Report - Berman Jewish DataBank

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Report - Berman Jewish DataBank
JEWISH COMMUNAL SURVEY
0/
GREATER
NE\~l
YORK
----
FirJ! Section:
STl'DIES IN THE NEW YORK
JEWISH POPFLATIOK
SEW YORK
BloREAC OF JEWISH SOCUI- RESl:ARL'H
1 928
LETTER OF
TRA~SMITTAI.
Bl·RJ.:AU or jE\nSH SOCIAL RUL\RCll
Il4 FU·TH An:"
:\J-.\\' YORK CITY
\farch 15, 1928
DR,
LLl~
K.
FR.A:"KLL,
Cbair11l<171
EXECl:TIVI:: COllt:\UTTl:J::
CITIZf.:'-IS' CO;\1.\1ITTU:
ox
THE
jE\1:'ISH CO:\L\1UNAL SURVEY OF GR.EATLR N1:'" YORK
~I:.\1:' YORK
Crry
SIR:
COpy rir:ht 192~ I..y
1 b· HIlt't'''Ui f·f J("wi--:h ::;'wj' J J{(':::I'nrl'l,
I transmit herewith to you our study of the jev,ish population in
New York City. This is the first study which wc hope the jewish
Communal Sur\'(~y of Greater New York will publish because of its
basic value to all the otha sections of the Survc),. These other sections,
namely the studies of jewish communal and phil.tnthropic intercsts in
the fields of family welfare, child care, health, recreation, Jewish education, \'octtional education and other related fields :Ire now rapidly
nearing completion.
\\'c trust that to you and to your :lssociatcs in thc Executive Commince and in the gencral Citizens' Committee, as wcll as to thc man)'
people interc,teel in the Survey. and to the largr' Jewish cO'llnll1nit)'
interestcd in all the philanthropic and communal orpniZl~jon'. r!J;s , .. ud:,
(.of the population will be of vital inten~sr.
Thc populHion swdy herc\\'ith Tr.1mmittcd to you <:i\',;, t"t'~" ll{
infom1Jtion wh,ch h,1\'1.: hitherto nut becn a\'Jihblc cooCl'rr.iJl,l: ,;:,y
<.:Omidenblc JC\\·j,.h population re~idcnt in thi~ cOllllery. It i, f'.'rLicular1y
of ":1Iuc ~inre it concerns such J trcm~;l(hm J~·.\';sh pJpu!aric,', J; ti·.lt
of Gre;w::r !\ew York. I n:.i('[ to the di,tribu;!oo \)f th~ popul.ltion
into sections of the city, the di" ribl1tion of the popubtiun by a;:c
groups. ;lod the 'lOles 1;\ hieh ,\'e arc tr.lmmitting herc"'i(h on l->irthrHc
and on C;ltl'C~ of dCJth among Je'\\·s.
TIll' reJlly dramati..: Jod '.'iral thin,~. 110'\\'1.'11:1', i, the m.l~,'h of
th,o 1~"~):) .:_ Th;~. in~;l­
city migration must hare a tremenelous effect on the [eJl!<,,-.1tion of
the philanthropic and communal organizations 3mon~ the JCI·:;sh
lh~· .J("l,,~ :~,h :'~L:fl:~atr(:n ~E:'O Pr:"f~!'::)'11 JJl,J inf('
Printed by
ROBINSOX & MILLER.
NEW ,ORK CITY
11K
community.
m
ne nureau ot JewIsh Social Research owes a debt of gratitude
to the following who were very helpful in putting at the disposal of
the Bureau the necessary basic materials for the population study:
Dr. William H. Guilfoy, Registrar of Records, Board of Health, New
York CitYi Mr. William T. Collins, County Clerk, New York County;
Mr. William E. Kelly, County Clerk, Kings County; Mr. Robert L.
Moran, County Clerk, Bronx County; Dr. \X'alter Laidlaw, Secretary,
Cities' Census Committee.
1
To Dr. Louis 1. Dublin, we are greatly indebted for his painsuking
review of the material submitted to him.
To you, Dr. Frankel, we express our gratitude for your encouraging
leadership and helpfulness in this and other studies of the Surny.
The Bureau must a'so acknowledge the excellent service rendered b~'
t>.fr. Louis ¥. Hacker, as well as others of the staff of the Bureau. in the
variom phases of this population study.
Faithfully yours,
SAMUEL
II
A.
GOLDS:-1ITH,
Director.
INTRODUCTION
On January 12, 1926, Judge Otto A. Rosalsky, Mr. Fred 13r0'\'n,
Judge 11itchel May, Mr. Louis Marshall, Mr. Reuben Sadowsky, Mr.
Israel Unterberg and :Mr. Felix M. Warburg addressed a letter to Jewish
citizens who represent all pluses of organized Jewish philanthropic
and communal effort in Greater New York. This letter read in part
as follows:
"Do you believe it to be desirable that the Jewish communityof Greater New York should at this time think in terms
of 1930 and 1935 in planning its communal activities?
"'Jewish Greater i'\ew York' today differs radica!l~' from
that of 1905 or 1915. Jewish immigration is lessening. The
Jewish population of Manhattan is decreasing. In parts of
Brooklyn and the Bronx, it has doubled and trebled.
"What is the present trend? What will be the situation
in ten years? Where shall we build hospitals, Jewish educational
centres, orphan asylums and other institutions? Shall it be
in Manhattan? In the Bronx? In Brooklyn? Or on Staten
Island?
"We have novo' two Federations - one in Manhattan, the
other in Brooklyn. Shall there be one to include all Jewish
charitable institutions in the Greater City?
"These questions arc worthy of consideration ~t this time.
They require study, and should be approached in a statesmanlike
manner.
This pamphlet is, in part, an answer to the above questions. It is
the first in a series which will endeavor to answer questions concerning
every field of Jewish philanthropic and communal work in Greater
r-:ew York. A study of the Jewish population is a necessary basis for
any survey of the present or future organization of Jewish social work.
The pamphlet which follows is a definite study of that population.
It indicates where the population Jives and what is the trend of its
movement.
It reveals the startling fact that Brooklyn today has almost as
many Jews as have the two boroughs of the Bronx and Manhattan
added together and that the trend is still towards the Bronx and Brooklyn
and away from Manhattan. During the past decade the Jewish population has decreased in every section of Manhattan with the exception
III
.\ 7" C' j) I
t
~
I Y
.,. II t:
.\' 1, lX'
\' () R K
J l' W' 1 ,<; 11
I'
(J
P
t: L A T
I 0 .\'
of Washington Heights, while it bas substantially increased in all thl'
sections of the Bronx and in all but two of the sections of Brooklyn.
Because of the possibility of further settlement Ifi Brooklyn and the
Bronx, it is likely that this trend ",ill continue.
'X'Lether or no~ .l:iY of the sections or boroughs of the city has
re:lLhcd a S.l\ mation point in the building of Jewish institutions will
be shown in other studies. But it is possible to Jssume at once that
emph;lSis must be placed on J better organization of and for Jewish
communities in the Bronx and Brooklyn. At the same time, as many
types of institutions as possible must be planned on a Greater New
York City basis to serve the entire Jewish community, rather than one
section of that community or one borough.
\X/here institutions can possibly minister to the needs of Jews
resident anywhere in the Gre.lter City, policies should be so directed
as to make city-wide service possible. Institutions organized to serve
definite neighborhoods or localities should be built in those large and
gro,ving .Ie I\- i~:h comnHl'lities in the Bronx and Brooklyn. At the same
time Jewish institutions, organized on a neighborhood or local basis,
th,lt find themselves faced with a rapidly diminishing Jewish population,
should study cJrcfully the trend of movement of the population. This
should be done with a view towards balancing against the service they
owe the Jewish population remaining in one particular locality, ,,-i th the
general sen'ice they owe in the field in which they are engaged. Thcse
in,:; rt!riG'1< \\·iU need to study the possibilities of securing .1 greJter
return ior lx,th the capital and the ffiJintenance funds io\'ested in
their work br transferring their activities to localities where there may
be increJsing Jewish settltments or much larger and stron~cr ]ewi,h
communities than Jre now surrounding them.
I .V T R () IJ C
T I () .\'
interesting vitJl statistics which will make possible much more intelligent discussion of the Jewish population and will ultimately Jifect the
programs of Jewish Jnd general social agencies.
The Survey has been orgJnized with Citizens' Committees in each
one of the £e1ds of bmily welfare, child care, health, recreation, seculJr
education, Jewish education, and community organization. The last
subject indicates a study of the Federations of Jewish philanthropic,.
In each of these fields there will be published the findings of the
Citizens' Committee based on the facts and recommendations mad<!
to this Committee by the Bureau of Jewish Social Research.
Throughout the study there has been ~plendid cooperJtion by all
officials of the city government, Jewish organiZJtions in all fields, gc~eral
?hilanthropic and communal or~anizations-a cooperation that is inspirit~
Ing and that augurs well for whateyer plans for the reevaluation and
reorganization of Jewish sociJI work throughout Greater f'.:ew York
that may result from this Survey.
LEl-: K.
This population study, :lside from its vJlue as a basis for planning
the activities of Je'!'.·ish philanrhropic and communal organization.i. will
be ot gcner:J.! value in Jewish demography. BcCJus,: of the mctbod~
of scudy employed, it is possible to approximate st:uistic.1Ily a distribution
of the. ]e,,'ish population by age group", This is the first time th.lt
this inform:ltion ha<; been aY;liJabJe for a large Jewish population in this
country.
It is also possible to indicate on the basis of this study the birthrate
for Jews Jnd the principal causes of mOrlJlity .lmong Jews. These arc
IV
r:
\'
FRA'-:KEI.
I.
MOVEMENT OF JEWISH POPULAnON IN NEW YORK CITY
In view of the fact that census tabulations in the United States
do not enumerate Jews, as such, it has always been one of the chief
problems in Jewish demography to estimate the Jewish population.
Various devices have been perfected toward this end, the t,"-'o outstanding
methods being the deathrate method and the Yom Kippur school absence
method. The first assumes that the Jewish deathrate is some arbitrary
figure, usually 8 per 1000, and on the basis of a count of Jewish deaths,
arrives at a total population estimate. The second presupposes that
all Jewish school children will absent themselves from the public schools
on Yom Kippur day, and that such absentees, with a certain number
of corrections, will represent the Jewish child population (5 years
through 14 years), From this step it is easy to arrive at a total population estimate by assuming that the 5 through 14 years group represents 18 per cen t of the popula cion (the proportion which holds in
the general population of New York at the present day).
Ie can be seen that both these methods are open to question because
of the assumptions made. In an older population, the deathrate will
be higher. In a younger population, the age group 5-14 years will
represent more than 18 per cent of the population. The fact is,
in New York City at the present day, both assumptions are, generally,
true. But there is no warrant for believing, for instance, that ther
are true of the Jewish populations of Cincinnati and Baltimore.
It has been said that the age group 5 through 14 represents 18
per cent of the population in New York City. What should be said
is, that the school attendance group derived from a study of Yom
Kippur absences may be accepted as representing 18 per cent of the
population in view of the fact that the 5 through 14 years group is
not exactly descriptive. Children do not enter school much before
6 years; graduation from the grade school is more nearly in the neighborhood of 13 years than 14. While, at present in New York City the
age group 5 through 14 years represents 21 per cent of the population,
in the calculations based on Yom Kippur absences the lower figure
may be employed.
These observations are necessary in order to clear the air to an
extent. In presenting figures indicating the movements of the New
York Jewish population over the decade 1916-25, the Survey has
employed the estimates derived from a study of Yom Kippur absences.
I t has done this for two reasons, viz., the only calculations made
STCDfE.~
1,',
THE
SfW
YORK
JEWISH
POPULATION
TABLE I
Jell/ish Pop"/4tion in Nnl' York City
1916 1916
,
TOTAL
192~
1921
~
BoROUGH
POPULATION
POPULATION
POPULATION
Monh2Ct'D
2,IJ7,7-47
61 ~,600
396,727
98,6H
696,000
211,000
563,000
23,000
1,000
1,JP-45,029
372,168
2,203,235
71-4,6-47
138,277
5,0-47,221
1,~03,000
1,873,356
Bronx
Brooklyn
Qu..,ns
Richmond
TOTAL
1,798,~ I}
JE"",",SH
TOTAL
JE"IV1SH
POPCLATION
500,000
390,000
800,000
16,100
J,500 (?)
1,7~ 0,000
TABLE U
Distribution 0/ Jt'll/ish POpul4tion by Bor(71tghs
BOROUGH
\hnhHt.n
Bronx
Brooklyn
Qu..,DS
Richmond
1916
1921
PEIl CENT
PEIl CENT.
46.3
H.O
37.8
1.6
0.3
28.6
22.3
45.6
U
0.2
100.0
100.0
.. .... ...............
TOTAl.
TABLE m
Ptr Crnt Incrr6se or Dec".se of jt'lllish
POpul6fion by Bor01lghs
1916 - I92S
PEIl CENT
BokOUGH
INCIlEASE OR DECIlEASE
:M.nh.rran
-
Bronx
+
Brooklyn
Quttns
Richmond
TOTAL
2B.3
8-4.7
-40.7
+H6.
30. (?)
+
+ 16.4
WHERE
Ie
JEWISH
!
POPTJLA.TION' LIVED -1916
In. terms of percent of total.
"\ JfWlSH COMM.\11fA.L S\1~
~ O~ GrR.A:l'~ .NI-W' YOJ:U(..-
r
.
.............. ... PoPULPal0N 5TVDY'"
15
~~
......................
/
H'
New Yorl\,. J=wt5H. Poputa.tlon.. ,
~
,I
PER.C1!H"r~
~
£.'3.5
~
UIIll Il I
~. - 2..~
D
4.2 - 5.Z
Utl~:"
,/
r.o.... "',ut silk
Il.. Con. &a~ S'd.
1.
S. Weet 11-0"'-
HnrlcfYL
West Ii-rlcm.
s..,,"?
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15. Gd. eo.>c~
m..
willou<j1b'l
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1..5. &<uj ~d~
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ill
J".o'd.'l,<un.
16. New Lot.
17. 8<'O<tIn...
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~eca.'NI
-
1.1 0" E:If E NT S at , E W 1 S H pap U L AT 1 a N IN NEW Y aRK CIT Y
previously on the basis of borough sections were those of Dr. Dushkin
in 1916 and these were on the Yom Kippur absence method; the Survey
has elaborated another method for obtaining a total population figure
and this method has yielded a figure very similar to the first.
It should be said here that the Jewish child population estimates
were obtained by the Survey from the Jewish Education Association
which was particularly interested in such figures in view of its work
in fostering Jewish education. From Dr. Dushkin's report, then, made
in 1916 were derived the 1916 Jewish population estimates; from the
Jewish Education Association were derived the Jewish estimates for
1925. The Survey studied these two sets of figures in order to present
the movements of the Jewish population in New York City for the
decade in question.
New York City
Tables I, II, and III indicate the history of New York City's Jewish
population over the period 1916-25. In 1916 New York City had
1,503,000 Jews; in 1925, 1,750,000.
In 1916, the Jews made up 30 per cent of New York City's population; in 1925, the proportion was still the same, i.e., 30 per cent.
Over the decade, New York City's population increase had been 16.4
per cent while the Jewish population's increase had been similar. What
the future will hold it is not possible to say. The stoppage of immigration must prevent the unbalancing of this proportion, at any rate
it can be said that it is not likely that the Jewish proportion in New
York City will increase. On the contrary, there is room for belief
that the Jewish proportion may dwindle because while its deathrate is
lower than the general population's at present, there is no assurance
that this will continue; while on the other hand, the Jewish birthrate
appears to be definitely lower than that of the general population. These
facts will be discussed in their proper connection.
The movements of the Jewish population in Nev.. York City have
been marked. In the ten years, Brooklyn definitely supplanted Manhattan as the center of Jewish population. In 1925, Brooklyn had
45.6 per cent of the total New York Jewish population as against
50.9 per cent for Manhattan and the Bronx. There is no assurance
that in time these centers will not shift again. In the ten years 1916-25
Bronx gained 84.7 per cent and Queens 146 per cent. In time, because
of still undeveloped areas, these boroughs together "V.'ith Richmond will
seat New York City's population, Jew as well as non-Jew, and there
are already evidences of certain Brooklyn sections being abandoned.
STU DIE S
1 :\'
T I I 1-;
X E \Y'
Y0 R K
lEW' ISH
POP (.
I
\
T I () .Y
TABLE IV
'cu.M) Pop"I.lion of Manb./lan
1916 - 1925
1916
~
BOROC(,}{
SI.CTlON
TT."'"
19H
PER CENT
-'----- - - - r - - - - - - " ' - - - - -----"
PER CENT
PER CENT
OF
OF
BOROUGH
BOROUGH
jnnsH
POPULATION
TOTAL
TOTAL
jJ:"ISH
POPULATION
lower East Side
Central East Side
Lo....er West Side
~relt End
Yorkville
Harlem
West Harlem
Washington
Heights
TOTAL
:'If._" H,
-,. -
INC1UlUE
OR
Dt.CREASE
1916-19H
353,.493
3J ,H6
42,10
16,007
0,034
149,091
24,511
50.8
.4.8
6.1
2.3
7.6
21...
3.5
264,178
H,217
8,710
14,332
32,411
114,8S9
8,S06
12.9
3.0
1.7
2.9
6.5
23.0
1.7
-25.3
24,511
3.S
41,320
8.3
+68.6
690,1S 6
100.0
499,S 3J
100.0
-28.3
-54."
-79."
-lOA
-39.9
-23.0
-6U
TABLE V
Jewish Papula/iolt of Ibr Broux
1916
.
1925
1916
.~'---~.
BOROCGH
Sr:CTION
South
Bronx
Lower Central
Bronx
Upper Central
Bronx
Tremont
Fordham
North
Bronx
Grand
Concourse
TOTAL
BRONX
jEIJ:'ISH
PON!-
PcR Cr:NT
OF TOTAL
BOROCCH
POPC-
1925
, - - - - - -------.
PER CENT
OF TOTAL
BOROUGH
Jr:"-IS1I
PoPUPOPL'-
INCRI ASE
Pr... CENT
LAno~
L"TIO~
LATION
1916-1921
31,010
14.7
32,72S
804
l.5
64,022
30.3
92,292
23.7
44.1
20,671
51,018
7,96S
9.8
24.2
3.8
"10,906
121,129
22,828
10.S
} 1.1
S.9
97.7
13904
186.6
2,014
1.0
12,080
3.1
48S.1
34,366
16.2
67,880
17.3
97.S
21 1,106
100,0
389,840
100.0
84.7
LATIOI'
4
WHElW JEWISH
POPULATION LNED·19~'
terms of percent of tot~l
JeWISH Population.
In.
p~~~5H1:S
§
15.Z
o
~
i?.3-3.3
9:'
UNtn:-R,
6. - 6,9
1. L_v.!. f!>,..t 5.<1..
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'T.
8.
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13.
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J:EWISH CO~UNAL 3t1JtV1:Y
/
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33
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i
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31. H. Rd ..... 51>.
?i;!.. II-< l"\"tb,,~'"
"-ecn ..
-5.l.
lUll
BUlt!IW
OF- Jl;WlSK
SOCIAL D~~"
.\fOVEMENTS OF JEWISH POPULATION IN NEW YORK C11'Y
On the other hand there still remain great undeveloped tracts in Brooklyn to which Jews are moving. There is no doubt that Brooklyn, for
some time to come, will have to be the new focus of attention as far
as a Jewish communal program is concerned.
The Richmond figures here given m3Y be questioned. The number
of Jewish school children was so small that an error in count, one way
or another, must necessarily have magnified the result. In any case,
Richmond's Jewish population cannot be more than 5,000 at the present
time. There has been no definite Jewish migration tov:ard Staten Island.
Manhal/an
Table IV indicates the history of Manhattan's Jev:ish population
over the decade 1916-25. In 1916, there were 696,000 Jews in Manhattan; in 1925, 499,500 or a decrease of 28.3 per cent.
Manhattan's Jewish population has been distributed over 8 sections
for more intensive comparison. Reference may be had to the accompanying map for the locations of these zones.
An examination of Table IV indicates a population loss in all
but one of these sections in the decade discussed. Washington Heights
gained 68.6 per cent during 1916-25 but even then it had only 8.3
per cent of Manhattan's total Jewish population and 2.3 per cent of
New York City's. (See Table VIII.)
In 1925, Manhattan's ]e,vish population still lived in the Lower
East Side and in Harlem. In 1925, the Lower East Side had 52.9
per cent of Manhattan's Jewish population as against 50.8 per cent in
1916. But in 1916, thr Willer East Side bad 23.5 prr cmt of all of
Sru' York. City's Jru's as agail/SI 15.2 per ('['nt hI 192 5. Similarly,
Harlem's Jews made up 23 per cent of Manhattan Jewry in 192 5 as
against 21.4 per cent in 1916. Bul in 1916, Ht1r1r111 ht1d 9.9 per Cl't/t
of all of NI'u' York. City's JI'UiS aJ against 6.6 per cent in 1925. It is
obvious that the movement has been out of these more populous areas.
Yorkville, it will be noticed, has declined in similar fashion.
It may be questioned ~'hether the figures for the Central East Side
and the West End are strictly accur:lte. It must be remembered that
the estimates are based on child population and th:lt the persons that
have been moving intO these districts recently are, in the first place,
older, and second, may have fewer children per family than the average
rate. The absolute figures, in an)' case, are small and do not bulk
large in a discussion of a Jewish communitv program which is, after
all, the final basis of this analysis.
STt'DIES
IX
THE
KE\¥'
YORK
JEWISH
POPUL,1.TIOX
Brollx
Table V indicates the history of the Bronx Jewish population over
the decade 1916-25. In 1916 the Jewish population of the Bronx: was
211,100; in 1925, it was 389,840 or an increase of 84.7 per cent.
In 1916, Bronx had 14 per cent of New York City's Jews; in 1925
it had 22.3 per cent.
The movement in the Bronx is northward and westward into the
Tremont, Fordham and Grand Concourse sections. The South Bronx
has evidently ceased growing while the Tremont section has become
more populous than Harlem, having 6.9 per cent of the city's Jews
in 192 5 :IS against Harlem's 6.6 per cent.
It is evident that there is great room for further growth in the
North Bronx: section and in the Grand Concourse. The latter section
in 1925 bad already 3.9 per cent of New York City's Jews as against
2.3 per cent for Washington Heights (which undoubtedly can de\'elop
little further).
Brooklyn
Table VI indicates the history of Brooklyn's Jewish population over
the decade 1916-25. In 1916, Brooklyn had 568,000 JC1\'s; in 1925800,000 or an increase of 40.7 per cent. In 1916, Brooklyn had 37.8
per cent of ~ew York City's Jewish population as :lg.linst 45.6 per cent
for 1925.
TAlll.E \'1
/,-wi,h Popula/iool oj Brook.l) 11
In6
-
1916
1925
r-----'---.-----.
New Lot,
Brownsville
E.stern
Park\\'.y
Bushwick
Ridgewood
Greenpoint
Willoughby
Willi.m,burg
South
Brooklyn
~'----"
LATfOIS
JEWISH
POFliLATlON
78,677
146,8D
lJ.9
25.8
115,615
169,906
1-4.5
2\.2
4.1
6.0
3.7
1.5
9.0
13.1
2.1
JEWISH
BOROUGH
SECTION
1925
,-
PFR C~KT
OF TOTAL
BOROUGH
Pop\:LATtO:-;-
PoPU-
23,472
24,464
7,989
10,986
72,902
122,850
1.4
1.9
12.8
21.7
47,570
29,930
8,463
11,599
72,247
104,905
,984
2.5
16,S78
l)
".3
6
PER CENT
or TOTAL
RoIlOCGR
PON.LATIOl'i
1.1
INeRE.HE
OR
DECRE.'S~
PEIl CEl'iT
1916-1925
+
+
46.9
15.7
+102.7
+22.l
5.9
+
5.6
+
.9
14.6
+
18.5
.\10 V E MEN T S OF / E W 1 S H POP L' L A T lOX 11\' X E i\" YO R K C 11' Y
B.y Ridge
Fan H.milton
Borough Puk ..
Bath Be.ch
Coney Island
Fl2tbush
North Flatbush.
E.st FIHbu,h
TOTAL
2,2043,306
22,458
13,984
6,992
8,716
4,132
4,132
.4
.6
4.0
2.5
1.2
568,061
.7
.7
2,508
11,845
61,56431,800
40,360
31,597
24,237
18,!61
7.7
4.0
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.3
100.0
799,285
100.0
l.5
.J
1.5
+ 13.8
+258.2
+174.1
+127.4
+477.2
+262.5
+486.6
+349.2
+
40.7
It is interesting to note that New Lots, Brownsville and Williamsburg, the more populous areas, had in 1916 more than 61 per cen t
of Brooklyn's Jewish population as against 48.7 per cent in 1925. In
short, Brooklyn's Jewish population has spread south and west over
the borough into Eastern Parkway, Borough Park, Bath Beach, the
Flatbushs, and Coney Island.
Williamsburg and Willoughby it can be seen, were the only sections
to lose population, and there is no doubt that these will continue to
decline because of the character of their dwellings. The Brooklyn
movement has all been into the one-family, two-family, and apartment
house sections. The fact is, Brooklyn has indicated sharply the method
of Jewish population trends. Original settlements are made into regions
with one-family houses, e.g., North Flatbush and more recently Day
Ridge and Ft. Hamilton. The next wave moves into two-family
houses. The final wave is an apartment house population because the
rise in land values forbids the erection of smaller dwellings. The newer
regions where small family structures are already out of the question
are Eastern Parkway, Flatbush, North Flatbush and Borough Puk.
In short, these sections will become, more obviously, middle-class.
Brownsville's population is pressing into New Lots on the east and
East Flatbush on the south and the latter section, particularly, will
become the center of Brooklyn's lower middle-class population. The
cheaper type of dwellings being erected here would seem to presage such
a possible history.
Coney Island's status is equally interesting. In the ten years it
had the greatest growth, but one, of all of Brooklyn's sections. The
Coney Island population is a permanent one and will increase greatly,
no doubt, as soon as the residence restrictions are lifted from the Sea
Gate area.
Queens
The Queens Jewish population
7
IS
at present much too diffuse to
STUDIES
IN
THE
NEW'
YORK
JEWISH
POPULAT/OX
TABLE VII
Population of Mmf Populo"' Borough Section, in CIf)', 1916,
Shou'illg Srctunu ill Order of Siu of PopulatiolJ
j~"'iJh
PER CE='IT
TOTAL
BoROUGH
SECTION
BoROUGH
Lower u,t Side
Hulem
Brownsville
Williamsburg
:'\e,,: Lou
\\'illoughby
L C. Bronx
Yorbille
Tremont
Lower West Side
Grand Concourse
Cent .. 1 E"t Side
South Bronx
TOTAL
FOR
Manhattan
Manhattan
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Bronx
Manhattan
Bronx
~hnhatlan
Bronx
~hnhatt.n
Bron>::
OF TOTAL
JE'II'1SH
POl'ULATION
JEWISH CITY
POl'ULATtON
jf3,49J
149,091
146,813
122,850
78,677
72,902
64,022
53,034
5 J ,OlS
42,153
34,366
33,356
31,010
23.5
9.9
9.8
8.2
5.2
4.9
4.2
3.5
3.4
2.8
2.3
1,232.785
81.9
242,538
28,000
1,503,32)
16.1
2.0
100.0
2.::!
2.0
1)
S~.CTIONS
TOTAL 1·01t REMA1N-
19 SECTIONS
INC.
IN
MA"!HATTAN,
BRONX,
AND
BROOKLYN
l!i RICHMOND
QUEENS
TOTAL
TABLE VIII
jrwi.dJ Populalion of Mo,t Populou, Borougb Secfio/II i1l Cit)'. 1921,
SbolL·ing Mction' in Order 0/ Si%e of Pop"lalioll
PfR CENT
BOROUGH
SLCTtON
BoROUCH
Lower E2Jt S,de
Brov.·nsville
Tremont
Nev.' Lot,
H.r1em
\\'illi.msburg
LO'l\'er C. Bronx
Fl.tbu,hs (3)
Willoughby
Grand Concoursr
Borough P.tk
E.s,ern Parkw.y
W.shington Heights
L! pper C. Bronlt
Coney Island
M.nhatt.n
Brooklyn
Bronx
Brooklyn
TOTAL
FOR
M1.ohart1.n
Brooklyn
Bronx
Brooklrn
Brooklyn
Bronx
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Manhattan
Bron.x
Brooklyn
TOTAL
OF TOTAL
J"'it'ISH
POPULATION
JEW'SH CITY
POP':LA TlOl'
264,178
169,906
l21,129
115,615
114,869
104,90 t
92,292
74,395
72,2-47
67,880
61,164
47,570
41,320
40,906
40,360
15.2
9.7
6.9
6.6
6.6
6.0
U
4.3
4.1
3.9
1,429,126
81.7
259,532
60,000
1,748,658
14.8
U
100.0
l.5
2.7
2.3
2.3
2.3
17
Sf.CTIONS
TOTAL FOR RE".USIr"\(;
1 5 Sl'.CTJO~.5
& RrcH"oND
Qt:ErNs
TOTn
POPt1IATIOK 8TUDY
MOY.&MB-NT OF'
JEWISH POPULA.11Otl
J.EUJ'ISK COM.l'1.VKAL SUllVJ
~.G~~ tc.wl "1:'OJ
"''"'' -~~
1916 - 1925
SHOWlKG-
GA.UlS
G.uN
~ I1JOU..
L.:...:....:..:
~
2,000
40,000
-
LOSSU
Lo&S
~i ;.oo~
[::J
e.
.....000
a.,ooo
/
~~,OOlJto
w
\
8,000 te
2O,oeo
~ 10,OOO~
~ to,OGO
~
i
//
~20,OOIJ
8,000
~
i
/
I
\
\
\
\
20.000 te
'\.,
~1II0,OOO
mnn so.ooo ...
Wl.W -..0,000
4O, oe °to
tOO,OOO
1. "&.,.t
,"'"
z..e-.5.~.
J,
1. e.,".fl$W'~
,..... ~
.r...."....... StAe 18. ~iU\.
4. Y•• ~ .. ~u....
_0. Rhlcr~
5,'fIrnt,.t"trft.4
:l.1.G~
6. H:.,.{.~
... l'(,~~
t "..,...
~,.
Zo4<:lo.-.p
e.w.,~.l-{u.
w;..""""
9, So e.-"". UJ. ~ RIo.:,.
IO.t-.e-. B... .a.6.ft.~·~
11.U'I"C.~~ .. ~~
L8.!lo1h.~
l!.:F-o.clhlU'l'-
~C4oo\~I..
,.... 1"t<I. &f'Ofti
.&0. PlGot..,.h.
to. en.
~.t{.PI._
te.
.tz..t-.t:L.t.I;1Iwh
~t.«.
33
lloro.1lwi<,
~2.,T~~"),O~
I
,
I
r
~.<\.l&Utu
I
"
I
1
J
,/
,I
/
I
..
,
f'rl'
~ ,"
_/'
--~
\" R.~
M 0 \' E MEN T S OF 1 E W' ISH POP U L A. T ION INN E W YO R. K CIT Y
permit of such detailed analysis. The whole borough had in 1925
56,500 Jews, as against 23,000 in 1916, a gain of 146 per cent. But,
in 192 5, the Queens Jewish population represented but 3.3 per cent
of New York City Jewry. The Eastern P:lrkway section of Brooklyn
had almost as much in an area probably one-hundredth the size. This
must not minimize the importance of Queens as a center of future
growth. The contingency is nevertheless remote.
Borough Movements
Tables vn and VIII indicate the movements of Jewish population
over the three boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn and the Bronx for
1916-25, in resume. From Table VII it will be seen that in 1916 the
13 most populous sections (out of a total of 32 in the three boroughs)
had 81.9 per cent of New York City's Jewish population. In 1925
(Table VIII) the 17 most populous borough scctions had 81.7 per cen t
of the total population. An examination of the two tables reveals:
The decentralization of New York City's Jewish population. In
1916, the Lower East Side had 23.5 of the City's total Jewish population;
in 1925 it had 15.2 per cent. In 1916 the five most populous borough
sections had 56.6 per cent of New York City's Jews; in 1925, the first
five had 45 per cent. It is to be noted, too, that in ]916, of the 13
most populous arC:lS, Manhattan had 5, Brooklyn 4, and the Bronx 4.
In 1925 in the ]7 most populous areas Manh:lttan had 3, Brooklyn 10,
and the Bronx 4.
This deccnr!;llization has been due to a direct movement from
congested areas into middle-class areas. Thc Lower East Side, Harlem,
Yorkville, Williamsburg and Willoughby sections have all lost population; South Bronx and Brownsville have barely held their own. On
the other hand, Tremont, Fordham, Eastern Parkway. Flatbush and
North Flatbush han flourished mightily.
DetlSN)' of ]i'u:isb Populatioll
It has been said that the Jewish population of Greater New York
constitutes 30 per cent of the city's total population. An examination
of Jewish density by boroughs and borough sections reveals interesting
divergencies. Thus, the Jews of the Bronx make up, in 1925, 44.7
per cent of the borough's population; the Brooklyn Jews make up 36.3
per cent of that borough's population; the Marihattan Jewish ratio is
25.7 per cent; while for Queens and Richmond the ratios are 8 and 2.5
per cent respectively.
9
S T (' D 1 E 5
J.\'
T H 1:.
.\' E \\"'
)' 0 R K
I E IV J S H
POP U L A T J 0 S
TABLF IX
Dr'Hit)' of jilt'ill> PopIllatiolt (1925) Sholt'iltg RJtio Il'1Vs Comtit,d,
il/ Total Populatiolt, b)' 8oroltgl, Sec/iom
RATIO
J1: ....,
Co,,"snrun:
IX TOTAl.
BORO(}~ll
POPULATION
SECTION
BoROI:CH
Conc)' Isl.nd
Tremont
Bro"'osville
Brooklyn
Bronx
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Manh.tt.n
Bronx
Bronx
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
~·jlli.m,burg
New Lots
b>t Side
Lo...·er Centr.1 Brortll
Upper Cent!>1 Bronx
"filloughby
Bath Beach
Ea5tern P.rk.....}'
Borough Park
FI.tbu,h
Harlem
South Bronx
Grand Concourse
Fordh.m
~·.shjngton Height,
Xorth Fhtbu.h
bst l'larbu,h
Bushwick
Yorkville
Fort Hamilton
Ridgewood
;:-';orth Bronx
vntr.1 East Side
Grecnpoint
~·c.\t End
South Brooklyn
l.o"·or ~'est Side
"'f,t
B.)"
~fanhatt.n
Bronx
Bronx
Bronx
M.nharun
Brooklyn
Brooklvn
Brooklyn
~hnhatun
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Bronx
Manhattan
Brooklyn
\1anh31t.n
Brooklyn
.\{,1Dhatton
"hnh.ttan
Brooklyn
H.r1c,..
Rid~..
10
PER CENT
96.7
96.4
95.0
81.0
78.J
73.3
71.l
67.0
J 5,3
52.8
'48.8
46.1
4.1.8
J7.0
J 3.9
28.1
23.9
2J .9
2>"9
16.7
It.1
15.1
1l.7
IU
9.9
"'.2
6.6
6.3
4.4
4.3
4.0
;
."
i
DENSITY
Or:'
I
/
JEWISH POPUIATION-I,925/
In. terms of pt'Opot"tion. of J£WS
to total
Pl!-RCl!-N"t..
?t
,
JeW':o,
/
95,- 96:Z
ITIIIIIIllJl
z.3.9 - 33.9
~ 71.~-61.
~
9.9-16.7
W'7/77.:.1
VLLil'A
5Z.8- 6'7.
['--"
3.6 - 'I.2.
~
37.-48.8
_
/
~
popvo\Q.t\.on..
.__..-1
,I
/
II
,
/
,
,I
I
,i
~f'£.g,,:;,t&d't.
I
/
I'
l (~}r.-a.l l~. S,dc
J
tOIo..'C'\·
Wt::.l. Si.dt;
,
1 Y,w ....." lie.
"
Wel!lt hd
o.
H(1'f'tC'n)
., w __-:or
/
I
Ihute:\n
8. WOb~. 11"1'"
I
to. .t(J",-~.Ct'nt -r.,x.
II l..Tp.Utrt(. fix.
'lZ, Tn:lnont:
l'-ord~(",.,
.
15,«".{;OflC.~
19.
bvs'l""~('}(.
11.1.
G."""f""
"
t6.IUbr!l.W&~
"
;>'0. Rid~e......,d
i
u. W;\\""'Jho,
55
,
r·,
,
I
m:., ,Du"S"
u. &. ~lI.l~<L
:l.5. ~ .l?..,~
?6. n ,H:IQ.,n,lton.
n· 1>0'0. Ao,,,,-
11.3.
,
I
II
11
)
I
:<8. !loll) 6<",,1,
I
~9- Co<><~ h.
3o.ltlolbo&'t
",
,
,
J
Ie;. ,."... Lat~
~""""",·.ne
,
/'
1". H""tlj
- 1\<0,,,
17.
"""",,-
/
9. 5",,(1), Ik.,,"
J.'.
I
,
,
)
I
I
I
n.M.fl.I\>u~
3it.~.~Wbu~
:">:.\.~("1oll,.!&I.
I\
\/
,,._ftJ
.;\
)
E.U~
~
03.EW-l.$K
~
ltlS£~_
M 0 V E MEN T S Of lEW ISH POP U J. A T I 0]1; IN NEW YO R K CIT Y
An examination of Table IX indicates that there are some borough
sections in New York City whose population is almost entirely Jewish.
Of the five borough sections whose Jewish populations are at least
75 per cent of the total, four are in Brooklyn and one is in the Bronx.
Coney IsI2nd, Tremont and New Lots are new developments and will
no doubt continue Jewish; Brownsville and Williamsburg are older
settlements and probably, in the near future, will show population
replacements by other groups. This has, of course, already taken place
in the East Side where the Jews make up only 73.3 per cent of the
section's total population.
Of the following five sections, where me Jews constitute between
74 and 50 per cent of the section's popuhtions, two are in the Bronx,
two in Brooklyn, and one in Manhattan. The East Side, Lower Central
Bronx, and Willoughby are older settlements whose Jewish character
will probably be less obvious in the ncar future. Bath Beach and Upper
Central Bronx may be expected to become more Jewish, if anything.
For the remaining twenty-two sections, the following newer residential neighborhoods may be expected to attract Jewish populations
for some time to come: Eastern Parkway (at present 48.8 per cent
Jewish), Borough Park (46.1 per cent Jewish), Flatbush (43.8 per cent
Jewish), Grand Concourse (28.1 per cent Jewish), Fordham (23.9 per
cent Jewish), Washington Heights (23.9 per cent Jewish), North
Flatbush (23.9 per cent Jewish), East Flatbush (16.7 per cent Jewish),
Ft. Hamilton (11.7 per cent Jewish), North Bronx (9.9 per cent Jewish).
The following sections have either stood still or lost Jewish population and one may expect their Jewish character either to decline or
to remain unimportant: Harlem, South Bronx, Bushwick, Yorkville,
Ridgewood, Central East Side, Greenpoint. W cst End, South Brooklyn,
Lower West Side, West Harlem, Bay Ridge.
______.....;...:-.-:..:.:...::-...-:..:..'::.£.-.:":.-.....:..)~()~J::.{ !.J(:..'..-:J~E~\\~· ~J..:.~~.I!..!~p ,()__P~Tl(J\
l'
CHART
NO. 1
A.G~
!*It 1,000 IlY :lTAXDAJlP
Wl'IH
..
.,..".
u...,~ h'\'-
5 TO 9y~
IOIdiy'l'
Bani
II.
C.Il9UP:l
(19t~)
V.S.
Jo.w
_"""""" "".... c:=:::J
LL.
I
~
I
~
II
YIQ~
~~
h'~
I~
h~
~frthod
_
14K
8IDreS
II
~
~
AGE DlSTRIBVTIONS, BIRTHS ;\:'\D DE.\THS
It was pointed out in the previous chapter that the Survey h,ld .:leviscd
another method for estimating Jewish total population. The results of
this swdy have not lent themselves to treatment by borough sections
for the examination of population trends; but they have been singularly
rich in another respect, i.e., that of Jewish mortality. Suffice it to say
here that this method has, generally, corroborated that of the Jewish
Education Association in the total population estimate reached. It will
be recalled that the Jewish Education Association's Jewish populatia~1
estimate for 1925 had been 1,750,000. The Survey's estimate was
1,713,000.
I
~
I
~
I
~
l' T
I
I
I
I
I
1 I
,
I
I
I
I
I
I
T
TABLE I
D.aJbrat. per 1,000 by Sta"dlJrd Age Group,
U. S.-In}
jEY_1 92 5
-'----_._--~
(A.IlEA OF
DEATHIIATE
DF,ATHIIATE
ACE
GkOU7S
Under 5
5- 9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-3-4
J5-44
45-54
55-64
65-74
75 .nd oyer.
InO)
~-----~
POPULA-
:1';0.
PI'R
POPULA-
:1';0.
PER
TJoN
Dunn
TJoN
DEATH!
1,000
1}8,100
1H,700
209,400
199,900
212,500
278,100
236,800
159,JOO
92,700
29,900
6,700
2,OH
H3
265
298
360
891
1,248
1,9)}
2,665
2,267
1,251
1,000
14.7
2.3
1.3
1.5
1.7
3.2
195,014
21,009
14,990
21,964
27,854
63,853
79,459
101,942
1J9,475
In,018
188,539
22.5
2.5
1.9
I.J
12.1
28.7
71.8
186.7
8,67J,9} 5
8,532,198
7,882,076
6,750,95 4
6,743,059
I J.S28,063
II,J66,80J
8,688,004
5,669,973
2,940,165
1,267,624
}.}
4.1
4.7
7.0
11.7
24.6
H.8
148.7
The Survey's method was based on a study of specific death rates.
The deathrate method has not been an unfamiliar one for the estimating
of Jewish population. Its chief drawback has been, however. that
it has worked with a crude deathrate, i.e., at one time or another it
has assumed a Jewish deathrate of 11, or 10, or 8 per 1,000 population.
The fact is, this method has had slight warrant in fact for its basic
assumption. To establish a crude deathrate one must know the size
of the living population as well as the total number of deaths. It is not
sufficient to say, for example, that the Je",jsh deathrate of Detroit is
applicable to the Jewish population of Baltimore or Chicago, for these
Jewish populations are not the same as far as age and sex distributions
go and crude deathrates are affected by precisely these factors.
1
The Survey, therefore, set up a unit of livin~ popu atio:J "'hose
deaths it could study for the purpose of arriving at deathrates by age
and sex. These are called specific deathrates. With such rates, having
counted all the Jewish deaths in New York City, it would be in a
position to estimate not merely the total number of New York Jews,
but, as well, their distribution by age and sex. Such a table would be
of great significance in studying causes of death, or mortality, by age
and sex.
The process of setting up a unit of living population ',\,fa5 this:
there was first chosen a number of sanitary districts in Manh:Ht:m,
Bronx, and Brooklyn whose population was bclie\'ed to be representative
of the general Jewish community. These sanitary districts included 16
in all, being located as follows: 2 on the Lower East Side, 3 in Harlem,
3 in Washington Heights, 3 in South and Central Bronx, I in 'Williamsburg, 2 in Brownsville, and 2 in the Eastern Parkway sections. The
II
12
---------.:.'...:-:..:.:..-.:.....::J~.J~....:1'~V~1'~U:..:L~f1~T~1~0'!.!iN
TABLE LA
Dt"tIJratr pa 1,000 by Standard
M"'LES
]F.WS-192;
"""-""'-----ACF
1'01'1:.:1..\-
~o,
TIOX
Dr:.\THS
69,>00
71,600
79,400
95,300
109,.\00
1,135
179
135
162
GROl::\,S
Under 5
5- 9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-34
H-44
45·;4
55-(.4.
65-74
7; Jnd O'-er
I
3,.' )(.
U 15
i
1\0.
TIO:"
Pro
DI:AT!-1S
1,000
108,841
11,526
8,410
11,40 I
D,79}
24.8
1.7
1.7
1.5
3.!
6.11
D.2
37.2
75.1
IS 1.2
I
I'
I
II III
I
I
I
I
1
I
i
I
I
II
DEATHR ... n:
POPI;I.... _
MAL.e-S
,I
~_--',
J .OOu
CHA.!ZT M. 1·A.
,
U, 5.-1923 (An... OF 1920)
PI R
.2. ~
',H'I
1,1 (,0
~fALfS
-- '"
16.~
412
680
1.12 r
~.4IE'
Group.
DE.\ THRA T"
J6~
13~,9(lV
113.300
85,200
40,.100
A,~p
I
I
I
I
j
I
4,.195,636
4,) J 0,0&7
3,'78,2~9
3)~'rl,7r2
.1,251,208
6,80.\,915
!.910,623
4,5'~.J4)
32,5J~
44,1-18
57,71 3
2.7
2.1
3.4
4.2
.;,g
7,5
12.6
~.900,67J
lS,l5(i
1.4~ 1 ,I
26.4
91.030
62.0
S6
590.1 fJ
SQ.8 (,;
J S~.'
,I G E
DIS T RIB t' r i O X S,
B I R T H S
..\ -" D
D E ..t T H S
Jewish population in these 16 sanitary districts could be counted as
the enumerators' schedules of the 1925 State Census were available in
the county clerks' offices. The clues employed were those of name
and place of birth. It should be said here that in view of the fact
that the neighborhoods chosen were characteristically Je'l'.'ish. it was
felt that there could not be encountered very much difficulty in the
sin~ing out of Jewish names. The fact is, in the 16 sanitary districts
examined, the Jewish population comprised 75 per cent of the total,
and in 5 districts, the Jewish figures ranged between 88 and 95 per cent
of the totals. In the 16 sanitary districts the total population was
206,436. Of these 152,327 were Jewish. The count was checked
back once for the 8 Manhattan sanitary districts and the deviation
from the first count proved ro be very slight.
The next step consisted of a tabulation of Jewish deaths for Nev.'
York City in 192 5, It is important to indicate here the clues employed
in the singling out of Jewish certificates. These were: name of the
decedent, place of birth, mother's maiden name, nativity of parents,
place of burial, and undertaker's name. There was a total in the five
boroughs of 13,552 such certificates that were definitely believed to be
Jewish, This work was checked once in the borough of Manhattan and
there was a doubt appearing in the case of only 25 deaths.
The final step called for the singling out of the Jev.·ish deaths that
bad taken place in the unit of 16 sanitary districts set up. An examination of the 13,552 death certificates, by address, yielded up 1,248 deaths
that were definitely established 3S be'onging in the unit being Hlldied.
In other words, out of the 152,327 Jews in the 16 sanitary districts
1,248 had died during 1925.
A certain number of corrections were first necess:lry before the
number of deaths could be definitely established. There wa~ a group
of deaths for whom no addresses were known; there was another group
made up of non-resident Jewish dcceJents who had died in l'\ew Yor!,
in 1925. In the first group there were 72 doths and in the second 220.
In shorr, there was a rotal of 292 deaths not identified by addresses
some of which may have belonged in our unit of 16 sanitary districts.
To make corrections for these herors it was decided to distribute a
portion of this 292 among the agc and sex groups of our unit on the
basis of proportions already existing. The additional deaths thus counted
in totaled 26.
The question may well be raised: why were non·resident deaths
not discarded all together? Deaths in New York City are registered
in the boroughs where those deaths occurred and not in the borough
15
"
CHAJ<..T
NO. l·B
F-frM..A.Lts
J..... l~11
_
_J_~
T.1.IJLr til
f)'-fl:b,.l,'·· J1f'r
t ,r"H) /.)
~!"",{""d .tXf Group,
FF\iALJ "I
FL~I'\l.n
JI.'>.-'-192 1
OLlt..fHRA"rr.
Ac..
GROl'I)';'
elld~r
~
I. 9
10-14
1 S -19
20-242s-H
.15·44
4,·,4
51-64
6'-74
7f
C. 5,-,-'"2.\ (ARL.' or 1920)
._-_._-.- ._._-~-----.-
and Over
68,800
78.100
l.10,000
104,600
10J,200
141,200
123,100
74,100
12,,400
14,500
.1,400
DL\TH~.'Tf.
1'\0.
PI R
POPLL.<-
\:0.
PER
DEATH'
1,0(\Cl
TID,"
DFATHS
1,000
894
164
130
1)7
196
479
568
808
1,104
1.107
6H
1.1.0
2.1
1.11
I.J
1.9
J.3
4.6
10.9
22.2
76.1
188 ..\
16
4,278,299
422,111
3,903,777
3,399,202
3,491,8 fl
6,724,148
5,416,180
4,09J,661
2,709,302
1.4046,979
677,47 I
86,1n
9,483
6,180
10,163
14,061
JI,3J4
H,JII
H,229
61,325
80,38&
98.676
20.1
2.2
1.7
3.1
4.0
4.7
6.1
10.1
n.6
H.I
145.7
•
~,
...
• t.J
_).,'~
LJ
C.
."1
j
J
I
.)
of the decedent's last residence. So too, deaths of non-resident persons
occurring in New York City are registered in boruugh o{fi-:cs. But
deaths of New York residents occurring out-of-town arc regi;rered
similarly at the place of death. It is not possible to correct ~C\\' York
City's deaths for non-resident and out-of-town deaths for this ,Yould
necessitate an interchange of records among ali rhe departmen~s of
health over the country. Such corrections are made only in \'f ashiJ1gton
at the office of the Federal Census Bureau. It was therefore necessary
to assume that non-resident Jewish deaths (which we had) balanced outof-town Jew;sh deaths (\\'hich we could not possibly ger), and inclllde
non-resident Jewish deaths in am count. This assumption was made
for the following two reasons:
1. The New York Cit)' Department of Health, in estimating
New York's deathrate, makes the same assumption. We haye followed
suit in order to make our computations comparable with theirs.
2. The margin of error, in any case, must be quite small in view
of the fact that in 1923 New York City reported 69,552 deaths while
the Federal fi~ures (corrected for non· residence and oue-of-town) were
69,128,
Our calculations indicate, therefore, that with a Jewish population
III 1925 of 1,713,100 and with 13,552 deaths the Jewish crude deathrate was 7.91 per thousand. It is apparent, of course, that this is the
deathrate of the sample studied, that is to say, in the unit of 152,327
population there were 1,274 deaths (including the correcting figure
of 26), making a deathrate of 7.91. We have, in other words, assumed
that the sample is a representative one for age and sex distribution
of New York's Je~ish population. The sanit::lry districts were carefully
chosen, they were believed to be typical of the various strata making
up New York's Jewish population, care was exercised in the count of
the living population and in the distribution of the deaths. The only
other method for the purpose of ascertaining the desired end, i.e., a
calculated Jewish deathrate, \\'ould have been an aCTual house-to-house
canVass of the whole city. This was, of course, physically out of the
question. It is our belief, therefore, that the sample studied was
sufficiently large and representative to warrant the conclusions drawn.
jnL'isb Crude Dcathratf Compared, and Standard Ratl's
For New York Jews, in 1925, the crude deathrate ~'as 7.91 per
thousand. This may be compared with the crude dcathrate for New
York State (1923) of 13.0 per thousand and :-\ew York Cit)' (1')2.") of
11.7 per thousand. If proper allowance is rn~de fr.r di1erenccs i'l .'-:;e )nd
17
AliJ:j
sex distribution the following standard rates are obtained on the basis of
the standard million population of England and Wales: New York Jews
(1925), 11.4 per thousand; New York State (1923),13.0; New York
City (1923) 12.8. It can be seen, therefore, that at the present timt
(and the reservation is important), New York's Jewish population ha'
a lower standardized deathrate than either New York City or Nev.·
York State.
LJJ,)J J:<.JJ:JU1IUN:>,
tllRl
flS
A~D
DEATHS
It will be seen from the recapitulations that the Jews between the
ages of 5 and 44 years make up 75 per cent of the total Jewish J\ ew
York population as against only 66.7 per cent for the same age group
in the 1920 registration States for the year 1923. Similarly, Jews in
the group 65 years and over make up only 2.1 per cent of the total
group as against a proportion of 5.2 per cent for the same age group
in the registration States for 1923.
Jewish Age Distributions
A continued low deathrate is dependent upon the birthrate, the
age distribution of the population, and the causes of death. It I~
neces~ary to examine these factors in detail.
At the present time (1925) the Jewish population of New York I':
a young group. On the basis of the Survey's calculations, the followin.~
table shov.'s the age distribution of New York City's Jews (1925) a':
compared with the estimated popuhtion of United States whites for
1923 (in the registration States of 1920). It was impossible to compan'
New York jews (1925) with New York City non-Jewish whites
(1925) because of the failur~ to complete the State Census for 1925.
1\,,. 1>."/';("lIio'" of
TABLE X
)'OIR Trw, ComfrJr.-.l will, U Hi/cd Slal(~5 U'ff,ilt.•
r.sn~r., Teo POI'VLA nos
E\l"J\.f.'Trn POPCL\TIO;'\." or
SfU
P. S. WHlTFS (192)\.
or'
:\. '"
.J, "'"'
YORK
(1925)
,-----'----_.
ALf
!\u A"rs
Under
Year,
1- 9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25->4
35-44
45-54
51-64
65-74
75 • nd over
l.'okno'l\'n
!'-:[;~I\[R
__ .
Pro
1,71J.IOO
D8,/00
149,700
209,400
-
C','IT
199,~00
100.0
8.06
8.74
J 2.22
11.67
212,500
278.100
2)6,800
159,300
92,70U
29,9flO
6,700
16.23
1J.El
9.)
5 Al
1.75
.J9'
12.41
5-44
41 .nd over
D8,l00
1,286,400
288.600
8.06
75.09
16.8\
Rrc.<l'lTl.'l AT1O:O:
Under 5 Yeus
1-1\4
6\ and over
D8,100
1,5 J 8,400
J6.(;00
Sl.\Tl.S
or 1920
,.---------'.-
l\"v"'UrR
82.13(~.329
--,.---.-
Pn
CrxT
8,67),9n
8,5J2,198
7,882,076
6,750,954
6,74J.059
13,128,063
11,366,80 J
8.688,004
1,609,973
2,940.16\
1,267,624
9).47\
100.0
10.56
10.H
9.6
8.22
8.21
16.47
13.84
10.\8
6.9
3.58
1.\4
.11
8,673.9J \
54,80.\,11}
18, \6\,"f,6
l1U6
66.7.1
22.6
8.673,93f
69,161.BO
4,207.7R 9
10. \6
84.: I
\.21
II
8.06
89.8
2.14
1B
But the figures for the groups under 5 years and 5 through 9 rears
are equally deserving of attention. They would indicate that the Jewish
group of New York is not increasing as rapidly as is the general population. Through nine years of age, there is to be found 16.8 per cent
of the Jewish population, while in the general group these ages make
up 20.95 per cent. The slower increase of the Jewish population therefore, with naturally an increasing proportion, as time elapses, in the
older age groups, will make for a growing death rate. This conclusion
is inevitable, as will be seen later, in viev.' of the fact that Jewish deathrates over 45 years are already geea ler than those of the general
population.
Lowl'r feu'ish Birthrate in Brookl)'11
1:'11 "fIlF R.rf,lsTR,'Tl<""
R rc..'PITU!..\ TlO" [
Cnder 5 Ye,,,
Slower Natural Increase of Jewish population
The slower increase of the Ne\\' York Jewish population \\-as substantiated from a study of Brooklyn births for 1925. Again, as in the
examination of the census enumerators' schedules, names were the leading
clues. The birth certificate lists, among others, the following inform:ttion: name of child, name of father, mother's maiden name, residence
of parents, occupation of father, place of birth. The birth certificates
were examined by two members of the Suney staff and it was agreed
that names offered a satisfactory clue. It must be understood, of course,
that the births that were accepted as being jewish offer only a minimum
number in view of doubtful names. Bur it is believed that such doubtful
certificates were quite few .
In Brooklyn in 1925 there was a total of 5 J ,406 births of which
th~ jewish births numbered 14,427. It was estimated elsewhere that
the Jewish population for Brooklyn in 1925 was 800,000. This gives
a birthrate of 18 per thousand. For 192 5, the birthrate for Brooklyn
(and this includes whites and negroes) was 22.95 per thousand. In
other words, the Jewish birthrate was 5 per thousand less than that of
the general population of Brooklyn. These. of course, are crud~ rates
and are based upon the borough of birth. Corrections made for borough
19
TABU. ;
C,'rld;1J [)/~";JC"
( r"l,
/Jtr
"Jr.1 c. s.
/l"J/f,rJI,',
IhO.OUO for ."". Y. Tcll"
(lnS)--arN f)f 1920
J'
WISH
(1925)
U. S.
D, .• nlR.\H.
Dr."
(192
,\SJ 't
Di,e"c, of ,he II<Jet
C,nar
Pneumonia (all form,;
:-';ephriris
.
T.B. (,11 form,)
Diabetes
Suicide
Cercbr,1 Hem<lrrh,gc
PuapcrJI SUtc
\' ~ncre.l' DiseJ<c5
Dk:ATHIUn"
l'~k
100,000
(1925)
PI R IUll.OOIl
~ J
191.>
180.7
94.3
93.9
86.7
86.3
9J.~
84.8
40.6
H,5
24.7
10.\
8,7
7.6
17.2
12.2
8L6
14.4
15.5
J.~
of r~sidence of the mother, particularly because for the whole city so
many births take place in 1vlanhanan hospitals, \\'ould change the figure~
some,>"hat. But not as much for Brooklyn as in other cases. For
exampic, when thc Board of Health presented these corrected figures for
the first time in 1926, these were the borough crude birthrates:
~1anhattan, 23.54 per thousand; Brooklyn, 22.35; Richmond, 19.60;
Bronx, 18.22; Queens, 15]8. And these were correctcd borcugh rates
(corrections being made for interborough births and non-resident births) :
Brooklyn, 22.62; Bronx, 22.23; Richmond 19.64; Manhattan, 19.10;
Qucens, 18.57. Thus the Brooklyn crude rare was 22.35 and the
corrected rate 22.62. [n othcr words, it is not likely that the Brooklyn
Jewish birthrate "'as materially allected by interborough births and nonresident births. It maY be said therefore that the Brooklyn Jewish
birth rate in 1925 could not have becn much abovc 1 S per thousand.
These figures, therefore, appear further to sub~tantiate the Survey"
belief that the Je"'ish population is not growing as rapidly as is the
general population and thar, in time, the Jcwish deathrate must approach
the general dc:lthrat~.
An examin.ltion of Je\\'i~h mortality figures, as we shall see in th..
m:xt chapter, will indicate tOO that the character of Jewish de,lths may
~!ow up the growth of the Jewish population.
J£VI3f{
NO'hT&WI~H
.f>OTH S&Xv3
WHITf-S
1<-0 l1C
OCIl-K><S OJ''
~T
tMC.lr5\.
AlE1WL0II11I.
lMJ.~f\..~)
KJl'Hl\!'IU
f
I
I
flO
l3Q
"'"
I
I
!
l>oJ'corp
....
1'jD
t>:o.~
I
ll~
-
!
Moe
ao..
0&'
T
1
I
I 1
:
l
I I
&&>
SVlCIM-
I
1911
t
UI.(IU. ~) >&S
~~n:l
I
<..
III
., ~
,.
....
,,G.,...
,,,.u
I
i
I
~
i
I
!
J
I
i
I
!
Ii
20
~
I
CAUSES
Crud,
III.
CAUSES OF DEATH
A~lONG
JEWS
It was pointed out above, in describing the Surver's method for
the study of Jewish population, that one of its advantages was its
.bility to present an estim.te of Jewish population by age groups. This
would be particularly significant in the study of Jewish deaths by age
groups. These two facts have already been mentioned: the Jewish
population is a younger group, and it is not increasing as rapidly as is
the general population. In short, in time, the Jewish population must
grow older, and from a roung population become an older on<:. This
matter is of the utmost· interest in view of the fact that the Sun'ey's
figures indicate that already the Jewish deathrate is greater than ;he
general deathrate after 45 years.
The following table presents the
situation:
TABLE Xl
Dfdlhrdtl"
01
NlU· York flu:, Compared 'U'it/; U"it,·J Stales Whitfs
KE.
Yo..."
lJ. S. WHITES (1923), IN
RI;(,IS'fR.' nON STATES 01 1920
JI;'I'5
(19~f)
DI;ATH-
DrATIl-
RATI:S
hr.1;
Under 5 Year,
S- 9
10-1-4
!S-19
20-24
2l-304
3J-H
H-H
ll-H
6l-74
75 and Over
RATES
FIR
DEATH-
DEATH-
PER
DEATH-
DJ"J,Tt'l-
THOt:-
R.' n:s
R.ATI:S
THOU.
l\.<TI:S
R..!t.TI-S
~,"XD
F.
M.
SA:N'D
F.
\1.
14.7
2.J
I.J
l.5
1.7
3.2
LJ
I J.O
2.1
1.0
1.3
1.9
J.J
4.6
10.9
20.1
2.2
1.7
3.1
4.0
4.7
I"!
10.8
H.~
22.2
16.4
2.S
1.7
1.7
1.5
J.I
6.0
13.2
J7.2
2~.6
lhA
76.1
188.3
18L2
ILl
141.7
112.3
12. ,
28.7
75.8
186.7
75.1
22.5
2.S
1.9
3.J
4.1
.01.7
7.0
IL7
24.6
S8.8
148.7
'
-
-.I
2.1
J .4
4.2
4.8
7.1
Ie."
~2.0
Taking the Jewish group as a whole, the Jewish deathrate continues
lower than that of the general population from birth to 45 years. It is
notably low during adult life (15-44 years). After 45 years, it is
considerably higher, particularly so in the age groups 55 -6 5 VeolT>, 65 -74
years, and 75 years and oyer. For Jewish males the same situation holds.
For Jewish females, the rates arc lo'\\'er than those of the female general
population up to 45, about the same for 45-54, and 55-64, ancf higher
for 65-74, and 75 and Qver. (See Table 1 and Chart J, page 12.)
We shall see now what particular diseases the Jewish Ne".. York
population is prey to.
22
D~athrates
o
f
D EAT H
A M 0 N G
/
E W
~
Compared
Chart III compares the crude deathrates, for certain diseases, of
New York Jews (1925) and Unired States deaths (192S, registration
area of 1920). In only Diseases of the Heart and Diabetes arc the
Jewish rates higher. The Jewish crude deathrate for Heart Diseases is
191.3 per 100,000 as against 180.7 for the United States population.
The Jewish Diabetes rate is 24.7 as against 17.2. The Jewish Cancer
rate is 93.6 as against 94.3 for the general population. The Nephritis.
Tuberculosis, Cerebral Hemorrhage, and Venereal Disease rates are notably
lower. These are crude r:ltes of course. not having been :ldjust<:d for
age and sex differences, but they indicate generally what Jewish causes
of death are. A study of deaths by age is more significant, and this
we shall do below.
Deaths ill Adult Life (15-44 Yeors)
A digression here may be of interest. A study of causes of death
in adult life (15 -44 years) shows that even in these early years the
so-called degenerative diseases are already at work. The following arc
the diseases that take their tolls in these years, in order of deathrates
per 100,000. For New York Jews (1925): Diseases of the Heart (51.4),
Tuberculosis of the Respiratory System (32.1), Cancer (29.6), Puerperal
State (27.), Violent Deaths-Suicide excepted (22.7), Lobarpneumonia
(19.1), Suicide (11.4), Nephritis (11.3), Appendicitis (10.9) I Bronchopneumonia (7.9). For the United States (1923): Tuberculosis of the
Respiratory System (121.), Violent Deaths-Suicide excepted (79.4),
Puerperal State (69.6), Diseases of the Heart (46.3), Lobarpneumonia
(36.0), Nephritis, (26.), Cancer (25.1), Influenza (22.0), Appendicitis
(16.5). Heart conditions, Tuberculosis and Cancer rank one-two-three
for Jewish adults, as against four-one-seven for adults in the general
population. Among Jewish males the first five diseases are Heart, Tuberculosis of Respiratory System, Violent Deaths, Cancer, Lobarpneumonia.
The ranking for male adults in the general population for these diseases
is three-two-one-nine-four. For Jewish females, the first five diseases
are Diseases of the Heart, Cancer, Tuberculosis, Puerpera! State; Lobarpneumonia. For female adults in the general population these dis~ses
rank three-four-one-t'\\·o-six. (See T~ble 4 and Charts IV, IVA, and
IVB.)
As has been said, the Jewish deathrates mount sharply after th~
..
~
"
li(
v
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Pneumonia
Other Epidemic .od Endemic Disc......
lntlucn>.a
Djscdle, of 'i(umach (Cancer excepted)
Non-C.nceruus Tumor; .nd Other Di,.,,,,,
uf Fem.le Genit.l Orga",
llerni., Intecstin.l Obstruction
Pia!:>ere'
Uconcho Pneumonia
Pucrper,l St.te
Suicide
Acute Jnd Chwnie Nephritis
Appendicitis ."d Typhilicis,.
l.l)b~f
Ui,""e, of Heart
Tn. of Respiratory Sy.tem
Cm"r Jnd Otoer Malignant Tumo..
Vi'Jlent D«nhs (Suicide excepted)
C~USfS OF DIJ,'TH
Dj..thctes
;I
i: ~ OJ I; f' g' ~ \:)
;e;<1*~'" ~ i:
~
i
I
~
~
~~
~
~
~ II
1:t ~ :t :! Et; t: :~
_I
;l
I'
rABLE 4
-
--_._._-._,--
164
110
116
10,
2~8
21 t
177
61
)4
28
IY
Jl
101
71
4.\
42
42
I
lU
7.5
6.2
4.2
7.1
2,_'
~
,f,
2.~\
2.{,
6.5
4.5
.4.\
~.6
11.\
10.9
7.9
,
14.4
12.2
~'.
16.J
24.4
.\4.6
1l,4
\l~,
11.4
IQ I
27.0
22.7
51A
32.1
29.6
100,000
DEATHlIATE
,
,)
2. ,
h. I
15.1
27,1)
8.6
10.\
8,4
8.2
J.I
4.8
2.1
\1.6
11.1
28.1
H.6
FHl.'U·
r-~--"'-'-'--'-._-~
P£~
InvlsH
)I
11
14
128
41
50
40
39
15
2\
10
72
H
I (, I
245
IH
FFMAI..I'
._._-,-----
'fo r ,H.
24
24
1.\
10
SS
)I
65
106
1("
12~
2"5
231
M~LE
---'-------,
1921
JE ....ISH DEATHS
477
TOT.U.
~
R
!i? ~
i!i .
~
0-
:. J
,= t.
"
:g
~
r~
~
...
..
E:
~
14.(,
5.1
12.4
26.0
16.\
8.4
4.1
22.1}
1.9
1-9.6
16.0
46 ..\
( 21.0
25.1
79.4
TOT~1
,
PfR
11. S.
__
100,000
DEATHRATf
1.011
1,212
1,626
4.~O3
),170
4.999
4,17;I.R 57
1,061
9,4JR
28,On
24.760
),471
Y,l?1
M.-\I.F
~
'J
4 .,
7.7
~ 0,~)
>,1)
8.~
19,8
~3.7
16.9
4~ .~
45.4
117. ,
16.\
1" ,2
MALE
r,;,
~
~
;:I;
47.1
~ ,~
14.6
\.4
2J.O
4.1
8.0
-1.0
\1.1
27.:
(,9.6
7.8
28.2
tH.'
B.R
2 \.2
..
!:"
c:
_._--
'"
R
i
FFM~I f.
.\.068
1,133
1,216
26.08.\
7,0~ 1
1,28:1
1.6? I
14.174
1,635
5.907
:!)73 q
1,681
846
4.824
869
9,Rr, ,
Fnl,'1.'
r---- - , - ' ' - . , , - - - - , -...
1.068
2,144
2,468
1,907
9,227
2,495
3,538
19,4 )6
HI.H)
10.5 S6
33,) 5\
11,1H
14,174
t.20'
10.906
6,916
;J:
:';"
;;;1;
~:'>
"",'-
.'f
(REG. AREA OF' 1920)
.----..,
,-----'---'~~_.
TOTAL
..
s
~~
-':~I 'ti
..
... _
u;~
::J5r. i'"
()
;:z;
t
~ x~ Icj
~ l~~
~ ~
S
\I
H
0 t::
';0;
~
_ - -_
"'--'-
_
0
10
l8~
~
~~ ~~ ff ~
:!;
lJ, S. Dr:.-\THf\-1t.(2)
"-'~--'-
. __ ...
(.0
~~~~w,lS
1~ i~~
~
~
---..__ .-_.--
a
3.. -!l~
1 "
~
('a,l.\, , of Dr,111, iI/ Adl/!I ! ift (11-44 Ye",,)
Ntu; York {,u,-192\; U. s.--lnJ
Non·CancCfUUS Tumm' and Other Di'•• ,e,
of Female Gen'tal Org.ns
Herni •. In «,tin.l Obstruction
Di,en" of Swm.ch (Cancer excepted)
In/luen~a
Di,c",e, of Hart
·I.il. of Respiratory System
C,ncer and Other Malign.nt Tumors
Violent De.ths (Suicide excepted)
Lobar Pneumonia
Puerperal State
Suicide
Ac ute and Chronic Nephriti'
Appcnditicis and Typhlitis
Rroncho Pneumonia
OIl,Cf Epide:nic and Endemic Dioe.ses
C~USI S OF Df.~TH
rl'jll<'ip~1
~
l - . - -_ _. _...
I
:t
~~ ,;~,~ ~5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ j " ~ ); ; ~ I~ ~
r: ~
~ i ~ 15! :;:
'" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ j a
~~ ~~-t ~ ~ ~g i";; 'B2 ~1!~1~~1~ ~
~~~'-§i:i'O~
~h £ I ~ :< ~
t:l
..,.-.------------------_.------
....
15
E~ 1 ~ ~ ~
~ i
~ i
~
E~ 1 ~ ~ ~
15
"
li(
6: ~ '! :Ii ;!
v
,g ~ ~ .. ~
~ ,E ~ ~
6 .. ~
~
!
0
~'S~-~Q'iI'~
! J~
~~ f 1ij j;; S
~j ~ i ! J
:1:
~g.~ ~~ ~;
~ ~
-0
..
....
~~ ~~
~ ~
l:lil t1J
~
l<
0'
:::! ~~ ~ j.. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~
j
~ ~
e
~
~ a ~ ~ 8~
\;0
~
~
~
~
I
~~
~
1 "
~
!i? ~
i!i .
R
i
~
:g
~
r~
~
(.0
a
~
~~~~w,lS
1~ i~~
~
3.. -!l~
:!;
"
:. J
,= t.
0-
~:z;
.
g c~
l8~
~
';0;
~
10
E:
...
~~~
l!!- . ...-~"rli-f&1fi-fiWI1tft11llrn
n
tt 22
tt: 1m
Z
H! !!.f Ill! f;'"
[e
_._--------I---
~ ~
I
~ ~
1--
0:
------.
..
... _
'<
c..
:z;
---..__ .-_.--
::J5r. i'"
s
J>
. __ ...
'"
R
~~
~
"",'-
~:'>
_
;J:
r,;,
i
-':~I 'ti
c:
--_._._-._,--
..,.-.------------------_.------
"-'~--'-
!:"
"'--'-
_ - -_
-
..
rABLE 4
('a,l.\, , of Dr,111, iI/ Adl/!I ! ift (11-44 Ye",,)
Ntu; York {,u,-192\; U. s.--lnJ
lJ, S. Dr:.-\THf\-1t.(2)
JE ....ISH DEATHS
__
1921
---'-------,
I'
C~USI S OF Df.~TH
Di,c",e, of Hart
·I.il. of Respiratory System
C,ncer and Other Malign.nt Tumors
Violent De.ths (Suicide excepted)
Lobar Pneumonia
Puerperal State
Suicide
Ac ute and Chronic Nephriti'
Appcnditicis and Typhlitis
Rroncho Pneumonia
OIl,Cf Epide:nic and Endemic Dioe.ses
In/luen~a
Di,en" of Swm.ch (Cancer excepted)
Non·CancCfUUS Tumm' and Other Di'•• ,e,
of Female Gen'tal Org.ns
Herni •. In «,tin.l Obstruction
Dj..thctes
(REG. AREA OF' 1920)
.----..,
,-----'---'~~_.
TOT.U.
M~LE
FFMAI..I'
TOTAL
M.-\I.F
477
231
9,Rr, ,
164
2"5
110
116
10,
19,4 )6
HI.H)
10.5 S6
33,) 5\
11,1H
14,174
t.20'
10.906
6,916
Y,l?1
2~8
245
IH
24.760
),471
1,626
26.08.\
7,0~ 1
1,28:1
1.6? I
14.174
1,635
5.907
:!)73 q
1,681
846
4.824
869
1.011
1,212
.\.068
1,133
1,216
21 t
177
I (, I
H
72
12~
106
65
1("
SS
101
71
4.\
42
42
61
)4
28
IY
Jl
128
41
50
40
39
15
2\
10
1.\
10
)I
11
14
)I
24
24
28,On
9,4JR
),170
4.999
4,17;I.R 57
1,061
3,538
1,907
9,227
2,495
4.~O3
1.068
2,144
2,468
Fnl,'1.'
._._-,----InvlsH
P£~
11. S.
DEATHlIATE
100,000
PfR
r-~--"'-'-'--'-._-~
C~USfS OF DIJ,'TH
'fo r ,H.
\l~,
I
Ui,""e, of Heart
Tn. of Respiratory Sy.tem
Cm"r Jnd Otoer Malignant Tumo..
Vi'Jlent D«nhs (Suicide excepted)
51A
32.1
29.6
l.l)b~f
IQ I
27.0
~'.
11.4
14.4
12.2
Pneumonia
Pucrper,l St.te
Suicide
Acute Jnd Chwnie Nephritis
Appendicitis ."d Typhilicis,.
Uconcho Pneumonia
Other Epidemic .od Endemic Disc......
lntlucn>.a
Djscdle, of 'i(umach (Cancer excepted)
Non-C.nceruus Tumor; .nd Other Di,.,,,,,
uf Fem.le Genit.l Orga",
llerni., Intecstin.l Obstruction
Pia!:>ere'
22.7
11.\
10.9
7.9
~.6
4.5
.4.\
1l,4
16.J
24.4
.\4.6
,
~
,f,
100,000
FHl.'U·
TOT~1
MALE
FFM~I f.
11.1
28.1
H.6
46 ..\
( 21.0
25.1
79.4
45.4
117. ,
16.\
1" ,2
tH.'
B.R
2 \.2
16.0
4~ .~
\1.6
lU
7.5
6.2
4.2
7.1
2.~\
2. ,
14.(,
5.1
,)
~
h. I
2,_'
DEATHRATf
r---- - , - ' ' - . , , - - - - , -...
15.1
27,1)
8.6
10.\
8,4
8.2
J.I
4.8
2.1
6.5
2.{,
~
;:I;
~~
rl'jll<'ip~1
()
;:z;
u;~
:';"
;;;1;
l - . - -_ _. _...
~~=--t & 1~
"---'-
\I
.'f
~.a
I
H
0 t::
t
~ x~ Icj
~ l~~
~ ~
~
l::~ I:~
0
S
,:;::/
l:t
~
~~ ~~ ff ~
..
~ $~
.. _--,---
... ...,~.. ~r::
i: ~ OJ I; f' g' ~ \:)
;e;<1*~'" ~ i:
;I
~ II
1:t ~ :t :! Et; t: :~
;:r:
~
.-
~.
_I
. . ~ g~
~ ~~ ~ f~
c
~
;l
li1
~
:t
~~ ,;~,~ ~5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ j " ~ ); ; ~ I~ ~
r: ~
~ i ~ 15! :;:
'" ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ j a
~~ ~~-t ~ ~ ~g i";; 'B2 ~1!~1~~1~ ~
~~~'-§i:i'O~
~h £ I ~ :< ~
~~
_
f--
t:l
....
3~£:;o~~
C>
if ~t
a ~I C1;G
~ ~ ~ ~ s ~~
~ ~ ~ ~
~~
i!;
,
~3.7
27.:
(,9.6
7.8
28.2
19,8
\1.1
8.~
8.0
-1.0
1-9.6
12.4
26.0
16.\
8.4
4.1
22.1}
1.9
,
47.1
16.9
>,1)
~ 0,~)
7.7
2J.O
4.1
4 .,
14.6
\.4
~
'J
~ ,~
..
_._--
.... n~Jil..
DEATHR.ATE-5
FROM.
(ALL~)
TlJB1HtCtrLOS18
COMPAI{tN"G NY. JE--W'5 (1925) WITH UNlnD STATts (1923)
R&<llS'l'i\}'I..TIOW
eo
;,'"
10
""
I
$.TA'I'E-;:) 01'- 1920
/1',\.
"
I
"- ,,~
'"
.........
-
I
... "".
/
-
V
I
'0
1/
!
!
""
I
V
80
'\.
I
J~
\
V
,
1\
/'
Jll
,
V
/
I
I
\
\
/'
V
I
I
~-
'\
/
J
/
V
" ..j
~
10
..,
'"
to
to
19
M
-
It5
to
tD
M
34-
....... Q...... -
X.Y. JJl-W~
Q~li''''
7
fo!l
to
6i.
(IQl;,!))
U.S. (1923)
TABLE 5
D,"af!H frO/ii
]'uhcrr!l!o,j\
,h-\\'hH
DI \
(.111 FI)rJ1!\)
fH"
-_.-----
~--~----
A,,!.
GkOl'l}'l
l"nd,'r
5
5- 9
I (I. 14
1 I· 1~)
2F.l-2",~\-,-+
} 5-44
4,·54
55-(,4
(,1·74
;'" { ~nd oyer
DJ
:\0_
I'LR
:!<)
13
9
41
(14
106
114
1:4
85
.\6
5
100,001,1
~.8
~.3
~(I.-+
_\0.1
_\8.0
IS.:
77.7
91.7
120.0
74.5
Dr-HHS
fh \lH.nr
"1HR"-Tf
" LO
25
l·. S.
:\0,
~.4\7
1._\ 5ll
1,745
(,,894
11,5%
:0,945
1 \ .'~ I
11,210
,-,708
4.991
1.'144
PJ:l\
100,000
51.4
1 \"
22.1
J 0".1
172.0
1 H.,
1}9.2
119.0
I J 5.9
169.8
113.4
."v-,,~I;'J ur- THEr Hf;A.ltT
(1925) W11'H UNITW 8TA.Th~ (1923)
c
· -._ - _
COMPA~t(G
J~W.s
KY.
~l!GIST){A.TIOt(
~
llW.'rtUt,:r&
a.
'1'000
"-
or--19Z0.
I
,
1
I
,
I-- ¥-Y.cJlliICSll9r.$--tJ'.:I.
I
(l~----
ll&OO
II
e-
V
Moo
J
.-
I
I
~
1
~
~
1/
t_
-
I./.: ;
n
I
l
",'
'"
L/
&0
114
-
i
J
I
I
/
t--
>
0
-
~
.,.
5
10
~V
~
&0
~
Z5
t.
74
-
A.G. &l\OVFS-
T:\llLE (,
D,'lrf l)s
f rOTfI
DhclHf'( oj fh, [/('.1rf
]rWI>H D'.\THS
U. S.
:\n.
I(l(,.n~.o
1" R
rnder 5
20
14.5
5- 9
10-14
]5-19
20-14
)7
~4.?
Pl
~g.2
74
)r..?
44
20.::"
44.g
99.0
\21.5
884,4
266tl.?
8256.3
25-3<4
l~~
35-404
2H
45-54
55-64
65-74
75 ~nd over
513
82,)
795
554
26
DFATHS
, - - - - - - ' - - - -, - ..
DI'ATHIUTl
Dr.\TIlR \Tr.
ACE
GROlJPS
:-':0.
1,719
t,3 ~2
1.799
1,9F
2.000
5,458
10.4\ 1
19,445
31,664
44.095
48,360
~
o
f
D
L
A
l'
11
.1
.Il
0
S
G
fEW
S
45. This is true even of T ubcrculosis (all forms) \\·herc the
Jewish death rate is remarkably Jow. The crude deathrate for Tuberculosis
(all forms) for ~e\\' York Jews in 1925 "":IS .\6.5 per 100.U{)i) .lS
against 86.3 per 100,000 for United Scates deaths (registrJtion States
of 1920) in 192 5. The figures published in connection with Chart Y
show a lower death rate for the Jev.'s in each age group. During the
ages 15-44 the Jewish rates arc from one-fifth to one-third of those
for the general population. After 45 years the JC>\'ish rate~ climb.
reaching their peak in the 65-74 years period. The 10": Je\\-ish rate
for Tuberculosis (all foOlls) cannot be explained away on the score
of out-of-town deaths in Tb. sanatoriums. It is true that our figures
are based only on Tb. deaths taking place in New York City. But
even when corrections are made for non-resident deaths and out-oftOwn deaths there is slight change in the local figures. For example,
the 1923 New York City Board of Health figures for white Tb. (all
{oOlls) deaths were 5,140 as against the Federal Census Bureau's corrected
figures of 5,176. In 1924 the :r--.;e'i'.' York City's figures were 4,987 as
against the Census Bureau's corrected figures of 5,016. There is no
doubt that. as far :IS the Jewish population is concerned. Tubercl1losis is
no longer the terrible scourge it was and the great decline in this disease
for the whole population ":ould indicate its probable passing as a major
cause of death. In 1925. for New York Jews, Tuberculosis had already
been superseded by Diseases of the Heart, Cancer, Pneumonia (all forms).
and Nephritis.
DisfllSt'
.....
1!
t' S E
"COlI'
100.000
I
't'OO
3TATf:~
.~
1'1'.
100,000
19.'1
If. 5
22.8
28.7
0/
the Heart
Jewish deaths from Diseases of the Heart present ;J. more seriou~
situation. Despite its younger age the New York Jewish group in 192 5
already had a higher crude deathrate from these diseases than had the
general population. The ]ev-'ish deathrate for 1925 was 191.3 per
100,000 as against 180.7 p;:r 100,000 for the United State~ in 192 ~
(registration States of 1920). The figures accompanying Chart VI
show that except for the ages under 5 years and for 20-24 years Jewish
deathrates are higher than the general population for the United States
in 1923 for every age group. The rates begin to mount sharply after
45 years, being almost twice as great for 65-74 years, and more than
twice as great after 75 ycars. These figures aftcr adult life (44 years)
are significant:
]E,,-'ISH
H.7
DIATHR.HI:
40.\
91.M
223.8
558.4
1499.7
381500
32l.5
884.4
2,660.9
8,256.3
45-54 year,
55-64
65-74
::"5 .od over
27
G£:'aR.\1.
DJ
ATHRAT\:
223.8
558.4
1,499.7
3,815.0
U.17.H..1
n
l<.A.:n;"~
::-IZ0M.
D.&A'tH~A.'I'Fr5
F-ROb-l DlA'BB-TBJ5
COMPI\~N'G }CoY JBW8 (lg~ WIlli Ul'(!'!'fP ~Tm5 (r;}Z&)
CAKCJ;-R.
COM.PAR!N'G NY JIWV5 (1925) WITH UN'ITI-D STA.TE-S (19Z3)
"G<i[ST~I\.'l:IOr(
aT~~
_ _ _ _ )<.Y.""\'/'&
I\,,'Ha5'r~A"['IOtoe
3TI\:r~
~
If&l'-TiHt'''-T)Y.l
(~6)
~
JlH,THR,.4'I'l- ~ lllO'OOo----- 0.". (leu)
Iol.Y~(I9ZI) 0. & 1.1~23) - - -
100000
~IO
2,""
-
ill
/
I'"
(;-,'"
-/
T
,
!
IK
~'"
if
'I
!
I
Qo
4.
0
5
Jj)
15
I!D
z
~
b
~
~
5t
+t
TABLE 7
D,."tht from
,-.------'
10-14
15-19
20-14
25-14
35-H
45-H
51-64
h \-74
7\ and over
!';O.
100,000
PI'R
~
10
3
I>
7
/
76
121
- -- :s
10
5
U. S.
1.-- ~-
ill
b:I
--
-~
.;
/'
V, ,,"
l5"
IS
/'
I
DEATH..... TC
Hf
J. f
271
H7
2,JH
7,552
1 f.594
22,391
22,JB7
13,886
1..\
f 10.1
1197.1
J a62.~
:~
?\O.
182
In
:~
JEWISH DEA T!{S
DfATHS
,------"---~
r----#--'
2.0
2.9
74.~
1~~
I,
H~
..,
7.1
27.2
II
.153
47)
I
!
_.3
~
TABLE 8
De"th, from Diabetes
DrhTHRATL
ACE
f- 9
64-
~
(;l1urcr
JE""I~H DI'~TH~
Under
6'
~
I
G1;U)VP~ ~
A.Ql!r-
GROUPS
0
,
I
,
1/
"
1.-1~
i
J
I
(/
I
/1
//
JI/
1/
I
~
1/.,
"
I
,
,,
I
0
//
I
!
I
1<
/,
,
i
!OO
;1
V
I
I
!
:
960
I
'1
;
I
",
J
!
I
i
3'}('
...
I.
I
j
He
/
,/
'\
4ec
7
~
OP- tOlO
01'- \QltO
PER
100,000
4.0
2.1
1.9
4.0
5.7
17.3
6604
179. f
394.9
76l.4
1095.4
GROUt'S
No.
PrR 100,000
1.4
t: ndec
.1
[
6
17
96
II a
10~
\}\-er
H
.f
2.2
7.2
60.2
No.
154
I ao
JO;'
313
30;'
7)q
170.~
1,109
2,4SR
4,716
360.1
\06.7
2,[41
4,';78
_.
DEATHS
...
OJ
DE.nHll.\TE
ACE
5- 9
10-14
15-19
20-24
25-34
35-44
41-H
55-64
65-74
7\ Jnd
U. S.
~---'-
PER
'Tlll\ \-;>
100,000
U
~.I
3.9
4.6
4.6
l.l
9.a
2a.6
83.2
159.1
168.9
. "J_ _
~
#'- ..... r.1.J.1\..l.lh)
COMPAl\It':G KY. JBW3 (1Ql3) WITH Wl.nD 5'I't,ns (19ZS)
~a-1(~5T It''TlON'
])J."THl?A'l'~ PH~
~TA'tE~ <* 10;;:0
C/\CSES
o
F
D E .\
l' f-I
v.a (19;?$)
10000<>OO
---,
7
I
!l
)OQo
D('aths from Caucer
The same conclusion holds with regard to Cancer deaths. For 192 5
the New York Jewish rate was 93.6 per 100,000 as compared with a
rate of 94.3 per 100,000 for United States in 1925 (registration States
ot 1920). But the Jewish deaths arc markedly higher after 25 years
and particularly so after 45 years. The figures accomp;mying Chart VII
prc~ent these deathrates p~r 100,000 for the years after 44, comparing
Kcw York Jews (1925) with United Stares (1923).
J
lIDO
17
-T
1
7~
11
~I
ec.o
.11'\\'1';11
If/
Dr.'\1liR \Tl
45-54
55-64
"
GDO
...,
75 J.nd o,'t'r
I'
IOU
.....z.4
...~ ./
,
.
.1I!S
~
~
.H
5!
!>5
64
GRpUPO·
TABLE 9
DrlJlhs frQ'll' Nephritis
JE"II'I~H !?EATHS
AGE
GROUI'~
Under 5 .
5- 9
10-1-4
H-19
20-204
25-304
35-+4
45-14
55-64
65-74
75 and over
L'. S.
I
I
I
7
II
36
JJ
107
197
196
88
PU
100,000
.7
.7
.5
U
5.2
12.9
21.6
67.1
212.5
653.6
nll.l
DEATHS
DEATHllA T1:
DI!ATHAATJ:
No.
~o.
1,021
,.75
12 I
708
9-47
~.118
6,1))
10,627
16,297
22.HO
2J.716
1";-),\
'~4.-I
761.4
l,('~f.4
In Diabetes, another ~o-called degcn<:fltive disease, we ue confronted
by the same siruation. The .:\ew York Jewi,h Je:tthrate for 1925 W:l.>
24.7 per 100,000; for dw l'nited Statc~ in 1925 (registr,ltioll Sl,W:S ot
1920) it was 17.2. The ht';ures accompanyill~ Chart VIII indicate rlu:
deaths from Diabetes are fe\\'er .lmong !\;cw York Jews through 44 years.
The deathrates for 45-H years, 55-64 years, 65-74 years were twice
:Is great ior Xew York Jews as (he\' wae for the United States popu[ati~n in 1923, For the group 75 ;'cars :lOd O\'er the Jewish r:lre wa<
more than three times a~ great. ;";otc these figures, again comparin~
Jewish deachrate$ per 1l1 (l,000 for 1925 with (he Vnited States for 192::.
,/V
&<>0
G\ . . . Ut\'.
0, \lll~ \Tl
D('tJlh.l from Di.lbetes
If
-*>0
221.;
IIO.l
1,11:17.1
I ,S62.'"
yC',):r~
(; s ~74
'I
5
I [, II" S
It thus is evident that afta 45 years the Jev.·i~h New York population is particularly prey to these degener;l(i\'e dLseases of the heart
and that already Jewish rates arc fJr gre.ltcr than for the general
population.
1
0
A.HOSG
}<'.¥ JIWI'56\le!9 -
I'ER
Jr"'l"~
100,000
11.8
1.6
6.7
10.5
1-4.0
23.0
H.O
122.3
287."
763.2
1870.9
Dl \THR\tl
45-14
I5-H
1.1).:
"CH'
1711""
GJ
"n."
Dr\TIHl\lr
2g.6
g., .2
11".1
6~-74
I f}S.·J
if and o'·.r
Deaths from Nephritis
In the case of Nephritis. the Jewish deathrates are lower. The
crude death rate for New York Jev.s in 192 5 \\';IS 40.6 per 100,000;
for the United States in 1925 (rei{istrarion States ot 1920) it '\\'as 86.7
~O
}I
CHA.l\.T :XI:
VbA.Tt1.RAT~S
F-ROM. C&I(E-BRAL HB1OAAHAGJi- AlID SOFHml(&
COfl\PAl{LN'<i NY. JE-W'S (1925) WITH mnTF:D ST~TfS (923)
Jtf:(HS"~'rIOl'C
6'r"T~
OJ'-
DfrA.TH'!<ATE{) F--~M. PNWM.ONIP.. (....I.L WRf\51
COMPA.~N'G NY J£;WS lt925) WiTH UNtTf;D 8TAT&S (lQ~)
19itO
,,-.E-GISTl\.A.'TtON
STA.T\:;5 ot'- 19oo
1<.Y. Jb'lrS (=.6) U~(10Q,,3)
:r
",.Y.Jl~.(19~) \.1.8. <..toza)
....._.
.... _ -
.000
00
I
i I
,
1000
-.
_.~"'1
I
I
IL'"
I
1/
/
I
I
I
~
I
r
i
i
I
I I
I
j
,
I
i
II
I
i
;J
II
wo
/
,
vi
l-.... ""
0
".5
'0
1.:1
1.5
~
A
!
".
!
I
if
I
V I
I
-
I
~i5
~~
t.
\
~
i ,
....
-
..J.. ~,,:;p-
-
~
2.5
II I
V'
V:'
...-
.....
.H
...·340
n
I
r/
!i
il !
I
I
I
\~
\1
I
t
I /
\\
I
l
I
I,'
I
j
'/ II
II
I
I
I
Ji
I
~
,
l
~,
,
I
I
!
I
1/
I
i
!,
;
J'
I
I
1/
i
I
~
••4-'t
AGe- GR9VPS
TABLE 11
TABLE 10
D,·.lb,
Dr"lb, fro/ll Crrrbrd H t1Ilorrhagr ami So!lmi1J1;
]F..... ISH DEATH,
LT. S.
<..'l;t.OUPS
endcr
1- 9
.-':0.
I"~ K
6
J
1()l>,000
-4 •.\
10-14
15-19
.J
:0-24
25-34
35-44
·H-54
5)-64
61-74
'75 and
O\·<r.
7
2.J
6
14
H
-4J
2(0
2. <
8.8
47.\
110.0
387.1
32
P'Jrumol/i.
(A/I
,-------~~--
",0.
Dl.\,HR-\TI
A(.I'
l'r R I (J~.l)lJ()(l
GH.Ol'P"l
:9"
'A
,;9
.8
71
134
181
926
.'.180
.9
2J)
8,98 ~
17,507
26.411
:8,84)
Forms
I
jLWlSH DLHHS
DF.\TH5
'----_._ ..
DI,-\lHRo\Tf;
A<;L
from
2.7
6.8
28.0
103.4
J OS.S
898.3
2275.4
Under
J- 9
10-14
11- J 9
20-24
25-H
35-44
45-\4
5)-64
65-74
71
-.
DE.' THR.\ Tr-
DF.-'THR.'TF
f
.lnd o"or
1\"0.
446
41
JS
28
40
84
98
160
212
192
111
PER 100,000
ll2.5
27.6
18.1
13.9
1 ~.~
30.1
41.4
100.2
22S.fI
640.:
17t
33
~.q
Xo.
:1-4,848
2,014
1,294
2,11:
2, <91
5,'141
8,023
8,825
10.429
1';,6')2
11.3 ~ I
PER 100,000
401.8
23.(·
16,4
JlA
Ho4
4.1.9
70.6
101.6
183.9
431.7
120S.,-;
S T V DIE S
JN
1 II r
x]-; II"
YO/{ K
} E W' J ~ J1
P () P (. I .\ T 1 () \
per 100,000. In no ag~ group is the ./c·wish rare gH'ater than thar for
the gcneral population; how~,'er. .lher 55 years the .lew ish r.ltes .lpproximate those of the general United St,ltes population foJ' I92j, a, el1l
h<; seen from the uble ac.:ompanying Chart IX.
C
,\
(.
With regard to Cerebral Hemorrhage: :lnd Softening. Jewish rates
lre quitc low. The Jewish crude rate for New York deaths in 192 5
from these diseases was 8.7 pcr ] 00,000 in 1925. For the Unitcd States
in 1925 (registration States of 1920) the crude rat~ was 85.6 pt'r
100,000.
Chart X and its t.lble show the rates for thc~c disl'ases
comparing New York Jews with the United States population of 1923
(area of 1920).
l)
T
Gr,.;£~.'L
]t.WI5H
DI:ATHRATE
<0-14 ye,n
15-64
65-74
71 and over
100,2
228.6
640.2
1,7l3.9
Dr
.,TJ,II<.'T!.
101.6
18.\.9
"H.7
1,208.6
The above present the situation as far as the major causes of
death arc concerned. The following summarizes the whole death history
of 1\'ew York Jews for 1925, giving deathrates per 100,000 and what
proportion deaths for certain diseases repn..sent III the whole.
JEWISH
Df:ATH5
0.>1
1925
ASI:
Typhoid and Punyphoid feYer
Typhu, fever
27
\I,laria
Smallpox
)4
RAn:s
Pu. CE;N'r
FER
100,000
OF TOTAL
1.6
D"-'THS
0
X
f1Ut
I<)~'
100,ll('O
1('
.,;
14
.8
1..\
2.\
111\
I~ S
17.1
IH
~. ~
4~
~. ~
1,(,(>4
'1;.11
42,
JI
~-+.7
'
~i"ning
rf'~rirJtory
\ Tb. except",!)
Dj·"ol'oc;-, ui I he Slon\Jch
.~
14~
8. 7
191. J
_,0
I.S
7~J
~.'.~
71\
41.,.
j
$7
5.1
.'
("neel' ex·
III
I"
~ HI
I .: ~
Lnteriti\
I [erni3. In[cH;oJI <Jbnflll"liol'
of liver
.\L'lltt: .Ch.! Chronic \;t-phriti,
\·(·n-o..'JnCt.'rou\ tHn:O,~ :.lnd :n.la'- di",c., ..t,.'"
,'l' "n.l!': genital Of.~.l~1~
l)l:l."rp.::-.d Scpl:r,'mi.J
Othrr pl1cq"l(:ral J(cj ...lcnl~ of Jl·n.:~n:.llh.'~·
Cirrho~i..
'J'-
.. :'
;' .l.~
()')f>
... I), I~
-.
~
~
1.1
1 J ;:
(; ~ 1
("'1
I
nlJlfor;~)J,[ion:­
(
)~
ISO
11 '.\
(,9t 1
.... {1.3
ComparilTg
\;.
Xl'l~
:.~;-[)
I y ~.:
I. .;
I.J
Iti."?
II.n;:
"'~(1.(,
I ()('.i·
j
\Ii:-Cl$<'\
l .. H
York leU's '//HI
i
_..'
St'niLlr
cxc~ptcJ
t
1 S. "
Suj(ld~
(~'Iicidc
5.3
7. L
I' :
32
-+0
."d labor
Jnd
1.1
.!.r"tcm
'\PJ'endici'i, ,~d Typhliri,
Ot h"r
.S
2.11
J.:7S
~f,'PT.l·J)
J(·Jlh ..
1.0
1.0
1.4
4.0
~
II
AClI[t.' ]jrO!1chiti"
\':01I,.'11l
Tor"
Dl.'TH ...
.;
IJi,lx·r.,
debility
Of·
7. \
/0.1
.IJ'"
42
4(,
\Icningil i'l
Jnd
l'LR (,''';1
S
(,.9
Gonoc()L(:JI Infection
CAn ....(>r .1n,j Othl'l" mJ.fiSIUnt tumor"
Di.lrrh'':J
I I:. ,,- "
ner\'ou"-
of Th.
ChroniC Bronchil;'
Bronch(lpneU 1l100ii,1
I.·-,b,upnc-um(lni.l
(lthl,.·r diil)l'<4'iC'<" of
(;
R \11
S~'phili,
CO~l.~.... niLal
Dcaths on. Abridged IJ1ternational Classificatioll
\1
.11 "'ISf)
\ystem
Other fnr:'"
,\
Ill- \ l It'
Cough
DiphtheriJ
Intluen7-:.I
Other cpide:llic Ji~J~c"
Tb. of R c\pi r:llory Sy,ren1
Th. of ~1cning(", and cent ral
DileJ,", oL the Iie.,n
In the case of Pneumonia (all forms) we find a crude Jev-'ish
deathrate of 84.8 per 100,000 for 1925 as against a rate of 93.9 for
United States in 1925 (registration States of 1920). The table accompanying Chart XI indicates that the Jewish rate is lower than the
general rate for the ages 15-45. It is about the same for the age
group 45-54 years and, for those following, the rates are considerably
higher. Note these rates for New York Jews (1925) and United States
1923 (registration States of 1920).
11
.\1ea,l""
SCJrlet fe,er
t oC'ol1lo{or AtJ:\.ll
Cerebral 11'l1lurrllJ}-:" ,nd
PIlClllllOllia (all furms)
1: ,\
D", .\"
~'ho()pin"
Cerebra! Hcmorrhage
() r
E :-.
\
I\'I'U'
York
X()II-ln~'isb
\Vbitcs
In the preccding discussions, comparisons ,,'crc mad~ between Jewish
for the New York population (192 5) and United States
deaths (1923, in the registration Statcs of 1920). It would have been
highh' desirable to compare New York Jewish deathrates "'ith New York
d~athratcs
CHAAT
MAJOR.,
NoY.
CAU3!5
.rew~
OlL
(1925)
DH\.TIi BY PE-R.Ce-NT
COM.PA.R,.IN"(f
WITt{
tf.Y. NOl\'-JrW'ISH I'.'HIT&5 ll92 5)
,ALL MI:-5
JJl-W[SH
~ot: -J£-WLSH
CH:A.~
MAJ0l\.
CAUSE-S
KY JJ:\'l.5 (1925)
lIIr
Or- DE-A.TH. BY prI\.CWT
',vl'I'H:
D E A
1"
H
:I
.\1
0
S
G
/
1:.
U'
S
non-Jewish white deathrates but this WJ.S impossible in view of the
fact that the Nell' York State Census for 192 5 has nc\'er been completed.
The following i~ based on an eX.lminarion of i\e\\" York non-Jewish
white oeaths a' recorded by the i\e\Y York Board of Heald!. The
Survey has not been able to study these by age groups for the purpose
of presenting specific deathrates. But it has made a comparison on
the basis of the i:lciclence of the major causes of death in specific ages
by per cents. Thus, we have compared certain age groups for Xc,,"
York Jews and 110n-]e\\'s (white) to discoycr whal the leading causes
of death are and what proportions they occupy to the whole, This
method, at any rate. can throw some light on the differences existing
betwcen Jews and non-Jews (white) in 'New York in InsChan XII 'compares ~ew York Jews with non-Jews (\\'hite) on
the basis of the incidence of major diseases by per cent. This is not
exact, certainly, in view of differences in age distribution. But if it
is remembered that the Jews arc :t young group, it on be scen that the
comparison particularly is unh vorable fa them.
The conclusions arc the same that we have alre:ldy reached. yiz.,
that Jewish deaths arc more frequent from Diseases of the Heart. Cancer
and DiabetL"S and less frequent from Tuberculosis. Xephriris. and Cerebral
Hemorrhage than in the general population.
COMllAt\II(G:
Ot A1 H
Tub<'r~ulo,i\ {,II fon",
D:~e.) . . <.·'i of I h.. ,lrt
CU'l\t ~
N.Y. };'ON'"-JJH,;:'S, WHLTi>S (192,5)
ME- [email protected]: 15-19
o F
CAUSES
m
Yf:l\.~
Plr end of Dl.Tth\ jlJ 7'0/1/1 .\·7fJlJbct
:\. Y• .lc",s ;-.;. Y. ;-';o'"'·.In;·s (WHITr)
01
4.6
I
~4.2
C.':nccr
II.:>
Di.tbcl<.'\
;\;"r1"itl<
JlWI"I8H
PO~'umonij (Jll forms)
Cerebnl Ilrrnorrh.~r
.-\ II ()tocr;
Ten ,I.
~
7.6
1.7
9.~
l.f
],1;
\.1
ltJ.7
Ll
3'1 A
50'"
11.5
1.2
41. \
WO.O
10'1.1.
This method will lcad to morc eX:lct results <\·hcn applied to deJths
the basis of specific age groups and this we do in Charts XIII-XX.
Chart XIII indicates the deaths occurring in the agc group 15 -19
years by major c:lUse for ~ew York Je",'s and non-Jews (white) for
J'}::i. (C:l"ing fJl"r ccm~.1
011
C\t:~I')()1
Tub('rL·lI~l)::.j\
Di,c.~
Pt.· c.'lil oj Dr,llb, ill Totat X"",!" "
:'\. Y. ]l.'0"S :\:. Y. :\o:-;-.lt "'S <"'HJ1J.I
13.7
~7.2
DI. ... ·rJl
l.lIJ
form) I
of HeJrt
CJ.n.:er
Di.betcs
:\:cporitis
J7
14.7
2.J
17. "
1-0
.7
3.3
2. ;
CH!'cRT
o
::mz:
M.•...,JO~ CAU.s~5
op.- DEATH BY'
pe·:I~_Ci;'t{T
COM,PAttlN'G;
KY JfrWS (1925)
WITtl
H0t.(- JlH'"I5H ""HITE-:> (19Z[))
F
D E .\
T
l'Jr
0
\'
I
(;
r ',\'
~
Pl'r Cllf: 0: ])"4:1" n. ] (:~,1 V mbtr
'4. Y. "-":""--.:' \\'- ,.\CJ-fJiI:l
y, .It·...,
~:.
l)1..\IH
Pncu:-l)nOIJ 1.,11l fOl:"m~
-1
N'Or( ~ JfrW'!5H
,\1
'j
C\r,...).~
,
9 ..\
J
Cc.rcbrJI HemorrhJ.ge
.\11 ,.;I,er,
,J/;-WISf!
.\
11
,J" \L
! O,U
4(1.4
.q.J
100.0
I (I(I.U
Chart XIV indicate~ the deaths occurring III the age group 20-24
rears by major cause for New York Jews and non-Jews (white) for
1925.
(Giving per cents.)
T.B."'IL"""",",
Pt'l'
17.6 t
:'\. Y.
C.'USB 01' DEAl H
Tuberculosis (.11 forms)
Di",>s<s of Heart
ALL ornIH~.S
17.8
12.2
~2
C;1ncer
5tH
Cfltl of DCJth~ lit Toll" Su.",!)"r
JE"'~
N. Y. :\'ON-.lU>s ,',)."tllff i
Di.betes
;\lephriti'
Pneumonia (.11 forms)
urebnl Hemorrh.ge
All others
TOTAL
'O.S
10.0
1.4
.3
A
>,1
'} ...
11.1
9.9
i 1.3
.1
{5.2
100.0
100.0
Chart XV indicates the deaths occurring III the age group 25-34
rears by major cause of death for New York Jev-'s and non-Jews (white)
for 1925. (Giving per cents,)
CHAI\.'l:
MAJOR,
CA.USBl OE'- D&ATH
N.Y. J&WS (1925)
WITH
X2'
BY Pr,R(;BW'[' COt-\.PA~JKCi:
N'.Y. M'Qt(-JlWtI5H WHIT£-S llgC5)
JM'lISH
~
Al.L
CAUHS 0"
Prr Crill oj Dr41!], ill Toldl Numbrr
N. Y. JEWS
N. Y. NO,",-JLWS (WHIH)
Dh.'TH
T ubeteulosis (all forms)
Dise.1~s oi He:ut.
C.neer
Di.bet.,,;
'Nephritis
Pneumonia (.Il forms)
urebr>l Hemorrhage
:\11 others
TOTAL
OTlUiRS)
>U""'",XM&-
~l~lll~
~1)
)01I-THr"G
.(lZ'
Tuberculosis (.11 forms)
Disea,es of He. rt
J:i.M.,
~~t"J1<tK4'
~~
I,Hl.O
9.6
18.7
14.2
l.S
4.1
T,8
;";
Di.bete,
;-";ephritis
Pneumonia (all form,)
Cerebral Hemorrh.ge
All Others
43.3
ILl
14.3
8,6
.9
<.0
11.6
.7
4}.S
100.0
100.0
.5
TOTAL
1S
100.0
Pc," Coli of D,'alb, III Tuldl ;\'lImbrl
N. Y. jE""S ;\l. Y. NON-J1."·5 (WHlTr)
CAUII'S OF DFATH
C.neer
Ju,:(J
2).0
11.4
).2
.\
3.4
9.}
.3
48.9
Chart XVI indicates the deaths occurring in the age group 35 --H
years, on the same basis as the previous charts.
46.97,
ef 1t<~,,"L
11.9
14.0
8.5
.7
4.0
9.4
,8
50.7
39
CHAI\.T
:m
G
~_~\ ~:...~. _:..~·':.-~()::..-:..F_~D~E=-· _':':"-...:T.-:J:,:I_-:..::!:-:.\..:.1---:(_1_'\:__
'
f
L
\\"
~
_
MAJOR
OP- DJ'rA.TH ElY ~&HT oortt>A.!tU<Q
CAUSe-s
l\Otf-J.IH'o"18H. WHiTES (19Z51
JE:--W'S (\925) WITH
N'.Y.
A.<:.l';- GROUP
35 -+4- Vf:-A.s,;>
Chart XVII indicates the deaths occurring in the age group 45·54
years, on the same basis as the previous charts.
CACSI;S
01'
p" Crllt oj DNih< ill TotJI Xu ",I""
Y. jr.w5 ~. Y. :-;o~·jJ ~s (\'i'lIlJ'J)
~.
DLA111
Tuberculosis <all form.)
Di....es of the Heart
Cancer
Diabetes
1\"<pbritis
PneuTlloni. (lll forrn<)
Cerebral Hemorrhage
.'\ll Others
T.B.
\ - '0'\"'
9.6t
TOT.H.
6.4
26.6
18.3
5.0
8.8
23.6
14. <
I. 9
l.5
8.3
.7
29.2
6.5
9.9
L3
H.5
10U.0
100.(1
Chart XVIlI indicates the d~aths occllrnn~ in the age ~rou:' )) .,,-1
/
years.
Pt'"
CU'SI' 01
CHAJ:t.T
M.A.J0R.
r\, Y.
CAUS'&S
vr.-\,,"s
X5ZII.
Ol1- DEA.TH
(t<)25)
WITH
BY PM"C.E-lll COH.PARIt\G
N'Or{-JE-W15H WHITE-j
Tuberculosil (all 10rm<)
Di;clles of Bout
C.. ncer
DiJ.brtc"l
:-;ephritis
!'"culllonia lall formq
Cerebral Hemorch.gc
.'\11 Others
(If Dcalb~ ill Tolu,' .\'II"/I.'J(:'
:-;. Y. "0,<·jn'5 ,.'iX'Hl'IJ'!
) ,~
4.:
~ u.~
2M.6
17.8
16.2
3.3
..,'
8.7
5.')
..
~
7.4
~.'J
TOT'L
1'<'. Y
Celli
:-;. Y. Jews
Dr..nli
1.7
t.~
.:!L2
.2 9. ~
JOfl.r-
1<lo.r
Chart XIX indicates the deaths occurnng m the age group 65-74
"ears,
PI":" CI"11 ,,( [)calb\ ill TOlui \'lfmh"f
JE-WISH,
CA U'iI.S
01
~.
Dl..." III
<.11
Y. I' .'.' . ~. Y. :\0"-.1' ".,
1.6
Jf.1
11.8
Tuberculosis
forms).
Dise"es of He.rl
Cancer
Diahetes
~.S
1.6
35,7
13.0
c.7
~ ,t~
I< ,
~.6
~ •.)
c.'/
c.}
IU(I.'\
100.:'
:-;ephrit;s
PnclTmoni~ t all form,
Cerebr.1 Hemorrh.~e
I
.\11 Other;
TorA ..
Chan XX indicates the death~ occurnng
10
i\X'tIIuI
the a~c group 75 Y~Jrs
:md oyer.
PCI'
CU'" S OJ
0,
:-;. Y.
\'J Ii
Crn! of Dj·.d/J·
J'.""5 . :-;.
.4
.H.I
I IJ.U
3.7
Tuberculo\i\ (.11 ionns)
1);.<a'", of HeHt
C.lncer
Dj.betes
41
jll
T6i,1,'
YU;!,J'I':
Y. '\"" . .1 ......, (\X'1l1·11.)
.5
41.1
~.I
1.4
o r
CA(,'~FS
C\lJ>n
CHJ>...'t'f
1"tA.JO~
CAUS.E-5
KY. Je-W:I W)25)
OJ>- DBA..TH
WiTH
:xsz.m:
BY" P&J{.CB-.NT
0)'
r
D E ,1
~ephrjti\
CO.!"U>ARrH'G
KYo tI'OK-Je-wlSM WHlTe-s (1925)
form~)
each"l Hemorrlugo
All Others
1'0.... 1
MITGRQvP; "~-<H· ~
MAJ0f\.. CAUSE-S
KY. Jf:.Wa U9~5)
::x:rx:
()
l\'
J
(;
65 -74 YE:AR5...
II'
\
1).6
7.0
9.2
2.1
H.i
27.R
100.0
100.0
9.11
2.J
M.A.J0l\. CAliSF:5
Of- D&A.TH
xx:
:BY PBR"CWT COMPA.R.lt(G
N.Y, <J!-W.s (1925) WlTH KY. N'OK·JfrWI5H WHITl!;o5 (1925)
Of D&ATH BY P:&~E:KT OOM.P}Jljf{Q
WITH N.Y. N"ON-JE-WISH WH1ThS l19G.5)
AGE- <irgOlJP:
I:
These t:harts substantiate the conclusions previously rn;lde. Jewi,h
deaths from Tuberculosis, Nephritis, and Cerebral Hemorrhage arc
considerably lower proportionately than in thc non-Jewish whit~ population. On the other hand, deaths from Cancer, Diseases of the Heart,
and Diabetes arc more frequent cause.~ of death, proportionately, among
.Iew~ than .lnlong non-Jl.'wish whitcs.
In every age group but one
(20-24 years) Diseases of the Heart ranks first, proportionatly, as a
cause of death among Jews. In every age group but three (15 -19,
20-24, 25-34 years) Cancer ranks second, proportionately, as a cause
of death among Jews. Among the non-Jewish ",hitc" Tuberculosis
ranks first in four age groups and Diseases of Heart in four. Cancer
ranks second ill only three age groups among thc non-Jewish whites.
I! is interesting to note that after age 25 Diabetes take~ a ~reatcr toll.
proportionately, among the Jewish population than among the nonJewish whites.
CHA.~T
CHART
.Il
Prr emf of D.-.tI" m Tuf.1 .",n"b"
:-.i. Y. J"''<'5
~. Y. :\"".,1",,', ,"'HI"))
Dl... TH
Pncut1l(lniJ. p.J1
:\
H
J;<Q~-JWlSH
JJ':WI':)H
43
.....
.....
St.
F.~q
l',q l'J.ltb\l,h
Nn\' York A\'c.
1'.1rk,ide Ave,lincoln Rd,
i\ Ve, 11
~"nh FI.,tb"'h
lhth Beach
('<",ey T,I."d
Fbthu,h
nth Sr.-Kin/:' Hi);:'''''H'
(',oal
'
'
,19th Sr.
(,2nd St.- (,it h St.
19th St,
h. Jbmilt"n
Il n ro<l,.h Pork
n"y Rid,::c
F"t Ril'er
Bergen Sr.
Gat'" Avc.
Bu_hing Ave,
Boroul/,h Line
F111,hin,~ Ave,
('"nJ St.
ller~en
Cit)' Line
City Line
,1.,m:o Ave.
Pelham Pkway.
t .. 72nJ St.
W, 59th St.
W. 1iOth St.
I', 9nth St,
1 [arlem Ril'H
Wi. 145th Sr.
'ip" y len Du yvil
r, 1-49th St.
E, J(,}rd St.!Junts Pc. Rd.
F. 169th St.
'rre'tlont A,"~.
l'<"JhJl\1 Rd.·
1', I4lh Sr,
NOW11L
<;"<I,h Brookly"
\\' illi" ",bur,.
\\' ,ll""ghby
Ridg..:wo()(t
(,;r('l,.·npoinr
h,tern P.rh.... y
Ilu,hwi<:k
llHlwnwille
:\' ~~rth Bronx
Grand (:Ol1cout~e
Kew I.(lt~
1'0"lh,m
TU,'lllont
Lr I'I'I't Ccntr.l Bronx..
\\',,',hingtvn Heil/,ht~
<'outh Bronx
lowL'r (:cntral B('onx
We" Harlem
Yorkvill<
J l:nlcm
lower Wc,t Side.
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l "" <r 1'.1S\ <;ide
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(1«,. n
(; r41 ....· (' ... cnd Ave.
:'o:,'w York Roy
r,l~L Riv~r
R jyt'r
lIeJf<>rd ,\n,
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.
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Fr«h
l-lJrlem- Hud'on Ri"e"
\':lll 'iinJcrtn Ave.-
Brvnx Kiwr
PHk Ave.
P,ll k ..\ "c.
1'"rI, Ave,
lifth Ave.
l rud<on River
(ludson River
F,{th Ave,
r eon A \'c.
1 Iuc.i~on River
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PHh Ave.
P",k Ave.
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2
",:j""o...
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I1 7rh
~t.
( , (,1\ l~~cf}d
Bay
A~nd St.- 7~,h )t,-
V)
l\ i\ Cl'
r.lH River
l\"way-l'if,h A,c.
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.
2
;. ~ ~ r~ 0
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vote' I\ve,
G"nJ St.-l'I",hi"!: Ihe
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r,
t,
W'. l4hh St.
1I. rlem Rivec
I, 14~rb St,
E.,t R i"'r
I':, 14th ')t,
llJltery
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I;. nnJ Sc.
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W, 110th St.
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l "" <r 1'.1S\ <;ide
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1'0"lh,m
t .. 72nJ St.
W, 59th St.
W. 1iOth St.
I', 9nth St,
1 [arlem Ril'H
Wi. 145th Sr.
'ip" y len Du yvil
r, 1-49th St.
E, J(,}rd St.!Junts Pc. Rd.
F. 169th St.
'rre'tlont A,"~.
l'<"JhJl\1 Rd.·
:\' ~~rth Bronx
Grand (:Ol1cout~e
Kew I.(lt~
Cit)' Line
City Line
,1.,m:o Ave.
lower Wc,t Side.
\V.,r J'nd
Yorkvill<
J l:nlcm
We" Harlem
\\',,',hingtvn Heil/,ht~
<'outh Bronx
lowL'r (:cntral B('onx
Lr I'I'I't Ccntr.l Bronx..
TU,'lllont
.....
NOW11L
ller~en
Bergen Sr.
Gat'" Avc.
Bu_hing Ave,
Boroul/,h Line
F111,hin,~ Ave,
('"nJ St.
\\' ,ll""ghby
<;"<I,h Brookly"
n"y Rid,::c
h. Jbmilt"n
Il n ro<l,.h Pork
t,
16) rd St,
u,9lh St,
rrclnollt A\t:,
r,
F".c River
Hulcnl River
-"m"ie> fl,y
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I .t ... ~
l\ i\ Cl'
r.lH River
l\"way-l'if,h A,c.
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r t.'\H.I\. """·C.
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r
l"~
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"·hid'.",k ,"'vc,
U,.o'1:'<: River
\' .10 ~ ..''''l
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Uow<:ry
St.
F"t Ril'er
,19th Sr.
(,2nd St.- (,it h St.
19th St,
I toe
o
.,.,
CrL~k
l\Jlph A\'C,
\\""koff A""
Hllrou~h line
funklin A~e,
lIcd ford Ave.
1 joe
\~;}'Ihe Av~,-
R jyt'r
lIeJf<>rd ,\n,
~,,,h,,,ick
B'JnIU.ch
1'\'l"r~rcelJ
Ave.
Ave,
nt.'Jfn~d Av(".~
F\'C'rKn:~n
/\ Vt',
E:l~t
r,l~L Riv~r
:'o:,'w York Roy
O(;l·;tn l\ ve.
7th Ave,
lith ,'hc.
(·rn·('')(,,'nd
AVe!,
i\ Ve, 11
G"y(·,e,,,!, N,','k Kd.
~"nh FI.,tb"'h
(·r.'.\·..... nd An>.
g .• )"
\;o\trJnd Ave.
1'.1rk,ide Ave,lincoln Rd,
A",. 11,
;"';:ll\{r.l~d
F.~q
Ihy
Ayt.·,
F
]lkwc1Y.
IIIgth SL
~
.
::::
;;.
:::::
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C)
New Yotk lIoy
:'o:ev. Ynrk Bar
7th Aye.17th !Iv,'.
17th Ave.
(1«,. n
(; r41 ....· (' ... cnd Ave.
A ,'e,~
er.l \·c,;t>nt.l
,7,h St,
Rnd\",~.\y
t'!'l
'-j
Rockow"" Pk",ov.
nth Sr.-Kin/:' Hi);:'''''H'
(',oal
'
'
Nn\' York A\'c.
""
l-lJrlem- Hud'on Ri"e"
\':lll 'iinJcrtn Ave.-
New York Aye.
Ikr/:cn St.
vote' I\ve,
G"nJ St.-l'I",hi"!: Ihe
(,2Ie'i A \'C.
Occ,ln
t'!'l
tJ
R.,lph Ave,-
Kin,c, J Ii~hw'r
Grove>c,,,! %ip COIl,I
on
Brvnx Kiwr
V.w C;;inJfr{"ll Ave,
Flushin>: Ayc.
\~Ith St.PJrk,idc A yc,
I1 7rh
~t.
( , (,1\ l~~cf}d
Bay
A~nd St.- 7~,h )t,-
~
('::
A,c.
Ilc.<;em,u, A,c.
....lSl
()
lifth Ave.
l rud<on River
(ludson River
F,{th Ave,
r eon A \'c.
1 Iuc.i~on River
Iludson Ril'er
PHh Ave.
P",k Ave.
PHk Ave.
P,ll k ..\ "c.
1'"rI, Ave,
;\\'~.
1', TrrmC)IH
(:ity 1 in~
PHh Ave.
lhth Beach
('<",ey T,I."d
Fbthu,h
l',q l'J.ltb\l,h
CIHptcr
Fr«h
h,tern P.rh.... y
Ilu,hwi<:k
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