The Sixties: A Decade of Protest and Change



The Sixties: A Decade of Protest and Change
The Sixties: A Decade of Protest and Change
Chapter 14 in Jarrett book
Pages: 292-318
The Kennedy Presidency, 1960-1963
• First televised debate
• “ask not what your country can do for you but what you can do for
your country”
– Ignited the spirit of American idealism
John F. Kennedy Campaign Song (1 Minute)
Kennedy / Nixon Debate video (5 Minutes)
Inaugural Address (3 Minutes)
The Kennedy Presidency, 1960-1963
Domestic Policy
• New Frontier ideas never pass under him
• Peace Corps – program for American volunteers to help developing
Peace Corps:
The Kennedy Presidency, 1960-1963
Domestic Policy (cont)
• The Space Race – counter Soviet’s space program
– 1962: John Glenn 1st American to orbit earth
– 1969: Neil Armstrong & Buzz Aldrin land on moon
– Space race has led to advances in technology
The Space Race: (1 minute)
Foreign Policy under Kennedy
 Cuba
 Fidel Castro declares S.U. communist ally
 Bay of Pigs Invasion (1961)
 Attempt to start revolution against Castro by using US trained
Cuban exiles
 Embarrassing failure for Kennedy
 Alliance for Progress (1961)
 JFK creates program of grants and loans to Latin American
nations to promote economy in those countries (It’s like buying
your friends!)
 The Berlin Wall (1961)
 A few weeks after Bay of Pigs, JFK meets Soviet leader Nikita
 A few weeks later Berlin Wall begins to be built
 JFK visits West Berlin with famous “Ich bin ein Berliner”
(6 Minutes
Nat Geo’s Bay of Pigs
Foreign Policy under Kennedy
 Cuba Missile Crisis
 Exiles were told to say they acted without US
help, they narked
1962 US spy plane takes pictures of missile
silos in Cuba
JFK gather group to consider every option by
considering pros and cons of every idea
Decides to send Naval Blockade around Cuba
Khrushchev has Soviet ships heading that way
Closest to nuclear war the world has ever seen
Agreement for SU to pull out missiles in Cuba
 JFK would pull missiles out of Turkey
Lead to special ‘hot line’ telephone
Also agreed to end nuclear testing except
1963 - 1968
Johnson’s Presidency 1963 -1968
 Kennedy assassinated in Dallas on Nov.
22, 1963
 Lyndon B. Johnson sworn in as POTUS
 Wants to turn America into the Great
Society (4 Minutes)
The Great Society
Immigration Policy was changed.
 The post-war McCarren-Walter Act (1952) kept
immigration quotas at 1920 levels (favoring Western
 The Immigration Act of 1965 aimed to be less biased.
Each country was given an identical quota for its
number of legal immigrants. Preference was given to
those with relatives already in the U.S. or with valuable
skills. The act also restricted immigration from Latin
America for the very first time.
The Great Society
 In 1964, President Johnson ran against Barry Goldwater, a Senator from Arizona. Goldwater
helped revive conservatism at a time when it seemed to be out of fashion. He called for a
tough stance in dealing with the Soviets. Americans feared that Goldwater was an “extremist”
who might lead the nation into a nuclear war against the Soviet Union.
The Great Society
 Despite Johnson’s Great Society Programs, many Americans remained in poverty. The cost of
the Vietnam War eventually forced Johnson to withdraw much of the funding from these
domestic programs. Because of the growing division in the nation over this war, Johnson did
not seek another term as President in 1968, despite his landslide election victory in 1964.
Graphic Organizer Page 297
1960 - Present
 (20 Minutes)
 1963: Betty Friedan writes The Feminine Mystique
 1966: National Organization of Women (NOW): became chief voice of the Women’s Movement
Achievements of the Women’s Liberation Movement
 Education:
 As a result of affirmative action, universities receiving federal support could no longer discriminate on the
basis of sex in their admissions policy.
 Most colleges became co-educational and hired women professors.
 Greater gender equality was also achieved in admissions to military academies, law schools, and medical
 Employment:
 Feminists sought to end discrimination in hiring, to establish equal job opportunities for women, and to place
women in positions of greater responsibility.
 In 1963, Congress passed the Equal Pay Act, requiring companies to pay women the same wages as men for
the same work.
Achievements of the Women’s Liberation Movement
 New Attitudes: Feminist objected to beauty contests and introduced the title “Ms.” to replace
“Miss” and “Mrs.” They opposed sexist language (policeman / fireman), the use of women as
sex objects in advertising, or the idea that men cannot to housework. They lobbied for more
funds to research women’s diseases (such as breast cancer).
 Roe v. Wade (1973): Many states had laws that prohibited abortion. Feminists believed that a
woman should have the right to decide for herself whether to end her pregnancy. Pro-choice
became a rallying cry for the Women’s Movement. In Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court
held that a woman had a constitutional right to privacy. This gave her the right to end her
pregnancy in the first 3 months if she chose to do so. The decision overturned ALL those state
laws prohibiting an abortion in the first 3 months.
Title IX (1972)
 Major landmark in women’s rights in education
 Part of the Educational Amendments Act (1972)
 Banned sex discrimination in educational institutions
 Promoted gender equality by guaranteeing girls in school the same opportunity as boys.
 By linking enforcement of the act to federal funding, lawmakers created a powerful financial
incentive for schools to provide gender equality (to keep from losing federal aid)
Major impact on American Society.
Before Title IX, only 1 in 27 girls played Varsity High School Sports
By 2001, that figure had risen to 1 in 2.5 girls playing Varsity High School Sports
Helped women pursue high degrees, compete in sports & enter jobs and educational fields
that had previously been dominated by men.
Before Title IX, the # of women attending colleges and universities was significantly lower
than men, Today, more women than men are pursuing higher education.
Second Graphic organizer