962 Chemistry - Portal Rasmi Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia

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962 Chemistry - Portal Rasmi Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM/S(E)962
MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)
PEPERIKSAAN
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION)
CHEMISTRY
Syllabus and Specimen Papers
This syllabus applies for the 2012/2013 session and thereafter until further notice.
NATIONAL EDUCATION PHILOSOPHY
“Education in Malaysia is an on-going effort towards further
developing the potential of individuals in a holistic and
integrated manner, so as to produce individuals who are
intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically
balanced and harmonious, based on a belief in and devotion
to God. Such effort is designed to produce Malaysian
citizens who are knowledgeable and competent, who possess
high moral standards, and who are responsible and capable
of achieving a high level of personal well-being as well as
being able to contribute to the betterment of the family, the
society and the nation at large.”
FOREWORD
This revised Chemistry syllabus is designed to replace the existing syllabus which has been in use
since the 2001 STPM examination. This new syllabus will be enforced in 2012 and the first
examination will also be held the same year. The revision of the syllabus takes into account the
changes made by the Malaysian Examinations Council (MEC) to the existing STPM examination.
Through the new system, the form six study will be divided into three terms, and candidates will sit
for an examination at the end of each term. The new syllabus fulfils the requirements of this new
system. The main objective of introducing the new examination system is to enhance the teaching
and learning orientation of form six so as to be in line with the orientation of teaching and learning in
colleges and universities.
The revision of the Chemistry syllabus incorporates current developments in chemistry studies and
syllabus design in Malaysia. The syllabus will give candidates exposure to pre-university level about
Chemistry as a central science that includes physical chemistry, inorganic chemistry and organic
chemistry. In tandem with the global needs for a sustainable environment, it is important to promote
awareness of the roles of chemistry in the understanding of nature and the universe. As such,
environmental chemistry relating to green chemistry as well as water and solid waste management
have been included in this revised syllabus. Accordingly, it is hoped that this syllabus will be able to
produce pre-university candidates which are mature minded, knowledgeable, and able to
communicate ideas effectively using various forms of communication.
The syllabus contains topics, teaching periods, learning outcomes, examination format, grade
description and specimen papers.
The design of this syllabus was undertaken by a committee chaired by Professor Datuk Dr. A. Hamid
bin A. Hadi from Universiti Malaya. Other committee members consist of university lecturers,
representatives from the Curriculum Development Division, Ministry of Education Malaysia, and
experienced teachers who are teaching Chemistry. On behalf of MEC, I would like to thank the
committee for their commitment and invaluable contribution. It is hoped that this syllabus will be a
guide for teachers and candidates in the teaching and learning process.
Chief Executive
Malaysian Examinations Council
CONTENTS
Syllabus 962 Chemistry
Page
Aims
1
Objectives
1
Content
First Term
2 – 10
Second Term
11 – 18
Third Term
19 – 30
Practical Syllabus (School-based Assessment of Practical)
31 – 32
Written Practical Test
32 – 33
Scheme of Assessment
34 – 35
Performance Descriptions
Summary of Key Quantities and Units
36
37 – 38
Periodic Table
39
Reference Books
40
Specimen Paper 1
41 – 63
Specimen Paper 2
65 – 89
Specimen Paper 3
91– 113
Specimen Experiment Paper 4
115 – 117
Specimen Paper 5
119 – 141
SYLLABUS
962 CHEMISTRY
Aims
This syllabus aims to enhance candidates knowledge and understanding of chemistry. It also enables
them to advance their studies at institutions of higher learning and assists them to pursue a chemistryrelated career. It will also promote awareness of the roles of chemistry in the understanding of nature
and the universe.
Objectives
The objectives of this syllabus are to enable the candidates to:
(a)
understand facts, terminologies and principles of chemistry;
(b)
interpret phenomena by using models, laws and chemical principles;
(c)
interpret and apply scientific information presented in various forms;
(d)
solve problems related to chemistry;
(e)
analyse, synthesise and evaluate information and ideas logically and critically;
(f)
plan, carry out experiments, draw inferences and make deductions;
(g)
use scientific equipment properly and safely;
(h)
develop positive attitudes and values towards the environment;
(i)
acquire generic skills.
1
FIRST TERM
Topic
1
Teaching
Period
Atoms, Molecules and
Stoichiometry
8
1.1
2
Fundamental particles
of an atom
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the properties of protons, neutrons
and electrons in terms of their relative charges
and relative masses;
(b) predict the behaviour of beams of protons,
neutrons and electrons in both electric and
magnetic fields;
(c) describe the distribution of mass and charges
within an atom;
(d) determine the number of protons, neutrons and
electrons present in both neutral and charged
species of a given proton number and nucleon
number;
(e) describe the contribution of protons and
neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton
number and nucleon number;
(f)
1.2
Relative atomic,
isotopic, molecular and
formula masses
3
distinguish isotopes based on the number of
neutrons present, and state examples of both
stable and unstable isotopes.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) define the terms relative atomic mass, Ar,
relative isotopic mass, relative molecular
mass, Mr, and relative formula mass based
on 12C;
(b) interpret mass spectra in terms of relative
abundance of isotopes and molecular
fragments;
(c) calculate relative atomic mass of an element
from the relative abundance of its isotopes or
its mass spectrum.
2
Topic
1.3
The mole and the
Avogadro constant
Teaching
Period
3
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) define mole in terms of the Avogadro constant;
(b) calculate the number of moles of reactants,
volumes of gases, volumes of solutions and
concentrations of solutions;
(c) deduce stoichiometric relationships from the
calculations above.
2
Electronic Structure of
Atoms
8
2.1
Electronic energy
levels of atomic
hydrogen
2
Atomic orbitals:
s, p and d
2
2.2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the formation of the emission line
spectrum of atomic hydrogen in the Lyman
and Balmer series using Bohr‟s Atomic Model.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) deduce the number and relative energies of the
s, p and d orbitals for the principal quantum
numbers 1, 2 and 3, including the 4s orbitals;
(b) describe the shape of the s and p orbitals.
2.3
Electronic
configuration
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) predict the electronic configuration of atoms
and ions given the proton number (and
charge);
(b) define and apply Aufbau principle, Hund‟s
rule and Pauli exclusion principle.
2.4
Classification of
elements into s, p, d
and f blocks in the
Periodic Table
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) identify the position of the elements in the
Periodic Table as
(i) block s, with valence shell
configurations s1 and s2,
(ii) block p, with valence shell
configurations from s2p1 to s2p6,
(iii) block d, with valence shell
configurations from d1s2 to d10s2;
(b) identify the position of elements in block f of
the Periodic Table.
3
Topic
3
Teaching
Period
Chemical Bonding
20
3.1
1
Ionic bonding
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe ionic (electrovalent) bonding as
exemplified by NaCl and MgCl2.
3.2
Covalent bonding
15
Candidates should be able to:
(a) draw the Lewis structure of covalent molecules
(octet rule as exemplified by NH3, CCl4, H2O,
CO2, N2O4 and exception to the octet rule as
exemplified by BF3, NO, NO2, PCl5, SF6);
(b) draw the Lewis structure of ions as
exemplified by SO42 , CO32 , NO3 and CN ;
(c) explain the concept of overlapping and
hybridisation of the s and p orbitals as
exemplified by BeCl2, BF3, CH4, N2, HCN,
NH3 and H2O molecules;
(d) predict and explain the shapes of and bond
angles in molecules and ions using the
principle of valence shell electron pair
repulsion, e.g. linear, trigonal planar,
tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramid, octahedral,
V-shaped, T-shaped, seesaw and pyramidal;
(e) explain the existence of polar and non-polar
bonds (including C C1, C N, C O, C Mg)
resulting in polar or/and non-polar molecules;
(f)
relate bond lengths and bond strengths with
respect to single, double and triple bonds;
(g) explain the inertness of nitrogen molecule in
terms of its strong triple bond and nonpolarity;
(h) describe typical properties associated with
ionic and covalent bonding in terms of bond
strength, melting point and electrical
conductivity;
(i)
explain the existence of covalent character in
ionic compounds such as A12O3, A1I3 and LiI;
(j)
explain the existence of coordinate (dative
covalent) bonding as exemplified by H3O+,
NH4+, A12C16 and [Fe(CN)6]3 .
4
Topic
3.3
Metallic bonding
Teaching
Period
1
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain metallic bonding in terms of electron
sea model.
3.4
Intermolecular
forces: van der
Waals forces and
hydrogen bonding
3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe hydrogen bonding and van der Waals
forces (permanent, temporary and induced
dipole);
(b) deduce the effect of van der Waals forces
between molecules on the physical properties
of substances;
(c) deduce the effect of hydrogen bonding
(intermolecular and intramolecular) on the
physical properties of substances.
4
States of Matter
14
Candidates should be able to:
4.1
6
(a) explain the pressure and behaviour of ideal gas
using the kinetic theory;
Gases
(b) explain qualitatively, in terms of molecular
size and intermolecular forces, the conditions
necessary for a gas approaching the ideal
behaviour;
(c) define Boyle‟s law, Charles‟ law and
Avogadro‟s law;
(d) apply the pV nRT equation in calculations,
including the determination of the relative
molecular mass, Mr;
(e) define Dalton‟s law, and use it to calculate the
partial pressure of a gas and its composition;
(f)
4.2
Liquids
2
explain the limitation of ideality at very high
pressures and very low temperatures.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the kinetic concept of the liquid state;
(b) describe the melting of solid to liquid,
vaporisation and vapour pressure using simple
kinetic theory;
(c) define the boiling point and freezing point of
liquids.
5
Topic
4.3
Solids
Teaching
Period
2
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe qualitatively the lattice structure of a
crystalline solid which is:
(i) ionic, as in sodium chloride,
(ii) simple molecular, as in iodine,
(iii) giant molecular, as in graphite, diamond
and silicon(IV) oxide,
(iv) metallic, as in copper;
(b) describe the allotropes of carbon (graphite,
diamond and fullerenes), and their uses.
4.4
Phase diagrams
4
Candidates should be able to:
(a) sketch the phase diagram for water and carbon
dioxide, and explain the anomalous behaviour
of water;
(b) explain phase diagrams as graphical plots of
experimentally determined results;
(c) interpret phase diagrams as curves describing
the conditions of equilibrium between phases
and as regions representing single phases;
(d) predict how a phase may change with changes
in temperature and pressure;
(e) discuss vaporisation, boiling, sublimation,
freezing, melting, triple and critical points of
H2O and CO2;
(f)
explain qualitatively the effect of a nonvolatile solute on the vapour pressure of a
solvent, and hence, on its melting point and
boiling point (colligative properties);
(g) state the uses of dry ice.
5. Reaction Kinetics
5.1 Rate of reaction
14
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) define rate of reaction, rate equation, order of
reaction, rate constant, half-life of a first-order
reaction, rate determining step, activation
energy and catalyst;
(b) explain qualitatively, in terms of collision
theory, the effects of concentration and
temperature on the rate of a reaction.
6
Topic
5.2
Rate law
Teaching
Period
4
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) calculate the rate constant from initial rates;
(b) predict an initial rate from rate equations and
experimental data;
(c) use titrimetric method to study the rate of a
given reaction.
5.3
The effect of
temperature on
reaction kinetics
1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the relationship between the rate
constants with the activation energy and
temperature using Arrhenius equation
Ea
k = Ae
RT
;
(b) use the Boltzmann distribution curve to
explain the distribution of molecular energy.
5.4
The role of catalysts in
reactions
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the effect of catalysts on the rate of a
reaction;
(b) explain how a reaction, in the presence of a
catalyst, follows an alternative path with a
lower activation energy;
(c) explain the role of atmospheric oxides of
nitrogen as catalysts in the oxidation of
atmospheric sulphur dioxide;
(d) explain the role of vanadium(V) oxide as a
catalyst in the Contact process;
(e) describe enzymes as biological catalysts.
5.5
Order of reactions and
rate constants
5
Candidates should be able to:
(a) deduce the order of a reaction (zero-, first- and
second-) and the rate constant by the initial
rates method and graphical methods;
(b) verify that a suggested reaction mechanism is
consistent with the observed kinetics;
(c) use the half-life (t½) of a first-order reaction in
calculations.
7
Topic
6
Teaching
Period
Equilibria
32
6.1
10
Chemical equilibria
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe a reversible reaction and dynamic
equilibrium in terms of forward and backward
reactions;
(b) state mass action law from stoichiometric
equation;
(c) deduce expressions for equilibrium constants
in terms of concentrations, Kc, and partial
pressures, Kp, for homogeneous and
heterogeneous systems;
(d) calculate the values of the equilibrium
constants in terms of concentrations or partial
pressures from given data;
(e) calculate the quantities present at equilibrium
from given data;
(f)
apply the concept of dynamic chemical
equilibrium to explain how the concentration
of stratospheric ozone is affected by the
photodissociation of NO2, O2 and O3 to form
reactive oxygen radicals;
(g) state the Le Chatelier‟s principle and use it to
discuss the effect of catalysts, changes in
concentration, pressure or temperature on a
system at equilibrium in the following
examples:
(i) the synthesis of hydrogen iodide,
(ii) the dissociation of dinitrogen tetroxide,
(iii) the hydrolysis of simple esters,
(iv) the Contact process,
(v) the Haber process,
(vi) the Ostwald process;
(h) explain the effect of temperature on
equilibrium constant from the equation
ΔH
C.
ln K
RT
6.2
Ionic equilibria
10
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use Arrhenius, BrØnsted-Lowry and Lewis
theories to explain acids and bases;
(b) identify conjugate acids and bases;
8
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(c) explain qualitatively the different properties of
strong and weak electrolytes;
(d) explain and calculate the terms pH, pOH, Ka,
pKa, Kb, pKb, Kw and pKw from given data;
(e) explain changes in pH during acid-base
titrations;
(f)
explain the choice of suitable indicators for
acid-base titrations;
(g) define buffer solutions;
(h) calculate the pH of buffer solutions from given
data;
(i)
6.3 Solubility equilibria
5
explain the use of buffer solutions and their
importance in biological systems such as the
role of H2CO3 / HCO3 in controlling pH in
blood.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) define solubility product, Ksp;
(b) calculate Ksp from given concentrations and
vice versa;
(c) describe the common ion effect, including
buffer solutions;
(d) predict the possibility of precipitation from
solutions of known concentrations;
(e) apply the concept of solubility equilibria to
describe industrial procedure for water
softening.
6.4
Phase equilibria
7
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state and apply Raoult‟s law for two miscible
liquids;
(b) interpret the boiling point-composition curves
for mixtures of two miscible liquids in terms
of „ideal‟ behaviour or positive or negative
deviations from Raoult‟s law;
(c) explain the principles involved in fractional
distillation of ideal and non ideal liquid
mixtures;
9
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(d) explain the term azeotropic mixture;
(e) explain the limitations on the separation of two
components forming an azeotropic mixture;
(f)
10
explain qualitatively the advantages and
disadvantages of fractional distillation under
reduced pressure.
SECOND TERM
Topic
7
Teaching
Period
Chemical Energetics
18
7.1
6
Enthalpy changes of
reaction, H
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain that most chemical reactions are
accompanied by enthalpy changes (exothermic
or endothermic);
(b) define enthalpy change of reaction, H, and
state the standard conditions;
(c) define enthalpy change of formation,
combustion, hydration, solution, neutralisation,
atomisation, bond energy, ionisation energy
and electron affinity;
(d) calculate the heat energy change from
experimental measurements using the
relationship: heat change, q mc T
or q = mc ;
(e) calculate enthalpy changes from experimental
results.
7.2
Hess‟ law
6
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state Hess‟ law, and its use to find enthalpy
changes that cannot be determined directly,
e.g. an enthalpy change of formation from
enthalpy changes of combustion;
(b) construct energy level diagrams relating the
enthalpy to reaction path and activation
energy;
(c) calculate enthalpy changes from energy cycles.
7.3
Born-Haber cycle
4
Candidates should be able to:
(a) define lattice energy for simple ionic crystals
in terms of the change from gaseous ions to
solid lattice;
(b) explain qualitatively the effects of ionic charge
and ionic radius on the numerical magnitude of
lattice energy values;
(c) construct Born-Haber cycle for the formation
of simple ionic crystals.
11
Topic
7.4
The solubility of
solids in liquids
Teaching
Period
2
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) construct energy cycles for the formation of
aqueous solutions of ionic compounds;
(b) explain qualitatively the influence on solubility
of the relationship between enthalpy change of
solution, lattice energy of solid and enthalpy
change of hydration or other solvent-solute
interaction.
8
Electrochemistry
26
8.1
2
Half-cell and redox
equations
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the redox processes and cell diagram
(cell notation) of the Daniell cell;
(b) construct redox equations.
8.2 Standard electrode
potential
9
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the standard hydrogen electrode;
(b) use the standard hydrogen electrode to
determine standard electrode potential
(standard reduction potential), Eº;
(c) calculate the standard cell potential using the
Eo values, and write the redox equations;
(d) predict the stability of aqueous ions from Eº
values;
(e) predict the power of oxidising and reducing
agents from Eº values;
(f)
8.3
Non-standard cell
potentials
3
predict the feasibility of a reaction from Eºcell
value and from the combination of various
electrode potentials: spontaneous and nonspontaneous electrode reactions.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) calculate the non-standard cell potential, Ecell,
of a cell using the Nernst equation.
8.4
Fuel cells
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the importance of the development of
more efficient batteries for electric cars in
terms of smaller size, lower mass and higher
voltage, as exemplified by hydrogen-oxygen
fuel cell.
12
8.5
Topic
Teaching
Period
Electrolysis
6
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) compare the principles of electrolytic cell to
electrochemical cell;
(b) predict the products formed during
electrolysis;
(c) state the Faraday‟s first and second laws of
electrolysis;
(d) state the relationship between the Faraday
constant, the Avogadro constant and the
electronic charge;
(e) calculate the quantity of electricity used, the
mass of material and/or gas volume liberated
during electrolysis.
8.6
Applications of
electrochemistry
4
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the principles of electrochemistry in
the process and prevention of corrosion
(rusting of iron);
(b) describe the extraction of aluminium by
electrolysis, and state the advantages of
recycling aluminium;
(c) describe the process of anodisation of
aluminium to resist corrosion;
(d) describe the diaphragm cell in the manufacture
of chlorine from brine;
(e) describe the treatment of industrial effluent by
electrolysis to remove Ni2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+;
(f)
9
Periodic Table: Periodicity
10
9.1
5
Physical properties of
elements of Period 2
and Period 3
describe the electroplating of coated plastics.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) interpret and explain the trend and gradation
of atomic radius, melting point, boiling point,
enthalpy change of vaporisation and electrical
conductivity in terms of structure and bonding;
(b) explain the factors influencing ionisation
energies;
(c) explain the trend in ionisation energies across
Period 2 and Period 3 and down a group;
13
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(d) predict the electronic configuration and
position of unknown elements in the Periodic
Table from successive values of ionisation
energies.
9.2
Reactions of Period 3
elements with oxygen
and water
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the reactions of Period 3 elements
with oxygen and water;
(b) interpret the ability of elements to act as
oxidising and reducing agents.
9.3
Acidic and basic
properties of oxides
and hydrolysis of
oxides
3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the acidic and basic properties of the
oxides of Period 3 elements;
(b) describe the reactions of the oxides of Period
3 elements with water;
(c) describe the classification of the oxides of
Period 3 elements as basic, amphoteric or
acidic based on their reactions with water, acid
and alkali;
(d) describe the use of sulphur dioxide in food
preservation.
10 Group 2
10.1 Selected Group 2
elements and their
compounds
10
7
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the trends in physical properties of
Group 2 elements: Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba;
(b) describe the reactions of Group 2 elements
with oxygen and water;
(c) describe the behaviour of the oxides of Group
2 elements with water;
(d) explain qualitatively the thermal
decomposition of the nitrates, carbonates and
hydroxides of Group 2 elements in terms of
the charge density and polarisability of large
anions;
(e) explain qualitatively the variation in solubility
of sulphate of Group 2 elements in terms of the
relative magnitudes of the enthalpy change of
hydration for the relevant ions and the
corresponding lattice energy.
14
Topic
10.2 Anomalous behaviour
of beryllium
Teaching
Period
2
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the anomalous behaviour of beryllium
as exemplified by the formation of covalent
compounds;
(b) describe the diagonal relationships between
beryllium and aluminium;
(c) explain the similarity of aqueous beryllium
salts to aqueous aluminium salts in terms of
their acidic property.
10.3 Uses of Group 2
compounds
1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state the uses of Group 2 compounds in
agriculture, industry and medicine.
11 Group 14
11.1 Physical properties of
Group 14 elements
10
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the trends in physical properties
(melting points and electrical conductivity) of
Group 14 elements: C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb.
11.2 Tetrachlorides and
oxides of Group 14
elements
4
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the bonding and molecular shapes of
the tetrachlorides of group 14 elements;
(b) explain the volatility, thermal stability and
hydrolysis of tetrachlorides in terms of
structure and bonding;
(c) explain the bonding, acid-base nature and the
thermal stability of the oxides of oxidation
states +2 and +4.
11.3 Relative stability of +2
and +4 oxidation states
of Group 14 elements
2
11.4 Silicon, silicone and
silicates
1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the relative stability of +2 and +4
oxidation states of the elements in their oxides,
chlorides and aqueous cations.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the structures of silicone and silicates
(pyroxenes and amphiboles), sheets (mica) and
framework structure (quartz) (general formulae
are not required);
15
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(b) explain the uses of silicon as a semiconductor
and silicone as a fluid, elastomer and resin;
(c) describe the uses of silicates as basic materials
for cement, glass, ceramics and zeolites.
11.5 Tin alloys
1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the uses of tin in solder and pewter.
12 Group 17
12.1 Physical properties of
selected Group 17
elements
8
1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state that the colour intensity of Group 17
elements: Cl2, Br2, I2, increase down the group;
(b) explain how the volatility of Group 17
elements decreases down the group.
12.2 Reactions of selected
Group 17 elements
4
Candidates should be able to:
(a) deduce and explain the relative reactivities of
Group 17 elements as oxidising agents from
Eº values;
(b) explain the order of reactivity of F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
with hydrogen, and compare the relative
thermal stabilities of the hydrides;
(c) explain the reactions of chlorine with cold and
hot aqueous sodium hydroxide.
12.3 Reactions of selected
halide ions
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain and write equations for reactions of
Group 17 ions with aqueous silver ions
followed by aqueous ammonia;
(b) explain and write equations for reactions of
Group 17 ions with concentrated sulphuric
acid.
12.4 Industrial applications
of halogens and their
compounds
1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the industrial uses of the halogens and
their compounds as antiseptic, bleaching agent
and in black-and-white photography;
(b) explain the use of chlorine in water treatment.
16
Topic
13 Transition Elements
13.1 Physical properties of
first row transition
elements
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
14
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) define a transition element in terms of
incomplete d orbitals in at least one of its ions;
(b) describe the similarities in physical properties
such as atomic radius, ionic radius and first
ionisation energy;
(c) explain the variation in successive ionisation
energies;
(d) contrast qualitatively the melting point,
density, atomic radius, ionic radius, first
ionisation energy and conductivity of the first
row transition elements with those of calcium
as a typical s-block element.
13.2 Chemical properties of
first row transition
elements
8
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain variable oxidation states in terms of
the energies of 3d and 4s orbitals;
(b) explain the colours of transition metal ions in
terms of a partially filled 3d orbitals;
(c) state the principal oxidation numbers of these
elements in their common cations, oxides and
oxo ions;
(d) explain qualitatively the relative stabilities of
these oxidation states;
(e) explain the uses of standard reduction
potentials in predicting the relative stabilities
of aqueous ions;
(f)
explain the terms complex ion and ligand;
(g) explain the formation of complex ions and the
colour changes by exchange of ligands.
(Examples of ligands: water, ammonia,
cyanide ions, thiocyanate ions, ethanedioate
ions, ethylenediaminetetraethanoate, halide
ions; examples of complex ions: [Fe(CN)6]4 ,
[Fe(CN)6]3 , [Fe(H2O)5(SCN)]2+);
(h) explain the use of first row transition elements
in homogeneous catalysis, as exemplifed by
Fe2+ or Fe3+ in the reaction between I and
S2O82 ;
17
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(i)
13.3 Nomenclature and
bonding of complexes
3
explain the use of first row transition elements
in heterogeneous catalysis, as exemplifed by
Ni and Pt in the hydrogenation of alkenes.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) name complexes using International Union of
Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
nomenclature;
(b) discuss coordinate bond formation between
ligands and the central metal atom/ion, and
state the types of ligands, i.e. monodentate,
bidentate and hexadentate.
13.4 Uses of first row
transition elements and
their compounds
1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the use of chromium (in stainless
steel), cobalt, manganese, titanium (in alloys)
and TiO2 (in paints).
18
THIRD TERM
Topic
14 Introduction to Organic
Chemistry
14.1 Bonding of the carbon
atoms: the shapes of
ethane, ethene, ethyne
and benzene molecules
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
21
4
Candidates should be able to:
(a) use the concept of sp3, sp2 and sp
hybridisations in carbon atoms to describe the
bonding and shapes of molecules as
exemplified by CH4, C2H4, C2H2 and C6H6;
(b) explain the concept of delocalisation of
electrons in benzene ring.
14.2 General, empirical,
molecular and
structural formulae of
organic compounds
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state general, empirical, molecular and
structural formulae of organic compounds;
(b) determine empirical and molecular formulae of
organic compounds.
14.3 Functional groups:
classification and
nomenclature
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the classification of organic
compounds by functional groups and the
nomenclature of classes of organic compounds
according to the IUPAC rules of the following
classes of compounds:
(i) alkanes, alkenes, alkynes and arenes,
(ii) haloalkanes,
(iii) alcohols (including primary, secondary
and tertiary) and phenols,
(iv) aldehydes and ketones,
(v) carboxylic acids and their derivatives
(acyl chlorides, amides and esters),
(vi) primary amines, amino acids and
protein.
14.4 Isomerism: structural
and stereoisomerism
3
Candidates should be able to:
(a) define structural and stereoisomerism
(geometrical and optical);
(b) explain the meaning of a chiral centre in
optical isomerism;
19
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(c) classify isomers as structural, cis-trans and
optical isomers;
(d) identify chiral centres and/or cis-trans
isomerism in a molecule of given structural
formula;
(e) deduce the possible isomers for an organic
compound of known molecular formula.
14.5 Free radicals,
nucleophiles and
electrophiles
4
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe homolytic and heterolytic fissions;
(b) define the terms free radical, nucleophile and
electrophile;
(c) explain that nucleophiles such as OH , NH3,
H2O, Br , I and carbanion are Lewis bases;
(d) explain that electrophiles such as H+, NO2+,
Br2, A1C13, ZnC12, FeBr3, BF3 and carbonium
ion are Lewis acids.
14.6 Molecular structure
and its effect on
physical properties
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) describe the relationship between the size of
molecules in the homologous series and the
melting and boiling points;
(b) explain the forces of attraction between
molecules (van der Waals forces and hydrogen
bonding).
14.7 Inductive and
resonance effect
4
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain inductive effect which can determine
the properties and reactions of functional
groups;
(b) use inductive effect to explain why functional
groups such as NO2, CN, COOH, COOR,
>C=O, SO3H, X (halogen), OH, OR,
NH2, C6H5 are electron acceptors whereas
R(alkyl) is an electron donor;
(c) explain how the concept of induction can
account for the differences in acidity between
CH3COOH, C1CH2COOH, C12CHCOOH and
Cl3CCOOH; between C1CH2CH2CH2COOH
and CH3CH2CHClCOOH;
20
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(d) use the concept of resonance to explain the
differences in acidity between CH3CH2OH and
C6H5OH, as well as the differences in basicity
between CH3NH2 and C6H5NH2.
15 Hydrocarbons
15.1 Alkanes
21
7
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the general formula for alkanes;
(b) explain the construction of the alkane series
(straight and branched), and IUPAC
nomenclature of alkanes for C1 to C10;
(c) describe the structural isomerism in aliphatic
alkanes and cis-trans isomerism in
cycloalkanes;
(d) state the physical properties of alkanes;
(e) define alkanes as saturated aliphatic
hydrocarbons;
(f)
name alkyl groups derived from alkanes and
identify primary, secondary, tertiary and
quartenary carbons;
(g) explain the inertness of alkanes towards polar
reagents;
(h) describe the mechanism of free radical
substitution as exemplified by the chlorination
of methane (with particular reference to the
initiation, propagation and termination
reactions);
(i)
describe the oxidation of alkane with limited
and excess oxygen, and the use of alkanes as
fuels;
(j)
explain the use of crude oil as a source of
aliphatic hydrocarbons;
(k) explain how cracking reactions can be used to
obtain alkanes and alkenes of lower Mr from
larger hydrocarbon molecules;
(l)
discuss the role of catalytic converters in
minimising air pollution by oxidising CO to
CO2 and reducing NOx to N2;
(m) explain how chemical pollutants from the
combustion of hydrocarbon affect air quality
and rainwater as exemplified by acid rain,
photochemical smog and greenhouse effect.
21
Topic
15.2 Alkenes
Teaching
Period
6
Learning Outcome
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the general formula for alkenes;
(b) name alkenes according to the IUPAC
nomenclature and their common names for C1
to C5;
(c) describe structural and cis-trans isomerism in
alkenes;
(d) state the physical properties of alkenes;
(e) define alkenes as unsaturated aliphatic
hydrocarbons with one or more double bonds;
(f)
describe the chemical reactions of alkenes as
exemplified by the following reactions of
ethene:
(i) addition of hydrogen, steam, hydrogen
halides, halogens, bromine water and
concentrated sulphuric acid,
(ii) oxidation using KMnO4, O2/Ag,
(iii) ozonolysis,
(iv) polymerisation;
(g) describe the mechanism of electrophilic
addition in alkenes with reference to
Markovnikov‟s rule;
(h) explain the use of bromination reaction and
decolourisation of MnO4 ions as simple tests
for alkenes and unsaturated compounds;
(i)
15.3 Arenes
8
explain briefly the importance of ethene as a
source for the preparation of chloroethane,
epoxyethane, ethane-1,2-diol and
poly(ethane).
Candidates should be able to:
(a) name aromatic compounds derived from
benzene according to the IUPAC
nomenclature, including the use of ortho,
meta and para or the numbering of substituted
groups to the benzene ring;
(b) describe structural isomerism in arenes;
22
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(c) describe the chemical reactions of arenes as
exemplified by substitution reactions of
haloalkanes and acyl chloride (Friedel-Crafts
reaction), halogen, conc. HNO3/conc. H2SO4
and SO3 with benzene and methylbenzene
(toluene);
(d) describe the mechanism of electrophilic
substitution in arenes as exemplified by the
nitration of benzene;
(e) explain why benzene is more stable than
aliphatic alkenes towards oxidation;
(f)
describe the reaction between alkylbenzene
and hot acidified KMnO4;
(g) determine the products of halogenation of
methylbenzene (toluene) in the presence of
(i) Lewis acid catalysts,
(ii) light;
(h) explain the inductive effect and resonance
effect of substituted groups ( OH, C1, CH3,
NO2, COCH3, NH2) attached to the
benzene ring towards further substitutions;
(i)
predict the products in an electrophilic
substitution reaction when the substituted
group in benzene is electron accepting or
electron donating;
(j)
explain the uses of arenes as solvents;
(k) recognise arenes as carcinogen.
16 Haloalkanes
8
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the general formula for haloalkanes;
(b) name haloalkanes according to the IUPAC
nomenclature;
(c) describe the structural and optical isomerism in
haloalkanes;
(d) state the physical properties of haloalkanes;
(e) describe the substitution reactions of
haloalkanes as exemplified by the following
reactions of bromoethane: hydrolysis, the
formation of nitriles and the formation of
primary amines;
23
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(f)
describe the elimination reactions of
haloalkanes;
(g) describe the mechanism of nucleophilic
substitution in haloalkanes (SN1 and SN2);
(h) explain the relative reactivity of primary,
secondary and tertiary haloalkanes;
(i)
compare the reactivity of chlorobenzene and
chloroalkanes in hydrolysis reactions;
(j)
explain the use of haloalkanes in the synthesis
of organomagnesium compounds (Grignard
reagents), and their use in reactions with
carbonyl compounds;
(k) describe the uses of fluoroalkanes and
chlorofluoroalkanes as inert substances for
aerosol propellants, coolants and fireextinguishers;
(l)
state the use of chloroalkanes as insecticide
such as DDT;
(m) describe the effect of chlorofluoroalkanes in
the depletion of the ozone layer, and explain
its mechanism.
17 Hydroxy Compounds
17.1 Introduction to
hydroxy compounds
12
1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the general formula for hydroxy
compounds;
(b) name hydroxy compounds according to the
IUPAC nomenclature;
(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in
hydroxy compounds;
(d) state the physical properties of hydroxy
compounds.
17.2 Alcohols
6
Candidates should be able to:
(a) classify alcohols into primary, secondary and
tertiary alcohol;
(b) classify the reactions of alcohols whereby the
RO H bond is broken: the formation of an
alkoxide with sodium, esterification, acylation,
oxidation to carbonyl compounds and
carboxylic acids;
24
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(c) classify the reactions of alcohols whereby the
R OH is broken and OH is replaced by other
groups: the formation of haloalkanes and the
dehydration to alkenes and ethers;
(d) explain the relative reactivity of primary,
secondary and tertiary alcohols as exemplified
by the reaction rate of such alcohols to give
haloalkanes, and the reaction products of
KMnO4/K2Cr2O7 oxidation in the presence of
sulphuric acid;
(e) explain the reaction of alcohol with the
structure CH3CH(OH) with alkaline aqueous
solution of iodine to form triiodomethane;
(f)
describe the laboratory and industrial
preparation of alcohol as exemplified by
ethanol from the hydration of ethane;
(g) describe the synthesis of ethanol by
fermentation process;
(h) state the uses of alcohols as antiseptic, solvent
and fuel.
17.3 Phenols
5
Candidates should be able to:
(a) explain the relative acidity of water, phenol
and ethanol with particular reference to the
inductive and resonance effects;
(b) describe the reactions of phenol with sodium
hydroxide, sodium, acyl chlorides and
electrophilic substitution in the benzene ring;
(c) describe the use of bromine water and aqueous
iron(III) chloride as tests for phenol;
(d) describe the cumene process in the
manufacture of phenol;
(e) explain the use of phenol in the manufacture of
cyclohexanol, and hence, nylon-6,6.
18 Carbonyl Compounds
8
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the general formula for carbonyl
compounds: aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes
and ketones;
(b) name aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes and
ketones according to the IUPAC
nomenclature;
25
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in
carbonyl compounds;
(d) state the physical properties of aliphatic and
aromatic aldehydes and ketones;
(e) write the equations for the preparation of
aldehydes and ketones;
(f)
explain the reduction reactions of aldehydes
and ketones to primary and secondary alcohols
respectively through catalytic hydrogenation
reaction and with LiA1H4;
(g) explain the use of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine
reagent as a simple test to detect the presence
of >C=O groups;
(h) explain the mechanism of the nucleophilic
addition reactions of hydrogen cyanide with
aldehydes and ketones;
(i)
explain the oxidation of aldehydes;
(j)
differentiate between aldehyde and ketone
based on the results of simple tests as
exemplified by Fehling‟s solution and Tollens‟
reagent;
(k) explain the reactions of carbonyl compounds
with the structure CH3 C=O with alkaline
aqueous solution of iodine to give
triiodomethane (iodoform test);
(l)
explain that natural compounds such as
glucose, sucrose and other carbohydrates
which have the >C=O group;
(m) explain the characteristics of glucose as a
reducing sugar.
19 Carboxylic Acids and their
Derivatives
19.1 Carboxylic acid
10
4
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the general formula for aliphatic and
aromatic carboxylic acids;
(b) name carboxylic acids according to the IUPAC
nomenclature and their common names for
C1 to C6;
(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in
carboxylic acids;
26
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(d) state the physical properties of carboxylic
acids;
(e) write the equations for the formation of
carboxylic acids from alcohols, aldehydes and
nitriles;
(f)
describe the acidic properties of carboxylic
acids as exemplified by their reactions with
metals and bases to form salts;
(g) explain the substitution of the OH in
carboxylic acids by the nucleophiles OR and
C1 to form esters and acyl chlorides
respectively;
(h) describe the reduction of carboxylic acids to
primary alcohols;
19.2 Acyl chlorides
2
(i)
describe the oxidation and dehydration of
methanoic and ethanedioic acids (oxalic acid);
(j)
state the uses of carboxylic acids in food,
perfume and polymer industries.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the general formula for acyl chlorides;
(b) name acyl chlorides according to the IUPAC
nomenclature;
(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in
acyl chlorides;
(d) state the physical properties of acyl chlorides;
(e) explain the ease of hydrolysis of acyl chlorides
compared to chloroalkanes;
(f)
19.3 Esters
2
describe the reactions of acyl chlorides with
alcohols, phenols and primary amines.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the general formula for esters;
(b) name esters according to the IUPAC
nomenclature;
(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in
esters;
(d) state the physical properties of esters;
(e) describe the preparation of esters by the
reactions of acyl chlorides with alcohols and
phenols;
27
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(f)
describe the acid and base hydrolysis of esters;
(g) describe the reduction of esters to primary
alcohols;
(h) state the uses of esters as flavourings,
preservatives and solvents.
19.4 Amides
2
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the general formula for amides;
(b) name amides according to the IUPAC
nomenclature;
(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in
amides;
(d) state the physical properties of amides;
(e) describe the preparation of amides by the
reaction of acyl chlorides with primary amines;
(f)
20 Amines, Amino Acids and
Proteins
20.1 Amines
describe the acid and base hydrolysis of
amides.
8
4
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the general formula for amines;
(b) name amines according to the IUPAC
nomenclature and their common names;
(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in
amines;
(d) state the physical properties of amines;
(e) classify amines into primary, secondary and
tertiary amines;
(f)
explain the relative basicity of ammonia,
ethanamine and phenylamine (aniline) in terms
of their structures;
(g) describe the preparation of ethanamine by the
reduction of nitriles, and phenylamine by the
reduction of nitrobenzene;
(h) explain the formation of salts when amines
react with mineral acids;
(i)
28
differentiate primary aliphatic amines from
primary aryl (aromatic) amines by their
respective reactions with nitric(III) acid
(nitrous acid) and bromine water;
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(j)
20.2 Amino acids
3
explain the formation of dyes by the coupling
reaction of the diazonium salt as exemplified
by the reaction of benzenediazonium chloride
with phenol.
Candidates should be able to:
(a) write the structure and general formula for
-amino acids;
(b) name -amino acids according to the IUPAC
nomenclature and their common names;
(c) describe structural and optical isomerism in
amino acids;
(d) state the physical properties of -amino acids;
(e) describe the acid and base properties of
-amino acids;
(f)
describe the formation of zwitterions;
(g) explain the peptide linkage as amide linkage
formed by the condensation between two or
more -amino acids as exemplified by
glycylalanine and alanilglycine.
20.3 Protein
1
Candidates should be able to:
(a) identify the peptide linkage in the primary
structure of protein;
(b) describe the hydrolysis of proteins;
(c) state the biological importance of proteins.
21 Polymers
8
Candidates should be able to:
(a) state examples of natural and synthetic
polymers;
(b) define monomer, polymer, repeating unit,
homopolymer and copolymer;
(c) identify the monomers in a polymer;
(d) describe condensation polymerisation as
exemplified by terylene and nylon-6,6;
(e) describe addition polymerisation as
exemplified by poly(ethene)/polyethylene/
polythene, poly(phenylethene)/polystyrene and
poly(chloroethene)/polyvinylchloride;
29
Topic
Teaching
Period
Learning Outcome
(f)
state the role of the Ziegler-Natta catalyst in
the addition polymerisation process;
(g) explain the classification of polymers as
thermosetting, thermoplastic and elastomer;
(h) identify isoprene (2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) as
the monomer of natural rubber;
(i)
describe the two isomers in
poly(2-methylbuta-1,3-diene) in terms of the
elastic cis form (from the Hevea brasiliensis
trees) and the inelastic trans form (from the
gutta-percha trees);
(j)
state the uses of polymers;
(k) explain the difficulty in the disposal of
polymers;
(l)
30
outline the advantages and disadvantages of
dumping polymer-based materials in rivers and
seas.
The Practical Syllabus
School-based Assessment of Practical
School-based assessment of practical works is carried out throughout the form six school terms for
candidates from government and private schools which have been approved by the MEC to carry out
the school-based assessment.
MEC will determine 13 compulsory experiments and one project to be carried out by the
candidates and to be assessed by the subject teachers in the respective terms. The project will be
carried out during the third term in groups of two or three candidates. Details of the title, topic,
objective, theory, apparatus, and procedure of each of the experiments and project will be specified in
the Teacher‟s and Student‟s Manual for Practical Chemistry which can be downloaded from MEC‟s
Portal (http://www.mpm.edu.my) by the subject teachers during the first term of form six.
Candidates should be supplied with a work scheme before the day of the compulsory experiment
so as to enable them to plan their practical work. Each experiment is expected to last one school
double period. Assessment of the practical work is done by the subject teachers during the practical
sessions and also based on the practical reports. The assessment should comply with the assessment
guidelines prepared by MEC.
A repeating candidate may use the total mark obtained in the coursework for the subsequent
STPM examination. Requests to carry forward the moderated coursework mark should be made
during the registration of the examination.
Candidates will be assessed based on the following:
(a)
the use and organisation of techniques, apparatus and materials,
(b)
observations, measurements and recording,
(c)
the interpretation of experimental observations and data,
(d)
the designing and planning of investigations,
(e)
scientific and critical attitudes.
The Chemistry practical syllabus for STPM should achieve its objective to improve the quality of
students in the aspects as listed below.
(a)
The ability to follow a set or sequence of instructions.
(b)
The ability to plan and carry out experiments using appropriate methods.
(c)
The ability to choose suitable equipment and use them correctly and carefully.
(d)
The ability to record readings from diagrams of apparatus.
(e)
The ability to describe, explain, comment on or suggest experimental arrangements,
techniques and procedures.
(f)
The ability to complete tables of data and/or plot graphs.
(g)
The ability to interpret, analyse and evaluate observations, experimental data and make
deductions.
(h)
The ability to do calculations based on experiments.
(i)
The ability to make conclusions.
(j)
The awareness of the safety measures which need to be taken.
31
The objective of this project work is to enable candidates to acquire knowledge and skills in
chemistry using information and communication technology as well as to develop soft skills as
follows:
(a)
communications,
(b)
teamwork,
(c)
critical thinking and problem solving,
(d)
flexibility/adaptability,
(e)
leadership,
(f)
organising,
(g)
information technology and communications,
(h)
moral and ethics.
Written Practical Test
The main objective of written practical test paper is to assess the candidates‟ understanding of
practical procedures in the laboratory.
The following candidates are eligible to take this written practical test:
(a)
individual private candidates,
(b)
candidates from private schools which have no permission to carry out the school-based
assessment of practical work,
(c)
candidates who repeat upper six (in government or private schools),
(d)
candidates who do not attend classes of lower six and upper six in two consecutive years
(in government or private schools),
(e)
candidates who take Chemistry other than the package offered by schools.
Three structured questions on routine practical work and/or design of experiments will be set.
MEC will not be strictly bound by the syllabus in setting questions. Where appropriate, candidates
will be given sufficient information to enable them to answer the questions. Only knowledge of theory
within the syllabus and knowledge of usual laboratory practical procedures will be expected.
The questions to be set will test candidates‟ ability to:
(a)
record readings from diagrams of apparatus,
(b)
describe, explain, comment on, or suggest experimental arrangements, techniques, and
procedures,
(c)
complete tables of data and/or plot graphs,
(d)
interpret, draw conclusions from and evaluate observations and experimental (including
graphical) data,
(e)
perform simple calculations based on experiments,
(f)
describe tests for gases, ions, oxidising and reducing agents, and/or make deductions from
such tests.
32
The questions to be set will cover the following three aspects:
(a)
Volumetric analysis
Experimental procedures and calculations such as purity determination and stoichiometry
from volumetric analysis of acid-base and redox titrations will be assessed.
(b)
Determination of physical quantities
Experiments involving the measurements of selected quantities in the following topics:
thermochemistry, reaction kinetics, equilibrium, solubility and electrochemistry will be
assessed.
(c)
Techniques
Techniques involving qualitative analysis of ions and functional groups and synthesis will
be assessed. It will be assumed that candidates will be familiar with the simple reactions of
the following ions: NH4+, Mg2+, Al3+, Ca2+, Cr3+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ba2+,
Pb2+, CO32 , NO3 , NO2 , S2 , SO42 , SO32 , S2O32 , Cl , Br , I , MnO4 , CH3CO2 , C2O42 .
Knowledge of simple organic reactions, e.g. test-tube reactions indicating the presence of
unsaturation and functional groups will be required.
The substances to be asked in questions may contain ions not included in the above list; in
such cases, candidates will not be expected to identify the ions but to draw conclusions of a
general nature.
33
Scheme of Assessment
Term of
Study
Paper Code
and Name
First
Term
962/1
Chemistry
Paper 1
Mark
(Weighting)
Type of Test
Written Test
Duration
Administration
1½ hours
Central
assessment
1½ hours
Central
assessment
1½ hours
Central
assessment
60
(26.67%)
Section A
15 compulsory multiple-choice
questions to be answered.
15
Section B
2 compulsory structured questions
to be answered.
15
Section C
2 questions to be answered out of 3
essay questions.
30
All questions are based on topics 1
to 6.
Second
Term
962/2
Chemistry
Paper 2
Written Test
60
(26.67%)
Section A
15 compulsory multiple-choice
questions to be answered.
15
Section B
2 compulsory structured questions
to be answered.
15
Section C
2 questions to be answered out of 3
essay questions.
30
All questions are based on topics 7
to 13.
Third
Term
962/3
Chemistry
Paper 3
Written Test
60
(26.67%)
Section A
15 compulsory multiple-choice to
be answered.
15
Section B
2 compulsory structured questions
to be answered.
15
Section C
2 questions to be answered out of 3
essay questions.
30
All questions are based on topics 14
to 21.
34
Term of
Study
First,
Second
and
Third
Terms
Paper Code
and Name
Mark
(Weighting)
Type of Test
962/5
Chemistry
Paper 5
Written Practical Test
962/4
Chemistry
Paper 4
School-based Assessment of
Practical
3 compulsory structured questions
to be answered.
13 compulsory experiments and
one project to be carried out.
35
45
(20%)
225
to be
scaled to
45
(20%)
Duration
Administration
1½ hours
Central
assessment
Throughout
the three
terms
School-based
assessment
Performance Descriptions
A Grade A candidate is likely able to:
(a)
relate facts to concepts, theories, principles and vice versa;
(b)
explain why a particular technique is preferred for a procedure or operation;
(c)
select and synthesise data from various sources and present it in a clear logical form;
(d)
solve problems in any situation which may involve a wide range of variables;
(e)
demonstrate an excellent use of generic skills.
A Grade C candidate is likely able to:
(a)
relate a few facts to concepts, theories and principles;
(b)
follow the procedure(s) for a multiple step operation;
(c)
use the given data and present it in a clear logical form;
(d)
solve a problem involving more than one step, but with a limited range of variables;
(e)
demonstrate a fair use of generic skills.
36
Summary of Key Quantities and Units
The list below is intended as a guide for the common quantities which might be encountered in
teaching and used in question papers.
Quantity
mass
length
time
electric current
amount of substance
temperature
temperature change
volume
density
pressure
frequency
wavelength
speed of light
Planck constant
electronic charge
standard electrode potential
standard reduction potential
standard cell potential
Common symbol
m

t
I
n
T
, T
V
cell potential
electromotive force
gas constant
Ecell
E
R
half-life
t 12
atomic mass unit
relative atomic mass
relative isotopic mass
relative molecular mass
molar mass
Molar volume of gas
nucleon number
proton number
neutron number
Avogadro constant
Faraday constant
specific heat capacity
heat capacity
heat change
enthalpy change of reaction
standard enthalpy change of reaction
ionisation energy
lattice energy
Ar
Ar
Mr
M
Vm
A
Z
N
L
F
c
C
q
H
H
I
p
c
h
e
E
E
o
Ecell
Unit
kg, g
m
s
A
mol
C, K
C, K
m3, dm3, cm3
kg m 3, g dm 3, g cm
Pa, atm
Hz
m, mm, nm
ms 1
Js
C
V
V
V
V
V
J K 1 mol
s
1
a.m.u.
g mol 1
dm3 mol
o
H lattice
bond energy
electron affinity
mol 1
C mol 1
Jg1 C 1
J C1
J, kJ
J, kJ
J mol 1, kJ mol
kJ mol 1
kJ mol 1
kJ mol
kJ mol
37
1
1
1
1
3
Quantity
rate constant
equilibrium constant
acid dissociation constant
base dissociation constant
mole fraction
concentration
solubility product
ionic product of water
Common symbol
k
K, Kp, Kc
Ka
Kb
x
c
Ksp
Kw
38
Unit
as appropriate
as appropriate
mol dm 3
mol dm 3
mol dm 3
as appropriate
mol2 dm 6
Periodic Table
Group
1
(I)
1.0
H
2
(II)
6.9
Li
9.0
Be
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
(III)
14
(IV)
15
(V)
16
(VI)
17
(VII)
18
(VIII)
4.0
He
2
10.8
B
12.0
C
14.0
N
16.0
O
19.0
F
1
a
X
b
39
a = relative atomic mass
X = atomic symbol
b = proton number
5
6
7
8
9
27.0
Al
13
69.7
Ga
31
28.1
Si
14
72.6
Ge
32
31.0
P
15
74.9
As
33
32.1
S
16
79.0
Se
34
35.5
Cl
17
79.9
Br
35
20.2
Ne
10
40.0
Ar
18
83.8
Kr
36
3
4
23.0
Na
11
39.1
K
19
24.3
Mg
12
40.1
Ca
20
45.0
Sc
21
47.9
Ti
22
50.9
V
23
52.0
Cr
24
54.9
Mn
25
55.8
Fe
26
58.9
Co
27
58.7
Ni
28
63.5
Cu
29
65.4
Zn
30
85.5
Rb
37
133
Cs
55
[223]
Fr
87
87.6
Sr
38
137
Ba
56
[226]
Ra
88
88.9
Y
39
175.0
Lu
71
[262]
Lr
103
91.2
Zr
40
178
Hf
72
[261]
Rf
104
92.9
Nb
41
181
Ta
73
[262]
Db
105
95.9
Mo
42
184
W
74
[263]
Sg
106
[98]
Tc
43
186
Re
75
[264]
Bh
107
101
Ru
44
190
Os
76
[265]
Hs
108
103
Rh
45
192
Ir
77
[266]
Mt
109
106
Pd
46
195
Pt
78
[269]
Uuu]
110
108
Ag
47
197
Au
79
[272]
Uuu
111
112
Cd
48
201
Hg
80
[277]
Uub
112
115
In
49
204
Ti
81
119
Sn
50
207
Pb
82
122
Sb
51
209
Bi
83
128
Te
52
[209]
Po
84
127
I
53
[210]
At
85
131
Xe
54
[222]
Rn
86
140
Ce
58
141
Pr
59
144
Nd
60
[145]
Pm
61
150
Sm
62
152
Eu
63
157
Gd
64
159
Tb
65
163
Dy
66
165
Ho
67
167
Er
68
169
Tm
69
173
Yb
70
232
Th
90
231
Pa
91
238
U
92
237
Np
93
[244]
Pu
94
[243]
Am
95
[247]
Cm
96
[247]
Bk
97
[251]
Cf
98
[252]
Es
99
[257]
Fm
100
[258]
Md
101
[259]
No
102
Lanthanides
139
La
57
Actinides
227
Ac
89
Reference Books
Teachers and candidates may use books specially written for the STPM examination and other
reference books such as those listed below.
1.
Cann, P. and Hughes, P., 2002. Chemistry for Advanced Level. London: John Murray.
2.
Clugston, M. and Flemming, R., 2000. Advanced Chemistry. New York: Oxford.
3.
Lister, T. and Renshaw, J., 2000. Understanding Chemistry for Advanced Level. 3rd edition.
Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.
4.
Ramsden, E.N., 2000. A-Level Chemistry. 4th edition. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.
5.
Brown, T.L. et al., 2006. Chemistry: The Central Science. 10th edition. New Jersey: Pearson.
6.
Chang, R., 2007. Chemistry. 9th edition. New York: McGraw Hill.
7.
Hill, G. and Holman, J., 2000. Chemistry in Context. 5th edition. Cheltenham: Nelson Thornes.
8.
Moore, J.W., Stanitski, C.L., and Jurs, P.C., 2008. Chemistry The Molecular Science. 3rd
edition. California: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
9.
Solomons, G. and Fryhle, C., 2008. Organic Chemistry. 9th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley &
Sons.
10.
Brown, W. and Poon, T., 2005. Introduction to Organic Chemistry. 3rd edition. New Jersey:
John Wiley & Sons.
11.
McMurry, J. and Simanek, E., 2007. Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry. 6th edition.
California: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
12.
Housecroft, C.E. and Sharpe, A.G., 2005. Inorganic Chemistry. 2nd edition. Essex: Pearson.
13.
Brady, J.E. and Senese, F., 2004. Chemistry. 4th edition. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.
14.
Freemantle, M., 1997. Chemistry in Action. 2nd edition. London: Thomson Learning.
40
Identity card number: …………………………. Centre number/index number: ……………................
(Nombor kad pengenalan)
(Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
SPECIMEN PAPER
962/1
STPM
CHEMISTRY (KIMIA)
PAPER 1 (KERTAS 1)
One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)
MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
Please tear off along the perforated line.
(Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.)
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)
Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE
TOLD TO DO SO.
There are fifteen questions in Section A. For each question, four choices
of answers are given. Choose one correct answer and indicate it on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet provided. Read the instructions on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet very carefully. Answer all questions. Marks
will not be deducted for wrong answers.
Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces
provided.
Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be
shown. For numerical answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate.
Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper and arrange your answers in
numerical order.
Tear off the front page of this question paper and your answer sheets of
Section B, and tie both of them together with your answer sheets of Section C.
Answers may be written in either English or Bahasa Malaysia.
For examiner‟s use
(Untuk kegunaan
pemeriksa)
Section B
(Bahagian B)
16
17
Section C
(Bahagian C)
Total
(Jumlah)
Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.
Ada lima belas soalan dalam Bahagian A. Bagi setiap soalan, empat pilihan jawapan diberikan.
Pilih satu jawapan yang betul dan tandakan jawapan itu pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan yang
dibekalkan. Baca arahan pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan itu dengan teliti. Jawab semua soalan.
Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklah
ditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai. Mulakan
setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda mengikut tertib
berangka.
Koyakkan muka hadapan kertas soalan ini dan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian B, dan ikatkan
kedua-duanya bersama-sama dengan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian C.
Jawapan boleh ditulis dalam bahasa Inggeris atau Bahasa Malaysia.
This question paper consists of
printed pages and
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 962/1
41
blank page.
halaman kosong.)
BLANK PAGE
962/1
42
HALAMAN KOSONG
962/1
43
Section A [15 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.
1
Which particle has the correct corresponding number of electrons and number of neutrons?
Particle
2
Number of electrons
Number of neutrons
9
7
8
10
A
16
7
B
18
2
8O
C
19
9F
19
9
D
79
35 Br
34
44
N
The mass spectrum of an element X is shown below.
Percentage
of abundance 100
99.63
0.37
0
14
15 Mass/charge
From the mass spectrum above, it can be concluded that,
A the nucleon number of X is 14.5
B the relative molecular mass of X2 is 29
C the isotopes of X have a different number of protons
D element X consists of two isotopes with relative isotopic mass of 14 and 15
3 What is the maximum number of emission lines possible for a hydrogen atom with electronic
energy levels n = 1, n = 2 and n = 3?
A 2
4
C 4
D 6
C Al2O3
D Mg3N2
Which compound is not ionic?
A CaCl2
5
B 3
B SiCl4
Which molecule possesses polar bonds but its overall molecular dipole moment is zero?
A NH3
B H2S
C CCl4
962/1
44
D CH3Cl
Bahagian A [15 markah]
Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
1 Zarah yang manakah yang mempunyai padanan yang betul dengan nombor elektron dan nombor
neutron?
Zarah
2
Nombor elektron
Nombor neutron
9
7
8
10
A
16
7
B
18
2
8O
C
19
9F
19
9
D
79
35 Br
34
44
N
Spektrum jisim unsur X ditunjukkan di bawah.
Peratusan
kelimpahan
99.63
100
0.37
0
14
15
Jisim/cas
Daripada spektrum jisim di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahawa
A nombor nukleon X ialah 14.5
B jisim molekul relatif X2 ialah 29
C isotop X mempunyai nombor proton yang berbeza
D unsur X terdiri daripada dua isotop dengan jisim isotop relatif 14 dan 15
3 Berapakah bilangan garisan pemancaran maksimum yang mungkin bagi atom hidrogen dengan
aras tenaga elektronik n = 1, n = 2, dan n = 3?
A 2
4
B 3
C 4
D 6
C Al2O3
D Mg3N2
Sebatian yang manakah yang tidak ionik?
A CaCl2
B SiCl4
5 Molekul yang manakah yang mempunyai ikatan berkutub tetapi jumlah momen dwikutubnya
molekulnya adalah sifar?
A NH3
B H2S
C CCl4
D CH3Cl
962/1
45
6
Which statement regarding metallic bond is correct?
A The metallic bond enables metals to be a good conductor of heat.
B The strength of the metallic bond depends on the size of the atom of the metal.
C The metallic bonds are formed because metals have relatively high ionisation energies.
D The metallic bond is formed from the attraction between the electrons and the nucleus in the
atom.
7 A mixture of 8.0 g of a monoatomic gas X and an unknown quantity of mass of diatomic gas Y
has a volume of V m3 at s.t.p. When 20.0 g of gas X is added to the mixture under the same
conditions, the volume of the mixture is 2V m3. What is the quantity of gas Y in the mixture?
[Relative atomic masses of X and Y are 4 and 1 respectively. Assume that gas X does not react
with gas Y.]
A 1g
B 2g
C 5g
D 6g
8 Boron nitride, BN, can exist in two different forms P and Q. P has a layered giant molecular
lattice with weak forces between the layers. Q has a giant lattice in which each atom is bonded to
another by four covalent bonds. The following statements are regarding P and Q.
I P and Q have high melting points.
II P and Q have the same density.
III Structure Q is harder than structure P.
IV Structure Q conducts electricity in molten state.
Which statements about P and Q are correct?
A I and II
B I and III
C II and IV
D III and IV
962/1
46
6
Penyataan yang manakah yang betul tentang ikatan logam?
A Ikatan logam membolehkan logam menjadi konduksi haba yang baik.
B Kekuatan ikatan logam bergantung kepada saiz atom logam itu.
C Ikatan logam yang terbentuk disebabkan logam mempunyai tenaga pengionan yang tinggi
secara relatifnya.
D Ikatan logam terbentuk daripada penarikan antara elektron dengan nuklues dalam atom.
7 Satu campuran 8.0 g gas monoatom X dan satu kuantiti gas dwiatom Y yang tidak diketahui
jisimnya mempunyai isi padu V m3 pada s.t.p. Apabila 20.0 g gas X ditambahkan kepada campuran
itu pada keadaan yang sama, isi padu campuran itu ialah 2V m3. Berapakah kuantiti gas Y dalam
campuran itu?
[Jisim atom relatif bagi X dan Y masing-masing ialah 4 dan 1. Anggap bahawa gas X tidak
bertindak balas dengan gas Y.]
A 1g
B 2g
C 5g
D 6g
8 Boron nitrida, BN, boleh wujud dalam dua bentuk yang berbeza, P dan Q. P mempunyai lapisan
kekisi molekul raksasa dengan daya yang lemah antara lapisan. Q mempunyai kekisi raksasa yang
mana setiap atom terikat kepada atom yang lain oleh empat ikatan kovalen. Penyataan yang berikut
berkaitan dengan P dan Q.
I P dan Q mepunyai takat lebur yang tinggi
II P dan Q mempunyai ketumpatan yang sama
III Struktur Q lebih keras daripada struktur P
IV Struktur Q mengkonduksi elektik dalam keadaan leburan
Penyataan yang manakah yang betul tentang P dan Q?
A I dan II
B I dan III
C II dan IV
D III dan IV
962/1
47
9 The distribution of molecular kinetic energy of a gas at 279 K and 289 K is shown by the
Maxwell-BØltzman graph below.
Number of
molecules
Kinetic energy
Which statement best explains why the rate of reaction in a gas sample at 279 K increases two
folds when the temperature is increased to 289 K?
A The number of collisions increases two fold.
B The total area under the curve increases two fold.
C The average velocity of the molecules increases two fold.
D The numbers of molecules with energy equal to or greater than Ea increases two fold.
Ea
RT
10 The Arrhenius equation is given as k = Ae
. A reaction occurs 27 times faster at 52 C than at
22 C. What is the activation energy for this reaction?
[Gas constant, R, is 8.31 J K 1 mol 1]
A 1.04 kJ mol
1
1
B 10.5 kJ mol
1
C 38.1 kJ mol
D 87.5 kJ mol
1
11 A reversible reaction can be represented by the equation:
P + Q
R + S
when the system is in equilibrium,
A the masses P, Q, R and S are the same
B the reactions in both directions stopped
C the concentrations of P, Q, R and S are the same
D the concentrations of P, Q, R and S are always constant
12 The equilibrium constant, Kp, for the decomposition of calcium carbonate,
CaCO3(s)
is 1.6
10 23 atm at 298 K and 6.3
decomposition?
CaO(s) + CO2(g)
10
11
atm at 500 K.
Which statement is true of the
A The forward reaction is endothermic.
B Kp depends on the mass of CaCO3 used.
C The rate of forward reaction decreases as the temperature increases.
D The activation energy of forward reaction increases as the temperature increases.
962/1
48
9 Taburan tenaga kinetik bagi gas pada 279 K dan 289 K ditunjukkan dalam graf MaxwellBØltzman di bawah.
Bilangan
molekul
Tenaga kinetik
Penyataan yang manakah yang paling baik menerangkan mengapa kadar tindak balas dalam
sampel gas pada 279 K bertambah dua kali ganda apabila suhu dinaikkan kepada 289 K?
A Bilangan perlanggaran bertambah dua kali ganda.
B Jumlah luas kawasan di bawah lengkung bertambah dua kali ganda.
C Halaju purata molekul bertambah dua kali ganda.
D Bilangan molekul dengan tenaga yang sama atau lebih besar daripada Ea bertambah dua kali
ganda.
Ea
10 Persamaan Arrhenius diberikan sebagai k = Ae RT . Satu tindak balas berlaku 27 lebih cepat pada
52 C berbanding 22 C. Berapakah tenaga pengaktifan bagi tindak balas ini?
[Pemalar gas, R ialah 8.31 J K 1 mol 1]
A 1.04 kJ mol
1
B 10.5 kJ mol
1
C 38.1 kJ mol
1
D 87.5 kJ mol
1
11 Suatu tindak balas berbalik boleh diwakili dengan persamaan:
P + Q
R + S
apabila sistem itu dalam keadaan keseimbangan,
A jisim P, Q, R, dan S adalah sama
B tindak balas dalam kedua-dua arah dihentikan
C kepekatan P, Q, R, dan S adalah sama
D kepekatan P, Q, R, dan S sentiasa malar
12 Pemalar keseimbangan, Kp, bagi penguraian kalsium karbonat,
CaCO3(p)
23
ialah 1.6 10 atm pada 298 K dan 6.3
betul tentang penguraian itu?
CaO(p) + CO2(g)
10
11
atm pada 500 K. Penyataan yang manakah yang
A Tindak balas ke hadapan adalah endotermik.
B Kp bergantung pada jisim CaCO3 yang digunakan.
C Kadar tindak balas ke hadapan berkurang apabila suhu bertambah.
D Tenaga pengaktifan bagi tindak balas ke hadapan bertambah apabila suhu bertambah.
962/1
49
13 In the reaction Cu2+ + 4NH3
[Cu(NH3)4]2+, the Cu2+ ion acts as a
A Lewis acid
B Lewis base
C BrØnsted-Lowry acid
D BrØnsted-Lowry base
14 The following quantities may change when 0.10 mol dm−3 ethanoic acid is diluted with water at
298 K.
I Acid dissociation constant
II pH value
III Degree of dissociation
IV Ionic product of water
Which quantities will change?
A I and II
B I and IV
C II and III
D III and IV
15 The graph below shows the variation of pH for the titration of 25.0 cm3 of 0.2 mol dm 3 aqueous
ammonia solution with 0.2 mol dm 3 hydrochloric acid.
pH
Volume of HCl added/cm3
Which part of the above graph shows the mixture of ammonia and hydrochloric acid that can be
used as buffer solution?
A p
B q
C r
962/1
50
D s
13 Dalam tindak balas, Cu2+ + 4NH3
[Cu(NH3)4]2+, ion Cu2+ bertindak sebagai
A asid Lewis
B bes Lewis
C asid BrØnsted-Lowry
D bes BrØnsted-Lowry
14 Kuantiti yang berikut boleh berubah apabila asid etanoik 0.10 mol dm−3 dicairkan dengan air pada
298 K.
I Pemalar penceraian asid
II Nilai pH
III Darjah penceraian
IV Hasil darab ion bagi air
Kuantiti yang manakah yang akan berubah?
A I dan II
B I dan IV
C II dan III
D III dan IV
15 Graf di bawah menunjukkan ubahan pH bagi pentitratan 25.0 cm3 larutan akueus ammonia
0.2 mol dm 3 dengan asid hidroklorik 0.2 mol dm 3.
pH
Isi padu HCl ditambah/cm3
Bahagian yang manakah pada graf di atas yang menunjukkan campuran ammonia dan asid
hidroklorik boleh digunakan sebagai larutan penimbal?
A p
B q
C r
962/1
51
D s
BLANK PAGE
962/1
52
Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.
HALAMAN KOSONG
962/1
53
Section B [15 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.
16 Beams of particles from different sources are passed through an electric field. The path of the
beam of sub-atomic particles Y through the electric field is shown in the diagram below.
+
Source of particles
–
(a)
(i) Name the subatomic particles Y.
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Draw the paths of the beams of electrons and hydrogen ions in the above diagram.
[2 marks]
(iii) If a beam of deuterium ions is passed through the electric field, explain the difference in
deflection angle between the beam of hydrogens ions and that of deuterium ions.
[2 marks]
....................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................
(b) P+ and Q– ions are isoelectronic with the
(i) State the nucleon number of the
40
18 X
40
18 X
isotope.
isotope.
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Identity P+ and Q– ions.
[2 marks]
....................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................
962/1
54
Bahagian B [15 markah]
Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
16 Alur-alur zarah dari sumber-sumber yang berlainan dilalukan menerusi suatu medan elektrik.
Laluan alur zarah subatom Y menerusi medan elektrik ditunjukkan dalam gambar rajah di bawah.
+
Sumber zarah
Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.
–
(a)
(i) Namakan zarah subatom Y itu.
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Lukis laluan alur elektron dan ion hidrogen pada gambar rajah di atas.
[2 markah]
(iii) Jika alur ion deuterium dilalukan melalui medan elektrik tersebut, jelaskan perbezaan
sudut pesongan antara alur ion hidrogen dengan alur ion deuterium.
[2 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................
(b) Ion P+ and ion Q– adalah isoelektronik dengan isotop
(i) Nyatakan nombor nukleon bagi isotop
40
18 X .
40
18 X .
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Kenal pasti ion P+ dan ion Q–.
[2 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................
962/1
55
17 The table below shows the temperature and pressure of critical point and triple point of substance
X.
Temperature/ C
Pressure/atm
Critical point
31
73
Triple point
–57
5
At atmospheric pressure, X sublimes at –78 C. The freezing point of X increases by 2 C for
every 10 atm increase in pressure.
(a) Using the above information, sketch and label the phase diagram of X.
(b) Why does the freezing point of X increase with pressure?
[4 marks]
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(c) Solid X is known as dry ice.
(i) How is liquid X produced from dry ice?
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) State an industrial use for dry ice.
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
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17 Jadual di bawah menunjukkan suhu dan tekanan bagi takat genting dan takat ganda tiga bahan X.
Suhu/ C
Tekanan/atm
Takat genting
31
73
Takat ganda tiga
–57
5
Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.
Pada tekanan atmosfera, X memejalwap pada suhu –78 C. Takat beku X bertambah sebanyak
2 C bagi setiap pertambahan tekanan 10 atm.
(a) Menggunakan maklumat di atas, lakar dan label gambar rajah fasa X.
[4 markah]
(b) Mengapakah takat beku X bertambah dengan tekanan?
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(c) Pepejal X dikenal sebagai ais kering.
(i) Bagaimanakah cecair X dihasilkan daripada ais kering?
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Nyatakan satu kegunaan industri ais kering.
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
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BLANK PAGE
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HALAMAN KOSONG
962/1
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Section C [30 marks]
Answer any two questions in this section.
18 (a) Water is a hydride of oxygen. The bonding in water molecules is a result of the overlapping of
the orbitals of oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
(i) What is meant by orbitals?
[1 mark]
(ii) Draw a labelled diagram illustrating the shapes of all the orbitals of an oxygen atom
with quantum number n = 2.
[3 marks]
(iii) Draw a labelled diagram to illustrate the overlapping of orbitals in a water molecule.
[3 marks]
(b) Draw the Lewis structures for ion I3 and molecule SF6, and state their geometries. [4 marks]
State why
(i) compound SF6 is used as an insulating gas in high voltage electrical appliances,
[1 mark]
(ii) compound SI6 does not exist,
[1 mark]
(iii) I3 and Br3 ions exist but F3 ion does not exist under normal conditions.
[2 marks]
19 Aqueous chlorine dioxide solution reacts with an alkaline solution according to the following
equation.
2ClO2(aq) + 2OH (aq)
ClO3 (aq) + ClO2 (aq) + H2O(l)
(a) Determine the oxidation number of chlorine in ClO2 and ClO3 .
[2 marks]
(b) The results of the kinetic experiment of the reaction of aqueous chlorine dioxide solution are
shown in the table below.
Experiment
number
[ClO2]/
mol dm 3
[OH ]/
mol dm 3
Initial rate/
mol dm 3 s 1
1
0.0575
0.0216
8.21 × 10
3
2
0.0713
0.0216
1.26 × 10
2
3
0.0575
0.0333
1.26 × 10
2
(i) Determine the order of the reaction.
[7 marks]
(ii) Calculate the rate constant, k, for the reaction.
[2 marks]
(iii) Calculate the pH of the aqueous chlorine dioxide solution, if its concentration is
0.100 mol dm 3 and the initial rate of the disproportionation reaction is 3.56 × 10 2 mol dm 3 s 1.
[4 marks]
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Bahagian C [30 markah]
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
18 (a) Air ialah hidrida oksigen. Ikatan dalam molekul air terhasil melalui pertindihan orbital atom
oksigen dengan atom hidrogen.
(i) Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan orbital?
[1 markah]
(ii) Lukis gambar rajah berlabel yang mengilustrasikan bentuk semua orbital bagi atom
oksigen dengan nombor kuantum n = 2.
[3 markah]
(iii) Lukis gambar rajah berlabel untuk mengilustrasi pertindihan orbital dalam molekul air.
[3 markah]
(b) Lukis struktur Lewis bagi ion I3 dan molekul SF6, dan nyatakan geometri bagi ion I3 dan
molekul SF6.
[4 markah]
Nyatakan mengapa
(i) sebatian SF6 digunakan sebagai gas penebat dalam alat-alat elektrik bervoltan tinggi,
[1 markah]
(ii) sebatian SI6 tidak wujud,
[1 markah]
(iii) ion I3 dan ion Br3 wujud tetapi ion F3 tidak wujud dalam keadaan biasa.
[2 markah]
19 Larutan klorin dioksida akueus bertindak balas dengan larutan beralkali mengikut persamaan yang
berikut.
2ClO2(ak) + 2OH (ak)
ClO3 (ak) + ClO2 (ak) + H2O(c)
(a) Tentukan nombor pengoksidaan klorin dalam ClO2 dan ClO3 .
[2 markah]
(b) Keputusan uji kaji kinetik dalam tindak balas larutan akueus klorin dioksida ditunjukkan
dalam jadual di bawah.
Nombor
uji kaji
[ClO2]/
mol dm 3
[OH ]/
mol dm 3
1
0.0575
0.0216
8.21 × 10
3
2
0.0713
0.0216
1.26 × 10
2
3
0.0575
0.0333
1.26 × 10
2
Kadar awal/
mol dm 3 s 1
(i) Tentukan tertib tindak balas itu.
[7 markah]
(ii) Hitung pemalar kadar, k, bagi tindak balas itu.
[2 markah]
(iii) Hitung pH larutan akueus klorin dioksida, jika kepekatannya ialah 0.100 mol dm 3 dan
kadar awal tindak balas penyahkadarannya ialah 3.56 × 10 2 mol dm 3 s 1.
[4 markah]
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20 (a) The Haber process is used in the industrial production of ammonia. The equation for the
reaction is as follows.
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g)
H = 92 kJ mol
1
An analysis of an equilibrium mixture obtained from the mixing of gaseous nitrogen and
hydrogen shows a composition of 40% of ammonia when the total pressure of the system is 20 atm.
(i) Determine the mole fraction of nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia.
[3 marks]
(ii) Calculate the partial pressures for nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia.
[2 marks]
(iii) Calculate the equilibrium constant, Kp, for the equilibrium.
[2 marks]
(b) In an experiment, 0.100 moles of dinitrogen tetraoxide gas is allowed to dissociate to nitrogen
dioxide gas in a 1.0 dm3 container at 383 K. The graph of concentrations of both gases against time is
shown below.
Concentration/
mol dm 3
Time/min
(i) Calculate the equilibrium constant, Kc, for the above reaction at 383 K.
383 K.
[4 marks]
(ii) Calculate the pressure in the container after the system had attained equilibrium at
[4 marks]
[Gas constant, R, is 8.31 J K 1 mol 1.]
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20 (a) Proses Haber digunakan dalam penghasilan industri ammonia. Persamaan bagi tindak balas
adalah seperti yang berikut.
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
2NH3(g)
H = 92 kJ mol
1
Analisis suatu campuran keseimbangan yang diperoleh daripada campuran gas nitrogen dan
hidrogen menunjukkan komposisi ammonia 40% apabila jumlah tekanan sistem adalah 20 atm.
(i) Tentukan pecahan mol nitrogen, hidrogen, dan ammonia.
[3 markah]
(ii) Hitung tekanan separa bagi nitrogen, hidrogen, dan ammonia.
[2 markah]
(iii) Hitung pemalar keseimbangan, Kp, untuk keseimbangan itu.
[2 markah]
(b) Dalam satu uji kaji, 0.100 mol gas dinitrogen tetraoksida dibiarkan tercerai kepada gas
nitrogen dioksida di dalam bekas 1.0 dm3 pada 383 K. Graf kepekatan kedua-dua gas itu lawan masa
ditunjukkan di bawah.
Kepekatan/
mol dm 3
Masa/min
(i) Hitung pemalar keseimbangan, Kc, bagi tindak balas di atas pada 383 K.
[4 markah]
(ii) Hitung tekanan dalam bekas selepas sistem mencapai keseimbangan pada 383 K.
[4 markah]
[Pemalar gas, R, ialah 8.31 J K 1 mol 1.]
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64
Identity card number: …………………………. Centre number/index number: ……………................
(Nombor kad pengenalan)
(Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
SPECIMEN PAPER
962/2
STPM
CHEMISTRY (KIMIA)
PAPER 2 (KERTAS 2)
One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)
MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
Please tear off along the perforated line.
(Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.)
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)
Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE
TOLD TO DO SO.
There are fifteen questions in Section A. For each question, four choices
of answers are given. Choose one correct answer and indicate it on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet provided. Read the instructions on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet very carefully. Answer all questions. Marks
will not be deducted for wrong answers.
Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces
provided.
Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be
shown. For numerical answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate.
Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper and arrange your answers in
numerical order.
Tear off the front page of this question paper and your answer sheets of
Section B, and tie both of them together with your answer sheets of Section C.
Answers may be written in either English or Bahasa Malaysia.
For examiner‟s use
(Untuk kegunaan
pemeriksa)
Section B
(Bahagian B)
16
17
Section C
(Bahagian C)
Total
(Jumlah)
Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.
Ada lima belas soalan dalam Bahagian A. Bagi setiap soalan, empat pilihan jawapan diberikan.
Pilih satu jawapan yang betul dan tandakan jawapan itu pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan yang
dibekalkan. Baca arahan pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan itu dengan teliti. Jawab semua soalan.
Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklah
ditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai. Mulakan
setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda mengikut tertib
berangka.
Koyakkan muka hadapan kertas soalan ini dan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian B, dan ikatkan
kedua-duanya bersama-sama dengan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian C.
Jawapan boleh ditulis dalam bahasa Inggeris atau Bahasa Malaysia.
This question paper consists of
printed pages and
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 962/2
65
blank page.
halaman kosong.)
BLANK PAGE
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HALAMAN KOSONG
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Section A [15 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.
1
2
Which equation represents the enthalpy of atomisation of sodium?
A Na(s)
Na(g)
B Na(l)
Na(g)
C Na(l)
Na+(g) + e
D Na(g)
Na+(g) + e
The diagram below shows the Born-Haber cycle for the formation of sodium fluoride.
574 kJ mol
Na(s) + ½F2(g)
+107 kJ mol
1
+496 kJ mol
NaF(s)
+79 kJ mol
Na(g)
1
F(g)
1
928 kJ mol
1
275 kJ mol
1
1
Na+(g) + F (g)
What is the electron affinity of fluorine?
A
3
820 kJ mol
1
B
328 kJ mol
1
C
D
246 kJ mol
Which cation has the highest hydration energy?
A Li+
B Na+
C K+
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D Rb+
1
Bahagian A [15 markah]
Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
1
2
Persamaan yang manakah yang mewakili entalpi pengatoman natrium?
A Na(p)
Na(g)
B Na(c)
Na(g)
C Na(c)
Na+(g) + e
D Na(g)
Na+(g) + e
Gambar rajah di bawah menunjukkan kitar Born-Haber bagi pembentukan natrium fluorida.
574 kJ mol
Na(p) + ½F2(g)
+107 kJ mol
1
+496 kJ mol
NaF(p)
+79 kJ mol
Na(g)
1
F(g)
1
928 kJ mol
1
275 kJ mol
1
1
Na+(g) + F (g)
Berapakah afiniti elektron fluorin?
A
3
820 kJ mol
1
B
328 kJ mol
1
C
D
246 kJ mol
Kation yang manakah yang mempunyai tenaga penghidratan paling tinggi?
A Li+
B Na+
C K+
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D Rb+
1
4
The standard reduction potentials, E , for oxygen and manganese are as follows.
Electrode system
E /V
O2(g), H+(aq), H2O2(aq) Pt(s)
+0.68
MnO4 (aq), H+(aq), Mn2+(aq) Pt(s)
+1.52
The chemical cell constructed by combining the two half-cells above may have the following
results.
I Mn2+ ion undergoes reduction to form MnO4 ion.
II H2O2 undergoes oxidation to form O2.
III The platinum electrode for oxygen half-cell is the positive electrode.
IV The e.m.f. of the cell is +0.84 V.
Which of the above statements are true for the chemical cell formed?
A I and II
B I and III
C II and IV
D III and IV
5 The graph below shows the standard reduction potentials, E , for the half-cell reactions of five
elements, P, Q, R, S and T.
E /V
Element
It can be concluded that from P to T,
A the electronegativity of the elements increases
B the chemical reactivity of the elements decreases
C the strength of the elements as reducing agents increases
D
the strength of the elements as oxidising agents increases
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4
Keupayaan penurunan piawai, E , bagi oksigen dan mangan adalah seperti yang berikut.
Sistem elektrod
E /V
O2(g), H+(ak), H2O2(ak) Pt(p)
+0.68
MnO4 (ak), H+(ak), Mn2+(ak) Pt(p)
+1.52
Sel kimia yang dibina daripada gabungan dua setengah sel di atas mungkin mempunyai keputusan
yang berikut.
I Ion Mn2+ mengalami penurunan untuk membentuk ion MnO4 .
II H2O2 mengalami pengoksidaan untuk membentuk O2.
III Elektrod platinum bagi setengah sel oksigen ialah elektrod positif.
IV D.g.e. sel ialah +0.84 V.
Penyataan di atas yang manakah yang benar bagi sel kimia yang terbentuk?
A I dan II
B I dan III
C II dan IV
D III dan IV
5 Graf di bawah menunjukkan keupayaan penurunan piawai, E , bagi tindak balas setengah sel lima
unsur, P, Q, R, S, dan T.
E /V
Unsur
Dapat disimpulkan bahawa daripada P hingga T,
A keelektronegatifan unsur-unsur bertambah
B kereaktifan kimia unsur-unsur berkurang
C kekuatan unsur-unsur sebagai agen penurunan bertambah
D
kekuatan unsur-unsur sebagai agen pengoksidaan bertambah
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6
The standard reduction potentials, E , for several copper and iron species are given below.
Electrode system
2+
E /V
+
Cu (aq)/Cu (aq)
+0.15
2+
Cu (aq)/Cu(s)
+0.34
Cu+(aq)/Cu(s)
+0.52
Fe2+(aq)/Fe(s)
0.44
Fe3+(aq)/Fe(s)
0.04
3+
2+
Fe (aq)/Fe (aq)
+0.77
Which statement regarding the species is correct?
A Cu(s) is the strongest reducing agent.
B Fe3+(aq) is the strongest oxidising agent.
C Cu2+(aq) is able to oxidise Fe2+(aq) to Fe3+(aq).
D The e.m.f. of the cell Fe(s) Fe2+(aq) Cu+(aq) Cu(s) is 0.08 V.
7 A molten compound consisting of the elements X and Y is electrolysed using a current of 1.00 A
for 1930 seconds. 2.07 g of X is formed at the cathode and 1.60 g of Y is formed at the anode. What
is the correct empirical formula for the compound?
[Relative atomic masses for X and Y are 207.0 and 80.0 respectively; Faraday‟s constant, F, is
96 500 C mol 1.]
A XY
8
B XY2
C X2Y
D X2Y2
Across Period 3 of the Periodic Table, from sodium to chlorine
A the electronegativity of the elements decreases
B the ionisation energy of the elements decreases
C the standard reduction potential of the elements increases
D the strength of the elements as reducing agents increases
9
The solubilities of two sulphates of Group 2 elements in the Periodic Table are given below.
Compound
Solubility (g per 100 g)
at 20 C
CaSO4
2.3
10
1
BaSO4
2.3
10
4
Which statement best explains the above data?
A The size of Ba2+ ion is bigger than that of Ca2+ ion.
B Barium has a lower ionisation energy than calcium.
C BaSO4 has a lower lattice energy than CaSO4.
D Ba2+ ion has a lower hydration energy than Ca2+ ion.
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6
Keupayaan penurunan piawai, E , bagi beberapa spesis kuprum dan ferum diberikan di bawah.
Sistem elektrod
2+
E /V
+
Cu (ak)/Cu (ak)
+0.15
2+
Cu (ak)/Cu(p)
+0.34
Cu+(ak)/Cu(p)
+0.52
Fe2+(ak)/Fe(p)
0.44
Fe3+(ak)/Fe(p)
0.04
3+
2+
Fe (ak)/Fe (ak)
+0.77
Penyataan yang manakah yang betul tentang spesis itu?
A Cu(p) ialah agen penurunan yang paling kuat.
B Fe3+(ak) ialah agen pengoksidaan yang paling kuat.
C Cu2+(ak) boleh mengoksida Fe2+(ak) kepada Fe3+(ak).
D D.g.e sel Fe(p) Fe2+(ak) Cu+(ak) Cu(p) ialah 0.08 V.
7 Satu sebatian lebur yang terdiri daripada unsur X dan Y telah dielektrolisiskan menggunakan arus
1.00 A selama 1930 saat. Sebanyak 2.07 g X terbentuk di katod dan 1.60 g Y terbentuk di anod.
Apakah formula empirik yang betul bagi sebatian itu?
[Jisim atom relatif bagi X dan Y masing-masing ialah 207.0 dan 80.0; Pemalar Faraday, F, ialah
96 500 C mol 1.]
A XY
8
B XY2
C X2Y
D X2Y2
Merentasi Kala 3 Jadual Berkala, daripada natrium ke klorin
A keelektronegatifan unsur berkurang
B tenaga pengionan unsur berkurang
C keupayaan penurunan piawai unsur bertambah
D kekuatan unsur sebagai agen penurunan bertambah
9
Keterlarutan dua sulfat unsur Kumpulan 2 dalam Jadual Berkala diberikan di bawah.
Sebatian
Keterlarutan (g per 100 g)
pada 20 C
CaSO4
2.3
10
1
BaSO4
2.3
10
4
Penyataan yang manakah yang paling tepat menjelaskan data di atas?
A Saiz ion Ba2+ lebih besar daripada ion Ca2+.
B Barium mempunyai tenaga pengionan yang lebih rendah daripada kalsium.
C BaSO4 mempunyai tenaga kekisi yang lebih rendah daripada CaSO4.
D Ion Ba2+ mempunyai tenaga penghidratan lebih rendah daripada ion Ca2+.
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10 A tetrachloride of Group 14, XCl4, of the Periodic Table is thermally unstable and easily
hydrolysed. It decomposes at room temperature according the equation:
XCl4
XCl2 + Cl2
What is X ?
A Carbon
B Silicon
C Germanium
D Lead
11 Which statement is true of the oxides of Group 14 elements of the Periodic Table?
A All the oxides have covalent bonds.
B The oxides with +4 oxidation state can react with alkalis.
C The oxides with +4 oxidation state are more stable down the group.
D The acidity of the oxides with +2 oxidation state increases down the group.
12 An aqueous solution of X, a mixture of two compounds, has the following properties.
(i) Decomposes in the presence of light to form a gas.
(ii) Reacts with aqueous barium hydroxide to form salt and water.
(iii) Reacts with aqueous silver nitrate to form a precipitate which can dissolve in aqueous
ammonia.
The following compounds may be found in an aqueous solution of X.
I HCl
II HBr
III HOCl
IV NH4Cl
What could X be?
A I and II
B I and III
C II and IV
D III and IV
13 Halogens or their compounds are not used
A as detergents
B in photography
C as propellant in aerosol
D in the sterilisation of water
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10 Satu tetraklorida Kumpulan 14, XCl4, Jadual Berkala tidak stabil secara terma dan mudah
terhidrolisis. Tetraklorida itu terurai pada suhu bilik mengikut persamaan:
XCl4
XCl2 + Cl2
Apakah X ?
A Karbon
B Silikon
C Germanium
D Plumbum
11 Penyataan yang manakah yang benar tentang oksida unsur Kumpulan 14 Jadual Berkala?
A Kesemua oksida mempunyai ikatan kovalen.
B Oksida dengan keadaan pengoksidaan +4 boleh bertindak balas dengan alkali.
C Oksida dengan keadaan pengoksidaan +4 lebih stabil apabila menuruni kumpulan.
D Keasidan oksida dengan keadaan pengoksidaan +2 bertambah apabila menuruni kumpulan.
12 Satu larutan akueus X, suatu campuran dua sebatian, mempunyai sifat-sifat yang berikut.
(i) Terurai dalam kehadiran cahaya untuk membentuk gas.
(ii) Bertindak balas dengan akueus barium hidroksida untuk membentuk garam dan air.
(iii) Bertindak balas dengan akueus argentum nitrat untuk membentuk mendakan yang
melarut dalam ammonia akueus.
Sebatian yang berikut mungkin terdapat dalam larutan akueus X.
I HCl
II HBr
III HOCl
IV NH4Cl
Apakah X ?
A I dan II
B I dan III
C II dan IV
D III dan IV
13 Halogen atau sebatiannya tidak digunakan
A sebagai detergen
B dalam fotografi
C sebagai propelan dalam aerosol
D dalam pensterilan air
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14 In which compound does the transition element have the lowest oxidation state?
A NH4VO3
B K3Fe(CN)6
C CrO2Cl2
D MnC2O4
15 A transition element can act as a homogeneous catalyst because
A it exhibits variable oxidation states
B it decreases the enthalpy of reactions
C it supplies energy to increase the rate of effective collisions
D it supplies electrons to facilitate adsorption through the formation of temporary bonds
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14 Sebatian yang manakah unsur peralihannya mempunyai keadaan pengoksidaan paling rendah?
A NH4VO3
B K3Fe(CN)6
C CrO2Cl2
D MnC2O4
15 Unsur peralihan boleh bertindak sebagai mangkin homogen kerana
A unsur peralihan mempamerkan keadaan pengoksidaan yang berubah
B unsur peralihan mengurangkan entalpi tindak balas
C unsur peralihan membekalkan tenaga untuk menambah kadar perlanggaran efektif
D unsur peralihan membekalkan elektron untuk memudahkan penjerapan melalui pembentukan
ikatan sementara.
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BLANK PAGE
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Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.
HALAMAN KOSONG
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Section B [15 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.
16 (a) The two common oxides of lead are lead(II) oxide and lead(IV) oxide. Lead(II) oxide
dissolves readily in aqueous nitric acid. Lead(IV) oxide reacts with concentrated hydrochloric acid to
form lead(II) chloride and chlorine.
acid.
(i) Write a balanced equation for the reaction between lead(II) oxide and aqueous nitric
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) What is the property shown by lead(II) oxide in the reaction in part (i)?
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(iii) Write a balanced equation for the reaction between lead(IV) oxide and concentrated
hydrochloric acid.
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(iv) State the change in the oxidation number of lead in the reaction in part (iii).
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(v) What is the property shown by lead(IV) oxide in this reaction?
[1 mark]
...................................................................................................................................................................
(vi) State the relative stability of lead(II) and lead(IV) compounds.
[1 mark]
...................................................................................................................................................................
(b) PbCl4 is a liquid at room temperature and undergoes hydrolysis.
(i) State the geometrical shape of PbCl4.
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Why does PbCl4 undergo hydrolysis?
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
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Bahagian B [15 markah]
Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
16 (a) Dua oksida plumbum yang lazim ialah plumbum(II) oksida dan plumbum(IV) oksida.
Plumbum(II) oksida melarut dengan mudah dalam asid nitrik akueus. Plumbum(IV) oksida bertindak
balas dengan asid hidroklorik pekat untuk membentuk plumbum(II) klorida dan klorin.
(i) Tulis persamaan berimbang bagi tindak balas antara plumbum(II) oksida dengan asid
nitrik akueus.
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Apakah sifat yang ditunjukkan oleh plumbum(II) oksida dalam tindak balas pada
bahagian (i)?
[1 markah]
Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.
....................................................................................................................................................................
(iii) Tulis persamaan berimbang bagi tindak balas antara plumbum(IV) oksida dengan asid
hdroklorik pekat.
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(iii).
(iv) Nyatakan perubahan nombor pengoksidaan plumbum dalam tindak balas pada bahagian
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(v) Apakah sifat yang ditunjukkan oleh plumbum(IV) oksida dalam tindak balas ini?
[1 markah]
...................................................................................................................................................................
(vi) Nyatakan kestabilan relatif sebatian plumbum(II) dan sebatian plumbum(IV).
[1 markah]
...................................................................................................................................................................
(b) PbCl4 adalah cecair pada suhu bilik dan mengalami hidrolisis.
(i) Nyatakan bentuk geometri PbCl4.
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Mengapakah PbCl4 mengalami hidrolisis?
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
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17 (a) A bleach liquid can be prepared from the reaction of chlorine with aqueous solution of
sodium hydroxide at room temperature.
(i) Write a balanced ionic equation for the reaction that occurs.
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) State the change in oxidation state of chlorine in the reaction.
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(iii) State the active substance of bleaching liquid formed.
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(b) Photochromic glass is made based on the concept of black-white photography.
(i) What is the additive substance of photochromic glass?
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) State what happens when photochromic glass is exposed to light, and write a balanced
equation for the reaction.
[3 marks]
....................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................
Equation:....................................................................................................................................................
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17 (a) Satu cecair peluntur boleh disediakan daripada tindak balas klorin dengan larutan akueus
natrium hidroksida pada suhu bilik.
(i) Tulis persamaan berimbang bagi tindak balas yang berlaku.
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Nyatakan perubahan keadaan pengoksidaan klorin dalam tindak balas itu.
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(iii) Nyatakan bahan aktif cecair peluntur yang terbentuk.
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(b) Kaca fotokromik dibuat berdasarkan konsep fotografi hitam putih.
Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.
(i) Apakah bahan tambahan kaca fotokromik?
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Nyatakan apakah yang berlaku apabila kaca fotokromik terdedah kepada cahaya, dan
tulis persamaan berimbang bagi tindak balas itu.
[3 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................
Persamaan:................................................................................................................................................
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BLANK PAGE
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HALAMAN KOSONG
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Section C [30 marks]
Answer any two questions in this section.
18 (a) Liquid hydrazine, N2H4, is used as a rocket fuel because its enthalpy of combustion is highly
exothermic. The thermochemical equation for the combustion of hydrazine is as follows:
N2H4(1) + O2(g)
H = –534.0 kJ
N2(g) + 2H2O(g)
(i) In an experiment, 1.0 g of hydrazine is burnt in a bomb calorimeter. Calculate the
temperature change if the total heat capacity of the bomb calorimeter and its contents is 5.86 kJ C–1.
[5 marks]
(ii) The enthalpy of formation of water vapour is –242.0 kJ mol–1. Calculate the enthalpy
of formation of hydrazine.
[3 marks]
(b) The enthalpies of vaporisation of the sodium, aluminium and chlorine are given in the table
below.
Element
chlorine.
Enthalpy of vaporisation/kJ mol–1
Sodium
103
Aluminium
294
Chlorine
20.4
(i) Explain the variations in the enthalpies of vaporisation of sodium, aluminium and
[4 marks]
(ii) Sodium and aluminium react separately with chlorine to form sodium chloride and
aluminium chloride respectively. Which of these compounds has a higher enthalpy of vaporisation?
Justify your answer.
[3 marks]
19 Explain the variations of the following properties on descending Group 2 of the Periodic Table.
Write equations where appropriate.
(a) First ionisation energy of the elements.
[5 marks]
(b) Reactivity of the elements towards water.
[5 marks]
(c) Thermal stability of their nitrates.
[5 marks]
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Bahagian C [30 markah]
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
18 (a) Cecair hidrazina, N2H4, digunakan sebagai bahan api roket kerana entalpi pembakarannya
sangat eksotermik. Persamaan termokimia bagi pembakaran hidrazina adalah seperti yang berikut:
N2H4(c) + O2(g)
H = –534.0 kJ
N2(g) + 2H2O(g)
(i) Dalam satu uji kaji, 1.0 g hidrazina dibakar dalam kalorimeter bom. Hitung perubahan
suhu jika jumlah muatan haba kalorimeter bom dan kandungannya itu ialah 5.86 kJ C–1.
[5 markah]
(ii) Entalpi pembentukan wap air ialah –242.0 kJ mol–1. Hitung entalpi pembentukan
hidrazina.
[3 markah]
(b) Entalpi pengewapan natrium, aluminium, dan klorin diberikan dalam jadual di bawah.
Unsur
Entalpi pengewapan /kJ mol–1
Natrium
103
Aluminium
294
Klorin
20.4
(i) Jelaskan perubahan entalpi pengewapan natrium, aluminium, dan klorin.
[4 markah]
(ii) Natrium dan aluminium masing-masing bertindak balas secara berasingan dengan
klorin untuk membentuk natrium klorida dan aluminium klorida. Sebatian tersebut yang manakah
yang mempunyai entalpi pegewapan paling tinggi? Justifikasikan jawapan anda.
[3 markah]
19 Jelaskan ubahan sifat yang berikut apabila menuruni Kumpulan 2 Jadual Berkala. Tulis
persamaan di mana-mana yang sesuai.
(a) Tenaga pengionan pertama unsur.
[5 markah]
(b) Kereaktifan unsur terhadap air.
[5 markah]
(c) Kestabilan terma nitratnya.
[5 markah]
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20 (a) The common oxidation states of the transition metal ions below are +2 and +3. The graph
below shows the trend in standard reduction potentials of M 3+(aq)/M 2+(aq) system of selected
transition metal ions.
Standard
electrode
potential
/V
answer.
(i) Name two ions that have stable +2 oxidation state in aqueous solution. Justify your
[3 marks]
(ii) The standard reduction potentials, E , of several species are given below.
Reaction
E /V
Fe2+ + 2e
Fe
0.44
Fe3+ + 3e
Fe
0.04
Fe3+ + 3e
Fe2+
O2 + 4H+ + 4e
O2 + 2H2O + 4e
+
O2 + 2H + 2e
+1.77
2H2O
+1.23
4OH
H2O2
+0.40
+0.68
Using the appropriate E values, explain why an aqueous solution of iron(II) ions changes
from pale green to yellow when exposed to air.
[6 marks]
(b) (i) Name the complex ions [Ni(NH2CH2CH2NH2)3]2+ and [Ni(CN)4]2 according to IUPAC
nomenclature.
[2 marks]
(ii) Aqueous nickel(II) chloride reacts with aqueous ammonia to form a precipitate X. X
dissolves in excess aqueous ammonia to form a solution Y. Write the equations for the reactions that
occur, and state the colours of X and Y.
[4 marks]
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20 (a) Keadaan pengoksidaan lazim bagi ion logam peralihan di bawah ialah +2 dan +3. Graf
di bawah menunjukkan trend keupayaan penurunan piawai bagi sistem M 3+(ak)/M 2+(ak) bagi ion
logam peralihan yang terpilih.
Keupayaan
elektrod
piawai
/V
(i) Namakan dua ion yang mempunyai keadaan pengoksidaan +2 yang stabil dalam larutan
akueus. Justifikasikan jawapan anda.
[3 markah]
(ii) Keupayaan penurunan piawai, E , bagi beberapa spesis diberikan di bawah.
Tindak balas
Fe2+ + 2e
3+
Fe + 3e
3+
Fe + 3e
Fe
0.44
Fe
Fe
+
O2 + 4H + 4e
O2 + 2H2O + 4e
O2 + 2H+ + 2e
E /V
0.04
2+
+1.77
2H2O
+1.23
4OH
H2O2
+0.40
+0.68
Dengan menggunakan nilai E yang bersesuaian, jelaskan mengapa larutan akueus ion
ferum(II) berubah daripada hijau pucat kepada kuning apabila terdedah ke udara.
[6 markah]
(b) (i) Namakan ion kompleks [Ni(NH2CH2CH2NH2)3]2+ dan ion kompleks [Ni(CN)4]2
mengikut tatanama IUPAC.
[2 markah]
(ii) Nikel(II) klorida akueus bertindak balas dengan ammonia akueus untuk membentuk
mendakan X. X melarut dalam ammonia akueus berlebihan untuk membentuk larutan Y. Tulis
persamaan bagi tindak balas yang berlaku, dan nyatakan warna X dan Y.
[4 markah]
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90
Identity card number: …………………………. Centre number/index number: ……………................
(Nombor kad pengenalan)
(Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
SPECIMEN PAPER
962/3
STPM
CHEMISTRY (KIMIA)
PAPER 3 (KERTAS 3)
One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)
MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
Please tear off along the perforated line.
(Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.)
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)
Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE
TOLD TO DO SO.
There are fifteen questions in Section A. For each question, four choices
of answers are given. Choose one correct answer and indicate it on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet provided. Read the instructions on the
Multiple-choice Answer Sheet very carefully. Answer all questions. Marks
will not be deducted for wrong answers.
Answer all questions in Section B. Write your answers in the spaces
provided.
Answer any two questions in Section C. All essential working should be
shown. For numerical answers, unit should be quoted wherever appropriate.
Begin each answer on a fresh sheet of paper and arrange your answers in
numerical order.
Tear off the front page of this question paper and your answer sheets of
Section B, and tie both of them together with your answer sheets of Section C.
Answers may be written in either English or Bahasa Malaysia.
For examiner‟s use
(Untuk kegunaan
pemeriksa)
Section B
(Bahagian B)
16
17
Section C
(Bahagian C)
Total
(Jumlah)
Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.
Ada lima belas soalan dalam Bahagian A. Bagi setiap soalan, empat pilihan jawapan diberikan.
Pilih satu jawapan yang betul dan tandakan jawapan itu pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan yang
dibekalkan. Baca arahan pada Borang Jawapan Aneka Pilihan itu dengan teliti. Jawab semua soalan.
Markah tidak akan ditolak bagi jawapan yang salah.
Jawab semua soalan dalam Bahagian B. Tulis jawapan anda di ruang yang disediakan.
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam Bahagian C. Semua jalan kerja yang sesuai hendaklah
ditunjukkan. Bagi jawapan berangka, unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang sesuai. Mulakan
setiap jawapan pada helaian kertas jawapan yang baharu dan susun jawapan anda mengikut tertib
berangka.
Koyakkan muka hadapan kertas soalan ini dan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian B, dan ikatkan
kedua-duanya bersama-sama dengan helaian jawapan anda bagi Bahagian C.
Jawapan boleh ditulis dalam bahasa Inggeris atau Bahasa Malaysia.
This question paper consists of
printed pages and
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 962/3
91
blank page.
halaman kosong.)
BLANK PAGE
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HALAMAN KOSONG
962/3
93
Section A [15 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.
1
Which compound has a carbon atom that exhibits sp3 hybridisation?
A CH2=CH CH=CH2
CH=CH2
B
CH3
C
D H C C H
2 When 0.1 mol of hydrocarbon X is burnt in excess oxygen, 17.6 g carbon dioxide is produced.
0.1 mol of X is found to react with 4.48 dm3 of bromine vapour under standard conditions. What is
the possible structural formula of X ?
[Relative atomic massess of C and O are 12.0 and 16.0 respectively ; the molar volume of a gas is
22.4 dm3 at stp.]
A CH3CH=CHCH3
B CH2=C=C=CH2
C CH3CH2CH2CH3
D CH2=CHCH=CH2
3
Which compound shows optical isomerism?
A CH3CH=CHCH3
B CH3CH2C(Cl)2CH3
C CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3
D HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH
4
Which reaction involves an electrophilic reagent?
A CH3CH3 + Cl2
B CH3Br + NaOH
CH3CH2Cl + HCl
CH3OH + NaBr
C CH3CH=CH2 + HBr
CH3CHBrCH3
D CH3COOH + CH3CH2OH
CH3COOCH2CH3 + H2O
5 A mixture of excess ethane and chlorine is exposed to light. What is the major product of the
reaction?
A Cl3CCH3
B ClCH2CH3
C Cl2CHCH3
D Cl2CHCHCl2
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Bahagian A [15 markah]
Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
1
Sebatian yang manakah yang mempunyai atom karbon yang menunjukkan penghibridan sp3?
A CH2=CH CH=CH2
CH=CH2
B
CH3
C
D H C C H
2 Apabila 0.1 mol hidrokarbon X dibakar dalam oksigen berlebihan, 17.6 g karbon dioksida
dihasilkan. Didapati bahawa 0.1 mol X akan bertindak balas dengan 4.48 dm3 wap bromin dalam
keadaan piawai. Apakah formula struktur yang mungkin bagi X ?
[Jisim atom relatif bagi C dan O masing-masing ialah 12.0 dan 16.0; isi padu molar gas ialah
22.4 dm3 pada stp.]
A CH3CH=CHCH3
B CH2=C=C=CH2
C CH3CH2CH2CH3
D CH2=CHCH=CH2
3
Sebatian yang manakah yang menunjukkan isomer optik?
A CH3CH=CHCH3
B CH3CH2C(Cl)2CH3
C CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3
D HOCH2CH(OH)CH2OH
4
Tindak balas yang manakah yang melibatkan reagen elektrofilik?
A CH3CH3 + Cl2
B CH3Br + NaOH
CH3CH2Cl + HCl
CH3OH + NaBr
C CH3CH=CH2 + HBr
CH3CHBrCH3
D CH3COOH + CH3CH2OH
CH3COOCH2CH3 + H2O
5 Satu campuran etana yang berlebihan dan klorin terdedah kepada cahaya. Apakah hasil utama
tindak balas itu?
A Cl3CCH3
B ClCH2CH3
C Cl2CHCH3
D Cl2CHCHCl2
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6 An organic compound Z undergoes a catalytic hydrogenation reaction. Z also reacts with
hydrogen bromide to form 2-bromopropane.
The structural formula of Z is
A CH3CH2CH3
B CH2 CH2
C CH3CH CH2
D CH3CH(OH)CH3
7
The following statements are about nitration of benzene.
I Nitric acid acts as an electrophile.
II The reaction involves free radicals.
III Nitronium ion, NO2+, is an electrophile.
IV Nitronium ion, NO2+, is formed from concentrated H2SO4 and HNO3.
Which statements regarding the mechanism of nitration of benzene are true?
A I and II
B I and IV
C II and III
D III and IV
8
Which reaction occurs through SN1 mechanism?
A C6H5CH2Br + NH3
B (CH3)3CBr + NaOH
C6H5CH2NH2 + HBr
(CH3)3COH + NaBr
C CH3CHBrCH3 + KCN
CH3CH(CN)CH3 + KBr
D CH3CH2CH2Br + KOH
CH3CH2CH2OH + KBr
9 When an optically active compound Z is heated with chromic acid, the product formed is not
optically active but react with alkaline iodine. Compound Z could be
A (CH3)2CHCH2OH
B CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2CH3
C CH3CH2CH2CH(OH)CH3
D
CH(OH)CH2CH3
10 Compound X is oxidised to compound Y. Y does not reduce Fehling‟s solution. X could be
A CH3CH2CH2OH
B CH3CHOHCH3
C (CH3)3COH
D CH3COCH3
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6 Satu sebatian organik Z mengalami tindak balas penghidrogenan bermangkin. Z juga bertindak
balas dengan hidrogen bromida untuk membentuk 2-bromopropana.
Formula struktur Z ialah
A CH3CH2CH3
B CH2 CH2
C CH3CH CH2
D CH3CH(OH)CH3
7
Penyataan yang berikut adalah tentang penitratan benzena.
I Asid nitrik bertindak sebagai elektrofil.
II Tindak balas melibatkan radikal bebas.
III Ion nitronium, NO2+ ialah elektrofil.
IV Ion nitronium, NO2+, terbentuk daripada H2SO4 pekat dan HNO3.
Penyataan yang manakah yang betul berkaitan dengan mekanisme penitratan benzena?
A I dan II
B I dan IV
C II dan III
D III dan IV
8
Tindak balas yang manakah yang berlaku melalui mekanisme SN1?
A C6H5CH2Br + NH3
B (CH3)3CBr + NaOH
C6H5CH2NH2 + HBr
(CH3)3COH + NaBr
C CH3CHBrCH3 + KCN
CH3CH(CN)CH3 + KBr
D CH3CH2CH2Br + KOH
CH3CH2CH2OH + KBr
9 Apabila sebatian Z yang aktif optik dipanaskan dengan asid kromik, hasil yang terbentuk tidak
aktif optik tetapi bertindak balas dengan iodin beralkali. Sebatian Z mungkin
A (CH3)2CHCH2OH
B CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2CH3
C CH3CH2CH2CH(OH)CH3
D
CH(OH)CH2CH3
10 Sebatian X dioksidakan kepada sebatian Y. Y tidak menurunkan larutan Fehling‟s. X mungkin
A CH3CH2CH2OH
B CH3CHOHCH3
C (CH3)3COH
D CH3COCH3
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11 Which compound produces a yellow precipitate when reacts with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine?
O
A CH3CH2CH2C OH
O
B CH3CH2C OCH3
O
C CH3CH2CH2C Cl
O
D CH3CH2CCH3
12 Phenol is used to prepare CH3COOC6H5 through an intermediate X as shown in the following
scheme.
Reagent I
C6H5OH
Reagent II
X
CH3COOC6H5
What are reagent I and reagent II in the above scheme?
Reagent I
Reagent II
A Na
CH3COCl
B PCl5
CH3COCl
C PCl5
CH3COOH
D NaOH
CH3COOH
13 An amine is produced in a two-step reaction as shown below.
2-Bromopropane
KCN/ethanol
Na/ethanol
Amine
What is the structural formula of this amine?
A CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2
B CH3CH2CH(CH3)NH2
C (CH3)2CHCH2NH2
D CH3CH(NH2)CH3
14 The structural formula of a peptide is as follows.
O
H2N
CH
O
C
N
CH
C
CH2OH
H
CH3
The peptide is
A a dipeptide
B a tripeptide
C a neutral compound
D an acidic compound
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O
N
CH
H
CH2CH2CH2NH2
C
OH
11 Sebatian yang manakah yang menghasilkan mendakan kuning apabila bertindak balas dengan
2,4-dinitrofenilhidrazina?
O
A CH3CH2CH2C OH
O
B CH3CH2C OCH3
O
C CH3CH2CH2C Cl
O
D CH3CH2CCH3
12 Fenol digunakan untuk menyediakan CH3COOC6H5 melalui perantaraan X seperti ditunjukkan
dalam skema yang berikut.
Reagen I
C6H5OH
Reagen II
X
CH3COOC6H5
Apakah reagen I dan reagen II dalam skema di atas?
Reagen I
Reagen II
A Na
CH3COCl
B PCl5
CH3COCl
C PCl5
CH3COOH
D NaOH
CH3COOH
13 Suatu amina dihasilkan dalam dua langkah tindak balas seperti ditunjukkan di bawah.
2-Bromopropana
KCN/etanol
Na/etanol
Amina
Apakah formula struktur amina ini?
A CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2
B CH3CH2CH(CH3)NH2
C (CH3)2CHCH2NH2
D CH3CH(NH2)CH3
14 Formula struktur suatu peptida adalah seperti yang berikut.
O
H2N
CH
O
C
N
CH
CH2OH
H
CH3
C
Peptida itu ialah
A dipeptida
B tripeptida
C sebatian neutral
D sebatian berasid
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O
N
CH
H
CH2CH2CH2NH2
C
OH
15 The following is a pair of a polymer and its possible repeating unit.
Polymer
Repeating unit
I Poly(propene)
CH(CH3)CH2
II Poly(styrene)
CHCH2CHCH2
III Terylene
OCH2CH2OCO
IV Nylon-6,6
CO(CH2)5NH
CO
Which is the correct match between a polymer and its repeating unit?
A I and II
B I and IV
C II and III
D III and IV
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15 Padanan yang berikut adalah tentang polimer dan unit ulangan yang mungkin.
Polimer
I Poli(propena)
II Poli(stirena)
Unit ulangan
CH(CH3)CH2
CHCH2CHCH2
III Terilena
OCH2CH2OCO
IV Nilon-6,6
CO(CH2)5NH
CO
Padanan yang manakah yang betul antara polimer dan unit ulangannya?
A I dan II
B I dan IV
C II dan III
D III dan IV
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BLANK PAGE
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Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.
HALAMAN KOSONG
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Section B [15 marks]
Answer all questions in this section.
16 (a) Starting with 1-bromopropane, CH3CH2CH2Br, show the reaction schemes to synthesise the
following carboxylic acids.
[4 marks]
(i) CH3CH2COOH
(ii) CH3CH2CH2COOH
(b) Write equations for the reactions between benzoyl chloride, C6H5COCl, and the following
compounds, and name the organic products according to the IUPAC nomenclature.
[4 marks]
(i) CH3NH2
(ii) C6H5OH
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Bahagian B [15 markah]
Jawab semua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
16 (a) Bermula dengan 1-bromopropana, CH3CH2CH2Br, tunjukkan skema tindak balas untuk
mensintesiskan asid karboksilik yang berikut.
[4 markah]
(i) CH3CH2COOH
Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.
(ii) CH3CH2CH2COOH
(b) Tulis persamaan bagi tindak balas antara benzoil klorida, C6H5COCl, dengan sebatian yang
berikut, dan namakan hasil-hasil organik itu mengikut tatanama IUPAC.
[4 markah]
(i) CH3NH2
(ii) C6H5OH
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17 (a) Compound X is a phenylalanine which is an essential amino acid that must be provided in the
diet for healthy growth. The structural formula of X is given below.
NH2
CH2
CHCOOH
(i) Name the functional groups in compound X.
[2 marks]
....................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................
(ii) Draw the structure of X at isoelectric point. State the direction of the movement of X
when a potential difference is applied to an aqueous solution of X at isoelectric point.
[2 marks]
(iii) Draw the structure of X at pH = 2.
[1 mark]
(iv) Draw the structure of dipeptide formed from two molecules of X.
[1 mark]
(v) Name the lingkage in the dipeptide.
[1 mark]
....................................................................................................................................................................
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17 (a) Sebatian X ialah fenilalanina yang merupakan asid amino perlu disediakan dalam diet untuk
pertumbuhan yang sihat. Formula struktur X diberikan di bawah.
NH2
CH2
CHCOOH
(i) Namakan kumpulan berfungsi dalam sebatian X.
[2 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................................................
Sila koyakkan di sepanjang garis putus-putus ini.
(ii) Lukis struktur X pada takat isoelektrik. Nyatakan arah gerakan X apabila satu beza
keupayaan dikenakan pada larutan akueus X pada takat isoelektrik.
[2 markah]
(iii) Lukis struktur X pada pH = 2.
[1 markah]
(iv) Lukis struktur dipeptida yang terbentuk daripada dua molekul X.
[1 markah]
(v) Namakan rangkaian dalam dipeptida itu.
[1 markah]
....................................................................................................................................................................
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BLANK PAGE
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108
HALAMAN KOSONG
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109
Section C [30 marks]
Answer any two questions in this section.
18 (a) Methylbenzene is obtained from benzene using Friedel-Crafts reaction.
(i) State the reagent and conditions required for the reaction.
[2 marks]
(ii) Write a balanced equation for the reaction.
[1 mark]
(iii) State the electrophile involved in this reaction.
[1 mark]
(iv) Describe a simple chemical test to detect the presence of methylbenzene. Write an
equation for the reaction involved.
[3 marks]
(b) Chlorine gas is bubbled into methylbenzene in the presence of light and in the absence of a
catalyst.
(i) Draw structural formulae of any two organic compounds formed and name them.
[4 marks]
(ii) Write the mechanism for the reaction.
[4 marks]
19 The table below lists the acid dissociation constants, Ka, for three hydroxy compounds in aqueous
solutions at 298 K.
Name of compound
Formula
Ka/mol dm
Cyclohexanol
OH
1.0
10
18
Phenol
OH
1.0
10
10
OH
6.8
10
11
4-Methylphenol
H3C
3
(a) Arrange the three compounds above in the order of increasing acidity. Justify your answer.
[7 marks]
(b) Describe a chemical test to differentiate the acidity between cyclohexanol and phenol.
[4 marks]
(c) State the reagents and reaction conditions in the oxidation and bromination of
4-methylphenol, and draw the structural formula of the products formed.
[4 marks]
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Bahagian C [30 markah]
Jawab mana-mana dua soalan dalam bahagian ini.
18 (a) Metilbenzena diperoleh daripada benzena menggunakan tindak balas Friedel-Crafts.
(i) Nyatakan reagen dan keadaan yang diperlukan bagi tindak balas itu.
[2 markah]
(ii) Tulis persamaan berimbang bagi tindak balas itu.
[1 markah]
(iii) Nyatakan elektrofil yang terlibat dalam tindak balas tersebut.
[1 markah]
(iv) Perihalkan satu ujian kimia ringkas untuk mengesan kehadiran metilbenzena. Tulis
persamaan bagi tindak balas yang terlibat.
[3 markah]
(b) Gas klorin dilalugelembungkan ke dalam metilbenzena dalam kehadiran cahaya dan dalam
ketakhadiran mangkin.
(i) Lukis formula struktur mana-mana dua sebatian organik yang terbentuk dan
namakannya.
[4 markah]
(ii) Tulis mekanisme bagi tindak balas itu.
[4 markah]
19 Jadual di bawah menyenaraikan pemalar penceraian asid, Ka, bagi tiga sebatian hidroksi dalam
larutan akueus pada 298 K.
Nama sebatian
Formula
Ka/mol dm
Sikloheksanol
OH
1.0
10
18
Fenol
OH
1.0
10
10
OH
6.8
10
11
4-Metilfenol
H3C
3
(a) Susun tiga sebatian di atas mengikut tertib menaik keasidannya. Justifikasikan jawapan anda.
[7 markah]
(b) Perihalkan satu ujian kimia untuk membezakan keasidan antara sikloheksanol dengan fenol.
[4 markah]
(c) Nyatakan reagen dan keadaan tindak balas dalam pengoksidaan dan pembrominan
4-metilfenol, dan lukis formula struktur hasil yang terbentuk.
[4 markah]
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20 A monobasic carboxylic acid Z has the following composition by mass: carbon, 54.5%; hydrogen,
9.1%; and oxygen, 36.4%. Titration of 0.10 g of Z requires 11.40 cm3 of 0.100 mol dm 3 sodium
hyroxide for complete neutralisation. Z can be synthesised from 1-propanol by a three-step reaction as
shown below.
I
II
CH3CH2CH2OH
X
III
Y
Z
(a) Determine the empirical and molecular formulae of Z.
[6 marks]
(b) State the reagents and the conditions required in each of the steps.
[3 marks]
(c) Draw the structural formulae of X, Y and Z.
[3 marks]
(d) A mixture of 1-propanol and Z is refluxed with concentrated sulphuric acid. Name the
reaction and the organic product formed, and write a balanced equation for the reaction involved.
[3 marks]
[Relative atomic masses of H, C and O are 1.0, 12.0 and 16.0 respectively.]
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20 Satu asid karboksilik monobes Z mempunyai komposisi mengikut jisim: karbon, 54.5%; hidrogen,
9.1%; dan oxigen, 36.4%. Pentitratan 0.10 g Z memerlukan 11.40 cm3 natrium hidroksida
0.100 mol dm 3 untuk peneutralan lengkap. Z dapat disintesiskan daripada 1-propanol melalui tiga
langkah tindak balas seperti ditunjukkan di bawah.
I
CH3CH2CH2OH
II
X
III
Y
Z
(a) Tentukan formula empirik dan formula molekul Z.
[6 markah]
(b) Nyatakan reagen dan keadaan yang diperlukan dalam setiap langkah itu.
[3 markah]
(c) Lukis formula struktur X, Y, dan Z.
[3 markah]
(d) Satu campuran 1-propanol dan Z direfluks dengan asid sulfurik pekat. Namakan tindak balas
dan hasil organik yang terbentuk, dan tulis persamaan berimbang bagi tindak balas yang terlibat.
[3 markah]
[Jisim atom relatif bagi H, C, dan O masing-masing ialah 1.0, 12.0, dan 16.0.]
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114
SPECIMEN EXPERIMENT
962/4
STPM
CHEMISTRY
PAPER 4
MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 962/4
115
STUDENT’S MANUAL 20___/20___
STPM CHEMISTRY
Topic
:
Thermochemistry
Purpose
:
To determine the heat of neutralisation of a strong acid with a strong base
Materials :
KA 1 is 1.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid.
KA 2 is a 1.0 mol dm-3 solution of a strong acid W.
KA 3 is 1.0 mol dm-3 aqueous sodium hydroxide.
KA 4 is 1.0 mol dm-3 nitric acid.
KA 5 is 1.0 mol dm-3 aqueous potassium hydroxide.
Procedure :
(a) By means of a pipette, place 10.0 cm3 of KA 1 into a plastic cup. Record the
temperature of KA 1 as the initial temperature of mixture X in the table below.
By means of a measuring cylinder, add 30 cm3 of solution KA 3 into the plastic
cup containing KA 1. Stir mixture X carefully with a thermometer and record the
highest temperature attained in the table below. Pour away mixture X from the
plastic cup. Then clean and rinse the cup with distilled water.
Repeat the above procedure using
(i) 10.0 cm3 of KA 2 to replace KA 1 to obtain mixture Y, and
(ii) 10.0 cm3 of KA 4 and 30 cm3 of KA 5 to replace KA 1 and KA 3
respectively to obtain mixture Z.
Results
:
(b) Complete the table below.
Mixture X
KA 1 + KA 3
Mixture Y
KA 2 + KA 3
Mixture Z
KA 4 + KA 5
Highest temperature/ C
Initial temperature/ C
Increase in temperature/ C
Questions :
(c) If 4.2 Joules is required to raise the temperature by 1 C for 1 cm3 of solution,
calculate the heat released for each of the experiments conducted.
(d) Calculate the number of moles of the following solutions added into the plastic
cup.
(i) Sodium hydroxide
(ii) Potassium hydroxide
(iii) Hydrochloric acid
(iv) Nitric acid
(v) Acid W
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STUDENT’S MANUAL 20___/20___
STPM CHEMISTRY
(e) Write an ionic equation for the reaction taking place in mixtures X, Y, and Z.
(f) Calculate the heat of neutralisation for each reaction.
(g)
(i) Explain why the values of the heat of neutralisation you obtained differ in
mixtures X, Y, and Z.
(ii) The heat of neutralisation between a strong acid and a strong base is
57.3 kJ mol 1. How would you improve the given procedure so that an
approximate value of 57.3 kJ mol 1 could be obtained?
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118
Identity card number: …………………………. Centre number/index number: ……………................
(Nombor kad pengenalan)
(Nombor pusat/angka giliran)
SPECIMEN PAPER
962/5
STPM
CHEMISTRY (KIMIA)
PAPER 5 (KERTAS 5)
One and a half hours (Satu jam setengah)
MAJLIS PEPERIKSAAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL)
SIJIL TINGGI PERSEKOLAHAN MALAYSIA
(MALAYSIA HIGHER SCHOOL CERTIFICATE)
Instructions to candidates:
DO NOT OPEN THIS QUESTION PAPER UNTIL YOU ARE
TOLD TO DO SO.
Answer all questions. Write your answers in the spaces provided.
For examiner‟s use
(Untuk kegunaan
pemeriksa)
1
Answers may be written in either English or Bahasa Malaysia.
All working should be shown. Numerical answers should be given to
an appropriate number of significant figures or decimal places; units
should be quoted where appropriate.
For your calculations, use the following relative atomic masses:
2
3
Total
(Jumlah)
H = 1.0; Mn = 54.9; N = 14.0; C = 12.0; O = 16.0; K = 39.1.
Arahan kepada calon:
JANGAN BUKA KERTAS SOALAN INI SEHINGGA ANDA DIBENARKAN BERBUAT
DEMIKIAN.
Jawab semua soalan. Tulis jawapan anda dalam ruang yang disediakan.
Jawapan boleh ditulis dalam bahasa Inggeris atau Bahasa Malaysia.
Semua kerja hendaklah ditunjukkan. Jawapan berangka hendaklah diberikan hingga bilangan
anga bererti atau tempat perpuluhan yang sesuai; unit hendaklah dinyatakan di mana-mana yang
sesuai.
Untuk penghitungan anda, gunakan jisim atom relatif yang berikut:
H = 1.0; Mn = 54.9; N = 14.0; C = 12.0; O = 16.0; K = 39.1.
This question paper consists of
printed pages and
(Kertas soalan ini terdiri daripada halaman bercetak dan
© Majlis Peperiksaan Malaysia
STPM 962/5
119
blank page.
halaman kosong.)
1 An experiment was carried out to determine the percentage of ammonium ethanedioate,
(NH4)2C2O4, in a mixture of two ethanedioate salts.
An aqueous solution of X was prepared by dissolving a mixture of (NH4)2C2O4 and KHC2O4 in
distilled water.
(a) In this experiment, 25.0 cm3 of the aqueous solution of X was pipetted into a titration flask
followed by 25 cm3 of sulphuric acid and then heated to a temperature of approximately 60 oC. The
aqueous solution of X was then titrated with 0.02 mol dm 3 aqueous solution of potassium
manganate(VII) . The reactions involved are shown by the following equation.
2MnO4 (aq) + 5C2O42 (aq) + 16H+(aq)
2Mn2+(aq) + 10CO2 (g) + 8H2O(l)
(i) State the steps taken in transferring 25.0 cm3 of the aqueous solution of X into the
titration flask by using a pipette.
[3 marks]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(ii) The burette readings for the rough and accurate titrations are shown in the table below.
Complete the table.
[1 mark]
Titration
Accurate
Rough
First
Second
Third
Final reading/cm3
30.0
30.75
30.05
30.90
Initial reading/cm3
1.1
2.20
1.30
2.20
Volume of KMnO4
aqueous solution/cm3
28.9
(iii) By showing the suitable values of titres chosen, calculate the average titre value.
[2 marks]
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1 Satu uji kaji telah dijalankan untuk menentukan peratusan ammonium etanadioat, (NH4)2C2O4,
dalam satu campuran dua garam etanadioat.
Larutan akueus X disediakan dengan melarutkan campuran (NH4)2C2O4 dan KHC2O4 dalam air
suling.
(a) Dalam uji kaji ini, 25.0 cm3 larutan akueus X dipipetkan ke dalam kelalang pentitratan diikuti
25 cm3 asid sulfurik dan kemudian dipanaskan ke suhu lebih kurang 60 °C. Larutan akues X kemudian
dititratkan dengan larutan akues kalium manganat(VII) 0.02 mol dm 3. Tindak balas yang terlibat
ditunjukkan dengan persamaan yang berikut.
2MnO4 (ak) + 5C2O42 (ak) + 16H+(ak)
2Mn2+(ak) + 10CO2 (g) + 8H2O(c)
(i) Nyatakan langkah-langkah yang diambil untuk memindahkan 25.0 cm3 larutan akueus
X ke dalam kelalang pentitratan dengan menggunakan sebuah pipet.
[3 markah]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(ii) Bacaan buret bagi pentitratan kasar dan jitu ditunjukkan dalam jadual di bawah.
Lengkapkan jadual ini.
[1 markah]
Pentitratan
Kasar
Jitu
Pertama
Kedua
Ketiga
Bacaan akhir/cm3
30.0
30.75
30.05
30.90
Bacaan awal/cm3
1.1
2.20
1.30
2.20
Isi padu larutan akueus
KMnO4 /cm3
28.9
(iii) Hitung nilai purata titer dengan menunjukkan nilai-nilai titer yang sesuai digunakan.
[2 markah]
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121
(iv) Calculate the concentration, in mol dm 3, of ethanedioate ions C2O42 in the aqueous
solution of X.
[2 marks]
(v) Name a suitable apparatus used to measure 25 cm3 of sulphuric acid.
[1 mark]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(b) When 25.0 cm3 of the aqueous solution of X was titrated with 0.05 mol dm 3 aqueous solution
of sodium hydroxide using a suitable indicator, it was found that 12.40 cm3 of aqueous solution of
sodium hydroxide was needed for a complete reaction.
(i) State a suitable indicator used for this titration.
[1 mark]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(ii) State the colour of the solution at the end point of the titration.
[1 mark]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(iii) Calculate the concentration, in mol dm 3, of KHC2O4 in the aqueous solution of X.
[2 marks]
(iv) Calculate the percentage by mass of (NH4)2C2O4 in the aqueous solution of X.
[2 marks]
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122
(iv) Hitung kepekatan, dalam mol dm 3, ion etanadioat C2O42 dalam larutan akueus X.
[2 markah]
(v) Namakan alat radas yang sesuai digunakan untuk menyukat 25 cm3 asid sulfurik.
[1 markah]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(b) Apabila 25.0 cm3 larutan akueus X dititratkan dengan larutan akueus natrium hidroksida
0.05 mol dm 3 dengan menggunakan penunjuk yang sesuai, didapati bahawa 12.40 cm3 larutan akueus
natrium hidroksida diperlukan bagi tindak balas lengkap.
(i) Nyatakan penunjuk yang sesuai digunakan dalam penitratan ini.
[1 markah]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(ii) Nyatakan warna larutan pada takat akhir penitratan.
[1 markah]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(iii) Hitung kepekatan, dalam mol dm 3, KHC2O4 dalam larutan akueus X.
[2 markah]
(iv) Hitung peratusan mengikut jisim (NH4)2C2O4 dalam larutan akueus X.
[2 markah]
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123
2
An experiment is carried out to investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction.
In the experiment, 50.0 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm 3 hydrogen peroxide solution and 20.0 cm3 of
1.0 mol dm 3 sulphuric acid are added into a conical flask containing 25.0 cm3 of 0.15 mol dm 3
potassium iodide solution, 10.0 cm3 of 0.050 mol dm 3 sodium thiosulphate solution and 10.0 cm3 of
0.5% starch solution.
(a) The duration from the instant hydrogen peroxide solution is added to the mixture until the
appearance of the blue colouration at different temperatures is recorded in the table below.
Complete the table.
[1 mark]
Temperature T/ C
18.0
28.0
38.0
48.0
Time t/s
73.0
49.0
36.0
25.0
1 –1
/s
t
(i) Name a suitable apparatus used to measure 50.0 cm3 of hydrogen peroxide solution.
[1 mark]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(ii)
What causes the blue colouration?
[1 mark]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(iii)
Write the equation for the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and potassium iodide.
[1 mark]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(iv) What is the relationship between the rate of reaction and
1
?
t
[1 mark]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
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2
Satu uji kaji telah dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan suhu terhadap kadar tindak balas.
Dalam uji kaji itu, 50.0 cm3 larutan hidrogen peroksida 0.10 mol dm 3 dan 20.0 cm3 asid sulfurik
1.0 mol dm 3 ditambahkan ke dalam satu kelalang kon yang mengandung 25.0 cm3 larutan kalium
iodida 0.15 mol dm 3, 10.0 cm3 larutan natrium tiosulfat 0.050 mol dm 3, dan 10.0 cm3 larutan kanji
0.5%.
(a) Tempoh masa dari ketika larutan hidrogen peroksida ditambahkan ke dalam campuran
sehingga kewujudan warna biru larutan pada suhu yang berlainan direkodkan dalam jadual di bawah.
Lengkapkan jadual ini.
[1 markah]
Suhu T/ C
18.0
28.0
38.0
48.0
Masa t/s
73.0
49.0
36.0
25.0
1 –1
/s
t
(i) Namakan alat radas yang sesuai digunakan untuk menyukat 50.0 cm3 larutan hidrogen
peroksida.
[1 markah]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(ii)
Apakah yang menyebabkan warna biru larutan?
[1 markah]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(iii)
Tulis persamaan bagi tindak balas antara hidrogen peroksida dengan kalium iodida.
[1 markah]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(iv) Apakah hubungan antara kadar tindak balas dengan
1
?
t
[1 markah]
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
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(b) Plot a graph of
1
against T.
t
[2 marks]
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126
(b) Plot graf
1
lawan T.
t
[2 markah]
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127
(c) Based on the graph,
(i) state the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction.
[1 mark]
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
(ii) compare the rates of the reaction at 30 C and 40 C. Explain your answer.
[2 marks]
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
(d) Describe a method to determine the appearance of the blue colouration.
[2 marks]
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
(e) Suggest an experiment to study the effect of concentration of hydrogen peroxide on the rate of
reaction.
[3 marks]
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
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(c) Berdasarkan graf itu,
(i) nyatakan kesan suhu terhadap kadar tindak balas.
[1 markah]
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
(ii) bandingkan kadar tindak balas pada 30 C dan 40 C. Jelaskan jawapan anda.
[2 markah]
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
(d) Perihalkan kaedah untuk menentukan kemunculan warna biru larutan.
[2 markah]
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
(e) Cadangkan satu uji kaji untuk mengkaji kesan kepekatan hidrogen peroksida terhadap kadar
tindak balas.
[3 markah]
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
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3 When water is added to a white solid U, a solution containing Al3+, NH4+ and SO42 ions is
obtained. The scheme below shows some observations obtained when certain reagents are added to
the white solid U and its aqueous solution.
K2CrO4(aq)
(iv)
Na2CO3(aq)
Δ
White solid U
Gases X and Y
Gas Z
Water
White fumes
Aqueous solution of U
NaOH(aq)
Pb(NO3)2(aq)
NH3(aq)
Ba(NO3)2(aq)
Nessler
reagent
(iv)
(i)
White precipitate
Excess
NaOH(aq)
(iii)
Dilute
HNO3
II
(ii)
Δ
(v)
Colourless
solution
Colourless
solution
I
White precipitate
Gas W
(a) What is the colour of an aqueous solution of U?
[1 mark]
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
Using Appendix A and Appendix B, answer the following questions.
(b) State the observations (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v) and (vi).
[6 marks]
(i) ……….……………………………………………………………………………………
(ii) ……………….……………………………………………………………………………
(iii) ……….……………………………………………………………………………………
(iv) ……….……………………………………………………………………………………
(v) ……….……………………………………………………………………………………
(vi) ……….……………………………………………………………………………………
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3 Apabila air ditambahkan kepada satu pepejal putih, U, satu larutan mengandung ion Al3+, ion
NH4+ dan ion SO42 diperoleh. Skema di bawah menunjukkan beberapa pemerhatian yang diperoleh
apabila reagen tertentu ditambahkan kepada pepejal putih U dan larutan akueusnya.
K2CrO4(ak)
(iv)
Na2CO3(ak)
Δ
Pepejal putih U
Gas X dan gas Y
Gas Z
Air
Wasap putih
Larutan akueus U
NaOH(ak)
Pb(NO3)2(ak)
Ba(NO3)2(ak)
NH3(ak)
Reagen
Nessler
(iv)
(i)
Mendakan putih
NaOH(ak)
berlebihan
(iii)
HNO3
cair
(v)
II
(ii)
Δ
Larutan tak
berwarna
Larutan tak
berwarna
I
Mendakan putih
Gas W
(a) Apakah warna larutan akueus U?
[1 markah]
…………………………………………………………...…………………………………..…………...
Dengan menggunakan Lampiran A dan Lampiran B, jawab soalan yang berikut.
(b) Nyatakan pemerhatian (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (v), dan (vi).
[6 markah]
(i) ……….……………………………………………………………………………………
(ii) ……………….……………………………………………………………………………
(iii) ……….……………………………………………………………………………………
(iv) ……….……………………………………………………………………………………
(v) ……….……………………………………………………………………………………
(vi) ……….……………………………………………………………………………………
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131
(c) Name the gases W, X, Y and Z.
[4 marks]
W:….……………………………………………………………….……………………..……...............
X:………………………………………………………………….……………………..……………….
Y:………………………………………………………………….………………..…………………….
Z: ………………………………………………………………….………………..…………................
(d) Name the reagents I and II, and state the conditions where appropriate.
[2 marks]
I: …………………………………………………………………………………………..……………..
II:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(e) Describe a method to test gas W.
[2 marks]
……………………………………………………………………………………………..……………..
....…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
962/5
132
(c) Namakan gas W, X, Y, dan Z.
[4 markah]
W:….……………………………………………………………….……………………..……...............
X:………………………………………………………………….……………………..……………….
Y:………………………………………………………………….………………..…………………….
Z: ………………………………………………………………….………………..…………................
(d) Namakan reagen I dan II, dan nyatakan keadaan di mana-mana yang berkenaan.
[2 markah]
I: …………………………………………………………………………………………..……………..
II:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
(e) Perihalkan satu kaedah untuk menguji gas W.
[2 markah]
……………………………………………………………………………………………..……………..
....…………………………………………………………………………………………………………
962/5
133
Appendix A
Table of Cations Reactions
Reagent
NaOH(aq)
NH3(aq)
Na2CO3(aq)
K4Fe(CN)6(aq)
Na2HPO4(aq)
H2S in acid medium
H2S in alkaline
medium or (NH4)2S
Others reagen
Cation
Al3+
White precipitate
soluble in excess.
Ba2+
White precipitate.
White precipitate,
soluble in mineral
acid and NaOH,
insoluble in
CH3COOH.
White precipitate in
concentrated
solution
White precipitate.
White precipitate,
soluble in HNO3 or
HCl.
Ca2+
White precipitate.
White precipitate.
Cr3+
Greyish green
precipitate, soluble
in excess to form
green solution.
Greyish green
precipitate soluble in
excess to form purple
solution.
Greyish green
precipitate.
Cu2+
Blue precipitate,
turns black when
heated.
Blue precipitate,
soluble in excess to
produce dark blue
solution. Soluble in
NH4Cl.
Blue precipitate,
turns black when
heated.
Redish brown
precipitate soluble
in excess NH3(aq)
to produce blue
solution.
Fe2+
Dirty green
precipitate.
Dirty green precipitate,
soluble in NH4Cl.
Dirty green
precipitate.
Blue precipitate.
Fe3+
Brown precipitate.
Brown precipitate.
Brown precipitate.
Dark blue
precipitate.
134
White precipitate.
White precipitate.
(a) Aluminon reagent: red precipitate.
(b) CH3COONa: no precipitate; white
precipitate when boiled.
(c) K2CrO4: orange yellow precipitate,
dissolve in mineral asid.
(a) Dilute H2SO4 or CaSO4(aq): white
precipitate.
(b) (NH4)2C2O4: white precipitate,
dissolve in hot CH3COOH.
(c) K2CrO4: yellow precipitate.
White precipitate in
excess reagent.
(NH4)2C2O4: white precipitate, insoluble
in CH3COOH.
Green precipitate,
soluble in mineral
acids.
Blue precipitate.
Yellowish white
precipitate, soluble
in mineral acids,
insoluble in
CH3COOH.
Black precipitate,
soluble in hot
HNO3.
Yellow precipitate.
Greyish green
precipitate.
(a) Excess NaOH + H2O2: yellow
solution.
(b) Acidified solution + H2O2: blue
solution blue precipitate
yellow solution.
Black precipitate.
(a) SCN : black precipitate.
(b) KI: white precipitate in brown
solution.
Black precipitate.
(a) K3Fe(CN)6(aq): dark blue precipitate.
(b) KMnO4/H+: decolourisation at room
temperature.
Black precipitate.
(a) SCN : blood red solution.
(b) K3Fe(CN)6: brown solutin.
(c) KI: brown solution/yellow/black
precipitate.
(d) K2CrO4: orange brown precipitate.
(e) CH3COONa: red solution, brown
precipitate when heated.
Lampiran A
Jadual bagi Tindak Balas Kation
Reagen
NaOH(ak)
NH3(ak)
Na2CO3(ak)
K4Fe(CN)6(ak)
Na2HPO4(ak)
Kation
Al3+
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam
berlebihan.
Ba2+
Mendakan putih.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam asid
mineral dan NaOH,
tak larut dalam
CH3COOH.
Mendakan putih
dalam larutan pekat.
Mendakan putih.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam HNO3
atau HCl.
Ca2+
Mendakan putih.
Mendakan putih.
Cr3+
Mendakan hijau
kelabu, larut dalam
berlebihan
membentuk larutan
hijau.
Mendakan hijau
kelabu, larut dalam
berlebihan membentuk
larutan ungu.
Mendakan hijau
kelabu.
Cu2+
Mendakan biru,
menjadi hitam
apabila dipanaskan.
Mendakan biru, larut
dalam berlebihan
membentuk larutan
biru tua. Larut dalam
NH4Cl.
Mendakan biru,
menjadi hitam
apabila
dipanaskan.
Mendakan coklat
kemerahan, larut
dalam NH3 (ak)
berlebihan
membentuk larutan
biru.
Fe2+
Mendakan hijau
kotor.
Mendakan hijau kotor,
larut dalam NH4Cl.
Mendakan hijau
kotor.
Mendakan biru.
Fe3+
Mendakan coklat.
Mendakan coklat.
Mendakan coklat.
Mendakan biru tua.
135
Mendakan putih.
H2S dalam medium
berasid
H2S dalam medium
beralkali atau
(NH4)2S
Mendakan putih.
Reagen lain
(a) Reagen Aluminon: mendakan
merah.
(b) CH3COONa: tiada mendakan;
mendakan putih apabila dididihkan.
(c) K2CrO4: mendakan kuning jingga,
larut dalam asid mineral.
(a) H2SO4 cair atau CaSO4(ak):
mendakan putih.
(b) (NH4)2C2O4: mendakan putih, larut
dalam CH3COOH panas.
(c) K2CrO4: mendakan kuning.
Mendakan putih
dalam berlebihan.
(NH4)2C2O4: mendakan putih, tak larut
dalam CH3COOH.
Mendakan hijau,
larut dalam asid
mineral.
Mendakan biru.
Mendakan putih
kekuningan, larut
dalam asid mineral,
tak larut dalam
CH3COOH.
Mendakan hitam,
larut dalam HNO3
panas.
Mendakan kuning.
Mendakan hijau
kelabu.
(a) NaOH berlebihan + H2O2: larutan
kuning.
(b) Asidkan larutan + H2O2: larutan
biru mendakan biru larutan
kuning.
Mendakan hitam.
(a) SCN-: mendakan hitam.
(b) KI: mendakan putih dalam larutan
coklat.
Mendakan hitam.
(a) K3Fe(CN)6: mendakan biru tua.
(b) KMnO4/H+: penyahwarnaan pada
suhu bilik.
Mendakan hitam.
(a) SCN : larutan merah darah.
(b) K3Fe(CN)6: larutan coklat.
(c) KI: larutan coklat/ kuning/
mendakan hitam.
(d) K2CrO4: mendakan coklat jingga.
(e) CH3COONa: larutan merah,
mendakan coklat apabila dididihkan.
Reagent
Cation
NaOH(aq)
NH3(aq)
Na2CO3(aq)
K4Fe(CN)6(aq)
Na2HPO4(aq)
H2S in acid medium
H2S in alkaline
medium or (NH4)2S
Others reagent
136
Mg2+
White precipitate,
soluble in NH4Cl.
White precipitate,
soluble in NH4Cl.
White precipitate,
soluble in NH4Cl.
White precipitate,
soluble in mineral
acid.
Mn2+
White precipitate,
turns brown.
White precipitate,
turns brown, soluble in
NH4Cl.
Yellowish brown
precipitate.
Yellowish brown
precipitate turns
brown when heated.
Yellowish brown
precipitate.
(a) Sodium bismutate + HNO3: violet
solution.
(b) PbO2 + HNO3 (conc): violet
solution.
(c) K2S2O8 + AgNO3: violet solution.
(d) NaClO + NaO: dark brown
precipirate.
Ni2+
Green precipitate.
Green precipitate,
soluble in excess
forms blue solution.
Soluble in NH4Cl.
Green precipitate.
Green precipitate.
Green precipitate.
Black precipitate.
(a) Dimetilglioksima reagent + NH3:
red precipitate.
(b) NaClO + NaOH: black precipitate.
Pb2+
White precipitate,
soluble in excess.
White precipitate.
White precipitate.
White precipitate.
White precipitate.
Black precipitate.
(a) Dilute HCl: white precipitate,
soluble when heated; reforms when
cool.
(b) Dilute H2SO4: White precipitate,
soluble in (NH4)2C2O4.
(c) KI: yellow precipitate, soluble
when is heated, reforms when cool.
(d) K2CrO4: yellow precipitate.
(e) NaClO: dark brown precipitate.
Zn2+
White precipitate,
soluble in excess.
White precipitate,
soluble in excess,
soluble in NH4Cl.
White precipitate.
White precipitate,
soluble in alkali,
insoluble in
mineral acid.
White precipitate,
soluble in NaOH,
mineral acid or
NH4Cl.
White precipitate.
K3Fe(CN)6: orange brown precipitate.
NH4+
Pungent gas
liberated when
heated.
Pungent gas liberated
when heated.
(a) Magneson reagent + NaOH: blue
precipitate.
(b) Na3PO4: white precipitate.
Black precipitate.
(a) Nessler reagent: brown precipitate.
(b) Heated with NaOH, gases evolved
tested with concentrated HCl: white
fume.
Reagen
NaOH(ak)
NH3(ak)
Na2CO3(ak)
K4Fe(CN)6(ak)
Na2HPO4(ak)
H2S dalam medium
berasid
Kation
H2S dalam medium
beralkali atau
(NH4)2S
Reagen lain
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam NH4Cl.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam NH4Cl.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam NH4Cl.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam asid
mineral.
Mn2+
Mendakan putih
bertukar menjadi
coklat.
Mendakan putih
bertukar menjadi
coklat. Larut dalam
NH4Cl.
Mendakan coklat
kekuningan.
Mendakan coklat
kekuningan menjadi
coklat apabila
dipanaskan.
Mendakan coklat
kekuningan.
(a) Natrium bismutat + HNO3:
larutan ungu/lembayung.
(b) PbO2 + HNO3 pekat: larutan ungu/
lembayung.
(c) K2S2O8 + AgNO3: larutan ungu/
lembayung.
(d) NaClO: mendakan coklat tua.
Ni2+
Mendakan hijau.
Mendakan hijau, larut
dalam berlebihan
membentuk larutan
biru muda. Larut
dalam NH4Cl.
Mendakan hijau.
Mendakan hijau.
Mendakan hijau.
Mendakan hitam.
(a) Reagen dimetilglioksima + NH3:
mendakan merah.
(b) NaClO + NaOH: mendakan hitam.
Pb2+
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam
berlebihan.
Mendakan putih.
Mendakan putih.
Mendakan putih.
Mendakan putih.
Mendakan hitam.
(a) HCl cair: mendakan putih, larut
apabila panas; terbentuk semula
apabila disejukkan.
(b) H2SO4 cair: mendakan putih,
larut dalam (NH4)2C2O4.
(c) KI: mendakan kuning, larut
apabila panas; terbentuk semula
apabila disejukkan.
(d) K2CrO4: mendakan kuning.
(e) NaClO: mendakan coklat tua.
Zn2+
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam
berlebihan.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam berlebihan.
Larut dalam NH4Cl.
Mendakan putih.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam alkali,
tak larut dalam
asid mineral.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam NaOH,
NH4Cl, atau asid
mineral
Mendakan putih.
K3Fe(CN)6: mendakan coklat jingga.
NH4+
Gas berbau hancing
dibebaskan apabila
dipanaskan.
137
Mg2+
Gas berbau hancing
dibebaskan apabila
dipanaskan.
(a) Reagen Magneson + NaOH:
mendakan biru.
(b) Na3PO4: mendakan putih.
Mendakan hitam.
(a) Reagen Nessler: mendakan
coklat.
(b) Panaskan dengan NaOH, uji gas
dengan HCl pekat: wasap putih.
Appendix B
Table of Anion Reactions
Reagent
Anion
HCOO
CH 3 COO
C 6 H 5 COO
138
C2 O24
Cl
Br
I
Dilute HCl or
H2SO4
Concentrated H2SO4
BaCl2(aq) or
Ba(NO3)2(aq)
AgNO3(aq)
Pb(NO3)2(aq) atau
Pb(CH3COO)2(aq)
FeCl3(aq)
Others reagent
Choking gas is
liberated.
Gas burned with a blue
flame is liberated.
White precipitate turns
black.
Dark red solution; brown
precipitate when heated.
(a) KMnO4/H+: decolouration.
(b) CH3CH2OH + a little concentrated H2SO4:
fragrant smell
Gas smell of vinegar is
released when heated.
Gas of vinegar smell is
released.
White precipitate in
concentrated solution,
soluble in HNO3 or
NH3(aq).
Red solution; brown
precipitate when heated.
(a) CH3CH2OH + a little concentrated H2SO4:
fragrant smell.
(b) Sodalime: gas burned with blue flame
without soot.
White precipitate,
soluble in hot water,
white crystal formed
upon cooling.
White precipitate,
soluble in hot water;
white crystal formed
upon cooling.
White precipitate,
soluble in hot water or
NH3(aq).
White precipitate.
Yellowish-brown
precipitate.
(a) CH3CH2OH + a little concentrated H2SO4:
fragrant smell.
(b) Sodalime: gas burned with yellow flame
without soot.
White precipitate,
soluble in HNO3 or
NH3(aq).
White precipitate,
soluble in HNO3.
(a) KMnO4/H+: decolourised when heated.
(b) CaCl2(aq): when precipitate.
White fume is formed.
White precipitate,
insoluble in HNO3 but
soluble in NH3(aq).
White precipitate,
soluble in hot water; or
concentrated HCl; white
crystal formed upon
cooling.
MnO2(s) + H2SO4 (conc): greenish-yellow gas
is liberated.
Redish-brown gas is
liberated.
Light yellow
precipitate, insoluble
in dulute HNO3 or
NH3(aq).
White precipitate,
soluble in hot water,
white crystal formed
upon cooling.
(a) MnO2(s) + H2SO4 (conc): redish-brown gas
is liberated.
(b) Cl2 /NaOCl(aq) + CCl4: redish-brown
colouration at the bottom layer.
(c) Concentrated HNO3 and heated: redishbrown gas is liberated.
Brown fume is formed;
purple fume formed when
heated.
Yellow precipitate,
insoluble in dilute
HNO3 or NH3(aq).
Yellow precipitate,
soluble in hot water;
yellow crystal formed
upon cooling.
Gas burned with blue
flame and gas turned lime
water chalky when
heated.
White
precipitate,
soluble in HCl,
HNO3 or H2SO4.
Redish brown solution.
(a) Cl2 water/NaOCl(aq)/Br2 water + CCl4:
redish violet colouration formed at the
bottom layer.
(b) NaNO2(aq) + dilute asid: brown solution
and brown gas is liberated.
Lampiran B
Jadual bagi Tindak Balas Anion
Reagen
Anion
HCl cair atau
H2SO4 cair
H2SO4 pekat
BaCl2(ak) atau
Ba(NO3)2(ak)
AgNO3(ak)
Pb(NO3)2(ak) atau
Pb(CH3COO)2(ak)
FeCl3(ak)
Reagen lain
HCOO
Gas berbau sengit
dibebaskan.
Gas terbakar
dengan nyalaan biru
dibebaskan.
Mendakan putih
menjadi hitam.
Larutan merah tua;
mendakan coklat
apabila dipanaskan.
(a) KMnO4/H+: penyahwarnaan.
(b) CH3CH2OH + sedikit H2SO4 pekat:
bau buah-buahan/wangi.
CH 3 COO
Gas berbau cuka
dibebaskan apabila
dipanaskan.
Gas berbau cuka
dibebaskan.
Mendakan putih
dalam larutan pekat,
larut dalam HNO3
atau NH3(ak).
Larutan merah;
mendakan coklat
apabila dididihkan.
(a) CH3CH2OH + sedikit H2SO4 pekat:
bau buah-buahan/wangi.
(b) Kapur soda: gas terbakar dengan
nyalaan biru tanpa jelaga.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam air panas;
hablur putih apabila
disejukkan.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam air panas;
hablur putih apabila
disejukkan.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam air panas
atau NH3(ak).
Mendakan putih.
Mendakan coklat
kekuningan.
(a) CH3CH2OH + sedikit H2SO4 pekat:
bau buah-buahan/wangi.
(b) Kapur soda: gas terbakar dengan
nyalaan kuning berjelaga.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam HNO3
atau NH3(ak).
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam HNO3.
(a) KMnO4/H+: dinyahwarnakan apabila
dipanaskan.
(b) CaCl2(ak): mendakan putih.
Wasap putih dibebaskan.
Mendakan putih,
tidak larut dalam
HNO3 tetapi larut
dalam NH3(ak).
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam air panas
atau HCl pekat;
hablur putih apabila
disejukkan.
MnO2(p) + H2SO4 pekat: gas kuning
kehijauan dibebaskan.
Gas coklat kemerahan
dibebaskan.
Mendakan kuning
pucat, tidak larut
dalam HNO3 cair
atau NH3(ak).
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam air panas;
hablur putih apabila
disejukkan.
(a) MnO2(p) + H2SO4 pekat: gas
coklat kemerahan dibebaskan.
(b) Air Cl2 /NaOCl(ak) + CCl4: lapisan
bawah berwarna coklat kemerahan.
(c) HNO3 pekat dan panas: gas coklat
kemerahan dibebaskan.
Wasap coklat dibebaskan;
wasap ungu dibebaskan
apabila dipanaskan.
Mendakan kuning,
tidak larut dalam
HNO3 cair atau
NH3(ak).
Mendakan kuning,
larut dalam air panas;
hablur kuning apabila
disejukkan.
C 6 H 5 COO
139
C2 O24
Cl
Br
I
Gas terbakar dengan
nyalaan biru dan gas
mengeruhkan air kapur
apabila dipanaskan.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam HCl,
HNO3 , atau
H2SO4.
Larutan coklat
kemerahan.
(a) Air Cl2/NaOCl/air Br2 + CCl4: lapisan
bawah berwarna ungu.
(b) NaNO2(ak) + asid cair: larutan coklat
dan gas coklat dibebaskan.
Reagent
Anion
Dilute HCl or
H2SO4
Concentrated H2SO4
BaCl2(aq) or
Ba(NO3)2(aq)
AgNO3(aq)
Pb(NO3)2(aq) or
Pb(CH3COO)2(aq)
FeCl3(aq)
Others reagent
140
CO23
Gas liberated can turn
lime water chalky.
Gas liberated can turn
lime water chalky.
White
precipitate,
soluble in HCl
or dilute HNO3.
White precipitate
turned yellow in excess;
become brown when
heated.
White precipitate,
soluble in dilute HNO3.
Brown precipitate;
gas liberated which turn
lime water chalky.
MgSO4(aq)/MgCl2(aq): white precipitate.
SO23
Brimstone smell gas/
burnt sulphur,
gas decolourise
KMnO4/H+.
Brimstone smell gas/
burnt sulphur, gas
decolourise KMnO4/H+.
White
precipitate,
soluble in HCl
or HNO3.
White precipitate,
soluble in HNO3,
NH3(aq), or SO32 in
excess; turn black
precipitate when heated.
White precipitate,
soluble in dilute HNO3.
Red solution; brown
precipitate when heated.
(a) I2: decolourisation.
(b) KMnO4/H+: decolourisation.
(c) K2Cr2O7/H+: green solution.
S2 O23
Yellow precipitate;
brimstone smell gas/
burnt sulphur, gas
decolourise KMnO4/H+.
Yellow precipitate;
brimstone smell gas/
burnt sulphur, gas
decolourise KMnO4/H+.
White
precipitate in
concentrated
solution.
White precipitate turn to
yellow and then brown
and finally black; white
precipitate soluble in
excess S2O32 .
White precipitate,
soluble in excess S2O32 ;
turn black precipitate
when heated.
Purplish solution
decolourise.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
A foul (rotten egg),
smell was liberated,
blackening
Pb(CH3COO)2 paper.
A foul (rotten egg)
smell was liberated,
blackening
Pb(CH3COO)2 paper,
yellow precipitate.
Black precipitate,
soluble in hot HNO3.
Black precipitate.
A yellow sediment in an
acidic medium. A black
sediment in an alkaline
medium.
(a) KMnO4/H+: decolourisation,
yellow precipitate.
(b) K2Cr2O7/H+: green solution,
yellow precipitate.
Redish brown
precipitated/solution
when heated.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
S2
White
precipitate,
insoluble in
HCl or HNO3.
SO24
NO2
NO3
MnO4
Brown fume liberated.
Brown fume liberated.
Brown fume liberated.
I2: decolourisation.
KMnO4/H+: decolourisation.
K2Cr2O7/H+: green solution.
Ammonium molybdate + H2SO4:
blue ring.
White precipitate,
soluble in aqueous
ammonium ethanoate.
White precipitate in
concentrated solution,
soluble in HNO3 or
NH3.
KMnO4/H+: decolourisation.
K2Cr2O7/H+: green solution.
FeSO4 + H2SO4: brown ring.
Devarda alloy: pungent gas.
KI + dilute acid: brown sol.
(a) FeSO4 + H2SO4: brown ring.
(b) Devarda alloy: pungent gas.
(c) Concentrated H2SO4 pekat + Cu: brown
fume, blue solution.
(a) C2O42 /SO32 /S2O32 /NO2 with H+:
decolourisation.
(b) S2-: decolourisation, yellow precipitate.
Reagen
HCl cair atau
H2SO4 cair
H2SO4 pekat
CO23
Gas yang mengeruhkan
air kapur dibebaskan.
Gas yang mengeruhkan
air kapur dibebaskan.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam HCl
atau HNO3 cair.
Mendakan putih
menjadi kuning dalam
berlebihan; menjadi
coklat apabila
dididihkan.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam HNO3 cair.
Mendakan coklat;
gas yang mengeruhkan
air kapur dibebaskan.
MgSO4(ak)/MgCl2(ak): mendakan putih.
SO23
Gas berbau belerang/
sulfur terbakar,
gas menyahwarnakan
KMnO4/H+.
Gas berbau belerang/
sulfur terbakar,
gas menyahwarnakan
KMnO4/H+.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam HCl
atau HNO3.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam HNO3, NH3,
atau SO32- berlebihan;
mendakan hitam
apabila dididihkan.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam HNO3.
Larutan merah;
mendakan coklat
apabila dididihkan.
(a) I2: penyahwarnaan.
(b) KMnO4/H+: penyahwarnaan.
(c) K2Cr2O7/H+: larutan hijau.
S2 O23
Mendakan kuning; gas
berbau belerang/sulfur
terbakar,
gas menyahwarnakan
KMnO4/H+.
Mendakan kuning;
gas berbau belerang/
sulfur terbakar,
gas menyahwarnakan
KMnO4/H+.
Mendakan putih
dalam larutan
pekat.
Mendakan putih kepada
kuning kepada coklat
kepada hitam;
mendakan putih larut
dalam S2O32- berlebihan.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam S2O32berlebihan;
mendakan hitam
apabila dididihkan.
Larutan ungu luntur
apabila dibiarkan.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
S2
Gas berbau telur busuk
dibebaskan,
gas menghitamkan
kertas Pb(CH3COO)2.
Gas berbau telur busuk
dibebaskan,
gas menghitamkan
kertas Pb(CH3COO)2,
mendakan kuning.
Mendakan hitam,
larut dalam HNO3
panas.
Mendakan hitam.
Mendakan kuning
dalam medium berasid.
Mendakan hitam
dalam medium beralkali.
(a) KMnO4/H+: penyahwarnaan,
mendakan kuning.
(b) K2Cr2O7/H+: larutan hijau,
mendakan kuning.
Mendakan/larutan coklat
kemerahan apabila
dipanaskan.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Anion
141
NO3
MnO4
AgNO3(ak)
Mendakan putih,
tidak larut dalam
HCl atau HNO3.
SO24
NO2
BaCl2(ak) atau
Ba(NO3)2(ak)
Wasap coklat
dibebaskan.
Wasap coklat
dibebaskan.
Wasap coklat
dibebaskan.
Pb(NO3)2(ak) atau
Pb(CH3COO)2(ak)
FeCl3(ak)
Reagen lain
I2: penyahwarnaan.
KMnO4/H+: penyahwarnaan.
K2Cr2O7/H+: larutan hijau.
Ammonium molibdat + H2SO4 pekat:
cincin biru.
Mendakan putih,
larut dalam ammonium
etanoat akueus.
Mendakan putih
dalam larutan pekat,
larut dalam HNO3 atau
NH3.
KMnO4/H+: penyahwarnaan.
K2Cr2O7/H+: larutan hijau.
FeSO4 + H2SO4 cair: cincin coklat.
Aloi Devarda: gas berbau hancing.
KI + asid cair: larutan coklat.
(a) FeSO4 + H2SO4 pekat: cincin coklat.
(b) Aloi Devarda: gas berbau hancing.
(c) H2SO4 pekat + Cu: wasap coklat;
larutan biru.
(a) C2O42 /SO32 /S2O32 /NO2 dengan H+:
penyahwarnaan.
(b) S2-: penyahwarnaan, mendakan kuning.