Taklimat Pengukuhan Pelan Strategik Organisasi

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Taklimat Pengukuhan Pelan Strategik Organisasi
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
GHAZALI DERAHMAN
PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN
PULAU PINANG
1
WHAT IS STRATEGY?
“The science of
planning and directing large scale
military operations, maneuvering forces into the
most advantageous position prior to actual
engagement with the enemy”.
“Know your enemy and know yourself, and in a
hundred battles you will never be defeated”.
Sun Tzu
The Art of War
2
3
How does strategy fit in?
 strategy is the process by which individuals and
organisations make choices about scarce resources
so as to satisfy wants over time in an environment of
uncertainty. They are aided in this process by
market and non-market forces.
Organisational Strategy
 “A strategy is defined as a pattern, of purposes, policies,
programmes, actions, decisions, or resource allocations
that define what an organisation is, what it does, and
why it does it. Strategies can vary by level function, and
by time frame.”
(Bryson, 1995, p.32)
What is Management?
“ is a group of people working together in a
coordinated manner to achieve group results”.
“is the process of coordinating work activities so that
they are completed efficiently and effectively with and
through other people”.
6
What is Strategic Management?
 A set of managerial decisions and actions that determines
the long-run performance of a organisation
 It includes environmental scanning (both internal &
external ), strategy formulation (strategic & long-range
planning), strategy implementation, evaluation and
control.
7
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
Where are we now?
Where do we want to be?
Know yourself
Take actions
Analytical
Strategic choice
Achieve success
Vision
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IN SIMPLE TERMS
 A process by which top management determines
the long-run direction and performance of the
organisation
 The process of driving the strategic planning effort
to culminate in choosing and implementing
various strategies to best fit the organisation’s
needs
9
 Strategic management is much more than
planning; it involves taking action and
making things happen.
It involves planning, leading, organizing
and control.
10
The Management Process
and Functions
Efficient & Effective
Planning
Decision
Making
Controlling
 Human resources
 Financial resources
 Physical resources
 Information resources
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Source:
Adapted from Griffin, 2001
Organizing
Inputs from the
Environment
Organizational
Performance
•
Products
•
Services
•
Goal Attainment
Leading
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CANOE THEORY
The Canoe Theory: A Business Success Strategy for Leaders and
Associates by Dave Hibbard
CANOE THEORY
•
•
•
•
•
•
Think of your organization as a long canoe
The canoe has a destination
Everyone in the canoe has a seat and paddle
Everyone is expected to paddle
Those who won’t paddle have to get out of the canoe
Those who prevent others from paddling have to readjust or get out of the canoe
• There are no passengers in the canoe
• The canoe theory understands crisis
• The canoe theory says you have the right to be happy
KERANGKA KERJA TRANSFORMASI
JABATAN PERKHIDMATAN AWAM MALAYSIA (JPA)
NEGARA
BERPENDAPATAN TINGGI, INKLUSIF DAN LESTARI
JABATAN PERKHIDMATAN
AWAM
VISI NASIONAL
Public Service Department
AGENDA
TRANSFORMASI
NEGARA
MATLAMAT
KEBERHASILAN
STRATEGIK
TERAS
STRATEGIK
PRINSIP
DAN LANDASAN
PERKHIDMATAN AWAM YANG BERPRESTASI TINGGI, BERINTEGRITI, DINAMIK
DAN BERJIWA RAKYAT
KS 1
PENJAWAT AWAM
YANG
BERTENAGA,
BERILMU,
BERWIBAWA,
KOMPETEN,
INOVATIF DAN
PRODUKTIF
KS 2
ORGANISASI
YANG DINAMIK,
KEJAT, TERBUKA,
TANGKAS DAN
BERKEUPAYAAN
TINGGI
TS 1
MENDAYA UPAYA:
MENINGKATKAN
KOMPETENSI,
PRESTASI,
PRODUKTIVITI &
DAYA INOVASI
PENJAWAT AWAM
TS 2
MEREKAYASA:
MENINGKATKAN
KEUPAYAAN DAN
MEMBERI NAFAS
BAHARU KEPADA
ORGANISASI
KS 3
PENYAMPAIAN
PERKHIDMATAN
AWAM YANG
CEPAT, TEPAT,
BERKUALITI,
PROAKTIF DAN
RESPONSIF
TS 3
MERAKYATKAN:
MENINGKATKAN
KECEKAPAN
DAN
KEBERKESANAN
PENYAMPAIAN
PERKHIDMATAN
AWAM
KS 4
KEPUTUSAN
BERSAMA
(INFORMED
DECISION) DAN
RASA SEPUNYA
BERDASARKAN
KEPELBAGAIAN
PERSPEKTIF
TS 4
KETERANGKUMAN:
MEMPERLUAS
JARINGAN KERJA
& KOLABORASI
STRATEGIK
(MULTIPLE-HELIX)
KS 5
CINTAKAN
NEGARA,
DAYA TAHAN
YANG TINGGI,
BERETIKA DAN
BERINTEGRITI
TS 5
NILAI BERSAMA:
MEMBUDAYAKAN
PATRIOTISME,
NILAI-NILAI
MURNI, ETOS
DAN INTEGRITI
DALAM DAN
LUAR NEGARA
KEUTUHAN TADBIR URUS; KETINGGIAN SEMANGAT PATRIOTISME, BUDI PEKERTI, ETIKA
KORPORAT DAN INTEGRITI; KEUPAYAAN EKOSISTEM DAN PERSEKITARAN PERKHIDMATAN
AWAM YANG HARMONI SERTA LESTARI; DAN KEMAJUAN SAINS DAN TEKNOLOGI
1
“If you don’t know where you are
going, any road will take you there”
George Harrison
-
WHY STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT?
 Rapid environmental changes
 Increased stakeholder demands
 Resource constraints
 Organisational complexity
These forces require us to:
 Think strategically
 Formulate effective strategies
 Implement strategies, and
 Evaluate performance and outcomes
17
The Benefits of Strategic Management
 The 3 most highly rated benefits of strategic
management are:
 Clearer sense of strategic vision for the organisation
 Sharper focus on what is strategically important
 Improved understanding of a rapidly changing
environment
18
• Encourage forward thinking
• Provide clear direction and objective
• Facilitate allocation of resources
• Facilitate internal communication and
cooperation
• Identify new opportunities for exploitation
• Prepare for threats
• Avoid human and organisational inertia
THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
REQUIRES THE INVOLVEMENT OF KEY
PEOPLE IN AN ORGANISATION AND IT
MUST BE DONE ON A CONTINUAL BASIS
20
Five Tasks of Strategic Management
Defining business, stating a mission & forming a
strategic vision
2. Setting measurable objectives
3. Crafting a strategy to achieve objectives
4. Implementing & executing strategy
5. Evaluating performance, reviewing new
development & initiating corrective adjustments.
1.
21
Strategic Management Model
22
PESTELS
Stakeholders
Analysis
McKinsey 7’S
Evaluation &
Control
Environmental
Analysis
SWOT
Strategy Canvas
Ishikawa
Fish Bone
STRATEGIC
MANAGEMENT
Vision
Mission
Strategy
Implementation
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
FRAMEWORK
Strategy
Formulation
Policy
Objectives
smart
A. Environmental Scanning: Situational
Analysis
24
SWOT Analysis
Strength
Weakness
Opportunity
Threat
25
Structure
Strategy
Systems
Shared
values
Style
Skills
Staff
The 7-S Framework: Internal
26
PESTELS Analysis
Politics
Economics
Social
Technology
Ecology
Legal/procedures
Security
27
Defining “Stakeholders” so a “Vision” can be written
Stakeholder
Responsiblity and Accountability
Types of Stakeholders
Stakeholder’s Potential for Threat to Organization
High
Low
High
Stakeholder’s
Potential for
Cooperation
With Organization
Low
Stakeholder Type 4
Mixed Blessing
Stakeholder Type 1
Supportive
Strategy:
Collaborate
Strategy:
Involve
?
Stakeholder Type 3
Nonsupportive
Stakeholder Type 2
Marginal
Strategy:
Defend
Strategy:
Monitor
Stakeholder mapping
Who?
Strategy?
Benefits?
Why?
View of Change?
Reaction?
Impact?
Power to Influence?
31
Stakeholder Analysis
• Who - people who have control or will be
•
•
•
•
affected (+/-) by the change
View of Change - how will they be affected
Reaction - what are they doing (avoiding,
creating barriers, highjacking, supporting)
Impact - positively, negatively or neutral
Power - to influence (H, M, L)
32
Stakeholder Analysis
• Reasons - for resistance or support (failed to
benefit, fear, other more pressing priorities)
• Benefits (Influential Others) - allies who may
not have immediate benefit but critical for
long-term
• Strategy - what needs to be done to make the
change happens
33
Ishikawa Diagram/Analysis
People
For Administrative & Service
Policies
Problems/issues
Equipment
Procedures
34
Strategy Canvas for Developing Excellence Workers
High
Current Curve
Desired Curve
Low
Centralised Human
Power
Factor
System/
Procedures
No information
Up-dated
Unconducive
Learning
environment
Mechanistic
structure
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REDUCE
Which factors
should be
reduced well
below the industry’s
standard?
ELIMINATE
Which of the factors
that the industry
takes for granted
should be eliminated
A New
Value Curve
RAISE
Which factors
should be raised well
above the industry’s
standard?
CREATE
Which factors
should be
created that the industry
has never offered?
The Four Action
Framework
36
What is a strategic plan?
 A Strategic Plan maps out
 Where organisation is heading
 Short and long range performance targets
 Actions of management to achieve outcomes
 A Strategic Plan consists of
 A strategic vision & mission
 Performance objectives
 Comprehensive strategy for achieving the objectives
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Mission Statements
 Statements that explain who we are
 Statements that explain our direction, our purpose,
our reason for being exist
 What difference do we make?
 Statements that explain what makes us unique
 Values
 People
 Combination of products and services
Vision Statement
A statement that clearly defines the organisation’s
“reason” for being in business
 Should significantly stretch the resources and
capabilities of the organisation
 Should inspire people in the organisation to achieve
things they never thought possible
 Should unite people in the organisation toward the
pursuit of one common goal
Components of a Vision Statement
 Core ideology
 Core Values - timeless guiding principles
 Core Purpose - reason for being exist
 Envisioned future
 Big Hairy Audacious Goals (BHAG) clearly articulated goals
 Vivid description - a description of what success and
the future will be like
 Recognition of service to stakeholders
Mission Statement
• The mission statement of an organization is
normally short, to the point, and contains the
following elements:
– Provides a concise statement of why the
organisation exists, and what it is to achieve;
– States the purpose and identity of the
organisation;
– Defines the organisation's values and philosophy.
Strategic Visioning
 It is a description of what the organisation is
capable of becoming or would like to become ……
 Strategic vision is dynamic process.
42
Mission
 Mission is a purpose or reason for the
organisation’s existence.
 It tells what the organisation is providing to the
society.
 It promotes a sense of shared expectations in
employees.
 Communicates a public image to important
stakeholder groups.
43
Developing a Vision & Mission
 Begins with thinking strategically
 About organisation’s future makeup &
 Forming vision of organisation’s future in 5-10 years
 Task is to
 Inject sense of purpose into organisation’s activities
 Provide LONG-TERM DIRECTION
 Give organisation STRONG IDENTITY
 Decide “WHO we are, WHAT we do & WHERE we are
heading”
44
Developing a Vision & Mission
 An organization’s MISSION
 Reflects management’s vision of what organisation
seeks to do & becomes
 Provides a clear view of what organisation is trying to
accomplish for its customers
 Indicates intent to stake but a particular business
position
45
Specific questions that help form
strategic vision
 What business are we in now?
 What business do we want to be in?
 What will our customers want in future?
 What are expectations of our stakeholders?
 Who will be our future competitors?
 What should our competitive scope be?
 How will technology impact our organisation?
 What environmental scenarios are possible?
46
Why a shared vision matters
 A strategic vision widely shared among all
employees functions similar to how a magnet
aligns iron filings
 When all employees are committed to firm’s
long-term direction, optimum choices on
business decisions are more likely
 Individuals & teams know intent of firm’s strategic
vision
 Daily execution f strategy is improved
47
VISI
Mengukuhkan keluarga ke arah pewujudan masyarakat penyayang,
penduduk berkualiti dan bangsa Malaysia yang progresif.
MISI
LPPKN komited untuk bertindak sebagai agensi utama dalam menjadikan
Malaysia sebagai negara yang berperibadi mulia hasil daripada keluarga
yang kukuh, berakhlak, sihat, berilmu dan harmoni.
Sumber: http://www.lppkn.gov.my/index.php?lang=ms
Dicipta pada Khamis, 08 Mac 2012
Vision Statement
To be a Leading Oil and Gas Multinational of Choice
Mission Statement
• We are a business entity
• Petroleum is our core business
• Our primary responsibility is to develop and add value to this
national resource
• Our objective is to contribute to the well-being of the people and the
nation
Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri Malaysia
VISI
Pentadbir Cukai Terunggul
MISI
Memberikan perkhidmatan percukaian yang berkualiti dan
berintegriti ke arah meningkatkan pematuhan sukarela
Company Philosophy
Providing joys to the world through new challenges
And the realization of dreams
Company Principle (Mission Statement)
Maintaining a global viewpoint, we are dedicated to
supplying products of the highest quality, yet at a
reasonable price for worldwide customer satisfaction.
Our vision
To be the largest low cost airline in Asia and serving the 3 billion people who are
currently underserved with poor connectivity and high fares.
Our mission
• To be the best company to work for whereby employees are treated as part of a
big family
• Create a globally recognized ASEAN brand
• To attain the lowest cost so that everyone can fly with AirAsia
• Maintain the highest quality product, embracing technology to reduce cost and
enhance service levels
Visi
Untuk menjadi institusi pembelajaran sektor awam yang
unggul.
Misi
Untuk membangunkan modal insan sektor awam yang
kompeten melalui pembelajaran yang berkualiti.
Visi PSUKPP
Menjadi sebuah organisasi awam bertaraf antarabangsa
menjelang 2015.
Misi
Memacu kegemilangan organisasi melalui sistem tadbir
urus yang cekap, akauntabiliti dan telus.
SMART
S - SPECIFIC
M - MEASURABLE
A - APPROPRIATE
R - REALISTIC/RESULTS ORIENTED
T - TIME BOUND
55
EVALUATING AND SELECTING STRATEGIES
 SUITABILITY:
 Does it exploit organisational strengths and
opportunities?
 Does it overcome weaknesses and threats?
 Does it match objectives and values?
 FEASIBILITY:
 Can the strategy be funded?
 Can the organisation perform to the required level?
 ADEQUACY AND ACCEPTABILITY:
 Will the strategy achieve the objectives?
 Will the strategy be acceptable to all stakeholders?
56
C.
Strategy Implementation
Programmes
Budgets
Procedures
57
•Programmes:
•Budgets:
Activities and steps needed
to accomplish a plan
Organisation’s financial
allocation and detailed cost of
each programme
•Procedures:
Standard Operating
Procedures (SOP) describe in
detail how a particular task or
job is to be done
58
Assessing Organizational Readiness for Strategy
Implementation
Stakeholder Outcomes
How adequately is the organisation meeting the
needs of all its stakeholders-customers, employees,
and investors?
Strategic Tasks
What are the strategic tasks for the organizations?
Is the top team clear on and in agreement with the
strategic tasks?
Is the rest of the organization clear on and in
agreement with the strategic tasks?
59
Assessing Organizational Readiness for Strategy
Implementation
Organizational Capabilities
Does the organization have appropriate levels of
coordination or teamwork among the individuals
and groups critical to accomplishing a given
strategic task?
Does the organization have access to the necessary
technical and managerial competencies to
accomplish the task?
Is there the necessary level of commitment to
accomplish the strategic task?
60
D. Evaluation and Control
Programmes
Budgets
Procedures
61
Evaluation and Control:
Organisation’s activities, performance and results
are monitored
Actual performance is compared with the
desired performance
Able to pinpoint weaknesses of previous
strategic plan
62
Good Strategic Plan
• Address critical performance
issues
• Create the right balance between
what the organization is capable of
doing vs. what the organization
would like to do
Good Strategic Plan
• Cover a sufficient time period to
close the performance gap
• Visionary – convey a desired
future end state
A Good Strategic Plan Should
• Flexible – allow and accommodate
change
• Guide decision making at lower
levels
Scenario
Building
PESTELS
Evaluation &
Control
Stakeholders
Analysis
McKinsey 7’S
Environmental
Analysis
SWOT
Strategy Canvas
Programmes
Ishikawa
Fish Bone
STRATEGIC
MANAGEMENT
Budgets
Vision
Procedures
Mission
Strategy
Implementation
STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
FRAMEWORK
Strategy
Formulation
Policy
Objectives
smart
L A N G K A H S T R AT E G I K / S T R AT E G I : _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
PROGRAM/
AKTIVITI/INISIATIF
OBJEKTIF
TEMPOH
MASA
PELAKSANA
OUTCOME/
KPI
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.
xi.
xii.
xiii.
Perutusan Ketua Organisasi
Ringkasan Eksekutif
Pengenalan
Visi, Misi dan Objektif
Peranan dan Fungsi
Kod Etika
Nilai-nilai Teras
Hala Tuju dan Rasional Pelan Strategik
Cabaran-cabaran
Strategi Teras
Pelaksanaan Strategi
Penutup
Pelan Tindakan Strategik - Lampiran A
DOCUMENTATION
KANDUNGAN BUKU
Pelan Strategik
“The thicker the
planning
document, the
more useless
it will be”
(Brent Davies: 1999)
KANDUNGAN PELAN STRATEGIK MAMPU
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PRAKATA
SEJARAH
PUNCA KUASA
PERANAN
STAKEHOLDERS DAN PELANGGAN
SENARIO PERUBAHAN PERSEKITARAN
AGENDA TRANSFORMASI MAMPU
VISI, MISI DAN MOTO
NILAI TERAS SEPUNYA
TUMPUAN STRATEGIK MAMPU
TERAS STRATEGIK MAMPU
STRATEGI DAN PELAN TINDAKAN
RANGKAIAN STRATEGIK
ELEMEN PENENTU KEJAYAAN
PENUTUP