grammatical and lexical identity of english speaking varieties

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grammatical and lexical identity of english speaking varieties
ISSN 2219-746X EISSN 2219-7478
LINGUISTICS
RECEIVED 25.02.2015 ACCEPTED 25.04.2015 PUBLISHED 01.06.2015
DOI: 10.15550/ASJ.2015.03.072
GRAMMATICAL AND LEXICAL IDENTITY OF
ENGLISH SPEAKING VARIETIES
N. Ergasheva
Fergana State University
19, Usmanhodzhaeva Str., Fergana 150100 Uzbekistan
[email protected]
Abstract: The given article is devoted to describing the majority of the natural advantages in methods of
teaching English. if young teachers and students are not aware of the typology of lingua-cultural identities and
their significance, certain language and culture gaps and misunderstanding will appear in their communication
with native speakers. Speech is always motivated. This means that we speak because of some reason;
therefore the teacher's task is to make some students to be interested in speaking and enriching their thinking.
The cultural differences of different peoples that are models of identical or similar situations show a very
strong mutual resemblances despite all the/ differences stamming from ethnic, geographic, historical and
language factors. A foreign language learner’s motivation can be influenced by many factors such as social,
psychological, educational and economical.
Key words: methodology, motivation, education, communicative, perceive, paralinguistic, resemblance,
gesture, articulation, inter language.
From pedagogical point of view the word "methodology" has 3 determinations:
1) methodology as theoretical course or discipline; 2) methodology as an aggregate of forms, methods,
and ways of teacher's activity, a technology of professional practice; 3) methodology as э branch of
pedagogical science, has its own principles on the one hand and a specifically subject of study depends on as
an, assertive of the subject as its acquisition.
Methodology as a term: It is a science studies aims forms, methods and Vehicles of teaching, and also
ways of teaching, and education in a foreign language.
We have 2 different functional methodologies:
1) common methodology; 2) particular methodology
Common methodology – studies regularities and peculiarities of the foreign process, independently in
what language we speak. Particular methodology – researches specifically language and vocal phenomena for
exact given language. Let's look through some modern methods of teaching English:
I. Modifying evaluation method: a foreign language learner's motivation can be influenced by many
factors: social, psychological, educational and economical. In spite of the complicated situation teachers can
still do a lot to motivate their students by being observant, understanding, informed, and tactful.
If a teacher looks at his student's performance overcritical, be me - will never be satisfied because errors
and imperfections are a sure, part of learning a foreign language. However if the teacher focuses on his
student's success, he/she will be surprised to find out how much they are learning and how hard they are
trying. There will always be things for the teacher to be proud of.
In the science of language testing, there are 2 types of measurement:
1) norm referenced evaluation – is like athletic competition in that prize winners are scarce;
2) criterion – referenced evaluation – measures a student's performance by comparing it to a defined
range of knowledge or skills.
When teachers evaluate students' performance it should be done as one of several means to help students
succeed in learning. Therefore, evaluation is an integral part of the overall teaching process. Through
thoughtful, analytic assessment and checking, the teacher can enable himself and his student to see what has
been successfully learned and what needs further work.
II. Collaborative method: "real life problem solving. Classroom activities that emphasize interaction help
students to use language. The give-and-take of message exchanges enables them to retrieve and interrelate a
great deal of what they have encountered in the target language. Interaction allows students to practice being
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effective speakers by developing two needed sets of skills. The 1st is managing an interaction, including sub skills such as knowing when and how to take the going. The 2nd set of skills is negotiating managing that is
making sure that the person you are speaking to has understood you correctly and that you have understood
the other person.
Interaction and collaboration among students completed the affective factors in foreign language
learning. Self – esteem, empathy, reduced anxiety, and improved attitude and motivation are all fostered when
students are engaged in genuine interaction.
Real life problem solving, the 1st time I do a real life problem solving activity with a class, I put a list of
stages and time limits on the board. Then I divide the students into groups of 4 to 6. Five seems to be deal, but
I'm for a consistent number of group members, the activity is not explained in detail to the students at the
beginning because to do so would overwhelm them with excessive detail. Instead, of what they are to do in
the next one I point out that this activity has strict time limits, with seven stages totaling 27 minutes and that
I'll use the bell to signal the end of each stage.
The stages are:
State the problem and choose one – 5 min
Analyze the problem – 5min
Brainstorm solution – 5min
Choose two solution – 2min
Think the solution through – 5min
Identify a report - back date – l min Follow up on report-back date – 4min.
III. Communicative games methods: games are an important part of a teacher's repertoire. Although they
are recreational activities by nature whose main purpose is enjoyment, in the language learning process their
purpose is to rein force what has already been taught. In the course of a game, learners are engaged in an
enjoyable and challenging activity with a clear goal. Often, students are so involved in playing the games that
they do not realize they are practicing language.
Communicative activities play an essential role in teaching English in that they allow students to use
strategies in realistic situations a kin to those for which they would use their.
It is also important that students perceive communicative activities as a legitimate learning strategy.
Positive attitudes to learning activities as a legitimate learning strategy, learning activities are essential if the
desired outcome is to be achieved. Therefore, the rationale behind the use of communicative games in
language classrooms needs to be explained and justified because the goals of these activities might not be
apparent merely by participation.
It has already been accepted that in order to speak a leaning language well one must not only acquire and
understand the components of language and speech (verbal), but also the native culture's (nonverbal) of those
learning languages.
The status of English language is nowadays worldwide. In order to be proficient in this obtain one must,
firstly, know properly the reasons of diffusion. English around the world; secondly, the most widespread types
of English language and find out the objectives for the suggestion of BE and AE as a language learning and
teaching models. (Maksumov, 2004)
Every language is unique. It has its own phonetic, grammatical, lexical and stylistic structures. Native and
non-native English is have their own practical, pedagogical and theoretical purposes and tasks. (Maksumov, 2000).
They have their own resemblances and non-resemblances in their language systems.
One must clearly understand whether we are philologists, future language teachers, professional
interpreters, journalists, must acquire pronunciation, grammatical and lexical identities of English speaking
varieties in order to understand the native speakers and to be understood in equal terms with them.
The English language auditorium offers a unique, arena for learners to become acquainted, not only with
at systems, but, foreign culture as well. Unfortunately, these cultural differences are paid little attention. The
texts, the students are presented, are limited in lingua- cultural materials. The cultural context for
communication, such as personal space, gesture, exclamations, greetings, duties and so on. These materials
must also be explicitly taught, compared and included in the language-teaching programs.
The language differences are observed in the inventory of phonemes and articulation manners, usage of
suprasegmentals, morphology and syntax materials, but one refer to word combinations which are not used
frequently in compared languages. There are inter language grammatical differences. Stylistically the English
VOLUME 2015 ISSUE 3
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ISSN 2219-746X EISSN 2219-7478
language overwhelmingly uses the passive voice, while in Russian it is preferable to use instead of passive the
active constructions, in Uzbek both forms are preferable.
Lingua cultural differences are as follows:
One of the cultural awareness is the personal physical distance between speakers. This attribute varies
from culture to culture. Native speakers of English feel uncomfortable with direct physical contact such as
touching the hand, elbow or knee. These manners which are positively approved by Central Asian People
annoy and bother foreigners as they are accepted negatively.
The second source of non-verbal communication is gesture. For instance, Americans are used to point
with their fingers at maps, charts, globes and students; in Uzbek and Russian students auditorium usually a
ruler or pointer is used. Local people feel uncomfortable when they are pointed by fingers. This gesture is
associated with aggression or feels trapped (put down).
The third source is handshaking. This manner of gesture also varies. The handshaking is a common
greeting for Western foreigners. But in Central Asia this gesture is more significant. Native people shake
hands with a friend or a guest in any occasion. Foreigners substitute this manner by a wave of the hand or a
nod of the head. Local people may be offended in situations where they shake hands. One more confusion
with this case is observed in female greeting. Westerners are used to shaking hands with both male and female
colleagues, while in Central Asia this gesture of greeting is not fully appreciated or accepted with females.
The other types of greeting are seen in Japans and Uzbeks guest accepting and wedding ceremonies, doing
a service or favor for somebody. The observance of the typology of greetings or farewell types, i.e. their rituals
and the linguistic correspondences of such eases among nations are very important in lingua-cultural courses.
The next cultural difference in closes the concepts of freedom and responsibility in learning process. US
university students may miss lessons, change seats during the classes, but they are held personally responsible
for their behavior. If a student misses classes he/she is still responsible for learning. A teacher's job is just to
help students learn, not to make them learn, as it is often seen in our secondary and higher education systems.
No one remind the students; they learn the material or fail courses on their own.
One more cultural difference includes the manners that people use to fill time when they are thinking over
some tasks. One uses sounds as "ah" and "urn" for this purpose; others usually clear throats or make a coughing
noise. The revealing of such paralinguistic cases gives much information and interest for language learners.
It is quite an illusion to think that cultural meanings are the- same in all languages, that languages differ
only in the forms used for those meanings. Some meanings found in one culture may not exist in another.
There is an intercultural moot point in the reception of colors and plants. So "white and black" are not the
symbols of "good and evi 1" for Africans as they are for Europeans. It is said that there are intercultural
kinesics miming difference actions as well, performed by members of different local cultures. Thus, if young
teachers and students are not aware of the typology of lingua-cultural identities and their significance, certain
language and culture gaps and misunderstanding will appear in their communication with native speakers.
Speech is always motivated. This means that we speak because of some reason; therefore the teacher's
task is to make some students to be interested in speaking and enriching their thinking. The cultural
differences of different peoples that are models of identical or similar situations show a very strong mutual
resemblances despite all the/ differences stemming from ethnic, geographic, historical and language factors.
By comparative -typological analysis we can distinguish culture items expressing general – human
experiences, on the one hand, and original culture acts, which are used only in learning FL and mother tongue.
All in all language and culture properties are as stimulators in communication activities and rules for the
listener and speaker.
References
Lado, R. (1957) Linguistics across cultures: applied linguistics for language teachers. Michigan: UoM Press.
Kostomarov, V. and Leontyev, A. (1966) Ntkotoryye teoreticheskiye voprosy kultury rechi. J. Voprosy
yazykoznaniya, (5), pp. 3-15.
Brown, H. (2006) Teaching by principles. NY: Longman.
Tsoy, M. (2013) Novyye podkhody k izucheniyu angliyskogo yazyka (In:) Yoshlarga chet tillarni
uruftishning zamonaviy tekhnologiyalari. 5-6 iyun 2013. Tashkent: USPIPS, pp. 106-109.
This paper has been presented at the International Conference
“SCIREPS EDUCATION FORUM” in Paris (April 25-30, 2015).
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