sharing the past - Auckland Museum

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sharing the past - Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
AUCKLAND WAR MEMORIAL MUSEUM
s haring the p ast
Education Kit
Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
YEARS 1 TO 10
©Auckland Museum 2002
Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
contents
Sharing the Past
page
About this Resource:
1
Booking Information:
1
Introduction:
2
Teacher Background:
3
Curriculum Links:
23
Pre and Post-visit Activities:
26
Classroom Activity Sheets:
28
Gallery Activity Sheets:
40
Bibliography:
49
ABOUT THIS RESOURCE:
This resource has been designed to meet the
needs of social studies classes, Years 1-10
BOOKING INFORMATION:
All school visits to the Museum must be booked.
We advise booking 2-3 months in advance.
Numbers:
Adult/child ratio:
Y 1-4
1:6
Y 5-6
1:7
Y 7-8
1:10
Y 9-10
1:30
Booking:
Contact the Museum School Bookings Officer at:
Private Bag 92018 Auckland
Phone: (09) 306 7040
Fax: (09) 306 7075
Adult/child interaction is important to maximise
your museum experience. Group leaders need
to have some background knowledge of what
the students are expected to cover and adults
should work with their group throughout the visit
as well as during hands-on sessions.
1
Contents
Introductions and Hands-on Sessions (facilitated
by Education Staff) are available. 40 maximum
per session, including adults. Please ask the
School Bookings Officer for more information.
A small service charge applies to school
groups. Charges as at 2002 are:
Self-conducted Visits: free
Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
introduction
Sharing the Past
M
illions of people worldwide visit museums each year, seeking
knowledge, enjoyment and greater understanding of other
people, places and times. Most adults will have tucked away
a memory of that first, awed impression of the mummy in the Egyptian
display or of Rajah the elephant with his tatty tail, or of entering the
meeting house with its looming carvings and glittering paua eyes.
Such memories still spark enthusiasm for the Museum as a place to
share with their own families.
AUCKLAND 1866
SCARS ON THE HEART
1840 to 1918
ZERO
HOLOCAUST
GALLERY
WORLD WAR II
HALL OF MEMORIES
SECOND FLOOR
WORLD WAR I
MEMORIES
SCARS ON THE HEART
1939 to present
THE ARMOURY
Resource Centre
LIBRARY
PLESIOSAUR
MANY PLANT
SPECIMENS
FIRST FLOOR
MAORI NATURAL
HISTORY
NATURAL HISTORY
Origins
LAND
KUMARA GOD
NATURAL HISTORY
Impacts
WEIRD & WONDERFUL
EDUCATION CENTRE
PHOTOGRAPHIC
COLLECTION
NATURAL HISTORY
Oceans
TREASURES &
TALES
MATAPUNA
Resource Centre
PACIFIC
LIFEWAYS
WILD CHILD
DIG OF AUCKLAND
CITY GAOL
GROUND FLOOR
MALE TOILETS
MAORI
TREASURES
CAFE
CITY
FEMALE TOILETS
LIFT
PACIFIC
MASTERPIECES
HOTUNUI
SHOP
LIFT
FRONT STEPS
TE TOKI A
CIVILISATIONS
TAPIRI CANOE Where the Mummy
may eventually go
SPECIAL
EXHIBITIONS
Introduction
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Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
Sharing the Past
teacher background
SHARING THE PAST
M
any museums can trace their initial origin to bequests and
contributions from private collectors. The embryonic Auckland
Museum owed much of its respectable display to the zeal of
James Alexander Smith, the first honorary secretary, in gathering
'specimens and curiosities of various kinds'. The new Museum commenced in October 1852 and was housed in one room of the old
Government Farm House situated at the top of Grafton Road (a
plaque on the footpath shows its location). The New Zealander,
October 27 1852, reported that the second room granted by the
government was empty, 'still awaiting further contributions which, it is
hoped, will soon pour in'.
Lectures were given on such topics as "The botany
of the northern part of the North Island". They
occupied the old Post Office building in Princes
Street and opened to the public several days a
week. It would seem that they were in direct competition with the other museum. This may be why
approaches were made to the trustees of
Auckland Museum to combine with the Institute in
1869, which they did. After some years of
On 6 November 1867 a group was formed that fundraising, a new building, priced at £4777
became the Auckland Institute. They collected a was erected further along Princes Street.
library of books and a selection of specimens.
The situation today is quite different. Our collections have grown tremendously. Although private
estates are still generous in their bequests, pressure on storage space has meant that the Museum
must be more selective about what can be
accepted. Some collections may also be augmented with carefully selected materials
obtained at auction.
The Museum (stone) building as it looked in 1892 after the first addition was completed. The annex can be
seen attached to the Museum's right-hand side.
3
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Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
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The Institute's part of the Museum's activities represented the educational service the Museum
should give. Their avowed aims were to "advance
the diffusion of knowledge and promote alike,
pure taste, intellectual pleasure and material
advancement". They therefore held public lectures and readings of scientific papers, discussions on literature and art and also established
the first School of Art to be based in the Museum.
A varied selection of classical statuary casts was
imported by Thomas Russell. Sir John LoganCampbell funded a tutor and the equipment for
students who would sketch these examples of
good taste. Many museums throughout the world
used this same technique to assist their artists.
However, Auckland's statues seem to have been
modest in comparison with some cities, where single sex viewing was necessary. After 11 years
the school closed down as Dr. Elam's bequest
established a new independent art school which
still functions today.
Sharing the Past
Grierson, Aimer and Draffin, were war veterans.
They based their design loosely on the Grecian
style but more directly on the Pennsylvania
Railway station which was in turn based on the
Roman Baths at Caracella. In line with 'modern'
practice a feature of the new building was to be
plentiful natural light, hence the huge windows set
into each wall and the internal light wells.
Ironically today's scientific evidence suggests that
U.V light is highly destructive, especially of natural materials, and all the windows have had to be
blanked out.
Unfortunately Thomas Cheeseman, the curator of
50 years, died in 1923 and was not able to see
this planning come to fruition. Thomas Cheeseman
was an energetic and farsighted individual.
Under his direction the Museum became a noted
research institution, yet one always in touch with
public needs. Although the Princes Street building
was soon too crowded to hold separate exhibitions, he was in touch with overseas trends and
The new Museum building seemed ideal initially. even at this early time was keen to set aside an
However, in 1892 and 1904 two extensive addi- exhibition space especially for children as soon
tions had to be constructed to one side of the as larger premises were established. His legacy
building. Enthusiastic collecting by the first curator, to the Museum was an excellently preserved colbotanist Thomas Cheeseman, and further public lection of 10,000 native plant specimens which is
spirited subscriptions and donations to an still widely studied and includes examples of an
expanding human history collection meant that by extinct plant from the Manukau Heads.
1913 the building's space had become totally
inadequate. The Institute and Museum Council A range of innovations was able to be incorpointerviewed the then Prime Minister, the Rt. Hon. rated in the new War Memorial Museum. Many
W.F. Massey, requesting government aid for more curators were to be accommodated in the
building a new museum on Domain Hill. The new building. A fund established by the Carnegie
request was granted the next year. Unfortunately Museums Trust allowed for a fulltime education
the outbreak of World War I meant plans had to officer to be appointed. Olwyn Turbott was given
the task of creating experimental displays, using
be postponed until 1920.
the latest techniques, aimed at engaging the visThe devastating events of Gallipoli and the itor in a more educational experience. The new
Western Front had so affected New Zealanders director, Gilbert Archey's special project involved
that the concept of a war memorial as part of the providing cinema opportunities for the public.
new Museum was enthusiastically embraced. A Curators were encouraged to make their own
citizens committee, which operated for 10 years, 16mm films on natural history topics. C.W. Dover,
raised 4/5 of the necessary funding and ran a the taxidermist, was actively engaged in shooting
successful competition to select a design for the birds in the Hauraki Gulf so that the Museum
building itself. The three winning architects, would have the freshest possible specimens.
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Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
Sharing the Past
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Rajah the elephant at the Auckland Zoo. Unfortunately the creature's uncertain temperament made him unsuitable to
take children for rides. When he became too dangerous for the keepers to handle it was thought best to put him down.
5
Many of the birds stuffed in the 1930s and 40s
are still in excellent condition and on display in
the latest natural history galleries. Rajah the elephant was one Dover's most demanding projects and
is still to be seen lurking in the Wild Child Gallery.
well as generous endowment of funds. Others
added to the general collections such as a kauri
gum collection, a huge 2000 piece ethnographical collection, and notably magnificent Maori
carvings from H.E.Vaile.
Many past presidents of the Museum Council,
enthusiasts in different disciplines, left interesting
bequests to the Museum. Some to the library,
including an important collection of negatives, as
People often ask how Museum artefacts are
obtained. The following chapters detail the history of
some of our more well-known or interesting collections
and the methods used to preserve and display these.
Dover is placing the prepared skin over a framework
Pupils from Auckland Boys Grammar School are amazed
at the size of Rajah's rib-case.
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Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
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Sharing the Past
BOTANICAL MEANDERINGS
C
onditions in the early days of collecting were rugged to say the
least. The following is an excerpt from an account of Lucy
Cranwell and Lucy Moore's field trip. Lucy Cranwell, who died
in 2000, was the museum's botanist from 1929 to 1944. Lucy Moore
was her friend and fellow botanist.
Fieldwork in those early days was tough, usually
involving public transport, long tramps with no
fancy packs or tents. March 1930 was the two
Lucys' first great expedition to the summit of the
remote Mt Maungapohatu (1359m) in the
Urewera country from the newly opened road to
Lake Waikaremoana.
"We set off at 3 am in a PDW truck back to the
Papatotara Saddle and from there trudged the
deep-worn horse track across three steep ridges
to Rua's [Rua Kenana, Maori Prophet] Pa at the
base of our mountain…an almost vertical surveyor's route took us to the flattish summit just as the
sun was setting. When dawn came the mountain
plants were covered with a delicate layer of
frost…reluctantly we left at 11.30, loaded down
with specimens, to meet a 4 o'clock deadline at
Papatotara. From our six hours of observations
on this botanically undocumented mountain we
wrote our first paper, with all the confidence of
youth - and copious editing by Dr Cockayne!"
(Moore 1986).
Another of her projects gave us a last look at a
dying industry. Filming for "The Heart of the
Kauri" began in 1939 with the help of a most
obliging sawmiller in Katikati. It chronicled the
passing of an age as the last of the millable kauri
disappeared from New Zealand's forests. Lucy
Cranwell did not see her finished film until 1993
when it was copied onto video and used in the
Museum's Suffragettes exhibition, as she had met
and married an American airforce officer Watson
Smith in 1943 and moved to America in 1944.
Lucy Cranwell arranging flowers for the annual flower
event which she instituted to commemorate Thomas
Cheeseman. This was such a popular exhibition of native
flowers that specimens were sent from all over the North
Island. Teams of volunteers rearranged and watered the
plants each night.
Even today we have our share of rugged scientists who risk all for their samples. Auckland
Museum's present botanist Ewen Cameron and his
companions, past Museum botanist Anthony
Wright and two DSIR scientists were left stranded
on an inhospitably steep island in the Three Kings
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Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
Sharing the Past
group when the sea's ground swell increased to a
30ft surge. The zodiac crew fetching them,
unable to get close enough, tossed them a backpack with supplies for the night. When they
opened it the top little packet had some Minties
in it with a note saying, "It's moments like these…"
They spent the night on sloping ground under the
scrub listening to the petrels and hoping the large
centipedes weren't about to walk over them. It
was a rather cold uncomfortable night. The next
day the Zodiac returned but still could not land.
Finally by the third day the sea was calm enough
for a rescue. Notwithstanding the hardships the
trip was extremely worthwhile however, as the
endemic shrub (Elingamita Johnsonii) which they
were hoping to find, was discovered, not only
there but, on an adjacent island as well. These
are the only two islands on which the shrub grows.
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shoot them down but nowadays the locals object
a bit. Although his local helper was an excellent
tree climber, sometimes he says, a feeling of sturdy independence came over him when he liked
doing things himself.
On such a day, confronted by a tantalising specimen in a huge smooth-trunked jimbul tree, he
decided to use the catapult method. A catapult is
used to send a sinker and fishing line over a high
branch. The fishing line is used to pull a larger
rope over the branch, then a few sharp tugs and
down will come the specimen. His first three tries
fell short and unfortunately into a prickly field,
making retrieving them an unpleasant business.
The last try was a bull's eye. A few tugs and the
fruits would be in the bag. After tying the rope
around his waist and bouncing energetically up
and down the branch made some rather menacAnother botanist, Rhys Gardner, spent some time ing flexing motions, sprang up, pulled him off his
collecting specimens in the remote hinterland of feet and a piece 3m long and 20cm thick broke
Papua New Guinea. In the good old days the off spearing into the ground just where he had
way of securing specimens from tall trees was to been standing only a moment before!
THE PHOTOGRAPHIC COLLECTION
P
hotographs provide us with realistic views of many past events
and happenings both special and everyday.
Photography was a year or so old when Pakeha approximation of the Museum's photographic colAuckland was founded but recording of the lection is about 1.25 million images. We have
Auckland scene did not begin until a short-lived nearly 500 albums. The glass plates number
venture by two photographers in 1847. By
1852 portrait sittings had become popular and
in the 1860's landscape photography became
all the rage. Consequently by 1870 when the
combined Museum and Institute moved into
their new premises they were in a great position
to begin collecting a wide selection of views of
Auckland and notables of this city.
Images have survived in one of three main
forms - glass plate negatives, film-based negAn amazing amount of gear was needed on desert sorties. Note
atives or as positive images on paper (these the jerry cans of fuel and water and the sand tracks attached to the
may often be contained in albums). A rough truck's side. These increased tyre traction when stuck in loose sand.
(Photo: Stewart)
7
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Te Papa Whakahiku
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Sharing the Past
The soldiers came from all walks of life. Some, like these band members, could use their pre-war skills to entertain the
troops, lifting morale. Others could use their acting talents to bring reminders of Hollywood glamour. (Photos: Barnett)
some tens of thousands.
The collection is carefully protected from further
deterioration, being housed in a cool store environment where the atmospheric conditions are
constant. These vast numbers have been assembled from a variety of sources. As an example
Gordon Maitland, the present curator of pictorial collections, was approached some years ago
by Raymond Stewart who had brought in a supermarket bag full of tiny black and white snapshots
each the size of a matchbox. The photographs had
belonged to his father, Claude Stewart, and
Raymond was happy to loan them to the Museum for
copying. Many of the photographs were screwed up
and unsorted but as they were spread out Gordon
could see some interesting stuff.
World War II and these were personal snapshots.
He had been a driver sometimes taking important
men such as General Freyberg, the British Prime
Minister Winston Churchill and Field Marshall
Montgomery to meetings or reviews of the troops.
The beauty of snapshots is that they show more
real life rather than the stiff, formal official photographs.
These photos are a great addition to the collection especially as many W.W II veterans are still
living and have not yet got to the point of donating their memories.
On another occasion Gordon met an old soldier,
Eddie Barnett, once again clutching a plastic bag.
This time the photographs were his own. He had
taken them all and therefore could tell us all the
Claude had been a soldier in North Africa during details of what had been happening when the
shots were taken.
Claude Stewart and his distinguished passengers stop to
scan the horizon. Note the canvas covered front window
and headlights to minimize the sun's reflection.
He was concerned about the possibility of dying
without leaving any information and wished to
donate his whole collection to the Museum. These
opportunities are eagerly accepted as they provide us with details which the official war
accounts neglect but which are interesting on a
more personal level. The images may be used by
historians to illustrate a book for future generations. Here in the Museum they have been used to
illustrate exhibitions such as Scars on the Heart
with personal details to help us appreciate more
fully what it was like... over there.
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Te Papa Whakahiku
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THE SAGA OF THE KAIKOURA PLESIOSAUR
7
0 million years ago an adult Elasmosaur (a long necked plesiosaur) identified as Mauisaurus haasti was living in the
ancient Pacific Ocean close to the outer continental shelf.
Elasmosaurs, the largest of the
marine reptiles, were extremely agile swimmers. Long, strong
necks meant that their heads were able to twist
and turn quickly in search of food; to lunge out and
skewer fish, squid or birds between interlocking, sharp teeth.
Elasmosaurs may have come ashore to lay eggs
as modern turtles do. Juvenile Elasmosaurs spent
their early years in warm, shallow water close to
shore and possibly escaped onto the beach to
avoid storms or predators. Elasmosaurs became
extinct along with the rest of the marine reptiles
and dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous (65
million years ago).
ers of cemented sandstone wrapped like an
onion around a nucleus and vary from a few
millimetres to boulder size. The Museum's concretion formed around the ribs and pelvic girdle of
Mauisaurus haasti.
About 25 million years ago, plate tectonics or
movement of the earth's crust, caused the seabed
On its death this
particular adult
sank to the ocean
bottom and settled
into the sandy mud.
Even while the
bloated flesh was
being stripped
from the carcass by
scavenging organisms, sediment
began to cover the
12 metres of the
remains. Sections
of the skeleton
formed the nucleus
of several spherical concretions.
Concretions, like
the Moeraki
Mike Eagle leans against half of the huge concretion destined for Auckland Museum. The
Boulders, are layother half lies further down near his feet.
9
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Te Papa Whakahiku
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strata to be slowly raised out of the sea. Over
millions of years the uplifted rock strata eroded
away until the concretions became exposed in the
cliff face at Amuri Bluff. Eventually they crashed
down onto the boulder beach below, the
Museum's specimen splitting in to two mirror
imaged sections. As the locality is remote and
rugged the fossil was not discovered until 1993
by a group of fossickers. The two segments were
so large and heavy (around 3 tonnes each) that
they were thought impracticable to retrieve.
The site was forgotten until 1995 when the
Museum's research associate Mike Eagle, a
palaeontologist, ‘rediscovered’ this group of
large fossils. Further investigations in 1998, this
time accompanied by Natural Exhibitions curator
John Early, established that, with the right equipment, the two blocks could be airlifted out and
preserved. Sponsorship by the Portage Licensing
Trust and others meant the work could begin.
Sharing the Past
Men propped up the huge boulders using blocks
and timber jacks and manoeuvred webbed lift
nets underneath. After much planning, sweating
and around ten thousand dollars later, one at a
time both blocks were lifted by the largest helicopter operating in New Zealand. The giant helicopter was forced to hover precariously close to
the steep cliffs running the risk of smashing into
them at the slightest wind gust.
Eventually both boulders were lifted clear of the
tidemark and shunted across the Kaikoura Bight
slung dangerously beneath the chopper's belly.
There they were gingerly deposited, one mirror
image onto a sawdust filled flatbed truck and the
other transported to the Kaikoura Historical
Society District Museum, where it is currently on
display. The truck carried its precious cargo onto
Auckland for preparation and presentation. The
fossil specimen is now displayed in the Origins
Gallery together with a video of the heart stopping process of transporting and lifting it.
The remote and rugged cliffs that released our concretion at Amuri Bluff near Kaikoura. The pale circle half way up
the cliff''s right-hand side is a similar sized concretion ready to topple.
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Sharing the Past
THE MUMMY - A FLASHBACK TO EGYPT
T
he mummy was obtained by Canterbury Museum in 1888 with
help from the Florence Museum and the Bulaq Museum in Cairo.
It came from Akhmim, which is on the Nile River, and cost five
pounds. In 1958 it was exchanged for several Pacific objects by
Auckland Museum.
The body was a young adult,
between 18 and 30 years
old, when it died. Carbon
dating of wood and linen
samples has put the age of
the mummy at between 900
and 400 years B.C. This
date has some confirmation
from the style of the mummy
and coffin.
en dowels or nails, and with a
fill material of clay pressed
over or between the joins.
These planks have pulled apart
and the clay has popped out
leaving gaps. The paint is also
weak with areas lost and others
flaking off, due to the unstable
substrates and loss of binder
through time.
The mummy was x-rayed in
In 1998, when the old
1971. The x-rays suggested it
People of the World gallery
was a female body and gave
closed for refurbishment, the
the age range. Unfortunately
mummy was removed from
no exciting amulets were
display. This gave us the
revealed under the wrappings.
opportunity to assess the
condition and requirements
Early in its New Zealand sojourn
of the mummy. It was found
a historian translated what was
that the wrappings were
Years of exposure to Auckland's humid
thought to be her name as 'Ta
covered in a white spotty conditions have caused serious damage
Sedgemet", She Who Hears.
deposit. This was caused by which will require many months of
the high relative humidity in painstaking conservation work to remedy. However this has since been
questioned. An expert in
Auckland, which, as it fluctuates, caused salts in the fabric and those used in Egyptology has recently examined the coffin and
the mummification process of the body, to be will translate any hieroglyphs still visible. There
drawn to the surface of the wrappings where are some recognizable images: the four sons of
they effloresced into crystal form. This, along with Horus and a winged scarab. The images are in
long-term exposure to light and air, caused it to lines in imitation of the wrapping of bandages,
become brittle and weak and for sections to and patterns of symbols are repeated on left
and right sides.
break off easily.
The coffin was also badly affected by age and
environmental conditions. There were several isolated areas of rotten wood where it was crumbly
to the touch. The construction of the coffin was
through the joining of planks of wood with wood11
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The coffin is wood, made from timber from a
common tree in Egypt, the sycomore fig (Ficus
sycomorus). Tenons for fastening the lid to the
base are made from a harder, redder wood,
which is an Acacia species. Coarse clay like mate-
Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
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Sharing the Past
The four sons of Horus face Osiris, the
god of the underworld. The falcon
headed Horus stands behind them.
These four protected the mummified
organs from harm. The winged scarab symbolises the sun in its moment of
rebirth, at dawn, after its dangerous nightly journey through the underworld.
rial has been used to fill gaps in the wood and to
mould the shape of the coffin. The entire surface
has been painted in black carbon based paint
and the hieroglyphics are painted in orpiment,
which is a yellow pigment. Age and deterioration
of the paint has caused the yellow to fade to a
dull greyish-brown. The face is painted realistically with earth based pigments and calcite, over
a finer ground of calcite.
To begin the process of preparing the mummy
and its coffin for any future display in the public
galleries the team of conservators at the Museum
has firstly collected information. Forest Research,
Rotorua, identified the wood and Carbon 14 dating of the linen in the bandages and the coffin
wood has been done through Waikato University.
They have used microchemical spot tests and
Polarized Light Microscopy to identify the linen,
pigments and other materials. The binders in the
paint systems have yet to be identified. A glossy
sheen on isolated areas of the coffin and on the
bandages may possibly be resin. As with many of
these scientific areas there is an expert in this
narrow field of coffin materials. The Museum conservators hope to be able to get assistance from
a scientist in the U.K. who is an expert in the area
of analysis of adhesives, resins, gums and binders
in ancient Egypt. The areas of wood that are rotten will be consolidated. Flaking paint will be
tacked down with an adhesive but careful consideration will be needed to choose the appropriate
adhesive for this or which system of application
will be most suitable (e.g. misting,
by brush, syringe, etc.) Whichever
method is chosen it will be slow
and repetitive. The textile will
probably cause the most difficulty. It is the most fragile material
and even removing the salts from
the surface will further disrupt
fibres of the fabric.
When the mummy goes back on
display it will need to be protected from the agents of deterioration: light and photo-oxidation, temperature,
humidity, and atmospheric pollutants, and
mechanical damage through handling or attack
from insect or mould. Most of these can be controlled through the construction of a hermetically
sealed case filled with a nitrogen gas environment. This will provide an inert atmosphere that
will considerably increase the life of the object.
The control of temperature and humidity within
the case will be achieved with humidity buffers
and will halt the problem of efflorescing salts.
Although very faded from the original deep black and
bright yellow it is still possible to see the tracery of wings by
the left ear. These protective wings belong to the vulture
goddess, Nekhbet, which was an image often used on coffins.
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The oxygen free environment will minimize photooxidation of the susceptible organic materials
and reduced lighting levels will further decrease
deterioration. Likewise mould and insect attack
will not be a threat in controlled conditions such
as these.
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rily involve preservation through stabilising the
deteriorative factors, and preventative, which
encompasses things like control of environmental
conditions (temperature, humidity, pollution, pests),
correct handling, etc. At times it can be dangerous because of the necessary use of chemicals,
and residual materials left on objects from past
treatments, but they take safety precautions like
wearing gloves, goggles, masks and work in the
fume cupboard when necessary. Conservation
training also involves the study of materials, and
this includes not only the chemical and physical
makeup of objects, but of adhesives, solvents and
other chemicals that they may use so that they
know how things are going to be affected by various materials.
The Museum's team of conservators has had many
years of specialised training. The training for conservation is a degree in the Conservation of
Cultural Materials and at present is not available
in NZ. Our conservators trained in Australia and
Canada. They are Objects Conservators which
means that they have an understanding of the
makeup of all sorts of materials e.g. the mummy
is a combination of organic (wood, textile, gums,
resins, human remains) and inorganic substances
(pigment, clay, calcite). Conservation involves Our brave conservators don't seem to believe in
both remedial work, i.e. treatments -which prima- the mummy's curse!!! Stoic but foolish people.
TE TOKI A TAPIRI
T
e Toki a Tapiri is the last of the great Maori war canoes. With
the hull adzed out of a single huge totara log, the canoe is
25m long and can carry 100 warriors. It was built about
1836 for Te Waka Tarakau of Ngati Kahungunu, who lived near
Wairoa in Hawkes Bay. Its name commemorates Tapiri, a famous
ancestor of Tarakau. Before it was finished, the canoe was
exchanged for a famous cloak.
After the prow, stern and side strakes were
carved the canoe was presented to Tamati Waka
Nene and his brother Patuone of Ngapuhi. In
1853 Te Toki a Tapiri was sold to members of
Ngati Ata. In 1863, following the outbreak of
war in the Waikato, Government forces seized
the waka, even though Ngati Te Ata had not taken
part in the fighting. Ngati Te Ata accepted crown
compensation for this transgression.
became the highlight of a regatta on the
Waitemata Harbour organised for the visit of
Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh.
Ngati Whatua of Orakei later looked after the
canoe until it was presented to Auckland Museum
by the New Zealand Government in 1885. To
move the canoe from its Orakei landing place to
the Princess street building required cunning strategy. Firstly a cart was wheeled onto the beach at
A British sailor made an unsuccessful attempt to low tide over a corduroy slab track. At the next
blow up the canoe while it lay on a beach at high tide the floating canoe was manoeuvred
Onehunga. In 1869 the canoe was restored, and onto the cart and dragged inland at low tide. Its
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Te Toki a Tapiri, resting on a specially modified flatbed truck, is manoeuvred through a gap in the Princes Street annex
wall. This the first small step in the drive to the new Museum on the hill.
home was to be a lean-to structure built onto the
side of the main building as there was no room
inside as yet. This was not the end of its travels
however and the move to the Museum on Domain
Hill proved just as tricky and involved some
knocking down of
walls. Fortunately the
uncompleted back
wall of the latest
Museum
allowed
easy access for such
a long craft.
Auckland Museum art school's tutor Kenneth
Watkins probably used Te Toki a Tapiri as a
model for his 1888 painting of the Phantom
Canoe of Lake Tarawera which is now held in the
Auckland Art Gallery.
Since then it has been
a key component of
the impressive Maori
galleries, diligently
guarded from harm
especially
during
World War II when
carefully
placed
sand bags cushioned
Te Toki against any
possible bomb damage.
Te Toki a Tapiri during W.W. II carefully cushioned against falling debris in the event of
enemy attacks on Auckland.
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TAUMATA ATUA - AN ABIDING PLACE OF THE SPIRIT
THE DISCOVERY AND RECLAIMING OF A KUMARA GOD
T
he Maori world was carefully regulated as to when and how
food related activities took place. Rongo the god of agriculture
needed to be honoured with the correct ceremonial procedures if
the crops were to be successfully grown each year. The knowledge of
how to conduct such ceremonies was entrusted to the tohunga who
used specially prepared tools and ensured that all behaved appropriately, not only during the ceremony but also throughout the season.
Sometimes a carved stone figure was placed in kumara gardens. The
powerful male god Rongo was summoned by the tohunga to take up
residence there and watch over and encourage the growth of the plants.
In Auckland much of the physical evidence of
Maori gardening practices has long
since been obliterated by European
farming techniques initially and
encroaching housing development
subsequently. Every now and then
a combination of fortuitous circumstances reveals a glimpse of
the past. Such was the case with
the carved stone kumara figure
from Onehunga.
When the Museum's archaeologist Nigel Prickett
and ethnologist Roger Neich arrived to inspect
the site they found the developers just in the
process of demolishing the last remaining stone
garden walls before flattening the whole
area. The two scientists were surprised that
an artefact of such mana (spiritual power)
was still to be found lying abandoned
close to where it had stood in ages past.
Te Warena Taua, a Maori curator at the
Museum, consulted his elders and was
thrilled to discover they had a story
that seemed to confirm such a carved
figure was known in this area. Therefore
it probably belongs to Te Wai-o-hua.
James Ah Mu, a real estate representative, had been dealing
with a property in Onehunga
which was in the process of The serene scoria features of
being developed. During the the Kumara god now watch over Since its arrival in the Museum it has
fared much better than ignominious burcourse of his visits he had its own garden in Te Ao Turoa.
ial in a rubbish skip. Firstly it sat as a
noticed an apparently carved
piece of basalt rock lying about on the rear of the sentinel in the Maori Gallery illustrating an
section. He could see it was no ordinary lump of Auckland regional art style and now it sits where it
scoria as it had the appearance of a sitting human may feel really at home, in the beautiful Te Ao
figure. It was intriguing. Evidently no one else seems Turoa, the year 2000 Maori Natural History
to have appreciated its significance though as he Gallery. Here it watches over a small kumara garfound it about to be pitched into a rubbish skip den which incorporates a low whare kumara
some time later. He was able to rescue it just in the (kumara storage hut), its lichened features hinting
nick of time. Curiosity prompted him to bring it to at ages of patient guardianship.
the Museum to be examined.
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MITSUBISHI ZERO FIGHTER
T
his smart little plane was the finest shipboard fighter in the world
during the first year of the Pacific phase of World War II. It
was the first fighter plane able to be launched from a ship, capable of defeating its land-based opponents. Its world wide fame was
won in a series of astounding victories against all types of land-based
and carrier-based Allied aircraft during the first six months of fighting
following the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbour. The Zero's designers had emphasised lightness, range and manoeuvrability, largely at
the expense of safety devices such as pilot armour and self-sealing
fuel tanks. Although it had become largely obsolescent by 1943, it
remained in production until the end of the war. Even today, the Zero
remains the symbol of Japanese airpower during the Pacific War.
The Zero got its name because in 1937 Japan
began to identify its military equipment by the
last digit of the year of its introduction into service. 1940 - the Zero's year - was the year 2600
by the Koki calendar, the one traditionally used
by the military, based on the mythical founding
of the Japanese dynasty. The calendar in daily
use was the Showa based on the year Hirohito
became emperor. Showa means "Enlightened
Peace", so possibly not the most suitable of calendars to refer to in military terms!
The Zeros were so successful initially that its performance was hugely exaggerated. So few were
shot down during the early war period that it
was impossible to examine and analyse captured or wrecked aircraft. Even the intense aerial battle above Pearl Harbour only resulted in
the loss of nine Zeros, none of which were recoverable in recognizable form. The situation
changed by 1942 when several shot down Zeros
were salvaged and the allies could examine
them to discover their true shortcomings.
By September 1945 the tide had turned against
the Japanese in the Pacific War. No Japanese
planes had been sighted near Bougainville for
over a year when the RNZAF Intelligence unit
heard of a Zero apparently in airworthy condition on the Southern tip of the island. The aircraft
had been caught on the ground by allied
bombers. Inspection showed that it had been
severely damaged and, unable to take off, had
been hidden near the landing strip. As a morale
Piva, Bougainville, 19 September 1945. RNZAF airmen
inspect the Zero. Part of the surrender colour scheme, an
application of white on the front, can be clearly seen.
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exercise it was decided to try and make the
plane airworthy again. The engine worked fine
and with assistance of some 60 to 70 technical
personnel, the plane was soon ready to fly once
more. A captured Japanese pilot agreed to test
fly it and ferry it back to Rabaul. However a
veto was put on these plans by the Surrender
Commission who, as suggested by P.V. Lewis
(Journal of Aviation Historical Society of N.Z.,
1985), may have had some vision of a kamikase
style gesture at the end of the flight.
Even though the RNZAF held several other captured Japanese planes in various locations, the
arrival of the Zero in the skies above Piva base
caused quite a stir. To avoid dangerous confusion
the plane had been painted in surrender colours;
white beneath and green crosses on the sides
and under the wings. Subsequently all the captured planes were moved to Jacquinot Bay in
New Britain. Later still some were gifted to the
Australian Airforce while a Japanese float plane
in the Bay developed a leak and sank. There
The only other option of transporting the aircraft seemed to be little official interest so the deciback to Piva base was across winding jungle sion to ferry the Zero back to New Zealand by
tracks, finishing the journey by barge. As there boat came as somewhat of a surprise. The Zero
was no pressing official need for the Zero it travelled as deck cargo on the ferry Wahine,
seemed as if it might after all be left to rot on chartered to transport repatriated troops to
the spot. Enter Wing Commander Bill Kofoed, his New Zealand.
interest piqued and possibly his skill challenged.
Assisted by a Japanese pilot standing on the Hobsonville airbase was its new home and some
wing, identifying and translating the labels for long overdue restoration work was undertaken.
the cockpit controls, he had a cursory introduction Plans for its new role as a tactical training tool
to the plane. Trusting he had not been malicious- for fighter pilots at Ardmore airbase or as an
ly misled, this intrepid flyer decided he was now addition to the flying school at Wigram did not
ready to leave the ground and fly it back him- eventuate however, as spares were difficult to
self. The plane's undercarriage was left down the obtain. In fact despite optimistic reports of its
entire flight, which fortunately took only 32 min- readiness for action, the plane was involved only
utes, and passed without incident.
in taxiing trials.
The arrival of the NZRAF's
first jet at the end of
1945 made the Zero look
so dated that interest
waned completely.
The next years in the poor
Zero's history saw it
stashed in a corner, its
tyres going flat. Then
someone had the idea to
offer it to Auckland
Museum. The offer was
RNZAF personnel reassembling the Zero in its new gallery on the top floor of
Auckland War Memorial Museum in 1959.
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reluctantly accepted but due to transport difficulties and a lack of suitable space it had to be
left mouldering at Hobsonville. By the early
1950's it was parked in the open at the mercy of
the weather, vandals and souvenir hunters. In
1953 it was almost sold off as surplus stock until,
by pure chance, someone remembered the
promise to the Museum. It was left to corrode for
several more years, only being displayed at two
Easter shows and then ignominiously patched up
for an Air Display at Ohakea in 1958.
Finally in 1959, twelve years after the original
offer and in far worse condition than in 1947, it
was assembled by airforce personnel at the
Museum premises. Now, in its newly redesigned
2000 space it is finally able to be viewed as its
original owners may have known it. As the conservation team cleaned and reconnected some
Sharing the Past
controls the original colours and poems scribbled
in Japanese under the wing emerged from under
the layers of paint.
The last Japanese pilot to fly our Zero, Sekizen
Shibayana added an interesting chapter to the
saga. When his badly damaged plane was
being repaired by the Japanese ground technicians they, realising that Sekizen would be sent
out on a kamikazi mission carrying a large
bomb, worked so deliberately slowly that the
end of the war overtook them. In a letter to
Auckland Museum in 1997 Sekizen wrote, "If the
end of the war had been a few days later than
15th August I am sure that I would have already
gone to the Sea of Solomon Islands and I would
be sleeping in that sea today." He visited
Auckland for the 2000 opening of the newly
refurbished "Scars on the Heart" gallery.
THE FIRST GAOL
Archaeology in Auckland's Queen of Streets.
uckland's new settlement of 1840 was nestled into a fern covered gully between rolling hills. One of the first descriptions of
the area was made by 27-year-old James George, an Australian
baker out to make his fortune in the new capital. He observed
pohutukawa fringing the Waitemata harbour, tea-tree, flax, fern and
toetoe cloaking the hills and a tidal creek emptying onto the shore. This
creek ran along the western side of Queen Street and was deep enough
to allow up to 10 boats to moor safely at the point where Queen Street
intersects Swanson Street today. At first the stream provided fresh drinking water for the small settlement but this was soon to change.
A
Less than 2 months later the Surveyor General
Felton-Matthew proposed that the waters be
diverted to pass under the centre of Queen
Street and become the principal sewer for the
town. This plan was followed and the newly
diverted stream was renamed the Ligar Canal. In
later years letters to the newspaper described
the stench created by the canal's contents as
"strong enough to knock a grown man flat".
Travelling up the valley was made uncomfortable
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by areas of swampy ground here and there. It
was on a boggy spot on the outskirts of the
fledgling town that the gaol was built in early
1841. Where Queen, Victoria West, Elliot and
Darby Streets meet was the unpleasant and
unhealthy spot where the gaol and the courthouse
stood. Records show that the goal remained on
this spot, along the east bank of the stream, until
1860. The complex consisted of a guard house,
cell-blocks, a hard labour yard, stocks, gallows
and, fronting onto Queen Street, the courthouse. Men and women could be tried, sentenced, hanged and buried, conveniently all in
the one area. Six executions took place and the
bodies were buried on the Queen/Victoria
Street corner.
Initially building methods in Auckland disturbed
the original ground contours only a little. It was
not until basements became a common part of
building techniques in the late 1880s that larger
changes were made. In 1987, 100 years later, a
21-storey building was scheduled for construction
on the old gaol site, which by now had been
engulfed in the heart of Auckland's crowded business district. The huge excavations for the foundations of such a large building would effectively wipe away all trace of the original ground surface. Fortuitously the New Zealand Historic
Places Trust was able to arrange an archaeological dig, led by Simon Best, on the newly cleared
block of ground. They were given just under 2
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weeks to find out as much as they could before
the new development began.
The cleared site resembled a large pit lined with
concrete and basalt retaining walls. Across the
centre ran the slightly raised Theatre Lane. As
much of the surface concrete would be needed to
support heavy building equipment later, the
archaeologists elected to examine small areas
close to the lane. They hoped to uncover evidence
of the various buildings on the site and perhaps
even find the Ligar Canal.
They were richly rewarded for their efforts. Down
the excavated well were the remains of metal
buckets with rope still attached. Under the lane
area were part of the debtor's cell-block foundation, the prison kitchen and the hard labour
yard with broken rock fragments which the shackled prisoners had sweated to crush. Many artefacts such as chamber-pot pieces, a door lock,
various cooking implements and animal bones
hinted at the life which prisoners experienced.
Amazingly enough not only was the Ligar Canal
uncovered (lined at this point with basalt blocks)
but below it was found the original contour of the
streambed. Maori digging implements and a
kiore-gnawed hinau berry illustrated even earlier activities in the valley. The remains of freshwater mussels and perfectly preserved leaf litter
were carbon dated and enabled scientists to
establish that these plants had tumbled into the
water 800 years ago.
The courthouse building fronted onto Queen Street (to the left in the sketch). The gallows facing Victoria Street West
are visible to the right in front of the gaol wall close to the little bridge.
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Elliott Street
Theatre Lane
Queen Street
Fill
Old ground
surface
Ligar Canal
A cross section of the 1987 archaeological dig at the Queen Street gaol, from Digging up the Past by Michael Trotter
and Beverley McCulloch. The contour of the original, Pre-European, streambed was uncovered as well as the brick lined
course of the Ligar Canal. Today the level of both Queen and Elliot Streets is much higher than 100 years ago.
One of the more macabre finds in the streambed
just beyond the gaol fence was a tangle of dog
skeletons, some with collars still attached. The city
pound had operated here. Newspapers of 1840
were full of stories about "the dog nuisance".
Hanging or poisoning seemed to have been the
preferred method of disposal for the unfortunate
dogs caught.
We can see how archaeology was able to provide extra information that was not available in
the old records. Although the material recovered
in the nine days of excavation was just a fraction
Some of the more robust discoveries from the gaol site
are on display in the City Gallery. Evidence of footwear,
a lantern, some eating utensils and stone chips from prisoner labour are shown here.
of what might have been exposed in a more reasonable amount of time, important new details
were brought to light. These were of some of the
buildings and features of the gaol and the personal belongings of the prisoners and their
guards and beneath that a slice of Maori life
lived long before Europeans settled. Simon Best
kept the Museum archaeologists up to date with
the exciting finds his excavation team were
uncovering and several visits were made to
inspect the artefacts as they were extracted from
the smelly mud. After the various specialists had
cleaned and analysed them, conservators had
stabilised the fragile pieces, and the reports had
been written, it was time for the collection to come
to the Museum.
Here, in the City Gallery, a selection of the
strongest artefacts is displayed so that everyone
can see the evidence of gaol life in the earliest
days of the city. The remaining pieces have been
carefully packed in acid free materials in readiness for a time when they too might be displayed
and for those interested in historical archaeology
to study further. As many other city buildings continue to be demolished, archaeologists use the
gaol site collection to help identify what they find
beneath the old foundations.
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SCIENTIFIC TOOLS OF THE ARCHAEOLOGIST
M
any different scientists are called upon today when an
archaeological dig begins. Specialists in different fields may
be consulted to provide analysis of varied aspects.
Pollen: enormously long lived and shape specific
to each different plant, pollen can allow us to
glimpse back millions of years. It can give information on vegetative cover, climate changes,
food production, and the diet of ancient civilizations through coprolite analysis.
Pottery: easy and cheap to make, has been found
in sites up to10,000 years old. Although it was
often broken in daily use it is an extremely
durable material and does not dissolve. Pottery
shapes indicate its function which in turn gives
insight into daily life or ceremonial activities in a
particular community.
needed for this work.
Burials and bodies: Bones and teeth can provide
evidence of occupations or health history and
even surgical techniques. Wear on the teeth may
reveal dietary habits. Chemical markers can be
used to trace the region of birth. Many diseases
leave tell tale marks on growing bones to provide
evidence of childhood illness or periods of
famine. Clothing and jewellery can be reproduced, dyes investigated and materials may indicate contact with neighbouring areas or much further afield. Grave goods, simple or immensely
complex, have given archaeologists some spectacular insights.
Experimentation: How was an ancient pot glazed,
what techniques were used and which raw mate- In the 1920's, Ferlini, an Italian explorer looking
rials? Experiments using ancient firing methods for treasure, blew the tops off more than 40 of
the 50 perfectly preserved pyramids of Meroe in
could provide the answers.
the Sudan. Since those days of slash, bash and
Replication: From evidence such as tomb decora- grab the gold, archaeological methods have
tion or painted objects such as pottery it may be become a great deal more sensitive and careful.
possible to recreate a dwelling or craft using sim- Progressively new techniques and disciplines
have entered the field of archaeology the most
ilar materials and construction techniques.
recent being the use of D.N.A evidence.
Reconstruction: Mending, rebuilding or recreating
something old may highlight the types of skills To broaden the picture of life in the past archaeologists may call upon climatologists or perhaps
plant biologists to identify agricultural practices
near a site and work out why a certain group
ceased living in a previously advantageous area.
Experts in pottery may trace the origins of the
clay used in the pot shards found and thus puzzle
out trade routes used. Experts in building practices
may reconstruct the shape of an iron-age hut from
faint shadows on the ground in aerial photographs.
Pyramids of the Merotic rulers 300BC. They were built by the
kings of Napata who revived pyramid burial customs many
centuries after the pharaohs had stopped building them.
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When Lord Carnavon entered Tutankhamun's
tomb he realised the ultimate fantasy. He
walked into an undisturbed Egyptian Pharaoh's
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Sharing the Past
burial chamber brimful of
everything that might be
needed in the afterlife.
Amongst the sumptuously
carved and golden artefacts
were three-dozen plain pottery clay jars. The wine that
had once filled them had
long since evaporated but
the meticulous labels detailed
the year and place of the
The grape harvest shown in this tomb scene follows the processes of picking and
vintage, even the winemakcrushing the fruit. The resulting juice pouring into a basin is carefully monitored by
another worker and will finally be fermented in the waiting wine jars.
ers' names and allowed
Egyptologists to establish the
This ancient style beer was served at a brewing
length of Tutankhamun's reign to be nine years.
convention where the delegates drank it in the
Most of the wine came from the estate of Aton, proper Sumerian way; with long straws like the
previously owned by Akhnaten his heretical pred- gold and lapis lazuli straws found in lady Puabi's
ecessor who had caused dramatic disruption tomb at Ur.
among the priesthood by worshipping only one
god. Tutankhamun probably had a preference
for dry wines as only a few of the carefully
stored bottles held sweet wine. From the beautifully painted walls of new kingdom tombs
archaeologists have been able to follow
Egyptian wine makers in action.
By chemically analysing the stains and residues in
ancient amphorae, brewing specialists have
attempted to recreate past wines. A combination
of archaeology and recipes inscribed on
cuneiform tablets allowed a brewing company in
San Francisco to reproduce an ancient Sumerian
beer. Beer was used extensively both ceremonially and in daily life. From a hymn written in honour
of Ninkasi, the Sumerian goddess of brewing
comes a virtual instruction manual of steps to follow. For example:
You are the one who soaks the malt in a jar…
You are the one who spreads the cooked mash…
The filtering vat…makes a pleasant sound…
When you pour out the filtered beer of the collector vat,
It is like the
onrush of the
Tigris and the
Euphrates
Above, wine jars in Tutankhamun's tomb. Most of the wine
came from the Delta area. The new season's wine was
stored in jars carefully sealed with wet clay caps and
inscribed with the year of vintage, the vineyard and their
quality. Left, label detail from one of Tutankhamun’s wine
jars, written in hieratic, a less formal script than hieroglyphics.
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This section is divided into the learning levels.
Curriculum links are made but may not be all
inclusive.
The suggested learning activities will provide
opportunities to gain the minimum knowledge
required by students before visiting the Museum.
These are samples indicators of the type of
activity that may be carried out.
Teachers may wish to select material from different levels, according to the ability of their
students.
CULTURE AND HERITAGE CURRICULUM
Culture and Heritage Curriculum Level 1
Achievement Objectives and Indicators
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
Features of the culture and heritage of their own
and other groups:
* Describe similarities and differences between
features of their own culture and heritage and
those of other groups.
Customs and traditions associated with participation in cultural activities:
* Give examples of customs and traditions associated with cultural activities;
* Describe the customs and traditions associated
with an activity from a particular culture
Culture and Heritage Curriculum Level 2
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
Ways in which communities reflect the cultures
and heritages of their people:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Describe ways community activities (e.g. on
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curriculum links
special occasions) and features of the community
(e.g. buildings) reflect the cultures and heritages
of the people who live there;
*Explain how certain features of the community
(e.g. historic places, street names, place names,
museums) reflect people's heritage.
How people interact within their cultural groups
and with other cultural groups:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Describe customs and traditions that influence
the ways in which people interact within a cultural group.
Culture and Heritage Curriculum Level 3
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
How practices of cultural groups vary but reflect
similar purposes:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Describe similarities and differences in the
ways cultural groups meet common needs;
*Identify similarities in the purposes and activities of cultural practices across a range of cultural groups;
*Describe how cultural practices reflect tradition
(e.g., through gift-giving, rites of passage, food
gathering and preparation).
Culture and Heritage Curriculum Level 4
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
Why and how individuals and groups pass on and
sustain their culture and heritage:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Describe various ways in which cultural practices and heritage are recorded and passed on
to others (e.g., through myths, legends, stories,
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Te Papa Whakahiku
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carvings, paintings, songs, schooling); the impact
of the spread of new technology and ideas on
culture and heritage.
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Identify changes that have occurred in aspects
of culture and heritage as a result of technological change;
*Give examples of ways technological change
has exposed cultures to a range of ideas.
Sharing the Past
How and why people describe places and environments in different ways:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Explain what place names reveal about places
and environments;
*Explain why people choose to record particular features of places and environments.
Place and Environment Curriculum Level 3
Culture and Heritage Curriculum Level 5
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
The effects of cultural interaction on cultures and
societies:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Explain the different types of relationships that
can exist between cultural groups (e.g., assimilation, segregation, integration, genocide, biculturalism, multiculturalism);
*Describe ways in which cultural interaction can
enrich communities and societies;
PLACE AND ENVIRONMENT CURRICULUM
Place and Environment Curriculum Level 2
Achievement Objectives and Indicators
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
How people's activities influence places and the
environment and are influenced by them:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Give examples of ways people's activities
(e.g., food storage, gardening, communications,
defence) are influenced by the location and
physical features of a place;
*Describe how people can restore or enhance
natural or cultural features of the environment.
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
How different groups view and use places and the
environment:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Identify different types of environment in which
people live (e.g., tundra, plains, atolls, war-torn,
polluted);
*Explain how people seek to overcome the limitations of places and environments;
*Give examples of different ways in which people use the same places and environments.
How and why people express a sense of belonging to particular places and environments:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Identify features of places that reflect people's
relationships to the places (e.g., monuments,
plaques, street names);
*Explain why people return to particular places
(e.g., schools, holiday places, birthplaces);
*Describe ways people remember places and
environments (e.g., through photographs, diaries)
and ways people express their feelings for particular places (e.g., through poetry, paintings,
music).
Place and Environment Curriculum Level 4
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Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
How places reflect past interactions of people
with the environment:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Identify features of a landscape that reflect
people's past activities;
*Explain how features of a landscape may
result from interactions between people and the
environment;
*Explain why some features resulting from past
interactions endure while others disappear (e.g.,
considering the effects of legislation, isolation,
durability of the features, and significance of
the features to people).
Why and how people find out about places and
environments:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Identify different reasons people have for
finding out about places and environments;
*Give examples of different ways people find
out about places and environments (e.g., through
direct experience, discussion, books, television);
*Explain the reasons why individuals or groups
(such as explorers, navigators, or groups of
travellers) have undertaken journeys and
recorded ideas about places and environments.
Place and Environment Curriculum Level 5
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
Why particular places and environments are significant for people:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Describe factors (e.g., cultural, historical, geographical, aesthetic, economic, strategic) that
influence the value that communities and nations
attach to places and environments;
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*Give examples of places and environments that
are significant to particular communities and
nations and explain their significance.
TIME, CONTINUITY AND CHANGE CURRICULUM
Time, Continuity and Change Curriculum Level 1
Achievement Objectives and Indicators
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
Ways in which time and change affect people:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Give examples of changes that have affected
family and community life (e.g., changes in
clothing, transport, games, family activities,
buildings, gathering food).
Time, Continuity and Change Curriculum Level 2
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
How past events changed aspects of the lives of
communities:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Explain the difference between the recent past
and the distant past;
*Identify events that people in a community
experienced in the recent past and the distant
past;
*Give examples of ways that past events
changed or affected the lives of communities.
How and why the past is important to people:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Give examples of ways in which people are
connected with their past;
*Give examples of ways in which knowing
about their past helps people to understand
who they are;
Auckland Museum
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curriculum links
*Explain why people are interested in the past.
Sharing the Past
about people in the past through records.
Time, Continuity and Change Curriculum Level 4
Time, Continuity and Change Curriculum Level 3
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
How the ideas and actions of people in the past
changed the lives of others:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Give examples of why particular women, men,
and children in the past are remembered (e.g.,
for their courage, inventiveness, creativity,
charisma, use or abuse of power);
*Describe people's ideas and actions that
changed the lives of other people in particular
times and places.
How the past is recorded and remembered in different ways:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Identify ways people can find out about their
past;
*Explain how people's experiences and activities
have been recorded in different time and place
settings (e.g., through culture, language, technology, art);
*explain what people in the present can learn
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
Causes and effects of events that have shaped the
lives of a group of people:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Describe events a group of people has experienced over time (e.g., natural disasters, wars,
diseases and epidemics, cultural contacts);
*Identify possible causes of particular events
that people experience.
Time, Continuity and Change Curriculum Level 5
Students will demonstrate knowledge and understandings of:
How past events have influenced relationships
within and between groups of people and continue to influence them:
Students could demonstrate such knowledge and
understandings when they:
*Identify past events that have been important
for particular communities, cultures, and nations;
*Give examples of the ways in which past
events influenced relationships between groups
involved in those events.
PRE AND POST VISIT ACTIVITIES
Year 1 - 3
· Pose a question such as: Do you remember….
when you went to the beach last year? Did you
bring back anything to remember it by? Make a
class collection.
· For home time develop a questionnaire for parents. Do they remember some special event from
their childhood? Do they have some memento
which serves as a reminder?
· Collect some family 'treasures' or photographs
and display with permission.
· Interview or invite some grandparents or older
folk. Prepare questions well beforehand encouraging the open-ended type.
· Compare chores today with those from the past.
Ask selected elders to teach a skill which they
used for their chore. e.g polishing silver, or making butter
· Bury robust items in the sandpit. Later dig them
up with the children and try to work out how the
people lived.
· Collect an imaginary family's rubbish (suitably
cleaned and vetted). From this try to reach some
conclusions about their lifestyle.
· Display some old kitchen implements or tools.
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Sharing the Past
PRE AND POST VISIT ACTIVITIES (Cont.d)
Why are the tools so different from the ones we
use today?
· Collect and display some fossils or fossil pictures
and pose the question "How was the world different then?" Research answers.
·Encourage children to make their own holiday
memorabilia collection to display.
foundations, natural disasters (e.g. Titanic), accidental (windblown leaves, volcanic ash etc.)
· Study our own version of Pompeii, the Buried
Village near Rotorua, which was buried during
Tarawera's eruption.
Year 4 - 6
· Organize a visit to a retirement village and
interview willing residents about their early lives.
Prepare questions beforehand to encourage
variety. Survey toys, tools, kitchen equipment, etc
compared to today. Display as a museum might.
· Study your local area. Use local historians,
library records, street names and buildings to
gain ideas. Build a 3-D model of the area or a
map with overlays to note the changes.
· Playing dead. One child lies on the floor surrounded by all the things s/he would want to take
to the After-life. Make an outline for the record.
Imagine excavating this grave 1000yrs on.*What
would decompose and what would be left?
*What could archaeologists say about this person's status, job, age, and cause of death? *What
could be said about the society in which this person lived, technology, money, literacy, and gender equality? Make a second much depleted outline.
· Examine a handbag's contents. *What does it
tell you about wealth, age, health, gender and
the society of its owner? *If stolen and thrown
away what would survive into the next century?
Divide into two groups write a report. One on the
person now and one if found next century.
· Use Digging up the Past by M. Trotter and B.
McCulloch to research New Zealand's archaeological discoveries. Each pair could research a
site, an artefact or detail some of the evidence
used to trace the Polynesian settlement of the
Pacific. Or each pair could choose an aspect of
discovery e.g. bones in N.Z and what they told us,
or tools or moa hunters’ sites, or ornaments which
show how Maori lived.
· Research an ancient civilisation. What evidence
can be used to describe daily life? Is there something you can't find out? Why is this?
· Collect life histories (of great grandparents if
possible). Write diaries about children's daily life
based on knowledge gathered.
· Make two time capsules. One a simulated version from the past (teacher collected), another
assembled by today's children to be opened in
the future.
· Study an ancient civilization, e.g. Pompeii, Rome,
Greece, Mesopotamia. Produce a play based on
some event, perhaps a fiesta day or a religious
celebration.
· Become familiar with some of the archaeological evidence left on an abandoned living site.
Pretend you are digging on your school site one
hundred years into the future. Draw a simulated
archaeological map. Detail what was found.
· Use the Internet to play some simulated archaeological games. The Ontario Museum has an
interesting site:
http//www.rom.on.ca/digs/munsell/
· Make a time line showing tools or other equipment and how things have changed over time.
Predict how they will function in the future or if
they will be used at all.
· Rubbish bin archaeology. Create a bin shape,
each day glue, or pin drawn rubbish onto the bin
but cover the previous days rubbish. End by
uncovering the week's result and analyse daily
trends. Can you do this in reality? Find out who
uses rubbish to gather evidence and what can be
found out.
· What kinds of things do archaeologists find?
What rots and what remains? Bury food and less
fragile articles well before your study, predict
then dig up to prove or disprove theories.
· How do things from the past become buried?
Make a list: rubbish buried, deliberate (graves
animals, people), hiding valuables in war time e.g
carvings which decorated Maori buildings, laying
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Sharing the Past
CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET 1
Layers
Layers
Modern garden soil
Modern
brick wall
Fill and
rubble
Level 1
Old tennis court
Demolished stone wall
1849 stone wall
Level 2
Soil
with tree
evidence
1849
rubbish pit
Shells
Post-hole with
wooden post mould
Hangi pit
Natural subsoil
Level 3
This is a cross-section of an area somewhere in New Zealand.
· What happened recently in level 1? Can you think of any reason why the old tennis court from 1930
was buried?
· What can you say about the activity that went on in Level 2? What do you know about what was
happening in New Zealand in the early part of the 19th century?
· Who were the people who lived in the deepest layer? How do you know?
These are some of the artefacts found during an archaeological dig of this site. Decide which layer
each one was most likely found in. Where will the Coca Cola can be found?
· What will the next 100 years bring? Add another layer to this diagram and sketch in what you think
will be discarded and will be preserved for archaeologists in the year 2100 to discover.
Clay pipe
Chamber pot
Bone fish hook
Stone adze
blade
Glass Coca
Cola bottle
Paua shell
Kerosene
lamp
Metal beer
bottle cap
Kapeu, greenstone
ear pendant
Dog tooth with
drill hole
Iron kettle
Mrs Pott’s iron
Greenstone tiki
Fun Ho metal
toy car
Glass bottles with
marble sttopper
Coca Cola can
China doll
head
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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET 2
Looking at a 'Big Mac' box to find out about 20th century lifestyle.
This activity has been developed from an original
idea in Learning from Objects, an English
Heritage Education Service resource book.
The aim is to gain some practice in looking closely at a single object. You can begin by asking
questions about a very familiar object which most
students will already have used.
Q 2. Is it a common or rare object?
A: Very common. We know because we've seen
masses of them. This suggests there is a high
demand for McDonald's food and that boxes are
relatively easy to produce.
Q 3. What material is it made from? Is it a natural material or man-made?
Here, a small number of questions have been con- A: Cardboard. Man-made material. We do not
structed which can be applied exactly to both come across it in the natural world. This shows us
modern and ancient objects. While they show the that the technology exists to make new materials
range of possibilities you will decide how much to to suit our needs.
use.
Q 4. Is this a good material to use?
You can approach the questions on different lev- Hold the box firmly between your hands for sevels according to the time available and the chil- eral seconds and it will let heat through.
A: This material is not suitable for keeping somedren's experience and abilities.
thing warm. It is easily squashed however. It is
clean, light to handle and transport. Think of
Things to use in the exercise:
'Big Mac' boxes. You can make a display of other other packaged items made of cardboard. It is a
packaging which utilizes cardboard in various very versatile material. These qualities are beneways.
ficial to both the company and the consumer. The
material is biodegradable.
SOME QUESTIONS TO THINK ABOUT
You can find out a lot by looking and feeling. Q 5. How has it been made? What does this tell us?
Some questions need a little research and may A: The standard size and shape (remember we
even need a buying field trip (in your own time of have seen lots of them so we know this), regular
course).
lettering, show us that it has been stamped out in
one piece. You can relate this to cookie cutters
and cutting of mass clothing. At one point the box
Q 1. Can you tell what the object is used for?
You will have to pretend you don't know and can lie flat (good for stacking). This all suggests
mass production. Mass production means a relathere is no writing on it.
A: Its enclosed shape and lid suggest that it con- tively cheap product for the consumer. When is it
tains something. Solid or liquid?
glued together do you think? Can you see production line potential there?
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Looking at a 'Big Mac' box (continued)
Q 6. What is the purpose of the different colours
of the boxes or writing on the outside?
A: Describing the contents and logo advertising
company. Colour helps assistants to pick out right
box quickly. Note 'Don't litter' image on the chips
cartons. Litter details try and promote an environmentally friendly company. Do they use any
other customer attracting techniques?
Note: There are at least 131 Internet sites which
feature something to do with McDonalds. You
could make up a did-you-know quiz to get some
net surfing going on.
Going further:
Now translate the techniques for looking at a modern artefact into looking at objects from the past.
Pottery is the most abundant find on an urban
Q 7. Do we see these boxes in other parts of the excavation. It is usually found as domestic debris, in
country? Do we see them abroad?
sherds or broken pieces, but complete vessels are
A: McDonalds fast food restaurants originated in often found as grave goods in burials or as part of
the United States and they are now found in a sunken cargo. Its use as a dating tool makes it
many towns in this country. What about other particularly valuable.
countries? There is a high demand for McDonald's
products. In this respect it is clearly a successful A saucer or cup from the 19th century is quite easy
company with extensive marketing networks. to come by, will be quite familiar to many children
There is even a McDonald's at Pompeii (the new and was in widespread use (raid great aunt's china
cabinet). In ancient times e.g. Egypt, Rome etc.
town, that is)!
Amphorae were also traded, used domestically and
Q 8. What happens to the box after it has been placed in graves.
used?
A: It is intended to be thrown away. It has served
its purpose and is disposable.
Q 9. Do you think the box is a valuable object?
What does 'valuable' mean?
A: In monetary terms, the box is not of value.
There are too many of them and they are not
made in a precious material. The box may however become a collector's item in the future. It is
of value to McDonald's (boxes don't need washing, hold together well, desirable qualities of
material used, mass produced) and of value to
the customer (convenience food can be eaten
almost anywhere giving more freedom of choice).
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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET 3
Photo Interpretation
These two photos were taken some years apart in 1889 and 1901. They are looking in the same
direction up Auckland's Queen Street.
· Find the right hand clock
tower in the first picture
and then look for it in the
second photo.
· What differences do you
notice between the two
photos that would indicate
new inventions and new
ways of doing things in
1901?
SIGNS: In 1889 a shop
sign says 'Sailmaker'. Why
were sails an important
product at that time?
In 1901 there is a sign on
the left which says
'Caution, walk around corners'. Who was this meant
for: people or horses?
· In the 1901 photo you
can see different ways of
moving goods and people.
A handcart…What sorts of
things might he be delivering to the chemist or to the
Imperial Hotel further
down? Lumpy sacks in a
covered wagon…. What
does the fact that the
wagon is covered suggest
about the contents of the
sacks? What different way
of packaging can you see
in the nearest horse and cart? Can the tram travel at night? How do you know? How does it get its
power? Why does it need tracks to travel along? (For a close-up view of the tram, look at page 43.)
Extra for experts: Only 12 years separate these photos. Investigate what has changed in your neighbourhood in your lifetime. Make a display of any photos you found and make a before and after map
of the area.
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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET 4
The Great Museum of Auckland
Scenario: You have just discovered that the Olympics in the year 2020 will be held in Auckland.
Your Job: To put on an exhibition showing the world what Auckland is all about.
Things to think about:
· What is the exhibition about?
· Who is the exhibition for? Do they have any special needs?
· What do you want people to learn from the exhibition?
· Where will you have the exhibition?
· What will you choose to go in the exhibition?
Remember this is the future and Auckland will have changed from today!
· How will you display the objects in the exhibition?
· What information will you include? (Remember what you want people to learn!)
· How will you make sure that people can get through the exhibition easily?
· How will you advertise the exhibition?
You have '6 months' to design your exhibition and show your idea to the public of Auckland.
Here is your design sheet. Good Luck!
This exhibition is about:
People who will see the exhibition are:
I want people to learn these things:
They might need special things like:
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The Great Museum of Auckland (continued)
I think these things should go into the exhibition:
Here are some ways I could display the things in the exhibition:
This is how I could tell people about the exhibition:
This is a plan of where everything will be in the exhibition. It also shows where people can walk so
that they don't get crowded. You might need to use a bigger piece of paper.
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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET 5
Photo Interpretation
Shops in the past were very different. In this photo, taken inside a chemist shop, a shopkeeper is discussing something with one customer while the other is looking directly at the photographer.
· What does the sign above the customer say? (ex is cut off the word in the last line) What are the
letters made out of? What does this suggest they do in this shop that would never happen in a
chemists shop today?
· The shopkeeper is holding a pair of glasses. What else does this chemists do for its customers?
· On the counter is a stand with toothbrushes. Think what you might buy in a chemist's today. Now
try and imagine what could be in all those bottles. You could buy some ready made medicines even
then as you can see by the photo of the little girl selling Stearns headache cures.
Extra for experts:
Research some herbal remedies then cook some up. Display in beautifully labeled bottles for your
class OR try and find a product called Eno's in the supermarket. What is it used for? In the photo Eno's
Fruit Salts are displayed behind the plump customer OR organise a trip to your local chemist take this
photo and ask him to show you how his job is different today.
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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET 6
Photo Interpretation
One of the industries which employed many men was kauri logging. Kauri forests grew from
Northland as far south as Kawhia Harbour. The tree had a straight, very thick trunk without side
branches which meant its wood was free of knotholes and ideal for building. In fact many of the early
houses in Auckland were made from this timber. The work was dangerous and loggers lived for months
at a time in the forest before the logs could be dragged or floated down stream to their destination.
· How are these oxen joined together? There are sixteen oxen altogether. What does this tell you
about the log behind them?
· Oxen can be quite stubborn. Can you find something in the photo that the drovers could use to get
them moving faster?
· What has been done to make the log easier to move along? How would the thin logs laid on the
ground help?
· Study the houses behind the oxen. Wooden planks or punga logs have been used for the walls,
nikau palm leaves or shingles for the roofs. Which house would you rather live in?
· Built touching the right side of the left hand house is a small shed with a very sloped roof. This is
the chimney. You could stand inside. How have chimneys changed over time?
Further thinking:
1) What do you imagine was inside the house? Draw a plan as you imagine it would be. Which room
found in our modern houses would probably not be inside? Why?
2) Find out about cooking and entertainment in a bush camp like this. Also look at information about
gum diggers, especially photographs which will help you find out more about the bush workers’ lives.
3) What artefacts or parts of artefacts might have been left behind and what would still be identifiable if you were fossicking there today?
4) Find out about timber workers today and if kauri and other scarce trees are still being felled.
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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET 7
Colonial Recipes
For the early settlers of Auckland, each ship was greeted with joy, often because it brought supplies
of familiar food and household goods. Bread was baked daily in most households. Butter was homemade or bought from a neighbour. Without refrigeration, food had to be stored carefully to keep it
fresh. Letters sent to family and friends often requested seeds for growing vegetables.
Some Colonial Recipes to try
Measurements are in Imperial form: oz (ounce): 25 grams, lb (pound): 450 grams, pint: 600 ml
Lemon Curd (also known as lemon honey)
Yolks of 3 eggs, 2 ozs butter, 4 ozs sugar, juice & rind of 1 lemon.
Put all into a pan & stir until it thickens.
Damper
3 large cups flour, 1 teaspoon salt, 2 teaspoons cream of tartar, 1 teaspoon
of soda, 1 dessertspoon sugar.
Mix all ingredients with cold water till smooth and pliable. Shape into loaf. Cook over hot coals for
30 minutes.
Barn Bread (A Traditional Welsh recipe)
½ lb raisins, ½ lb sultanas, ½ lb flour, 1 teaspoon baking powder, 1 teaspoon baking soda, 6 ounces
brown sugar, ½ pint cold tea.
Soak fruit overnight in cold tea. Next morning beat in sugar, then flour, baking powder and baking
soda until well mixed. Pile into a loaf tin. Bake in a medium oven for approximately 1 hour or until
done. Test with skewer. When cooked, leave to cool.
Pumpkin Pie
A Pumpkin, 6 eggs, 3 pints of milk, ½ pound of sugar, flavouring of mace and nutmeg. Puff Pastry.
Cut the pumpkin, take out seeds and boil till soft. Press it through a sieve, and to a quart of the pulp
add the above ingredients. Mix first the sugar, then the milk, then the yolks and whites of eggs beaten separately, and beat all together. Line a dish with puff-pastry, pour in the mixture and bake in a
hot oven. Allow ¾ hour for pie to cook.
Extra for experts:
To cook colonial foods people needed many ingredients which were not found naturally in New
Zealand (e.g., lemons, chickens for eggs, cows for milk and butter). Look in the recipes to decide which
ingredients would be imported. How did they get here? Research the activities of the Acclimatization
Society now known as the Fish and Game Council and the part they played in changing New
Zealand's flora and fauna.
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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET 8
Cottages of Early Auckland
In early Auckland, most houses were made from wood and had just two rooms. A tiny shed was built
behind the house, which was the toilet. Washing and cooking were both done in the living room.
Later on people added kitchens, verandahs, bathrooms and inside toilets.
If we took the roof off the cottage this
is what we would see:
T
W
B
L
Key:
C
B - Bedroom
L - Living
T - Toilet
V - Verandah
C - Chimney
W - Well
V
1. Where would people cook in this house? Where would they sleep? Where would they eat? Why
is the toilet outside?
2. If you needed to enlarge this house what would you add on and where would you add it?
3. If this house burned down what evidence might be left to show there was once a family living on
that spot?
Circle of bricks
Stone garden
wall
Broken tiles
Key (draw your own):
Bricks and rubble
Post holes
Large slab of
rock
4. Work out what all the different parts of this drawing were when the house was still standing.
5. Draw a floor plan of your house, and add information about what the house is made from, what
year it was built and if any additions were made. Add a photo of your house too.
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CLASSROOM ACTIVITY SHEET 9
Mummy, mummy! Where is my mummy?
Have you ever wondered why every time you eat salty foods you get thirsty? The answer is simple. Salt
is a desiccant- it helps remove water from things, including human bodies. That is why, when Egyptians
needed to preserve their dead for the Afterlife, they used a salt called Natron to dry the body out.
Their religion included belief in many gods. Each god was represented by an animal on earth. You
can try this process out yourself by mummifying a chicken (to represent an Ibis) or, if you are a bit
squeamish, try it on an apple. The advantage of the apple mummy is that you can do this in groups
and it only takes a week, but the advantage of using a chicken is that you follow the process more
realistically, rubbing oils and spices into the skin and even wrapping it in bandages. (You can even
have ceremonies and make it a bird shaped coffin).
FOR THE APPLE MUMMY
Materials:
2 fresh apples
large box of table salt
large box of Epsom salts
large box of baking soda
knife
8 plastic cups
measuring cup
large mixing bowl
permanent marker
roll of masking tape
sensitive food scales
piece of graph paper & pencil
1. Peel and slice the apples into quarters so you end up with 8 pieces. Using the tape label each cup
with "Starting Weight' and a number from 1 to 8. Then weigh each apple slice and record its weight
on its numbered cup.
2. Add exactly ½ cup baking soda to cup 1. Cover the apple completely. Then write "baking soda
only" on its label. Fill cup 2 with ½ cup Epsom salts and label. Fill cup 3 with ½ cup table salt and
label it.
3. Repeat the procedure for cups 4 to 6 using a 50:50 mix of Epsom/table salt in cup 4, table salt/baking soda for cup 5, and baking soda/Epsom salts for cup 6. Make sure you label each correctly.
4. In cup 7 mix 1/3 baking soda,1/3 Epsom salts & 1/3 table salt. Leave cup 8 alone as a control.
Place the cups on a shelf out of direct sunlight and let them sit for 7 days. Then take out each slice (one
at a time so you don't mix them up) brush off the salt, weigh, and record new weight on the cup. Do not
rinse them in water or they will rehydrate! Subtract end weight from starting weight & record.
Questions: Which apple piece had lost the most moisture? Which compound was the best at mummifying your apple? Would you have achieved the same, better or worse results if you had not peeled it or
left it whole? What was the point of leaving one piece with no salt at all? Where did the moisture go?
Can you confirm this? Try to find out about preserving food by pickling, drying salting and smoking.
N.B. It is always a good idea to try out experiments before you let students loose on this. Be warned
that the chicken mummy is quite odiferous until it is completely dried. You may wish to use knowledge
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gained in the apple recipes to try on the chicken. The following recipe is only one option. Or you may wish to stick
with the apples and make apple coffin cases inventing your
own apple ceremonies which incorporate an Egyptian
Apple god.
FOR THE CHICKEN MUMMY
Materials:
a whole chicken
26 oz salt per chicken per week
plastic gloves
½ cup of spices per chicken per week (any strong sweet
smelling spices will do)
paper towels
zip-lock freezer strength bags (2 litre capacity)
gauze strips
plastic leak-proof container to hold chicken in bag
a weight record sheet
1. Weigh the chicken. Then remove any entrails (Wear gloves for this. Especially in this era of salmonella chicken scares, hygiene during this process is most important). You may wish to preserve the
entrails in smaller bags separately and later make canopic jars for them out of baby food jars.
2. Under running water rinse inside and out until the water runs clear. Continue handling with fresh
gloves. Dry very thoroughly with paper towels inside and out. Remember moisture will cause problems during mummification.
3. Rub ½ of the spices all over and inside the bird. The stronger smelling spices the better as they
are to mask the odour of decay which will occur.
4. Rub salt thoroughly over and into the cavity, making sure that every inch is covered. Fill the cavity
with salt.
5. Place the chicken in a zip-lock bag, seal the bag and leave in a cool dry place out of the sun. As
the chicken dries liquid will drain from the carcass into the bottom of the bag.
6. Once a week for 4 or 5 weeks remove the chicken (wear gloves!). Weigh each time and record
the weight. Dab the chicken clean and re-salt and re-spice each time.
7. Repeat this process until no more liquid drains from the bird into the bag.
8. When it is done weigh for the last time. Now rub in baby oil or suntan oil to keep the skin flexible,
wrap it in bandages and decorate any way you please.
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MUSEUM GALLERY ACTIVITY SHEET YR 1-3
Go to the Wild Child Gallery
Find the classroom close to the elephant and sit on the
benches. Look above the doorway opposite the blackboard.
· How were children's clothes different then?
· In the glass table find the book by the glasses.
· Copy one word of the joined writing onto the
blackboard to the right.
Look at the dental clinic.
· What is the same and what is different about your dental
clinic today?
· Can you guess what some of the tools are for?
Go to the toys collections area on the other side of the
gallery.
· Many children lost metal toys like this in gardens. They
can tell us what transport was like in the past.
· How is the shiny black car different from yours?
Walk into the City Gallery (turn left at the entrance)
Find the model of Queen Street on the left hand side. This model was made
by using evidence from photographs and paintings.
· The barrels were unloaded from a ship. Can you guess what might have
been inside?
· There was a windmill on the hill (near Grafton Bridge). It made flour for
what?
Gallery Activity Sheet
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Sharing the Past
MUSEUM GALLERY ACTIVITY SHEET YR 1-3 (continued)
Find the Ligar Canal and the gaol with the 4 on the door. These were both in Auckland's Queen St. in 1860.
· Look in both sides and tick what was found when they dug there.
Gin bottle
Toy cars
False teeth
Shoe soles
Dinner plate
Bones
Go upstairs to Colonial Auckland 1866 (stop at the main entrance)
Look at the big wall map. This was the early shape of Auckland City.
· Can you find where the wharf is sticking out into the harbour from the bottom of Queen Street?
· Draw the shape from the map in the circle. It was the Albert Barracks for soldiers in 1860.
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MUSEUM GALLERY ACTIVITY SHEET YR 1-3 (continued)
Turn left into the Gallery. We know all these shops were in Auckland from looking at photos of that
time. Find the wall photo of Auckland Harbour in 1860.
· How did the ships in this picture move?
· Look in the shop to the left and find something to provide light on a ship.
Go to the barrel outside Steers Hotel. Find this bootscraper
near it. This was used to scrape mud from the soles of your
shoes.
· Try it out.
Go into Brown & Campbell the general store.
· If you found this in your garden, work out what would it be
used for.
Look inside the shop that sells saddles and harness for horses.
Horses had a harness around their head so the rider could steer.
Where would the saddle go?
· Where did these go on the horse?
Gallery Activity Sheet
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Auckland Museum
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Sharing the Past
gallery activity sheet
MUSEUM GALLERY ACTIVITY SHEET YR 1-3 (continued)
Go to the Chemist next door. Bottles don't rot away but they often break and are thrown away.
Blue coloured bottles held poison.
· Find some poison bottles in the shop.
· From the wall photos at the far end can you describe what the roads in Auckland were like?
Go to the toyshop near the entrance.
Which toys would children today never get for Christmas?
Why not?
Well done!
You’ve completed
the Trail and discovered the
past at Auckland Museum
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Gallery Activity Sheet
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Auckland Museum
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MUSEUM GALLERY ACTIVITY SHEET YR 4-6
GO TO CITY GALLERY
Archaeologists use all kinds of evidence to find out about life in the past.
Each display has a heading. Look …..
By… The Price of Auckland
· Find a map of Auckland: look for Maungawhau the Maori name for Mt. Eden. The brown area
was the size of Auckland at first. Round the corner on the lights map you can see Auckland
grow.
· Governor Grey used goods as payment for Auckland. Can you find the pipe and the tobacco
that was paid? What else can you see?
· Furniture can tell you about the past. What furniture can you find?
By… Maori Foundations
· What 2 different ways can you see of recording the mokos (tattoos) Maori people wore?
By…Maori Trade
Look at the model of Auckland's Queen Street. This model was made using evidence from photos
and drawings.
· What can you see in the model that you would not see in Queen St. today?
· Find a windmill used to grind flour. Photographs show this stood just by Grafton Bridge.
By… What to Bring
All these things were brought by new settlers to N.Z.
· Find something to pull out corks. What else can it be used to do?
· Something you used on a ship. What was it for?
· Something to decorate butter. What pattern would you get?
Gallery Activity Sheet
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Auckland Museum
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gallery activity sheet
MUSEUM GALLERY ACTIVITY SHEET YR 4-6 (continued)
By… The Ligar Canal
Queen St. once looked like this photo with a smelly canal running down one side. Look at the model
of it below the photo. Why was it smelly do you think?
· Draw something that was found in the canal mud when they dug up Queen St in 1998.
This is a:
Read the label for more information.
By … The Gaol (Door 4)
These things were dug up from Queen St's old gaol area in 1987.
From the items on display decide:
· What the men wore and why
· What they ate
· What work they did
By… City Building (opposite the gaol)
· Can you find something to let smoke out of the roof?
· Is it big enough for Santa and his sack?
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MUSEUM GALLERY ACTIVITY SHEET YR 4-6 (continued)
By … Women's Work
Many tools especially those made from iron have lasted to tell us about the past.
· Sketch 2 objects and write what they were for.
This was for:
This was for:
Today we use:
Today we use:
GO TO THE WILD CHILD GALLERY
On the verandah display close to the elephant's head end of the gallery.
· Choose an item that you think would not rot away.
· What job was this for?
· How did it work?
Walk through the nursery area (with the pram) and stop by the gravestone.
Graveyards give us important historical evidence.
· How old were the two babies who died?
· Fewer babies die young today. Why do you think so many more babies died in the 1870's?
Walk to the bedroom end of the gallery.
Collectors often leave their collections to a museum.
· Look carefully at the things people have made collections of. Have you ever collected any of these
things?
· Choose which collection you think would be the most useful to a museum. Why?
Gallery Activity Sheet
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Auckland Museum
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Sharing the Past
gallery activity sheet
MUSEUM GALLERY ACTIVITY SHEET YR 7-10
CITY GALLERY
Look by the displays which are labelled:
Maori Foundations & The Price of Auckland
Historical evidence. There are many different types of evidence from the past.
Look carefully in this area and see if you can find….
· Documented evidence. What does it show?
· What Maori and Pakeha looked like. What types of evidence did you notice?
· What the Auckland area looked like and the housing styles.
· Maori technology mixed with new materials. What did you find?
Maori Trade
Find the newspaper report from the Provincial Gazette (Item 3) that shows Maori people came
to Auckland to trade.
· Name some things they traded in Auckland.
What to Bring (right hand side)
· Try the matching activity by this heading. Hard isn't it? But….the answers are on the left hand side.
Documentary evidence of lists for new immigrants survive.
· Look at Suggested Luggage for the Early Colonial
· Read 'for the husband ' and compare the items with 'Outfit for the gentleman'
or read 'for the wife' and compare the items with 'Outfit for the lady'
Why would there be such a difference?
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Gallery Activity Sheet
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MUSEUM GALLERY ACTIVITY SHEET YR 7-10
Ligar Canal
Look at the photograph of Auckland's Queen
Street and then read the information on the right
hand label.
There is an actual bit of the canal that was dug
up under Queen Street below the photograph.
· What types of things were discovered in the
dirt?
Queen Street Gaol (the door with the 4)
Look through the windows at what was dug up during the 1987
archaeological dig in Queen St.
· Why did the male prisoners have to break stone?
· What kind of boots did they wear?
· What did the food evidence show?
Walk through the rest of this exhibition
Either:
Make notes on the different ways evidence of
the past has survived. E.g look in the Farmers
Store display or go to the small theatre to find
examples
Or:
Go to the Peoples Wall in the centre of the
gallery. Look at the types of information
which has been included in each new immigrant's stories.
· Plan a new display for on this wall. If it was your family represented on this wall what would
you include in the information? What photos would be suitable? What special objects would show
interesting things about your family history? What title would you give it?
Gallery Activity Sheet
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Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
Sharing the Past
bibliography
You may find these in the school or local library.
You are also welcome to browse through our Museum Library which is on the top floor and accessed
from the World War 2, Scars on the Heart Gallery and is open weekdays from 1.00 to 5.00 pm.
Aston, Mick. Taylor, Tim. The Atlas of Archaeology. Dorling Kindersley, 1998
These are from the B.B.C's Time Team. This book describes the various digs which the archaeologists
on this television programme organised and the discoveries they made.
Fagan, Brian, M. Time Detectives. Simon & Schuster, 1995
Haslam, Andrew. Parsons, Alexandra. Make it Work! Ancient Egypt. Two-Can Publishing Ltd, 1995
Hepper, Nigel, F. Pharaoh's flowers. HMSO Publications Centre, 1990
Main, William. Auckland through a Victorian Lens. Millwood Press, 1977
Martin, (Mary Ann) Lady. (1817-1884) Our Maoris. E & JB Young, London & New York, 1884
Moloney, Norah. The Young Oxford Book of Archaeology. Oxford University Press, 1995
Powell, A.W.B. The Centennial History of the Auckland Institute and Museum. Unity press Ltd, 1967
Trotter, Michael. McCulloch, Beverley. Unearthing New Zealand (revised edition renamed Digging up the
Past). Penguin Books (NZ) Ltd, 1997
49
Bibliography
Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku
Sharing the Past
BOOKING INFORMATION:
All school visits to the Museum must be booked.
We advise booking 3 months in advance.
Contact the Museum School Bookings Officer at:
Private Bag 92018 Auckland
Phone: (09) 306 7040
Fax: (09) 306 7075
Introductions and Hands-on Sessions (facilitated
by Education Staff) are available. Please ask the
School Bookings Officer for more information.
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AUCKLAND WAR MEMORIAL MUSEUM
The Domain
Auckland
Private Bag 92018 Auckland New Zealand
Auckland Museum
Te Papa Whakahiku