Ch 29 Evolution I Exercise

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Ch 29 Evolution I Exercise
New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology (Second Edition)
Book 4
Ch 29 Evolution I
Exercise
Multiple-choice questions (p. 29-18)
1
6
B
D
2
7
A
B
3
8
4
C
C
D
5
C
Short questions (p. 29-19)
9
HKALE Biology 2006 I Q8
10 a
b
soft (1)
minerals (1)
The remains can be preserved in amber / ice. (1)
11 a
b
c
The brown bear and the sun bear. (1)
The line joins the red panda at 40 million years. (1)
Fossils / homologous structures / comparative biochemistry / amino acid sequence in proteins /
base sequence of DNA
(any 2) @ (1) × 2 = (2)
12 a
b
It suggests that different species today arose from a common ancestor. (1)
The similarity in the base sequence of DNA between different species is useful for establishing
their phylogenetic relationships. (1)
The more similar the base sequence, the closer the phylogenetic relationship of the species (1)
as they should have fewer mutations. (1)
- 14 -
 Oxford University Press 2015
New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology (Second Edition)
Book 4
Structured question (p. 29-20)
13 HKALE Biology 2007 II Q2a−c
- 15 -
 Oxford University Press 2015
New Senior Secondary Mastering Biology (Second Edition)
Book 4
Essay (p. 29-20)
14 There are many ways of forming fossils. Remains of organisms may be preserved in sedimentary
rocks, amber, ice, etc. (1)
Fossil formation in sedimentary rocks:
Skeletons of organisms are buried in mud and sand at the bottom of a lake. (1)
After millions of years, the mud and sand become rock due to great pressure from the upper layers
of sediment. (1)
Meanwhile, minerals from the environment deposit in the skeleton and turn it into a fossil. (1)
How scientists make use of fossils:
The lowest layer of rock contains the earliest fossils (1)
while the uppermost layer of rock contains the most recent fossils. (1)
A fossil record is formed. (1)
By comparing the structures of organisms shown in the fossil record, the evolutionary history of a
particular group of organisms can be traced. (1)
Using radioisotope dating, the age of fossils can be estimated. Thus information about the time of
existence of organisms is also obtained. (1)
Communication (3)
Reading to learn (p. 29-21)
1
2
3
Fossils provide evidence for evolution. (1)
Hongkongichthys youngi is believed to be the intermediate form between fish and amphibians. (1)
The discovery of its fossil supports the theory of evolution that new life forms arose from
pre-existing life forms. (1)
Hongkongichthys youngi lived in water. (1)
Its fossil found in Hong Kong is 400 million years old. This indicates that Hong Kong was under
water at that time. (1)
The soft parts of organisms did not fossilize. (1)
Most fossils were damaged during earth movement. (1)
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 Oxford University Press 2015