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Collaborative Communications 37 • Spectrum Specifications 47 • Everything Energy 67
APRIL 2007
AFCEA’S INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL • APRIL 2007 • $5.00
Jo M
in a
t O tu
pe rin
ra g
tio
ns
SIGNAL
SEMAPHORE
SERIES:
ENERGY
VOLUME 61, NUMBER 8
SPECIAL
REPORT:
DISA
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Directing
Defense
Intelligence
Lt. Gen. Michael D. Maples, USA, heads the DIA
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Exploit your bandwidth
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IT
Providing Information Technology Support
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centered on
To America’s
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Find out how Centurum can help you
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COVER
17
Defense Intelligence Assumes
More Diverse Missions—
By Robert K. Ackerman
JOINT OPERATIONS
APRIL 2007 • Volume 61, No. 8
Web: www.afcea.org/signal • E-mail: [email protected]
25
31
37
_______________
Military Jointness Grows Up—
By Maryann Lawlor
Warfighters Connect Without Cables—
By Rita Boland
Collaborative Environment Connects
Coalition Networks—
By Henry S. Kenyon
25
SPECIAL REPORT: DISA
Green With Envy
“Powered by pond scum”
may be the byword for future
internal combustion engines.
Government researchers are
learning how to genetically
enhance algae to produce
oils that can be converted
into biodiesel fuels.
Flexible Jointness
The concept of interoperability is
transforming along with the force.
The U.S. Joint Forces Command
is revamping its methods for
enabling interoperability to adjust
to the changing nature of conflict
in the Global War on Terrorism.
71
41
44
47
53
Technology Converges At
Information Agency
—Warfighter Support Relies
On Commercial Assets
Organization Targets
Bandwidth Battles
Armed Forces Pay Per Use
COMMUNICATIONS
61
Proposal Meets Needs Of
Emergency Personnel
SEMAPHORE SERIES: ENERGY
67
71
Energy Effort Promises
Many Solutions
Algae-Based Energy
Burns With Potential
MILITARY
41
75
Coalition Environments Challenge
Communications Strategy—
By Robert Ducote and Penney Myer
ASSOCIATION FEATURES
Calling Technology Home
As information system users opt to
go their own way, the technologies
they are using are coming together
in the military. The Defense
Information Systems Agency is
incorporating new digital
technologies and capabilities under
the umbrella of standardization.
SIGNAL (ISSN-0037-4938) (USPS 496-300) is published monthly by the Armed Forces Communications
and Electronics Association at 4400 Fair Lakes Court, Fairfax, Virginia 22033-3899, (703) 631-6100. Toll-free
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opinions expressed in articles appearing in AFCEA publications, and these opinions are not to be construed as official or reflecting
the views of the Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association. The name SIGNAL® is registered in the U.S. Patent
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Official Publication of AFCEA
80
Core Backbone Key to Meeting Federal
IPv6 Mandate—
By Beverly P. Mowery
82
Innovative Approaches Key to
Warfighting, Military Posture
INCOMING
Strong May Beat the Weak, but the
120 The
Smart Defeat the Strong—
By Cmdr. Gregory E. Glaros, USN (Ret.)
DEPARTMENTS
Behind the Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
NewsNet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Progressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
InternetWorks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Business Byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
AFCEA Educational Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Association News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
AFCEAN of the Month . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
International Chapter News . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
AFCEA Corporate Members . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
Calendar/Advertiser Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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AFCEA’s INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
Chairman of the Board
Duane P. Andrews
Associate Publisher
Beverly P. Mowery
[email protected]
____________
Editor in Chief
Robert K. Ackerman
[email protected]
_____________
Senior Editor
Maryann Lawlor
[email protected]
____________
Managing Editor
Tanya Y. Alexander
[email protected]
_____________
Business Editor
Henry S. Kenyon
[email protected]
____________
News Editor
Rita Boland
[email protected]
___________
Associate Editor
Catherine Imperatore
[email protected]
______________
Assistant Editor
Amber Corrin
[email protected]
___________
Publications Assistant
Christina Yanette
[email protected]
____________
SIGNAL Art Director
Chris D’Elia
[email protected]
__________
Contributing Columnist
Cmdr. Gregory E. Glaros, USN (Ret.)
Editor at Large
Clarence A. Robinson Jr.
Contributing Editors
Col. Alan D. Campen,
USAF (Ret.)
Michael A. Robinson
Technical Adviser
Dr. R. Norris Keeler
Advertising Director
Marsha Carpenter
[email protected]
______________
E-mail your comments
to
[email protected]
____________
COVER
Lt. Gen. Michael D. Maples,
USA, director of the
Defense Intelligence
Agency (DIA), views a
panorama of Southwest
Asia with DIA intelligence
officer Lindsay McGahuey.
The TouchTable they are
using allows operators to
change their viewing
perspective or add overlays
of features by using their
fingertips. Photography
by Michael Carpenter.
Cover design by SIGNAL
Art Director Chris D’Elia.
4
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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BEHIND THE LINES
or residents of the Northern Hemisphere, April means a full return to
spring with blossoms beginning to
bloom. For residents of the United
States, April also means income tax
filing. For readers of SIGNAL Magazine,
wherever they may be, this is the month
that their issue focuses on joint operations with a special report on the Defense
Information Systems Agency (DISA).
But the magazine’s first article delves
into the world of intelligence. The
defense intelligence community effectively has been tasked with three jobs:
transform under the new national intelligence reorganization, support the force
in the Global War on Terrorism and lay
the groundwork for continuity of capabilities. SIGNAL’s cover story this
month takes a close look at these issues
in an exclusive interview with Lt. Gen.
Michael D. Maples, USA, Defense Intelligence Agency director. Beginning on
page 17, Gen. Maples describes how the
agency is changing to meet the new
demands of irregular warfare and to
serve new roles in the reorganized intelligence community.
Senior Editor Maryann Lawlor leads
off the section on joint operations by
going directly to the source(s). Her article
on page 25 reports on the U.S. Joint
Forces Command (JFCOM) and its transformation amid the broader military
transformation. Many of its changes represent adjustments for the war on terrorism, but most deal with the changing
nature of warfare in general.
Connectivity is the key to successful
joint operations, and News Editor Rita
Boland looks at the nuts and bolts of that
discipline. Her article on page 31
describes linkage without links—secure
wireless networking in urban and remote
areas. Forces conducting military or
homeland security operations will be able
to bring their computers online faster
with a smaller materiel footprint.
Business Editor Henry S. Kenyon joins
the joint operations report with an article
on coalition networking. His piece on
page 37 examines how a new suite of
software applications will allow different
nations to exchange secure communications across their computer networks.
Communications and information systems lie behind almost all modern mili-
F
tary operations. Tasked with providing
top-of-the-line services to decision makers and warfighters, DISA faces many of
the same transformation challenges
addressed by the intelligence community
and JFCOM. This month’s special report
on the agency begins with a page 41 article on—of course—technology. David
Mihelcic, DISA’s chief technology officer, tells SIGNAL the key technology
areas the agency will be focusing on over
the next few years.
As always, it’s all about bandwidth.
While attention recently has been
focused on the size of communication
pipes, the issue of spectrum allocation
and use has reared its head again.
Lawlor returns with an article on page
47 that describes how DISA’s new
Defense Spectrum Organization has
been formed to resolve and prevent
spectrum conflicts among U.S. troops
and allies on the battlefield.
Many of DISA’s activities involve
contract services, and the agency constantly is striving to improve their efficiencies. The latest thrust is toward managed services contracts that would
streamline acquisition processes and
deliver scalable services better, as
Boland reports on page 53.
The third and last installment of
SIGNAL’s Semaphore Series on energy
takes a look at the far horizon. Kenyon
reports on how researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
are throwing caution to the wind as they
study potential power-generating technologies. His article on page 67 examines
how the MIT Energy Initiative is practicing diversity as it studies a plethora of
new technology approaches.
One blue-sky approach may provide a
green solution to fueling internal combustion engines. Kenyon aims his reporter’s
pen across the continent to Sandia
National Laboratories in California,
where scientists are genetically engineering algae to produce oil that can be converted into biodiesel. His article on page
71 gives a glimpse of a future where
high-technology aircraft are powered by
pond scum. From the ground up … .
www.afcea.org/signal
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Our Intelligence Helps Secure the Nation.
The U.S. Army relies on advanced technology, communications, command and
control systems to enhance the intelligence capabilities of troops in the field
• IntelligenceCareers.com top 10 employer
• G.I. Jobs top 10 military friendly employer
To search available career opportunities visit:
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software development, integrated logistics support, training and testing –
have supported the transformation and modernization of intelligence fusion
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Leading the Convergence of National Security and Technology
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NewsNet
MILITARY
Rolling Toward Survival
Networking Radio Debuts
A new radio technology may help
warfighters to stay connected on the
battlefield. Developed by Harris Corporation (www.harris.com) and BAE
Systems (www.baesystems.com), the
highband networking radio (HNR) is
designed to provide mobile, highbandwidth, long-range, line-of-sight
connectivity among widely dispersed
local area networks (LANs). The
technology can be configured to support systems ranging from small unit
applications to division-level network
backbone tools. The HNR uses directive beam technology to extend its
range, improve throughput and
enhance spectrum efficiency.
A recent demonstration in Melbourne, Florida, featured all of the
HNR’s capabilities, including voice
over Internet protocol, video teleconferencing, high-definition video and
e-mail transmission at speeds in
excess of 30 megabits per second. The
test used U.S. Army Joint Network
Nodes to simulate multiple battalionlevel tactical operations centers linked
to a command center. During the
demonstration, the HNR supported
both static and mobile backbone communications links for Army units
spread across a 500-square-kilometer
urban environment. The radio provided mobile satellite, secure wireless
LAN and tactical voice communications that seamlessly integrated into
the network and connected to a General Dynamics facility in Taunton, Massachusetts, via a Ku-band satellite.
Designed for ease of use, the HNR
requires only power-up to establish a
mobile, ad hoc networking mesh,
which reduces manpower and simplifies operations.
Spectrum Training for Warfare
The U.S. Army is stepping up its
electronic warfare instruction by
offering two courses that service officials say are urgently needed for soldiers on current spectrum-congested
6
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Combined Joint Task Force 76 soldiers are turning to simulation to help
them survive high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV)
rollovers. The U.S. Army is using the HMMWV Egress Assistance Trainer
(HEAT) to train warfighters in Afghanistan about how to react when their
vehicle starts to roll over.
HEAT comprises both computer simulations and mechanical simulators to
train deployed soldiers for situations they are likely to face while away from
camp. The trainer is a full-scale mock-up of a HMMWV that helps warfighters
recognize the angle at which the vehicle will roll. In the past year, 16 of the 17
HMMWV-accident-related deaths were the result of rollovers.
According to David Henderson, safety director, Combined Joint Task Force
76, the technology offers students a valuable experience they cannot get from
classroom training alone. “Soldiers can rehearse rollover drills anytime they
want,” he states. “What I can’t do is get that feel of the point of no return. The
biggest advantage of this [trainer] is that it gives me the means to replicate
exactly what’s going to happen so they learn to not panic.”
Master Sgt. Brian Blair, USAF, Combined Joint Task Force 76, exits the highmobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) Egress Assistance Trainer
after the vehicle rolled upside down. Soldiers deployed in Afghanistan use
the simulator to learn to recognize when a HMMWV is about to roll over.
battlefields. A three-week tactical
course at Fort Huachuca, Arizona, is
designed for soldiers at battalion level
and below; a six-week operational
course at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, will
focus on electronic warfare operators
from the battalion level up.
Gen. Richard A. Cody, USA, the
Army’s vice chief of staff, called for
the training courses last October when
it became apparent that many soldiers
were not well prepared for the new
battlespace that features competing
priorities for available spectrum. In
addition, the military no longer can
use past means such as barrage jammers to disrupt the adversaries’ communications because they also would
affect U.S. and coalition equipment.
One of Gen. Cody’s directives was
to ensure that soldiers are equally
competent in electronic warfare as
www.afcea.org/signal
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Wherever the U.S. military goes, we go too.
Satellite networks
Wireless networks
Baseband networks
Monitor and control software
Media asset management software
Network monitoring services
Field support services
Depot management
Logistics engineering
Information assurance engineering
and more...
Communications are vital to mission success. That’s why we work side-by-side
with the U.S. military to provide end-to-end communications systems and
services that help warfighters operate, even in the harshest conditions.
From software and hardware to experts in the field, DataPath delivers – with
experience, innovation and speed.
For more information, visit www.datapath.com or e-mail us at
[email protected]
______________
Copyright 2007 DataPath, Inc. All rights reserved
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members of the other services.
Because the Army does not have
many personnel with advanced training in electronic warfare at this time,
the U.S. Navy offered its expertise to
advise the Army about how to proceed. The Army plans to replace a
majority of those advisers with its
own personnel by March 2008.
In addition, the general indicated
that electronic warfare would be an
Army core competency so that each
soldier understands at least the basics
of the threats to spectrum, both in the
air and on the ground.
Seeker Missile Hits Emitter
The U.S. Air Force has successfully tested a missile capable of detecting and destroying an enemy radar
system emitting at low power levels.
During its third and final free-flight
test, the high-speed antiradiation
missile (HARM) Destruction of
Enemy Air Defense Attack Module
(HDAM) sought out only a lowpower emitter. To test the missile’s
capability fully, it searched for the
emission source at very close range
to the target.
During the trial held at the China
Lake Test Range, California, the
HDAM was launched about 29 miles
from the target by an F-16 fighter aircraft flying at more than 500 miles per
hour, at an elevation of 25,000 feet. The
missile then demonstrated its ability to
conduct a rapid time-critical attack. The
new HDAM variant adds an inertial
navigation system/global positioning
system (INS/GPS) to the existing
HARM capability. Earlier flight tests
validated the missile’s improved software and INS/GPS capabilities.
Raytheon Company (www.raytheon.
com) manufactures the HDAM.
___
SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY
Tiny Datalinks Take Off
A program recently launched by the
U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory
soon may allow small unmanned air
systems (SUASs) to be networked. The
Miniature Common Data Link (MiniCDL) program seeks to design a miniature Ku-band system and a terminal
capable of supporting SUAS platforms.
8
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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BUSINESS
Information Professionals in Demand … Again
A survey of chief information officers (CIOs) reports that it can take as long
as two months to locate and hire a qualified information technology employee.
On average, it currently takes 56 days to find someone for a staff-level position
and 87 days to hire someone for management, the study reveals.
To acquire the data, Robert Half Technology (www.rht.com), an information
technology professional placement firm, developed the survey that was administered by IRC, an independent research company. More than 1,400 CIOs from
U.S. companies with 100 or more employees responded to the survey.
According to Katherine Spencer Lee, executive director, Robert Half
Technology, human resource personnel often find themselves shortstaffed and unable to dedicate the time required to recruit and adequately
evaluate candidates. “Employers must balance the need to expedite the
hiring process with the equally pressing need to ensure a new employee is
right for the job,” she advises. But, though careful hiring is crucial, delaying a decision could mean losing the perfect candidate to another company that has offered the job seeker a position, she warns.
An industry team led by Rockwell
Collins (www.rockwellcollins.com)
was selected to develop the Mini-CDL.
The program’s first phase will focus on
advancing digital radio frequency technologies such as system-on-a-chip
modems to create small, affordable,
low-power and low-weight tactical
applications. The goal is to develop
CDL terminals that are small enough
to be installed in small unmanned aircraft but can form datalinks with current ground systems.
Detecting Concealed HAZMAT
Researchers at Sandia National
Laboratories (www.sandia.gov) are
developing screening devices to identify hazardous and toxic materials
concealed by clothing and packaging
materials. These scientists are working in the terahertz portion of the
electromagnetic spectrum to design
the technology. The goal of the project, titled the Terahertz Microelectronics Transceiver Grand Challenge,
is to build a highly integrated miniaturized terahertz transceiver that could
enable a number of applications.
A principal investigator involved
with the project suggests that the technology could be used to scan for items
such as concealed weapons or materials, explosives and weapons of mass
destruction. He also offers that it has
applications in advanced communications systems and high-resolution
radars. Sandia scientists hope to invent
the technologies and create the
infrastructure to move the terahertz
technology from the laboratory to
the field.
Magnetic Reconnection
Scientists are using data from a cutting-edge scientific instrument to
determine how and where the energy
from the solar wind is transferred into
the Earth’s magnetosphere, a region
surrounding the planet that is dominated by Earth’s magnetic field. This
energy transfer—called magnetic
reconnection—affects radio communications, satellite operations and
electric power systems on Earth as
well as causes auroras.
Magnetic reconnection occurs when
magnetic fields from different
domains are spliced together in a
way that permits energy to transfer
from one domain to the other.
Reconnection breaks through the
Earth’s natural magnetic sheath,
allowing charged particles and energy from the sun to enter the space
around Earth. The scientists, who
work for Lockheed Martin Corporation (www.lockheedmartin.com),
have examined 130 reconnection
events in their study. They found that
the magnetic reconnection occurs
along an extended line across the
dayside magnetopause, the outer
boundary of the magnetosphere.
www.afcea.org/signal
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3ECURE.ON3ECURE 6IDEO #ONFERENCING -ADE %ASY 7ITH )3%#
7HEN CLASSIFIED INFORMATION IS ON THE LINE YOU KNOW YOU NEED
A FAILSAFE SOLUTION FOR SECURENONSECURE )0 VIDEO CONFERENCING
"UT WHAT YOU MAY NOT KNOW IS THAT THE CODEC AUTOMATICALLY STORES
CLASSIFIED )0 CALL INFORMATION AND THEREFORE SIMPLY SWITCHING THE
PHYSICAL CONNECTIONS VIOLATES )! GUIDANCE
#RITICOMS )3%#4- SYSTEM FEATURES AN INNOVATIVE )0$OMAIN
#ONTROLLER THAT PERFORMS HUNDREDS OF STEPS REQUIRED TO hCLEANv THIS
STORED CLASSIFIED DATA AND A CERTIFIED 4%-0%34 FIBEROPTIC SWITCH
TO PROVIDE TRUE ISOLATION BETWEEN SECURITY DOMAINS "ECAUSE OUR NEW )0 SWITCH IS 4%-0%34
APPROVED AND $)3!*)4#CERTIFIED YOU KNOW IT PROVIDES FAILSAFE TRUE SECURITY
&INALLY YOU CAN HAVE A TRUE #/43 SOLUTION THAT PROVIDES CERTIFIED )0 VIDEO CONFERENCE SWITCHING
-AKE THE CERTIFIED CHOICE WITH )3%#
____________
(]HPSHISLVU.:(:JOLK\SL ‹ *90;0*64 ‹ _____________
0:,*PUMV'JYP[PJVTJVT ‹ __________
^^^JYP[PJVTJVT
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PROGRESSIONS
Government
Susan J. Crawford,
former judge of the
U.S. Court of Appeals
for the Armed Forces,
has been designated as
convening authority
for military commissions by Secretary of Defense Robert
Gates, U.S. Defense Department,
Washington, D.C.
Three fiscal year 2007 appointees
have been selected for the U.S.
Defense Department Advisory Committee on Women in the Services,
Washingon, D.C.: Kerry Lassus,
Judith Page O’Flaherty and Command Sgt. Maj. Roberta Santiago,
USAR (Ret.).
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
in Washington, D.C., has appointed one
special agent in charge of a field office
and two special agents in charge of field
office divisions, respectively: Warren
T. Bamford, Boston; Janice K.
Fedarcyk, Counterterrorism Division,
Los Angeles; and Todd P. Letcher,
Special Operations Division, New York.
Thomas Paul D’Agostino has
been named acting undersecretary
for nuclear security as well as
administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration, an agency of the U.S. Energy Department,
Washington, D.C.
The U.S. General Services Administration has named Karen M. Kirksey
and Brian K. Mabry as deputy associate administrators for the Office of
Congressional and Intergovernmental
Affairs in Washington, D.C.
Military
Gen. David H. Petraeus, USA, has
assumed command of Multinational
Force–Iraq in Baghdad. Gen.
Petraeus’ predecessor, Gen. George
10
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
W. Casey Jr., USA, has been confirmed as the U.S. Army chief of staff,
the Pentagon, Washington, D.C.
Adm. William Fallon, USN, has
been confirmed as commander of the
U.S. Central Command, based at
MacDill Air Force Base, Florida. In
addition, the U.S. Senate has confirmed
Adm. Timothy Keating, USN, for
reappointment to the grade of admiral
and assignment as commander, U.S.
Pacific Command, Honolulu, and Lt.
Gen. Victor E. Renuart Jr., USAF, as
commander, U.S. Northern Command,
and commander, North American
Aerospace Defense Command, Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado. Gen.
Renuart also has been confirmed for
appointment to the grade of general.
Leadership of the
Naval Air Systems
Command in Patuxent River, Maryland,
has been assumed by
Vice Adm. David
Venlet, USN.
Rear Adm. Carlton B. Jewett,
USN, is being assigned as commander, Navy Warfare Development
Command, Norfolk, Virginia.
Rear Adm. (Sel.) Douglas L.
McClain, USN, is being assigned as
director, global operations, J-3, U.S.
Strategic Command, Omaha, Nebraska.
Lt. Gen. Robert L.
Van Antwerp Jr.,
USA, has been nominated for assignment
as chief of engineers/
commanding general,
U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, Washington, D.C., as
well as appointment to the grade of
lieutenant general.
Maj. Gen. Loren M. Reno, USAF,
has been assigned as commander,
Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center,
U.S. Air Force Materiel Command,
Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma.
Maj. Gen. David M. Edgington,
USAF, will assume the post of director, Air Component Coordination Element, Multinational Force–Iraq, Air
Combat Command, Baghdad. Maj.
Gen. Mark D. Shackelford, USAF,
will fill his previous assignment as
director, global power programs,
Office of the Assistant Secretary of
the U.S. Air Force for Acquisition,
the Pentagon, Washington, D.C.
Replacing Gen. Shackelford as
director, plans and requirements,
Headquarters U.S. Air Force Space
Command, Peterson Air Force Base,
Colorado, will be Brig. Gen. (Sel.)
John E. Hyten, USAF.
Industry
AFCEA Washington Chapter
member Jeff Flading has been
appointed as vice president of the
Department of Defense Division of
TechTeam Government Solutions
Incorporated in Chantilly, Virginia.
William Shernit has
been chosen as president of Intelsat General, a subsidiary of Intelsat. Shernit will be
working in the Washington, D.C., offices of
the Bermuda-based company.
MorganFranklin Corporation,
McLean, Virginia, has named
AFCEA Northern Virginia Chapter
member Col. Howard I. Cohen,
USA (Ret.), as director, MorganFranklin Technology Solutions
Group.
Capt. Tom Webber, USN (Ret.),
has joined FGM Incorporated, Reston,
Virginia, as director of defense information operations programs.
Englewood, Colorado-based Aviation Technology Group Incorporated
has selected John McCoury as vice
president of engineering and chief
engineer.
www.afcea.org/signal
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T H I S I S T H E V E RY S H A R P E D G E O F Y O U R N E T W O R K .
The most critical part of any command-and-control network is ultra-reliable connectivity. If the fundamental connectivity layer isn’t up to the challenge, the most sophisticated of systems will fail. And failure is not an option,
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ADC provides network infrastructure fiber and copper connectivity for nearly all the world’s telecommunications
networks. ADC products are installed in US Government networks all over the globe, and are a vital part of our
nation’s C4I systems. Federal agencies and military branches depend on ADC for superior connectivity solutions
to meet current and future challenges.
When it comes time to increase the scalability, reliability and flexibility of current C4I systems, turn to ADC.
ADC Federal 1.800.336.3891, ext 7-3627 | Email: [email protected]
__________________
visit www.adc.com/federal | GSA Contract GS-03F-5084C
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When it comes to embedded
programmable crypto technologies,
we’re the first line of defense.
Department of Defense
In fact, high assurance military and government applications depend on the Family of Advanced Core
Cryptographic Technologies (FAC2T) from General Dynamics. It’s easy to see why:
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To learn how General Dynamics can provide you with leading edge, dependable high assurance
solutions, visit www.gdc4s.com/FAC2T.
General Dynamics Secure Communications: We’ve Got the FAC2Ts
© 2007 General Dynamics. All rights reserved.
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F
INTERNETWORKS
SIGNAL’s guide to Web resources
he term “open source” has several meanings. First, it is the name
of a school of software design
whose free products can be modified by users. But open source also
refers to a philosophy of sharing. In the
case of software, developers freely
share information about how they have
tweaked and changed a program to suit
their needs. The accessible nature of the
Internet also has led to other types of
open-source applications—such as
Wikipedia, an online encyclopedia
where content is provided and edited by
users. It is this last aspect, the free
exchange of text, video and other information for civilian, military and government uses, that is expanding the
meaning of the term across a variety of
sites on the World Wide Web.
T
and understanding of genome data.
The home page outlines the R programming language that BioConductor is based on and provides links to
the meta-data packages developed for
specific applications. The goals of the
program are to provide access to a
range of statistical and graphical tools
used to examine genomic data, facilitating the integration of biological
metadata in the analysis of experimental data; to allow the rapid development of extensible, scalable and
interoperable hardware; and to promote high-quality and reproducible
research. Besides providing extensive
information about the uses of BioConductor, the site features additional
material in the form of monographs,
publications and event information.
Open Source Initiative (OSI)
World66
www.opensource.org
This nonprofit corporation is dedicated to managing and promoting the
open-source definition—the rules outlining how open-source software is
used and distributed. The OSI supports
the rapid evolution of software through
sharing rather than the traditional
closed proprietary model. According to
the initiative, when programmers can
read, redistribute and modify the source
code for a piece of software, it changes
rapidly. Visitors to the site can access
information about the OSI’s advocacy
role, which includes examples of how
open-source software is useful for businesses, customers and programmers.
The site also discusses the differences
between open-source and free software.
Additional information is provided
about open-source software such as the
Linux operating system and FreeBSD,
OpenBSD and NetBSD, which are all
based on the Berkeley Systems Distribution of Unix.
www.world66.com
BioConductor
www.bioconductor.org
Open-source software can be used
for a variety of applications. BioConductor is an open development software project to further the analysis
Official Publication of AFCEA
Ibiblio
www.ibiblio.org
Freely accessible information also
can be used for personal growth. This
site is an online meta-library of software, music, literature, art, history,
science, politics and cultural studies.
Managed by the Center for the Public
Domain and the University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill, ibiblio is
designed to allow users to access a
range of data. For example, someone
studying American poetry or folk
music can listen to artists perform,
read biographies, download sheet
music, reference secondary materials
and submit their own research papers
to the collection. Visitors can access
RSS feeds, text and other materials in
a variety of languages, including
Japanese, Greek, Russian, Mongolian
and Yiddish. The site also has more
than 171 gigabytes of Linux programs
and documentation available for
downloading via FTP or Wide World
Web access.
Map My Run
Shared information does not have to
be restricted to software. This opencontent travel guide allows people to
post articles about the places they have
visited, the hotels at which they stayed
and the places they dined. Visitors also
can edit any article—their own or
someone else’s—by clicking an edit
button on the Web page. The site
claims to be among the most comprehensive travel sites on the Internet, with
more than 100,000 articles on over
45,000 destinations around the world.
For example, the travel guide for Amsterdam features a general description
of the city and links for more specific
user-provided information about travel, museums, nightlife, festivals and
practical tips for getting around in the
city. The site also includes travel
guides that can be loaded onto handheld personal electronic devices for
quick references on the road.
www.mapmyrun.com
This home page is for people who
are literally on the go. Designed for
runners, the site allows visitors to set
and plan running trips anywhere in
the world. The graphic user interface
produces a street-level map for most
major urban areas that can be navigated by clicking and dragging a mouse
cursor in the right direction. Users can
plan and map jogging routes. For
organized events, an icon list allows
water and aid stations to be marked,
and a distance calculator plans the
overall length of each route.
Visit SIGNAL Magazine’s home page
at www.afcea.org/signal.
Subscribe to SIGNAL Connections,
AFCEA’s e-newsletter, at
www.afcea.org/signalconnections.
For professional development and
conference information, visit AFCEA’s
home page at www.afcea.org.
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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FROM HERE...
WE PROVIDE THE
BEST IN HIGH-SPEED,
ENCRYPTION TECHNOLOGY...
š
4HE&OUNDATIONOF)NFORMATION3ECURITY
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TO HERE...
From the depths of space to the front lines,
our encryption technology protects our nation’s
critical information - from intelligence to tax records.
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PHOTO COURTESY OF U.S.ARMY
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_________________
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U.S. Navy operations specialists monitor radar in the combat information
center aboard the USS Bataan. New technologies that improve intelligence,
surveillance and reconnaissance are part of the Defense Intelligence Agency’s
(DIA’s) prescription for better intelligence in the Global War on Terrorism.
Defense Intelligence Assumes
More Diverse Missions
The war on terrorism and the community
reorganization generate a controlled upheaval.
he unforgiving world that has taken shape
Surveillance and Reconnaissance (JFCBy Robert K. Intelligence,
after September 11, 2001, is changing
CISR) for the U.S. Strategic Command (STRATAckerman
both the nature of defense intelligence
COM). These diverse roles parallel the multifaceted
and its means of operations. Virtually
nature of defense intelligence in the post-9/11 era.
every aspect of intelligence operations—collection,
As with so many defense organizations, the DIA must
processing, analysis and dissemination—is changconduct ongoing operations in the Global War on Terroring to address new global threats and the transformation
ism concurrent with transformation changes confronting
gripping the national security community.
the agency. It cannot falter in either, the general states. As
Lt. Gen. Michael D. Maples, USA, is the director of the
a result, its resources are stretched and it must establish
Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA). He also is the director of
priorities for its global operations, which are not limited to
the Defense Joint Intelligence Operations Center (DJIOC), the
the war on terrorism.
defense human intelligence (HUMINT) manager, and the
“It is imperative that we avoid strategic surprise for our
commander of the Joint Functional Component Command for
nation,” Gen. Maples says. “We can’t take our eye off what is
T
Official Publication of AFCEA
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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saries tend to operate, and the intelligence
going on in other parts of the world—other
community needs a new suite of collecmilitary capabilities that are developing and
tion and measurement and signature intelthe kinds of transnational threats that will
ligence (MASINT) capabilities to obtain
affect our national security interests.”
the necessary information on adversaries
The agency has had to re-evaluate its
in these areas.
capabilities with a greater focus on irregMASINT can be particularly imporular warfare, the general continues. He
tant for detecting ballistic missiles,
expects that it will be engaged in irregudirected energy weapons and weapons
lar warfare for the foreseeable future, and
of mass destruction, Gen. Maples
this places a different level of emphasis
offers. “These are three areas where we
on analysts and their products.
must sustain our investment in
Commanders require a new level of
MASINT,” he declares. “Having signaunderstanding about people, cultures, pertures and a signatures program is going
sonal networks and transnational forces,
to become increasingly important to us.
Gen. Maples posits. Satisfying this need
We are going to have less opportunity
requires a new approach to intelligence. “If
Lt. Gen. Michael D. Maples,
to see or hear, but we will have an abiliyou are dealing with terrorist organizations
USA, is the director of the DIA.
ty to measure to a greater extent.
that are not wearing uniforms, don’t have
shoulder patches and have no bumper
“This means that we’ve got to have
the right kinds of signature databases that we can comnumbers on their vehicles, it is a much different task to
pare against and the right kinds of collection capabilities
understand the organizational construct and their tactics,
to look into those three areas,” he continues. “The threats
techniques and procedures, along with their order of battle
are out there, and nations are growing their capabilities
and their vulnerabilities,” he says. “It requires different
right now in all of those areas.”
tools, particularly at a lower tactical level.”
The U.S. defense strategy’s renewed focus on global
The DIA has been working on several new technologies
shaping operations is affecting operations at the DIA.
that will help develop vital intelligence in ungoverned
This more proactive approach to global engagements—
areas, the general notes. These are the areas where advershaping situations first on U.S. terms instead of reacting afterward on an adversary’s terms—requires the
defense intelligence community to develop different
kinds of intelligence and information for combatant
commanders. This includes a new understanding of cultures and leaders and their decision making, which is a
different realm than the one on which field commanders
currently depend.
The changed strategic environment is the greatest
impetus for change at the DIA, the general says. This
new environment takes the agency out of its traditional
organizational constructs and staff processes. Instead of
being oriented toward its organizational construct of
service and agency intelligence, the DIA is moving
toward joint intelligence operations centers (JIOCs).
This represents a networked approach to linking the
capabilities of defense intelligence.
“It [the changed strategic environment] puts us—particularly with information technology—into an operational construct where networking is central to our
ability to be successful,” he emphasizes.
That change is making itself apparent in ongoing
operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the general continues. The greatest successes have come from multi-INT
approaches in which information is being provided
rapidly to lower tactical levels. This permits operators
to exploit that information to conduct rapid missions in
Members of the Iraq Survey Team pour over boxes of
succession. “We are spending less time analyzing that
documents seized when allied forces toppled Saddam
information and more time acting on it,” he declares.
Hussein. Being able to translate and disseminate intelliNetworking intelligence capabilities involves bringing
gence rapidly on enemy documents and other media is a
key capability for defeating the insurgency in Iraq.
together representatives from all of the intelligence
18
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
www.afcea.org/signal
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_______________________
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agencies and disciplines. The intelligence disciplines
enable one another using information technology as a
tool to make that happen, the general explains.
The DIA is the executive agent for the National Media
Exploitation Center, and the agency has media exploitation capabilities forward in both Iraq and Afghanistan.
They are being moved to lower tactical levels so that
forces can take advantage of documents and other media
found on the scene. That valuable information must be
turned around rapidly, Gen. Maples points out, because
adversaries react quickly when they learn that key information has fallen into U.S. hands. He describes this
lower level media exploitation facility as a type of miniJIOC in which various intelligence capabilities are colocated or networked for effective exploitation.
At the national level, the DJIOC strives to accomplish
the same goal, the general suggests. It tries to understand the intelligence needs of combatant commanders
and to address shortcomings. The DJIOC is co-located
with the JFCCISR, and the two have integrated their
operations into a single global intelligence operations
center. This brings together the understanding of combatant commanders’ intelligence needs and priorities
along with the ability to meet those requirements using
_____________
20
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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global intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance
(ISR) assets. The result is the formation of a global
common operating picture of how ISR resources and
national capabilities are being applied, and this allows
the general to see shortfalls and redundancies. He then
can recommend the reallocation of resources to redress
the shortfalls.
“We still had a lot of redundancy in the application of
our ISR resources,” the general allows. “But understanding what the priorities are—and what I’ve got, where it
is, what it’s doing and how I need to apply it—is a pretty powerful capability.”
Gen. Maples believes that many gains have been
achieved through the Intelligence Reform Act of 2004,
which created the office of Director of National Intelligence (DNI) as a capstone to an intelligence community
consolidation effort. With many basic goals attained, the
community now must address some more difficult challenges, the general offers.
Ongoing operations have helped highlight where conflicts exist in guidance, policies, processes and procedures. The intelligence community is beginning to root
out those conflicts to apply community solutions. This
contrasts with adapting traditional constructs with simple overlays that do not really address the problem—
which had been a way of doing business for many years.
As an example of encouraging progress, Gen. Maples
cites how Gen. Michael Hayden, USAF, head of the
Central Intelligence Agency, also is the national
HUMINT manager in charge of the National Clandestine Service. Gen. Maples is the defense HUMINT manager with the defense component of the National Clandestine Service. They have a team rewriting Intelligence
Community Directive 304 to take a fresh look at how to
employ HUMINT resources in an integrated, collaborative manner with common standards and training. This
will be framed against the context of the irregular war
on terrorism, and similar efforts may lie ahead for collection architecture and the analytic community, Gen.
Maples suggests.
The past two years have seen the establishment of a
structure for cooperation that the general describes as “a
confederated state on the verge of bringing about the
integration of our capabilities.” The community also is
poised to make changes in the policies and programs
that are interfering with the ability to achieve that integration. “We’ve gone far enough to understand what the
limitations are and what we have to change next in order
to take the next step,” he declares.
Foremost among these is information sharing. The
advantages of network centricity are lost if information
is not shared, and this faces both technological and cultural obstacles. Tagging data heads the list of enablers to
permit intelligence access and sharing, the general
states. He has that responsibility for the Department of
Defense Intelligence Information System (DODIIS),
which involves consolidating 11 separate enterprises
into a single collaborative grid. The next 18 months
www.afcea.org/signal
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COVER
should begin to show the advantages of this enterprise
approach, he predicts.
The need for metadata tagging crosses all domains of the
defense community. In addition to the data tagging effort
underway with the DODIIS, the DIA is working with the
Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks and Information Integration (ASD NII) to establish common data standards. The DIA also is involved
with the DNI, and the directors of
the combat support agencies—the
National Security Agency, National
Geospatial-Intelligence Agency,
National Reconnaissance Office—
have their chief information officers
working together on this challenge.
In his role with STRATCOM,
Gen. Maples is working on a program to set up demonstrations for
moving sensor data to storage. The
focus is on how that data is tagged
and delivered to the user who needs
it. That effort currently is concentrating on imagery, but it will
expand into other forms of intelligence data.
The DODIIS trusted workstation
will provide cross-domain collaboration between the secret Internet protocol router network (SIPRNET) and
the Joint Worldwide Intelligence
Communications System (JWICS),
and it will permit more analysts to
access unclassified networks. This
will clear the way for more opensource intelligence capabilities, the
general notes. The DODIIS trusted
workstation and thin-client workstations can provide access to multiple
networks and operating environments. Gen. Maples relates that while
DIA personnel generally are operating on JWICS, most people conducting operations are using the SIPRNET. Being able to move data easily
across those networks is an important
goal, he emphasizes.
The warfighting Global Command
and Control System–Integrated
Imagery and Intelligence, or GCCS-I3,
is a foundation for what the DIA is
trying to achieve in JIOCs, the general
states. This system provides visualizations from a wide range of intelligence and operational professionals
from the national level down to the
tactical level. It will be the intelligence module of the Defense Information Systems Agency’s (DISA’s)
Official Publication of AFCEA
next-generation command and control system. It will allow
the DJIOC, the JFCCISR and all of the combatant command JIOCs to have access to common visualizations and
tools. This will permit better intelligence support to operations in a networked environment, he emphasizes.
Among the DIA’s requirements are intelligent data systems
that would permit a user to register for the kinds of information and data that are needed. When that information hits the
___________
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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collective system, it would be routed automatically to the
users who need it.
The “pull versus push” intelligence debate largely has
been decided in favor of “push.” Rather than users or
analysts searching for needed information, systems are
being established to move that information to them when
they need it. “Instead of [analysts] needing to ‘Google’
that information and search for it, they can spend more
time on the production function, which is what we really
want our analysts to be able to do,” the general offers.
The DIA’s activities in this realm must link to the
intelligence community as a whole as well as to what the
services are achieving from the tactical level up, he continues. This effort includes an all-source approach to
intelligence tools. One program, ALIEN, involves an allsource intelligence network that integrates commercial
search and discovery applications, advanced link analysis, secure visualization capabilities and a cross-domain
search capability called the multidomain dissemination
system (MDDS).
ALIEN will create a single database that will allow
users to access real-time data where it resides. They will
be able to use advanced network-centric analytic tools
that the general describes as cutting edge. Again, common data standards may be the key to success in this
endeavor. Data tagging and database integration within
the DODIIS should achieve significant goals by this
summer, and then that integration will be expanded to
include the services, the combat support agencies and the
national intelligence community.
The DIA always is looking for cutting edge technologies, the general states. These include unattended ground
sensors that can cover areas and provide information in
regions where HUMINT is lacking. Collection technologies that focus on the difficult environments characteristic of irregular warfare are high on the wish list.
Other technologies directly relate to new tools for
HUMINT personnel, particularly those that involve
translation and human contact. Combatant commanders
also want technologies for areas in which they want to
operate but do not have capabilities for understanding the
situation on the ground. The DIA is engaged in research
and development for these types of capabilities, Gen.
Maples adds.
For the DJIOC, technology needs might include enablers
for integrating intelligence capabilities along with the
kinds of tools that permit collaboration. Another need is for
analytic tools that will allow reducing a huge volume of
information to a manageable size for distribution to the
right consumers. Intelligence also must be displayed with
visualization tools that provide a common picture.
And, tools that will provide a training advantage are on
the general’s list. The DIA must train its professional work
force and sustain its knowledge and skills regardless of
when these professionals are brought into the work force.
This month, the DIA will dedicate a joint center of
excellence for HUMINT training at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. A newly drafted DIA HUMINT directive addresses
how defense HUMINT will operate. However, these
defense HUMINT steps represent early stage efforts.
Much remains to be done for defense HUMINT, the general allows.
He states that he would like to move further and faster
to recruit HUMINT operators and support personnel. The
DIA has brought the right kinds of expertise onboard, but
proficiency in foreign languages remains a challenge for
recruitment. Adjudicating security clearances is a roadblock to effective recruitment, especially with good candidates who may have family overseas. That can be
addressed in ways that guarantee the security of the
nation’s secrets, the general allows.
WEB RESOURCES
_____________________
22
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Defense Intelligence Agency: www.dia.mil
DIA Strategic Plan: www.dia.mil/
thisisdia/strategicplan.htm
__________________
National Intelligence Strategy:
www.dni.gov/publications/NISOctober2005.pdf
National Defense Strategy:
www.defenselink.mil/news/Mar2005/d20050318nds1.pdf
www.afcea.org/signal
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JOINT OPERATIONS
Military Jointness
Grows Up
Combatant command meets new challenges head on.
only with other members of the military but also with
he o r d e r l y s t r u c t u r e o f e s t a b l i s h e d
By
from U.S. government agencies and other
nations’ mighty militaries differs intensely
Maryann personnel
nations. “This is being done now in a much more netfrom the structure of terrorist force organizaLawlor
worked approach that I think is saving quite a bit of
tions. In terrorist cells, distinctions between
money and, more importantly, adding a great amount
warfighters who trigger improvised explosive
of richness and detail to the training model,” the general says.
devices and those who detonate car bombs are minisWhen Gen. Wood refers to the networked approach, he is
cule. Battle cells may comprise as few as two or three people
talking about more than just the web of people involved—
or as many as several dozen. Information sharing takes place
new technologies also are enriching the learning experiincessantly, using everything from the Web to cell phones. As
ence. In the past, troops preparing to deploy traveled to
a force, terrorist groups are inherently flexible.
JFCOM to train. Now, more often than not, command perThe U.S. Joint Forces Command (JFCOM), headquartered
sonnel go to the deploying force’s location and are netin Norfolk, Virginia, is nurturing this type of agility in U.S.
worked through JFCOM. Technology not only enables
joint operations. Tasked with leading military transformation,
humans to participate in training both physically and virtuthe unified combatant command continues to transform itself
ally but also allows trainers to introduce constructive forces
to meet this challenge. Training methods combine technology
to bulk up the training sessions.
and experience; experimentation generates compelling joint
“We use models to replicate an operational environconcepts; and innovative techniques foster information sharment and an array of actors that the force is likely to
ing. The command is infusing joint operations with solutions
encounter, and then all of that is leavened with the kind
that meet today’s requirements while shaping tomorrow’s
joint force.
Lt. Gen. John R. Wood, USA, deputy commanding officer, JFCOM, is understandably
proud of the combatant command’s accomplishments. Because highly qualified, welltrained troops are the military’s number one
asset, the general reveals, JFCOM’s transformation is taking the training model to a new
level. For current operations, the command
not only prepares joint forces before deployment but also follows through with continued
training and support after the troops deploy.
This continuum of involvement improves
JFCOM’s understanding of training requirements and operational needs so that it can
incorporate lessons learned into subsequent
troop training. Experience garnered from
operations also is helping the command
determine the capabilities that must be developed for future warfighters.
Military and other U.S. federal government agency personnel participate in
Training has evolved in several ways, Gen.
Vigilant Shield 2007 at the North American Aerospace Defense Command
Wood shares. Mission rehearsal exercises have
and the U.S. Northern Command. After the tsunami relief effort in 2004,
grown in complexity; the number and types of
Gen. Lance Smith, USAF, commander, U.S. Joint Forces Command
organizations taking part in them has increased.
(JFCOM), directed his team to develop a dot-org information domain to
facilitate communications between organizations during an emergency.
In preparation for deployment, troops train not
T
Official Publication of AFCEA
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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“We’re very, very engaged in that process.
We developed it, and I think the measure of
success here is the predictability we’re able to
provide to our components—the services—for
the force requirements in the future. This is a
process that has matured from a point in time
when we were initially flowing forces for OIF
[operation Iraqi Freedom] or OEF [operation
Enduring Freedom] to a point now where
we’re involved in a campaign in the Global
War on Terrorism,” Gen. Wood explains. The
command is proficient in making recommendations to senior military leaders, but the work
is still difficult. “There are a lot of trade-offs
and a lot of issues that we have to resolve with
our partners, but it’s great to see the teamwork
involved,” he relates.
Joint command and control (C2) remains a
Cmdr. Theodore Summers, USN, assistant director of strategic
communications with Combined Joint Task Force–Horn of Africa
large problem for joint forces. “One of the
(CJTF-HOA), claps alongside officials in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia, at the
most important new missions we have is to
dedication ceremony for the Medehane Alem primary school in
overcome the challenge of joint C2. Joint C2
January. The CJTF-HOA funded the project, which was completed
is trying to produce synchronized and coordiby local contractors. JFCOM has supported work in Africa by
nated outcomes with multiple actors who
assisting with personnel troop rotation.
typically bring different equipment, different
technologies and frankly maybe a different
of battlefield and operational experience that is resident
purpose to the fight. All of us have experienced—certainly
in our trainers. Also, we are in contact with forces that
in the military—that moment when we wish C2 challenges
are actually on mission, and we’re constantly changing
had been handled before we got to the problem, early in
the training model to be the most correct and accurate
the fight,” Gen. Wood notes.
portrayal of the mission that the deploying forces are
To address this issue, JFCOM has been named the
likely to face,” the general explains.
capabilities portfolio manager for joint C 2 , which
In January, JFCOM held the latest iteration of the Uniinvolves monitoring new systems from start to finish. The
fied Endeavor mission rehearsal exercise series to prepare
members of the U.S. Navy’s Standing Navy Joint Command Element (SNJCE) to deploy to the Horn of Africa.
The purpose of the exercise, which took place at JFCOM’s
facilities in Suffolk, Virginia, was to train the SNJCE, staff
and individual augmentees to conduct joint operations
within the Horn of Africa joint operational area. JFCOM
provided these troops with the environment, the mission
requirements, the operational experiences and the observer
trainers to help them assume the mission.
JFCOM has been supporting the Global War on Terrorism since the beginning by preparing the first troops before
they deployed to Afghanistan, and its force-related duties
to the combatant commanders have evolved during the past
five years. Typically, all deploying forces from the continental United States are sourced through the command;
JFCOM also recommends solutions for the combatant
commanders’ requirements.
Brig. Gen. Rudy Wright, USAF (l), director of
For example, even before a call for more troops in Iraq
intelligence, Air Combat Command, and Col. Michael
works its way from the appropriate combatant command to
Cross, USA, director of operations, 10th Mountain
the Joint Staff and on to the president, JFCOM evaluates the
Division, participate in Unified Endeavor 2006. This
situation to determine what mix of warfighters and capabiliwas the first time the Air and Space Component
ties will be needed to fulfill missions successfully. Once the
Coordination Element concept was integrated into an
increase has been approved, specific requirements are sent to
operational-level exercise. The initiative features a
forward-deployed liaison team working with senior
JFCOM, and the command makes its final recommendation
leaders and combined joint task force staff.
to the secretary of defense regarding deployment.
26
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
www.afcea.org/signal
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JOINT OPERATIONS
command must review equipment early in
the design process to ensure that it meets
operational needs. In addition, the processes
for using joint C2 equipment must be proved
through exercises, experimentation and
operational assessments. Finally, the systems must be delivered to the joint warfighter in a joint manner.
“Not everything needs to be joint. Frankly,
we only need to work on the problems where
that integration and coordination challenge
exists, but we all admit that we could do better. We’ll be looking specifically at architectures and authoritative data standards—at the
kind of legacy versus network-enabled capabilities. It’s an important responsibility we’ve
been given. We take it very seriously and are
reorganizing elements of the command to
perform what we think is a vital mission,”
When coordinating U.S. Defense Department assets dedicated to
assisting Hurricane Katrina victims, Brig. Gen. Harold W. Moulton II,
Gen. Wood says.
USAF (c), then commander of the U.S. Northern Command’s
The general admits that military missions
standing joint force headquarters (SJFHQ), prepared his team to
in Afghanistan and Iraq continue to reveal
deploy within six hours of notification. Short reaction time is one
where joint C2 challenges lie because troops
of the reasons that JFCOM created SJFHQs.
are experiencing consequences in operations.
“It reminds me of a situation in which we
have to get on a horse that’s already out of the barn. We
have so much that is already designed and fielded—and I
don’t say that in a pejorative way—at great cost. We’re trying then to bring aboard new types of technologies, typically net-enabled technologies,” he states.
The services also are looking to future systems to solve
some interoperability issues. Network-enabled technologies and the Global Information Grid may provide integrated outcomes. “But it will take a lot of serious systems
engineering work, acceptance of authoritative standards
and the development and application of architectural elements to get us to a point where we can get truly a joint
outcome,” Gen. Wood shares. In addition, the experimentation that is taking place at JFCOM is producing important
joint concepts that are providing the joint force with new
types of capabilities and technologies, he adds.
One joint concept explored in an experiment nearly
seven years ago has become a vital part of many of the
combatant commands. The idea of developing several
standing joint force headquarters (SJFHQ) was examined
during Millennium Challenge 2000. An SJFHQ is a small
cadre of military personnel with special skills and extensive experience. The group expedites planning, execution
and competence for the combatant commander. It also represents a number of JFCOM-developed capabilities. Today,
SJFHQs are embedded in the U.S. Northern Command, the
U.S. Southern Command, the U.S. Pacific Command
(PACOM) and the U.S. European Command.
One SJFHQ was deployed to Pakistan as a center for disaster assistance after the 2005 earthquake. Another helped in
the Combined Joint Task Force–Horn of Africa troop rota____
tion. And in December 2006, an SJFHQ deployed from
________
JFCOM to assist the U.S. Central Command in Doha, Qatar,
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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JOINT OPERATIONS
for the 15th Asian Games, where it provided C2 as well as
organizational capabilities.
Gen. Wood does not believe the number of SJFHQs will
increase, but he does think the demand for SJFHQs will
grow. “We would never have expected to be used as the core
of a counter-IED [improvised explosive device] mission like
we have in Afghanistan. We needed immediate capabilities to
handle C2 for the counter-IED mission, and in the space of
days, we had elements of the SJFHQ from here at JFCOM on
the ground helping with the counter-IED mission,” he relates.
The agility and versatility that the SJFHQs bring to the
command is especially helpful as the definition of coalition
continues to change. The armed forces now collaborate with
federal, state and local agencies. In addition, some emergencies call for the services to coordinate efforts with private and
nongovernmental organizations in disaster response and
humanitarian assistance missions.
To alleviate some of the confusion that occurs when
organizations must respond quickly to an emergency situation, JFCOM brings these groups together in experiments
and exercises. “This allows us to build partnerships that
cross the national lines, cross service lines and cross governmental lines. Truly, it expands the capacity that we have
to act and solve problems beyond simply the military
means,” the general maintains.
This type of cooperation sometimes develops into creative thinking—and solutions. For example, PACOM’s
assistance during the tsunami relief efforts in December
2004 revealed that the nongovernmental organizations and
private volunteers needed access to the information domain
supporting their work. These groups required a variety of
capabilities from a way to share images to a means to chat
to systems integration techniques so that e-mail could be
sent and received between relief teams.
At the direction of Gen. Lance Smith, USAF, commander of JFCOM, his combatant command’s SJFHQ developed a dot-org domain that enables disaster relief organizations to integrate their efforts and to use an information
domain for a common purpose. “It has found immediate
use not only in training but also in execution. We’ve used it
in the Horn of Africa in the joint task force that’s there. It’s
found its way into Afghanistan to help knit together a number of nongovernmental activities that are ongoing there,”
Gen. Wood relates.
“Simply put, in the past, where you might have thought of
deploying only forces or platforms, we’re now thinking as
well about deploying domains and making that available,” he
says. The general adds that this capability is particularly
important to SJFHQs because they are typically one of the
first elements to arrive in an area and must coordinate the
efforts of groups that have never worked together.
Considering all the changes that have occurred at
JFCOM, it might appear that not much could surprise Gen.
Wood, but that’s not the case. “I think transformation
occurs when you least expect it. Transformation is not linear. You don’t create a master plan and then transform.
More often than not, part of it is the process of discovery.
It’s very surprising. Things will happen that you might not
have expected and then assume a position of importance
you never would have predicted,” he shares.
The development of the dot-org domain is a primary
example of this. Although it was not predicted or featured
on anyone’s chart, it turned out to be a type of activity that
will transform coalition operations in the future, the general notes.
“It’s important that we capture the energy of these initiatives, understand their implications and bring those solutions or technologies or training models or business processes to bear to promote an outcome that supports the
joint force commander,” he advises. “It’s really hard to put
on a chart, and it’s even hard to budget for, frankly,
because it’s a process of discovery.”
WEB RESOURCES
______________
28
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
U.S. Joint Forces Command: www.jfcom.mil
Joint forces training: www.jfcom.mil/about/trainer.html
Standing joint force headquarters:
www.jfcom.mil/about/fact_sjfhq.htm
Lt. Gen. John R. Wood, USA:
www.jfcom.mil/about/wood.htm
www.afcea.org/signal
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______________________
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JOINT OPERATIONS
Master Sgt. Wayne O. Wright, USAF, works on the Wireless for the Warfighter (W4W) system at the Joint
Systems Integration Command located at the U.S. Joint Forces Command’s Suffolk, Virginia, complex.
W4W brings both classified and unclassified wireless networking capabilities to the deployed environment.
Warfighters Connect
Without Cables
Joint command development will reduce communications
setup time and speed operational decisions.
he U.S. military is
networks rapidly
By Rita computer
expanding its options
when joint troops move into
Boland areas with no established comfor creating secure
wireless networks in
munications network. W4W will
urban and remote areas. The
provide secure classified and unclassicapability will increase the
fied local wireless access.
speed at which networks can be creThe U.S. Northern Command’s
ated in an emergency while reducing
Joint Task Force Civil Support (JTFthe amount of materiel troops need
CS) will be the first organization to
to haul into an area.
receive and use the technology,
The U.S. Joint Forces Command’s
though officials there say the capabili(JFCOM’s) Joint Systems Integration
ty has application and future uses for
Command (JSIC), Suffolk, Virginia, is
troops deployed overseas as well. One
developing the Wireless for the
JTF-CS mission is to establish comWarfighter (W4W) system to establish
munications and command and con-
T
Official Publication of AFCEA
trol in an area of responsibility within
12 hours of being called in. It often
takes the task force that amount of
time to wire and connect all relevant
personnel. James Bohling, W4W project lead at JFCOM, says the capability will establish all the necessary
communications within four hours.
Voice and data are provided over the
wireless network, and the W4W kits
include softphones—telephones that
communicate via the Internet—instead
of the traditional desktop telephones.
The voice over Internet protocol capability eliminates the need for separate
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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Joint Task Force Civil Support (JTF-CS) personnel are poised to support
local authorities in the event of a chemical, biological, radiological and
nuclear or high-yield explosive situation in the United States or its
territories and possessions. The W4W will support faster setup of classified
and unclassified wireless networks in emergency and other situations.
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voice and data wires, and reducing the
logistical footprint is a key criterion of
success for the program.
According to Bohling, the kits are
mostly a combination of hardware with
some integrated services. JSIC is taking
various components such as switches
and routers and combining them into
the fewest possible devices. The W4W
baseline comprises commercial technology, but developers are working
with some government off-the-shelf
products that are in development for
possible use in the near future. Bohling
explains that his team integrated the
various technologies to provide the
capabilities customers need including
wireless and modular features. He adds
that the W4W can provide a wired
network, too.
The baseline W4W solution is
designed to provide service for 65 to
100 personnel and can provide connectivity for more staff members by
integrating additional components.
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www.afcea.org/signal
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JOINT OPERATIONS
According to Bohling, the minimal
amount of equipment necessary to
create the system coupled with its
quick establishment time line makes
it valuable for JTF-CS chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and
high-yield explosive incidentresponse situations.
The JTF-CS already has received the
802.11 wireless local area network
piece of the W4W and will receive the
802.16 capability in May or June. The
802.16 component will enable troops to
position their land services a significant
distance away from a smaller deployed
element. Lt. Col. Curtis Fox, USA,
chief of deployable operations for
the J-6 at JTF-CS, says JTF-CS
troops normally deploy with four
s u b - e l e m e n t s t h a t e a c h h ave a
communications component.
Bohling explains that the JFCOM
developers are in the process of integrating classified wireless and broadband wireless access into the W4W. In
its current state, the technology has a
secure, unclassified local area network.
The next step is to provide a classified
local area network and unclassified
metropolitan area network.
Bohling states that JTF-CS members mainly remain in one location,
and communications are built to connect the static troops. With the local
area network capability, the service
members will have the freedom to
move with their communications. The
technology is analogous to cell phone
use. Cell phone users can travel to
various locations without losing the
ability to communicate. The W4W
will provide similar capabilities, but
over a more limited area. Bohling
says developers envision a five-mile
bubble of data access.
All components are housed and
transported in 10- to 12-unit transit
cases. The W4W kits contain various
technologies including enterprise,
carrier class and Internet service
provider (ISP). The U.S. Defense
Department or a particular unit
would be the service provider
instead of requiring troops to obtain
a separate provider.
Bohling explains that the wireless
network will result in a drastic
reduction in the logistical footprint
Official Publication of AFCEA
and logistics planning as well as
reduce airlift requirement and neardeployment times. Troops will have
the ability to move in and implement
communications faster because they
no longer need to lay all the cables
and devices.
Setup of all the devices can be manpower intensive for JTF-CS communi-
cations personnel. When the task force
deploys to an incident site, its personnel take command of all Defense
Department assets. The key to military
success, according to Col. Fox is timely and efficient command and control,
and the J-6 staff supports that expediency through heavy, medium and
small communications packages that
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__________
__________
©!/3)NC
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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use legacy technology. Personnel
require varying amounts of time to set
up and complete phone cabling for the
different packages, and they wire for
the nonsecure Internet protocol router
network (NIPRNET) and secret Internet protocol router network (SIPRNET). The JTF-CS J-6 will use the
W4W with the heavy communication
packages, which include enough
equipment to support several hundred
users. At that point, J-6 personnel benefit from establishing wireless technology because of the shortened time
line. With the smaller packages, the
wiring takes less time and the wireless
capability provides fewer advantages.
Col. Fox says the most tangible
result of moving to a wireless scenario is that J-6 personnel will run
less wire, but he explains that other
benefits are more important. A wireless capability will enable operational
personnel to respond more quickly to
control Defense Department forces
and will allow troops on the ground
to do their jobs faster. Action officers
and other leadership can move into a
site that uses wireless communications, turn on their NIPRNET computers and not only have data capability for e-mail and other services but
also be able to use their laptops as a
telephone, enhancing productivity.
The W4W also gives JTF-CS
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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The W4W capability will allow troops in incident-response situations to
be operational sooner. Leaders will have access to more timely pictures
of scenarios and could relay orders more quickly.
troops flexibility and scalability—
important factors in incident response
scenarios. JTF-CS personnel could
deploy to various locations such as a
six-story building or an unfinished
warehouse. With legacy tools, J-6
troops must run cabling to 200 to 300
people in those buildings. With wireless capabilities, they set up only a
few access points, allowing missions
to be operational more quickly.
“What’s critical about that is part of
JTF-CS troops support public safety personnel in emergency situations.
The task force will use the W4W with its heavy communications package
that connects several hundred users.
34
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our response is to restore trust and
confidence in our military and our
military’s ability to support our citizens,” Col. Fox states. The sooner
troops are operational, the faster they
can improve situations.
Col. Fox emphasizes that the W4W
is for all of the military. “[JFCOM
JSIC is] not building JTF-CS’ system,” he shares. “They’re building a
capability that can be fielded through
the Defense Department. We’re just
the guinea pigs.” The W4W will
allow U.S. joint task forces in other
countries to bring together disparate
networks.
The W4W also provides other benefits to warfighters. Col. Fox explains
that the JTF-CS has various legacy
equipment that requires different skill
sets. Many of the personnel who
work with the task force do not have
the skill sets needed to use this equipment. By moving toward a wireless
environment and running services
over an Internet protocol (IP) architecture, Col. Fox will not have to
train personnel in the skill sets
required to operate legacy equipment,
and the domino effect enables him to
maximize training efforts into smaller
groups of classes.
He states that although the military
services are moving toward IP environments and some are moving
www.afcea.org/signal
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JOINT OPERATIONS
toward wireless systems, transformation is slow. Having noncommissioned officers trained to use the
capability at the JTF-CS allows Col.
Fox to send the these troops back to
other units with an understanding of
this cutting-edge technology. “I categorize all that as taking care of
troops,” he says.
First responders also could tap into
the network, but both Bohling and
Col. Fox stress that regulations and
procedures, not technology, would
prevent that from happening. From a
technical standpoint, anyone could be
granted access into the network, but
the concept of operations will determine how the system is used and who
uses it. While military troops could
permit first responders to access the
wireless network from a technology
standpoint, information assurance
rules and regulations still remain in
place as a potential impediment.
Even without first responder network participation, JTF-CS troops
will benefit from the faster establishment of command and control in an
operations area. Commanders will be
able to make decisions and relay
orders more quickly. In addition to
the W4W’s initial incident-response
support, the technology also could
aid in post-incident response and
other command post operations.
JSIC is providing JTF-CS troops
with training on the W4W and has set
up test laboratories to perform testing
in a controlled environment. The JTFCS also is performing local exercises.
These task force troops take a heavy
communications package out to an
armory and perform testing on the
wireless network. The W4W has
worked well with small groups, but
users are still on a learning curve.
During most monthly exercises, the
JTF-CS tested the wireless network
with 40 users. In December, the task
force tried to network 80 users and
overloaded the system, but Col. Fox
shares that training and not technology was the key problem. Personnel
had difficulty with channeling, and
all the user signals were routing
through one access point.
Col. Fox says implementation of the
full W4W will be immediate, and he
Official Publication of AFCEA
expects the JSIC to succeed in the
development effort. The colonel plans
to move forward with wireless systems
and not fall back on systems that require
more hardware. The W4W will allow
the JTF-CS J-6 to maximize resources
and provide services for troops downrange in deployed environments.
WEB RESOURCES
U.S. Joint Forces Command Joint
Systems Integration Command:
www.jfcom.mil/
about/com_jsic.htm
_____________
Joint Task Force Civil Support:
www.jtfcs.northcom.mil
________________
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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First
There.
The leader in software defined radios is proud to demonstrate the first SRW-networked
JTRS radio – the JTRS HMS Manpack Technology Demonstrator.
Let the net-centric revolution begin.
Off the drawing board and into reality, the JTRS HMS Manpack TD is capable of running
the first release of the Soldier Radio Waveform (SLICE 1.04p). This radio is the first to meet
the U.S. government's uncompromising standards for:
• Support of networking and legacy waveforms:
- Ch 1: HAVEQUICK, SINCGARS, AM/FM LOS
- Ch 2: SRW SLICE 1.04p
• Warfighter agility for all services
• Gap-free communications coverage
JTRS HMS is the Real Deal.
One architecture. Many configurations. Any mission.
www.gdc4s.com/jtrshms
© 2007 General Dynamics. All rights reserved.
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JOINT OPERATIONS
Sharing classified and sensitive information during
coalition operations such as this joint U.S. and
Peruvian naval exercise is difficult because of
differing security protocols.The Cross Domain
Collaborative Information Environment (CDCIE) is
a software architecture with a bundled suite of
applications that allows secret- and nonsecure-level
text and database information to be transmitted
between different national computer networks.
Collaborative Environment
Connects Coalition Networks
Software suite allows message traffic
across domains, security levels.
to be rapidly modified to meet
he U.S. military is
By
needs.
developing a suite of
Henry S. warfighters’
While the CDCIE was develsoftware applications
Kenyon oped to overcome difficulties in
that will allow secure
multinational information sharcommunications
ing between coalition partners, the softbetween different national
ware also eases data transfer between
computer networks. This capability is
the various branches of the U.S.
essential to both coalition operations
Defense Department, U.S. government
and disaster relief missions.
civilian agencies, state and local emerThe Cross Domain Collaborative
gency responders and nongovernment
Information Environment (CDCIE) is
organizations. “We need to share infordesigned to meet combatant commanmation in the way we’re expected to
ders’ near-term needs to share data
conduct operations with all of those
with a variety of networks operating at
partners,” relates Lt. Col. Edward
the secret level and below. Created by
McLarney, USA, technical deputy for
the U.S. Joint Forces Command’s
capability engineering, Joint Innovation
(JFCOM’s) Joint Futures Laboratory,
and Experimentation Directorate, J-9.
Suffolk, Virginia, the CDCIE uses an
Security is a key challenge to sharing
open software architecture that allows it
data between organizations because
to interoperate with other systems and
T
Official Publication of AFCEA
information resides on a variety of classified and unclassified networks. Transferring classified messages in a multinational environment is especially difficult
because of differing national security
protocols, says Skip Hiser, technical
director, capability engineering, J-9.
The CDCIE is a guard and gateway
technology that provides an interface
between networks of varying classifications. In November 2006, the program
completed its first phase by receiving a
National Security Agency (NSA) certification for a collaborative text chat
capability. This application includes a
language translation system that allows
text communications between different
multinational networks.
Hiser says that the program’s follow-on phases will provide a Web
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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Because it is a suite of software tools, the CDCIE can be employed by
individual application. These applications will be issued to warfighters as
soon as they are ready. Able to work across national networks, the CDCIE
will help speed communications and collaboration during multinational
exercises such as this joint U.S.-Australian event.
services guard, assured file transfers,
a whiteboard capability and e-mail
with attachments. The CDCIE also
will include a redaction tool that will
scrub documents to remove any hidden information. He cites the example
of the track changes capability in
Microsoft Word. “When you exchange
documents, you want to make sure all
the tracked changes are eliminated
from a document so there isn’t any
sensitive information left. This redaction tool that we’ve developed actually scrubs that information out of the
document so that you have a clean
file,” he says.
With the NSA certification, Col.
McLarney notes that the chat capability now can be deployed to warfighters in the field. In the 2007 fiscal
year, the CDCIE program will begin
certification testing and evaluation for
the whiteboard capability that will be
bundled into the text chat function.
The colonel explains that the whiteboard application will allow users to
circle and illustrate information collaboratively on maps across networks
while communicating via text.
38
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
JFCOM also plans to evaluate the
Web services capability this year. The
colonel explains that this capability
allows different types of database and
other application data to be transferred between networks. “As long as
you can define the information that
you want to send in a well-defined
XML [extensible markup language]
format, the Web services format will
allow information to go from one network to another,” he shares.
The CDCIE guard format differs
from traditional proprietary point solutions because it allows for a set of core
capabilities that can have additional
applications added to them. Instead of
maintaining a variety of security applications, the CDCIE provides a suite of
tools built around a common technology. It also uses open standards based
interfaces to provide enhanced interoperability. Col. McLarney notes that this
plug-and-play capability prevents end
users from having to purchase a software-specific client tool.
An advantage of using open standards, such as XML, is interoperability with software built on the same
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architecture. The CDCIE chat tool was
recently used in the Strong Angel III
disaster response exercise (SIGNAL
Magazine, November 2006, page 65)
in San Diego. Hiser explains that
another group participating in the
event used an open standards based
chat tool, which allowed both of these
different applications to communicate
with each other simultaneously.
JFCOM is coordinating with several
organizations to ensure that the suite
meets a variety of standards and interoperability requirements. The program
is working with U.S. Forces Japan to
demonstrate text chat with language
translation between U.S. and Japanese
military networks. JFCOM also is
experimenting with the U.S. Pacific
Command to understand better how
the software connects to U.S. national
networks and allied networks.
The CDCIE is designed as an architectural framework that allows users to
plug and play among different applications. “It’s not a single-box solution,”
Hiser says. As the technology evolves,
the various guards, gateways and applications can be replaced or updated.
For example, he notes that if there is a
significant need for collaborative applications such as Groove or Microsoft
Live Meeting, the architecture can alter
the chat clients to interface with the
gateways and guards. Hiser adds that
the CDCIE’s focus is to develop a
capability based on nonproprietary
standards, which allows the system to
evolve to meet changing needs.
The open framework also permits
each piece of the suite to be made
available to users as soon as it is ready.
“We don’t intend to wait for the entire
bundle because we’d be wasting
warfighters’ time. If there’s a piece
that’s ready, we intend to spiral it
out—and the follow-on pieces as they
come,” Col. McLarney says.
The Web services application allows
data to be moved between networks of
different classifications, such as the
nonsecure Internet protocol router network (NIPRNET) and the secret Internet protocol router network (SIPRNET). The colonel says the advantage
of this system is that it is no longer
necessary to maintain two separate
databases, often requiring the same
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JOINT OPERATIONS
information to be manually entered in
both systems. The colonel notes that
synchronization issues can occur if
new or updated data is loaded into one
network but not the other.
Another application under development is a chat tool designed specifically
for Web browsers. The CDCIE’s current
client system, which is ready for
deployment, can be downloaded easily
and used on any computer. The idea
behind the browser-based tool is to
enhance ease-of-use by permitting
browser-to-browser communications
without the need for installing additional software. However, he emphasizes
that the CDCIE’s core is its guards and
gateways, not the client applications.
The CDCIE’s current focus is to
share information at the levels of
secret and below. The package will
allow users to share information
between systems such as the NIPRNET and the SIPRNET. Hiser notes
that there are administrative processes
designed to clear information shared
between domains, but that the CDCIE
is focusing on the technology to expedite data transfer.
JFCOM is working with several
open-source operating systems such as
secure Linux to provide enhanced interoperability. Hiser explains that the
open-source architecture also provides
the CDCIE’s designers with greater
flexibility to meet user requirements.
Because it is a suite of software
applications, the CDCIE is designed
for hosting on many military servers
where warfighters can download the
tools to their computers. Col. McLarney explains that the guarding and
gateway capabilities would reside in
certain key computing facilities
around the world, and the client applications such as the chat and whiteboard tools could be downloaded via a
user registration process.
JFCOM is working with the combatant commands and the Defense
Information Systems Agency to allow
them to use the core CDCIE technology as an enterprise service across
their domains. The colonel notes that
a key to the success of the chat function is the partnership with the NSA.
He explains that the agency was
involved in the technology’s developOfficial Publication of AFCEA
ment from the beginning to help
determine the necessary security
components and system design. A
key result of this partnership is that
the chat tool passed its evaluation
tests without difficulty.
The program is working out additional security issues by participating
in coalition exercises and events. Hiser
explains that this interaction gives
Defense Department designers an
understanding of security crime issues
from the perspective of coalition partners. “We not only have to meet our
security requirements, but to collaborate successfully with our allies and
coalition partners, we also have to
understand their security requirements,” he says.
To maintain security interoperability,
JFCOM is coordinating with several
multinational security working groups
as part of its experimentation and development efforts. The program also is par-
ticipating in the U.S. Navy’s Trident
Warrior exercise, which includes coalition and allied partners. Hiser explains
that in Trident Warrior, the software
must communicate across several multinational domains and that all the participants must be aware of each other’s
requirements for collaboration.
Col. McLarney notes that the Web
services guard and the whiteboard
application will go through NSA certification evaluation in the summer and are
scheduled to be ready for deployment in
the fall. The colonel anticipates additional tools such as assured file transfer
and e-mail with attachments to begin
entering service in 2008.
WEB RESOURCE
U.S. Joint Forces Command
Joint Futures Laboratory:
www.jfcom.mil/about/fact_jfl.htm
___________________
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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LOOK TO XTAR FOR:
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SM
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To learn more about XTAR™ or its X-OTMSM service,
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XTAR, X-Band On The Move, X-OTM and XOTM are trademarks of XTAR, LLC
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SPECIAL REPORT: DISA
Technology Converges
At Information Agency
Architectures and Internet protocols
meld communications, computing.
By Robert K. Ackerman
he convergence of media
and services in commercial
cyberspace has its counterpart in the defense arena,
where experts are tapping
commercial technologies
and standards to provide seamless
information access to warfighters
and decision makers.
Leading this charge is the Defense
Information Systems Agency, or
DISA. Responsible for providing
global U.S. military forces with needed communications connectivity, the
agency has embraced the age of Web
2.0. It is adapting new technologies to
enhance existing programs while it
juggles broad-based innovation with
support to the warfighter.
DISA’s two top priorities are speed
and assurity, states David Mihelcic,
chief technology officer for DISA
and its principal director of Global
Information Grid–Enterprise Services (GIG-ES) engineering. Speed
is essential for delivering information and services to the customer
effectively. Assurity encompasses
both ensuring security—keeping out
interlopers—and guaranteeing that
systems perform as they are supposed to when needed. Often the
agency balances speed and functional capability, but it will not compromise security, he emphasizes.
“We’re in the middle of an ongoing
cyberwar around the globe,” Mihelcic
states, adding that many Defense
Department and commercial servers
T
Official Publication of AFCEA
A U.S. Army soldier aims a
satellite communications antenna
during a counterinsurgency
operation near Malhah in Kirkuk
province, Iraq. Supporting
warfighting operations in
Southwest Asia is the top priority
for the Defense Information
Systems Agency (DISA).
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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were hit with major attacks in February. DISA is demanding that all of its
vendors demonstrate that their products are secure and that they also
understand the pedigree of the software they are providing the agency.
Culture is another obstacle to be
overcome. Achieving full network
centricity will require a shift away
from information possession to information sharing. Mihelcic relates that
many people view information as
power and may harbor that information to strengthen their power base.
This confronts the challenge of departing from need-to-know in favor of
embracing need-to-share.
DISA provides core enterprise services for information sharing in all
Defense Department-wide area information systems through the Net-Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) program. But the agency faces several
fundamental requirements to ensure
true data sharing.
These include having a standardsbased infrastructure that allows
Defense Department programs to share
information more readily. NCES is
providing the standards and core
infrastructure to enable that sharing,
Mihelcic says. The agency already has
fielded an evaluation capability base-
David Mihelcic is the chief technology
officer for DISA and its principal
director of Global Information
Grid–Enterprise Services engineering.
line—a set of pilots—that are in use by
pilot customers on both the nonsecure
and secret Internet protocol router networks (NIPRNET and SIPRNET).
The commercial sector is helping
provide some solutions. Mihelcic
relates that DISA purchased a managed
enterprise service from IBM that pro-
Two U.S. Navy petty officers test a satellite communications system in the
hangar deck of the USS John Stennis. Providing sufficient bandwidth to
forces on the move is a major challenge facing DISA as the use of
information services continues to grow across the military.
42
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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vides human-to-human collaboration
on both the NIPRNET and the SIPRNET. He emphasizes that this acquisition was undertaken as a managed service, with DISA buying no hardware or
software. “What we’re buying is collaboration as a capability,” he says.
Another major NCES element is a
portal that will open into the U.S.
Army’s Army Knowledge Online
(AKO), which is morphing into
Defense Knowledge Online. This will
enable NCES users not only to access
that system’s services but also to open
access to other services. Ultimately, it
may serve as the single portal for all
users to access all Defense Department
information, Mihelcic offers.
The agency is working closely with
the Office of the Assistant Secretary of
Defense for Networks and Information
Integration (ASD NII) on the departmentwide data strategy. This effort
focuses on service-oriented architectures, or SOAs (SIGNAL Magazine, January 2007, page 49), and Web services
to share data. Mihelcic states that DISA
is in partnership with the ASD NII on
this effort, as the NCES program is driven by the department’s data strategy initiatives. The agency is working with that
office to help provide NCES services
and by supporting some of the office’s
pilot efforts.
Joint command and control (C2) traditionally has operated through the Global
Command and Control System–Joint
(GCCS-J) and the Global Combat Support System–Joint (GCSS-J). It now is
moving into the Net-Enabled Command
and Control (NECC) system. Mihelcic
explains that the agency’s C2 systems
build on the standards and services that
the NCES is delivering.
NECC has achieved its milestone A,
and its directors are working on the
documentation necessary to move to
milestone B, which is still on track to
take place this fall. And, the program
has begun some of its piloting technology development activities. Mihelcic
relates that the program is taking some
existing C2 capabilities from the services and morphing them to be compliant with NECC’s next-generation SOAbased architecture.
While DISA is not developing any
NECC software yet, the program’s
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SPECIAL REPORT: DISA
technology development phase still is
allowing the agency to move those C2
capabilities from legacy architectures to
its next-generation architecture. The
goal is to move rapidly from milestone
B to milestone C, which would permit
moving some developmental capability
into production, Mihelcic says.
But a key aspect will be to protect
the investment already made in the
GCCS. Mihelcic says that the department cannot afford to discard all
GCCS code and start over. The time it
would take also would be too great, so
the agency is striving to preserve all of
the legacy system’s investment “to the
maximum extent practical” and
migrate it forward by encapsulating it
in the SOA architecture.
On the communications side, the
great demand is for larger amounts of
bandwidth. DISA must provide these
greater amounts cost-effectively and
with greater interoperability, Mihelcic
states. Moving to Internet protocol
(IP) lies at the heart of this effort as it
allows the convergence of voice,
video and data. The agency also can
take advantage of the economies of
scale by purchasing commercial
equipment from companies such as
Cisco and Juniper.
Converged IP-based services are a
basic technology need. DISA must be
able to deliver voice and video over IP
that meet military requirements for
assured services, and technologies that
enable this are of great interest to the
agency. Currently, voice over IP tends
to be a “best effort” type of service
that sometimes is supplemented with
commercial-grade quality of service,
Mihelcic charges. That does not meet
department requirements. It needs a
“level of assurity” that a call will go
through to its intended recipient.
He continues that the department’s
current time division multiplexing, or
TDM-, based switched telephone networks—the Defense Switched Network
and the Defense Red Switched Network—provide multilevel precedence
and pre-emption. This permits a senior
C 2 commander to push a button to
ensure that a call goes through ahead of
a lower priority call. But, IP-based
voice or video services offer nothing
analogous today, Mihelcic points out.
Official Publication of AFCEA
That capability will be required before
the department attains full IP convergence, he warrants.
But looming on the near horizon is
IPv6, the new IP that has been
embraced formally by the Defense
Department (see page 81). DISA,
through its GIG-ES engineering organization, houses the Defense Depart-
ment IPv6 Transition Office. As the
agency brings together the department’s transition plans, it also scrutinizes DISA’s own internal IPv6 activities with an eye toward pushing harder
if necessary, Mihelcic points out.
Several hurdles remain. Network
technology is not the issue, Mihelcic
maintains. Vendors such as Juniper and
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___________
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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Warfighter Support Relies
On Commercial Assets
he Defense Information Systems Agency’s (DISA’s) support to the
warfighter largely features speeding new technologies to the battlespace. One initiative incorporates commercial technologies to make
the Global Broadcast System (GBS) a two-way system. David Mihelcic, chief technology officer for DISA and principal director of Global
Information Grid–Enterprise Services (GIG-ES) engineering, describes how
the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) employs that two-way GBS variant, which is based on digital video broadcasting return-channel signaling,
or DVBRCS. This commercial technology allows several CENTCOM units
to send video back through GBS as well as to receive it. This is especially
useful with unmanned aerial vehicle data, Mihelcic notes.
Another DISA thrust is to provide services to what Mihelcic calls disadvantaged users. This includes providing satellite communications, Net-Centric Enterprise Services (NCES) elements and Defense Information System
Network (DISN) services to deployed users as well as tactical users. When
the agency conducted its evaluation for the first NCES contract it awarded,
it brought in representatives from the services and the combatant commanders. These officials examined how the collaborative services would perform in a disadvantaged environment.
Text chat is critical to Defense Department warfighting, Mihelcic
declares. It is used from the strategic level down to the tactical level to
enable collaboration. DISA believes it to be a critical capability and has
included it in NCES collaboration services. The agency is striving to provide an expanded text chat collaboration capability in its follow-on acquisition, he adds. Text chat may find its way into other DISA programs such as
the Multinational Information Sharing program, or MNIS. This would
enable U.S. forces to chat collaboratively with coalition forces and allies.
Bandwidth remains a constant struggle. DISA locked up substantial satellite bandwidth with the commercial contracts that it established in the wake
of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The agency now is partnering
with the Business Transformation Agency to consider more commercial
alternatives to providing satellite services in Southwest Asia. In addition to
existing satellite assets, these alternatives could encompass emerging Iraqi
capabilities such as terrestrial fiber optic networks.
Globally, only about 20 percent of U.S. defense satellite communications
travels over military satellites. The other 80 percent is carried on commercial orbiters, and Mihelcic notes that the U.S. military’s satellite communications surge capacity resides largely in the commercial sector.
The upcoming generation of military communication satellites, beginning with the Wideband Gap Filler orbiters, will boost military-specific
satellite capacity and increase the percentage of traffic carried over military
satellites. However, even as the defense satellite capacity increases, the
military’s need for commercial satellite usage will not decrease. Much of
the new defense satellite capacity will be used to fulfill missions, such as
communications on the move, that go wanting today, Mihelcic points out.
And, the department’s appetite for bandwidth is likely to increase significantly by the time that the Tactical Satellite constellation becomes fully
operational. So the defense need for commercial satellite bandwidth likely
will remain constant over the next 10 years or so, he adds.
—RKA
T
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Cisco have moved forward with products that support all IPv6 standards, and
they have built-in mechanisms to help
with the transition from IPv4. A key element is having IPv4 encapsulated within IPv6 and vice versa, Mihelcic
observes. With these capabilities built
into the network infrastructure, the transition from IPv4 to IPv6 will be easier.
However, what is not working as
cleanly is the application and operating
system element, he notes. Some
progress is apparent. Microsoft has
introduced full IPv6 capabilities in
its Vista and Longhorn products, and
as other vendors deliver native IPv6
capabilities in their applications,
IPv6 use should accelerate within
the Defense Department.
But Mihelcic warns that IPv6 ubiquity is a chicken-and-egg problem. Vendors will not invest needed funding into
IPv6 applications until the market
demonstrates a reason for doing that,
but the market will not move quickly
into that realm until the enterprise
applications become available. With
Microsoft delivering two key systems
with IPv6, the software manufacturer
could speed broad-based adoption of
IPv6 if it were to move an entire suite
of applications to the protocol.
For the Defense Department, funding
issues remain. “If you had to take
everything we have on the ground
today and make it IPv6 tomorrow, you
would have to replace a significant
amount of hardware and software,”
Mihelcic points out. So the services are
accommodating the IPv6 changeover in
normal refresh cycles. By making IPv6
mandatory as they acquire new capabilities, the services can activate IPv6 in
parallel with IPv4 and transition to the
new protocol over time.
DISA has defined various epochs of
IPv6 transition in this incremental
approach. The Defense Department
unclassified router network should have
dual capability sometime in 2008. Classified networks will take longer
because they require high-assurance IP
encryptors that are not available yet.
The National Security Agency (NSA)
has vendors working to deliver this full
IPv6 compatibility in the same 2008
time frame, but these systems also will
require time for testing and installation,
www.afcea.org/signal
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which probably will take a couple more
years, Mihelcic offers.
The transition is the biggest challenge
facing IPv6 implementation, Mihelcic
declares. This will require intellectual
capital, he adds. Mihelcic also warns
against inflated expectations of a smooth
handover from IPv4 to IPv6. Too many
people believe that this transition will be
abrupt, but the opposite is more likely. “I
think we’re going to see a transition
where we see IPv4 and IPv6 running in
parallel for many years,” he predicts.
That parallel transition should not
hurt the Defense Department, he continues. The department holds the
largest allocation of IPv4 address
space, and it maintains a reserve. “In
many ways, we are well-insulated
against some of the potential impacts
of a lag in transition,” he assures.
The agency is pursuing several
improvements in the computing arena.
One exciting development is virtualization. This entails having a number
of computer processors share computing as if they were one processor.
They also could be subdivided into
virtual independent machines. This
technology will allow the Defense
Department either to build large
farms of hardware or to purchase the
capability as a managed service from
commercial providers, so that a customer could acquire a virtual piece of
that farm for running applications or
services as needed. The activity of
that processor farm would be transparent to the user beyond actual processing results.
Mihelcic likens this to the Defense
Department concept of a communications cloud, where instead of a telecommunications system based on hardwired point-to-point circuits, everyone
could communicate with anyone. In the
virtualization approach, a computing
cloud would permit writing applications
for that cloud instead of worrying where
it might run.
“The days when you built an information system and step one was to build a
communications system are over,” he
declares. “We want to also end the days
where you build a processing grid or a
data center as well.”
But the big challenge in computing
may be to provide cost-effective scalOfficial Publication of AFCEA
able computing on demand, Mihelcic
offers. Traditionally, it would take
months or even a year to meet a customer computing requirement. But just
as the commercial sector has shortened
the product delivery time from years to
weeks, DISA must be able to deliver
this scalable high-speed computing
infrastructure much more quickly.
“Our goal there is to take that [cycle]
from where it is now—which could be
up to a year—and bring it down to
months, weeks, days or even hours and
minutes,” Mihelcic declares, adding
that this would depend on the particular
requirement.
He cites Amazon’s competing-ondemand service as an example of an
approach that might help shorten that
cycle considerably. It could serve as a
model for DISA’s customers to provision computing infrastructure on
demand. Potentially, as demand on a
particular server increases, additional
capacity would be provided automatically for these users.
Time is the enemy for many of
DISA’s information technology efforts.
Mihelcic notes that the Defense Department’s acquisition system is by definition “a methodical system that tries to
minimize risk.” It isn’t geared to build
information technology systems the
way the private sector does—with great
speed and where “continuous beta” is a
concept associated with many modern
information technology providers, he
says. Continuous beta runs counter to
the way the Defense Department
engages in information technology business, he adds, explaining, “We want to
have a completely finished product, go
through a complete operational test,
say it’s done and move along to the
next effort.”
DISA wants vendors to deliver
applications and data solutions that
are based on open commercial standards, Mihelcic states. This will permit plug-and-play interoperability
between applications and services
provided by both multiple commercial vendors and Defense Department vendors. As the department is
embracing open standards, it wants
its acquisitions to embrace them as
they are substantiated in usable
products, he adds.
The open-source approach has the
potential to be the most disruptive
technology element in DISA’s arena,
Mihelcic suggests. Some vendors
already are modifying open-source
software to open up new capabilities.
With Wikipedia blazing new trails in
open-source information, the intelligence community is embracing that
approach with its Intellipedia capability on both the NIPRNET and SIPRNET. Mihelcic predicts that open
source will be mandated in more
defense contracts. Open-source licenses
will be mandated so that more vendors
can compete for them and the government can view the source code.
WEB RESOURCES
www.disa.mil
DISA: _________
www.disa.mil/nces/index.html
NCES: ___________________
IPv6: www.ipv6.org
_________
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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SPECIAL REPORT: DISA
Members of a joint U.S. Navy and Marine
Corps explosive ordnance disposal team
destroy an improvised explosive device near
Forward Operating Base Hit in Iraq.The
countermeasure devices the military deploys
are radio frequency based and can cause
unwanted interference with other systems.
Organization Targets
Bandwidth Battles
Revised processes aim at sorting out competing priorities.
nvisible conflicts are erupting on the battlefield
Office and Joint Spectrum Center, is a center of
By
as U.S. and coalition troops compete for preexcellence in electromagnetic spectrum analysis,
cious electromagnetic spectrum. These e-turf Maryann planning and support. It serves the department
wars may be silent, but they can be as deadly
Lawlor under the auspices of DISA. In August, Paige
as enemy fire when warfighters have to choose
Atkins was named DSO director.
between disarming an improvised explosive device
The need for spectrum has been growing exponentially,
and calling for close-air support. To resolve this conflict,
Atkins says. Communication systems require space on the
the U.S. Defense Department now has an organization
spectrum, as do munitions, weapons systems, logistics,
whose primary mission is to ensure that all warfighters
radars, sensors, navigation systems and numerous other
have the spectrum they need when they need it.
devices. In addition, it is the foundation for the wireless
Last spring, the Defense Department’s chief informaGlobal Information Grid, an essential element in enabling
tion officer, John G. Grimes, directed the Defense Inforenterprise services to the edge, she states.
mation Systems Agency (DISA), Arlington, Virginia, to
Electromagnetic-spectrum-dependent resources play
establish the Defense Spectrum Organization (DSO). The
an integral part in future concepts as well, and spectrum
organization, created by melding the Defense Spectrum
management processes must change to support them,
I
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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“What we’re trying to do is lay out a road
Atkins adds. “Too often, the Defense
map and a framework that allows us to
Department has been perceived as really
move from where we currently are into a
slow to catch on to the importance of
network-centric environment with standardevolving spectrum management techized data, pushing services and data out to
niques, capabilities, solutions and
the right folks, right place, right time. Evenphilosophies. That’s all changing. Part
tually, what we’d like to see is a much more
of that change was the relatively recent
distributed, dynamic, cognitive environment.
creation of the DSO. It signals the
Some of it will be process-related—reguladepartment’s serious intent to be a
tory rules, data—but we want to reduce signational, global and proactive leader in
nificantly the setup time that’s currently
spectrum policy and use,” she maintains.
required to do spectrum management operaAs a center of excellence, the DSO is
tionally,” Atkins relates.
the largest element of spectrum engiA common operational picture of the specneering expertise in the Defense Departtrum environment may enable a dynamic
ment. It supports not only the military
reallocation of resources and ultimately
departments but also the Joint Staff, the
Paige Atkins is the director
result in more access to spectrum. In addicombatant commands and the Office of
of the Defense Spectrum
tion, the changes could increase the capacity
the Secretary of Defense. For the first
Organization in the Defense
for communications or perhaps boost capatime within the Defense Department, a
Information Systems Agency.
bilities in other spectrum-dependent systems
single organization can address all facets
such as radar systems, she adds.
of defense spectrum management in
“We have some tools today, but they haven’t kept pace
multiple areas, including policy development, strategic
with our operations. Right now, our spectrum informaplanning, technology, analysis, acquisition and operation—the databases, the information systems and the
tions. Because these elements are interrelated and intermodeling and simulation capabilities—aren’t really adedependent, the right strategies must be developed to proquate for the complex, dynamic and congested environduce needed change across processes, people and techments that we’re starting to face now and that we will
nology, Atkins says.
face in the future, so that inhibits our ability to adequateAnd significant change is exactly what is needed to
ly plan and execute operations,” Atkins explains.
make spectrum management effective in the future, she
But DISA and the DSO cannot and have not been waitadds. Currently, spectrum management capabilities still are
ing for total solutions before implementing at least some
relatively stovepiped and require a person in the operaimprovements; they are fielding a few solutions incretional loop. This time-consuming method makes it difficult
mentally. For example, while developing a long-term
to react to changes in the environment and requires considstrategy that revolves around the Global Electromagnetic
erable resources, creating problems on the battlefield.
Spectrum Information System
(GEMSIS), the DSO and other organizations already have begun a
phased deployment of tools that help
ensure that warfighters can use
improvised explosive device (IED)
countermeasures and radio communications simultaneously.
“We’re doing multiple things related to that particular challenge. One of
the capabilities that has been fielded
as an incremental capability is an
upgrade to Spectrum XXI, which is a
joint spectrum management tool. It
allows for greater de-confliction
between the counter-IED systems and
our own communications systems to
help mitigate unwanted interference
between those systems,” Atkins says.
The military also is introducing the
Coalition Joint Spectrum Management
Pfc. Chris Blaney, USA, checks his radio during an air-assault raid on suspected
Planning Tool, or CJSMPT, into the
insurgent sanctuaries in Mushada, Iraq. Radio communications are vital to
field to address this particular problem.
network-centric operations; however, increasing demand for spectrum and
certain types of equipment is causing one device to prevent use of another.
It will enhance de-confliction, increase
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
www.afcea.org/signal
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SPECIAL REPORT: DISA
access across databases and provide additional capabilities
that will lead into GEMSIS, a longer term solution.
GEMSIS is a system-of-systems tool that the Defense
Department envisions as a way for warfighters to maximize their access to spectrum and, as a result, conduct
network-centric operations. A joint program, GEMSIS is
an integrated set of solutions that ultimately will work
across service and functional lines to support the automated planning and the execution of operations.
“It would be leveraged not only to assign operational frequencies in theater, for instance, but also to help developers
in designing their systems to make sure they understand the
environment in which those systems will operate and that the
systems will operate as intended in that environment. That’s
pivotal to our strategy and our future success,” Atkins states.
The CJSMPT is scheduled to demonstrate a limited spectrum
management capability this summer that will lead to a more
robust capability in the GEMSIS program.
The Defense Department also is working aggressively
toward spectrum data standardization. The goal is to be
able to exchange information about spectrum-related
issues in a simple, common and well-understood format.
This initiative is in line with the department’s overall
data standardization activities that also are key networkcentric operations enablers.
Although progress is occurring, much work remains.
“I think we always want to be further along than we are.
When you look at it in terms of military operations in
Iraq, five years ago we could never have predicted the
kind of electromagnetic environment that exists there
today. That’s a key concern of ours and one of the things
that we’re trying to support near term—to help mitigate
some of the interference issues that are seen in theater
with this complexity of environments,” Atkins says.
Concurrently, the DSO wants to do what needs to be done
in planning, policy, tool development and data standardization
to ensure that the Defense Department has the best resources
to face even more complex and ill-defined or unpredictable
environments in the future. “We need to understand how to do
more with less; we need to understand how to deal with the
complexity. In particular, from our perspective, no other organization really faces the diversity and complexity of environments that the DOD faces and must operate within. That
includes [environments] within the U.S., where you’re talking
about working with other agencies or state and local governments, and in particular, in terms of our global mission,
[working] not just from the military standpoint but also for
global disaster relief,” Atkins notes.
Planning and organization are particularly important
when U.S. military and other agencies as well as other
_________________
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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nations must assist in places where the vast majority of
the local infrastructure has been wiped out. The DSO is
working toward achieving a level of capability in data,
tools, processes and people to accomplish these missions effectively with a multitude of wireless systems,
and Atkins admits that the process and people elements
sometimes are more difficult to resolve than the data
and tools.
This kind of organization and planning will help the
Defense Department face the issues it has been struggling to reconcile, including rapid changes and new
spectrum management techniques, she explains. New
wireless technologies, the loss of spectrum to an almost
insatiable demand for it by the commercial sector and
the complexity of working with other organizations all
create new challenges, Atkins adds.
But having multiple customers vying for spectrum
also is an indication of success, she points out. “Ultimately, everybody wants the same thing. In the broad
context, for instance, one of our challenges is that we’re
really competing with commercial interests. But ultimately everybody wants increased access to do what
they need to do and to increase the prosperity of the
nation, whether that’s economically or by enhancing our
national defense and security,” she states.
Staff Sgt. Robert Cantu, USAF, reviews the systems
guide before conducting tactical command, control and
communications countermeasures in an EC-130H
Compass Call weapon system. While interference is
undesirable for U.S. troops on the battlefield, it can be
an effective weapon against adversaries.
_____________
50
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Internationally, especially in coalition environments,
partner nations are in the war together, so they cooperate.
“The issue boils down to ensuring that you’ve got the right
tools or at least the right interfaces, understanding how
you can share data because information sharing is not
common today and establishing interim standardization so
that the right processes are in place,” Atkins says.
The director explains that industry can help the spectrum management community in several ways. “I sincerely believe we need to increase the cooperative
efforts between the [Defense] department and industry
in this area in particular. We ultimately have the same
challenges and goals. We have to work together to maximize access to the spectrum for all of us while understanding that we have to balance competing interests
that are really all essential to our nation, whether that’s
economic growth, national security, space, science or
research,” she says.
Both government and industry must do their part to
ensure that objectives can be met. The Defense Departwww.afcea.org/signal
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SPECIAL REPORT: DISA
ment must conduct due diligence in analysis, testing and
coordination when it develops or acquires new spectrumdependent systems to make certain that systems operate as
intended in their electromagnetic environment. “It’s really
incumbent upon the government as well as the defense
contractors to help make that happen,” Atkins states.
In addition, the department must develop technology
partnerships to improve how it leverages commercial technologies. However, in some cases, particularly in the wireless realm, commercial technologies may require some
modifications to protect operations.
“WiMAX is a good example. Right now, WiMAX is
being developed in different frequency bands, and in some
of those bands, we would not be able to utilize that technology because it would interfere with some of our systems. So we want to leverage it, but we have to be careful
how we do it. We’re working with industry to understand
the ramifications and ensure that we can leverage it to the
maximum extent possible,” Atkins explains.
The DSO also will need support from industry in
other areas. For example, the Defense Department is
interested in taking advantage of commercial innovations to improve spectrum efficiency, agility and sharing. Coexistence is going to be key as the spectrum gets
more congested, Atkins says.
In addition, the department must work more closely with
other federal agencies and the commercial sector to ensure
that its regulatory framework is flexible enough—both
nationally and internationally—to accommodate and promote
some of the technologies that will be vital to success, Atkins
maintains.
“Some of these technologies quite frankly are 180 degrees
out of sync with how the spectrum is regulated today. That is
a challenge. If we want to take full advantage of them in the
future, we have to work that process. I think industry is key
in that area, particularly in terms of international influence,”
she says. “We need to look at this from a win-win perspective, and trust is really key here. We need to trust one another
enough to make it happen, and that’s almost the most pivotal
element. We’ve talked about technology, and we’ve talked
about process, but unless we have trust, we can’t work out the
other [elements] to really get to where we need to be.”
WEB RESOURCES
Defense Spectrum Organization:
www.disa.mil/dso/index.html
Joint Spectrum Center: www.disa.mil/jsc/index.html
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________
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______________
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Armed Forces Pay Per Use
The Defense Information Systems Agency is transitioning
to more flexible contracts to improve user services.
he U.S. military is reducing excess
By Rita
and providing capabilities to personBoland
nel faster by implementing nontraditional contracts. The new arrangements allow the military to pay only for what it
needs when it needs it and to take advantage of
existing tools instead of duplicating efforts. The contracts
enable the force to skip the cumbersome acquisition process and scale up services more quickly.
The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA),
Arlington, Virginia, is adopting managed services contracts as a way to save funds and scale up faster to meet
requirements and client demands. The agency began
looking into managed services contracts in 1999 and
awarded the first one in 2001. DISA now is adapting
more of these types of contracts for various needs,
including a large contract for a collaboration tool that
was agreed upon in the middle of last year.
Traditionally, the military has acquired capital assets
such as servers and mainframes. To respond to its customers’ requests, DISA generally issues a request for
proposals (RFPs) or uses a contract award then negotiates for the products or capabilities that the client needs.
“We had a lead time between the time when the customer
asked for the capacity to host an application and the time
we could deliver it,” explains John Garing, chief information officer and director for strategic planning and
information, DISA.
To reduce the wait, DISA decided to approach the problem in a new way, beginning with a couple of small managed services data replication contracts. The agency then
moved on to a larger server and storage contract. “What we
care about is having capacity that we can turn on and turn
off like you turn on and turn off power, electricity in your
home,” Garing says.
DISA leadership wanted service providers to install
capacity in the agency’s data center. Under these managed
capacity service contracts, or capacity-on-demand contracts, the service provider maintains capital ownership,
and DISA pays only for the services it uses. Though vendors retain ownership, the equipment must reside on the
floors of DISA’s data centers for security and operational
reasons. The arrangement allows DISA to meet the surges
in requirements in existing work. The agency can provide
capacity to customers more quickly without facing a procurement process each time they want to add more. Additionally, it does not have to maintain extra capacity when
demand diminishes. According to Garing, server capacity
T
Official Publication of AFCEA
The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) is
using managed services for various network storage,
server and other needs.The contracts save the military
money on unused capacity and allow it to scale up
more quickly to meet emerging requirements.
usage usually is only 20 percent to 35 percent, and storage
capacity usage usually reaches only 50 percent. The rest is
idle. “That idle is a cost to us,” Garing states. “With the
new style contracts, the vendor and DISA share responsibility for the capacity management.”
Capacity on demand is only one type of managed services contract. DISA also acquires commercially managed
services available to private citizens or businesses. In July
2006, the agency arranged such a contract with IBM Corporation, Armonk, New York, for a collaboration service.
DISA owns no hardware or software; the agency con-
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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SPECIAL REPORT: DISA
sumes what IBM offers and pays on a
prearranged basis.
A variation of this type of contract results
when a commercially managed service is
not totally available, but components exist
and can be cobbled together with light integration. To use this type of service, DISA
would ask a service provider to combine the
elements. Again the provider would maintain ownership of all assets, and DISA
would access them as needs require, paying
for what personnel use. Instead of approaching an established source for the services
required, DISA would arrange for what it
needs through another source, most likely a
light integrator. In some cases, the government as opposed to a commercial concern
may play the role of light integrator.
Garing says that DISA wants to adopt
managed services for a number of reasons.
The first is to realize the agency’s philosophy to take advantage of commercially available capabilities and not reinvent
them. The second is to put those who provide these services
for a living in charge of the effort. Garing explains that
because these efforts are not core missions or tasks of DISA,
__________________
______________
54
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
DISA signed a commercially managed services
contract with IBM Corporation to use Sametime
software to provide collaboration tools to military
personnel. The agency hopes to sign a similar
contract soon so that users can choose which
service provider’s tool best meets their needs.
the agency would rather have the experts manage the work.
The third reason is economic. Because DISA acquires no capital assets, officials are not faced with the inefficiencies associated with owning servers and storage devices running at low
occupancy. “There’s not all that idle capacity sitting there at a
cost,” Garing shares.
Other advantages include the ability to scale faster by
avoiding the acquisition process each time DISA wants to add
a service or capacity. “So, this is something we’ve charted a
course on and we’re pretty serious about,” Garing explains.
“We think it’s faster, cheaper and makes us more agile and
responsive to our customers.”
Garing thinks that industry sees the benefits of managed
services contracts, though he admits that companies that make
money selling hardware, services or components and integrating them might not look on these contracts as favorably as
DISA leadership does. However, Garing points out that the
opportunities for profit still are available. “The market is still
there; it’s just a changing market,” he states. Even small integration companies can provide the managed services DISA
seeks. To solicit private industry participants, DISA competes
the managed services contracts through the U.S. General Services Administration schedule or through full and open competition. DISA personnel evaluate the proposals and award the
contracts.
Garing says that managed services contracts give DISA
direct access to the commercially managed services that the
organization can locate. DISA is in the process of issuing
more managed services RFPs for various needs. The success
of the contracts in processing and storage has encouraged
DISA officials to consider using managed services in other
www.afcea.org/signal
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SPECIAL REPORT: DISA
areas such as communications bandwidth and satellite bandwidth, but the agency has yet to firm up plans in those fields.
Rebecca Harris, director, Global Information Grid Enterprise Services, DISA, shares that the organization soon will
issue a request for quote for a second collaboration service to
supplement the IBM service currently under contract. Harris
explains that DISA requires the two commercially managed
services to provide enterprise collaboration capabilities such
as audio, video, whiteboarding, instant messaging, file sharing
and persistent chat rooms for U.S. Defense Department users.
By obtaining both services, users can determine which best
meets their needs. Harris says the thought is that each service
provider will continue to improve its capabilities to encourage
more people to use its product. DISA would pay vendors for
usage based on how many people log on.
DISA also is looking at employing managed services for
content discovery and delivery needs. This would operate similarly to the way Google and other search engines do but
would apply to Defense Department content. Users could
search content and ensure that information is delivered as
close to them as possible to improve performance.
In addition, DISA plans to provide a service-oriented architecture (SOA) base for managed services contracts. This
would comprise a number of functions, including machine-tomachine messaging, service discovery and enterprise service
management—the foundational services that will allow the
Defense Department to execute SOA.
The last capability DISA will supply is user access to services through a portal. The agency will use the U.S. Army’s
Army Knowledge Online as part of the foundation of Defense
Knowledge Online. DISA will take advantage of the Army’s
portal expertise to offer DISA customers network-centric
enterprise services.
DISA leadership says that these new contracts are administered the same way as traditional contracts, but they have
posed certain challenges. Both the private and public sectors
are determining how to manage the service level, and industry
is adjusting to selling services in the new manner. Garing
explains that service providers have revenue models based on
sending items from the shipping dock rather than providing
indefinite services, but he shares that the parties have worked
through these problems. He believes that in terms of server
and storage capacity, managed services contracts will revolutionize how the federal government obtains what it needs. The
contracts give DISA more flexibility and agility and put the
burden of service on the providers who have the expertise.
Alfred Rivera, director, Computing Services Division,
DISA, says that the managed services contracts in his division
have been going well. In some areas they have reduced workload, and personnel can make adjustments in processing abili-
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www.afcea.org/signal
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SPECIAL REPORT: DISA
ty. The vendor community guarantees that the storage his division might need is available at all times. The Computing Services Division awarded a capacity services contract for all
servers in the environment on October 5, 2006.
Rivera’s strategy is to move away from procurement contracts to access managed services. He says that this move is
critical to the strategic direction the computer side of DISA
envisions. Harris adds that managed services will become
widespread throughout the organization because the DISA
director’s philosophy is to adopt before buying and to buy
before creating. DISA wants to leverage the philosophy to
provide capability to its users as quickly as possible. Both the
government and commercial aspects of the agency will continue to determine how best to ask for managed services, how
to manage them and how to improve them. Harris states that
the contracts show that DISA can use and improve existing
tools instead of developing products itself.
DISA leaders emphasize that they have committed to managed services and want to realize them to their full potential,
expanding them into other areas. Garing asks who can argue
against increased speed and reduced cost. “This is the best
way to do things. I’m convinced,” he says.
The agency has learned that with respect to writing requirements, a more general statement of objectives can lead to better results. DISA explains what it needs, allowing the com-
mercial providers to use their knowledge and creativity to
determine the best methods and solutions in their proposals.
DISA leadership wants to adopt as many services as it can
as long as the services meet its needs and security standards.
Military troops will benefit from the faster turnaround time
without having to worry about what goes on “behind the
glass.” The contracts also free up researchers and developers
to focus on necessary new products rather than on duplicating
what others already have created. This eliminates an opportunity cost the military has been paying.
With all the development in the commercial arena for small
services, DISA leaders are keeping an eye on private sector
tools that could have government uses. Garing says that the
developers of these tools may have had no thoughts about pursuing a military market, but DISA is excited and passionate
about bringing those services in and saving the time and
resources it would have invested to develop a similar product.
WEB RESOURCES
Defense Information Systems Agency: www.disa.mil
IBM Corporation: www.ibm.com
Army Knowledge Online: www.us.army.mil
_________ ________
58
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
www.afcea.org/signal
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“Customer Success Is Our Mission” is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company.
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COMMUNICATIONS
Proposal Meets Needs
Of Emergency Personnel
Revolutionary plan would have private companies
pay for and build public network, but time is short.
s debates and controand build and maintain the
By Rita space
versies continue to
network with the understanding
Boland that in an emergency, those priswirl about how to
allocate the electrovate services would make way
magnetic spectrum and how
for public needs.
to improve interoperability
Officials at Cyren Call Communicaamong first responders, a plan has been
tions Corporation, McLean, Virginia,
proposed to solve part of both problems.
introduced the proposal to create a
The plan would place a specific portion
nationwide, seamless, next-generation
of the spectrum under government conbroadband network for better public
trol for public safety use. The caveat is
safety communications. The Petition for
that private industry would lease that
Rulemaking that the company filed with
A
the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) calls for allocating 30 megahertz (MHz) of spectrum, the equivalent
of five televisions stations, in the upper
700-MHz band for public safety use.
This bandwidth currently is required to
be auctioned for commercial use no
later than January 28, 2008, under the
Digital Television and Public Safety Act
of 2005 (DTV Act), which was signed
into law in 2006. With less than a year
to work, Morgan O’Brien, chairman of
Four chemical attack “victims” are helped to the triage area by Alexandria, Virginia, firefighters during a training
exercise at the Pentagon. A proposal being presented to the federal government aims to allocate specific
spectrum to first responders in an effort to improve interoperability.
Official Publication of AFCEA
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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Congress is considering plans to allocate 30 megahertz (MHz) of the 700-MHz
band for public safety to enhance communications among first responders.
Cyren Call, describes the effort to
change the law for the auction as a
“very tough fight, but not a long fight.”
According to Cyren Call, the 30 MHz
segment requested in the plan has
unique physical properties in the spectrum that will benefit public safety officials. Signals in this bandwidth can
travel distances of up to 30 miles and
penetrate walls and outdoor foliage, and
they can be sent and received without a
direct line of sight.
Under the proposal, the FCC would
regulate the public airwaves by establishing a public safety broadband trust
(PSBT) to hold the license for the 30
MHz. The PSBT would grant long-term
access to private ventures that would
build and maintain the nationwide network for public safety and also share
the network and sell excess capacity for
commercial purposes.
O’Brien explains that the plan calls
for 30 MHz—not because that amount
is half of the total available but because
using less spectrum would prohibit covering expenses. The segment has to be in
the 700-MHz band because it is adjacent
to other public safety spectrums and has
the propagation characteristics for a
high-mobility system. Creating a system
that can support and maintain an intact
signal at high speeds requires a certain
type of network, and that network needs
a particular kind of spectrum.
62
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
O’Brien distinguishes the network
from a hot spot, which could use different areas of the spectrum. The network
would provide saturated coverage
throughout hundreds of square
miles. Public safety users often cannot anticipate the circumstances of
situations in which they will need
the network capabilities as well as
flexibility and accessibility.
The FCC closed public comment on
the plan on December 14, 2006.
According to officials at the commission, “separate from putting this petition
out for public comment, the bureau
issued an order which dismissed the
petition in November because the commission has no authority to take action
on the request without further direction
from Congress and has dismissed the
petition without prejudice, leaving the
docket open.”
Last August, the FCC adopted a
Notice of Proposed Rule Making seeking comment on possible changes to the
rules governing portions of the 698- to
806-MHz band. Those portions “have
been allocated for commercial wireless
services and do not include the 700MHz guard bands nor the portions of
the 700-MHz band that have been allocated for public safety services.” The
commission decided to revisit some of
its earlier decisions regarding service
rules for licenses on the band in
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response to the DTV Act and “because
more than four years had passed since
the FCC previously established band
plans and service rules for this spectrum.” The notice requested comment
on several issues relating to the 700MHz band, including modifying the
size of the geographic service areas
and spectrum blocks and revising the
performance requirements for the
portions of that band that have not
yet been auctioned.
The U.S. Senate Committee on
Commerce, Science and Transportation held a hearing on the present and
future of public safety communications on February 8. No definitive
action was taken at the hearing; however, elected representatives are moving forward with the issue. In January, U.S. Sen. John McCain (R-AZ)
announced plans to introduce legislation to establish a new nationwide,
state-of-the-art public safety broadband network to promote interoperable communications among first
responders. A press release issued by
the senator’s office states that the network would be created by licensing
an additional 30 MHz of radio spectrum in the upper 700-MHz band to a
PSBT and would provide first responders seamless nationwide roaming
capability and allow for the real-time
transmission of data. An official in
the senator’s office notes that the
amount of spectrum aligns with the
bandwidth requirements in Cyren
Call’s proposal but that speculation of
further similarities is premature at
this point. Several public safety associations have endorsed the allocation
of an additional 30 MHz of the 700MHz band and the creation of a
PSBT as well. As of publication, no
such legislation had been introduced
nor had any additional hearings been
scheduled.
Leadership at Cyren Call stresses that
time is crucial because under current
law, the auction must be held next January, and the longer Congress waits to
take action, the less time government
and industry will have to develop a solution. Sen. McCain says in his release,
“We are at a watershed moment where
we can provide more of the 700 MHz
spectrum to solve our national public
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COMMUNICATIONS
safety communications crisis and greatly
enhance our emergency preparedness. If
we do not act now, this valuable spectrum will be auctioned off, and this
opportunity will be lost forever.”
Cyren Call does not stand to benefit
immediately from the passage of this
legislation. The trust would choose
from any number of private companies
that would compete for commercial
opportunities.
The PSBT would design the network
and provide preferred services to public
safety first responders. The network
would make available high-speed file
transfer and streaming video. “Streaming video is extremely important to first
responders to send back to their command post accurate information about
what is going on,” O’Brien says. The
enhanced information sharing would
improve situational awareness and send
information to the operating control
point faster. First responders in various
locations could send video and images
to the incident commanders who could
make more informed decisions. The
network expands the communications
capabilities beyond voice, allowing for
sharing of items such as blueprints and
other images.
Under the Cyren Call proposal, the
PSBT would consist of representatives
from local, state and federal governments that would serve as a board of
directors. The board would hire an entity to oversee the operation of the network and interface between the PSBT
and the commercial partners. The private industry partners would function as
they do today, investing in infrastructure
and operating the network. Though public safety personnel would have first
right to the spectrum, except in emergencies, they rarely would need the
entire 30 MHz.
O’Brien draws an analogy between
the plan’s intent and the use of emergency road vehicles. Most of the time people drive freely on a highway, but when
they hear an emergency vehicle siren,
they pull over. In the same way, most of
the time, normal commercial traffic will
use the bandwidth, but in emergency
situations public safety entities would
have first use of the spectrum.
The proposal introduces several
unique factors that improve upon legacy
plans. Unlike other public safety networks, this one would not require taxpayer dollars to create the infrastructure.
“It uses private capital to build the network,” O’Brien explains. The network
also would place public safety in a preferred position and enforce that preference by software. The next-generation
technology would allow system operators to give certain capabilities and rights
to public safety personnel and not to
other users. However, because of the
capacity generated, the technology also
would enable public safety and commercial partners to share. The commercial
partners would provide the financial
resources to keep the network evergreen
and updated, unlike public organizations
that would be more constricted in funding a third-generation network.
Municipalities would pay for hardware purchases to use the network and
would pay for network usage. These
DRS Codem Systems worked with
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architecture. Enlist DRS to help make your
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Working together to deliver
tomorrow’s technology today.
www.drs-cs.com
Official Publication of AFCEA
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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COMMUNICATIONS
payments would give leaders the ability
to see who is accessing the network and
where. They could check for overuse
and determine how much capacity different entities require.
O’Brien believes the network would
create greater interoperability among
first responders. All public safety officials would access the network with
equipment that communicates with all
other devices under a set of protocols.
The new capabilities also would enable
public safety officials to institute better
safety practices. For example, firefighters could wear biometric sensors that
monitor vital signs. Commanders could
determine danger to the firefighters and
move them out of harm’s way. Keith
Kaczmarek, president, Cyren Call, states
that much can be improved. “[First
responders] can remote a doctor,” he
shares. He adds that the network would
enable applications society that has yet
to develop.
To create this interoperability, the
PSBT would designate a specific technology that would become the common
language for next-generation wireless
for all first responders. The technology
would require open standards so various
commercial partners could participate.
The many first responder organizations
at all levels then would order equipment
such as computers, portable devices and
cameras; negotiate a rate with the PSBT;
and pay by month.
“I don’t think it’s an exaggeration to
say it’s life or death,” O’Brien says. He
cites Hurricane Katrina and the terrorist
attacks of September 11, 2001, as
examples of when problems with interoperability result in loss of life, and he
adds that those were major events and
that smaller scale interoperability problems occur more frequently.
Kaczmarek agrees and explains that
those major disaster response and recovery efforts demonstrated that the capabilities offered by the PSBT plan are necessary at all levels of government and that
the network should support U.S. Defense
Department and first responder needs.
The public sector also would benefit
from the advantage of private sector
financing. Basing the network setup
closely on a private sector model avoids
the cumbersome aspects of government
practices. O’Brien says an advanced network such as the one proposed could not
operate using government procedures
because it would have to compete with
commercial interests in the wireless
industry to attract customers. The proposed model encourages established and
new companies to become involved in
the process.
WEB RESOURCES
____________
64
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Cyren Call Communications
Corporation: www.cyrencall.com
Federal Communications
Commission: www.fcc.gov
U.S. Senate Committee
on Commerce, Science
and Transportation:
http://commerce.senate.gov/public
www.afcea.org/signal
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_____________________
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SEMAPHORE SERIES: ENERGY
Energy Effort Promises
Many Solutions
Multidisciplinary research program seeks
to answer the world’s power needs.
By Henry S. Kenyon
establish one portfolio per year. The difficulty lies in selecting
he Massachusetts Institute of Technology has never
the faculty, preparing research agendas and raising resources
shied away from the toughest engineering and scito support the work. The plan is to have roughly a half-dozen
ence challenges, and the school is maintaining this
major research thrusts involving multiple faculty members. “If
tradition by launching a far-reaching program to
we could get a handful of these [programs] running over the
develop new energy technologies. Researchers are
next five years, that would be success. The research would
working to create innovative solutions and applicaflow out from them for another five to 10 years, and that’s
tions for fossil fuels; nuclear power; biomass and biofuels;
where we would see if we’re having an impact,” he explains.
and wind, water, ocean, solar and geothermal power.
Although some technologies could be introduced in a
The goal of the institute’s Energy Initiative is to foster
short time, others such as supply systems will require
increased research and education in energy and related fields
years or decades from introduction to
such as climate change. The school
widespread use. Moniz notes that soluapproaches its research in a nontraditional
tions to energy problems are realized
manner by bringing together faculty from
when technologies are deployed, not
many disciplines, including computer sciwhen they are in development.
ence, mechanical engineering, economics
A benefit of the program is brainpower
and policy. “We’re trying to add to the trabecause the initiative will create a large
ditional faculty-driven way of doing
number of graduate students who will go
research in these areas by bringing togethon to help advance future energy research.
er groups whose very different skills and
MIT also is implementing new courses in
perspectives can lead to new breakthe energy curriculum. However, research
throughs,” says Energy Initiative Director
will take time to mature and to impact the
Ernest J. Moniz, Massachusetts Institute
marketplace. “We’re in this for the long
of Technology (MIT), Cambridge.
haul. We believe that this is going to be an
The initiative has been in operation for
issue that’s not going to go away if oil
almost six months. Prior to its launch, the
prices change next year. This is a sustained
MIT Energy Research Council, which
challenge that requires a sustained
Moniz co-chaired, formed to develop the
response,” he says.
project’s organizational plan then disbandThe goal of the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology Energy
The MITEI’s first major portfolio is
ed after the initiative was launched. The
Initiative (MITEI) is to develop
biofuels and energy bioscience. Moniz
MIT Energy Initiative (MITEI) is developnew applications for a variety
describes this effort as the application of
ing a broad research portfolio to address
of power-generating
modern biology and technology to solve
the diverse issues surrounding energy techtechnologies such as biofuels,
energy problems. MIT has established a
nology, use and policy. “There’s no silver
nuclear power, battery power
large research group that is collaborating
bullet. There’s not going to be one solution.
and storage, and geothermal
with Purdue University.
It’s going to have to be quite a diversity of
energy. According to MITEI
The initiative also is using a multidiscitechnologies that come in over many differDirector Ernest J. Moniz, the
plinary research approach by collaborating
ent timescales,” he maintains.
effort will establish a series of
with biologists, chemical engineers,
The MITEI is built around research portportfolios—directed research
economists, mechanical engineers and
folios that focus on specific areas such as
programs focusing on specific
energy segments.
chemists. In addition, the MITEI is in the
solar and nuclear power. Moniz hopes to
T
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ple, the power backup for a 10early stages of a research plan to develop
megawatt substation can use technolsolar energy technologies and to address
ogy that cannot work in consumer
associated energy storage issues. Moniz
electronics.
notes that the next challenge is to secure
One area in which large-scale systhe resources for the biofuels portfolio.
tems differ from consumer products
Moniz is sanguine about energy biois toxicity. Ceder notes that designers
science. He states that the program’s goal
cannot put any toxic substances into
is to apply new technologies such as
a cell phone. But this requirement is
metabolic engineering, which is currently
much less of a concern when buildused mainly in medical and pharmaceutiing a substation because it is a concal areas, to energy research. “You have
trolled environment. “I’m not saying
these powerful new tools that weren’t
we have to make super-toxic things,
around 20 years ago. These tools are now
but there’s just a larger chemical
available, and the expectation is that
space in which you can work. A lot
applying them can lead to new
of things that were discarded 15
breakthroughs,” he shares.
years ago, or that people just don’t
MIT also is looking for partnerthink about anymore, are suddenly
ships with the federal government.
fair play,” he says.
Moniz observes that the U.S. Energy
For the past decade, Ceder has led
Department is very interested in biofuan interdisciplinary group focused on
els and is making funds available for
power storage research. This group’s
additional research into the technology.
efforts are now part of the MITEI. His
However, he adds that in many research
own research concentrates on cathareas, the primary partnerships will be
odes, which he describes as a critical
with private industry.
component for energy density. The
Battery power and energy storage are
group also models and designs virtuother areas in which the Energy Initiative
al materials for batteries. He notes
will focus. According to Gerbrand Ceder,
MITEI researchers are developing
that it has been successful in its vira professor at MIT’s Department of
new battery technologies that
tual modeling efforts and is now
Materials Science and Engineering and
may one day greatly improve the
using this technique to develop elechead of the MITEI’s battery power and
performance of systems ranging
trodes with substantially higher
stored energy research, the work will
from handheld electronic devices
power and energy densities.
explore topics such as large-scale energy
to electric vehicles.
Energy is the amount of power
storage and new battery technologies.
used to charge a battery, Ceder
Noting that there are many ways to
explains. Power relates to how quickly energy can be
store power, Ceder says that one of his group’s goals is to
stored and released from a battery. For example, a battery
study ways of putting energy into relatively small and
for a cell phone or laptop computer usually is high energy,
transportable packages. Another focus is extremely largebut it is not necessarily high power. “Your laptop battery
scale energy storage. He explains that this type of storage
drains over the course of a couple of hours and recharges
is not mechanical but relies on new chemical methods that
in around two hours. That’s not what we consider a high
have not been attempted before. “We will work on batterpower rate,” he says.
ies, of course, because it’s a more near-term application.
Ceder’s research teams are designing materials for both
But there is a lot of other work going on that is mostly
high energy and high power. Virtual materials testing
centered on electrochemistry because it is the only way of
allows scientists to examine thousands of new compounds
efficiently converting fuels or any chemical substances
to find the best combinations for specific energy densities.
into electricity,” he says.
High-charge-rate batteries will enable manufacturers to
In addition, larger applications such as electric vehicles
create a new user experience, but high discharge rates also
and power system backup for power substations are other
permit batteries to produce large bursts of power. In the
development focuses. Ceder observes that designers have
past, capacitors were necessary for such discharges.
attempted to adapt battery solutions from portable electronCeder says that one military application is field chargics to these large-scale problems only to discover that the
ing. He notes that the best way to charge a battery under
solutions are inadequate. “Almost all of the modern battery
battlefield conditions is to hook it up to a vehicle. The
research has focused on portable electronics because that
military already is using vehicles in this role, but there is a
was where the business was. You’ve taken something that’s
difference between charging a battery in two hours and
designed for a 1-watt-hour storage, and you’re trying to do
charging it in only one minute. “It’s the same for commersomething that’s a million times bigger,” he maintains.
cial use. If you could recharge your battery in one minute,
Large-scale energy storage also has different design criyou would live with a lot less battery life. If you’re in an
teria that can open the way for new solutions. For exam-
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SEMAPHORE SERIES: ENERGY
airport, now you can stand by and wait for a minute
while it completely charges. That’s a lot different from
sitting on the ground tethered to a power plug to do your
work,” he explains.
The MIT research teams under Ceder recently have developed two new battery materials: lithium nickel manganese
oxide and lithium iron phosphate. Ceder shares that the automotive industry is interested in lithium iron phosphate
because the battery’s base materials are very inexpensive and
extremely stable and safe. “When you charge most batteries,
they are essentially highly oxidized. The battery just wants to
release oxygen, sort of like a bomb. Anything in the battery
that’s oxidizable is essentially burned,” he says. Battery failures that lead to combustion often occur in highly charged
devices if there is a short—usually due to a flaw in the manufacturing process. The battery material then oxidizes in a runaway reaction. In very large batteries, this can cause an
explosion. Ceder adds that thermal stability at full charge is
extremely important for large batteries in automobiles and
military applications.
A key aspect of developing lithium iron phosphate for
batteries is the affordable use of nanotechnology. Ceder
explains that nanotechnology allows the material to have
very high power and charge-discharge rates. The charge
and discharge occurs by the diffusion of lithium into the
active battery material. If the substance is on the nanometer scale, the diffusion does not have to travel very far into
the material, enabling very fast reactions.
Conventional batteries currently operate at two-thirds of
their theoretical limits. “We can essentially double that theoretical limit. We can see a potential improvement by a factor
of three in energy on the basis of weight and volume,” Ceder
says. He adds that such a breakthrough would have major
implications because batteries are expensive.
Increasing battery energy density by a factor of three
would allow engineers to choose between getting the same
duration from a battery that is three times smaller or making the same size battery run three times longer. He
explains that designers make different choices depending
on the industry. Cell phone manufacturers emphasize size
reduction because batteries take up a greater part of the
devices’ space. Weight also is an important consideration
for laptop computer batteries and vehicle applications.
WEB RESOURCE
MIT Energy Research Council:
http://web.mit.edu/erc/about/index.html
AB/G 1=<<31B32
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SEMAPHORE SERIES: ENERGY
Algae-Based Energy
Burns With Potential
Common aquatic plants offer economies of scale
without affecting competition for food, land resources.
By Henry S. Kenyon
cientists are turning humble pond scum into
fuel. A research effort seeks to develop techniques to grow algae economically and to
convert the oils produced by the tiny plants
into biodiesel on an industrial scale.
This program is one of several alternative
energy projects under way at Sandia National Laboratories’ Livermore, California, facilities. One of the
promises with algae is that more oil potentially can be
extracted on a per-pound basis than from any other type
of vegetable-based fuel, says Blake Simmons, the manager of Sandia’s energy systems department.
Sandia’s California laboratory has operated a combustion research facility for some 25 years to investigate,
evaluate and optimize engine performance. Simmons
explains that since the center was established, it has
conducted research into a variety of fuels. “Alternative
energy research at Sandia has been going on for quite a
long time,” he states.
The combustion research facility recently began
studying the flame and ignition characteristics of
biodiesel derived from vegetable oil. Simmons notes
that in the past two years, Sandia has seen a surge in
biofuels research. This work is funded by several million dollars from internal investment efforts such as the
Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program that spends discretionary funds on selected technology proposals.
“The primary motive is to help balance the nation’s
transportation fuels supply by putting a renewable element in it,” he says. Of these internal research programs, five or six now are fully established and investigating the creation of alternative fuels such as biodiesel,
ethanol and butanol. One of these efforts, which has
been underway for the past 15 months, is genetically
engineering the metabolism of certain algae to enhance
oil production for conversion into biodiesel.
Algae typically build up oils in their bodies when limited nutrients are available in their environment. The
S
Sandia National Laboratories researcher Todd Lane
withdraws a sample for analysis from a large culture of
microalgae used to produce biodiesel.
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challenge is in optimizing the growth environment—the
water they are grown in—for nutrient-limited conditions,
temperature and the desired rate of oil production and storage. Algae create oil in the form of triglycerides in their
cell vacuoles.
But finding the right growth medium is only a small part
of the project. To produce oil in industrial quantities, Sandia researchers must genetically alter the algae. And once
the algae can be made to produce enough oil, Simmons
notes that the last challenge is to extract and process the oil
into biodiesel.
Simmons explains that various species of algae have different metabolic functions to survive in specific environments. For example, scientists use green algae to produce
hydrogen. Other types of algae are not good hydrogen producers but are adept at producing oil. He adds that up to 60
percent of the weight of some algae is in triglycerides that
can be converted into biodiesel products. The challenge is
that while algae produce more oil with less nutrients, algae
do not grow and reproduce as quickly when fewer nutrients
are available. Researchers hope to overcome this impediment by modifying the algae’s genetic structure to maximize both oil production and growth.
Sandia’s research is built on groundbreaking work conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory
(NREL), Denver, in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The
NREL’s Aquatic Species Program studied algae to determine the best means to produce fuel stock. The program
examined how algae made and stored oil and searched for
the species that were most suitable for industrial use. Simmons maintains that the knowledge generated by the initiative was essential to all further research. However, the
NREL program was unsuccessful because researchers did
not have the genetic tools to make viable quantities of
algae-derived biodiesel. “The [NREL’s] final report is
depressing in the historical sense because they were cut off
right as the genomics explosion occurred around the
world,” he says.
Sandia scientists now have the genetic sequences of several species of algae that can be engineered to enhance oil
production. “That is the power of the genomics age. We
have the genomic tool box,” Simmons states. “We can
hopefully manipulate these organisms so that we don’t
have to achieve such a delicate balance,” he continues,
explaining that without this manipulation, scaling up is an
unwieldy problem. “This has to be a scalable solution if
we’re going to make any kind of a dent on diesel use in the
United States. It has to be a massive operation if it is to
achieve its promise,” he emphasizes.
Simmons notes that most small commercial biodiesel
operations buy feedstock oils from supermarkets or fried
fats from restaurants. He explains that this oil already is
processed and ready for conversion into fuel. But to make
fuel from algae, a completely different system of harvesting, extraction and conversion is needed. And an algaebased fuel system requires a large-scale operation to be
efficient. “That is why you need to develop an algae to get
the most oil for your buck,” he says.
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Sandia researcher Blake Simmons, manager of the
energy systems department, processes algal extracts
with a high-throughput robotic fluid handling system
for analysis before conversion into biodiesel.
Algae have several advantages over other types of vegetable-based alternative fuel production systems. The first
is that they are not feedstock. This is important because
there is no supply and demand balance between competing
market forces to use the algae for fuel or food. Simmons
notes that vegetable oil is the leading source for biodiesel
production, and it usually is derived from feedstock with
food applications. “You have two orthogonal market forces
there. Once you start increasing the demand for one, you
start negatively impacting the supply economics for the
other,” he shares.
Industrial algae production also avoids the water
usage problems found with intensive agriculture. Algae
can use brackish or salty water that is not suitable for
agriculture and can grow in ponds on marginal land.
Irrigation is not necessary, and the algae can be harvested almost continuously depending on the region that
they are grown in.
Simmons notes that water and how agricultural development impacts water resources are major concerns. Sandia
has an extensive program under way to understand the
energy-water nexus and what the balance of forces is
between energy for water and water for energy.
Researchers also are using this work to examine the enerwww.afcea.org/signal
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SEMAPHORE SERIES: ENERGY
gy-water-agriculture connection. This research will enable
them to understand better how biofuels research and
biomass research may impact the nation’s water supply. He
believes that this effort can serve as a guide for the algae
research in terms of selecting strains that are viable and
sustainable.
Another advantage of algae as a source of petrochemicals and hydrogen is that they have a much higher oil
yield than any other vegetable or feedstock. Simmons
observes that algae require less land to produce a significant part of the nation’s transportation fuel supply than
if plants or trees were grown for the same purpose. “The
energy density, or energy per unit area for algae, is theoretically much higher than for plants or herbaceous
materials,” he says.
Sandia scientists currently are establishing the research
baselines necessary to understand oil production in a certain kind of algae known as diatoms. “We are just now getting a glimpse of the metabolic pathways that will enable
us to engineer them,” Simmons shares.
The laboratory has begun several programs examining
industrial-scale algae growth and processing operations.
One is a U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency (DARPA)-sponsored program to develop bioderived JP8 aviation fuel. Simmons explains that this
project has two aspects: creating the industrial process
and modifying the algae. Sandia is working with a com-
mercial firm to meet DARPA’s requirements. One of this
program’s goals is to produce 100 liters of bio-JP8 as a
demonstration, he says.
Sandia also signed a memorandum of understanding
with a biofuels firm called LiveFuels Incorporated,
Menlo Park, California, to examine the large-scale production of algal biodiesel. The laboratory will help
develop the technologies to enable the creation of algal
refineries. Because scalability is key to the effort’s success, Simmons notes that Sandia is using its in-house
modeling and engineering tools to help design these new
processes.
One consideration is the potential implications of
industrial-scale use of genetically altered organisms in
open ponds. Citing the concerns surrounding genetically
modified crops, he observes that this is a sensitive topic
that must be approached carefully. “You have to be very
aware of some of the legal and public relations requirements to handle the sensitivity. It’s justifiably deserved
that people are concerned about it,” he says.
Besides genetic modification and optimizing growth
conditions for high oil production from algae, a technique
must be developed to remove the water in which they are
grown. Simmons explains that algae typically do not grow
in dense mats on a pond’s surface. An effective means to
dewater the algae, collecting them to a near-solid density
and breaking the individual plants open to recover the oil,
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SEMAPHORE SERIES: ENERGY
must be developed. He adds that some indications suggest
that modifying the algae will not be the most expensive
cost element; instead, it will be processing and dewatering.
Oil currently is removed from algae through several
techniques such as solvent extraction and supercritical
fluid processing. The GreenFuel Technologies Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, is working on a process to
sequester carbon dioxide directly from power plants to use
as a feedstock for algae growth. Simmons notes that an
added advantage to algae production is that it can be used
to help mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. Salt produced
by water desalination plants also could be used as a growth
medium for algae. “Instead of treating the salt as a waste
byproduct, you could use it to aid in the development of a
consolidated algal system,” he says.
Besides growing algae in open ponds, researchers and
firms are examining methods to grow them in closed systems. Simmons observes that firms such as GreenFuel
have developed bioreactors—sealed
growth chambers—and that Japan
has spent nearly $250 million to
optimize bioreactor technology.
However, the process still is not
mature enough for large-scale commercial use.
One of the challenges of bioreactors
is scaling them up. The NREL’s
Aquatic Species Program focused on
the development of large ponds as a
more feasible approach. Simmons
adds that most commercial algae producers now grow their crops on open
ponds. “There is no economically
viable method to growing them
[algae] to the scales you need in a
photo bioreactor yet,” he says.
Although the Sandia program still
is in its initial stages, Simmons sees
several paths forward. The challenge
will be determining the best one for a
chosen mode of production. He notes
that this is why it is important to
develop relationships with commercial firms to help guide the efforts.
“The interest around algal biodiesel is
growing, so we think we’re well positioned to take advantage of that. We
have a very clear road map. We want
to demonstrate that algal biodiesel is
economically viable. Until we do that,
the rest is kind of moot. Right now
we’re developing the tool box for that
road map,” he says.
WEB RESOURCES
___________________
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Sandia National Laboratories:
www.sandia.gov
National Renewable Energy
Laboratory: www.nrel.gov
LiveFuels Incorporated:
www.livefuels.com
GreenFuel Technologies
Corporation:
www.greenfuelonline.com
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MILITARY
Coalition Environments Challenge
Communications Strategy
Multinational partnerships
depend on responsive
information flow and
quickly deployable
secure infrastructures.
By Robert Ducote and Penney Myer
he U.S. Navy’s Combined Enterprise
Regional Information Exchange System–Maritime is part of a multinational initiative supporting information exchange
among coalition partners. Successful coalition
communications systems must be built around
capabilities that allow a responsive flow of information
without violating the trust or compromising the security
interests of participating nations.
Multinational collaboration requires both structured and
unstructured methods at varying levels of security. The
architecture must accommodate features in an approach
that is scalable, supportable and achievable from an engineering, security and acquisition perspective.
The Combined Enterprise Regional Information Exchange
System–Maritime (CENTRIXS-M) enables sailors to share
information via the Web, e-mail messages or chat applications
with other ships in company and with any coalition force that
has installed a similar capability on its own ships. Commanders at sea, working closely with fleet and force commanders
in theater, can ensure that all member nations of a coalition
force have access to a common capability and data set, or
enclave, and that all forces have access to critical, timesensitive planning and support data necessary to carry out the
mission. There are several different enclaves throughout the
world, and depending on the mission and requirements, U.S.
and coalition ships can use appropriate enclaves as necessary
to support in-theater requirements.
This coalition capability brings with it some simple,
effective tools for the warfighter. Commanders at sea and
ashore can engage in chat sessions with any or all coalition
partners. Operations, communications and support personnel all have access to the chat capabilities in the enclave,
allowing virtually any type of information to be exchanged.
Time-sensitive and support data can be collaboratively
T
Official Publication of AFCEA
The box and attached dome near the front of this
Pakistani ship is a flyaway kit, which provides basic
coalition network and voice connectivity.
shared, enabling the entire force to communicate with the
same information as a foundation. E-mail messages can be
exchanged between any of the users in the enclave.
The diverse nature of a coalition’s communications capability often makes uniform data transmission difficult. Efficient
use of existing bandwidth will help bridge the gap. Many of
the systems employed in today’s operations remain standalone, especially at the tactical level. The Joint Tactical Radio
System (JTRS) is a key enabler toward outfitting tactical users
with network-centric capability. JTRS will deliver modern
hardware and networking waveforms specifically designed for
the tactical user. Over time, coalition connectivity speeds will
increase beyond those available at high-frequency and veryhigh-frequency bands. Because communications will be networked instead of stand-alone, new capabilities will emerge
beyond what is available now.
Protecting the security and confidentiality requirement
of each partner is a key ingredient in the success of the
coalition. Using the CENTRIXS-M infrastructure, information approved for release can be replicated into an
enclave from another security domain for use by all partners in that enclave. Enclave users have access to all of the
information being shared in the enclave, but they do not
have access to the data in other enclaves unless they have
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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MILITARY
The Combined Enterprise Regional Information
Exchange System–Maritime (CENTRIXS-M) enables
sailors to share information with any coalition force
that has installed a similar capability on its ships.
access to U.S. Navy networks. Data integrity is protected
by the Navy Network Operations Center, which closely
monitors the enclaves and the participants in each.
CENTRIXS-M has widespread availability. It is installed
on the majority of U.S. Navy combat and supply ships as the
common infrastructure supporting the information exchange
among coalition partners.
The U.S. armed forces cannot wait for integrated, working
coalition systems to be procured, tested and installed, so a first
step is to optimize current capabilities. This requires joint
forces to share data and information about the operational
domain more readily than in the past. The U.S. Defense
Department must standardize information-sharing technology
and procedures to comply better with strategic guidance and
to manage risk safely. Information exchange is necessary at
every echelon of command, from the smallest tactical element
in an operating theater to the highest levels of authority.
Proven standards technically enable interoperability across
system boundaries by establishing a common language for
potentially diverse end-user communities to communicate
with each other.
Creating a cohesive global maritime security force involves
increasing U.S. ability to work with foreign counterparts and
their ability to work with the United States. Enhancing global
security and economic development requires building partnership capacity and continually evolving the right mix of people, platforms and resources. Building partnership capacity
will promote regional security and stability through more
capable, participatory coalitions and alliances.
Policies and cooperation will enable interoperability across
service, department and geopolitical boundaries by establishing agreements on information earmarking and classification
76
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
and processes for access. Effective information exchange and
interoperability, including identification of the proper protocols, often are defined in an information exchange agreement
between global partners.
Currently, users access situational awareness for military
operations from a classified common operational picture
shared among U.S. forces and their allies. However, the Global War on Terrorism has redefined the meaning of coalition
operations. In addition to allied nations, coalitions now likely
will include other government agencies such as law enforcement agencies and nongovernmental organizations such as the
Red Cross and other humanitarian assistance groups. Information exchange agreements must carefully define the processes
and procedures needed to accommodate the needs of each of
these potential partners, while the infrastructure must be flexible and robust enough to accommodate the various technical
requirements of each partner’s systems.
One solution frequently used by the fleet and theater commanders is to deploy a flyaway kit capability that affords any
member nation participating in a coalition operation the ability to collaborate with all other coalition partners. Commanders successfully have fielded flyaway kits on a temporary
basis within the Pacific area to support multinational operations. Flyaway kits enable a coalition partner that does not
possess an indigenous capability for network-based command
and control to receive that capability to support any type of
operation. Once the operation has concluded, the flyaway kit
is returned to the theater commander.
The data being shared among the partners must reach
beyond tactical military information. Commercial logistics
providers and a myriad of medical providers likely will
have critical data to share with operational forces as well. It
is difficult to define the complete set of operational partners
for coalition operations, and it is highly likely that the list
will be forever evolving to include new participants and to
remove those unnecessary for a given operation.
Moving forward, the Defense Department must investigate and exploit promising new technologies, seek new data
sources such as unclassified ship and cargo data and perfect
the means to share that information with the greater maritime security community of interest at the lowest possible
classification level.
An increased emphasis on the integration of the various
functions of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (C4ISR)
as an effective force multiplier is driving the need for new
and advanced technologies. Technological enhancements
and cooperative information sharing include the ability to
exchange relevant information across networked military,
government and private organizations. In the exchange of
information, sharing at the unclassified or lowest classification level offers the highest benefit in terms of gaining trust
and substantive cooperation from a wide range of international partners.
However, the technology gap between potential coalition
partners continues to widen. Recent studies project that many
home users will have 250 times more bandwidth than a fully
equipped guided missile destroyer by 2014. Additionally, the
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MicroLight
F
TM
Get Voice.
Get Data.
Get Video.
Get it Now.
Raytheon’s MicroLight family of radios is ready now – offering the most technically advanced and affordable networked,
hands-free, wideband SDR (software-defined radio) available today. It offers the warfighter an SDR solution that can
simultaneously process voice, data, video, situational awareness, and tracking information from a single, lightweight,
highly secure platform. MicroLight leverages Raytheon’s unmatched expertise in networking communications to perform
consistently and reliably, even in the most demanding tactical environments. It delivers unrivaled capabilities today, and
continued operational advantages in the future.
www.raytheon.com
© 2007 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved.
“Customer Success Is Our Mission” is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company.
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MILITARY
U.S. Army’s Future Combat Systems is predicting that more
than 10 megabits per second will be available to the warfighter, while current bandwidth among many coalition partners
ranges from zero to the low kilobits per second.
The demand for Web service capabilities to support
warfighting continues to explode. Web services, collaboration
tools, Internet protocol version 6, data handling and storage,
and security all are top industry investment areas. Breakthroughs in related technologies such as improved battery size
and life, nanocomputing and wireless technologies may allow
the vision of truly mobile, tactical handheld and person-wearable systems to come to fruition.
Regardless of the mission, the coalition tactical user will be
forced to contend with technical and programmatic challenges. The speed of technology development can outpace
some countries’ abilities to procure and field new hardware
and software. In addition, acquisition program guidelines present challenges that must be addressed to ensure the proper
application of funding to validated requirements.
Another concern is that the demand for the flyaway kit
capability is increasing as the number of coalition partners
in global maritime operations increases. Also of concern is
the fact that the provisioning of support and training often
can suffer as a result of continually fielding new and
improved capabilities.
Language translation that preserves the intent of the messages sent and received remains a critical part of meeting
the challenges of coalition operations.
The increased need for collaboration between non-U.S.
and U.S. forces participating in the Global War on Terrorism requires access to command and control information in
a network-centric environment. These warfighter requirements have pushed the limits of operational control, network security and force employment, predominantly
throughout the Pacific and Persian Gulf operational areas of
responsibility. These operations are demonstrating and
proving the criticality of the command, control, communications, computers and intelligence technologies available
today that are enabling the bridging of language, cultural
and operational gaps, affording the operational commander
a more flexible, powerful force.
Combined with the United States’ continuing commitment
to humanitarian assistance and homeland defense obligations, the war on terrorism is driving the need to move critical data across a variety of information domains defined by
separate infrastructures and differing security classifications.
Additionally, the rapidly changing nature of missions for
U.S. military forces requires significant agility in the information architecture. Frequent forming and dissolving of new
coalitions will dictate the need for systems and networkbased services that allow operational forces to control their
participation in the shared situational awareness pictures of
those coalitions. Furthermore, to use today’s precision
weapons and to ensure a common battlefield picture, allied
and coalition partners must be fully integrated and interoperable in their coalition environment.
Only the global community can assure true security, freedom and prosperity. Protecting the freedom of the seas and the
integrity of international borders will require more capacity
than any one nation can provide. This means that the Defense
Department, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security,
coalition partners and their industrial associates must develop
the partnerships, protocols and procedures that will permit
nations with similar goals to cooperate for the common good.
Current and emerging C 4ISR
technologies can make the difWEB RESOURCE
ference between mission success
and failure as interested nations
SPAWAR Systems
increase their capacity to work
Center, San Diego:
together in supporting the global
www.spawar.navy.
maritime security force.
mil/sandiego
_________
Robert Ducote is the afloat networks in-service engineering project manager, Space and Naval Warfare
(SPAWAR) Systems Center, San Diego. Penney Myer is
the net-enabled command capability project manager,
SPAWAR Systems Center, San Diego.
__________________________________
78
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Also contributing from SPAWAR Systems Center, San
Diego are Bill Bonwit, Ken Boyd, Dana Cottrell, Jim
Parsons and Todd Landers. Contributing from JunoTechnologies Incorporated is Charles Tristani.
www.afcea.org/signal
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DISA Customer Partnership
Conference 2007
The most exciting DISA Conference
is back again – in Nashville!
April 30–May 3, 2007
Gaylord Opryland Resort and
Convention Center, Nashville, TN
Sponsored by
the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA)
in conjunction with AFCEA International
REGISTER NOW!
Guest Star
Sara Evans
5-time CMA Female Vocalist of the Year Nominee
Performing live at the Grand Ole Opry!
Sponsored by
Conference Topics include:
• Interoperability Testing (JITC)
• Net-Centric Enterprise Services (NCES)
• Defense Message System (DMS)
• Defense Information System Network (DISN)
• Information Assurance (IA)
• Spectrum Management
• IPv6
For more information contact
Gina McGovern at (703) 631-6236
or [email protected]
__________________
For exhibit information contact
J. Spargo & Associates at (703) 631-6200
or [email protected]
____________________
Conference Details and Registration
www.disa.mil/conference
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ASSOCIATION FEATURE
Core Backbone Key to
Meeting Federal IPv6 Mandate
Focus must go beyond the deadline and look to future capabilities.
ahead of evolving requirehe transition to Internet protocol version By Beverly P. ments, and IPv6 is part of
Mowery future-proofing your network,
6 (IPv6) is not about
McManus added.
the protocol but what
As part of transitioning the 105
that protocol will enable. The
agencies and bureaus affected by the
first step is to have a core
mandate, McManus said, everyone
backbone in place, and from there,
needs a shared view of the definition
“things start getting exciting and
of success. The OMB and the federal
interesting,” relates Dr. John W.
community decided to keep the defiMcManus, deputy chief information
nition simple. Agencies must be able
officer and chief technology officer,
to accept traffic from an external netU.S. Commerce Department.
work, pull it through the core network
Speaking as part of a recent AFCEA
and distribute it to a subnetwork.
International conference titled “IPv6
The deadlines for the core network
Tech Forum: From Mandate to Misare tight ones, and “if we want to
sion,” McManus explained that IPv6
declare victory in June, we have to be
substantially increases the number of
done testing in March or April and have
addresses available for networked
the system ready to go,” McManus
devices, enables new services and adds
warned. A large number of agencies are
point-to-point built-in security funcmaking good progress toward meeting
tions. An Office of Management and
the deadline. Those that are being sucBudget (OMB) mandate requires that
cessful at transitioning are making IPv6
federal agencies upgrade their network
part of their normal network evolution.
backbones to IPv6 by July 1, 2008.
They are not doing it because of the
“The IPv6 mandate is critical to
IPv6 mandate, but to evolve their netmaking sure the core networks move
works, decrease latency, bring on
in an appropriate timeframe and that
increased bandwidth and provide new
they move pretty much together so
services such as more mobility and
that we can have the level of interopsecurity, he contended.
erability and cohesion that we need,”
IPv6 is not a separate, unique event.
McManus declared. The big opportu“There are a lot of people who think
nity of IPv6 isn’t teaching people
this is very similar to Y2K. Boom! We
about bigger headers and more
will hit that day; everything is going
addresses and built-in security, he
to be done; and we will be good—
said. It is about determining how this
and, no, its not,” McManus related.
new set of capabilities can make peo“This is not a sprint to 2008. Network
ple’s lives better.
evolution is ongoing, and this is part
End-user adoption of IPv6 will come
of learning the marathon.”
not from access to “killer applicaHe continued that the mandate
tions,” McManus suggested, but from
moves the right part of the network at
“killer devices.” The converged handthe right time. It is forcing the transiheld device will start to push mobility,
tion to only those elements that are
and that will press IPv6 beyond the
common to allow communications,
core network, he predicted. The netand it is not forcing IPv6 out past the
work has to maintain pace and stay
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
core backbone. “Recognize that we
will run in a dual environment for a
long time,” he explained, suggesting
that a period of transition ranging
from four to 20 years is possible.
Transition planning must address the
need to communicate with emerging
devices, to move applications and to
support existing infrastructure.
“Thinking through how do we get this
deployed and how the networks can
coexist is critical,” he stated.
Also speaking at the conference
was David Wennergren, deputy assistant secretary of defense for information management and technology and
deputy chief information officer,
Defense Department, who related that
IPv6 is helping the move to the enterprise world by making the technological changes that make a difference.
IPv6 “is a critical enabler” in this
area, he offered.
The Defense Department team that
has been working the IPv6 issue has
brought together the plans and priorities of the military departments and
defense agencies, working out of the
Defense Information Systems Agency
with staff from the Office of the Secretary of Defense and partnering with the
National Institute of Standards and
Technology. “They are working hard to
make this transition a wonderful example of how you can work as an enterprise,” Wennergren emphasized.
The one-day event included panels
on security, operability and the uses of
IPv6; applicable deployments and initiatives seen in government; and IPv6
applications in use. Podcasts of both
McManus’ and Wennergren’s speeches
are available at www.afcea.org/signal/
podcasts.asp.
________
www.afcea.org/signal
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AFCEA/USNI W
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AFCEA/USNI Western Conference and Exposition
AFCEA/U
Innovative Approaches Key to
Warfighting, Military Posture
By Robert K. Ackerman and Beverly P. Mowery
revailing in Iraq and in the
Global War on Terrorism
dominates most military
planning today, but other
challenges loom on the
horizon. One element linking all of these issues is the unconventional thinking it may take to maintain
military supremacy and meet the difficulties confronting the Free World.
Far-ranging discussions on these
points were front and center at West
2007, the annual conference and
exposition sponsored by AFCEA
International and the U.S. Naval Institute. Held January 31-February 2 in
San Diego, the event opened with a
speech by the man whom many
Americans associate with leadership
under terrible duress in the Global
War on Terrorism—former New York
City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani. Mayor
Giuliani’s kickoff speech launched the
three-day conference, which was
titled “Swords and Diplomacy: How
Do We Build the Right Military to
Fight, Win and Influence?”
Giuliani told a standing-room-only
crowd that the Global War on Terrorism
had been ongoing for many years prior
to the September 11, 2001, attacks on
his home city. The same enemy responsible for those attacks struck at the
World Trade Center in 1993, he pointed
out, and that represented only the first
assault on U.S. soil. Terrorist attacks on
the West date back to the 1970s, and he
cited the German government’s release
of the Munich Olympics massacre terrorists and Italy’s later release of the
murderers of American Achille Lauro
cruise ship passenger Leon Klinghoffer
as “empowering the terrorists.”
Until the September 11 attacks, the
West was entirely on the defensive,
P
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Former New York City Mayor
Rudolph Giuliani gives the
kickoff address at West 2007.
treating terrorism as a crime and reacting only symbolically—if at all—to terrorist acts. But after the World Trade
Center was destroyed, the United States
took the offensive and changed its
approach to terrorism. The country
must continue to take the fight to the
terrorists to prevent them from regaining the initiative, he stated.
Giuliani addressed the Iraq War, saying that if the United States withdraws
now, it will put itself in a more dangerous position to be attacked by terrorists.
Mistakes have been made, he stated,
but no war ever has been conducted
without the winning side having made
serious mistakes. He related how President Abraham Lincoln saw the Union
Army lose every battle of the first three
years of the Civil War, but his optimism
and vision fought through to a victory
two years later. The Civil War “went a
lot more wrong” than Iraq, Giuliani
analogized, and he offered his views on
how important leadership is to prevailing in today’s war.
Difficult endeavors require trial and
error, he declared, and he warned
against shying away from an effort
just because it is difficult. One key
quality of leadership is to have a set
of beliefs or a plan. Another is to be
optimistic and to think success. Many
people who look at Iraq today are pessimists who see only the setbacks and
don’t acknowledge the advances that
have taken place, he charged. President Lincoln may have been clinically
depressed, but he maintained his optimism about success in the Civil
War—although Giuliani commented,
“Thank goodness for Lincoln they
didn’t have CNN.”
That optimism is key because the terrorists hope to break the U.S. national
will, the former mayor stated. They
believe that Americans are weak and
that the key to the terrorists’ victory is
for the American people to lose heart
over the long haul. “It is up to us to
prove them wrong,” Giuliani declared.
The key to defeating the ongoing
insurgency in Iraq might lie in a new
manual compiled by the U.S. Army and
the U.S. Marine Corps. Lt. Col. John
Nagl, USA, the commanding officer of
the 1st Battalion, 34th Armor Regiment,
Fort Riley, Kansas, discussed the counterinsurgency manual issued by the
Army (FM 3-24) and the Marines
(MCWP 3-33.5). This manual, which
includes input from a variety of military
and nonmilitary experts who met at Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas, could provide
valuable guidelines to help U.S. forces
prevail in Iraq, the colonel offered. The
U.S. military has needed a coherent
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doctrine for all parts of the force to
operate together, and it has it in this
manual, he said.
The U.S. military is hampered by
traditional thinking, but to defeat the
Iraqi insurgency, it must view the
enemy in the proper light. Col. Nagl
stated that this enemy is a network,
and defeating a network requires
being a network and understanding
networks. In Iraq, the allied coalition
is fighting a network of networks, he
declared. In fact, jihadists already
have translated this counterinsurgency
manual and have posted segments on
the Web in Arabic.
Key to defeating the insurgency is
obtaining intelligence on the enemy,
the colonel said. But another vital element is obtaining the support of the
public at large. The insurgency knows
this. Col. Nagl offered that the allies
must target Americans and different
segments of the Iraqi people with
information operations, and he called
for the re-establishment of the U.S.
Information Agency in the form in
which it operated during the Cold
War, when it was highly effective.
Several audience members questioned whether the manual was comprehensive enough to be useful. One questioner pointed out that the manual
lacked any substantive mention of
potential enabling technologies. Col.
Nagl explained that officials are at work
on a revision that will take technologies
into account, and he added that the
application of technology to this problem is essential to success.
A wide variety of missions that
involve homeland security and homeland defense characterizes the activities of the U.S. Southern Command
(SOUTHCOM), according to its commander. Adm. James G. Stavridis,
USN, told a luncheon crowd how the
conference theme truly applied to
operations in his area of responsibility.
“Our operations are a balance
between swords and diplomacy,”
he stated.
The countries that constitute Central
America and South America are not in
the U.S. backyard, or even the front
yard—they are in the house with us,
he claimed. And, they are important
Official Publication of AFCEA
trading partners as about 40 percent of
all U.S. trade flows north and south of
the country’s borders.
The countries of the Caribbean and
South America have made great
progress politically over the past 30
years. Instead of most nations being
totalitarian states often run by juntas,
as was the case three decades ago,
today all but one—Cuba—are democ-
Lt. Col. John Nagl, USA, the commanding officer of the 1st Battalion, 34th Armor Regiment, Fort
Riley, holds up a counterinsurgency
manual issued by the U.S. Army
(FM 3-24) and the U.S. Marine
Corps (MCWP 3-33.5). This manual,
which was put together with input
from many nontraditional sources,
offers new tactics for dealing with
the Iraqi insurgency.
racies. However, many problems that
challenge those countries also concern
SOUTHCOM.
Foremost among these is poverty. As
much as 40 percent of the region’s populace lives on $1 a day. These countries
with many poor also tend to have a
wealthy segment that illustrates the
extremes of their societies. And, many
of these nations face transnational
threats such as drug production and
smuggling, terrorism, corruption, urban
gangs and natural disasters.
The major danger involves narcotics,
especially because 25,000 Americans
die each year from drugs or drug-related
activities. Interdicting drug flow is similar to antisubmarine warfare, the admi-
F
ral pointed out. It involves finding a
platform that does not want to be found.
Some of these challenges can be
addressed by military-to-military contacts, the admiral observed. The 1,000ship navy concept—in which allies network their navies to produce a giant ad
hoc force—is “made for South America,” he said. Countries such as Chile
and Argentina have great navies that
have performed superbly in joint exercises with their U.S. counterparts.
However, the difficulties in implementing that concept elsewhere also
plague SOUTHCOM. The United
States must develop better ways of
communicating and sharing information with its allies, Adm. Stavridis
charged. The greatest needs are for
systems and intelligence that can be
shared with these allies.
The command also needs language
facility, the admiral offered. While
waiting for artificial intelligence techniques to progress for broad translation capabilities, the admiral stated
that his goal is for 70 percent of all
operators to be able to speak either
Spanish or Portuguese.
Vice Adm. Charles D. Wurster,
USCG, commander, Coast Guard
Pacific Area, described the U.S. Coast
Guard’s ongoing activities in support
of both homeland defense and homeland security. These include force
transformation and modernization,
interoperability efforts with domestic
government organizations and complex international agreements.
“We’ve only scratched the surface
of border security,” he declared.
Recent accomplishments include
groundbreaking agreements with the
U.S. Northern Command, a national
maritime response plan and progress
with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) on automated ship
identification. But, much remains to
be done, he cautioned, and many factors will affect U.S. maritime issues
for years to come.
Maritime regimes, maritime domain
awareness and maritime operations
make up those factors. In the same manner that the U.S. Department of Homeland Security has its secure border initiative for land, Adm. Wurster called for
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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AFCEA/USNI Western Conference and Exposition
AFCEA/U
Panelists discussing port security are (l-r) Dr. Steven E. Flynn, Council on Foreign
Relations; Bernd McConnell, head of the Interagency Coordination Directorate,
NORTHCOM and NORAD;Vice Adm. Barry Costello, USN, commander,Third
Fleet;Vice Adm. Charles D.Wurster, USCG, commander, U.S. Coast Guard Pacific
Area; and panel moderator Capt. Joe Bouchard, USN (Ret.), executive director,
Center for Homeland Security and Defense, Zel Technologies LLC.
a “secure border initiative–wet.” The
nation needs a single credentialing system to serve as a screening tool for vessels entering U.S. waters, he added.
The Coast Guard is internationally
involved both through global agreements and through bilateral pacts. The
IMO recently established the protocols
for 300-gross-ton ships to be identified
at sea. Bilateral agreements with
Ecuador, Colombia and Mexico have
helped counterdrug operations. When
drug smuggling becomes the fundraising activity of choice for terrorists,
these agreements will play important
roles in the Global War on Terrorism,
the admiral noted.
The Coast Guard’s modernization
efforts focus on a “strategic triad” of
shore-based forces, mobile forces and
deployable forces. The centerpiece is its
Deepwater program, which Adm.
Wurster described as “the eyes and
ears” for the maritime domain. He conceded that the Coast Guard has had difficulty in getting the results it wants
with that program, but the commandant
is addressing the problem. This initiative takes the Coast Guard’s restructuring into account, he added.
If Deepwater is the Coast Guard’s
eyes and ears out at sea, its command
centers serve as the eyes and ears of
U.S. coastal waterways, the admiral
offered. Three of them are operational in Hampton Roads, Virginia;
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Charleston, South Carolina; and San
Diego. However, their common operational picture must grow to include
state and local agencies, he said.
The U.S. Defense Department’s strategy for the new digital era is changing
in the midst of the network-centric
transformation. David Wennergren,
deputy assistant secretary of defense for
information management and technology and deputy Defense Department
chief information officer, told the
show’s only breakfast audience that the
Adm. James G. Stavridis, USN,
describes the varied hurdles that
he faces as commander of the U.S.
Southern Command.
old construct of interconnected networks must give way to an entirely new
type of architecture.
As networks grew, their interrelationships and lines of access and connectivity often became so complex
and convoluted that their form shapes
could not be sustained. Instead of a
Tinker toy nightmare, Wennergren
offered, the new model should be that
of a plasma ball—a single source of
information that could be interconnected in any direction.
“The world is not about separate networks,” he said.
But many tasks must be accomplished to achieve this goal. Data must
be available to be consumed in a standard way. Configuration management is
vital for operators to know the system
fully. The department still must weed its
way through software to determine
what it needs and what it doesn’t need.
Some recent measures have helped
key aspects of information. Rationalizing networks, which helped configuration management greatly and
saved money, additionally has aided
infrastructure security measures.
Information assurance also has been
enabled by common access cards, the
use of which has reduced the information security threat. Biometrics continues to be a growth area for the Defense
Department, Wennergren added.
He called for an innovative partnership with industry. In this Web-based
world, the department must align with
standards and open architectures. For
its strategic planning, it must accelerate the development of a network-centric culture. The department also must
network the warfighter, make information a force multiplier, facilitate
warfighter access to intelligence and
secure the network.
“Everything’s going digital,” Wennergren declared. “It’s all about moving to the Web.”
The power of new information technologies was demonstrated to a keynote
address audience by Vice Adm. Mark J.
Edwards, USN, deputy chief of naval
operations for communication networks, N-6. Adm. Edwards took a
broad view of the information technology revolution and described numerous
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opportunities to implement sweeping
new capabilities throughout the U.S.
Navy. Instead of merely building on
existing technologies, the Navy would
explore wholly new applications, the
admiral indicated.
Adm. Edwards showed a screenshot
of a standard Navy online video that
looked proper, well designed and
unremarkable. About 300 people had
viewed this video, he said. Then, right
next to it, he presented a video that
was put together by Navy personnel in
carrier airborne early warning
squadron VAW-116. Titled “Pump It,”
the five-minute video set to rock
music had been viewed on YouTube
more than 400,000 times, and it had
earned four stars from reviewers.
The admiral continued that the
Navy has not kept pace with technology growth, but many of the people
coming into the Navy have. Not only
must the Navy tap their expertise, it
also must create an environment in
which they will flourish. The technology-savvy Millennium Generation,
which comprises people younger than
age 25, tends to focus on cutting-edge
technology and collaboration. Those
and other qualities of that generation
are the N-6’s focus, he said.
The Navy is spending more money
Vice Adm. Charles D. Wurster,
USCG, discusses the Coast
Guard’s multifaceted challenges
and programs.
on information technology than industry, but it is not getting its money’s
worth, the admiral charged. The leading
causes of this shortfall are legacy systems and systems that do not give the
Navy substantial payback, he added. It
is imperative that the Navy closes the
gap with industry in part by drawing
solutions from industry.
While the early bird may get the
worm, he observed, the Navy should
apply a different animal analogy. “The
Former undersecretary of defense (comptroller) and chief financial officer
Dr. Dov S. Zakheim (l) hosts a special luncheon forum on the kind of fleet
the Navy should build. Other participants are Vice Adm. John G. Morgan
Jr., USN (c), deputy chief of naval operations for information, plans and
strategy (N-3/N-5), and Rear Adm. Michael C. Bachmann, USN,
commander, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command.
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second mouse gets the cheese,” he
emphasized. “We want to be the second
mouse and feed off of industry.”
The Navy is sorely lacking in sufficient bandwidth, and it must improve its
networks to provide enough bandwidth
with secure links to ensure effective
operations, Adm. Edwards declared.
Otherwise, the sea service will become
the service-least-gone-to for commanding forces in the field. Without better
information technology, the Navy may
never become a joint task force commander, the admiral warned.
The first West 2007 panel dove into
the Iraq War as it focused on operational lessons learned and solutions.
Panel moderator Maj. Gen. David L.
Grange, USA (Ret.), president and
chief executive officer, McCormick
Tribune Foundation, stated that the
new troop surge may be the last
chance for the United States to produce an outcome favorable to the
American people.
Col. Michael A. Shupp, USMC,
chief of staff for the Joint IED Defeat
Organization and a former commander
of a Marine regimental combat team
and a Marine regiment, related how
Iraqi forces acquitted themselves well
fighting alongside Marines. Stories of
the Iraqis’ bravery have not been told
here, he said.
Echoing Col. Shupp’s stories about
Iraqi forces’ heroism, Col. Nagl
described how finding the insurgents
is harder than fighting them. The
solution to defeating the insurgency
is not more power but better intelligence, he offered.
Brig. Gen. (Sel.) Michael Callan,
USAF, commander, Air Force Special
Operations Forces, and director of
operations, Air Force Special Operations Command, gave a U.S. Air Force
perspective to the fight in Iraq. He said
that among the key lessons learned is
that more simple command and control architectures are the ones that
enable ground commanders to bring
maximum air power to bear.
Cmdr. Steve Wisotzki, USN, chief
of staff, Naval Special Warfare Group
One, and the former commander of
SEAL Team 1, outlined how Navy
SEALs conducted operations in Al
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Anbar province, which he described as
the most dangerous region in Iraq. He
noted that having women in special
operations forces gave those forces
access to women in towns, which
proved very helpful. Al-Qaida largely
has been run out of Al Anbar, and “the
prognosis is good” that they will not
regain their previous position. Nonkinetic means now make the most effective operations, he added.
But much of the panel’s discussion
focused on the role and influence of
the media in that conflict. A consensus seemed to emerge from all of the
panelists that the news media largely
has covered the war well from the
battlefield.
Col. Shupp lauded the work of
embedded media in covering the
troops, although these reporters often
share the military’s frustrations about
how their stories are edited back
home. Col. Nagl seconded his
remarks, but Gen. Callan stated that
not all reporting from the front has
been good and that positive stories are
not always being told back home.
Gen. Grange agreed that many
reporters do not get to choose what is
put on television or how their print
stories are edited. He said that the television producers are the ones who
decide how the field journalists’
reports are presented, if at all, and
those producers may be acting on their
own personal opinions.
An individual in the audience who
described himself as a member of the
media but did not identify himself
took umbrage at Gen. Grange’s comments. He angrily condemned the
general for accusing the media of
bias, especially as so many reporters
have given their lives covering the
war. Gen. Grange apologized to the
man for giving that impression, but
he defended his statement that not all
field reporters covering the Iraq War
can control how their reportage is
presented.
Cmdr. Wisotzki added that the U.S.
media is only part of the war coverage. Mideast media, particularly outlets such as Al Jazeera, are carrying
the coverage for Arabs in that region.
Their viewers do not trust U.S. media
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
sources, so the United States must put
more energy into working with Arab
media.
One panel focusing on the 1,000-ship
navy concept turned into a lively discussion about whether the U.S. Navy could
even sustain its shipbuilding. Noted
author and panel moderator Norman
Polmar warned that the U.S. government faces some difficult decisions for
its 313-ship future fleet. It must determine whether the Navy is building the
right types of ships, especially with no
U.S. Defense Department information
official David Wennergren outlines
the department’s data strategy.
foreign navy peer on the horizon.
Another key issue is whether the
$11 billion currently spent on shipbuilding each year will be sufficient—or even is sustainable.
Lt. Col. Frank Hoffman, USMC
(Ret.), a research fellow at the Center for
Emerging Threats and Opportunities,
bluntly stated that “tomorrow’s fleet is at
risk.” The Navy may not be getting its
fair share of defense funding for the long
haul. The retired Marine lieutenant
colonel offered that the 313-ship architecture may not be right for the Navy’s
new strategy, which must include maritime security. He also called for increasing amphibious capabilities. All told, the
Navy may require a $15 billion floor
annually for shipbuilding, he added.
But Col. Hoffman’s bluntness was
exceeded by the harsh admonishments
of Eric J. Labs, senior analyst for naval
forces and weapons at the Congressional Budget Office’s National Security
Division. Labs painted a gloomy picture
of Navy shipbuilding from both fiscal
and logistical perspectives.
He called the goal of 313 ships by
2020 “disingenuous.” Two-thirds of
that number already are in the fleet or
are under construction. But even if
the Navy could achieve its 313-ship
goal, it couldn’t sustain it past 2027,
he said. Surface combatants are being
decommissioned faster than they are
being replaced. And, by 2037 the
number of ships in the fleet will be as
small as it is today because some
types of ships and submarines will
leave the fleet without any replacements planned.
Labs went beyond Hoffman in criticizing the $11 billion annual shipbuilding budget. Even the Navy believes it
will need an average of $16 billion each
year over the next 30 years, he pointed
out. But Labs believes a more accurate
number is $21 billion annually over 30
years. That figure likely will be unsustainable as domestic federal spending
on items such as Medicare explodes
over the coming years.
“You will have a smaller, less capable
fleet,” he declared.
China was the inadvertent focal
point of a panel titled “A Maritime
Strategy for Asia-Pacific: What Are
the Competing Priorities?” The international panel examined many issues
involving the dozens of countries that
compose that vast region. But, many
of the conversations ultimately swung
toward the emerging military and economic power that houses one-fifth of
the world’s population.
Rear Adm. Michael McDevitt, USN
(Ret.), director of the Center for Strategic Studies, Center for Naval Analyses,
decried misconceptions about China
from both sides of the political spectrum. It is not an accurate description of
the U.S./China relationship to view
China as an enemy, he emphasized.
China is not the Soviet Union. The
United States and China have normal
political and societal relationships.
However, the two countries have competing strategies and are vying for influwww.afcea.org/signal
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ence in Southeast Asia. And, the cloud
of war hovers over Taiwan, he stated.
China is undergoing a revolution in its
military, the admiral declared. The country has spent 15 years developing a new
doctrine, and every aspect of its military
is changing dramatically. China began
implementing this change in 1999, he
noted, adding that the People’s Liberation Army is a learning organization full
of “smart people in a stupid system.”
China has been using Soviet means to
counter the U.S. Navy—surveillance,
bombers with cruise missiles and submarines, for example. Other advances
are on the way, including maneuverable
warheads atop intercontinental ballistic
missiles. With most of China’s unresolved external issues sitting in the maritime arena—Taiwan, offshore oil, sealane assurance—the country has an
anti-access maritime strategy for conflict. By comparison, the United States
has an access strategy for conflict, and
the two approaches overlap each other
in the western Pacific Ocean.
Rear Adm. Roger Girouard, CF,
OMM, CD, commander, Maritime
Forces Pacific (Canada), stated that
China is increasing its commercial
shipping operations to develop economic power. Ultimately, it may be
able to establish prices and rates as it
gets its exports to market.
Adm. Girouard added that the con-
Vice Adm. Mark J. Edwards, USN,
deputy chief of naval operations for
communication networks, N-6,
gives a keynote address on new
information technology initiatives
for the U.S. Navy.
cept of the 1,000-ship navy is not new,
but its time is right in this new era. A
window of opportunity exists to grow
this 1,000-ship navy, he added, but the
key issue is trust, not technology. Adm.
Girouard noted that Canada is going
through a major debate on the nature
of its military and its roles in the
world. Among these is a “guns or
green” debate that will spread elsewhere in the Free World, he shared.
The key objective for Australia is
A maritime strategy for the Asia-Pacific region was the topic of a panel
featuring (l-r) Rear Adm. Michael McDevitt, USN (Ret.), director, Center for
Strategic Studies, Center for Naval Analyses; Cdre. Jack McCaffrie, RANR,
visiting fellow, Sea Power Centre; Lt. Gen. Wallace C. Gregson Jr., USMC
(Ret.), former commander, U.S. Marine Forces Pacific; Rear Adm. Roger
Girouard, CF, OMM, CD, commander, Maritime Forces Pacific (Canada); and
panel moderator Capt. Peter Swartz, USN (Ret.), strategy and policy
analyst, Center for Naval Analyses.
Official Publication of AFCEA
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security in vital maritime straits,
according to Cdre. Jack McCaffrie,
RANR, visiting fellow, Sea Power
Centre. The Free World must facilitate
the growth of small countries’ navies,
as the growing strength of India’s and
China’s navies will be a factor. In
addition, the Free World must encourage the establishment and maintenance of good government in smaller
countries, especially to combat the
rampant corruption that plagues the
Asia-Pacific region and inhibits economic and social development.
Achieving this will require close links
with these small countries, he added.
Retention of good people is central to
a strong military, but in times of war, it
is hard to develop individuals when they
are pulled in many different ways. A
group of service leaders addressed this
challenge in a panel called “Warfighters: How Do We Develop and Retain
21st Century Enlisted Leaders?”
The panel featured Master Chief
Petty Officer of the Coast Guard
Charles W. Bowen, USCG; Master
Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Joe R.
Campa, USN; and Sgt. Maj. R. D.
Himsworth, USMC, with former Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast
Guard Vince Paton III, USCG (Ret.), as
its moderator. The panelists discussed a
number of relevant issues.
Eighty percent of the military today is
enlisted. These individuals not only
need a career path that offers training
and advancement, but with changing
roles brought about by war, their families also need additional support. Providing adequate bandwidth is one
method that helps families communicate and allows sailors to take online
courses at sea, but supplying that bandwidth remains difficult.
Issues of education and family are
important, but the services also have
to ensure that individuals have the
moral compass to make correct decisions in often-stressful situations, the
panelists said. Good leaders who can
deliver the technology and instill the
necessary core values and competencies are essential.
Photography by Michael Carpenter
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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AFCEA/USNI Western Conference and Exposition
West 2007 combined a robust technical program with a large
and diverse exhibit floor to provide a variety of networking and
educational opportunities for attendees.
Lt. Col. Jim Ashley, USAF (r), discusses Raytheon’s
technologies offerings with company representative
Al Haefner.
Mark Holzbach of Zebra Imaging
demonstrates a hologram map
featured as part of SAIC’s exhibit.
Wireless communications products at the ViaSat booth attract the interest of Ensign
Paul Alexander, USCG (l), and Ensign Andrew Pritchett, USCG (2nd from l). Jim Collins
and Debbie Matzek of ViaSat speak with them about their company’s capabilities.
A virtual reality program featuring the view from the bridge of a littoral combat ship
is demonstrated for Adm. James G. Stavridis, USN (l), commander, U.S. Southern
Command, by General Dynamics representative Dominick Desiderio (seated).
Dan Hogan, also with General Dynamics, watches.
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Rear Adm. Len Hering Sr., USN (r), commander, Navy Region Southwest, asks
Kevin Green about IBM’s technology solutions.
A three-dimensional graphics display at DRS Technologies’ booth
draws a crowd. From the left are Petty Officer David Carrillo, USN;
Petty Officer Nick Balich, USN; Petty Officer Jose Vargas, USN;
Petty Officer David Sarvey, USN; Petty Officer Dwan Emerson, USN;
Petty Officer Jaime Gray, USN; and Petty Officer Magda Gonzales,
USN, who discuss this technology with Ron Godlewski from DRS.
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Attendees at West 2007
took advantage of several
professional development
courses, including one on
military satellites. This class
provided students with a
comprehensive perspective
of satellite communications
for military applications,
specifically aimed at a
network-centric environment.
A demonstration of electronic control devices that offer a less
dangerous method of control than conventional force is led by
Justin Hesse (r) of Taser. Attending the presentation are Pfc.
Travis Gard, USMC (l), and Lance Cpl. Anthony Clemena, USMC.
Vice Adm. Terrance Etnyre, USN (l), commander, Naval Surface Forces, listens to Neil King,
Lockheed Martin, as King talks about Lockheed’s programs.
Representing Northrop Grumman, David Johnson (l) talks about the
company’s technology with Staff Sgt. James Rodriguez, USMC.
Col. William Gavitt, USAF (Ret.) (r), Military Officers Association of America,
examines various cell phone features with Kelvin Holmes and Twila Bridges,
both from Verizon.
Official Publication of AFCEA
LGS, the successor to the Lucent and Alcatel Government Solutions business
units, was at the event celebrating its one-month birthday. Joe Stanley (l)
discusses his new organization with Warrant Officer Byrd Tripp, USN, and
Chief Petty Officer Sabrina Jeter, USN.
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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Cmdr. Bill Haissig, USN (c), tries out the products offered at
MTC Technologies. Briefing the officer on MTC products are
company representatives Marian Spencer and Gary Egts.
During his tour of the exhibits, Vice Adm. Mark Edwards, USN, deputy chief of
naval operations for communication networks, speaks to Jaime Rubscha
about Harris Corporation.
Rear Adm. William D. Rodriguez, USN (r), Space and Naval
Warfare Systems Command, talks about the current activities
of the organization with (l-2nd from r) Scott Roberts, Henry
Johnson, Ken Lewis and Maurice Gauthier.
Rear Adm. Michael Bachmann, USN (r), commander, Space and Naval Warfare
Systems Command, drops by the L-3 Communications booth to talk with
Irwin Morse (l) of L-3 and Marc Morris, The Talmadge Group.
Chief Petty Officer Jeff Meals, USNR (l), speaks with Richard Abelkis
(2nd from l) about DataPath’s mobile communications expertise
while Jennifer Palmer provides additional company information.
In the background Ken Gaines (c), also from DataPath, answers
questions for Chief Petty Officer Steven Faris, USN.
Photography by Michael Carpenter
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
photograph by m. mowery
The AFCEA San Diego Chapter presented a Small Business
Program during West 2007.
Samantha Adams (l) from Rugged
Notebooks talks to Capt. Trisha Carpenter,
USMC, about computer specifications.
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YOUNG AFCEAN OF THE YEAR
The Young AFCEAN of the Year is one Distinguished Young AFCEAN (DYA) selected by the association
to be honored for exemplary service. The 2006 winner is Jonathan Benett (c), Blackstone Technology
Group, National Capital Region. Presenting the award are Vice Adm. Herbert A. Browne, USN (Ret.) (l),
past president and chief executive officer of AFCEA International, and Duane P. Andrews, chairman of
the board of AFCEA.
DISTINGUISHED YOUNG AFCEANS
DYA award recipients exemplify service to the
association at the local chapter or international level
with exceptional professional performance in the
fields of communications, intelligence and information
systems. In addition, from the DYA winners, each of the
association’s regional vice presidents selects a candidate
to represent his or her region. Regional winners are
identified in bold.
This year’s recipients are (back row, l-r) Capt. Chance W.
Geray, USAF, Pacific Region; Jonathan Benett, National
Capital Region; John W. Mitchell, Maryland Region; 2nd
Lt. Brian A. Merrell, USAF, Los Angeles Chapter; Tech.
Sgt. Peter Christ, USAF, Kaiserslautern Chapter; 1st Lt.
Kenneth P. Malloy Jr., USAF, Kaiserslautern Chapter; Vinh
Nguyen, Central Maryland Chapter; DeWonda McComb,
Scott-St. Louis Area Chapter; Capt. Alex Svetlev, USAF,
Korea/Japan Region; Capt. Richard E. Tuggle, USAR,
Huntsville Chapter; (front row, l-r) Capt. Daniel Visosky,
USAF, New England-Upstate New York Region; Janice
Hendricks, Canaveral Chapter; John C. Nilsen, New
York-New Jersey Region; Heidi Bohn, Scott-St. Louis
Area Chapter; Capt. William G. McCulley, USAF, Western
Region; Stefanie Coburn, Northern Virginia Chapter;
Amanda Gustafson, Lexington-Concord Chapter; and Sumi Krishnan, Northern Virginia Chapter.
Regional DYA winners not pictured are Maj. Neal Bowen, USAF, Georgia Region; Dr. Catharina Candolin, Nordic Region; Lee Cantrelle, Midsouth Region;
Tech. Sgt. Michael R. Fay, USAF, Midwest Region; Jeff Goodman, Eastern Florida-Caribbean Region; Airman 1st Class Angelo Greene, USAF, Virginia Region;
2nd Lt. Neftali Herrada, USAF, Central Europe-U.S. Forces Region; Senior Airman Shawn P. Johnson, USAF, Great Plains-Rocky Mountain Region; and
Lt. Jason Nichols, USN, Heartland Region.
DYA winners not pictured are 2nd Lt. Jason A. Brown, USAF, Kaiserslautern Chapter, and Capt. Shannon C. Cummins, USAF, Stuttgart Chapter.
THE YOUNG AFCEAN PROGRAM AWARD
The Young AFCEAN Program Award
recognizes the chapter that has
most significantly contributed to the
professional development of younger
AFCEANs through career development
events; recognition, awards and
scholarships; opportunities for chapter
committee participation; and sponsorship
of subchapters at academic and military/
government training centers.
This year, the award went to two chapters:
the Central Maryland Chapter and the
Northern Virginia Chapter. Vice Adm. Herbert A. Browne, USN (Ret.), past president and chief executive officer of AFCEA International, and Duane P. Andrews,
chairman of the board of AFCEA, presented the awards to chapter representatives. Pictured in the left photograph with Andrews (l) and Adm. Browne (r) is
John Mitchell, Central Maryland Chapter. In the right photograph is Chris Cannavaro, Northern Virginia Chapter.
Official Publication of AFCEA
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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AFCEA/USNI Western Conference and Exposition
EMERGING LEADERSHIP AWARD
The Emerging Leadership Award, presented by AFCEA International,
recognizes former DYAs who have demonstrated continuous
leadership in Young AFCEAN activities since being designated a DYA
and who have been actively mentoring other members. This year’s
recipients are (l-r) Chris Cannavaro, Northern Virginia Chapter;
Kyriakos C. Theophanous, Greater Omaha Chapter; Jennifer S. Kyle,
Central Maryland Chapter; and Clifford Nelson, Dayton-Wright
Chapter. Not pictured are Jennifer Walker, Central Maryland Chapter,
and 1st Lt. Lily Yeung-Wagner, USAF, Kaiserslautern Chapter.
COPERNICUS AWARD
The Copernicus Award, jointly given by AFCEA and the U.S. Naval Institute, honors individuals for their accomplishments in command, control, communications,
computers, intelligence systems and information technology in the naval services. The Copernicus Award winners are (back row, l-r) IT1 Ryan L. Broyles, USN; Cmdr.
Joseph A. Parrillo, USN; Lt. Cmdr. Danny M. Rieken, USN; Cmdr. John L. MacMichael Jr., USN; Lt. Cmdr. Clifford S. Rader, USN; Robert W. Poor; Thomas E. Berry; CTTSN
Patrick E. McCourt, USN; Lt. Cmdr. Jeffrey A. Bayless, USN; (front row, l-r) Lt. Paul Patillo, USN; CW04 William H. Dunn Jr., USN; Lt. Christopher W. Anderson, USN; Master
Sgt. Ronald J. Salyer, USMC; IT1 Joseph B. Marsh, USN; and William D. Kautz.
Not pictured with the group are (l-r) Adam J. McCann; Steven A. Munson; Lt. Thomas S. Philbrick, USCG; and Lt. Cmdr. Kenneth F. Elkern Jr., USN.
Not pictured are CTM1 Clifford R. Brown, USN; Lt. John V. Chang, USCG; Lt. Cmdr. Brian H. Gaines, USN; CWO3 William E. Gregor, USN; Lt. Cmdr. Jacqueline V. McElhannon,
USN; Lt. Cmdr. Kari A. Premus, USN; and Lt. Michael R. Stephen, USN.
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BUSINESS BYTE
Smart Armor Advancements—The U.S. Marine Corps
has awarded a $1.6 million, one-year contract to Solidica
Incorporated, Ann Arbor, Michigan, to evolve the company’s gradient-modulus energy absorbing material technology. This effort will determine the efficacy of the
technology given the Marine Corps’ stringent field
requirements and investigate the optimal platform for the
product. The company will integrate new armor tiles into
its Pantheon system for vehicle sensing, diagnostics and
telematics. In addition, a wireless grid of Solidica Solo
smart sensor nodes implanted in the armor will demonstrate the delivery of real-time damage assessments.
Night Vision Tool Enables Targeting—A contract for a horizontal technology integration second-generation forwardlooking infrared sighting system will improve night vision
capabilities for the U.S. Army’s M1A2 Abrams main battle
tank system enhancement package and the M2A3 Bradley
Fighting Vehicle. Under the $124 million award from
Raytheon’s Network Centric Systems division, DRS Sensors and Targeting Systems’ Optronics Division will provide the technology to allow ground vehicles to detect
and engage enemy forces at any time of day or night. This
generation of the system improves greatly on its precursor, doubling the distance at which warfighters can identify targets. Work will be performed in Palm Bay and
Melbourne, Florida, and the products will be delivered
through the end of the year.
Award for Text Exploitation Technology—Text analytics
and information extraction provided by Janya Incorporated, based in Washington, D.C., and Amherst, New
York, will aid research and development for a prototype
message traffic processing system to assist communications for unified combatant commands. The $5 million
indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity contract awarded
by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory calls for
Janya’s Semantex technology to process U.S. Message
Text Format and human intelligence messages, mining
them for entities, relationships and important events for
analysis. Teaming with Janya on the project are Intelligent Software Solutions Incorporated, Colorado
Springs, Colorado, and General Dynamics Advanced
Information Systems, Arlington, Virginia.
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Official Publication of AFCEA
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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“Bridging the Gap—Mission Success Through Information Integration”
June 5–7, 2007 | Hyatt Regency Crystal City, VA
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The Joint/Coalition
IT Program of the Year!
• Net-Centric Enterprise Solutions (NCES)
• Infrastructure Assurance
• Multi-Level Security
• Coalition Interoperability
• Cyber Warfare
• Acquisition Process
• Innovation
Registration!
www.afceasolutions.org
For program information contact AFCEA Events at (703) 631-6130 or _______________
[email protected]
For patron/sponsor and exhibit information contact Maureen Cirrito at (703) 631-6174 or [email protected]
_______________
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AFCEA EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES
Adm. Gravely Charted Course for AFCEA
T
he AFCEA Educational Foundation focuses on people.
In addition to covering the foundation’s current activities, periodically this column will feature people who
have made the foundation what it is today.
The late Vice Adm. Samuel L. Gravely Jr., USN (Ret.),
was a pioneer at AFCEA after being a pioneer in the U.S.
Navy. The admiral launched the AFCEA Educational Foundation, working from 1983 to 1987 as the director of education and training, a role that kept him in touch with the military community and that he used to help prepare students
for the challenges and opportunities they would face later in
life. His own life was filled with plenty of challenges that he
turned into opportunities.
In 1942, a young Sam Gravely enlisted in the Naval
Reserve. The following year he entered the V-12 officer
training program, one of the first black Americans to do so.
He was commissioned as an ensign in December 1944.
Following shipboard duty on the patrol craft USS PC-1264
during World War II, the ensign was part of the postwar
demobilization. In the late 1940s, he was recalled to active
duty to serve one year as a Navy recruiter. Fate intervened
in the form of the Korean War, and the active duty term
lasted much longer than expected—until his retirement in
1980 as a three-star admiral.
In Adm. Gravely’s years as a junior officer, the Navy’s black
officers were limited largely to the specialties of recruiting and
communications. Adm. Gravely went well beyond those limitations and mastered the skills of electronic communications. His
last active duty billet was as the director of the Defense Communications Agency, now known as the Defense Information
Systems Agency. During his career, Adm. Gravely sought to
prove himself in the Navy’s foremost arena—at sea.
Adm. Gravely did not ask for special favors—but he did
seek the jobs for which his record qualified him. They
came in quick succession in the 1960s—executive officer
of the destroyer USS Theodore E. Chandler and commanding officer of the radar picket destroyer escort USS
Falgout, the destroyer USS Taussig and the guided missile
frigate USS Jouett. The latter two ships were involved in
Vietnam War combat during his time as skipper. He was
the first black officer to command a U.S. warship in the
20th century and the first ever under the Navy’s competitive officer assignment system. He was the service’s first
black commander, captain, rear admiral, vice admiral and
fleet commander.
During the course of his trailblazing, Adm. Gravely welcomed only grudgingly the publicity that his achievements
brought. Still, the publicity gave him an opportunity that
proved valuable beyond his own success. He became a role
model for other black officers.
One of the many who followed in his footsteps was Rear
Adm. Mack Gaston, USN (Ret.). When Adm. Gaston was
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Adm. Gravely’s wife, Alma, joins AFCEA International’s
past president and chief executive officer, Vice Adm.
Herbert A. Browne, USN (Ret.), for the AFCEA Educational Foundation’s annual Appreciation Luncheon in
September 2006.
an ensign in 1966, his ship was moored next to the
Taussig. He rose early in the morning to catch a glimpse of
the first black skipper. When Adm. Gravely reached the
bridge of his ship, the ensign called over and introduced
himself, and Adm. Gravely reached across to shake his
hand. Adm. Gaston spoke at Adm. Gravely’s funeral in
2004. With emotion he recalled the handshake: “It was like
being touched by God.”
Adm. Gravely would not have endorsed that description
because he had a becoming sense of modesty. But he did
touch many lives. Among those were people whom he came
to know through his work at AFCEA. The admiral had three
principal roles at the foundation: setting up continuing education courses for military and civilian students in communications and electronics, operating a career planning center
that matched retiring military personnel with jobs in industry and running the AFCEA scholarship program. It was the
last that gave him the most pleasure because it enhanced the
education and training of cadets and midshipmen in ROTC
programs around the country.
The Navy that Adm. Gravely served so well has done something to ensure that his legacy will extend well into the future.
The guided missile destroyer DDG-107 will be commissioned
as the USS Gravely. It is an appropriate tribute to a longtime
destroyerman and consummate military professional.
Note: Paul Stillwell, former historian at the U.S. Naval
Institute and well-known author, conducted an oral history with Adm. Gravely 20 years ago and contributed to this
column. The oral history is available at the Naval Historical Center in Washington, D.C., and at the Naval Institute
in Annapolis, Maryland.
www.afcea.org/signal
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ASSOCIATION NEWS
NEW CORPORATE MEMBERS
Listed below are the latest organizations to become corporate members of AFCEA International.
A capabilities statement for each new member will be published in this issue or in the future.
Council for Logistics Research,
Arlington, VA, www.clrexec.com
CTI Resource Management
Services Inc., Jacksonville, FL,
www.ctirms.com
Dal Media Solutions Inc., Black
Canyon City, AZ, www.dal-media.tv
Digital Force Technologies,
San Diego, www.digitalforcetech.com
Divine Imaging Commodities,
Beverly Hills, CA,
www.divineimaging.com
Fluke Networks, Everett, WA,
www.flukenetworks.com
GigaTrust, Herndon, VA,
www.gigatrust.com
Accenture P&PS–Defense,
Kronberg, Germany,
www.accenture.com
Analytical Systems Inc.,
Colorado Springs, CO,
www.asi-hq.com
Applied Optical Systems Inc.,
Plano, TX,
www.appliedopticalsystems.com
Audavi Corporation,
San José, CA, www.audavi.com
Chenega Technology
Services Corporation,
Alexandria, VA, www.ctsc.net
Ciracom Inc., Fairfax, VA,
www.ciracom.com
Govplace, Irvine, CA,
www.govplace.com
Healthcare Management
and Professional Services,
Bethesda, MD,
www.deploymed.com
IntegrityOne Partners,
Reston, VA, www.ionep.com
Interface Incorporated,
Fairfax, VA, www.interfacinc.com
J2TS LLC, Fort Monmouth, NJ,
www.openfos.com/supply/
J-TS-LLC-2230187
JAV Inc., dba Jensen Audio Visual,
Santa Barbara, CA,
www.jensenav.com
Connect.
Benefits of AFCEA Individual Membership
SIGNAL
Awards
Through
Discounted
Magazine – The premier professional
journal of communications, electronics,
intelligence and information systems.
our 136 Chapters worldwide, access to
an extensive network of government and
industry professionals in the fields of IT,
communications, intelligence and homeland
security.
Excellent networking opportunities:
• Through chapter and regional activities tailored
to meet local professional development needs.
• Through world-renowned national/ international
conventions, exhibitions, conferences and
symposia sponsored by AFCEA International.
Career
strategy assistance:
• Career transition seminars, job fairs,
and resume preparation guides.
• FREE on-line resume posting service.
• Access to 30+ industry job boards.
Access
to AFCEA’s Professional Development
Center – advanced education and training in
communications, intelligence and information
systems disciplines.
Official Publication of AFCEA
and scholarship programs for
recognition of professional and academic
accomplishments.
scholarship on enrollment in the
University of Maryland Clark School’s
Professional Master of Engineering or Graduate
Certificate of Engineering Programs.
Discount
on tuition for Carnegie Mellon IT
Certification Courses.
Discount
on purchase of Dell on-line training
opportunities.
Discount
on purchase of Dell products
(U.S. members only).
Eligibility
for membership in the Pentagon
Federal Credit Union. (U.S. citizens only)
Connect. Join AFCEA as
a member today.
www.afcea.org • ____________
[email protected]
(800) 336-4583, ext. 6158
(703) 631-6158
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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It’s time
to launch
papers . . .
and join a stellar
technical program
Orlando, Florida
October 29–31, 2007
For more information about submitting technical papers, visit:
www.milcom.org
Contact Information: Technical Programs:________________
[email protected] | Exposition: ________________
[email protected] | General Information: hartsfi[email protected]
________________
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JC Technology Federal Inc., dba
Ace Computers, Arlington Heights,
IL, www.acecomputers.com
Lambda Americas High Power,
Neptune, NJ, www.lambda-hp.com
Logicteer, Leesburg, VA,
www.logicteer.com
Packeteer Inc., Cupertino, CA,
www.packeteer.com
Pelatron Inc., Honolulu,
www.ontowns.com/
PELATRON-INC-171693.profile.htm
PMC Technical Sales,
Anaheim, CA,
www.pmctechsales.com
Princeton Softech Inc., Princeton, NJ,
www.princetonsoftech.com
RF Central LLC, Carlisle, PA,
www.rfcentral.com
Sabre Systems Inc., Warminster, PA,
www.sabresystems.com
Sabtech Industries,
Yorba Linda, CA, www.sabtech.com
SAP Italia S.p.A.,
Agrate Brianza Milano, Italy,
www.sap.com/italy/index.epx
SecureInfo, McLean, VA,
www.secureinfo.com
Seltatel S.p.A., Tortoreto Lido (TE),
Italy, www.seltatel.it
Sepaton, Marlborough, MA,
www.sepaton.com
Shavlik Technologies, Roseville,
MN, www.shavlik.com
Sierra Nevada Corporation,
Fayetteville, NC,
www.tcd.sncorp.com
Sistematica S.p.A., Terni, Italy,
www.sistematica-spa.it
SPL Integrated Solutions,
Columbia, MD, www.splis.com
F
Spotfire Inc., Silver Spring, MD,
www.spotfire.com
Supacam, Irvine, CA,
www.supacam.com
Symmetricom, Santa Rosa, CA,
www.symmetricom.com
Telelogic, Irvine, CA,
www.telelogic.com
Tenix Datagate (UK),
London, www.tenix.com
Timbercon Inc., Lake Oswego, OR,
www.timbercon.com
Vector Planning and Services Inc.,
San Diego, www.vps-i.com
Western Scientific,
San Diego, www.wsm.com
Winning Presentations, San Diego,
www.winning-presentations.com
Winsted Corporation,
Bloomington, MN, www.winsted.com
CORPORATE CAPABILITY STATEMENTS
The following new AFCEA corporate members have recently completed online capability listings. See the full profiles of
these and other AFCEA corporate members in searchable form at www.afcea.org/sourcebook.
ANACAPA MICRO PRODUCTS
Post Office Box 7628
Ventura, CA 93006
Telephone: (805) 339-0305
Fax: (805) 339-0353
Web Home Page:
www.anacapamicro.com
President and AFCEA Contact:
Kenneth Marks
Sales/Operations Manager:
Webb Driver
Government Division Manager:
Glenn Anderson
Products/Services: Computer
hardware/software (servers, storage,
memory, RAID and tape backup, SAN,
networking, security). Electronic
equipment (A/V, communications,
security, GPS, test/measurement).
Legacy/end-of-life sourcing.
ASM RESEARCH INC.
3025 Hamaker Court
Suite 100
Fairfax, VA 22031
Telephone: (703) 645-0420
Fax: (703) 641-8341
E-mail: _____________
[email protected]
Web Home Page: www.asmr.com
President and Chief Executive
Officer: Jeri Lassiter
Vice President and AFCEA
Contact: John Fraser
Products/Services: Information
technology, systems engineering, program
management and software solution
development for national defense,
intelligence, readiness, manpower,
personnel, training, medical and other
high-priority government missions.
COMMERCIAL DATA SYSTEMS INC.
50 South Beretania, C208-B
Honolulu, HI 96813
Telephone: (800) 527-2970
Fax: (808) 527-2030
E-mail: ___________
[email protected]
Web Home Page:
www.cdsinc.com
President and Chief Executive
Officer: Mark D. Wong
AFCEA Contact: Angelic Griego
Products/Services: Multilevel
security, trusted solutions, peak
performance computing, applied
technology consulting, virtualization
technologies and enterprise services.
DAL MEDIA SOLUTIONS INC.
21070 E. Tara Springs Road
Black Canyon City, AZ 85324
Telephone: (623) 374-9200
Fax: (623) 374-9345
E-mail: _______________
[email protected]
Web Home Page: www.dal-media.tv
President and AFCEA Contact:
Jose A. Rodriguez
Executive Assistant and Sales:
Holly Hahn
Systems Engineer/Programmer:
Brock Martens
Products/Services: Command
and control; education/training
technology and manufacturing;
security systems, broadcast television
and radio engineering; audiovisual
design and programming.
GNS INC.
1 Research Court
Suite 340
Rockville,
MD 20850
Telephone: (301) 921-4467
Fax: (301) 921-0309
AFCEA members can update their records and renew their membership as well as change their
address for SIGNAL delivery through the AFCEA Portal. Go to https://afceaportal.org.
Official Publication of AFCEA
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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Buyers, Researchers, and
Technology Leaders—Here It Is!
The Big Event in Biometrics
Researchers, academics, IT CEOs and CTOs—
anyone involved in using biometric-based solutions.
Here’s your chance to get on the exhibit floor to see
the latest products and tools from the leading suppliers in
biometrics applications. More than 100 biometrics leaders—
giants, upstarts, plus research and standards groups—
they’ll all be there. Network with reps from top technology
firms as well as the 1,500 biometrics specialists attending
the co-located Biometric Consortium Conference.
Interested in exhibiting? Call 800.564.4220 right away
as the exhibit floor will sell out!
Baltimore Convention Center
Baltimore, Maryland
September 11-13, 2007
www.biometricstechexpo.com
In conjunction with
The 2007 Biometric Consortium Conference
For corporate opportunities,
please contact:
J. Spargo & Associates, Inc.
800.564.4220 or 703.631.6200
[email protected]
______________
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E-mail: ___________
[email protected]
Web Home Page: www.gns-us.com
Executive Vice President and
AFCEA Contact: Peyman Goldoust
Federal Account Manager:
Linda Le
Federal Account Manager:
Virginia Elharam
Products/Services: Information
assurance: certification and accreditation,
continuity of operation, FISMA, auditing
and training. Network/desktop support:
network support, help desk,
implementation.
INTERFACE
INCORPORATED
8403 Arlington
Boulevard, Suite 100
Fairfax, VA 22031
Telephone: (703) 876-6800
Fax: (703) 876-0515
E-mail: ________________
[email protected]
Web Home Page:
www.interfacinc.com
President: David Knapp
AFCEA Contact: Rick Michael
Products/Services: Sales, marketing,
business development, sales strategy,
research, legal, FAR, DFAR and GSAR.
JEM ENGINEERING
8683 Cherry Lane
Laurel, MD 20707
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radios, transmitters, receivers, voting
receivers, antennas, mounts, audio and
video monitoring, security and
surveillance, consulting, design,
installation, service and life-cycle support.
Telephone: (301) 317-1070, ext. 106
Fax: (301) 317-8683
E-mail: __________________
[email protected]
Web Home Page:
www.jemengineering.com
President: Nancy Lilly
Marketing Coordinator:
Patrice Notaro
Chief Engineer: Jim Lilly
Products/Services: Custom antenna
design and manufacturing solutions.
Antenna performance testing with tapered
far-field and spherical near-field
chambers. TIS/TRP wireless testing.
RF CENTRAL LLC
99 Garden Parkway
Carlisle, PA 17013
Telephone: (717) 249-4900
Fax: (717) 249-3630
E-mail: ________________
[email protected]
Web Home Page:
www.rfcentral.com
President and Chief Executive
Officer: Jeff Winemiller
Vice President of Media and
Government Programs:
Norman S. Stein
Products/Services: Microwave
WINSTED CORPORATION
10901 Hampshire Avenue South
Bloomington, MN 55438
Chief Executive Officer
Stephen Hoska
Telephone: (952) 944-9050
E-mail: ___________
[email protected]
Web Home Page: www.winsted.com
Chief Executive Officer:
Stephen Hoska
President: Randy Smith
Sales Manager: Dave Tewel
Products/Services: Free services
included: online console quotations.
Technical furniture design software.
Console and room layouts, line drawings
with color renderings and animation.
Custom manufacturing, tape storage,
compact security products, multimedia
desks. Winsted catalogs are available in
print or online in PDF format.
AFCEAN OF THE MONTH
Dr. Catharina Candolin • Helsinki Chapter
D
r. Catharina Candolin
is the chief of information management
for the command,
control, communications
and computers division of
the Defense Staff, Finnish
Defense Forces, Helsinki,
Finland. Candolin holds a
master’s degree in computer science and engineering
from Helsinki University of
Technology in addition to a
Licentiate of Science
degree and a doctoral
degree, and she has taught at Helsinki University of Technology and the National Defense College.
Candolin joined the Helsinki Chapter in 2003 as a student
and quickly became an active participant. A fluent speaker of
Official Publication of AFCEA
Swedish, Finnish, English, German, Norwegian and Danish,
Candolin has attended a number of international conferences
such as MILCOM, to which she has submitted her own work.
A member of the chapter board of directors, Candolin
strives to enhance the chapter’s research and development
and serves as a Young AFCEAN from the Nordic Region.
During her first year as a member of the board, she connected
the chapter with the European Conference on Information
Warfare and Security held in Helsinki. She also initiated a
research seminar for students from Finnish universities.
In addition, Candolin helped plan TechNet Baltic 2006.
She was involved in renovating the chapter’s Web site and has
worked actively with the recently created Tallinn subchapter
in Estonia. Candolin was selected as the 2006 Regional Distinguished Young AFCEAN for the Nordic Region.
Dr. Catharina Candolin is well-deserving of recognition
as AFCEAN of the Month for her efforts toward the
Helsinki Chapter’s research and development initiatives
and for her support of many other chapter activities.
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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Photo courtesy of Code One Magazine.
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Co-sponsored by AFCEA International, the U.S. Naval Institute,
and the AFCEA Hampton Roads and Tidewater Chapters
June 19–21, 2007
Virginia Beach, VA Convention Center
Registration!
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Join us for the first annual Transformation Warfare Conference and Exposition at the
Virginia Beach Convention Center. The new event will offer an East Coast complement to
the popular AFCEA-USNI West conference held each year in San Diego, CA. Transformation
Warfare will build on the success of the past Transformation TechNet and Joint Warfare
conferences, providing a premier venue for engaging the warriors and industry leaders
who are shaping the nation’s military strategies, building tomorrow’s warfighting platforms
and training and leading the world’s finest military professionals.
Featured Speakers include:
• Mr. Rob Carey, CIO Designate, U.S. Navy (confirmed)
• ADM Edmund P. Giambastiani, Jr., USN, Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (invited)
• Gen Ronald E. Keys, USAF, Commander, Air Combat Command (confirmed)
• Ms. Doro Bush Koch, Author, My Father, My President: A Personal Account of the Life of
George H. W. Bush (confirmed)
• ADM John B. Nathman, USN, Commander, U.S. Fleet Forces Command (invited)
• Gen Lance Smith, USAF, Supreme Allied Commander, Transformation and Commander,
U.S. Joint Forces Command (invited)
• LtGen Keith J. Stalder, USMC, Commanding General, II Marine Expeditionary Force (invited)
Plus:
• See, touch and try out state-of-the art technologies from over 250 information technology and
defense exhibitors at the Transformation Warfare Exposition
• Job Fair—meet with employers and interview for key positions
• Department of the Navy Chief Information Officer’s IM and IT Conference
• The Department of the Navy Office of Small Business Programs Inaugural Blue Coast Conference—
Small Business Training and Opportunities—“Toolkit for Building Success”
• Military Officers Association of America Family Member Support Program
• ACC A6 Commanders Conference
Exhibit Information:
J. Spargo & Associates, Inc.
Phone: 703-631-6200
[email protected]
___________________________
Program Information:
AFCEA Events
Phone: 703-631-6130
[email protected]
________________
Patron/Sponsor Information:
Maureen Cirrito
Phone: 703-631-6174
[email protected]
_________________
Registration!
www.transwarfare.com
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INTERNATIONAL
CHAPTER NEWS
Edited by Amber Corrin
Web site: www.afcea.org/signal/chapternews
EDITORIAL POLICY: Chapter News must be received by the
20th of the month two months prior to publication date.
Belvoir
Army Materiel Command
Transformation
In January the Belvoir Chapter hosted
Terry Edwards, U.S. Army Materiel Command (AMC) chief information officer/G6. Edwards discussed his office’s support
of AMC transformation. The AMC is
transforming from a production-based,
commodity-focused, platform-centric
organization to one that is service-based,
capabilities-focused and unit-centric.
Edwards said that the G-6 staff is focused
on enabling connections between AMC
business enterprise and the warfighter
enterprise, leveraging information technology efficiencies and warfighter information supporting business processes.
Edwards is helping to shape the knowledge environment by empowering the
avenues of change through communities.
The avenues of transformation for the
AMC include organizational change, the
culture of innovation, complex services
and knowledge management. Also at the
meeting, the chapter recognized Tamika
White, office manager, CherryRoad Technologies, as Young AFCEAN of the Quarter for her energy and dedication to chapter success.
Canaveral
Air Force Technical
Applications Center
The January meeting of the Canaveral
Chapter featured a presentation by Col.
Mark Westergren, USAF, commander of
the U.S. Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), on the functions
and history of his command. AFTAC is
60 years old. It began when Gen. Hoyt
Vandenberg, USAF, the service’s chief
of staff in 1947, identified a need to recognize and catalog nuclear events around
the world. Early on, AFTAC had its staff
scattered around the globe. Much later
the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
(CTBT) was established on a worldwide
basis. More than 30 countries in all continents have seismic and air sensors to
detect nuclear events, according to Col.
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Westergren, who also said that AFTAC is
the gathering and analysis point for
CTBT verification. The colonel emphasized that multiple sensors are imperative to assess sensor outputs properly.
Col. Westergren told the group that communications is the basis for AFTAC’s
work, saying that the AFTAC team composition includes the military, industry
and organizations such as AFCEA that
provide a forum for cross-pollination of
ideas and techniques.
Czech
Belvoir—The chapter’s January guest
speaker, Terry Edwards, U.S. Army
Materiel Command (AMC) chief
information officer/G-6, briefs members
on AMC transformation.
Belvoir—Alvie Johnson, chapter
president, presents the chapter’s Young
AFCEAN of the Quarter award to Tamika
White, office manager, CherryRoad
Technologies, in January.
Chapter President Honored
During the Czech Chapter’s annual
board of directors meeting in January,
chapter representatives and featured guest
Gen. Pavel Stefka, CZA, chief of the General Staff, presented the Premsyl Ottokar II
of Bohemia award. The recipient was
Chapter President Petr Jirásek, country
security director, IBM Czech Republic, for
providing outstanding and meritorious services to the General Staff and for helping
to represent the Czech armed forces. The
award is the highest one presented by the
General Staff of the Czech Army. Also
during the meeting, Jirásek presented a
chapter award to Gen. Stefka and to former
honorary Chapter Vice President Lt. Gen.
Vlastimil Picek, CZA, chief of the military
office of the Czech Republic president. In
conclusion, the chapter board of directors
renewed the appointment of Brig. Gen. Jiri
Baloun, CZA, chief of the Communication
and Information Systems Department,
Czech Ministry of Defense, as honorary
chapter vice president.
Czech—In January Petr Jirásek (r),
chapter president and country security
director of IBM Czech Republic, receives
the Premsyl Ottokar II of Bohemia award
for outstanding services to the General
Staff from Gen. Pavel Stefka, CZA, chief
of the General Staff.
Dayton-Wright
Valentine’s Ball Success
The Dayton-Wright Chapter held its
17th annual Valentine’s Ball in February;
the event is the chapter’s second-largest
scholarship fundraiser. The chairman of
this year’s Italian-themed event was Brenda Colton, chapter vice president for publicity, while Gerald Tritle, chapter president, served as emcee. The chapter’s
silent auction raised more than $3,000.
Czech—Jirásek (l) presents a certificate
of honorary chapter vice presidency to
Brig. Gen. Jiri Baloun, CZA, chief of the
Communication and Information
Systems Department, Czech Ministry of
Defense, in January.
www.afcea.org/signal
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Czech—Gen. Stefka (c) and Lt. Gen. Vlastimil
Picek, CZA (r), chief of the military office of the
Czech Republic president, accept the
chapter’s annual awards for meritorious
services to AFCEA from Jirásek in January.
Germantown—Dr. Ron Ross, senior
computer scientist and information
security researcher at the National
Institute of Standards and Technology,
discusses the Federal Information
Security Management Act Implementation
Project at the January meeting.
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Attendees included general-level officers,
Senior Executive Service (SES) members
and distinguished military members as
well as representatives from more than 30
companies. The event featured several
volunteers who were integral to the
evening’s success. In addition, the ball
included the presentation of colors, the
Pledge of Allegiance and a ceremony for
service members who are prisoners of
war or missing in action conducted by
members of the Wright State University
U.S. Air Force ROTC Detachment 643.
Continuing with the Italian theme was
guest speaker Anthony Perfilio, chapter
executive board member and former SES
member.
Germantown
Federal Information
Security Project
Dayton-Wright—Chapter President Gerald
Tritle delivers remarks to attendees of the
February Valentine’s Ball. Tritle served as
emcee for the evening.
Greater Omaha—Col. Sheron Bellizan,
USAF, chapter president, presents a chapter
coin to January guest speaker Lt. Col. James
R. Bray, USAF, deputy commander, Air Force
Information Operations (AFIO) Battlelab, AFIO
Center, Lackland Air Force Base.
At the January meeting of the Germantown Chapter, Dr. Ron Ross, senior computer scientist and information security
researcher at the National Institute of
Standards and Technology (NIST), provided an update on the Federal Information Security Management Act Implementation Project for NIST. Ross discussed
the guidelines available for security controls, security assessment, system certification and accreditation and the risk management framework. The project includes
the development of key security standards
and guidelines for the federal government, contractors supporting the federal
government and the critical information
infrastructure.
Greater Omaha
Air Force Battlelab
Dayton-Wright—At the chapter’s 17th annual
Valentine’s Ball in February, event chairman
Brenda Colton gives opening remarks in
Italian, which was a theme for the evening.
Dayton-Wright—Cadets from Wright State
University U.S. Air Force ROTC Detachment
643 conduct a ceremony for service
members who are prisoners of war or
missing in action at the chapter Valentine’s
Ball in February. They are (clockwise from l)
Cadet Christopher Buck, Cadet Christopher
Duncan, Cadet Lillian Church and Cadet
Adam Thompson.
Official Publication of AFCEA
Greater Omaha—In January Kirk
Theophanous, chapter vice president of
academic affairs, awards the chapter’s Lt.
Gen. Harry D. Raduege Jr. Scholarship to
Debbie K. Lampman, a student at Iowa
Western Community College. Lampman, who
is studying network administration, received
$2,000 from the chapter for this distinction.
Greater Omaha—Bryan L. Schierholz (r), a
student at University of Nebraska at Omaha,
accepts the chapter’s Wayne F. Bolton
Memorial Scholarship from Theophanous in
January. Schierholz received $1,500 in
scholarship funds toward his pursuit of a
bachelor’s degree in computer science.
In January the Greater Omaha Chapter
hosted Lt. Col. James R. Bray, USAF,
deputy commander, Air Force Information
Operations (AFIO) Battlelab, AFIO Center, Lackland Air Force Base. Col. Bray
clarified the mission of the AFIO Battlelab, which is to rapidly identify and verify
the worth of innovative ideas that improve
U.S. Air Force and joint information operations in the field. Col. Bray explained
that in July 1997 seven laboratories were
established, each collocated with its related center of excellence and set up with a
$5 million operating budget. The laboratories focus on projects that can show some
result in less than 18 months.
In addition, the colonel talked about the
three pillars of information operations
and how projects align with these areas of
doctrine. Col. Bray also touched on the
Battlelab process, noting that out of 575
concepts received, 78 initiatives have
been completed.
Correction: In the February issue of
SIGNAL Magazine’s Chapter News for
Greater Omaha, photo captions for two
photographs on page 118 were switched
inadvertently, resulting in the misidentifications of Kenneth S. Callicutt, director,
Capability and Resource Integration, U.S.
Strategic Command, and Kevin E.
Williams, director, Global Innovation and
Strategy Center, U.S. Strategic Command.
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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Hampton Roads
Data Challenges
At the Hampton Roads Chapter February
meeting, Rear Adm. (Sel.) Janice M.
Hamby, USN, director of global operations,
Naval Network Warfare Command (NETWARCOM), discussed her prior assignment
as the knowledge manager in Iraq for Headquarters Multi-National Force–Iraq. She
described her biggest challenges: data ownership issues within the organization and the
trust required for sharing data. The admiral
said that this lack of trust was a complication that led to inefficiencies in operations.
During the meeting, Adm. Hamby assisted with presenting chapter awards. Military
Information Professional of the Month
awards were given to Petty Officer 1st Class
Kenneth Clark, USN, NETWARCOM, for
January and to Lt. Sylvia M. Layne, USN,
NETWARCOM, for February. Terrence
Keith, Ciber Incorporated, received the
Industry Information Professional of the
Month award for February. Palmer Sims,
Sun Microsystems, was recognized as
February AFCEAN of the Month. Sims was
credited with increasing participation in the
chapter’s annual golf tournament by a factor
of 20 over the past six years.
Hampton Roads—Rear Adm. (Sel.) Janice
M. Hamby, USN, director of global
operations, Naval Network Warfare Command
(NETWARCOM), presents a discussion on the
impact of knowledge management on
operations in Iraq at the February meeting.
Huntsville—
Darren
Brewer,
chapter
treasurer,
leads the
Pledge of
Allegiance
at the
February
luncheon.
Hawaii
Joint Intelligence Operations
Col. VeraLinn “Dash” Jamieson, USAF,
briefed Hawaii Chapter members on the
U.S. Pacific Command Joint Intelligence
Operations Center (JIOC) at the monthly
luncheon in February. Col. Jamieson,
deputy director of the JIOC, reviewed the
organization’s mission, intent and underlying principles. New chapter board members
and officers began their terms for 2007,
with Adm. Dick Macke, USN (Ret.), taking
over as chapter president.
Monthly awards were distributed to the
following individuals: Capt. Brad Bean,
USCG, commanding officer, U.S. Coast
Guard Air Station, Honolulu, as Senior
Government Leader of the Month; Maj.
Kenneth R. Engle, USAF, Joint Prisoner of
War/Missing in Action Accounting Command, as Executive of the Month; John
Simpson, Pacific Air Forces Staff and chapter programs committee member, as
AFCEAN of the Month; and Christopher
Nakamoto, Hanalani High School, as Student of the Month.
Hawaii—February guest speaker Col.
VeraLinn “Dash” Jamieson, USAF, deputy
director, U.S. Pacific Command Joint
Intelligence Operations Center, delivers a
presentation about the center.
Hampton Roads—Palmer Sims, Sun
Microsystems, receives the February AFCEAN
of the Month award from Adm. Hamby.
Hampton Roads—Adm. Hamby (r)
congratulates Lt. Sylvia M. Layne, USN,
NETWARCOM; Petty Officer 1st Class
Kenneth Clark, USN (2nd from l),
NETWARCOM; and Terrence Keith, Ciber
Incorporated, as they receive Information
Professional of the Month awards in February.
Huntsville
Huntsville—
Vic Budura,
chapter vice
president for
programs,
gives
introductory
remarks at
the February
meeting.
Huntsville—Lt. Col. Dan Wiley, USA, and
his wife, Gabriele, join the chapter for the
February luncheon. Col. Wiley, product
manager for Air and Missile Defense
Command and Control Systems, was the
featured guest speaker.
Command and Control
Challenges
In February the Huntsville Chapter welcomed Lt. Col. Dan Wiley, USA, product
manager for Air and Missile Defense Command and Control Systems (AMDCCS), as
speaker for the monthly meeting. Col.
Wiley’s presentation, “A Year in the Life of a
PM—The Challenges of Product Management,” focused on the critical tasks of fielding, resetting the force, responding to the
fight, executing resources, carrying out
logistics and building teams. Serving in the
role since 2005 and slated to remain until
106
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Hawaii—Outgoing Chapter President
Capt. Susan Jannuzzi, USN, welcomes
incoming president Adm. Dick Macke,
USN (Ret.), in February.
Lexington-Concord—Martha J. Evans,
director of information dominance
programs, Office of the Assistant Secretary
of the U.S. Air Force for Acquisition,
addresses the February chapter meeting at
Hanscom Air Force Base.
www.afcea.org/signal
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2008, the colonel offered an inside glimpse
into the demands of his office and a real-life
illustration of AMDCCS applications.
Lexington-Concord
Electronic Systems Center:
Global Implications
Lexington-Concord—Lt. Gen. Michael
W. Peterson, USAF, chief of warfighting
integration and chief information officer,
Office of the Secretary of the Air Force,
delivers the keynote address at the New
Horizons Symposium in January.
Northern Virginia—Enjoying the
December chapter event are Chuck
Corjay (c), AFCEA International board of
directors, his wife, Bernadette (l),
president and chief executive officer
(CEO) of MSIT Consulting and Irene
Richwine, business development, CACI.
The U.S. Air Force and joint warfighters
rely on the Electronic Systems Center
(ESC) to deliver capabilities that afford a
dominant information advantage, according
to the Lexington-Concord Chapter’s February guest speaker. Martha J. Evans, Senior
Executive Service member and director for
information dominance programs in the
Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air
Force for Acquisition, is responsible for
planning and programming acquisition and
modernization activities for Air Force command, control, communications, computers,
intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance programs. She described aspects of
her job, discussed current military issues
and provided a synopsis of the top three Air
Force priorities as recently outlined by Air
Force Secretary Michael Wynne. Each
one—winning the Global War on Terrorism,
taking care of airmen and recapitalizing and
modernizing equipment—is being made
possible in large part by the ESC, she said.
The ESC is integral to meeting U.S.
Defense Department priorities, noted
Evans, who spent more than 20 years at the
center before moving to Washington, D.C.
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State of the Electronic
Systems Center
In January the chapter concluded its New
Horizons Symposium with the State of the
Electronic Systems Center (ESC) address.
ESC Executive Director Fran Duntz, sharing
the floor with Maj. Gen. Arthur Rooney,
USAF, ESC vice commander, offered an
extensive view of the ESC and touched on a
number of issues. Duntz said that the center
can expect increased funding tied to heavier
work requirements, while Gen. Rooney
stressed constant work in support of the
Global War on Terrorism, including efforts
to reduce the improvised explosive device,
or IED, threat in Iraq. Both Gen. Rooney
and Duntz lauded the center’s staff, who
directly support these efforts, and highlighted recent successes and upcoming challenges for the Air Force as a major player in
the war effort. Also discussed were priority
areas specified by Lt. Gen. Charles Johnson,
USAF, ESC commander, including acquisition excellence, customer value, “One Command,” operational excellence and a competency-based work force.
Northern Virginia
DHS Science and Technology
The Northern Virginia Chapter was
pleased to welcome a guest speaker in
December 2006 who is one of the leaders at
the U.S. Department of Homeland Security
“Network Warfare and Non-Traditional
EW- Combat in the Digital Age”
Northern Virginia—Mike Sullivan (r), head
of the George Mason University subchapter
of Young AFCEANs, receives an award of
recognition from Chapter President Terry
DiVittorio at the December 2006 event.
Mountain-Western Region
Technical Symposium
April 23-26, 2007
San Antonio, Texas
DURING THE FABULOUS FIESTA WEEK
FOR INFORMATION, CONTACT OUR WEBSITE
www.Fiestacrow.com or Call (210) 732-7697
Northern Virginia—DiVittorio (c) presents
a check for $10,000 to AFCEA
International for support of AFCEA’s Gulf
Coast chapters. The donation was
accepted by Fred Rainbow, vice president
for education and executive director of the
AFCEA Educational Foundation, and Norma
Corrales, director of the foundation’s
scholarships and awards program.
Official Publication of AFCEA
SPONSORS
JIOWC • AIA • AFIOC
AFCEA, Alamo Chapter • Billy Mitchell Chapter, AOC
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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NEW TECHNOLOGY IN SUPPORT OF
THE DEFENCE INDUSTRIAL STRATEGY
AFCEA UK West Second Annual TechWest Conference and Exhibition
12 April 2007
Platinum Sponsor
Gold Sponsors
JSCSC Defence Academy, Shrivenham, UK
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(DHS), Rear Adm. Jay M. Cohen, USN
(Ret.), undersecretary for the DHS Science
and Technology Directorate. The event also
featured honors for December SuperNOVA
awardee Helaine Cooper of Alcatel Government Solutions, a subsidiary of AlcatelLucent. Additionally, the chapter recognized
December Young AFCEAN of the Month
Mike Sullivan, George Mason University;
Fred Rainbow, AFCEA International vice
president for education and executive director of the AFCEA Educational Foundation;
and Master Sgt. Jim Harris, USAF, the chapter’s new military liaison who will support
the vice president of government affairs.
Highly Topical Agenda
Senior high profile military and industry speakers discussing:
Oklahoma City
• The Role of New Technology in Underpinning the
Defence Industrial Strategy
Air Combat Command Priorities
• The Importance of New Technology to the Warfighter
• Implications of Black Core Architecture
Transformation on the GII
Silver Sponsors
• HUMS in Support of the Battlespace Environment
In addition, 39 Defence Contractors will be exhibiting at the Conference.
BOOK NOW - Visit www.afceatechwest.info to see the full Agenda
and to download a Booking Form, or contact Kim Kirby –
email: ______________
[email protected] tel: +44 (0) 1635 524055
AFCEA
LEXINGTON-CONCORD CHAPTER
In cooperation with the
USAF Electronic Systems Center
Presents the
2007 Communication Navigation
Surveillance/Air Traffic Management
(CNS/ATM) Conference
Wyndham Orlando Resort, Orlando, FL • April 23-26, 2007
This Year’s Theme – “CNS/ATM –
Moving Towards a Performance-Based World”
The objective of this conference is to convey and
understand ground-based and airborne civilian CNS/ATM
requirements, share expertise and improve DoD processes
for complying with civil CNS/ATM mandates.
For attendee and exhibitor information visit the AFCEA,
Lexington-Concord Chapter website at
www.afceaboston.com
108
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
In January Brig. Gen. (Sel.) Gregory
Brundidge, USAF, director of communications, Headquarters Air Combat Command (ACC), visited the Oklahoma City
Chapter. Gen. Brundidge presented his
perspectives as the senior communicator
in the ACC. He identified priorities such
as operational integration and readiness
for command, control, communications,
computers and intelligence systems and
networks; maximum system integration;
effective lead command actions; and
establishment of information technology
an asset, not a liability. According to
Gen. Brundidge, organizations can justify
and manage change if they address resistance early and look for opportunities to
share strategies with other agencies.
The meeting also featured a Reverse
TechNet event, with nine base units setting up 22 displays. U.S. Air Force and
Navy teams exhibited communications
systems, technological gear, processes
and procedures to local business members. Event host Col. James Appleyard,
USAF, commander, 3rd Combat Communications Group, said it was an excellent opportunity for networking and a
cross-flow of information between business and government.
Portugal
Border Service of Portugal
In February the Portugal Chapter recruited personnel from the Foreigners and Border Service of Portugal to take part in the
8th International Atlantic Symposium, to be
held in Lisbon May 8-9 with the theme
“Intelligence in the Global Age.” The
national director of the border service, Dr.
Jarmela Palos, received the chapter members for a meeting on the event. After conferring with the members, Palos accepted
their invitation to chair the symposium session on border security and confirmed the
participation of the border service, which
will include a presentation on a research
project that is in development and will be
tested immediately before the symposium.
Symposium Preparations
The chapter visited Dr. Orlando Romano,
national director of the Public Security
Police (PSP) in Portugal, in January. During
the meeting, discussion focused on the
www.afcea.org/signal
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Oklahoma City—Providing
information in January on their
systems and capabilities are (l-r)
Gary Holloway, branch chief,
Unisys Branch, Defense
Information Systems Agency
(DISA); Corey Hawkins, Microsoft
Windows system administrator,
Windows Branch, DISA; and Kim
Whitman, branch chief,
Operational Support Team, DISA.
Oklahoma City—Col. Bruce Harmon, USAF (l),
chapter president, presents a gift of
appreciation to January speaker Col. Gregory
Brundidge, USAF, director of communications,
Headquarters Air Combat Command.
Portugal—Chapter President Rear Adm. Carlos
R. Rodolfo, PON (Ret.) (l), and Dr. Jarmela Palos,
national director, Foreigners and Border Service
of Portugal, agree in February to collaborate on
the upcoming 8th International Atlantic
Symposium. Palos will chair a session of the
symposium on border security.
Oklahoma City—Senior Airman Kelsi Valadez, USAF (l), ground radio technician, 752nd
Communications Squadron (CS) Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS), and Master Sgt. James
DeCoster, USAF (2nd from l), section chief, ground communications, 752nd CS, provide background
information on their mission equipment to 2nd Lt. Mark Walkusky, USAF (2nd from r), deputy chief,
AWACS external testing, 552nd Computer Systems Squadron (CSS), and Senior Airman Brandon Van
Veldhuizen, USAF, software test manager, 552nd CSS, at the January Reverse TechNet event.
Anwenderforum fur
¨
Fernmeldetechnik,
Portugal—Adm. Rodolfo (r) and Dr.
Orlando Romano, national director of the
Public Security Police, meet in January to
discuss Romano’s participation in the
chapter’s upcoming symposium.
Computer, Elektronik
und Automatisierung
AFCEA Bonn e.V.
Exhibition and Symposium
City Hall Bonn-Bad Godesberg, May 9-10, 2007
Theme of the Symposium:
“Mobile Revolution:
Technologies, Data, Services”
More than 70 Exhibitors as well as
renowned Speakers to see and hear.
Portugal—January guest State Secretary of
Internal Administration Dr. Jose Magalhaes (r)
and Adm. Rodolfo plan for Magalhaes’ role on
the VIII International Atlantic Symposium honor
committee and for his presentation at the event.
Official Publication of AFCEA
up-to-date information: www.afcea.de
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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2007 Montgomery
Information Technology Summit
Embassy Suites Hotel, Montgomery, AL
May 21-23, 2007
Monday, May 21, the Montgomery Chapter will hold its
annual golf tournament at the Wynlakes Country Club to
benefit the AFCEA Education Foundation.
Tuesday, May 22, thru Wednesday, May 23 will kick off our IT
portion of the conference. The day and a half IT summit will
enable attendees to engage with speakers, panel members and
other government and industry leaders in understanding the
roadmap the Air Force and DOD will be using for future Network
Operations and Information Assurance.
Register at: www.afceamontgomery.org
Questions: call Lloyd Bateman at 334-290-4142
Sponsored by the 754th Electronics
Systems Group and the AFCEA
Montgomery Chapter
Montgomery
Chapter
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PSP’s increased participation in chapter
activities as well as its involvement in the
chapter’s upcoming 8th International
Atlantic Symposium. Chapter members
also met with State Secretary of Internal
Administration Dr. Jose Magalhaes in
preparation for the event in Lisbon in May.
Magalhaes accepted the chapter’s invitation to be part of the symposium’s honor
committee and will chair the closing session with a speech on the event theme of
“Intelligence in the Global Age.”
San Diego
Education Donation
and Toys for Tots
Kicking off the West 2007 conference
in January, the San Diego Chapter presented a check for $10,000 to the AFCEA
Educational Foundation to further science and engineering learning. The chapter’s education program awards about
$40,000 each year in the San Diego area
and nationwide.
The price to attend the chapter’s successful joint holiday luncheon with the
Camp Pendleton/North County Chapter
was an unwrapped toy for the U.S.
Marine Corps Reserve’s Toys for Tots
program. Guest speaker Maj. Gen.
Samuel T. Helland, USMC, commanding
general, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, gave
his views on Iraq and the health and welfare of the Marines. Marine Corps Air
Station Commanding Officer Col.
Christopher E. O’Connor, USMC, also
presented his thoughts with the audience
in one-on-one discussions.
Jim Loiselle, Maxim Systems Incorporated, and Todd Landers, Space and
Naval Warfare Systems Center San
Diego, shared January AFCEAN of the
Month honors; they also are co-chairing
the programs committee for the 2007
C4ISR Symposium in May.
Seoul
Chapter Honors
________________
________
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SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
The Seoul Chapter held a luncheon in
February to recognize and honor 20062007 chapter officers. Outgoing Chapter
President Col. Greg Edwards, USAF,
assistant chief of staff for command, control, communications and computer systems, U.S. Forces Korea (USFK), spoke
briefly about the chapter’s achievements
over the past year. One highlight was the
launch of the chapter’s Web site, intended
to provide a better platform for command,
control, communications, computers and
intelligence systems (C 4I) information
sharing throughout the Korean peninsula.
Other achievements included the scholarship awards program benefiting the U.S.
Department of Defense Dependents
Schools in Korea and successfully fostering relationships with the local Korean C4I
community. He also expressed his appreciation to the corporate sponsors for their
continuous support of the chapter’s programs and events. After Col. Edwards’
remarks, Nathan Colodney, USFK deputy
chief information officer, was sworn in as
incoming chapter president. Colodney
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said that he looks forward to discussing
ideas with the corporate sponsors and the
membership to plan the chapter’s upcoming activities and programs.
Shreveport
Cyberspace Command
San Diego—Chapter Vice President for
Education Mohan Krishnan (l) presents
Fred Rainbow, vice president for education,
AFCEA International, and executive director
of the AFCEA Educational Foundation,
with a $10,000 donation at the opening
of West 2007 in January.
San Diego—Charlie Hopkins (l), chapter
president, thanks January guest speaker Maj.
Gen. Samuel T. Helland, USMC, commanding
general, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing.
San Diego—Hopkins (l) recognizes one of
the AFCEANs of the Month, Jim Loiselle,
Maxim Systems Incorporated, in January.
Shreveport—Col. Paul Suarez, USAF (l),
chapter president, presents a memento to Lt.
Gen. Robert Elder Jr., USAF, commander,
Joint Force Component Command for Global
Strike Integration, for his discussion on the
Air Force Cyber Command during the
February general membership luncheon.
Shreveport—In February featured guest
speaker Gen. Elder briefs meeting
attendees on the issue of taking
command of cyberspace.
Seoul—Outgoing Chapter President Col.
Greg Edwards, USAF (l), assistant chief of
staff for command, control, communications
and computer systems, U.S. Forces Korea
(USFK), inducts newly elected Chapter
President Nathan Colodney, USFK deputy
chief information officer, in February.
A new set of chapter officers revived
the Shreveport Chapter in the latter part of
2006; since then, members have been
rewarded with some exceptional speakers,
including February guest speaker Lt. Gen.
Robert Elder Jr., USAF, commander, Joint
Force Component Command for Global
Strike Integration. The general’s briefing
provided members with unique insight as
he detailed the rationale and vision for
standing up the U.S. Air Force Cyber
Command. Attendees included two corporate sponsors, Cisco Systems Incorporated
and New Horizons Computer Learning
Centers, as well as numerous dignitaries
from the Air Force Scientific Advisory
Board and local government officials.
Also on hand was Dr. Vincent Masala,
chancellor of Louisiana State University–Shreveport, along with two colleagues,
Dr. Stuart Mills and Dr. Paul Sisson.
Stuttgart
Winter Technology Expo
The Stuttgart Chapter sponsored the
Winter Technology Expo in January at
Patch Barracks, Germany. More than 30
firms were on hand to promote the latest
emerging technologies and opportunities.
Despite the winter weather, the one-day
SUBMIT
CHAPTER
NEWS
ONLINE
Save time and effort at
www.afcea.org/
signal/chapternews.
_______________
Seoul—New chapter officers at the February induction ceremony are (l-r) Colodney; Lt. Col.
Kenneth Crane, USAF, third vice president for programs; Ron Koon, secretary; Trini Capelo, second vice president for membership; and Col. Jim Bieda, USAF, vice president for general affairs.
Official Publication of AFCEA
Click on the green text at
the bottom of the page to
access the simple Web form.
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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event attracted almost 300 visitors. Attendees included chapter members and other
communications and intelligence personnel from the greater Stuttgart community,
including staff from Headquarters U.S.
European Command, Defense Information Systems Agency–Europe, the new
U.S. Africa Command and other groups.
Türkiye
New Officers Installed
The general assembly of the Türkiye
Chapter met in February at Aselsan
Incorporated facilities in Ankara, Turkey.
At the meeting, the annual chapter report
for 2006 and chapter activity plan and
budget for 2007 were discussed and
unanimously accepted. Additionally,
chapter officers for 2007 were unanimously elected and installed by members
of the assembly.
Stuttgart—Brig. Gen. Thomas Verbeck, USAF
(l), director of command, control,
communications and warfighting integration,
Headquarters U.S. European Command, and
Col. Mike Curry, USA, chapter president, visit
an exhibit booth at the Winter Technology
Expo presented by the chapter in January.
Tidewater—Frank B. Richardson (l),
chapter president, presents a gift to
November 2006 guest speaker Brig. Gen.
Blair E. Hansen, USAF, vice commander,
9th Air Force, and deputy commander, U.S
Central Command Air Forces.
Stuttgart—Master Sgt. Rob Maldonado,
USAF (l), the chapter’s Young AFCEAN and
vice president of scholarships, attends the
expo in January.
Tidewater—Richardson (l) thanks guest
speaker Maj. Gen. Stephen Goldfein, USAF,
vice commander, Air Combat Command, at
the December 2006 luncheon.
Stuttgart—In January Dr. Joseph Page Jr. (l)
and Rachel Hailstone, both AFCEA Executive
Board members from BAE Systems, acquire
training information provided by Greg Hicks of
Global Knowledge. Global Knowledge was
one of more than 30 participants in the
2007 Winter Technology Expo.
Tidewater—Senior Airman Angelo Brown,
USAF (r), chapter webmaster, receives the
award for AFCEAN of the Month from
Richardson. Airman Brown’s wife, Selena,
joined in the presentation.
UK Southern
Ministry of Defence Architecture
Lt. Col. Chris Richards, British Army,
Defence Procurement Agency, was the
guest speaker at the UK Southern Chapter February meeting. Col. Tom Moncur,
British Army (Ret.), chapter president,
introduced the speaker, who addressed
the role, organization and activities of
the Ministry of Defence’s Integration
Authority. Col. Richards explained the
importance of ensuring at the earliest
possible stage that proposed systems
conform to the established architectural
framework, assuring system interoperability and compliance with standards.
Tools associated with the U.S. Defense
Department’s architectural framework
were described as aiding assessment of
strategic, operational, systemic, technical and other parameters in a project’s
life cycle. In closing he outlined the
Integration Authority’s international
interests and work on Global Information Infrastructure and message architectures, and noted the pressures caused
by intense operational activities, financial constraints and difficulties in gaining full conformance from major platform projects.
UK Southern—February guest speaker Lt.
Col. Chris Richards, British Army (l), Defence
Procurement Agency, receives a tie from Col.
Tom Moncur, British Army (Ret.), chapter
president, as a memento.
112
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Türkiye—At the February meeting of the chapter general assembly, chapter officers and
members gather after the 2007 officer inductions.
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SHIELDING
705 Shielded Enclosures
706 Shielded Effectiveness Testing
707 Construction of Shielded Enclosures
Sign up for one, two, or all three Shielded Courses
taught by the president of TEMPEST, Inc.
Course instructor, Louis Gnecco, President of
TEMPEST, Inc. has an MSEE, is a certified
Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineer and a
NSA Certified TEMPEST Professional Level II,
and author of The Shielded Enclosure
Handbook.
OVERVIEW
A shielded room is not like an
office or a living room. It is actually
a piece of electronic equipment. It
has to be designed by an expert,
assembled by trained technicians,
calibrated (tested) periodically,
and maintained.
AFCEA 705:
This course covers the technical
and contractual pitfalls involved
in managing the construction of
a shielded enclosure. It provides
practical advice on ways to avoid
these pitfalls, and obtain a good,
long lasting room built quickly at
a reasonable cost.
AFCEA 706:
This course covers the technical
and safety procedures involved
in testing shielded enclosures.
It reviews techniques for locating
and eliminating electromagnetic
leaks. It provides practical advice
on the selection and care of test
equipment in the construction
site environment.
SIGN UP
AFCEA Course 705
June 19, 2007
Government $750
Industry $1,000
AFCEA 707:
This course covers the special
construction techniques involved
in building shielded enclosures.
It provides the terminology and
concepts used in the shielding
industry.
AFCEA Course 707
June 22, 2007
Government $750
Industry $1,000
AFCEA Course 706
June 20–21, 2007
Government $1,500
Industry $1,750
www.afcea.org/education
Or contact the PDC Registrar at
[email protected] or 703-631-6137
____________
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AFCEA CORPORATE MEMBERS
SUSTAINING*
A.M. Fadida Consulting
ADC
Advanced Technology
Systems Inc.
Aerospace Corporation, The
Agilent Technologies
Alcatel Government Solutions
ARINC, Inc.
ARTEL, Inc.
AT&T Government Solutions
Avaya
BAE Systems
BBN Technologies
Bechtel Systems &
Infrastructure, Inc.
Bellsouth Business Systems
Black Box Network Services
Boeing Company, The
Booz Allen Hamilton
CACI, Inc.
Capgemini Government
Solutions LLC
Cisco Systems, Inc.
CommScope
Computer Associates Int’l,
Inc.
Computer Sciences
Corporation
Dell Inc.
Dynamics Research
Corporation
EDS
Engineering & Professional
Services, Inc.
Enterasys Networks
Ericsson Federal Inc.
Faircount
Foundry Networks
General Dynamics
General Dynamics Canada
Ltd.
Global Crossing
GTSI Corp.
Harris Corporation
Hewlett Packard Company
IBM Global Gov’t Industry
Intelsat General Corporation
ITT
Jacobs Technology
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Keane Federal Systems Inc.
KPMG LLP
L-3 Communications
Corporation
L-3 Communications Titan
Group
LGS
Lockheed Martin
Corporation
Lockheed Martin
Information Technology
MANTECH International
Corp.
McDowell Research, Ltd.
Microsoft Corporation
Motorola-US Fed. Gov’t
Market Div.
MTC Technologies Inc.
Network Appliance Federal
Systems, Inc.
Network Equipment
Technologies
Network Security Systems
Plus, LLC
Nokia Networks
Nortel Government Solutions
Inc.
Northrop Grumman
Information Technology
Oracle Corporation
Pentagon Federal Credit
Union
Perot Systems
QinetiQ North America
Qwest Government Services,
Inc.
RADVISION
Raytheon Company
Robbins-Gioia, Inc.
Rockwell Collins
SAIC
SAP America, Inc.
Serco, Inc.
SGI, Inc.
SI International
Sprint Government Systems
Div.
SRA International Inc.
STG, Inc.
Tandberg
Telos Corporation
Teradata Gov’t Systems, a
div. of NCR Gov’t Systems
Thales Communications,
Inc.
Tobyhanna Army Depot
USAA
Verizon Business
Verizon Federal
Markets
Verizon Wireless
WorldCell
GROUP*
1105 Government Information
Group
21st Century Systems, Inc.
3001, Inc.
3Com
3M Italia S.p.A.
901D/SHOCKTECH
A&J Manufacturing Company
A.C.S.I. Srl
Abacus Technology Corporation
ABG Ster-Projekt S.A.
AC Technology, Inc.
Academia Da Forca AEREA
Academia Militar
Accenture
Accenture P&PS-Defense
Accenture S.p.A.
Access Electronics
Management, Inc.
Access Intelligence, LLC
Access Systems, Inc.
Accu-Tech Corporation
ACE*COMM Corporation
ACI Solutions
Acquisition Solutions, Inc.
ACS
ACT IT-Consulting & Services
AG
ACT Sofia
Action Systems A Division of
V&A Incorporated
Acuity Solutions, LLC
Adams Comm. & Eng. Tech., Inc.
ADCI, Inc.
Addx Corporation
ADFINGO Ltd.
ADGA Group Consultants Inc.
Adobe Systems, Inc.
Advanced Concepts Inc.
Advanced Digital Logic, Inc.
Advanced Management
Technology Inc.
Advanced Programs, Inc.
Advanced Systems
Development Inc.
Advantage Technical Consulting
Advantech
Adventos LLC
AEP Networks Government
Solutions Group
Aeromaritime Systembau GmbH
Aeronix
Aerosystems International Inc.
AF-Infrastruktur
AB/Communicator
AFL Telecommunications
Agile Communications, Inc.
Agilent Technologies, Inc.
AI METRIX
Air Tight Networks
AIT Global, Inc.
Akamai Technologies
Akimeka, LLC
Alaska Fiber Star, LLC
Alaska Structures
Alcatel Slovakia a.s.
Alcatel Telecom Nederland b.v.
Alcatel-ISD
Alcatel-Lucent
ALENIA Aeronautica SpA
Alenia Spazio SPA
Alion Science and Technology
ALL2IT Infocomunicacoes SA
Allied Technology Group, Inc.
Allied Telesis
Allied Telesyn
ALT Enterprises
Alutiiq
Ambit Group LLC
American Appraisal Associates
American Computer Services
American Engineering
Corporation
American Management
Association
American Systems Corporation
American Technology Corp.
Americom Government
Services, Inc.
Ameripack, Inc.
AMOS-Spacecom Ltd.
Amphenol Fiber Systems
International, Inc.
AMTI
Amyx, Inc.
ANACAPA Micro Products
AnaCom, Inc.
Analex Corporation
Analytic Systems Ware (1993)
Ltd.
Analytical Graphics, Inc.
Analytical Systems Inc.
Anixter
Anoint Information Technologies
Anonymizer, Inc.
ANSER
Antenna Products Corp.
Antenna Systems
AnviCom, Inc.
AOptix Technologies
AOS, Inc.
Apogee Solutions, Inc.
Apple Computer Inc.
Applied Computing
Technologies, Inc.
Applied Optical Systems, Inc.
Applied Signal Technology, Inc.
Applied Solutions, Inc.
Applied Tactics Incorporated
Applied Technical Systems, Inc.
Appliedinfo Partners, Inc.
Apposite Technologies, Inc.
APPTIS
APRIVA
Aquilent Inc.
AR Worldwide-Modular RF
Army Times Publishing
Company
Arrowhead Global Solutions, Inc.
Arrowpoint Corporation
Arxan Technologies, Inc.
ASEG Inc.
Aselsan A.S.
ASM Research, Inc.
Associated Industries
Astor & Sanders Corporation
Astro Systems
Asynchrony Solutions, Inc.
AT&T
AT&T Alascom
AT&T Global Network Services
Czech Republic s.r.o.
AtHoc, Inc.
Atlantic CommTech Corporation
ATM S.A.
ATOS Origin Italia S.p.A.
ATS-TELCOM PRAHA, a.s.
Audavi Corporation
Audio Video Systems
Audio Visual Co., The
Audio Visual Innovations
Augmentix Corporation
Augusta State University
AuraGen Technologies, Inc.
Autodesk, Inc.
Automated Business Power, Inc.
Avalon Technology, Inc.
AVIEL Systems, Inc.
Avineon, Inc.
Avocent Corporation
Avtec Systems, Inc.
AxxessConnect LLC
B.M.A. S.r.l.
BAE Systems
BAE Systems, Integrated Sys
Tech
Ball Aerospace & Tech Corp.
Bantu, Inc.
Barling Bay LLC
Base-X Inc.
Bay State, Inc.
bd Systems, Inc.
BDO IT a.s.
BEA Systems Italia s.p.a.
BEA Systems, Inc.
BearingPoint
BearingPoint GmbH
Bearingpoint Ltd.
BeCrypt Limited
Bedriftssystemer A/S
Belarc, Inc.
Bell Canada-Enterprise
BESET, a.s.
BGS Systemplanung AG
BIANOR Ltd.
Bilgi Teknoloji Tasarim Ltd-BTT
Binary Group, Inc.
BiTMICRO Networks, Inc.
bitSync Corporation
Bivio Networks, Inc.
Blackhawk Management Corp.
Blackwell Consulting Services of
Ohio, LLC
Blazepoint Limited
Blue Coat Systems, Inc.
Blue Ridge Networks, Inc.
Blue Tech
BMC Software Incorporated
BMV-Contactless Multiplexing
Boeing S&IS Washington
Operations
Bogart Associates, Inc. (BAI)
Boldon James
Borenstein Group, The
BOSE Corporation
Brede/Washington, Inc.
Bridges Consulting, Inc.
Broadvision, Inc.
Brown International Corp.
BT Americas Inc.
BT Federal Inc.
BT Global Services
BTAS, Inc.
Burdeshaw Associates Ltd.
Business Security AB
By Light Professional IT
Services, Inc.
C & S Antennas
C2 Portfolio, Inc.
C3I Systems Corporation
C4I S.A.
Cadmus Specialty Publications
Calhoun International
CALIAN
Camber Corporation
Camlite Corporation
CAMSS Shelters
Canoga Perkins Corporation
Capitol Supply
Carahsoft Technology Corp.
Carlo Gavazzi Computing
Solutions
Carwithen Associates Inc.
Case Tech, Inc.
Caveo Network Solutions, Inc.
CDO Technologies
CDW-Government, Inc.
CE Science, Inc.
Celestar Corporation
CellExchange
Cellhire USA LLC
CELL-TEL Government Systems
Centurum, Inc.
Cernium Corporation
CESG
Ceterus Networks
Cexec Incorporated
CFN Consultants
CGI-AMS
CH2M Hill Communications
Charles Industries, Ltd.
Chatsworth Products, Inc.
Chelton Inc.
Chenega Technology Services
Corporation
CherryRoad Government
Technologies (CRGT)
CIBER Federal
Ciena Corporation
CipherTrust, Inc.
CIPRICO, Inc.
Ciracom, Inc.
Circadence Corp.
CISCO Systems
Cisco Systems Canada Co.
CISCO Systems Italy S.r.l.
CISCO Systems Portugal Lda
CISCO SYSTEMS Slovakia,
s.r.o.
Citrix Government Systems
Clarity Visual Systems
Clear-Com Intercom Systems
ClearCube Technology
________
ClearedJobs.Net
Clearshark
Clearswift Limited
ClearVision Networks, Inc.
Climatronics Corp.
Cloakware
Cloudshield Technologies
CMS Products
CN Resources International (CZ)
a.s.
CNI Construction, LLC
Coact Incorporated
Codan US, Inc.
Codarra Advanced Systems Pty
Ltd
Codin S.p.A.
COELIND S.R.L.
*As of February 28, 2007
114
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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Cognos Corporation
Cognos Limited
Colegio Militar
Collabraspace
Comando C4 Difesa
Comando Generale Dell’Arma
Dei Carabinieri
Comando Squadra Aerea
Combitech AB
Commercial Data Systems Inc.
Communication Technologies
Inc
Communications Products &
Services, Inc.
Communications Supply Corp.
Compass Information Systems,
Inc.
Compel Electronics SPA
Competitive Innovations, LLC
CompTIA
Compubahn, Inc.
Compucat Europe Ltd
Compunetix, Inc.
CompuSat Services Inc.
Computer Education San Diego,
Inc.
Computer Sciences Canada,
Inc.
Compuware Corporation
COMROD AS
Comtech EF Data Corporation
Comtech Mobile Datacom
ConceptSolutions, LLC
Concurrent Technologies Corp.
CONET Solutions GmbH
Conference ConCepts, Inc.
Configuresoft
Conquest Innovations
Consorzio S3LOG
Constellation Networks
Corporation
Contact Corporation
Contact One Communications,
Inc.
Convera Corporation
Copper River Information
Technology
CORASWORKS
Corinex Group, A.S.
Cornell Technical Services
Cornerstone Consulting Inc.
Cornet Technology Inc.
Cornwell Management
Consultants plc
Council for Logistics Research
Cox Business Services, LLC
CP Cases Ltd.
Cracom Engineering Tech Inc.
Crane Co./Azonix Corporation
Cranite Systems
Credant Technologies
CritiCom-Critical
Communications
Crossroads Systems, Inc.
Crucial Security, Inc.
Cryptek Incorporated
Crypto Ltd.
Crystal Group, Inc.
CSC Deutschland Solutions
GmbH
CTGI
CTI Resource Management
Services, Inc.
CTI Telecom Inc.
Cubic Defense Applications, Inc.
Curtis+Cartwright Consulting
Ltd.
DAGI - Marinha
Dahl-Morrow International
Dal Media Solutions, Inc.
Dasnet Corporation
Data Computer Corp. of America
Data Networks Corporation
Datakey Electronics, Inc.
Dataline, Inc.
Datamat SpA
DataPath Inc.
DataTech Enterprises, Inc.
(DTEi)
Datatek Applications, Inc.
Dauntless, Inc.
David Clark Company Inc.
David E. Sherrill & Associates
DAX Technologies International
DCIS (RAF)
DCO Distribution
Decision Display
Dedicated Technologies
Delex Systems, Incorporated
DELINFO, Ltd.
Deloitte
Design Fabrication
Det Norske Veritas AS
DeVine Consulting
DGAED/MDN
DHS Systems LLC
DHSoft, Inc.
Digi International Inc.
DigiFlight, Inc.
Digital Consulting Services
Digital Force Technologies
Digital Management, Inc.
digital OutPost
Digitalglobe, Inc.
Digitellink Corporation
Direccao De Electrotecnia-PO
AF
Direccao dos Servicos de Trans
Official Publication of AFCEA
Direccao Geral da Autoridade
Maritima
Direct Technology Resource, Inc.
Directorate General Information
Directorate of Capability
Integration (Army)
DITEC, a.s.
Divine Imaging Commodities
DMT System SpA
dNovus RDI
Dovel Technologies
DPA Corporation
Dream Catchers, Inc.
DRS Codem Systems, Inc.
DRS Tactical Systems Inc.
DRS Tactical Systems Ltd.
DRS Technical Services, Inc.
DRS Universal Power Systems
DRT Strategies, Inc.
DSA
Dynamix Corporation
EADS Astrium Ltd.
EADS DCA
EADS Defence & Security
Systems
EADS DS
EADS ewation GmbH
EADS Italia
EADS NA Defense Security &
Systems Solutions, Inc.
Eagan McAllister Associates
ECS Composites
EDAK, Inc.
EDC Consulting
Edisoft, S.A.
EDO Corporation
EDS Canada
EDS Defence Limited
EDS s.r.o.
EF Johnson
EG&G Technical Services
EID-Empresa De Investigacao E
de Senvolvimento
Eiden Systems Corporation
Eidsvoll Electronics A.S.
Electron Progress AD
Electronic Engineering Systems,
Inc.
Electronic Sys Technology Inc.
Electronic Warfare Assoc. Inc.
Electrosonic Systems, Inc.
Electrosystems Engineers, Inc.
dba ESEI
Elektroniksystem-und LogistrikGmbH
Elettronica S.p.A.
Elite IT Services, Inc.
ELSAG S.p.A.
Elytra Enterprises, Inc.
EM4, Inc.
eMagin Corporation
Embarq
EMC Corporation
Emcon Emanation Control Ltd.
Emerging Markets
Communications
Emerging Technologies Group,
USA, The
EMGFA/D.I.C.S.I.
Empordef Tech de Informacao
SA
Emtelle US Inc.
emw, incorporated
ENEL SFERA Srl
Energotel, a.s.
Energy Technologies Inc.
Engage Communications, Inc.
enGenius Consulting Group, Inc.
Engineering Bureau Dembinski
Engineering Management &
Integration
Engineering Services Network,
Inc.
Engineering Solutions &
Products, Inc. (ESP)
Engineering Systems Solutions,
Inc.
Engineering-Ingegneria Info.
SpA
EN-NET Services
Ennovex Solutions, Inc.
Ensco Inc.
Entegriti, Inc.
Enterprise Engineering, Inc.
Enterprise Excellence Mgmt. Gp
Int’l, Inc.
Enterprise Information Services
Entrust Technologies, Inc.
Epok, Inc.
Epsilon Systems Solutions, Inc.
Ericsson AS
Ericsson Federal Inc.
Ericsson Microwave Systems AB
Ericsson Telecomunicazioni
S.p.A.
Eris Tech Inc.
Escola Naval
ESI International
ESRI Italia S.p.A.
ESRI Portugal-Sistemas e
Informacao Geografica Lda
ESRI-Geoinformatik GmbH
Estari, Inc.
ESYS PLC
ETI Engineering Inc.
EUS Associates Ltd.
Eutelsat, Inc.
Evertz
EWA-Canada Ltd.
Exceptional Software Strategies,
Inc.
Executive Information Systems,
LLC
Executive Publishing
Expert Consultants, Inc. (ECI)
Extreme Networks
Eyak Technology, LLC
Ezenia!
F.S.C. Bezpecnostni Poradenstvi,
a.s.
F4W, Inc.
Factiva, Inc.
Fairfax County Econ. Dev. Auth.
FEAC Institute
Federal Network Services Inc
Federal Technology Solutions,
Inc. (FTSI)
FedSources (Federal Sources
Inc.)
FEI-Zyfer, Inc.
Femme Comp Inc.
FGI Executive Search
FGM Inc.
Fiber Connections, Inc.
Fiber Sensys
FiberPlus, Inc.
Fifth Third Bank, Western Ohio
FileNet Italy Srl
Filenet, an IBM Company
First Source, Inc.
FishEye Software
Fluke Networks
Foia Group Inc.
Fondazione FORMIT
Force 3, Inc.
Fortress Technologies, Inc.
Forum Communications
International
Four Points Communications
Services, Inc.
Four Square Productions
Four Star Associates
FreeLinc
Freeport Technologies
Frontier Technology, Inc
FSIS, Inc.
fSONA Systems
Fujitsu Consulting
Fujitsu Limited
Fujitsu Network
Communications
Fujitsu Services
Fulcrum IT Services Co.
Future Communications
Future Skies, Inc.
Future Technologies, LLC
G&B Solutions, Inc.
G2 Satellite Solutions
Galileo Avionica SpA
Gallium Visual System, Inc.
Gartner, Inc.
Gate Elektronik
GC&E Systems Group
GCS, Inc.
GCS, Inc.
Gemini Industries Incorporated
GeminiTech
Gemstar Manufacturing
General Atomics Aeronautical
Systems, Inc.
General Digital Corporation
General Dynamics C4S
SATCOM Technologies
General Dynamics Information
Technology (GDIT)
General Services Admin. FTS
Generic Systems Sweden AB
GeNUA mbH
GeoEye
George Mason University
Georgia Tech. Research Institute
Gestalt
GET Engineering Corp.
Getac Inc.
GigaTrust
Gilardoni SpA
GITY Holding a.s.
Giunti Labs S.r.l.
Globafone
Global Knowledge
Global Professional Solutions,
Inc. (GPS, Inc.)
Global Satellite USA
Global Telecom & Technology
Americas, Inc.
GlobalSat
GlobalStrata Solutions, Inc.
Globecomm Systems, Inc.
GNS, Inc.
Government
Telecommunications, Inc.
Govplace
Gratex International
Graybar Electric Company, Inc.
Great Lakes Case & Cabinet Co.
Greater Omaha Chamber of
Commerce
Ground Control Systems
Guerra Kiviat, Inc.
Guidance Software, Inc.
Guidance Software, Inc.
Guide-Map.com Inc.
Hajar Associates Inc.
Hal Communications Corp.
Hampton Roads Economic Dev
Alliance
Hanson Professional Services
Inc.
Hardigg Industries, Inc.
Haverstick Government
Solutions, Inc.
Hawaii Technology Development
Venture
Hawaiian Telecom
HCH Enterprises, LLC
Healthcare Mgt & Professional
Svcs
Hellas SAT S.A.
Hellenic Aerospace Industry S.A.
Hellenic Navy Research Center
(GETEN)
Henkels & McCoy, Inc.
Hetra Secure Solutions
Hewlett Packard Italiana SrL
Hewlett-Packard Bulgaria
Hewlett-Packard GmbH
Hewlett-Packard S.R.O.
Hewlett-Packard Slovakia, s.r.o.
HG Consulting
High Performance Technologies,
Inc.
Hi-Q Engineering, Inc.
Hitachi, Ltd.
HMS Collingwood
Holden Dynamics Pty Ltd.
Holocom Networks
Honeywell Technology Solutions
Inc.
Horizon Networking
Houston Associates, Inc., A
Raytheon Company
HQ SO in C(A)
Hughes Network Systems
Hummingbird SpA
Hungarian MoD Technology
Agency
Hyperion, Inc.
HyperLabs LLC
Hypres, Inc.
I&C International Consulting
S.r.l.
i. Know NV.
I.M. Systems Group, Inc.
I.T.S. Corporation
i2S, Inc.
Ian, Evan & Alexander Corp.
IBISKA Telecom
IBM Bulgaria Ltd.
IBM Canada, Limited
IBM Defence & Intelligence
IBM Italia S.p.A.
iCard Forensics, Inc.
ICG Government
ICN-Integrated Communication
Networks, Inc.
ICP-Autoridade Nacional de
Communicaoes
Idaho National Laboratory
Identix
Idera
IDG Europe AB
iDirect Technologies
IDS Scheer AG
ids Scheer Slovakia, s.r.o.
ifour, LLC
IGD Security Ltd.
iGov
ILC
IMC Networks
immixGroup, Inc.
Impact Cases Inc.
Imtech Corporation
Inception Consulting
INDRA-SISTEMAS PORTUGAL,
SA
Indus Corporation
Indus Technology, Inc.
Industrial Computing, Inc.
Industrial Medium
INETI
Infinity Systems Engineering
InfoReliance Corp
Informatica Corporation
Information Builders, Inc.
Information Innovators, Inc.
Information Security Systems
Inc.
Information Systems Lab, Inc.
Information Systems
Professionals, Inc.
Information Technology Group,
Inc.
Infra-Structures, Inc.
Ingenium Corporation
Inmarsat, Inc.
Innolog Inc.
Innovative Engineering
Solutions, Inc.
Innovative Executive Search LLC
Innovative Information Solutions,
Inc.
Innovative Security Systems dba
Argus Systems Grp.
Innovative Technologies Corp.
Inovamais
INS Federal, Inc.
InScope Solutions
Insiel S.p.A.
Insight Public Sector
inSORS Integrated
Communications, Inc.
Institute of Air Transport
Instituto de Estudos Superiores
Instituto Geografico Do Exercito
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Instituto Hidrografico
INTECON, LLC
Integrated Information Solutions,
Inc.
Integrated Systems, Inc.
Integration Technologies Group,
Inc.
Integrity Networks
INTEGRITYOne Partners
Intel
INTELI
IntelligenceCareers, Inc.
Intelligent Decisions
IntelPlacements Corporation
Intelsat General Corporation
Interface Incorporated
Intergraph Italia L.L.C
Intergraph Solutions Group
International Communications
Group
International Trade Canada
Internet Security Systems
Interstate Connecting
Components, Inc.
InterSystems Corporation
Int’l Sys Sec Eng Assoc (ISSEA)
Intracom S.A. Defense
Electronics Systems
Invertix Corporation
Inxight Federal Systems
IonIdea, Inc.
IPKeys Technologies, LLC
IPL Information Processing Ltd
Iridium Satellite LLC
ISD Data AB
ISI Hellas S.A.
IT Cadre
IT Experts
IT/NET Consultants, Inc.
ITAC
ITAC
Italian MOD - Segredifesa
Italtel S.p.A.
Itelligence, s.r.o.
itelligence, s.r.o.
ITP ELETTRONICA SRL
Itronix Corp.
Ixia
J. Spargo Associates
J.L. Okay Consulting
J.O.T. Enterprises, LLC
J.T. O’Connell and Associates,
Inc.
J2TS LLC
J6 Division PJHQ
Janus Associates
Janus Research Group
Janya Inc.
Japan Telecom Co., Ltd.
JAV Inc., dba Jensen Audio
Visual
JB Management, Inc.
JC Technology Federal, Inc.,
DBA Ace Computers
JDSU Communications Test
Jefferies Quarterdeck
Jelco, Inc.
JEM Engineering
JSAT Corporation
JT3, LLC
JTSI, Inc.
Juniper Networks
Juniper Networks, Inc.
Jupiter Systems
KalScott Engineering Inc.
Kanguru Solutions
Kapsch Telecom s r.o
Karta Technologies, Inc.
KDDI Corporation
Kearney & Company
KENROB IT Solutions, Inc.
Kenton Trace Technologies, LLC
Kerrigan Media Int’l, Inc.
Kestrel Enterprises, Inc.
Keta Group, LLC
KeyLogic Systems, Inc.
Kimball Consulting, Inc.
Kinsey Technical Services
Kitco Fiber Optics
Knight Sky Consulting &
Associates, LLC
Knot Technology Solutions
Knowledge Advantage Inc.
Knowledge Connections, Inc.
Knowledge Consulting Group
Kockums AB
Kontron America, Inc.
KPMG Ceska Republika, s.r.o
KPN Telecom B.V.
KSJ & Associates
Kusters Engineering BV
L.E.M.
L-3 ASA
L-3 Communication Systems
East
L-3 Communications Electronic
Systems
L-3 Communications
Government Services, Inc.
Lambda Americas High Power
Lancom Systems GmbH
Landmark Enterprises
Laser Options, Inc.
LBA Group, Inc.
Leader Communications, Inc.
Leadership Consulting, LLC
Leading Edge Design & Systems
LedR
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Lee Technologies Group
Level 3 Communications
Levinsson Consulting S.r.l.
Leviton Voice & Data
LexisNexis Special Services, Inc.
Liebert Corporation
LightRiver Technologies, Inc.
Lind Electronics, Inc.
Link Communications, Inc.
Link Consulting-Tecnologias de
Informacao Lda
Liquid Machines
List Inc.
Lockheed Martin Canada
Lockheed Martin Integrated
Sys/Solutions
Lockheed Martin UK Ltd.
Locus Microwave
Log.Sec Corporation
LogicaCMG
Logical Choice Technologies
Logicteer
LOGTEC Incorporated
Loral Skynet
Lorenz Research Associates,
Inc.
Lorimar Group, Inc.
LTI Datacomm
Lucent Technologies Portugal
LUSIS-Equipamentos e Servicos
Lda.
Lyncole XIT Grounding
LYNX spolocnost’s rucenim
M.R. & D. Institute s.r.l.
M/A-COM
M–K Technologies
M1 Global Solutions
MacDonald Dettwiler & Assoc.
Mackay Communications Inc.
MacKenzie Comm Real Estate
Svc, LLC
Macrolink, Inc.
Maden Technologies
Madison Research Corporation
Mainline Information Systems
Management Support
Technology
Management Technology, Inc.
ManTech Security & Mission
Assurance
Maralina Corporation
MARCTEL S.I.T. S.R.L.
Marinha-Superintendencia Dos
Servicos
Maritime Telecommunications
Network
Marshall Communications Corp.
Marway Power Systems
Mary A. Rogers and Associates
MASAI Technologies Corp., DBA
MTC Integration
MAX Federal Credit Union
Maxcell
Maxim Systems, Inc.
Maxtek Components
Corporation
MBDA Italia S.p.A.
McAfee, Inc.
MCC Corporation
McCallie Associates, Inc.
McDonald Bradley, Inc.
McDowell Consulting
MCL Inc.
McLane Advanced Technologies
McNulty and Associates, Inc.
MCR Federal LLC
MCS of Tampa, Inc.
MELE Associates, Inc.
Merlin International, Inc.
MetaCarta, Inc.
Metrica, Inc.
METRODATA Ltd.
Metropole Products, Inc.
Micromuse
MICROSEGUR-SISTEMAS DE
SEGURANCA LDA
Microsoft
Microsoft Bulgaria Ltd.
Microsoft S.r.l.
Microsoft s.r.o.
MicroSys, LLC
Microvoice Corporation
Microwave Radio
Communications
Mid-Atlantic RF Systems, Inc.
Milcom Systems Corporation
Milpower, Inc.
Miltope Corporation
Minerva Engineering
Ministero Difesa-Armaereo
Ministero Difesa-DGAT
MITRE Corporation, The
Mitsubishi Digital Electronics
America, Inc.
ML Consult Svc & Support
GmbH
Mobilisa, Inc.
MOD Italy-Defence General Staff
Modern Technology Solutions,
Inc.
Moog Components Group
Moose Boats, Inc.
MorganFranklin Corporation
MORI Associates, Inc.
Morrow Consulting, LLC
Mosaic, Inc.
MSM Informacni Systemy, s.r.o
Mu Security
116
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
Multiconsult Srl
Multimax, Inc.
Multimax, Inc.
Multi-Tech Systems, Inc.
Mutual Telecom Services, Inc.
Myers Engineering International,
Inc.
N2 Group, Inc.
NACON Consulting, LLC
NACRE A.S.
Nakuuruq Solutions LLC
Nallatech, Inc.
NARUS, Inc.
Nasittuq Corporation
NAT Seattle
National Conference Center, The
National Conference Services,
Inc. (NCSI)
National Small Business
Council, Inc.
NCI Information Systems Inc.
NCI, Info. Sys. Inc., Intelligence
Programs Group
NCIM Groep
NCR - Teradata Division
ND Sat Com, Inc.
ND SatCom Defence GmbH
Net Direct Systems
NetARCH LLC
NetCentrics Corporation
NETCONN Solutions
Netcordia, Inc.
netiQ, Solutions from
Attachmate
Netmanage Software GmbH
Netscout Systems
NetStar Systems, Inc.
Network Appliance
Network Innovations
Network Integrity Systems, Inc.
Network Specialty Group, Inc.
Networld Exchange
Neuro Logic Systems, Inc.
Neustar, Inc.
New Age Systems, Inc.
New Cingular Wireless Nat’l
Accts LLC, dba Cingular
Wireless
New Horizons Computer
Learning Center
New Horizons Computer
Learning Center of San Diego
New Horizons Computer
Learning Centers of Hawaii
New Horizons Computer
Learning Center of Colorado
New Horizons of Jacksonville
New Horizons Telecom, Inc.
NEW-BOLD Enterprises, Inc.
NewVectors, LLC
NexInnovations
Next Tier Concepts, Inc.
NextiraOne Slovakia, s.r.o
NMR Consulting
Nolan Mar International, Inc.
Northrop Grumman
Northrop Grumman Mission
Systems Europe Ltd.
Norwegian Defence
Communications & Information
Services Agency
Norwegian Defence
Logistics/Main Systems Land
Norwood Bulgaria Ltd.
Nova Corporation
Nova Electric Division of Tech
Dynamics Inc.
Nova Engineering, Inc.
NOVA Power Solutions Inc.
NOVA Southeastern University
Novak & Associates
Novell Inc.
NSGDatacom, Inc.
NSR Solutions, Inc.
NTMI
NTT Data Corporation
Oasis Systems Incorporated
ObjectFX Corporation
Objective Interface Systems, Inc.
ObjectVideo
OBR Centrum Techniki Morskiej
OCIO - Australia
Octagon Systems
Oerlikon Contraves S.p.A.
Office of Electronic
Miniaturization
O’Keeffe & Company
Olive Group North America
Omega
Omega Shielding Products Inc.
On Target Enterprises, Inc.
Onix Networking Corporation
OnPoint
Open Networks Gov’t & Defence
Operation
Homefront/CinCHouse
Operational Research
Consultants, Inc.
OPNET Technologies, Inc.
Optical Cable Corporation
Optimal Satcom, Inc.
Oracle Corporation Canada Inc.
Oracle Corporation UK Limited
Oracle Italia S.r.l.
OrderOne Networks
ORGA-TRADE a.s.
Orion Management, LLC
Orion Systems, Inc.
OSPL Nederland BV
OTE S.p.A.
OTO MELARA S.p.A.
Ounce Labs, Inc.
Overlook Sys Technologies Inc.
Overwatch Systems
Owl Computing Technologies,
Inc.
PA Consulting Group
Pacific Center for Advanced
Technology Training
Pacific Star Communications
Pacific Wireless
Communications, LLC
Packaging Strategies, Inc.
Packeteer, Inc.
PaL-Tech, Inc./Gradient
eLearning
Panasonic Computer Solutions
Company
Panduit Corporation
Pangia Technologies, LLC
Pantheon Technology, LLC
Paradigm Services Ltd.
Paradigm Solutions Corporation
Paragon Technology Group, Inc.
Parvus Corporation
Patriot Antenna Systems
Paul-Tittle Associates, Inc.
PDQ Precision Inc.
PearlNet, LLC
Pearson Government Solutions
Peerless Technologies
Corporation
Pelatron, Inc.
Pelican Products, Inc
Perkins Technical Services, Inc.
Permuta Technologies
Perpetual Innovations LLC
Persystent Technologies
PESystems Incorporated
Pharad, LLC
Phirelight E-Business Solutions
Inc.
Phoenix International
Ping Identity Corporation
Pinkerton Computer
Consultants, Inc.
Pinto Basto Electrotecnia e
Maquinas Lda
Planned Systems International
Planning Systems Inc.
PlantCML
Plexus Com/Group
Plug-In Storage Systems, Inc.
PMC Technical Sales
PMOLINK, Inc.
Pole/Zero Corporation
Polycom
PosAM, spol s.r.o.
Post Newsweek Tech Media
Pragmatics Inc.
Preferred Systems Solutions
Preformed Line Products
Company
Premier Technical Services
Premise Networks, Inc.
Presentey Eng. Products Ltd.
Prevailance, Inc.
PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP
Prime Solutions
Princeton Softech, Inc.
Privaris, Inc.
Proactive Communications, Inc.
ProConSec, s.r.o.
Professional Computing
Resources, Inc
Professional Solutions, LLC
Progressive Network Solutions
Progressive Technologies
Management Inc.
Project Developers, Inc.
Project Performance Corp.
Promark Technology
proServices Corporation
Prosight
ProSync Technology Group, LLC
Proteus Technologies, LLC
Prototype Productions, Inc.
Proxima Technology
PSION Teklogix Corp
Pure Depth Multi Layer Display
PVT, a.s.
QinetiQ
Q-par Angus Ltd.
QPC Fiber Optic, Inc.
QSS Group, Inc.
QUADRI-Sociedade de
Representacoes e Comercio
Ltda
Qualcomm, Inc.
Quality Technology Inc.
Qualstar Corporation
Quantitative Software
Management, Inc.
Quantrum, LLC
Quantum
Quest Software
QuinStar Technology, Inc.
Quintech Electronics and
Communications, Inc.
Quintron Systems Inc.
R W Walker Company, Inc., The
RadiantBlue Technologies, Inc.
Radmor S.A.
Rajant Corporation
RAM Laboratories, Inc.
Raptive Technologies, Inc.
Raptor Networks Technology,
Inc.
Rave Computer
Raytheon International Inc.
Raytheon JPS Communications,
Inc.
Raytheon Systems Ltd.
Real-Time Innovations
Recovery Point Systems
Red Rapids
Red River
Red Team Consulting, LLC
REDCOM
Redflex Communication
Systems, Inc.
Referentia Systems, Inc.
Retlif Testing Laboratories
RF Central LLC
RGB Spectrum
Rila Solutions EAD
Rincon Research Corporation
Rising Edge Technologies, Inc.
RIVA Networks Inc.
RKS Solutions, Inc.
RNB Technologies, Inc.
Rocky Mountain Ram
Rogers
Rohde & Schwarz
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co
KG Communications Div.
Rohde & Schwarz Norge AS
Rohde & Schwarz Portugal,
Lda
Rohde & Schwarz Praha s.r.o.
Romtehnica S.A.
ROS Incorporated
Ross Group Inc.
Rote Consulting AB
Royal Netherlands Navy
RS Information Systems Inc.
RUAG C4ISTAR Services
Rugged Notebooks
RuggedCom, Inc.
RWD Technologies, Federal
Systems
S&K Technologies, Inc.
S&T Bulgaria Ltd.
S4 Inc.
Saab AB
SAAB International Deutschland
GmbH
Sabre Systems Inc.
Sabtech Industries
SafeNet, Inc.
Sage Communications
Sage Management
SAIC
Salem Automation, Inc.
Salone Consulting Group, Inc.
Sanz, Inc.
SAP CR, spol s.r.o.
SAP Italia S.p.A.
SAP Slovensko s.r.o.
SAS
SAS Software Ltd.
Satcom Direct Communications,
Inc.
SatCom Distribution
Satellite Fusion Technologies
Savant Protection
SAVVIS Federal System
Scalable Network Technologies
Schnoor Industrieelektronik
GmbH + Co. KG
Science Applications
International Corporation
SE Solutions Inc.
Sea Tel, Inc.
Seacoast Electric Company, Inc.
Sectra Communications AB
SECUNET s.r.o.
secunet-Security Networks AG
Secure Systems Technologies
Ltd.
SecureInfo
Securify, Inc.
Security Alliance Stockholm AB
Security Engineered Machinery
Segovia, Inc.
Segue Technologies
Seimac Limited
Select Computing, Inc.
SELEX Communications GmbH
Selex Communications Inc.,
USA
Selex Communications Limited
Selex Communications S.p.A.
Selex Sistemi Integrati S.p.A
Seltatel S.p.A.
SenarioTek, LLC
SensCom, Inc.
Sensis Corporation
Sensor Technologies, Inc.
Sente Group, The
Sepaton
SEPROTEC
Serena Software GmbH
Serena Software, Inc.
ServerVault Corporation
Servodata a.s.
SES-New Skies Satellites, Inc.
SFA Inc.
SGSI (A Stratos Company)
Shakespeare Co., Electric
Products Group
Shavlik Technologies
Shim Enterprise, Inc.
Shipley Associates
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Shunra Software
Siemens
Siemens AG
Siemens Informatica SPA
Siemens s.r.o
Sierra Lobo, Inc.
Sierra Nevada Corporation
SIGABA-Secure Data in Motion,
Inc.
SIGCOM
Signal Mountain Networks, Inc.
Silanis Technology
SiloSmashers
Siltec Sp. z o.o
Silynx Communications, Inc.
Simulyze, Inc.
SINFIC S.A.
SINTEF Telecom & Informatics
SIRTI Sistemi SpA
SISTEMAS DE INFORMACAO
ESTRATEGIAS DE DEFESA
Sistematica S.p.A.
Sitel spl s r.o.
SkillSoft Corporation
Skysoft Portugal
SkyTel Government Sales
Smart Innovative Solutions
SMART Technologies, Inc.
Smartronix, Inc.
SMS Technologies, Inc.
SNR Systems, LLC
SNVC, L.C.
Soc. Com. Crocker Delaforce &
Co. Lda
Software AG, Inc.
SolCent Corporation
Solers, Inc.
Solutions Technology, Inc.
Sonic Software Srl (Progress
Software Corp.)
Source Diversified, Inc.
Southern California Braiding
Company, Inc.
Southland Technology, Inc.
Southwest Systems Engineering
Corporation
Space Hellas S.A.
SPARTA
Sparton Electronics
Specialized Products Co.
Spectracom Corporation
Spectrum Comm, Inc.
Spectrum Instruments, Inc.
Spirent Federal Systems, Inc.
SPL Integrated Solutions
Spotfire, Inc.
SR Technologies Inc.
SRC Computers, Inc.
SRI International
Stancil Corporation
Stanley Associates, Inc.
Star Dynamic Corporation
STAR-H Corporation
Static Safe Products Company
Inc.
Stato Maggiore Esercito-Rep.
Log.
Stato Maggiore Marina Militare
StAY Technologies
Steria Limited
Stonewater Control Systems,
Inc.
Structured Technology Solutions,
Inc.
Suggs Group, Inc. (SGI)
Sullivan International Group
Sumaria Systems, Inc.
Sun Microsystems Australia Pty
Ltd.
Sun Microsystems Czech s.r.o.
Sun Microsystems Federal Inc.
Sun Microsystems GmbH
Sun Microsystems Italia
Sun Microsystems Poland Sp. z
o.o.
Sun Microsystems Portugal
Sunair Electronics, Inc.
SunGard Availability Services
Sunset Learning Institute
Supacam
Superior Communications Inc.
Superior Essex Communications
LP
SurCom International B.V.
Suss Consulting, Inc.
Swedish Defence Wargaming
Centre (SDWC)
Swedish Maritime Administration
SWE-DISH Satellite Systems
Sybase, Inc.
Sycamore Networks
SYColeman, a division of L-3
Communications
Symantec Corporation
Symantec srl
Symbol Technologies Inc.
Symmetricom
Syndetics, Inc.
Syntonics LLC
Sypris Electronics
Syracuse Research Corporation
SYS Technologies
SYSTALEX Corporation
System Spec
Systematic Software Eng. Ltd.
Systematic Software
Engineering, Inc.
Systematix IT Solutions
www.afcea.org/signal
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Systems Consultants Services
Ltd.
Systems in Motion AS
Systems Integration & Dev.
Systems Technologies Inc.
Systems Technology Forum,
Limited
Systems Value
SYZYGY Technologies Inc.
Tachyon, Inc.
Taco Communications, Inc.
Tactical Communications Group
Tactical Displays, Inc.
Tactical Support Equipment Inc.
TAG
Talla-Tech Inc.
Talon Communications
Tampa Microwave
TANDBERG
Tapestry Networks
Target A.S.
TCoombs & Associates, LLC
Tech Now, Inc.
Tech. Electronic Systems
TechGuard Security, LLC
TECHi2
Technatomy Corporation
Technica Corporation
Technology Associates Int’l
Technology Center Inc.
Technology Forums
Technology Training & Services
Corporation
Technopole Defence and
Security
TechTeam Government
Solutions, Inc.
Tekelec
Teksouth Corporation, Inc.
TEKsystems, Inc.
Tektronix Inc.
Telcordia Technologies, Inc.
Telecom Italia S.P.A
Telecom Italia Sparkle
Telecom Partners Network Corp
Telecom Research Institute
Telecommunication Systems,
Inc. (TCS)
Tele-Consultants Inc
Teledife
Telefunken Racoms
Telegenix Inc.
TELEGRID Technologies Inc.
Telelink Plc
Telelogic
Telemont Slovensko A.S.
Telenor Satellite Services
Teleplan
Telesat Canada
Telespazio S.p.A.
TeliaSonera Network Sales AB
SNS
Telkonet
Tellabs Inc.
Telstra Corporation
Telsy Elettronica Telecom
Teltech
TELUS
Tempo Real 3-Consultores de
Informatica Lda
Tenix Datagate (UK)
Tenix Datagate Inc.
Tenix Defence Pty Ltd.
TeraMach Technologies, Inc.
Terremark Worldwide, Inc.
TESAM Argentina SA
Tesla Liptovsky Hradok a.s.
Tessco Technologies
Texas Memory Systems, Inc.
Thales Canada, Systems
Division
Thales Defence Deutschland
GmbH
Thales e-Security Ltd.
Thales e-Security, Inc.
Thales International Polska Sp.
zo.o.
Thales Italia S.p.A.Communications Division
Thales Land & Joint Systems
Thales Nederland B.V.
Thales Norway AS
The Analysis Corporation
The Aspire Group
The Boeing Company S & IS
Mission Systems
The Light Brigade Inc.
The Marlin Alliance, Inc.
The MIL Corporation
The Newberry Group, Inc.
The One-Ness Group
The Podmilsak Group
The Siemon Company
Themis Computer
Thomas & Herbert Consulting
Thrane & Thrane Inc.
Thursby Software Systems, Inc.
TIBCO
Timbercon, Inc.
TIME VM AB
Time Warner Telecom
Time Warner Telecom, Hawaii
Timmann GmbH & Co. Tele
Security Vertriebs KG
Tinex AS
Titus Labs, Inc.
TJHSST Partnership Fund, Inc.
TKHC
T-Metrics, Inc.
Toplevel Computing
Topvue.COM
______
Total Site Solutions
Totaltel Telecom Techniq. Ltd.
ToteVision
Tower Software
TowerStrides Inc.
Tracker Radio Systems, Corp.
Trak Microwave Corporation
Transtector Systems
Trans-Tel Central
TranTech, Inc.
TrellisWare Technologies, Inc.
Trend Micro Italy
Trinity Technology Group
Triple Canopy, Inc.
Tripod Data Sys, a Trimble Corp
Triune Software, Inc.
Trusant Technologies
Trusted Computer Solutions,
Inc.
Trusted Systems, Inc.
T-Systems Business Services
GmbH
T-Systems Enterprise Services
GmbH
Tubedale Communications
Tumbleweed Communications
TurningPoint Global Solutions
Turn-key Technologies
TWD & Associates Inc.
Twisted Pair Solutions, Inc.
Tyco Electronics Power Systems
UAV Communications, Inc.
Ultra Electronics - DNE
Technologies
Ultra Electronics Advanced
Tactical Systems
Ultra Electronics Command &
Control Systems Div.
Ultra Electronics Tactical
Communications Systems
Ultralife Batteries, Inc.
Unicon Group Ltd.
Unicor-Federal Prison Industries
Unilog Avinci GmbH-a
LogicaCMG company
Unimasters Logistics Group Ltd.
Uniplus Consultants, Inc.
Unisys Canada Inc.
Unisys s.r.o.
UNISYS Slovakia s.r.o.
Unisys U.S. Federal
Government Group
UNIT spol s.r.o.
Unitech
United States Antenna Products
LLC
Unitronex Poland Sp. z o.o.
Universal Understanding LLC
US Expo & Convention
Services
US Tower Corporation
USfalcon, Inc.
USmax Corporation
UTI Systems S.A.
VA Associates, LLC
Valador
Valcom Consulting Group Inc.
Van Dyke Technology Group,
Inc.
Vanu, Inc.
VBrick Systems, Inc.
Vector Planning & Services, Inc.
Vega Group PLC
Verisign, Inc.
Veritiss LLC
VeroTek
VFA, Inc.
VIACK Corporation
ViaSat Inc.
Viasec, s.r.o.
Viatech, Inc.
Victory Media, Inc.
Video Networks, Inc.
VIDITalk Corporation
VIMAC Consultancy B.V.
VION Corporation
Virginia’s Center for Innovative
Technology
VITROCISET
VMD Systems Integrators, Inc.
VMWare, Inc.
F
Vocality International
Volt Telecom Group
Vontu
VOXTRONIC Tech Deutschland
GmbH
Wagner Resources, Inc.
Walker and Associates, Inc.
Wayne Integrated Technologies
WCI Cable, Inc.
webMethods, Government
Webster Data Communication,
Inc.
Webworld Technologies
Westek Electronics
WESTEL Ltd.
Western Scientific
WGY & Associates, LLC
Wheat Int’l Communications
Corp.
Whitney, Bradley & Brown, Inc.
Will-Burt Company
William Data Systems
Wilson Case, Inc.
Winbourne & Costas, Inc.
Windermere, an Essex
Company
Windmill International, Inc.
Windward Consulting Group
Winning Presentations
Winsted Corporation
Wireless Enterprises
Government Solutions
WM-Data Sverige AB
Wood Consulting Services, Inc.
World Wide Technology Inc.
Worldwide Information Network
Systems
WPI Interconnect Products
Wyandotte Net Tel
Wyle Laboratories
XCalibur Software, Inc.
Xerox S.p.A.
X-Feds, Inc.
Xicom Technology
Xiotech Corporation
XTAR, L.L.C.
XVionics
Xwave Solutions
Zel Technologies, LLC
Zelinger Associates, Inc.
Zentra Computer Technologies
Zenyon, Inc.
Zero Manufacturing, Inc.
AFCEA EDUCATIONAL
FOUNDATION SCHOLARSHIPS
The AFCEA Educational Foundation offers scholarships to
current full-time and part-time students who are U.S. citizens
attending colleges and universities in the United States and
majoring in the following or related fields of electrical, chemical,
systems or aerospace engineering; mathematics; physics;
science or mathematics education; technology management; or
computer science. Majors directly related to the support of U.S.
intelligence enterprises or national security with relevance to the
mission of AFCEA will also be eligible. Online applications may
be obtained from www.afcea.org (click on scholarships).
UNDERGRADUATE SCHOLARSHIPS
General John A. Wickham Scholarships of $2,000 will be awarded
to full-time students with a GPA of 3.5 on 4.0 scale or better.
Apply by May 1, 2007.
AFCEA/LOCKHEED MARTIN IT Scholarship of $3,000 will be
awarded to a student attending school in the greater San Diego,
California, geographical area. Please submit an application for
the General Wickham Scholarship. The recipient will be selected
from the qualified applicants.
GRADUATE SCHOLARSHIPS
The AFCEA/LOCKHEED MARTIN Graduate School Scholarship
of $3,000 will be awarded to a full-time postgraduate student
currently enrolled in an accredited master’s degree program at a
four-year university in the greater San Diego geographical area.
Apply by May 1, 2007.
AFCEA On-Line/Distance-Learning Scholarship of $1,500 will be
awarded to a full-time student pursuing a Master’s of Science
degree by means of a distance-learning or on-line program. The
program must be affiliated with a major, accredited four-year
college or university in the United States. Apply by June 1, 2007.
Applications available by request to [email protected]
______________
or from http://scholarships.afcea.org
Fred H. Rainbow
Vice President & Executive Director
The AFCEA Educational Foundation
4400 Fair Lakes Court
Fairfax, VA 22033-3899
AFCEA On-Line/Distance-Learning Scholarship of $1,500 will be
awarded to a full-time student pursuing a Bachelor of Science
degree by means of a distance-learning or on-line program. The
program must be affiliated with a major, accredited four-year
college or university in the United States. Apply by June 1, 2007.
Official Publication of AFCEA
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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LandWarNet 2007
Conducting Information-Enabled Joint Warfighting and Supporting Operations
August 21–23 | Broward County Convention Center, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
Details coming soon to www.afcea.org/events/landwarnet
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INTERNATIONAL
CALENDAR
APRIL
APR 17-19
North Charleston, SC
NDIA 8th Annual Science
and Engineering Technology
Conference DOD/Tech
Exposition: “Reducing
Technology Risk in Acquisition
Programs.” Call Simone Baldwin,
(703) 247-2596. E-mail:
[email protected]
___________
APR 17-20 Waltham, MA
IEEE Radar Conference 2007.
Call (781) 245-5405.
Web site: www.radar2007.org.
APR 24-27 San Diego, CA
Defense Enterprise Architecture
Summit and Workshops:
“Building the Future.” Call
Nicole Peterson, (703) 247-9474.
E-mail: ___________
[email protected]
Web site: www.afei.org.
APR 30-MAY 3
Nashville, TN
DISA Customer Partnership
Conference 2007. Call Gina
McGovern, (703) 631-6236.
E-mail: ____________
[email protected]
Web site:
www.afcea.org/events/disa.
MAY
APR 18-19
Washington, D.C.
AFCEA Spring Intelligence
Symposium: “Intelligence and the
Long War.” Call Emily
Schlickenmeyer, (703) 631-6219.
E-mail: __________
[email protected]
afcea.org. Web site:
www.afcea.org/events/springintel.
APR 23-26 Atlanta, GA
Tactical C4 Conference, Exhibition
and Golf Tournament. E-mail:
[email protected]
_______________
Web site:
www.technologyforums.com/7FO.
APR 23-26
San Antonio, TX
Mountain-Western Region
Technical Symposium: “Network
Warfare and Non-Traditional
EW—Combat in the Digital Age.”
Call (210) 732-7697.
Web site: www.fiestacrow.com.
APR 23-26
San Diego, CA
Antennas: Principles, Design and
Measurements. Call Leanne
Traver, (804) 742-5611. E-mail:
[email protected] Web site:
____________
www.antennacourse.com.
MAY 2-5
Budapest, Hungary
4th Global Conference on War,
Virtual War and Human Security.
E-mail: _______
[email protected] site:
_________
www.inter-disciplinary.net/
ptb/wvw/wvw4/cfp.html.
______________
MAY 7-11 Hampton, VA
Defense Modeling and Simulation
Conference. Call Heather Horan,
(703) 247-9490.
E-mail: __________
[email protected]
MAY 8 Laurel, MD
2007 Strike, Land Attack and
Air Defense Annual Symposium:
“Integration and Interoperability
with Allies and Coalition
Partners in Naval Warfighting.”
Call Kimberly Williams,
(703) 247-2578.
E-mail:___________
[email protected]
Denotes AFCEA Event
Scheduling of AFCEA events
may change. Please see our
Web site for the latest
information: www.afcea.org.
Director of Advertising - Marsha Carpenter (703) 631-6181
Southeast-Midwest U.S. - (352) 563-5264
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and the UK - 33 5 34 40 01 37
Countries Not Listed - (703) 631-6181 • Fax: (703) 222-8762
Official Publication of AFCEA
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Index of Advertisers
Advertiser
Page
ADC
11
Advantech AMT Ltd.
Cover 2
Aero Tec Laboratories, Inc.
45
Amos SpaceCom
65
AMTI
81
AnaCom, Inc.
49
AOS Inc.
33
BiTMICRO Networks, Inc.
20
Centurum, Inc.
2
Criticom, Inc.
9
Data Systems Analysts
93
DataPath, Inc.
7
DHS Systems LLC
58
DRS Codem Systems Inc.
63
EF Johnson
51
ESRI
Cover 3
Fiber SenSys Inc.
28
General Dynamics C4 Systems ACS 36
General Dynamics C4 Systems ACS 66
General Dynamics C4 Systems
12
General Dynamics C4 Systems
Information Assurance
55
General Dynamics C4 Systems
Information Assurance
57
Global Communications Solutions 19
Hardigg Cases
32
Harris RF Systems Division
Cover 4
HP North America
1
L-3 Communications Titan Group 23
LEA International
43
Lind Electronics
54
M/A-Com
29
ManTech
5
Maritime Telecommunications
69
Micro Care Corporation
39
Northrop Grumman
Information Technology
16
PacStar
60
Paradigm Secure Communications 35
Parvus Corporation
21
Perkins Technical Services, Inc.
50
Raytheon Company
59
Raytheon Company
77
REDCOM
46
Rohde & Schwarz
24
S&K Aerospace
74
SafeNet
14-15
Siemens Communications Inc.
70
Superior Essex, Inc.
22
Sypris Electronics, LLC
78
TAG
27
Tenix America
56
Thales Communications, Inc.
52
Thales E-Security
30
Total Site Solutions
73
Xtar, LLC
40
Zero Manufacturing
64
Web Site
www.adc.com/federal
www.advsatnet.com
www.atlinc.com
www.amos-spacecom.com
www.amti-tsg.com
www.anacominc.com
www.aosusa.com
www.bitmicro.com
www.centurum.com
www.criticom.com
www.dsainc.com
www.datapath.com
www.drash.com
www.drs-cs.com
www.efjohnson.com
www.esri.com/defense
www.fibersensys.com
www.gdc4s.com/jtrshms
www.gdc4s.com/gbcs
www.gdc4s.com/FAC2T
www.gdc4s.com/secureproducts
www.gdc4s.com/smeped
www.globalcoms.com
militarycases.com
www.rfcomm.harris.com
hp.com/go/bladesamdfed3
www.titanissd.com
leaintl.com
www.lindelectronics.com
www.macom-wireless.com
mantech.com/signal
www.seamobile.com
www.microcare.com/fieldcleaning
www.northropgrumman.com
www.pacstar.com
www.paradigmsecure.com
www.parvus.com
pts-inc.com
www.raytheon.com
www.raytheon.com
www.redcom.com
test-rsa.com/FSU/SIG0407
www.ska-corp.com/iss
www.safenet-inc.com/net-centric/02
usa.siemens.com
www.SPSX.com/missioncritical
www.sypriselectronics.com
tag.com
www.tenixamerica.com
www.thalescomminc.com
www.thalesesec.com
www.totalsiteteam.com/afcea
www.xtarllc.com
www.zerocases.com
This index is printed as a complimentary service to our advertisers.
While care is taken to ensure the accuracy of the listings,
SIGNAL Magazine does not accept responsibility for omissions or errors.
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
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Incoming
By Cmdr. Gregory E. Glaros, USN (Ret.)
The Strong May Beat the Weak, but the Smart Defeat the Strong
Information architectures are needed for all platforms.
T
he U.S. Army and Marine Corps are shouldering the
nation’s burden in Iraq and Afghanistan, and they are suffering the majority of their casualties from roadside
bombs. To dramatically reduce injuries and loss of life
caused by fragmentation and blast overpressure, the two
services are rapidly fielding 4,000 to 6,000 mine resistant
ambush protected (MRAP) vehicles. There is no question that
the immediate fielding of these mine-resistant vehicles will help
protect our nation’s most valuable military assets—service
members. But is this the complete answer to a problem?
When these forces are on patrol, the most critical commodity
besides leadership and training is information. It gives them an
understanding of not just where the threat is but who the threat
is and when it will be present. Most of this battlefield intelligence does not come from a magical data repository within
higher headquarters, but instead it is generated directly by the
troops in the field sharing with each other what they know,
when they know it and how they came to know it.
The capability to mitigate the effects of an attack with armor
is unquestionably paramount, but a system designed without the
means to anticipate the threat is foolish. Trucks that cannot network, task, access, post, share and subscribe to the volumes of
information present cannot be expected to win the fight—the
only hope is to survive. If current designs such as the expeditionary fighting vehicle (EFV) are any indication of the “accepted” way to survive, then the U.S. Defense Department surely is
doomed to repeat another dramatic system engineering failure.
As the enemy adapts, so too must our equipment. Tactical
vehicles must have a networked information system as part of
the vehicles’ basic design. Within its framework, each vehicle
must have an information backbone that rapidly can accept
communication, sensor and weapon advancements. Information flow by these systems has outpaced the ability to convert
this power at our fingertips. Current bolt-on designs are killing
us—they increase power consumption, increase weight,
reduce reliability, delay fielding and increase cost. To keep
pace with change, the MRAP vehicle needs a flexible information architecture that can be customized without significant
integration costs. Vehicle system designs that cannot anticipate change or will not accept the speed of change simply
provide our enemies with a steel-caged target.
The war’s asymmetry is not the threat as much as is our
inability to keep pace with current operations. Informationlivened capabilities demand rapid system integration for emerging operational markets. But writing a requirement for a system
to satisfy an unpredictable or emerging threat is an illusive
endeavor. Growing information throughput requirements,
improved sensor performance and firepower reaction time
increasingly are difficult to specify because of inherent uncertainty and ambiguity. The only successful path is to design and
install a system that is capable of accepting software and hardware modifications without adversely affecting operational
forces. An information databus designed to manage rapid tech-
120
SIGNAL, APRIL 2007
nology cycles, mitigate operational uncertainty and reduce
future system integration cost growth is a requirement by itself.
So what would this information backbone look like? All too
often adjectives such as “open standard” and “open architecture” leave us wanting. There is little technical understanding of
these terms—only expressed desire to employ them. The need
for a databus that can manage ever-changing technology, missions and threats truly demands that the Defense Department
awaken to its growing system engineering incompetence.
But these systems do exist. They contain clustered supercomputing power and genuine plug-and-play functionality
with full internal and external networked connectivity. They
inexpensively and rapidly integrate any Internet protocol (IP)based weapon system, communication module or sensor
package. They reliably share information between large numbers of unmanned systems, and they remotely control a wide
array of onboard and offboard sensors and weapons without
additional cost to the architecture. But these systems did not
come from within the acquisition system. Instead, they came
from government mavericks and Defense Department academics. The department needs only to open its eyes to the
progress made in this area and to the existence of these
advanced systems.
The contribution of information architectures will be not
only the ability to easily control organic intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance assets or to access global intelligence sources rapidly, but also the lasting value of distributed
forces able to survive complex urban environments better.
Geographically dispersed units must have broader operational
options not just to survive an attack but also to counter an
adversary’s constantly changing tactics.
We are on the threshold of command and control chaos
because too few investments have been provided to the “art
and science” of information system engineering. Large numbers of shiny things on the battlefield, while a distinct advantage, burden dismounted forces unless they are horizontally
networked from the start.
Before MRAP vehicles are sent forward, let us take advantage of the technical superiority that government institutions
already have advanced and leverage the power they have developed. Don’t just send a strong but dumb truck in harm’s way
and think the problem is solved. The enemy is smarter than that.
The SIGNAL Blog
Is the military heading for a systems engineering failure? Can our
equipment keep pace with the changing face of the enemy? Is information needed for protecting the troops as important as mine-resistant
vehicles? We welcome your comments on the SIGNAL blog at
www.afcea.org/signal/blog, or e-mail us at [email protected]
____________
The opinions in this column and on the SIGNAL blog are those of the
authors and do not necessarily reflect those of SIGNAL or of AFCEA.
www.afcea.org/signal
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GIS—Supporting Capability, Enabling Interoperability
The fusion of data in defense systems demands an
enterprise definition of interoperability.
Spatial capabilities need to be embedded into defense systems in
every domain and at every level of command, demanding a robust
definition of openness. The ESRI® ArcGIS® platform is engineered
to participate in an enterprise information system environment.
Interoperability is built into the heart of the ArcGIS scalable family
of software products. This ensures the sharing of spatial data and
applications throughout defense enterprises.
ESRI supports a wide range of standards:
Operating systems including Windows®, UNIX®, and Linux®
DBMSs such as IBM® DB2® Universal Database and Informix®
Dynamic Server™, Microsoft® SQL Server™, and Oracle®
Spatial data formats including direct read and data access via
SQL, XML, and GML; support for DIGEST, NITF, and other
defense standards; published APIs; and other GIS formats
Developer environments including VB, C++, Visual Studio .NET,
and Java (J2ME, J2SE, J2EE, and ASP/JSP)
The ArcGIS 9 Data Interoperability extension provides
direct support for 70 formats.
Enterprise applications such as SAS, Oracle, SAP, IBI, and FileNET
Defense enterprise standards such as NCES, SDSFIE,
MIL-STD-2525B, and GEOSYM
Enterprise security protocols such as LDAP, SSO, HTTPS, WSS,
and managed logins
Web services such as XML, SOAP, UDDI, and WSDL; OGC
specifications such as WFS, WMS, and GML; and application
servers such as Oracle and WebSphere
To learn more about ESRI’s commitment to developing standardsbased GIS products, visit www.esri.com/interoperability.
ArcGIS software’s open architecture enables defense developers, such
as Concurrent Technologies Corporation, to embed powerful GIS
capabilities into C4ISR applications.
ESRI—The GIS Company
™
1-888-333-2782
www.esri.com/defense
[email protected]
_________
Copyright © 2006 ESRI. All rights reserved. The ESRI globe logo, ESRI, ArcMap, ArcInfo, ArcGlobe, ESRI–The GIS Company, ArcGIS, and www.esri.com are trademarks, registered trademarks, or service marks of ESRI in the United States,
the European Community, or certain other jurisdictions. Other companies and products mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective trademark owners.
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The FALCON
N IIII AN/VRC-110:
The
e new
w face
e off SINCGARS.
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» Long-Range Sincgars
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» fast delivery
» For more info, visit:
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___________
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