bibliographic data sheet pn-aaj-129 quality - ICRISAT (e

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bibliographic data sheet pn-aaj-129 quality - ICRISAT (e
BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET PN-AAJ-129
QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF MILLED RICE GROWN IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
PERSONAL AUTHORS
CORPORATE AUTHORS
JULIANO, B. 0.
PASCUAL, C. G.
-
-
IRRI
1980, 25P.
(IN IRRI RES. PAPER SER. NO. 48)
ARC NUMBER CONTRACT NUMBER PROJECT NUMBERS SUBJECT CLASS -
641.3318.J94
AID-492-1310-T
4970198
AS1001500000
DESCRIPTORS *
RICE
CONSISTENCY
VARIETIES
QUALITY
NUTRITIVE VALUE
IRRI RESEARCH PAPER SERIES
Number 48
March 1980
QUALITY
CHARACTERISTICS;
OF MILLED RICE
GROWN IN
DIFFERENT
COUNTRIES
B.Q Juliano and C.G.Pascual
The International Rice Researh Institute
P. Box 933, Manila, Philippihi-s
IRPS No. 48, March 1980
1
QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF MILLED RICE GROWN
1
IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
ABSTRACT
Quality characteristics of milled rice assessed since 1962 by the Chemistry Department of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) from samples grown
in
various countries are reported.
Linear correlation
coefficients irzdicated that amylose content was the
major determinunt of texture of cooked rice. It cor-
related negat i ely with gel consistency and cooked-
rice Instron ;tickiness and positively with Amylograph
viscosity valies and cooked-rice instron hardness,
Gel consistency correlated negatively with Amylograph
setback and consistency values and cooked-rice hard­
ness, and positively with cooked-rice stickiness.
Amylograph setback and consistency values correlated
positively with cooked-rice hardness and with each
other, and negatively with cooked-rice stickiness.
Hardness and stickiness of cooked rice correlated
negatively.
Alkali spreading and protein content
showed lower correlation coefficients with texture
of cooked rice than amylose content and gel and
Amylograph consistencies.
IBy Bienvenido 0. Juliano, chemist, and Cynthia G.
Pascual, research assistant, Chemistry Department,
Inter­
national Rice Research Institute, Los Bafios, Laguna,
Philippines. Submitted to the IRRI Research Paper
Series Committee December 1979.
INTENTIONALLY
LEFT
BLANK
IRPS No. 48, March 1980
3
QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF MILLED RICE GROWN
IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES
Next to yield, grain quality is the major breeding objective in rice programs (Hargrove 1978). The
introduction in the early 1960s of semidwarf rice varieties with grains with extremely hard gel consistency, high amylose content, and low gelati-
nization temperature has complicated screening in programs for breeding for good grain quality. Since 1962 the Chemistry Department, as part of the grain-
quality program, has periodically monitored the quality characteristius of milled rice of varieties grown in various rice-producing countries (Juliano et al 1964a,b). Thr accumulated data provide a
valuable reference ) the quality characteristics of rices grown in the countries represented, because the samples represent varieties grown in the country of origin, and were analyzed in the same laboratory. Simpson et al (1965) undertook a similar survey in the 1960s, but used only market samples. The chemical basis of grain quality was recently reviewed (Juliano 1979a). Studies to date indicate that amylose content is the major determinant of the cooking and eating qualities of milled rice. It corre-
lates positively with volume expansion and water absorption during cooking and negatively with tender­
ness and stickiness of cooked rice. However, among rices of similar amylose content, differences in texture, particularly hardness of cooked rice, may be
related to differences in alkali spreading values (gelatinization temperature index), gel consistency, or both (Perez and Juliano 1979, Perez et al 1979). Changes in paste viscosity of cooked rice flour are readily measured with an Amylograph and relate to hardening of cooked rice on cooling. Instron
measurement of hardness and stickiness of cooked rice also indicates the texture of the cooked sample. Although protein is a secondary grain quality factor, rice is the single most important source of protein in the diets of tropical Asia because of the amount consumed. Hence, protein content of rice is an indicator of its nutritive quality (Juliano 1978).
MATERIALS AND METHODS Protein content
Protein was measured by the micro Kjeldahl method on
50 mg rice flour manually digested using HgO or Se
catalyst. The ammonia in the digest was determined
by the automated colorimetric procedure as indophenol
blue after reaction with hypochlorite and alkaline
phenol, using AutoAmalyzer modules. Kjeldahl N was
converted to crude protein by multiplying by .ie
factor 5.95, which is based on the 16.8% N in rice
protein.
Rice powder (50 mg) was digested in lO-ml Kjeldahl
flask with 2.0 ml concentrated H2SO4 and 1.0 g
K2S04-catalyst mixture (100:2 w/w) using a Labconco
or a King digestor. Digestion time was 20 min or
until the samples were completely clear. The digested
sample was cooled, and water was added to dissolve
the digest and made to the 20-ml calibration mark at
room temperature. After mixing thoroughly, a portion
of the solution was transferred to the 8-ml sample
cup of the AutoAnalyzer for the automated colorimetric
analysis, according to the manifold diagram in Figure
1. Blanks and standards were run with the samples.
The following reagents were used for the colorimetric
ammonia assay:
Citrate/tartrate. Na tartrate (600 g) and 200 g Na
citrate were dissolved in about 2,500 ml distilled
1120. NaOH (80 g) was dissolved separately in 500 ml
distilled H20. The two solutions were combined and
made up to 4 liters with distilled 1120, and shaken
well.
AZkaline phenate. NaOH (553 g) was dissolved in
about 2,000 ml of distilled H2 0. The solution was
cooled in an ice bath. Phenol (1,060 ml, liquid, 89%
pure) was slowly added, with stirring, to the NaOH
solution contained in the ice bath, made up to 4
liters with distilled H20, mixed well, and stored
in a refrigerator.
Hypochor'.te. Commercial "chlorox" bleach (ca. 5%
by wt sodium hypochlorite) was used.
The samples were obtained through the rice breeding programs of the appropriate government agency of the country (see
Acknowledgements
section).
The rough
the
contry1,000-ml
or dehuller
rice samples were dehulled in a Satake
McGill Sheller and milled either in a M1cGill miller
No. 2 or 3, a Satake TI-05 grain testing mill, or a
laboratory test tube rice miller.
10%
acid (Used
blank
insteadcare­
of
1120).sulfuric
Concentrated
H2S5 4for(100
ml) wash
was added
2 4
2
fully to about
700 mlflask,
distilled
H20 made
contained
volumetric
cooled,
up to
in a
volume volum e n fla .
volume, and shaken well.
Milled rice for amylography and amylose and protein assays was ground in a Wiley or Udy cyclone mill with 40-mesh sieve. Samples for gel consistency were ground in 10-grain lots for 40 sCoLnds in a
Wig-L-Bug amalgamator (Crescent D)ental Mfg. Co.).
The modified simplified assay of Juliano (1971) was
used (Perez and Jultano 1978, Jullano 1979b).
Flour
(100 mg) was weighed in duplicate in 100-ml
volumetric flasks. Then 1 ml of 95% ethanol was
added, taking care to wash down any sample adhering
Amylone contcnt
4
IRPS No. 48, March 1980
to the sides of the flask, followed by 9 ml of I N
NaOH. The suspension was heated for 10 min in a
boiling water bath to gelatinize the starch and
allowed to cool for 1 Itat room temperature. The samples were diluted to volume with distilled H2 0 and mixed well. Portions of the starch solution were then transferred into 8-ml sample cups of the AutoAnalyzer And the amylose-iodinc blue color determined at 608 nm according to :he diagram below at 78 samples/h (Fig. 2). A calilration curve was made with each set of unknown samples by plot-
ting the absorbance of check mi1ied samples vs their known amylose content:. Iodine solution pre­
pared daily consisted of 3.00 ml 0.2% 12 in 2.0%
KI and 1 ml I N acetic acid diluted to 100 ml. Fig. 1. Manifold for ammonia in Kjeldahl digest. Analytical Service Laboratory, IRRI, 1977. -
mimin
Samplerwash
1.60 Wash, 10% HAO4
-'
2X mixer
/were
0.32 Sample
mixer
mixer
0 0 DOO..D
water. Alternatively, 12 ml of 0.1 N NaHCO 3 may be
used in place of the HCl to get pH 10.2. Two ml
of 0.2% iodine in 2.0% KI was then added, and the
contents of the beaker transferred to a 100-ml
volumetric flask, made up to volume, and mixed
thorcughly. Finally, the absorbance of the solu­
tions was read at 590 nm 20 min after adding the
iodine. The absorbance at 590 nm of potato amy­
lose was plotted against concentration (mg) to
determine the conversion factor. The dilution fac­
tor of 20 for the check samples was considered in
the conversioni factor.
Alkali spreading value
The method of Little et al (1958) was used
(Bhattacharya 1979b). Six whole-grain milled rice
samples were placed in duplicate square plastic
boxes (R. P. Cargille Laboratories, Inc., 4.6 x
4.6 x 1.9 cm) containing 10 ml 1.7% KOH, arranged
so that the kernels do not touch each other. Th e
boxes were covered and incubated for 23 h at 30C.
The appearance and disintegration of tile kernels
rated visually after incubation, based on
the following numerical scale:
2.50 Cit./Tart.
HO
1.60 Air
Description Score
DO
2.90 Alk. phenate
Kernel not affected 4Of
-
1.60 Hypochlorite
3.90 from f/c
ase--
op----]-
Heating
[- ­
Hi
Proportionating pump
"-
bath
Kernel swollen Kernel swollen; collar incomplete
or narrow and wide
Kernel split or segmented; collar
Kernel dispersed, merging with collar
completely dispersed and
intermingled
TKernel Colorimeter 2
3
Kernel swollen; collar complete
complete and wide
C
I
4
5
6
7
sample time = 26 s
wash time
26sCheck
15mm tubular f/c
The amylose content of the check samples was deter­
mined previously against potato amylose by the
method of Williams at al (1958) as follows: Three or four samples with 12-30% amylose and a waxy sample
were weighed accurately (100 mg) in 100-ml volume-
tric flasks. They were then defatted by soaking for 2.5 h in 4 ml methanol followed by decantation of the methanol. (A better way to reduce sample loss is to defat and dry milled rice flour before weigh-
ing.)
For the standard, 40 mg of potato amylose was weighed in a 100-ml volumetric flask. 'Tile check samples and potato amylose standard were gelatinized and made up to volume In exactly the same way a,:the rice samples. AliqJots of tile solutions (5-ml for the rice checks and 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-ml portions for the potato anylose)
were pipetted into 150-ml beakers containing 50 ml
distilled water. The phi of the solutions was
adjusted to 10.5 by adding 0.05 N hiCI. The electrodes were washed with neutral (i!!7) distilled
samples with scores of 2 to 7 qere run with
each analysis.
A rating of 1 to 2 was classified
as high final gelatir/ization temperature; 3, high­
intermediate; 4 to 5, intermediate (70-74°C); and
6 to 7, low final gelatinization temperature (<700 C).
Gel Consistency
The method of Cagampang et al (1973) was used (Perez
1979). Rice flour prepared with a Wig-L-Bug amalga­
mator (100 mg) was placed in 13-mm x 100-mm culture
tubes and wetted with 0.2 ml 95% ethanol containing
0.025% thymol blue. Two ml 0.2 N KOH was added,
with sufficient mixing with a Vortex Genie mixer
with speed set at 6. The tubes were covered with
glass marbles and heated in a vigorously boiling
water bath for 8 min, makin9i sure the tube contents
reached two-thirds the height of the tube. The tubes
were removed from the water bath for 5 min, cooled
in an ice-water bath for 20 min, and laid flat on the
laboratory table over a ruled graphing paper for 1 hI.
After I h, the total length of the blue-colored gel
front the bottom of the tube to the gel front was
measured in iillimeters as an index of cold-paste
IRi'S No. 4S, March 1980
viscosity.
The height of the gel from the bottom of
5
Cooked-rice hardness and stick nss
the tube was 25 + I mm.
The method separates high-amylose rices into:
a)
b)
c)
hard gel consistency
medium gel consistency
soft gel consistency
26-40 mm,
41-60 mm, and
61-100 mm.
Check samples representing these three gel consistency types were run with each analysis.
Fig. 2.
Manifold for amylose content in alkali
dispersions of milled rice.
IRRI, 1977.
mi/min
Sampler wash
__
-01.60
Wash, 0.09N NaOH
0.32 Sample
250 I
mixer
mixer
0D
I- waste -
DI
]--2.50
D
1, 1.20 Air %with 4
3.90 from f/c nroportionatingpump
Colorimeter
608 nm 10 mm rectangular f/c sample time= 23s
wash time = 23 s
The method of Perez and Juliano '1979) was used
(Blakeney 1979b).
Cooked rice for measurement with
an Instron Model 1140 food tester was prepared by
cooking 20 g of milled rice in a predetermined opti­
mum amount of water (26 ml for waxy rice, 34 for
low-amylose, 38 for intermediate-amylose, and 42
for high-amylose) in 150-ml beakers for 20 min in
Toshiba RC4B automatic electric cookers with excess
(200 ml) water in the outer pot.
The cookers were
left undisturbed for at least 10 min after cooking.
The cooked rice was then drained and cooled in
plastic bags. Duplicate 17 g of cooked rice were
placed in the Ottawa Texture Measuring System (OTMS)
cell modified with four side liners to reduce the
cell cross section to 15% of the original and used
with a 2.6 x 2.5 cm plunger.
Each sample was pressed
lardwith 145 g weight for I min before extrusion.
ness was the maximum force (in kg) needed to extrude
the rice through the cell's perforated base at the
crosshead speed of 10 cm/min a,d the same chart
speed. The 0-5 to 0-50 kg load cell was used. Pard­
ness values were 15% of the values obtained with the
standard cell.
For the stickiness test,
extruded or whole)
cooked rice (17 g,
either
was pressed onto the platform
the OTMS plunger (6.9 x 6.9 cm) for 10 seconds
with a clearance of 0.4 mm, allowing the rice to
squeeze out around the edges. Stickiness, expressed
in gram-centimeters, was the product of the force
in grams required to lift
the plunger and the dis­
tance in centimeters that the plunger traverses.
It was measured directly by planimetry from the
Instron clart paper. The 0-0.5 to 0-5 kg load cell
was used. The chart speed was 100 cm/mmn and the
crosshead speed was 3 cm/mn.
Amylograms and cooked-rice texture tests were done
only on large samples received.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Amy lography
The method of Halick and Kelly (1959) was used,
with total sample weight of 400 g instead of 500 g
(Suzuki 1979).
Milled rice flour (40 g) was placed
in a Waring blendor and blended with 240 ml water
for 1.5 mmn at high speed. The slurry was transferred into the Amylograph bowl using 120 ml additional water to wash quantitatively from the
blendor.
The sensing element was attached and
the slurry heated starting at 30 0 C at the rate of
1.5 0 C/min (with the Amylograph pen zeroed) up to
95 0 C. The paste was heated 20 min at 95*C before
cooling to 50°C at 1.5°C/min with the cooling probe
inserted in the paste.
Viscosity values of interest were peak viscosity,
final viscosity at 94 0 C, and viscosity when cooled
to 500C, expressed in Brabender units (1111). Setback viscosity is the difference between viscosity
cooled to 50 0 C and peak viscosity.
Amylograph
consistency is the difference between viscosity
cooled to 50 0 C and final viscosity at 940(.
Quality charactePistics of milled rice
The tabulated data on quality characteristics of
1,090 milled-rice samples are presented in Appendix
1. Gel consistency analysis was developed only in
1973; that for cooked-rice hardness and stickiness
was developed in 1977.
That explains the lack of
these data for the earlier samples.
Amylograms
were run only on samples that were supplied in
excess of physicochemical analysis.
Because of lack of information on the relative
preference of individual varieties in many countries,
we do not discuss the quality characteristics of
various rices in each country.
A detailed discussion of grain quality In selected countries is, how­
ever, in the I'poo,*dna of" to
c oko hp ,, Achw'tie'l1
(a?'ol
of
' p
!jn
flltt
quali/
(1IflRI 1979): Australia
(Blakeney 19 79a), Bangladesh (Choudhury 1979),
France (Felllet and Marle 1979), India (Bhattacharya
1979a), Japan (Suzuki et al 1979), lPhilippines
(lerca et al 1979), Spa .& (Barber and Tortosa 1979),
6
IRPS No. 48, March 1980
Sri Lanka (Breckenridge 1979), Thailand (Kongseree 1979a), and USA (Webb et al 1979). Soft gel consistency tended to predominate in most
of the samples, reflecting preference for soft
cooked rice. Hard gel consistency tended to be
Classifications of milled rice based on quality confined toondica rices but a few intermediate
characteristics are given for the Asian region amylose japonica rices from Europe may have medium
(Table 1) and the rest of the world (Table 2). Crude
protein content ranged from 4 to 14% at 14% moisture, but meanmee
content
from6 5.8
to 9.1%.
Overall np, ocn ranged
e t w s7
%(Table
3).
mean protein content was 7.65% to hard gel consistency (Table 2).
Amylograph peak viscosity of 553 samples tested
rne
between
ewe 200
ranged
0 and
n 1,290
(Table 3,,Apn
,9 BUU(al
Appen­
dix 1). Corresponding Amylograph setback values
were -405 to 1,175 BU and Amylograph consistency
values were 25 to 1,090 BU.
Hardness values of 266 samples tested with an
Instrensfoodutester2rangedpfromt3.0etow10.1ak
Instron food tester ranged from 3.0 to 10.1 kg
(Table 3).
Stickiness values ranged from 31 to
895 g.cm.
High-amylose rices occurred mainly in tropical countries, whereas low-amylose rices predominated in temperate countries growing mainly japonica rice (Tables 1 and 2). Nonwaxy rices with amylose content below 12%, probably as a substitute for waxy rice, were noted only In Sarawak, Malaysia. Waxy or glutinous rice samples were obtained from Japan, Laos, West Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and
Australia. Waxy rice is the staple food in North
and Northeast Thailand and Laos (Juliano et al
1964b, Kongseree 1979a,b).
Correlation (among quaiitI/ factors
Despite the diversity of the samples, some correla­
tions were noted among the properties.
Protein con­
tent showed significant correlations with other
quality factors, but the coefficients were lower
Rices with intermediate and low gelatinization
temperature tended to predominate in tropical
countries based on alkali spreading value (Tables I
and 2).
Low gelatinization temperature of starch was common to rices from temperate countries. High
gelatinization temperature types were confined to
waxy and low-amylose rices.
Some intermediate
amylose rices, such as the C4-63G from the
Philippines, however, received high-intermediate
gelatinization temperature ratings,
than those of the other properties measured (Table
3).
It was not significantly correlated with amylose
content, Amylograph consistency, and cooked-rice
stickiness. The negative correlation between gel
consistency and protein content could be due to the
contribution of protein to viscosity of the alkaline
gel in the gel consistency test.
The effect of
protein on Amylograph peak and setback viscosity is
Table 1. Classification of nonwaxy milled rice in the Asian region based on amylose content, final gelatiniza­
tion temperature, and gel consistency.
Source Samples
(no.)
Protein
Range
Mean
(% at 14% H20)
Bangladesh 39
5-12
Burma
23
5-10
Cambodia
China
India
Indonesia
15
42
43
29
Japan
Korea
Laos
Amylose
typea
Final
gel. temp.
typea
7.7
H>I>L
L>1>1i
SYM0>H
7.2
11>I>L
1,L
M,S>
4-12
6-11
5-11
5-10 6.8
7.8
7.7
7.4
IH>L, I
hI>L>l
hi>I>L
I>IH
2 6 ( 5 )0
5-12
7.3
40
6-9
7.4 6-9
7.7
I,L
L,l>H
I,L>H
iL>I1
3(5)c
1ti>I,L
I,L
I>L
S ,l
S>M>I
S>M,H
S>M>H
L
L
S>M
L>1
L>I
1,L
Malaysia, East
Malaysia, West 20
2 6 (1)c
5-14
6-11
7.3
7.5
H>I,L
H>
Nepal
34
Pakistan
Philippines
Sri Lanka
Taiwan
Thailand
Vietnam
al=
()
Gel
consistency
typeb
S
(S)
S>Ml>H
S>M>H
5-9
7.
H>L,I
L>I
HI>S>M
30
131(12)c
57
37
6-10
6-14
6-14
5-11
8.4
8.2
9. 1
7.4
1,H>L
HI>I>L
H7>I
L>tI> I
L,i>HIl
I,L
I>L
L>I
30(17)c
27
M,S,hh
S>M,h
S>IH,M
S>l
5-14
6-11
8.r
7. 3
11I>>L
It>I
L>l
I>111
low, I = intermediate, III - high-intermediate, and H = high.
Based on Amylograph consistency.
'Waxy samples in parenthesis.
bs
= soft, M = medium,
S ,llM
S (>1)
and HI= hard.
IRPS No. 48, March 1980
principally its effect in suppressing peak viscosity
during cooking, which increases the setback value,
Protein content also contributes directly to hardness of cooked rice by its indirect effect on cook­
ing rate.
Among the properties measured amylose content showed the best correlation with the other properties (Table 3). It correlated negatively with alkali spreading value, gel consistency, and stickiness of cooked rice; and positively with Amylograph viscosity values and hardness of cooked rice. The negative correlation
of amylose with gel consistency is probably because
hard gel consistenc, types were maiily high-amylose
rices. 7
other factors such as ge! consistency and protein
content affect cooked-rice hardness (Perez and
Juliano 1979).
Alkali spreading value, which indexes gelatiniza­
tion temperature of starch granules, showed poorer
correlation with other properties, compared with
amylose content and gel consistency (Table 3).
This may be because it measures a physical pro­
perty of raw rice that may be more important in raw­
rice quality than in cooked-rice quality. This
property, however, correlates with gel consistency
and texture of cooked rice among waxy rices (Perez
et al 1979) and among high-amylose rices (Perez and
Juliano 1979).
Although many waxy rices have low peak viscosity,
many high-amylose rices, particularly those with soft
Gel consistency correlated negatively with Amylo­
gel consistency,
this
trend
and con
Juliano
and consistency
1979showed
~.e Tr elat
and cooked-rice
p slt
onsh
p o(Perez
am lose
hard­
entness, graph setback
and positively
with cooked-rice
stickiness
1979). The positwve relationship of amylose content
(Table 3). Gel consistency was originally developed
with Amylograph setback and consistency values t dniybedn ie
ihhg
oiiest
support our observation that mainly high-amylose
to identify breeding lines with
high positive set­
rices give positive setback and high consistency
back viscosity (Caganpang et al 1973, Perez 1979).
values (Juliano et al 1964a,b; Perez and Juliano
1979). Amylograph peak viscosity was surprisingly not
correlated with setback viscosity, but positively
correlated with Amylograph consistency and cooked­
rice hardness and, negatively with cooked-rice
stickiness (Table 3).
The higher correlation coefficient of amylose con-
tent with cooked-rice stickiness than with cooked-
rice hardness confirms our earlier observation that
Table 2. Classification of nonwaxy milled rice outside of Asia based on amylose content, final
gelatinization temperature, and gel consistency.
Source
Argentina
Australia
Brazil
Bulgaria
Colombia
Cuba
Egypt
France
Ghana Hungary
Iran
Italy
Mexico
Nigeria Peru
Portugal
Senegal Sierra Leone
Spain
Surinam
USA
USSR
Samples (no.) 20 11(2)c
16 16
16
10 26 24
6
16
23 29
28 15
22 21
3
22 7
20 26 15
Protein Range
Mean
(% at 14% H2 0)
6-9
5-8
5-13 6-10
6-11
6-8
5-8
5-12
8-9
6-9
5-12
6-8
5-10
6-10
5-11
5-8 5-7
5-10
6-13
6-9
5-10
5-8
7.6
6.7
8.2
7.6
8.1
7.0
6.6
7.6
8.7
7.2
9.6
6.9
6.8
7.9
7.4 6.7
5.8
6.3
8.6
7.5
6.4
6.4
aL = low, I = intermediate, HI = high-intermediate, and H = high.
( ) Based on Amylograph consistency.
Amylose
typea
Final
gel. temp.
type'l
Gel
consistency
typeb
I>L>H
I,L
LI
L,1 H>I H>I,L
L>I,H
L>I
H>I
I
L,I>H
I,L II
H>I>L
H>I,L
I>L H H>I,L
L>1
11>I,L
L,i>11
I>L L>I LI
I>L>HI
L
L>I
L>I
L
L 1
L
I>L
L
I,L>H
L>H
L>IHI
L
I
L>I
L I>L,H
L,1>11
L>I
S>M
S
S>M>H
S>M
SM>H
M>S,H
S>M,H
S>M
(S)
m,5S
mS
S>M>H
S>H
S,(H)
S,H,M
S>M
S,1M
S
S
S>M11
S
S
bs = soft, M = medium,
OWaxy samples in parenthesis.
and H = hr-,.
8
IRPS No. 48, March 1980
Amylograph setback and consistency values correlated
positively with each other and correlated positively
with cooked-rice hardness and negatively with cooked­
rice stickiness (Table 3). The coefficients were
higher for hardness than for stickiness as was the
case for gel consistency.
Hardness a,,d stickiness of cooked rice correlated
negatively (Table 3) as reported earlier (Perez and
Juliano 1979). Among the various amylose types waxy
rices showed the widest range in values for these
properties.
Actual sensory evaluation of cooked samples of
important rice varieties by food technologists in
each country is needed to determine the preferred
combination of quality characteristics as a referenre for rice breeders. A sustained periodic monitoring at IRRI of the quality characteristics of
milled rice in the different rice-producing
countries will detect rny change in grain quality preference with time. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The data on properties of milled rice are the accu­
mulated effort of the Chemistry department staff
since 1962. The Statistics department handled the
punch cards and the printout and correlation
coefficients of the data presented in Appendix I.
The Analytical Service Laboratory took over the
protein analysis in 1977.
Samples were obtained from Estacion Experimental de
Arroz, Universidad Nacional de la Plata, La Plata,
Argentina; Agricultural Research Centre, New South
Wales Department of Agriculture, Yanco, N.S.W.,
Australia; Bangladesh Rice Research Institute,
Joydebpur, Bangladesh; Institutc Rio Grandense do
Arroz, Porto Alegre-R.S., Ernzil; Rice Department,
"Maritsa" Institute for Vegetable Crops, Plovdiv,
Bulgaria; Agricultural Research Institute, Gyogon,
Insein, Union of Burma; Union of Burma Agricultural
Table 3. Range and mean values and simple linear correlation coefficients among physicochemical properties of
milled rice from various countries.
Property
Protein
(at 14%
H2 0)
Alkali
spreading
1082 1079
1090
4.1 to
14.3
0 to
32.8
2.0 to
7.0
7.65
22.9
5.76
Observation (no.)
Range
Amylose
(% dry
basis)
Mean Gel
consistency
(mt,)
761
26 to
100
69.3
Amylograph (BU)
Peak
Setback
Consistency
553
553
553
200 to
1290
-405 to
1175
767
76
Cooked-rice
Instron
Sticki­
Hardness
ness
(g.cm)
(kg)
266
25 to
1090
3.0 to
10.1
33?
6.20
268
31 to
895
116
Correlation
coefficientsa
Protein
1.00**
(1079)
Amylose -0.03
(1079)
-0.10"*
(1074)
-0.22**
(755) -0.15**
(551)
0.ii**
(551)
0.06
(551)
0.18**
(266)
0.04
(268)
-0.18**
(1082)
-0.43**
(755)
0.2**
('.1
0.63**
(547)
0.72**
(547)
0.59**
(266)
-0.82**
(268)
-0.06
(755)
.22**
(147)
0.02
(547)
-0.13**
(547)
-0.16**
(302)
-0.58**
(302)
-0.60**
(302)
-0.14*
(266)
-0.63**
(266)
0.05
(268)
0.10*
(268)
0.02
(553)
0.40**
(553)
0.34**
(266)
-0.42**
(268)
0.89**
(553)
0.73**
(236)
0.75**
-0.38**
(236)
-0.48**
(236)
(236)
Alkali spreading Gel consistency Amylograph peak viscosity
Ajylograph setback Amylograph consistency Cooked-rice hardness aNumber of samples correlated in parenthesis.
-0.54**
(266)
IRPS No. 48, March l80
Marketing Board, Rangoon, Burma; Directorate of
Agriculture, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Centro Inter-
nacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali, Colombia;
Estacion Experimental del Arroz "Nifia Bonita,"
Punta Brava, Havana, Cuba; Grain and Bread Technology Section, Ministry of Agriculture, Giza, Egypt; Arid Lands Agricultural Development Program,
Cairo, Egypt; Laboratoire de Technologie des Blds
Durs et du Riz, Institut National de la Recherche
Agronomique, Montpellier, France; Agricultural Irri­
gation Research Station, University of Ghana, Kpong,
Ghana; Research Institute for Irrigation and Rice
Cultivation, Szarvas, Hungary; All-India Coordinated Rice Improvement Program, Hyderabad, A.P., India; Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Karjat (Kolaba), Maharanhitra State, India; Central Research Institute for
Agriculture, Bogor, Indonesia; Rice Research Station, Rasht, Iran; Centro di Ricerche sul Riso, Ente
Nazionale Risi, Mortara, Italy; National Food Re-
search Institute, Tsukuba-gun, Ibaraki-ken, Japan;
National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan; Yung Nam Crop Experiment
Station, Office of Rural Development, Milyang, Korea;
College of Agriculture, Seoul National University, Suweon, Korea; Crop Experiment Station, Office of
Rural Development, Suweon, Korea; US AID, Vientiane, Laos; Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development
Institute, Bumbong Lima Station, Penang, West
Malaysia; Agricultural Research Centre, Semongok, Kuching, Sarawak, EasL Malaysia; Centro de Investigaciones Agricolas de Sinaloa, Culiacan, Sinaloa, Mexico; National Fice Improvement Program, Zacatepec,
Morelos, Mexico; Agricultural Station, National Rice
Improvement Program, Department of Agriculture,
Parivanipur, Narayani Zone, Nepal; International
Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria;
Rice Research Institute, Kala Shah Kaku, Lahore,
Punjab, Pakistan; Universidad Agraria, Lima, Peru;
Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria de Lambayeque
S.I.P.A., Lambayeque, Peru; Estacion Experimental,
Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agraria, Vista
Florida, Peru; Empresa Publica de Abastecimiento de
Cereais, Lisbon, Portugal; Universit6 de Dakar, DakarFann, Sdndgal; Rice Research Station, Rokupr, Sierra
Leone; Central Agricultural Research Institute, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka; Rice Research and Breeding Station,
Foundation for the Development of Mechanized Agri-
culture in Surinam, New Nickerie, Surinam; Joint
Commission on Rural Reconstruction, Taipei, Taiwan;
Central Breeding Station, Rice Division, Ministry of
Agricuture, Bangkhen, Bangkok, Thai 1 nd: Regional
Rice Quality Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beaumont, Texas 77706, USA; All-Union Rice
Research Institute, Krasnodar, USSR; and Rice Office,
Ministry of Agriculture, Saigon, Vietnam. LITERATURE CITED Barber, S., and E. Tortosa. 1979. Rice grain qual­
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national Rice Research Institute. Chemical
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Bhattacharya, K. R. 1979b. Gelatinization tempera­
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Breckenridge, C. 1979. Rice grain evaluation in
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Choudhury, N. H. 1979. Studies on quality of rice
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Julianu, B. 0. 1979b. Amylose analysis in rice - a review. Pages 251-260 in international Rice Research Institute. Chemical aspects of rice grain quality. Los Bahos, Laguna, Philippines.
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IRPS No. 48, March 1980
I1
APPENDIX I
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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VARIETY NAME
CRUP
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------------------------------------------
GUZE
GUZE
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KAOHSIUNG NATIVE 2
KACHSIUNU SELECTIUN 1
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KACHSIUNG 138
KACHSIUNG 139
TAICHUNG GLUTINOUS 46
TAICHUNG GLUTINOUS 46
TAICHIJNG NATIVE 1
TAICHUNG NATIVE I
TAICHUNG NATIVE 2
TAICHUNG NATIVE 2
TAICHUNG NATIVE 3
TAICHUNG 65
TAICHUNG 178
TAICHUNG 181
TAICHUNG 184
TAICHUNG 196
TAI JAN 3
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721
900
990
lu60
970
30')
-no
-230
-300
-340
-245
-170
21
24
20
2J
20
20
900
-285
17
3.7
222
795
-225
14
4.0
140
4.C
354
315
-325
10
4.7
297
730
715
1080
700
1095
970
1085
385
510
550
990
700
900
933
1150
485
91d
850
770
495
66)
135
920
685
970
945
700
-210
-25
-230
-20
-405
-235
-380
+375
+320
-125
-190
+5
+490
+280
+170
+27
+475
+620
-240
-140
+240
+85
-20
-135
+335
+285
-230
14
28
2?
27
22
21
19
37
42
10
25
28
62
52
51
51
62
66
11
7
45
33
34
33
53
53
11
6.6
102
3.6
689
46'
-120
7
4.9
3.4
5.0
5.2
397
634
300
274
195
90)
750
145
365
442
725
+275
+200
+440
+610
+645
-122
+670
47
46
46
68
73
5
74
3.7
546
695
-165
10
485
935
331
-160
-175
+245
6
26
45
6.6
4.6
5.5
3.0
284
382
357
895
N o
0.0
2.0
0.0
5.2
22.0
24.0
21.4
17.3
15.5
13.6
24.0
29.4
5.7
23.7
21.5
26.5
27.7
27.7
29.2
28.8
31.2
3.0
1.6
26.2
23.3
23.8
25.0
29.4
27.3
2.3
0.0
1.5
C.0
0.0
30.4
27.C
28.2
27.9
29.9
1.5
28.2
3.0
1.7
0.0
1.5
25.1
26.0
6.8
6.9
7.0
6.4
4.7
5.2
103
100
100
54
6.8
7.0
6.9
7.0
6.0
4.9
5.2
6.7
4.5
7.0
7.0
6.5
6.0
7.0
6.2
5.4
7.0
5.6
5.1
6.8
6.8
6.3
7.0
7.0
5.6
5.1
7.0
7.u
6.0
2.0
3.7
7.0
6.2
3.2
4.3
66
94
100
36
60
34
100
40
38
100
RO
36
4q
100
100
100
100
48
2d
32
50
29
100
100
1OO
100
67
IRPS No. 48, March 1980
;'4YL.3i;,APH VISCOSITY
---- --- --.- --.----.--.--
DATi:
VARIETY NAME
C JP
A'ILYZ.
Pk.IT
Y2"Al
MI.
Y'
(1
1
ItN AMYLGSE
ILK)%LI
(1)l
GE.L
PK
(m4)
SL
CONSIS
!JAfCK
TFNCY
25
INSrRUN
--.
HARD
STICKI
NESS
NESS
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
USA
biLLE PATNA
RE1.LE PATNA
OLUIHELLZ
CSLrlRo
CALOCSF
Cfr4TURY PAThA 231
C(LIJSA
CF IJBLY 7154
CS-H3
CS-S4
0AWN
K0KLlHUkOSE
LABELLE
LABELLE
NATO
NATO
'-'TO
"iJRTAI
NURTAI
RIXORU
qLAXRO 83
S-6
SATURN
STARBCNNET
TtRSG
VISTA
62
12
72
72
76
62
72
64
72
72
72
76
72
75
62
72
75
72
75
70
62
75
72
72
16
72
6
5
5
5
2
6
5
12
5
5
5
2
5
7
!
5
7
5
7
5
6
8
5
5
2
5
63
73
73
73
77
63
7)
o4
73
73
7
7'
73
76
63
73
76
73
76
73
63
76
73
73
71
73
6.d
6.5
5.7
6.6
b.,
7.4
6.2
11)
0
4.8
Ia.
5.0
4.71
5.5
6.1
7.2
6.3
7.2
5.2
5.4
7.3
7.6
7.4
5.2
5.2
7.2
6.5
24.7
27.0
27.1
19.4
17.5
18.
14.9
19.5
19.,
19.4
29.2
17.0
27.4
24.1
1b.3
16.6
14.4
17.0
10.1
27.0
2.5.
19.9
17.0
i6.6
17.5
19.4
3.6
4.7
3.8
6.3
7.3
2.1
b..5
.9
7.0
7.0
3.8
1.0
5.0
5.2
6.0
1.0
7.0
1.0
1.0
5.0
3.2
7.0
6.3
.l
7.0
6.0
7.4
6.3
5.3
5.1
6.1
6.9
6.7
7.5
6.5
U.3
6.4
6.0
5.3
6.1
7.0
20.1
20.5
13.7
20.4
22.4
19.6
11.8
19.9
il,2
20.4
20.0
20.e
21.2
20.0
2G.5
7.0
7.0
3.81
7.0
1.0
2.5
3.1
5.2
1.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
5,4
06
94
89
93
P9
89
95
"1
d1
82
100
39
100
1O
34
28.9
51.b
22.6
29.3
27.8
24.3
28.5
26
f.
29.2
29.1
26.4
27.2
27.4
29.2
20.rt
24.3
.3
2).5
29.6
2.2
2P.1
2:4.4
21.5
24.4
27.3
21.7
27.0
4.3
t.4
4.9
4.9
5.0
4.0
4.5
3.0
4.4
).6
5.7
5.0
5.1
4.8
3.5
5.1
4.8
4.2
4.2
4.9
5.1
5.0
4.0
5.2
3.2
4.3
5.9
76
94
P6
d0
79'
-190
24
o15
321
+5
-220
22
33
595
0
10')
100
57
100
78
IOU
-i
6.8
95
1s
5.5
'4
370
755
-155
-215
22
IY
7.5
77
30
67)
-285
13
5.0
98
k,9
91
865
-285
15
4.8
109
58
75
735
-80
-85
30
18
5.0
1OC
100
52
68)
-20
19
6.3
86
740
90)
-150
-305
15
16
4.3
5.0
79
136
blO
+30
20
5.1,
103
U 5 S R
DUBt!VSKI 129
UUBIIVSKI 129
HORISONT
KFASNODARSKIl 424
KRASNOUAPSKI 424
KUBAN 3
KIJBAN 3
KUBAN 9
LIJC
SLL'.ECHNY
USBtKSKI 2
USSEKSKI 5
UJ)RCS 7/13
USROS 269
ZHEMCHUZHNY
7!
77
77
72
77
,2
77
77
77
77
72
72
72
72
17
10
6
6
10
6
10
6
6
6
6
10
10
10
l
6
73
71
74
73
13
73
73
73
7p
78
73
73
73
73
76
390
1115
660
75U
-300
-235
-60
-140
1'.
15
16
17
5.0
5.4
4.1
4.6
126
126
51
91
370
-280
16
4.4
108
740
+250
44
1020
830
I,J
0)
+270
+320
9
56
52
43
750
+1
35
830
00
+450
+230
61
48
715
+125
40
815
320
-145
+410
27
58
V I E T N A M
BAT DE
9AIJ 157
bGNG d01
116NG DEN
CA DUNG KET LO
CHIFM CI4tNH
DCC GIANG
GAO DO
HuA BINH
LUA RUNG
LUA TIEU HANOI
LUA TUONG
NANG K6C
NANG LINH
NANG PHET KPLAI
NANG THCP'
NANG THCM SON
NHO CHUM
NHG THOM
PUANG NGEON
Sr-C NAIJ
SCC NAU
TAU RAT
TAU IIIJONG
TAU HUONG
TRANG DOC
V! VANG
72
72
72
72
6i
72
72
73
73
73
62
62
62
72
72
62
73
73
73
62
62
12
72
62
73
62
62
3
3
3
3
7
3
3
5
5
5
7
7
7
3
3
7
5
5
5
7
7
3
3
r
5
7
7
73
73
73
73
63
73
13
7b
73
73
63
63
63
73
7
u3
73
72.
73
63
63
73
73
63
73
63
63
6.6
5.4
7.6
5.;
7.4
6.6
3.0
5.q
6.5
6.3
6.9
7.0
5.7
6.3
10.9
,
8.4
7.1
7.1)
8.1
7.4
7.6
9.
P.7
7.q
7.0
1.5
6.4
92
S2
74
80
72
91
91
96
96
s8
82
100
78
Other papers inthis series
FOR NUMBERS 1-6, TITLES ARE L.ISTED ON THE LAST PAGE OF NO. 46 AND PREVIOUS ISSUES.
No. 7
Multi-site tests environments and breeding strategies for new
No. 29
Aln analysis of the labor-intensive continuous rice production
Biological constraints Io farmers' rice yields in three
Philippine provinces
('hanges inrice harvesting systems in Central Luzon and
Laguna
rice technology
systelis at IRRI
No. 8
Behavior of iinor elements in paddy soils
No. 30
No. 9
Zinc deficiency in rice: A review of research al the
International Rice Research Instilute
Genetic and sociologic aspects o rice breeding in India
No. 31
No. 10
No. I I
Utilization of the Azolla-Anabaena complex as a nitrogen
fertilizer for rice
No. 32
Variation in varietal reaction to rice tungro disease: Possible
causes
No. 12
Scientific communication muonp rice breeders in 10 Asian
natios
No. 33
I)etermining superior cropping patterns for small farots in a
dryland environnerit: 'rest of a ,icthodology
No. 13
Rice breeders in Asia: A 10-cotintry survey of their
backgrounds, attitudes, and use of genetic materials
No. 34
No. 35
No. 14
t)rought and rice improvement in perspective
rice fields
Flapotranspiration froin
Genetic analysis of traits related to grain characteristics and
qlality in two ci osses of rice
No. 15
No. 16
Risk and utl ""rtainty is factors in crop improvement research
Rice ragged stunt disease in file P~hilippinesofrcfamni
No. 36
Aliwalas to lice garden: A case stldy of the intensification
of"rice tar iiing in C'ainar
ines Sn r, l~uil ippines
CirneStPhlpns
I)enitrification loss of fertilizer nitrogen in paddy soils - its
No. 17
Residues of carbofuran applied as a systemic insecticide in
irrigated wetland rice: Implications for insect control
No. 18
Diffu sion and adoption of genetic maierials among rice
breeding programs in Asia
No. 19
Methods of screening rices for varietal resistance to
Cercospora leaf spot
No. 20
Tropical climate and its influence on rice
No. 21
Sulfur nutrition of wetland rice
No. 22
L.and preparation and crop establishment for rainfed and
lowland rice
No. 23
Genetic interrelationships of improved rice varieties in Asia
No. 24
Barriers to efficient capital investment in Asian agriculture
No. 25
Barriers to increased rice produclion in eastern India
No. 26
Rainfed lowland rice as a research priority
view
No. 27
Rice leaf folder: Mass rearing and a proposal for screening
for varietal resistance in the greenhouse
1' - 28
Measuring the economic benefits of new technologies to
small rice farmers
an economist's
No. 37
recognition and impact
No. 38
No. 39
Il'arm inecha niza tion, em ployincenI, and i~Cncome in Nepal:
Traditional and iechan zed farming in Bara I)istrict
Study on kresek (wilt) of [le rice baclt'ial
blight syndrome
i''. 40
Implication tfthe international rice bl."':1 nursery data to
tile genetics of resistancc
No. 41
No. 42
Weather and climate data for Philippine rice research
The effect of the new rice technotogy infamily labor
utilization in I.aguna
No. 43
The contrib ution of varietal tolerance for problen soils to
yield stability inrice
No.44
IR42: A rice type for small farmers of South and Southeast
Asia
No. 45
No. 46
No.47
Germtplasm bank information retrieval system
A methodology for determining insect .ontrol
recommendations
Itiological nitrogen fixation by epiphytic microorganisms in
rice fields
The International Rice Research Institute
P 0. Box 933, Manila, Philippines
Stamp
ISSN 0 1 5..38(2

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