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Presentation (PDF File)
Presented by
CHERRYTA YUNIA
SUBDIRECTORATE OF
WETLANDS, MARINE CONSERVATION AND ESSENTIAL ECOSYSTEM
MINISTRY OF FORESTRY
INDONESIA
This presentation is a part of “The Analysis of Ecosystem Representativeness Gap
for Protected Area in Indonesia-2010.”
Collaboration of :
Introduction
HIGH
BIODIVERSITY
COUNTRY
ASSESS THE
REPRESENTATIVENESS IN PA
HISTORY OF PA
CBD MANDATE
CRITICALLY
IMPORTANT TO
GLOBAL
ENVIRONMENTAL
SUSTAINABILITY
GAP ANALYSIS
KEY STEPS IN PA
GAP ANALYSIS
a method to identify biodiversity (i.e., species,
ecosystems and ecological processes) not
adequately conserved within a protected area
network or through other effective and longterm conservation measures
GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF GAP ANALYSIS
REPRESENTATION : Choose focal biodiversity across biological scales (species and ecosystems)
and biological realms (terrestrial, freshwater, and marine) to capture the full
array of biodiversity in the protected area system
REDUNDANCY : include sufficient examples of species and ecosystems within a protected
area network to capture genetic variation and protect against
unexpected losses
RESILIENCE : design protected area systems to withstand stresses and changes
DIFFERENT TYPES OF GAPS : analyses representation, ecological and management gaps.



Representation gaps refer to species, ecosystems, and ecological
processes that are missed entirely by the PA system
Ecological gaps relate to biodiversity that exists within PAs, but with
insufficient quality or quantity to provide long-term protection
Management gaps refer to situations where PAs exist, but are failing to
provide adequate protection either because they have the wrong
management objectives or because they are poorly managed
PARTICIPATORY APPROACH: collaborate with key stakeholders in making decisions about
protected areas.
ITERATIVE PROCESS: review and improve the gap analysis as knowledge grows and
environmental conditions change
ANALYSIS PROCESS
GIS / Spatial Analysis
Analysis Base
Protected Areas
Boundary
Marine Eco region
Provincial boundary
Methodology for Gap Analysis Process
Base Data : Protected Areas, Administration
Boundary & Management Boundary
Managed
Areas
(Marine)
2 Key Species
Dugong
Sea Turtle
Marine
Ecoregions
Land
&
Land (12
nm
buffers)
Coral Reefs
Mangroves
Dugong
Key
Species
Turtles
Beaches
Turtles
Migration
Route
Sea grass
Union Process
Union Process
3 Key Habitats
Mangrove Forest
Coral reefs
Sea grass
Provinces (IDN
EEZ)
Key Habitats
• Join from any
necessary field /
sources
Spatial Join
Union – Output 1
Excel Workbook
Process with pivot
tables
Final Output
Results
(Tables & Maps)
Representativeness
Percentage of important ecosystem
Percentage of being protected
Compared with minimum target/goal of conservation (30 % protected)
• Summarized /
Total Areas (ha)
• % each polygons
represented
Data Sources
Thematic map
Source of Data
Nature conservation area
Information Centre of Nature Conservation Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Marine Affairs and
Fisheries, TNC-IP, 2009
Mangrove Forest distribution
Badan Planologi Kehutanan , 2006
Sea-grass distribution
UNEP-WCMC , 2002
Coral reef distribution
Ministry of Environmental , 2000
Sea turtle nesting habitat (Eretmocherys
imbricate, carreta carreta, Dermochelys
coriecea, Chelonia mydas)
Information centre of Nature Conservation –
Ministry of Forestry, 2009
Sea turtle migratory route
Information centre of Nature Conservation –
Ministry of Forestry, 2009
Dugong habitat
Institute of Environmental Sciences - Leiden The
Netherlands
and
Research
Centre
for
Oceanographic - Jakarta Indonesia , 2009
Marine Eco-region
MEOW Working Group (Spalding et al.) , 2007
Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ)
Flanders Marine Institute, 2009
Provincial Administrative Boundary
Coordinating Agency for Survey and Mapping, 2008
INDONESIAN MARINE PROTECTED AREA
 566 Conservation Area (36,07 Mi Ha) :
 490 Terrestrial conservation area (22,5 Mi Ha) *
 76 Marine and Coastal Conservation Area (13,5 Mi Ha)
* ) 77 Terrestrial Conservation areas have marine and coastal features (ecosystem) (3.7 Mi. Ha).
CLASSIFICATION OF MARINE CONSERVATION AREA
IUCN CATEGORY
Ia
/Ib
Strict Nature
Reserve /
Wilderness
protection area
TYPE OF CONSERVATION AREA
CA
CAL
TN
II
National Park
TNL
IV
Habitat / Species
Managment Area
SM
SML
TB
V
Protected landscape
/ Seascape
THR
TWA
TWAL
VI
Protected Area area
with sustainable use
of natural resources
KKLD
Cagar Alam
(Nature Reserve)
Cagar Alam Laut (Marine Nature
Reserve)
Taman Nasional (National Park)
Taman Nasional laut (Marine
National Park)
Suaka Margsatwa (Wilderness
Reserve)
Suaka Margasatwa Laut (Marine
Wilderness Reserve)
Taman Buru
(Games Reserves
Taman Hutan raya (Grand Forest
Parks)
Taman Wisata Alam (Nature
Recreational Parks)
Taman Wisata Alam Laut (Marine
Nature Recreational Parks)
TOTAL
37
6/9
12
8
15
7/5
% OF TOTAL
PROTECTED
AREA (Ha)
226,290
648,198
421,907
528,403
7,976,241
5,843
2
1,621
524,846
21/19
Kawasan Konservasi Laut Daerah
(District Marine Conservation Area)
35
TOTAL
153
1.44%
3.0%
0.03%
5,008
0.01%
4.4%
0.03%
763,553
7,343,135
46.2%
1.60%
776,025
8
3.06%
43.18%
275,831
3
3.8%
2.44%
7,447,837
249,015
1.31%
4.37%
42.52%
7,343,135
13,5/17,268,445
42.5%
ECOSYSTEM DISTRIBUTION BY PROTECTED AREA
IUCN
CATEGORY
Ia/Ib
II
IV
V
VI
CA
CAL
Ia/Ib Total
TN
TNL
II Total
SM
SML
IV Total
TB
THR
TWA
TWAL
V Total
KKLD
VI Total
Grand Total
TYPE
Mangrove
Forest (% )
Coral Reef
(% )
Sea Grass
(% )
5.88%
0.03%
5.91%
6.97%
0.39%
7.36%
7.18%
0.01%
7.19%
0.13%
0.04%
0.14%
0.14%
0.45%
1.05%
1.05%
21.97%
0.18%
0.27%
0.45%
0.46%
7.62%
8.08%
0.03%
0.62%
0.64%
0.02%
0.01%
0.01%
1.59%
1.62%
11.26%
11.26%
22.05%
0.18%
0.73%
0.91%
0.34%
7.65%
8.00%
0.02%
TOTAL
MANGROVE PROTECTED = 21.97 %
CORAL REEF PROTECTED = 22.05 %
SEA GRASS PROTECTED = 17.32 %
0.02%
0.06%
0.16%
0.22%
8.18%
8.18%
17.32%
Percentage of Protected Mangrove Forest Ecosystem by Province
Percentage of Protected Mangroves by Province –
With Representativeness of 30 % ecosystem
Protected > = 30 %
Protected < 30 %
Percentage of Protected Coral Reef Ecosystem by Province
Percentage of Protected Coral Reefs by Province –
With Representativeness of 30 % ecosystem
Protected > = 30 %
Protected < 30 %
Percentage of Protected Sea Grass Ecosystem by Province
Percentage of Protected Sea-Grass by Province –
With Representativeness of 30 % ecosystem
Protected > = 30 %
Protected < 30 %
Sea Turtle Nesting Sites
6 Species of Sea Turtle
95 Location of Nesting Sites
49 % Protected Nesting Site
51 % Unprotected Nesting Site
Dugong Habitat
28 Habitat
45 % Protected Habitat
55 % Unprotected Habitat
Percentage of Protected Important Ecosystem by Marine Ecoregion
MANGROVE
FOREST (% )
CORAL REEF (% )
SEA GRASS (% )
Arafuru Sea
44.2%
5.3%
0.1%
Banda Sea
6.0%
17.3%
0.6%
Lesser Sunda
30.7%
37.5%
22.8%
Malacca strait
6.4%
17.1%
22.2%
Northeast Sulawesi
31.4%
16.0%
0%
Palawan/ North Borneo
5.2%
79.1%
0%
Papua
16.9%
43.2%
52.9%
Southern Java
17.8%
7.1%
2.6%
Sulawesi Sea / Makassar
Strait
32.1%
5.3%
23.4%
Sunda Shelf/Java Sea
5.7%
19.5%
0.2%
Southern Sumatera
11.0%
18.2%
89.0%
0%
0%
0%
ECOREGION
Halmahera
Percentage of Protected Important Ecosystem by Marine Ecoregion
Percentage of Protected Important Ecosystem
INTERVENTION PROGRAM
Indonesian Marine Conservation Area Target for 2020 =
20 Mi. Ha
Establishment Prioritizing :
 An area with less than 30 % protected ecosystem
 An area that have major ecosystems (coral reefs, sea-grass and
mangrove), which is also protected habitat for marine wildlife (turtles,
dugongs, marine mammals and other important biota).
High Prioritizing :
 Development of effective management
 Applied an Ecosystem Based management
 Encourage local government, entrepreneurs and community to involve in
conservation area management through collaborative management

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