problem.
Performance Management is the process through
which managers ensure that employees’ activities and
outputs are congruent with organizational goals.
Performance Appraisal is the process through which
an organization gets information on how well an
employee is doing his or her job.
Performance Feedback provides employees
information regarding their performance effectiveness.
Process of Performance Management
3 Purposes of Performance Management
5 Criteria of Performance Measures
Comparative approach compares performance with
that of others.
Simple ranking ranks employees from highest to
Alternation ranking is crossing off the best and
Forced distribution is employees ranked in groups.
Managers compare every employee with every
other employee in work group.
Graphic rating scales
list of traits evaluated by 5-point rating scale.
define relevant performance dimensions
develop statements representing good, average,
and poor performance along each dimension.
Critical incidents approach requires managers to keep
record of specific examples of effective and ineffective
Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
Behavioral observation scales (BOS)
Organizational behavior modification is a formal
system of behavioral feedback and reinforcement.
Assessment centers are multiple raters who evaluate
employees’ performance on a number of exercises.
Management by Objectives
top management passes down company’s
strategic goals to managers to define goals.
Productivity Measurement and Evaluation
goal is to motivate employees to
higher levels of productivity.
Competencies are sets of skills, knowledge, abilities and
personal characteristics that enable employees to
successfully perform their jobs.
A competency model identifies competencies necessary for
each model and provides descriptions common for an entire
occupation, organization, job family or specific job.
Also useful for recruiting, selection, training and development.
Balanced Scorecard Approach
A performance management system (PMS) designed
with a strong quality orientation can:
Assess both person and system factors in the
Emphasize managers and employees working
together to solve performance problems.
Involve both internal and external customers in
setting standards and measuring performance.
Use multiple sources to evaluate person and
Sustainability is key element of quality approach.
6 Statistical Process
Quality Control Techniques
1. Process-flow analysis
2. Cause-and-effect diagrams
3. Pareto chart
4. Control chart
5 Performance Information Sources
Reducing Rater Errors and Politics
Approaches to Reducing Rater Error:
Rater error training
Rater accuracy training
Calibration Meetings- attended by managers
to discuss employee performance ratings.
3 Ways Technology Influences PMS
Web-based Online paperless PMS Technology
-Social networking, etc.
Technology - Electronic Monitoring
Electronic tracking systems include:
Hand and fingerprint recognition systems
Global positioning systems (GPS)
Systems that track employees using handheld
computers and cell phones
Potential increased efficiency and
Systems present privacy concerns.
Typical Rater Errors
1. Similar to Me
5. Central Tendency
Appraisal Politics- evaluations distort ratings to achieve goals.
Improve Performance Feedback
1. Give feedback frequently, not once a year.
2. Create right context for discussion.
3. Ask employees to rate performance before the session.
4. Encourage employee to participate.
5. Recognize effective performance through praise.
6. Focus on solving problems.
7. Focus feedback on behavior or results, not on the person.
8. Minimize criticism.
9. Agree to specific goals and set progress review date.
Ways to Manage Performance
High ability and motivation; provide development
Lack of ability but high motivation; focus on training
High ability but lack motivation; focus on
Low ability and motivation; managerial action,
outplacement, demotion, firing
Withstand Legal Scrutiny
1. Conduct a valid job analysis related to
2. Base system on specific behaviors or results.
3. Train raters to use system correctly.
4. Review performance ratings and allow for
5. Provide guidance/support for poor performers.
6. Use multiple raters.
7. Document performance evaluations.
Measuring and managing performance are key to gaining
Performance management systems (PMS) serve strategic,
administrative and developmental purposes.
PMS should be evaluated against criteria of strategic congruence,
validity, reliability, acceptability and specificity.
Effective managers need to
be aware of the issues involved in determining best methods.
feed performance information back to employees
take action based on causes for poor performance: ability, motivation or
be sure that PMS can meet legal scrutiny