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to view management plan - Glenelg Hopkins Catchment
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Development of this management plan fulfils one of the high priorities identified by the South West
Estuaries Coastal Action Plan (Western Coastal Board 2002), and is a step toward meeting Regional
Management Action Target 83 in the Glenelg Hopkins Regional Catchment Strategy. (RMAT 83:
Meet aspirational target for coastal areas through developing and implementing individual estuary
management plans in accordance with the South West Estuaries Coastal Action Plan.)
The Glenelg River estuary is the longest estuary in Victoria. During low river flow periods the
estuary extends from the mouth at Nelson approximately 70 kilometres upstream to Dartmoor. The
Glenelg estuary is listed as a Heritage River under the Heritage Rivers Act 1992, due to its significant
landscape, natural and recreational values. The Glenelg estuary is also listed as a wetland of
national significance by Environment Australia (2001), due to its high habitat and natural values.
The habitat and landscape assets provided by the estuary underpin the cultural, social and economic
values held by the local community, including things such as recreational fishing, water sports and
the value of adjacent land.
Some of the most significant threats to the estuary’s ongoing health include:
•
sand slugs in the Glenelg River
•
artificial river mouth openings
•
reduced water quality and quantity.
This management plan has been developed in consultation with members of the local community,
and government agencies and provides a basis for coordinated and targeted investment in the
maintenance and enhancement of the values provided by the estuary for future generations.
Development of the management plan has focused on identification of the key assets provided
by the estuary and the threats that are degrading, or have potential to degrade, the value of the
identified assets. This approach is consistent with the Glenelg Hopkins River Health Strategy.
The consultation process has confirmed that the list of assets and threats is comprehensive and
consistent with the expectations of the local community. Assessment of the threats posed to assets
in the management plan area and determination of practical means to reduce or eliminate these
threats, has allowed formulation of management actions. Groupings of these management actions
form a set of key programs that when implemented, will provide significant benefits in terms of
maintenance and enhancement of the values of the estuary. An implementation guide has also been
developed which maps out a systematic approach to the carrying out of actions.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
i
IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM QUICK
REFERENCE
GUIDE
Implementation
program quick reference guide
Following
is a reference
quick reference
the implementation
programs,
their objectives
Following
is a quick
guide guide
to the to
implementation
programs,
their objectives
and and
targets,
their
location
within
the
document
and
links
to
actions
identified
in
the
targets, their location within the document and links to actions identified in the Glenelg Glenelg
Hopkins
River Health
Strategy
(GHRHS).
Hopkins
River Health
Strategy
(GHRHS).
Implementation
Program
Habitat
Objective
Target
No reduction in estuarine
habitats.
Fish
No reduction in
indigenous fish diversity.
Water quality
and quantity
Ensure that estuarine
water quality and quantity
meets estuary specific
guidelines 80% of the time
by 2010
No unlicensed artificial
river mouth openings.
Establish the baseline condition
and extent of aquatic and semiaquatic EVCs in the Glenelg
Estuary by 2008.
Establish programs to establish
the current condition and diversity
of indigenous fish in the Glenelg
Estuary by 2008.
Establish estuary specific water
quality criteria by 2008.
Estuary entrance
and artificial river
mouth opening
Pathogens and
parasites
Pest plants and
animals
Climate change
and sea level
rise
Local
government
planning
Monitoring,
evaluation and
reporting
ii
Maintain healthy
indigenous flora and fauna
populations
No potentially threatening
pest plants and animals in
the aquatic and semiaquatic estuarine
environments.
Actively manage risk
associated with predicted
climate change associated
with the Glenelg Estuary.
Direct and control
development to protect
the values of the Glenelg
Estuary and continue
economic development
within the framework of
ecological sustainability.
Monitor and evaluate the
health and functioning of
the estuary and
implementation of the
estuary management
plan.
Develop a protocol for estuary
mouth opening using the decision
support framework by the end of
2007.
Rapid response for all reported
incidents of pathogens and
parasites.
Implementation of a pest plant
and animal monitoring program to
ensure early detection of any
pest plants and animals.
Relevant
Sections
Section 2.1,
Sections 3.3,
3.4, 3.5, 3.7
GHRHS
link
RH-G1-9
Section 2.2,
Sections, 3.1,
3.2, 3.3, 3.4,
3.5, 3.6, 3.7
Section 2.3,
Sections 3.1,
3.4, 3.5, 3.6,
3.7
RH-G1-10
Section 3.1
RH-G1-1
RH-G1-1
Section 3.2
Section 3.3
Ensure that the effects of climate
change are incorporated into the
Glenelg Shire Planning Scheme
by 2011.
Adoption of planning policy,
zones and overlays into the
Glenelg Shire Planning Scheme
that protect and enhance the
values of the Glenelg Estuary.
Section 3.7
Undertake an evaluation of the
effectiveness of implementing
actions identified in this play by
2011.
Section 6
RH-G1-2,
RH-G1-6,
RH-G1-7
Section 4
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Community members who participated in plan development workshop – see Appendix A.
Members of the Glenelg Hopkins CMA Coast and Marine Technical Working Group.
Kylie Bishop - Glenelg Hopkins CMA
Linda Grant - Glenelg Hopkins CMA
Graeme Jeffery – Glenelg Hopkins CMA
Published by:
Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management Authority
79 French Street, Hamilton
Victoria 3300
Disclaimer
This publication may be of assistance to you but the State of Victoria and the Glenelg
Hopkins Catchment Management Authority and its employees do not guarantee that the
publication is without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes
and therefore disclaims any liability for any error, loss or other consequence that may
arise from you relying on the information in this publication
ISBN: 0759410070
Glenelg Hopkins - Copyright Notice
© Glenelg Hopkins Management Authority (2006)
This work is the subject of copyright.
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, adapted, published or communicated (made
available online or electronically transmitted) to the public, without the prior written permission of Glenelg Hopkins
Catchment Management Authority or as expressly permitted by the Copyright Act 1968 (as amended)(Cth)
or other copyright laws. All authorised or permitted, reproduction, adaptation, publication or communication
(made available online or electronically transmitted) to the public, of the work or part thereof must include
full acknowledgement of the source and Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management Authority’s ownership of
copyright. All enquiries and requests for permission should be made to Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management
Authority, 79 French Street, Hamilton, Victoria, 3300.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
iii
ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
AAV - Aboriginal Affairs Victoria
ANZECC - Australian and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council
ASS - acid sulphate soil.
ARMO - artificial river mouth opening.
CAMBA - China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement.
CE - Community Engagement
DCNR - former Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, now DSE.
DEH - Department of Environment and Heritage (Australian Government department).
DIMIA - Department of Immigration, Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (Australian Government
department).
DOI - Department of Infrastructure.
DPI - Department of Primary Industries.
DSE - Department of Sustainability and Environment.
DU - Deakin University.
DVC - Department of Victorian Communities.
EVC - ecological vegetation class
EPA - Environment Protection Authority.
GHCMA - Glenelg Hopkins CMA
GSC - Glenelg Shire Council
IPA - Indigenous Protected Area
ISC - Index of Stream Condition
IUCN - World Conservation Union
JAMBA - Japan Australia Migratory Bird Agreement
LCC - Land Conservation Council
MER - Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting
NHT - Natural Heritage Trust
NPWSA - National Parks and Wildlife SA
NTU - nephelometric turbidity unit
OW - On-ground Works
PV - Parks Victoria
RCT - Resource Condition Target
SAC - Scientific Advisory Committee.
SA DEH - South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage
SEPP WoV - State Environment Protection Policy Waters of Victoria.
SP - Strategic Planning
SRW - Southern Rural Water
TFN - Trust for Nature
WCB - Western Coastal Board
iv
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................................................................1
1.1 PRINCIPLES FOR ESTUARY MANAGEMENT ..................................................................................................................2
1.2 VISION FOR MANAGEMENT ................................................................................................................................................. 2
1.3 MANAGEMENT PLAN STATUS ............................................................................................................................................. 3
1.4 MANAGEMENT PLAN AREA .................................................................................................................................................. 3
1.5 POLICY FRAMEWORK ............................................................................................................................................................ 3
1.5.1 South Australian Government Policy ........................................................................................................................... 5
1.6 MANAGEMENT PLAN DEVELOPMENT AND CONSULTATION PROCESS ............................................................ 5
1.7 IMPLEMENTATION OF THE GLENELG ESTUARY MANAGEMENT PLAN ............................................................. 6
1.8 THE GLENELG ESTUARY .......................................................................................................................................................6
1.8.1 Heritage River area .......................................................................................................................................................... 7
1.8.2 Physical form ..................................................................................................................................................................... 7
1.8.3 Tributaries ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7
1.8.4 Estuary processes and function .................................................................................................................................... 7
1.8.5 Connectivity of the Glenelg Estuary with surrounding coastal wetland systems ............................................. 8
2. ASSETS ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9
2.1 HABITAT .......................................................................................................................................................................................10
Threats to aquatic and semi aquatic habitat in the Glenelg Estuary ............................................................................10
Management actions – habitat ................................................................................................................................................10
2.2 FISH ...............................................................................................................................................................................................11
Threats to fish diversity and health in the Glenelg Estuary .............................................................................................12
Glenelg Spiny Crayfish .............................................................................................................................................................12
Management actions – fish ......................................................................................................................................................13
2.3 WATER QUALITY AND QUANTITY ......................................................................................................................................14
2.3.1 Water quality .................................................................................................................................................................... 14
Threats to water quality .....................................................................................................................................................14
2.3.2 Water quantity ..................................................................................................................................................................14
Threats to water quantity .................................................................................................................................................. 15
Management actions – water quality and quantity .....................................................................................................15
3. THREATS AND THREATENING PROCESSES ................................................................................................. 16
3.1 ESTUARY ENTRANCE AND ARTIFICIAL RIVER MOUTH OPENING ..................................................................... 17
Management actions – estuary entrance and artificial river mouth opening ............................................................. 18
3.2 PATHOGENS AND PARASITES ...........................................................................................................................................18
Management actions – pathogens and parasites ............................................................................................................. 19
3.3 PEST PLANTS AND ANIMALS ..............................................................................................................................................19
Divided Sedge ......................................................................................................................................................................20
Spartina ..................................................................................................................................................................................20
Common Carp ......................................................................................................................................................................20
Management actions – pest plants and animals ............................................................................................................... 21
3.4 SOILS, EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION ........................................................................................................................21
Sand slugs .............................................................................................................................................................................21
Management actions – Soils, erosion and sedimentation ...............................................................................................22
3.5 POOR WATER QUALITY .........................................................................................................................................................22
Nutrients ........................................................................................................................................................................................22
Causes of high nutrients .....................................................................................................................................................23
Impacts of high nutrient loads ..........................................................................................................................................23
Turbidity .........................................................................................................................................................................................23
Causes of high turbidity .....................................................................................................................................................23
Impacts of high turbidity .....................................................................................................................................................23
Dissolved oxygen .......................................................................................................................................................................23
Causes of low dissolved oxygen levels .........................................................................................................................24
Impacts of low dissolved oxygen levels ........................................................................................................................ 24
Causes of high dissolved oxygen levels .......................................................................................................................24
Impact of high dissolved oxygen levels .........................................................................................................................24
3.6 REDUCED WATER QUANTITY ............................................................................................................................................24
3.7 CLIMATE CHANGE AND SEA LEVEL RISE ..................................................................................................................... 25
Climate change and sea level rise .........................................................................................................................................25
Sea level rise ...............................................................................................................................................................................26
Management actions – climate change and sea level rise .............................................................................................26
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
v
4. LOCAL GOVERNMENT PLANNING .................................................................................................................. 27
LANDSCAPE VALUES ................................................................................................................................................................... 28
‘SEA CHANGE’ DEVELOPMENT ................................................................................................................................................28
CROWN LAND DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA .................................................................................................. 28
CROWN LAND DEVELOPMENT IN VICTORIA ......................................................................................................................29
MANAGEMENT ACTIONS – LOCAL GOVERNMENT PLANNING ................................................................................... 29
5. GLENELG ESTUARY SUB-CATCHMENT (G1) ................................................................................................. 30
5.1 SUB-CATCHMENT DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................ 31
Land tenure and management in G1 ................................................................................................................................... 31
Adjacent land use ..................................................................................................................................................................... 31
5.2 ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES OF G1 ................................................................................................................................... 31
5.2.1 Flora ................................................................................................................................................................................... 31
5.2.2 Fauna ................................................................................................................................................................................. 32
Birds ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 32
Mammals .............................................................................................................................................................................. 32
Reptiles and Amphibians .................................................................................................................................................. 32
Macroinvertebrates ............................................................................................................................................................ 32
Glenelg Freshwater Mussel ............................................................................................................................................. 32
5.3 SOCIAL VALUES IN G1 ......................................................................................................................................................... 33
5.4 CULTURAL VALUES IN G1 ................................................................................................................................................... 34
5.4.1 Aboriginal .......................................................................................................................................................................... 34
5.4.2 Non-aboriginal ..................................................................................................................................................................34
6. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THIS MANAGEMENT PLAN
- Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting ........................................................................................................... 35
MONITORING .................................................................................................................................................................................. 36
EVALUATION .................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
REPORTING .................................................................................................................................................................................... 37
MANAGEMENT ACTIONS – MONITORING, EVALUATION AND REPORTING .......................................................... 38
REFERENCES .............................................................................................................................................................. 39
PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS ...............................................................................................................................................45
GLOSSARY ................................................................................................................................................................... 46
FURTHER INFORMATION .......................................................................................................................................... 49
APPENDICES ................................................................................................................................................................ 51
APPENDIX A - Relevant Legislation, Policies and Strategies ............................................................................................. 52
APPENDIX B - Plan Consultation ............................................................................................................................................... 55
APPENDIX C - Consultation Framework For Development and Implementation of Estuary Management Plans 59
APPENDIX D - Physical and Chemical Water Quality Monitoring ..................................................................................... 60
APPENDIX E - State Environment Protection Policy Guidelines of Victorian Estuaries .............................................. 61
APPENDIX F - Fish Species ........................................................................................................................................................ 61
APPENDIX G - Fish in Estuaries ..................................................................................................................................................63
Fish usage of estuaries ............................................................................................................................................................63
Information on key fish species in the Glenelg Estuary .................................................................................................. 64
Black Bream ......................................................................................................................................................................... 64
Mulloway ................................................................................................................................................................................65
Estuary Perch .......................................................................................................................................................................65
APPENDIX H - Regulation of Artificial River Mouth Openings .............................................................................................66
Works on Waterways License ................................................................................................................................................66
Coastal Management Act Consent ....................................................................................................................................... 66
APPENDIX I - Works on Waterways Permit for Artificial River Mouth Openings of The Glenelg River .................... 67
APPENDIX J - Vegetation ............................................................................................................................................................. 69
EVC ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 70
Native ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 71
APPENDIX K - BIRD SPECIES ................................................................................................................................................... 73
Native ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 73
Introduced ....................................................................................................................................................................................76
APPENDIX L - Mammal Species ................................................................................................................................................. 76
APPENDIX M - Reptile Species ...................................................................................................................................................77
vi
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
The Glenelg River Estuary Management Plan has been developed by the Glenelg Hopkins CMA in
conjunction with members of the community and government agencies.
Development of this management plan fulfils high priority actions identified by the South West
Estuaries Coastal Action Plan (Western Coastal Board 2002), the Glenelg Hopkins River Health
Strategy (Glenelg Hopkins CMA 2004), and the Discovery Bay Parks Management Plan (Parks
Victoria 2004). It also represents a step toward meeting Regional Management Action Target 83 in
the Glenelg Hopkins Regional Catchment Strategy. (RMAT 83: Meet aspirational target for coastal
areas through developing and implementing individual estuary management plans in accordance
with the South West Estuaries Coastal Action Plan.)
1.1 Principles for estuary management
Guiding principles for the overall approach to estuary management for the Glenelg Hopkins Region
have been established by the South West Estuaries Coastal Action Plan (Western Coastal Board
2002a).
These principles have been adopted with minor revision as follows:
• The present generations have a basic duty of care, to ensure that the health and diversity of the
environment is maintained or enhanced for the benefit of future generations.
• Ecosystems (including estuaries), and the individual life-forms and natural processes that underpin
ecosystems have by their very nature, value in their own right.
• The precautionary principle - if there are threats of serious environmental damage, lack of
scientific certainty should not be used as a reason to postpone measures to prevent environmental
degradation
These principles form the foundation of GHCMA’s approach to estuary management, and have been
considered in the development of actions for the Glenelg estuary.
1.2 Vision for management
Adoption of a community vision for the future of the Glenelg estuary was the first step in the
development of this management plan. This was achieved through a workshop with community and
agency representatives at Nelson on the 28th of October 2004. Statements of a preferred future for
the estuary were articulated at this workshop and are listed below:
- “An estuary where community, social and economic interests are protected while
maintaining and enhancing environmental values.”
-
“Maintain the integrity of the Glenelg River Estuary while catering for an increase in
residential, recreational and tourism use.”
-
“To continue to manage and protect the natural, physical and social attributes of the
Glenelg River Estuary for future generations to enjoy.”
-
“The estuary will be managed in co-operation with community and interstate agencies.
Sustainable environmental flows will be maintained, and the cultural and natural values
of the river protected. Accessibility for recreational opportunities will be ensured.”
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
These statements were combined by the workshop attendees, using the key elements from the four
group visions, to form an overall vision for the Glenelg estuary. This vision is to:
Protect and enhance the natural, cultural, social and economic
values of the Glenelg River Estuary for the future.
1.3 Management plan status
This management plan forms a sub-strategy of the Glenelg Hopkins River Health Strategy and has
been developed according to provisions of the Water Act 1989 Section 189 (a) to (d).
1.4 Management plan area
This management plan covers the Glenelg River and Estuary to the high water mark from the Princes
Highway Bridge at Dartmoor to the river mouth at Nelson.
The high water mark has been chosen as the boundary for this management plan due to the
predominance of public land adjoining the estuary and the existence of Parks Victoria management
plans which cover this land, including the Lower Glenelg National Park and the Discovery Bay Parks
management plans.
Actions and activities occurring in and around the portion of the estuary that lie within South Australia
have the potential to impact on the estuary downstream and are considered by this plan. Also,
management actions undertaken in Victoria have the potential to impact on the South Australian
section of the estuary.
Although this management plan is an estuary management plan and focuses on the area outlined
above, it is recognised that through the principles of integrated catchment management that activities
and actions upstream will impact on estuarine condition. A number of other strategies and plans
are in place to address issues upstream, including Glenelg Hopkins CMA Water Quality Plan and
the Glenelg Hopkins CMA River Health Strategy. This estuary management plan does not seek to
repeat the work of other strategies and plans.
1.5 Policy framework
The Victorian Coastal Strategy (Victorian Coastal Council 2002) and the South West Estuaries Coastal
Action Plan (Western Coastal Board 2002a) outline a suite of relevant government legislation and
policy that directs the management of estuaries and estuarine wetlands.
A range of plans and strategies exist at the regional level that provide for the protection and
enhancement of natural and cultural values of estuaries. Victoria has a strong natural resource
policy framework and as a result these plans and strategies have a high level of integrated planning
and address many aspects of sustainable use (see Appendix A). These plans and strategies, along
with relevant legislation are presented in Appendix A.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2002 (VCS) is especially relevant to estuary management as it has
direct influence over the management of all coastal Crown land. It was endorsed by the State
Government in 2002 and establishes the overall framework for the planning and management of the
Victorian coast. The aim of this strategy is to ensure that Victoria’s coastal and marine environment
continues to be well managed and used by present and future generations.
Implementation of the VCS is achieved through Coastal Action Plans (CAPs), which allow for the
broad principles and strategies identified at the state level, to be developed in more detail and applied
at a regional level. Regional Coastal Action Plans of relevance to the Glenelg estuary include the
Glenelg Coastal Action Plan (Glenelg Shire Council 2002), the South West Victoria Regional Coastal
Action Plan (Western Coastal Board 2002b) and the South West Estuaries Coastal Action Plan
(Western Coastal Board 2002a).
The South West Victoria Regional Coastal Action Plan includes recommendations for coastal and
marine areas between Breamlea and the South Australian border. It also establishes the need for
a coastal action plan specific to estuaries resulting in the development of the South West Estuaries
Coastal Action Plan.
The South West Estuaries CAP provides a regional framework to “facilitate the development and
implementation of individual estuary management plans” (Western Coastal Board 2002a). The
Glenelg River estuary management plan has been developed according to the principles set down
in this CAP, and therefore seeks to address objectives of the Victorian Coastal Strategy that relate
to this estuary.
The Glenelg Shire Coastal Action Plan (2002) is consistent with both the South West Regional Coastal
Action Plan (2002) and the South West Estuaries Coastal Action Plan (2002a) in recommending the
development of a management plan for the Glenelg River Estuary.
In addition to fulfilling the strategic direction established by the above documents, the estuary
management plan also defines actions that are consistent with and contribute to the implementation
of the Glenelg Hopkins River Health Strategy 2004. The Glenelg River Estuary represents reaches
1 and 2 within sub-catchment G1 as defined by the River Health Strategy. Reaches 1 and 2 are
considered representative reaches with high environmental and social values. The estuary also
represents the Heritage River reach designated under the Heritage Rivers Act 1992.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Legislation that underpins estuary management plans.
Catchment and Land
Protection Act 1994
Water Act
1989
Victorian River
Health Strategy
Glenelg Hopkins
Regional Catchment
Strategy
Glenelg Hopkins
River Health
Strategy
Coastal
Management Act
1995
Victorian Coastal
Strategy
Legislation that directly impacts on
estuary management
Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988
Victorian Biodiversity
Strategy
South West Coastal
Action Plan
South West Estuaries
Coastal Action Plan
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Figure 1 Key legislation and policies that influence management of the Glenelg River Estuary
1.5.1 South Australian Government Policy
Four kilometres of the estuary flows through South Australia. The management direction for this
section of the estuary is set by the South Australian Department of Environment and Heritage. At
present, the South Australian Deptartment of Environment and Heritage are developing an estuaries
policy, with a draft of the policy currently available (http://www.deh.sa.gov.au/coasts/estuaries.
html#estuaries_policy). The policy is intended to guide the actions of South Australian State
Government agencies, regional and local statutory bodies in the management of estuaries. The
policy direction of the South Australian Dept. of Environment & Heritage is of particular importance
with regard to the existence of holiday shacks along the banks of the South Australian section of the
estuary. This is discussed in more detail in Section 4.
1.6 Management plan development
and consultation process.
Development of this management plan commenced in October 2004, utilising funding from the
Natural Heritage Trust. Consultation with agency and community stakeholders began on October
28, 2004, with the Glenelg Estuary Discovery and Visioning Workshop. Details of the consultation,
along with the notes from the workshop, are included in Appendix B. Appendix C lists the various
stakeholders, both community and agency, and how they have been involved in the consultation
process and their role in development of the management plan.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
1.7 Implementation of the Glenelg Estuary
Management Plan
The effectiveness of implementation of this plan needs to be regularly assessed using principles of
adaptive management. That is, management of the area needs to reflect changes in priorities that
may become evident through the availability of improved information.
Implementation of the management plan will be reviewed on an annual basis. Review meetings will
be undertaken by the Glenelg Hopkins CMA’s Coast and Marine Technical Working Group. These
meetings will assess progress with implementation of the plan and determine priorities for the next
12 months. Local community stakeholders and relevant South Australian government agencies will
be invited to participate in these meetings. The Coast and Marine Technical Working Group includes
representatives from:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Glenelg Hopkins CMA
Parks Victoria
Deakin University
Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE)
Coast Action/Coastcare
Department of Primary Industries (DPI)
Western Coastal Board
Local Government
South West and Wimmera Cultural Heritage Program
Framlingham Aboriginal Trust
Winda Mara Aboriginal Corporation
1.8 The Glenelg Estuary
The Glenelg Estuary is located in the far southwest corner of Victoria. It is the longest estuary in
Victoria, with a volume of approximately 22,000ML, a surface area of approximately 440 hectares
and extending 75km from its mouth near Nelson, to just below Dartmoor (Sherwood et al.1998).
Four kilometres of the estuary lie within South Australia. Fifty-nine kilometres of the estuary flow
through the Lower Glenelg National Park (established 1969) and two kilometres of the estuary flow
through the Discovery Bay Coastal Park (declared in 1972). The Glenelg Estuary is located within
Glenelg Shire in Victoria and District Council of Grant in South Australia.
The Glenelg Estuary has high natural, social and landscape values, which are recognised by its
listing as a heritage river under the Victorian Heritage Rivers Act 1992 (see Section 1.8.1).
The following sections contain background information relating to the Glenelg Estuary and the natural
processes and functions that occur within it.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
1.8.1 Heritage River area
The entire Victorian section of the Glenelg Estuary is listed as a heritage river area under the Heritage
Rivers Act 1992. This listing does not include the section of the estuary in South Australia. A draft
management plan has been prepared for the Glenelg heritage river area by the Department of
Sustainability and Environment (DNRE 2002b).
This listing is in recognition of the estuary’s significant natural, landscape and recreation values.
The Glenelg Estuary Management Plan is consistent with the goal of the Heritage Rivers Act 1992
to protect these values.
1.8.2 Physical form
The Glenelg Estuary has special landscape significance. It is the only estuarine system in Victoria
that lies within limestone gorges that have formed in a system of dune calcarenite ridges. Some of the
limestone cliffs are in the order of 40 metres high (Fraser 1972 cited in Bird 1977). The confinement
of the estuary within the limestone gorge system means that there is no extensive floodplain or
associated fringing wetlands until the river nears the coastline. The mouth of the estuary is shallow
and underlain by a rock bar.
1.8.3 Tributaries
Tributaries of the estuary include Moleside and Glenaulin creeks. As Moleside Creek is considered to
be ecologically healthy it is considered to be a priority for investment in protection and enhancement
works under the Glenelg Hopkins CMA River Health Strategy (GHCMA 2004).
Holloway Creek, also known as Freshwater Creek, joins the estuary less than 1 km from the mouth
on the western side. Eel Creek, which flows into the estuary on the eastern side near Oxbow Lake,
previously connected the estuary to Long Swamp, which is listed as a nationally important wetland
(Environment Australia 2001).
1.8.4 Estuary processes and function
The estuary is a seasonally closed, salt wedge type estuary. Sand deposition at the river mouth
during low flow periods forms a barrier (or bar) preventing the exchange of water with the sea.
This closure of the river mouth causes water levels in the estuary to rise as freshwater flows into
the estuary and or by overtopping of the bar by seawater. The bar can be breached naturally, by
increasing pressure as water level rises, by wave action, or artificially by mechanical means (e.g.
shovel or excavator).
At times, water in the estuary can be stratified. This means that layers of different quality water are
formed. Differences in relative density between saltwater and freshwater cause this. Estuaries
in which this stratification of water occurs are commonly known as salt wedge type estuaries.
Stratification occurs when dense, relatively heavy salt water (due to its high salt content), flows
into the system and “wedges” beneath the freshwater. Late summer and early autumn, when river
discharge is lowest, is generally the period during which the estuary is most strongly stratified. Figure
2 provides a diagrammatic representation of the process. Observations undertaken by Sherwood
et al. (1998) suggest that, a flow of approximately 6000ML/day is needed to flush the saltwater from
the system and maintain completely freshwater within the estuary. This is a process that is thought
to be of high importance to the ecological functioning of the estuarine system.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
The longitudinal extent of an estuary is entirely dependent on the relative volumes of freshwater and
seawater that flow into the system. During low flow conditions the salt wedge of the Glenelg river
estuary often penetrates over 70 kilometres upstream. This is evident on hydrographs (water level
plots) from a historical monitoring station at the Princes Highway Bridge at Dartmoor, which show
fluctuations in water level approximately every 12 hours due to tidal influence
Figure 2 Movement of salt water in an estuary
Figure 2 Movement of salt water in an estuary
1.8.5
Connectivity
ofofthe
surroundingcoastal
coastal
wetland
systems
Connectivity
theGlenelg
GlenelgEstuary
Estuary with
with surrounding
wetland
systems
1.8.5
Prior
to European
settlement
many
of the
wetland
and lake
in theinsurrounding
Prior
to European
settlement
many
of coastal
the coastal
wetland
and systems
lake systems
the
area
flowed
into
the
lower
Glenelg
River
estuary.
Following
European
settlement,
connection of
surrounding area flowed into the lower Glenelg River estuary. Following European
these
wetlandsconnection
to the estuary
was wetlands
modified to
bythe
drainage
that made
moreworks
suitable for
settlement,
of these
estuaryworks
was modified
by land
drainage
agriculture.
that made land more suitable for agriculture.
Prior
to to
1906,
was directly
directlyconnected
connectedtoto
estuary via
Prior
1906,Piccaninnie
PiccaninniePonds
Pondsinin South
South Australia was
thethe
estuary
Freshwater
Creek.
These
flows
were
stopped
in
1906
through
the
construction
of
an
via Freshwater Creek. These flows were stopped in 1906 through the construction ofoutlet
an just
inside
thejust
Victorian
Flowsborder.
to the estuary
re-instated
in re-instated
1913. In 1917
the discharge
outlet
inside border.
the Victorian
Flows towere
the estuary
were
in 1913.
In
1917
the discharge
from Piccaninnie
Ponds
out to
the sea border,
inside due
the to
South
from
Piccaninnie
Ponds broke
out to the sea
insidebroke
the South
Australian
suspected
Australian
border, There
due toissuspected
interference.
There
is still some
flow
to the much
human
interference.
still some human
flow to the
estuary from
Freshwater
Creek,
although
estuary
from
Freshwater
Creek,
although
much
of
this
is
due
to
springs
in
the
Holloway
of this is due to springs in the Holloway Swamp area.
Swamp area.
Long Swamp was also previously connected to the estuary via Eel Creek. Water from Long Swamp
was near
also Nobles
previously
connected
to thetoestuary
viaofEel
WaterThe
from
nowLong
flowsSwamp
out to sea
Rocks,
about 5.5km
the east
the Creek.
river mouth.
journals
Long
Swamp
now
flows
out
to
sea
near
Nobles
Rocks,
about
5.5km
to
the
east
of
the
of the early surveyors of the area describe Long Swamp as a large lake. There are virtually no
river
mouth.
journals oftoday.
the early
surveyors
of the area history
describe
Swamp
a
open
water
areasThe
in existence
Much
of the management
of Long
the area
sinceasEuropean
large
lake.
There
are
virtually
no
open
water
areas
in
existence
today.
Much
of
the
settlement is poorly known. The first attempts at draining the area may have begun as early as
history
of the
area
since European
settlement
poorly
known.
The these
first were
themanagement
1850s. Attempts
were
made
sometime
in the 1970s
to blockisthe
drains,
however
attempts at draining the area may have begun as early as the 1850s. Attempts were
unsuccessful. Investigation of “the implications of the current hydrological regime on the environmental
made sometime in the 1970s to block the drains, however these were unsuccessful.
and indigenous cultural values in Long Swamp” is highlighted as a priority action in the Discovery
Investigation of “the implications of the current hydrological regime on the environmental
Bay Parks Management Plan (Parks Victoria 2004).
and indigenous cultural values in Long Swamp” is highlighted as a priority action in the
Discovery Bay Parks Management Plan (Parks Victoria 2004).
2. Assets
Estuary Management Plan
2.1Glenelg
Habitat
Habitats are complex assemblages of biological, geological and sometimes synthetic (of
2.0 ASSETS
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
2.1 Habitat
Habitats are complex assemblages of biological, geological and sometimes synthetic (of human
manufacture) components. The protection of habitat and its associated values is integral to a healthy
estuary. Habitats underpin ecosystem health. Without healthy habitats it is difficult to protect and
enhance the species and populations that depend on them. Therefore, the long term sustainability
of systems as a whole depends on the health of habitats.
The Glenelg Estuary has very high habitat values and is listed as a wetland of national significance
(Environment Australia 2001) due to the habitat it provides for animal taxa at vulnerable life cycle
stages, and its function as a refuge during drought.
Reasonable knowledge of the terrestrial flora surrounding the estuary exists. However very little is
known about the aquatic habitat values of the estuary. It is known that seagrasses are present in
the estuary but the extent, condition and diversity are unknown (Barton and Sherwood 2004). This
represents a major limitation in our capability to proactively manage the habitat values of the estuary
and invest in its future in an effective way.
Mapping of current aquatic habitat is therefore a priority for investment in the Glenelg Estuary. There
will be two major outcomes from investment in this exercise:
•
•
It will be possible to develop a proactive investment plan that directs resources to
the most important actions for protection and enhancement of habitat/biodiversity
values in the estuary.
It will be possible to define meaningful and practical resource condition targets
and to design an effective monitoring, evaluation and reporting program to
track progress towards the resource condition targets.
Threats to aquatic and semi aquatic habitat in the Glenelg Estuary
Threats to the aquatic and semi-aquatic habitat values include:
•
climate change and sea level rise – Section 3.7
•
sedimentation – Section 3.4
•
poor water quality – Section 3.5
•
pest plants – Section 3.3.
Management actions – habitat
The first major investment in the habitat values of the Glenelg Estuary will have been completed
by the end of 2006, in the form of estuarine vegetation maps and estuarine vegetation condition
assessment for the lower 8km of the estuary. This exercise has been carried out by Primary Industries
Research Victoria in partnership with the Arthur Rylah Institute and the Glenelg Hopkins CMA, and
has been funded by the Commonwealth Government’s Natural Heritage Trust and the Victorian
State Government.
A PhD project commencing in 2006 will produce a bathymetric (depth profile) map and digital elevation
model for the entire estuary by late 2006 or early 2007, and will identify the links between habitat and
estuarine fish populations in the Glenelg.
10
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
The outputs of this investment will establish a baseline for the extent and condition of the estuary’s
habitat, guide targeted investment in the protection and enhancement of the estuary’s habitat and
biodiversity values into the future, inform the development of meaningful and practical resource
condition targets and provide the basis for an effective monitoring, evaluation and reporting framework
to track progress towards the resource condition targets. Identification of reference sites for this
monitoring is also part of this work.
The next phases required in this investment schedule are outlined in the table below.
Habitat
Management objective: No reduction in estuarine habitats.
Management action target: Establish the baseline condition and extent of aquatic and semi-aquatic
EVCs in the Glenelg Estuary by 2008.
Action
Number
Action
GH1
Complete habitat mapping for the remaining 62kms of the estuary, including
the aquatic and semi aquatic vegetation. Outputs to include:
x GIS layer showing habitat distribution & bathymetry.
x Digital elevation model of the bathymetry of the estuary.
x Identification of important habitat zones.
x Assessment of vegetation condition using the habitat hectares
methodology
Complete flood study mapping for the estuary that takes into account the
predicted impact of sea level rise, and increased storm surge.
Complete a habitat risk assessment based on overlaying the estuarine habitat
maps and condition data with flood study mapping, cadastral mapping,
development plans and other threat information.
Develop a prioritised and costed estuarine habitat protection and
enhancement investment plan depending on the outputs from GH5
Establish habitat reference sites and monitoring program to:
x monitor the condition of aquatic and semi-aquatic vegetation
x enable reporting against estuarine habitat resource condition targets,
once developed.
Develop/identify indicators of condition for aquatic and semi-aquatic estuarine
vegetation for use in monitoring progress towards achieving resource
condition targets.
Implement a communications process to convey the broad outcomes of the
estuarine habitat mapping to the community and other management agencies.
GH2
GH3
GH4
GH5
GH6
GH7
Key
Implementation
Tool
Lead
Priority
SP
GHCMA
VH
SP
GHCMA
VH
SP
GHCMA
VH
SP
GHCMA
VH
MER
GHCMA
H
MER
GHCMA
H
CE
GHCMA
H
2.2 Fish
2.2Fish
Fish
are
one of the most valuable assets of the estuary, and the presence of a wide
range of species in large numbers is generally considered to be a good indicator of a
Fishhealthy
are onesystem.
of the most valuable assets of the estuary, and the presence of a wide range of species
in large numbers is generally considered to be a good indicator of a healthy system.
Forty-four species of fish have been recorded in the Glenelg Estuary to date (Appendix
Forty-four
of includes
fish havehigh
beenprofile
recorded
the Glenelg
Estuary to date
(Appendix
F). This
F). Thisspecies
number
and in
highly
valued recreational
species
such as
number
includes
high
profile
and
highly
valued
recreational
species
such
as
Black
Bream,
Estuary
Black Bream, Estuary Perch and Mulloway, as well as threatened species such as the
Perch
andPygmy
Mulloway,
as well
as threatened
species
as the
Pygmy Pygmy
Perch (Nannoperca
Yarra
Perch
(Nannoperca
obscura)
andsuch
Ewens
(or Yarra
Variegated)
Perch
obscura)
and Ewens
(or Variegated)
Perchthreatened
(Nannoperca
variegata).
(Nannoperca
variegata).
BothPygmy
of these
species
are Both
listedof these
under threatened
the
species
are listedProtection
under the and
Environment
Protection
and Biodiversity
Conservation
Act 1999
and the
Environment
Biodiversity
Conservation
Act 1999 and
the Flora and
Fauna
Flora
and Fauna
Act 1988.
Ewens
Perchtoare
known
only in the
Glenelg
Guarantee
ActGuarantee
1988. Ewens
Pygmy
PerchPygmy
are known
occur
onlytoinoccur
the Glenelg
River
Basin
and
SouthAustralia.
Australia. More
More
information
utilisation
of
River
Basin
anda afew
few locations
locations in South
information
on on
fishfish
utilisation
of estuaries,
estuaries,
including
on the key
recreational
species,
is included
including
information
on information
the key recreational
species,
is included
in Appendix
G. in Appendix
G.
Effective protection and enhancement of fish populations in the Glenelg Estuary requires
a number of different management approaches. It is essential to not only protect the fish
Estuary Management
Plan
populations, but to identify and protect key habitats essential Glenelg
for different
life history
stages. Managing any uses of fish populations, either commercial or recreational, is also
important and should be done in accordance with the principles of ecologically
11
Effective protection and enhancement of fish populations in the Glenelg Estuary requires a number
of different management approaches. It is essential to not only protect the fish populations, but to
identify and protect key habitats essential for different life history stages. Managing any uses of fish
populations, either commercial or recreational, is also important and should be done in accordance
with the principles of ecologically sustainable development.
Monitoring and evaluation of fish populations are vital to ensure that management is proactive and
adaptive, rather than solely reacting to problems. Programs such as the fish tagging currently
being run by Fishcare and the angler research diaries proposed in the Glenelg Hopkins Fishery
Management Plan represent continuous monitoring efforts that provide valuable fisheries related
information. These efforts represent important steps in establishing effective monitoring and
evaluation tools for the long-term management of fish in the Glenelg estuary.
Threats to fish diversity and health in the Glenelg Estuary
Fish health and diversity can be impacted on by a number of factors. These threats need to be
minimised to ensure that indigenous fish health and diversity remains high. Key threats to fish
health and diversity include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
artificial river mouth openings – Section 3.1
poor water quality – Section 3.5
reduced water quantity – Section 3.6
loss of habitat, including sedimentation and sand slugs - See threats to habitat
Section 2.1
pathogens and parasites – Section 3.2
pest animals, in particular carp – Section 3.3
Overfishing may also pose a threat to the health of fish populations. Bag and size limits are in place
to ensure that fishing does not irreparably reduce the breeding population to below viable levels.
Due to the enforcement of bag and size limits conducted by Fisheries Victoria, the risk of overfishing
is considered to be low.
Glenelg Spiny Crayfish
The Glenelg Spiny Crayfish (Euastacus bispinosus) is an invertebrate and so technically is not a fish.
However it has been included in the fish section of this management plan as many of the threats and
pressures on this species are much the same as for fish species.
Commonly known as pricklyback, the Glenelg Spiny Crayfish is listed as threatened under the Flora
and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. The species is very slow growing, with females taking 8 to 11 years
to reach maturity (Honan 2004). They are present in the estuary area, although when the salt wedge
advances over summer and other low flow periods they are more likely to be found in freshwater
tributaries or may retreat to their burrows (Hoey 1990 cited in Honan 2004).
Despite being listed as endangered, the Glenelg Spiny Crayfish can still be fished recreationally.
The daily bag limit is 1 male crayfish, with the taking of any females prohibited. The minimum legal
size is 10 cm carapace length.
Due to the recreational fishery for the Spiny Crayfish, management of the species is similar to the
management of recreationally important fish species. DPI is responsible for managing the fishery
through a combination of size and bag limits. DSE is also involved in the management of the Glenelg
Spiny Crayfish due to its listing under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.
12
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Honan (2004) identified a number of knowledge gaps in our understanding of the Glenelg Spiny
Crayfish, including the need to investigate the size, duration and season of flows necessary to flush
the saltwedge out of the estuary, in order for suitable freshwater conditions to be created for the
crayfish to move back in to the main channel of the Glenelg. The small creeks, springs and soaks
thatsignificant
flow into freshwater
the estuaryinputs
provide
freshwater
inputs on
small scale.
Even
the
onsignificant
a small scale.
Even though
theaamount
of water
maythough
be
amount
of water
may be relatively
low compared
theprobably
mainstream
flow,
they probably
relatively
low compared
to the mainstream
flow, to
they
provide
important
reefugeprovide
important
reefuge
fromand
the some
salt water,
andtosome
to be
an important
place for small crayfish.
from the
salt water,
appear
be anappear
important
place
for small crayfish.
Threats
to the
Glenelg
Spiny
Crayfish
include;
Threats
to the
Glenelg
Spiny
Crayfish
include;
water
quality,
speciesleaving
leavingthe
thewater
water to
to escape unfavourable
x• poorpoor
water
quality,
withwith
thethe
species
unfavourable
conditions;
conditions;
drought
and water
low water
flows.
drought
and low
flows.
pesticides
in both
forestry
agriculture
(Honan
2004).
x• pesticides
usedused
in both
forestry
and and
agriculture
(Honan
2004).
Predation,
including
humans
native
introduced
species
of fish,
x• Predation,
including
humans
and and
bothboth
native
andand
introduced
species
of fish,
with
Crayfish
found infound
the stomachs
of trout,
and the
Glenelg
with Spiny
Glenelg
Spiny Crayfish
in the stomachs
of eels
trout,and
eelsredfin
and redfin
and
of water of
rats
(Honan
middens
the middens
water
rats 2004).
(Honan 2004).
Management
actions
– fish
Management
actions
– fish
Fisheries
Victoria
is currently
developing
an fishery
inland management
fishery management
plan
for the
Fisheries
Victoria
is currently
developing
an inland
plan for the
Glenelg
Hopkins
Glenelg
Hopkins
Region.
This
plan,
once
finalised,
will
provide
recommendations
and
Region. This plan, once finalised, will provide recommendations and actions for the sustainable
for the sustainable
use and
management
of the
region’s fisheries
useactions
and management
of the region’s
fisheries
resources.
Implementation
of the resources.
Glenelg Hopkins
Implementation
of
the
Glenelg
Hopkins
Fishery
Management
Plan
(GHFMP)
is a high
Fishery Management Plan (GHFMP) is a high priority.
priority.
Fish
Management objective: No reduction in indigenous fish diversity.
Management action target: Establish programs to establish the current condition and diversity of
indigenous fish in the Glenelg Estuary by 2008.
Action
Number
Action
GF 1
Establish programs to monitor the current condition of key
recreational target fish species (Mulloway, estuary perch, black
bream and Glenelg Spiny Crayfish) of the Glenelg Estuary.
Identify important fish habitat areas within the estuary and
develop management actions to protect and improve fish habitat
areas considering economic, social and cultural facts as well as
environmental.
Establish an ongoing monitoring program to collect information
on angler visitor numbers to the Glenelg estuary over time.
Commence a fish tagging program for recreationally important
species involving community groups.
Develop/identify indicators of condition for indigenous fish
diversity for use in monitoring progress towards achieving the
resource condition target.
Undertake literature review of the habitat and environmental
conditions required to sustain the production (spawning,
recruitment, survival, growth and movement) of black bream,
mulloway, estuary perch and Glenelg Spiny Crayfish.
Implement the Glenelg Hopkins Fishery Management Plan
GF 2
GF3
GF 4
GF 5
GF 6
GF 7
Key
Implementation
Tool
Lead
Priority
SP
DPI
VH
SP
GHCMA
VH
MER
DPI
VH
SP, CE, MER
VH
SP, MER
FISHCARE
GHCMA
GHCMA
VH
SP
DPI
VH
SP
DPI
VH
2.3 Water quality and quantity
2.3.1 Water quality
Good water quality is essential for a healthy ecosystem. Fish and other organisms
require good levels of dissolved oxygen (generally above 5mg/L) for survival, while
aquatic plants require good levels of light.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
In order to maintain good water quality, the State Environment Protection Policy (Waters
of Victoria) sets out environmental water quality objectives. These water quality
13
2.3 Water quality and quantity
2.3.1 Water quality
Good water quality is essential for a healthy ecosystem. Fish and other organisms require good
levels of dissolved oxygen (generally above 5mg/L) for survival, while aquatic plants require good
levels of light.
In order to maintain good water quality, the State Environment Protection Policy (Waters of Victoria)
sets out environmental water quality objectives. These water quality objectives recommend a range
of values within which water quality can be assumed to be healthy. If water quality falls outside
these values, then actions should be undertaken to improve water quality within the estuary. For
some water quality parameters, such as turbidity, objectives have not been developed due to a lack
of data.
At present, these guidelines have been prepared at a state-wide level, with no consideration for
variation within the state. Estuary specific guidelines would allow the variation within individual
estuaries to be incorporated and assessed, as well as address the gaps in the State Environment
Protection Policy for Waters of Victoria (SEPP WoV) guidelines for estuaries. Both SEPP (WoV) and
the ANZECC Guidelines (2000) outline the processes required for establishing site specific water
quality guidelines.
Water quality in the Glenelg Estuary has been monitored at three sites on a monthly basis since
November 2003. Water quality parameters and monitoring sites are presented in Appendix D.
Continuation of monitoring is vital to understand the complex relationships between the state of
the river mouth, water quality and the ecology of the system. Further, it is essential for determining
seasonal trends and variations and establishing risks associated with eutrophication and stratification.
More information on water quality is included in section 3.5 and Appendix D. State guidelines for
water quality are included in Appendix E.
Threats to water quality
There are a number of factors that can influence estuarine water quality. Key threats to water quality
include:
•
•
•
•
artificial river mouth openings – Section 3.1
high levels of nutrients and chemicals – Section 3.5
erosion and sedimentation – Section 3.4
reduced water quantity - Section 3.6
2.3.2 Water quantity
Water quantity is important in the functioning of estuaries and can also influence water quality.
Freshwater inflow plays an important role in the movement of the saltwedge and the duration of
stratification.
Water quantity, in terms of flooding, is also an important natural processes in estuaries. High winter
flows within the estuary are essential for effective flushing of the system and maintenance of the
environmental, social and economic values of the estuary. Flushing is necessary to remove all traces
of stratification from the system and allow the process of the salt wedge formation and stratification
to begin again. Flushing acts like a reset button for water quality conditions within the estuary. This
is essential as a major spawning cue of recreationally important fish species such as Black Bream
and may also be important in the life cycles of many other estuarine species.
14
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Threats to water quantity
Potential threats to the hydrology (water quantity) of the estuary include:
•
•
•
climate change – Section 3.7
water extraction and diversion – Section 3.6
land use change. Land use change and its relationship to hydrology was
investigated by the Water and Land Use Change Study (WatLUC 2005).
The Glenelg estuary was identified as a hotspot for hydrological change,
indicating that there could be significant impacts on hydrology due to land use
change (WatLUC 2005).
actions
– water
quality
quantity
Management
Management
actions
– water
quality
andand
quantity
Investment in water quality and quantity actions for estuarine areas is at present
Investment in water quality and quantity actions for estuarine areas is at present focussed on
focussed on maintaining current water quality monitoring and the development of estuary
maintaining current water quality monitoring and the development of estuary specific water quality
specific water quality criteria.
criteria.
Water Quality and Quantity
Management objective: Ensure that estuarine water quality and quantity meets estuary specific
guidelines 80% of the time by 2010
Management action target: Establish estuary specific water quality criteria by 2008.
Action
Number
Action
GWQ1
GWQ2
Continue monitoring water quality on a minimum monthly basis.
Implement the recommendations of the estuarine water quality
monitoring review project to be completed by June 2006.
Apply the principles and methods described in chapter 3 of the
ANZECC Guidelines (2000), using data from the current water
quality monitoring program to develop and adopt acceptable
water quality criteria for the Glenelg Estuary.
Implement an estuary water quality evaluation and reporting
process in order to monitor attainment of the management
objective.
GWQ3
GWQ4
Key
Implementation
Tool
Lead
Priority
MER
MER
GHCMA
GHCMA
VH
VH
MER
GHCMA
VH
MER
GHCMA
VH
3. Threats and threatening processes
3.1 Estuary entrance and artificial river mouth opening
Seasonal closure of the estuary entrance is a natural process, reopening of the entrance
can either occur naturally, or it can be artificially opened to alleviate flooding of assets.
The effects of artificial river mouth opening on the estuary can include:
x reduced sand bar scour when the mouth is opened at lower water levels, leading
to more rapid mouth closure,
x disruption to the natural patterns of variation in water quality and biotic distribution
and abundance,
x disruption of aquatic faunal migration and reproductive cycles.
This management plan does not seek to address the issue of the current artificial river
mouth opening protocols; these will be addressed following completion of the Estuary
Entrance Management Support System project funded by Natural Heritage Trust (NHT).
It is intended that revised river mouth opening protocols will be incorporated into this
management plan when they are developed. Development of such protocols addresses
action 1.1.4 from the Victorian Coastal Strategy that states,
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
“Best practice guidelines for the management of estuarine mouth openings will be
developed, incorporating environmental, social and economic issues.”
15
3.0 THREATS AND
THREATENING PROCESSES
16
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
3.1 Estuary entrance and artificial river mouth opening
Seasonal closure of the estuary entrance is a natural process, reopening of the entrance can either
occur naturally, or it can be artificially opened to alleviate flooding of assets. The effects of artificial
river mouth opening on the estuary can include:
•
reduced sand bar scour when the mouth is opened at lower water levels,
leading to more rapid mouth closure,
•
disruption to the natural patterns of variation in water quality and biotic
distribution and abundance,
•
disruption of aquatic faunal migration and reproductive cycles.
This management plan does not seek to address the issue of the current artificial river mouth opening
protocols; these will be addressed following completion of the Estuary Entrance Management Support
System project funded by Natural Heritage Trust (NHT). It is intended that revised river mouth opening
protocols will be incorporated into this management plan when they are developed. Development of
such protocols addresses action 1.1.4 from the Victorian Coastal Strategy that states,
“Best practice guidelines for the management of estuarine mouth openings will be developed,
incorporating environmental, social and economic issues.”
The most obvious impact of artificial river mouth openings on estuarine fish populations is mass
fish kills. Whilst there are no records of mass fish kills resulting from artificial river mouth openings
at the Glenelg Estuary, this problem is a well known occurrence at other estuaries. Conducting an
artificial river mouth opening when the estuary is stratified has the potential to remove the surface
oxygenated layer, leaving behind deeper deoxygenated water, thereby resulting in a mass mortality
of fish and aquatic invertebrates. In order to minimise the impact of artificial river mouth openings,
determination of the depth of the oxygenated layer is included as a condition on the Works on
Waterways license and must be assessed.
Less obvious but none the less serious impacts of artificial river mouth openings on fish diversity
may be occurring through alteration of the timing and nature of estuarine hydrodynamics by artificial
openings. Disruption of spawning cues and flushing of fish eggs and larvae out to sea are risks
associated with river mouth openings that have been identified through research on the Glenelg
Estuary (Nicholson et al. 2004). These risks need to be properly considered in weighing up the value
of artificial river mouth openings.
Regulation of artificial river mouth openings is discussed in detail in Appendix H.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
17
eggs and larvae out to sea are risks associated with river mouth openings that have been
identified through research on the Glenelg Estuary (Nicholson et al. 2004). These risks
need to be properly considered in weighing up the value of artificial river mouth openings.
Regulation of artificial river mouth openings is discussed in detail in Appendix H.
Management actions – estuary entrance and artificial river mouth opening
Management actions – estuary entrance and artificial river mouth opening
Estuary Entrance and Artificial River Mouth Opening
Management objective: No unlicensed artificial river mouth openings.
Management action target: Develop a protocol for estuary mouth opening using the decision support
frame work by the end of 2007.
Action
Number
Action
GARMO 1
GARMO 2
Develop and adopt the estuary entrance decision framework
In light of recommendations from the above process, review
artificial river mouth opening procedures, taking into
consideration social, economic, cultural and environmental
needs.
Inform the community on the importance of not artificially
opening an estuary entrance at inappropriate times, the
environmental consequences, public safety issues and the
potential liability to prosecution.
GARMO 3
Key
Implementation
Tool
Lead
Priority
SP
SP
GHCMA
GHCMA
VH
VH
CE
GHCMA
VH
3.2 Pathogens and parasites
pathogens and
parasites
are naturally
3.2Many
Pathogens
and
parasites
occurring in waters. Outbreaks of
pathogens and parasites in fish may be an indicator of stress, and in particular poor
water
quality. and
As parasites
fish become
more and
more stressed
they
are less ofable
to protect
Many
pathogens
are naturally
occurring
in waters.
Outbreaks
pathogens
and
themselves
against
pathogens
and
parasites.
Stress
causes
fish
to
lose
the
protective
parasites in fish may be an indicator of stress, and in particular poor water quality. As fish become
filmand
from
theirstressed
skin thatthey
actsare
as less
a barrier
and infection.
more
more
able to
to disease
protect themselves
against pathogens and parasites.
Stress causes fish to lose the protective film from their skin that acts as a barrier to disease and
Current management of pathogens and parasites focuses on response and control of
infection.
outbreaks, rather than prevention. EPA has produced an interim fish kill protocol that
outlines the methods for collecting infected specimens and reporting on the fish kill, along
Current management of pathogens and parasites focuses on response and control of outbreaks,
with relevant contact details.
rather than prevention. EPA has produced an interim fish kill protocol that outlines the methods for
collecting infected specimens and reporting on the fish kill, along with relevant contact details.
Although to date there have been no reported occurrences of pathogens or parasites in
the Glenelg River Estuary, there have been instances of poor fish health recorded in
Although
to date there
have
been
no reported
occurrences
pathogens
or parasites
in thein
other estuaries
in the
south
west.
In September
2004 aoffish
health issue
was reported
Glenelg
River
Estuary,
there
have
been
instances
of
poor
fish
health
recorded
in
other
the Yambuk Lake Estuary and Wetlands. A small number of Black Bream thatestuaries
were
in the
southhad
west.
In September
a fish
was
reported
in sizes
the Yambuk
Lake Estucaught
ulcers
and lesions2004
under
the health
scales.issue
Black
Bream
of all
and weights
arywere
and Wetlands.
A small number
Black Bream
that weretocaught
had ulcers
and lesions
affected, however
no otherof
species
were observed
be affected.
Pathology
reportunder
theon
scales.
Black
Bream
of
all
sizes
and
weights
were
affected,
however
no
other
species
the Black Bream revealed ulcerative dermatitis and myositis of the skin, which were
is
observed
to bewith
affected.
Pathology
report
on the Black
Bream revealed
dermatitis
consistent
Epizootic
Ulcerative
Syndrome,
otherwise
known asulcerative
EUS or Red
Spot and
myositis
of the
skin, which
is consistent
Epizootic
Ulcerative
known as
Disease.
Testing
of infected
sampleswith
collected
from
Yambuk Syndrome,
Lake provedotherwise
inconclusive.
EUS or Red Spot Disease. Testing of infected samples collected from Yambuk Lake proved inconclusive.
14 on pathogens and parasites generally focus on response, control, treatment and clean up of
Works
any outbreaks. Investigation into any potential stressors that may have made fish or other aquatic
fauna more susceptible to pathogens and parasites also needs to be carried out.
18
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Works on pathogens and parasites generally focus on response, control, treatment and
clean up of any outbreaks. Investigation into any potential stressors that may have made
fish or other aquatic fauna more susceptible to pathogens and parasites also needs to be
carried out.
Management
actions
– pathogens
andand
parasites
Management
actions
– pathogens
parasites
Pathogens and Parasites
Management objective: Maintain healthy indigenous flora and fauna populations.
Management action target: Rapid response for all reported incidents of pathogens and parasites.
Action
Number
Action
GPP 1
GPP 2
Establish community flora and fauna health monitoring program
Ensure any future fish kills are reported, cleaned up, monitored and
assessed according to the EPA Interim Fish Kill Protocol.
Circulate EPA Fish Kill Protocol to all agencies
Notify Fisheries Victoria and Glenelg Hopkins CMA of any suspected
incidents of pathogens or parasites.
Fisheries Victoria to organise for samples of any potentially infected
samples.
In event of any outbreaks water quality analysis to be carried out as
soon as possible at freshwater limits and within the estuary.
GPP 4
GPP 5
GPP 6
GPP 7
Key
Implementation
Tool
Lead
CE
OW
GHCMA
EPA
SP
MER
EPA
OW
DPI
MER
EPA
Priority
3.3 Pest plants and animals
Maintaining healthy habitats and healthy populations of indigenous flora and fauna relies
In many
instances these pest plant and animal species have no predators naturally occurring in
Maintaining
healthy allowing
habitats them
and healthy
populations
ofspecies.
indigenous flora and fauna relies to some
the environment
to outcompete
native
extent on preventing the introduction of pest plant and animal species. In many instances these pest
plant
animal unknown
species have
predators
occurring
in the environment
allowing
It isand
currently
whatno
aquatic
and naturally
semi-aquatic
pest plants
and animals are
in thethem to
outcompete
native
species.
Glenelg Estuary. Two pest plant species, Divided Sedge (Carex divisa) and Spartina,
have been identified as potentially threatening. Although neither of these two plant
It isspecies
currently
unknown
what aquatic
semi-aquatic
pestthey
plants
and animals
are in other
the Glenelg
has
been recorded
within and
the Glenelg
Estuary,
currently
occur within
Victorian
HopkinsDivided
RegionSedge
estuaries.
pestand
animal
species
been
Estuary.
Twoand
pestGlenelg
plant species,
(CarexOne
divisa)
Spartina,
havehas
been
identified
identified
as
potentially
threatening.
Common
Carp
(Cyprinus
carpio)
is
currently
present
as potentially threatening. Although neither of these two plant species has been recorded within the
in theEstuary,
upper reaches
of the Glenelg
Riverother
at Balmoral
veryGlenelg
low numbers.
three
Glenelg
they currently
occur within
Victorianinand
HopkinsThese
Region
estuaries.
species
are discussed
more
detail
below.as potentially threatening. Common Carp (Cyprinus
One
pest animal
species in
has
been
identified
carpio) is currently present in the upper reaches of the Glenelg River at Balmoral in very low numbers.
Pestthree
plants
can alter
values,
mainly
through
These
species
are habitat
discussed
in more
detail
below.competition with native flora species
for space and nutrients. Plant species such as Spartina can alter the habitat in estuarine
wetlands
through
of sediment
and
subsequent
alteration
habitat
structure
Pest
plants can
alter trapping
habitat values,
mainly
through
competition
with of
native
flora
speciesand
for space
characteristics.
This
in
turn
affects
native
fauna,
especially
waterbirds,
aquatic
and nutrients. Plant species such as Spartina can alter the habitat in estuarine wetlands through
invertebrates
and and
fish. subsequent
It also hasalteration
the potential
to takestructure
over seagrass
flats, which in This
turn in turn
trapping
of sediment
of habitat
and characteristics.
could impact on a variety of fauna species, including juvenile Black Bream and Estuary
affects native fauna, especially waterbirds, aquatic invertebrates and fish. It also has the potential to
Perch.
take over seagrass flats, which in turn could impact on a variety of fauna species, including juvenile
Black Bream and Estuary Perch.
Addressing the threat posed by pest plants is currently considered to be a high priority,
due to a lack of information on the current status of pest plant invasion and lack of an onAddressing
the threat
posed that
by pest
plantsfor
is early
currently
considered
to beplant
a high
priority,and
due to a
going monitoring
program
will allow
identification
of pest
incursion
lackeradication.
of information
on the current
status of
pest
lack of and
an on-going
monitoring
Investment
in monitoring
that
willplant
allowinvasion
for earlyand
detection
rapid control
program
that
will
allow
for
early
identification
of
pest
plant
incursion
and
eradication.
Investment
in
is considered to be a priority. A cost effective way to deliver such monitoring will be to
monitoring
that
will
allow
for
early
detection
and
rapid
control
is
considered
to
be
a
priority.
A
cost
combine monitoring of pest plant infestation with future habitat monitoring investment.
effective way to deliver such monitoring will be to combine monitoring of pest plant infestation with
future habitat monitoring investment.
15
3.3toPest
plants
and animals
some extent
on preventing
the introduction of pest plant and animal species.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
19
Awareness and education of the high risk that pest plants and animals pose to estuarine habitats and
biodiversity, in combination with monitoring is the greatest priority for investment in pest plant and
animal control for the Glenelg estuary. A program of this nature will allow early detection and rapid
control response to any reported occurrences of these species.
Divided Sedge
Divided Sedge was introduced into Australia from Europe, and can occur around the edges of marsh
habitat. Methods of spread of the species are unknown, but could include livestock, machinery,
hay, water and wind. It is considered that transport on vehicles or in hay is the most likely means of
spread. Divided Sedge has the potential to smother salt marsh habitat and is extremely difficult to
remove once established. It also aggressively competes with low-lying pasture.
The nearest infestation of Divided Sedge is at the Surry River estuary, approximately 80 kilometres
to the east of the Glenelg Estuary. There is no current management of Divided Sedge in Victoria.
Spartina
Spartina was introduced into Australia in the late 1920s. There are two species of Spartina in Australia.
One species, S.townsendii is sterile, reproducing through rhizome expansion. S. anglica produces
fertile seed, which can be transported through currents, wading birds and human activities.
Spartina threatens native vegetation in estuarine wetlands through the trapping of sediments and
subsequent alteration of habitat structure and characteristics. This in turn affects native fauna,
especially waterbirds, aquatic invertebrates and fish. It also has the potential to take over seagrass
flats, which in turn could impact on a variety of fauna species, including juvenile Black Bream and
Estuary Perch.
This species has not been recorded within the Glenelg Hopkins Region. The nearest recorded
location is in the Barwon estuary near Geelong.
The introduction of Spartina, otherwise known as rice or cord grass, is listed as a threatening process
under Schedule 3 of the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 (SAC 1996). The species is also
declared as an aquatic pest plant species under the Fisheries Act 1995.
Common Carp
Native to Asia, common carp were introduced into Australia from the 1850s (McDowell 1996). The
diet of carp consists of molluscs, crustaceans, insect larvae, and seeds (McDowell 1996). When
food is scarce aquatic plants and detritus are sucked from the bottom, which may cause high levels
of turbidity (Allen et al. 2002, McDowell 1996). Carp are highly fecund and are known to thrive in
degraded habitats. They have a great tolerance to low oxygen levels and can tolerate high salinity,
but are unable to survive in seawater
Although it is unlikely that the estuary would provide ideal conditions for common carp, it is possible
that carp could opportunistically use the estuary area in high freshwater flow periods. There is
presently a low risk of carp entering tributaries of the Glenelg River such as the Crawford River and
Moleside Creek, however this risk is long term. At present, common carp found in the upper reaches
of the Glenelg River do not seem to be spreading, however, large floods increase the risk of carp
extending their distribution within the Glenelg River.
Common carp are listed as a pest species under the Fisheries Act 1995, making it an offence to
return the species the water alive.
20
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Common carp are listed as a pest species under the Fisheries Act 1995, making it an
offence to return the species the water alive.
Glenelg
Carp Management
Plan (GHCMA
2003b)management
contains management
TheThe
Glenelg
River River
Carp Management
Plan (GHCMA
2003b) contains
strategies for the
strategies
for
the
management
and
control
of
carp
in
the
Glenelg
River
and
will be
management and control of carp in the Glenelg River and will be reviewed in 2006.
reviewed in 2006.
Management actions – pest plants and animals
Management actions – pest plants and animals
Preventing the introduction of pest plant and animal species represents the best form of investment
Preventing
in their
control. the introduction of pest plant and animal species represents the best form of
investment in their control.
Pest Plants and Animals
Management objective: No potentially threatening pest plants and animals in the aquatic and semiaquatic estuarine environments.
Management action target: Implementation of a pest plant and animal monitoring program to ensure
early detection of any pest plants and animals.
Action
Number
Action
GPPA1
Incorporation of pest plant and animal monitoring as part of the
monitoring, evaluation and reporting program for habitat, flora
and fauna.
If threatening species identified, implement an eradication
program.
Continue involvement in carp control measures in the upper
Glenelg River.
GPPA2
GPPA3
Key
Implementation
Tool
Lead
Priority
MER
GHCMA
VH
OW
DPI
VH
MER, OW, SP
GHCMA
VH
Soils, erosion and sedimentation
3.43.4
Soils,
erosion and sedimentation
All estuaries act as sediment traps due to the drop in velocity of inflowing water as it
meets theact
relatively
still waters
of the
estuary
1985).
Sedimentation
is a the
All estuaries
as sediment
traps due
to the
drop (Sherwood
in velocity of
inflowing
water as it meets
natural
process
in
estuaries
and
occurs
as
an
estuary
evolves
into
a
more
mature
relatively still waters of the estuary (Sherwood 1985). Sedimentation is a natural process in estuaries
floodplains,
back comprising
swamps (Roy
et al. 2001).
andlandform
occurs ascomprising
an estuaryterrestrial
evolves into
a more levees
mature and
landform
terrestrial
floodplains,
The
rate
of
sedimentation
is
strongly
related
to
the
availability
of
sediment
(Kench
1999),
levees and back swamps (Roy et al. 2001). The rate of sedimentation is strongly related to the
which highlights
the
importance
of controlling
within the
catchment.erosion
Land within
availability
of sediment
(Kench
1999), which
highlightserosion
the importance
of controlling
clearing
and
land
use
practices
since
European
settlement
have
increased
the
rate
of the
the catchment. Land clearing and land use practices since European settlement have increased
sedimentation
in
the
estuary.
rate of sedimentation in the estuary.
Although sedimentation in estuaries is a natural process over time, excessive
Although sedimentation in estuaries is a natural process over time, excessive sedimentation can
sedimentation can smother habitats.
smother habitats.
Sand slugs
Sand
slugs
The
greatest threat posed to the estuary related to sedimentation is the occurrence of
Theslowly
greatest
threatslugs
posed
the estuary
related
sedimentation
is thequantities
occurrence
of slowly
moving
moving
oftosand
throughout
the to
Glenelg
River. Large
of sand
have
slugs
of sand
throughout
Glenelg River.
Large
of which
sand have
entered
riverofand its
entered
the
river and the
its tributaries,
mainly
duequantities
to erosion,
occurred
as athe
result
tributaries,
mainly
due
to
erosion,
which
occurred
as
a
result
of
poor
historical
land
management
poor historical land management practices. This sand has formed slugs that are slowly
practices.
sand the
hasriver,
formed
slugs that
areareas
slowlyofmoving
the river,
covering
huge areas
movingThis
through
covering
huge
habitatthrough
and slowly
filling
deep pools.
of habitat
and ifslowly
fillingisdeep
Over time,
if no
is taken,
slugs of sand will
Over time,
no action
taken,pools.
these slugs
of sand
willaction
eventually
enterthese
the estuary.
eventually enter the estuary.
Coupled with on ground works to reduce the input of sand into the river, sand extraction
Coupled
with onaground
works
to reduce thetool.
inputGlenelg
of sand into
the river,
sand
represents
a
represents
primary
management
Hopkins
CMA
is extraction
responsible
for
primary
management
tool.the
Glenelg
CMA
is responsible
for removal
instreamofworks
the Water
instream
works under
WaterHopkins
Act 1989,
which
includes the
sand.under
Further
Act 1989, which includes the removal of sand. Further work is needed to develop sand extraction
in the Glenelg River, including the development of a business case that incorporates a marketing
17
strategy and cost benefit analysis that includes the environmental values. Glenelg Hopkins CMA is
currently in the process of developing a management plan for sand extraction in the entire Glenelg
Basin (GHCMA 2005).
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
21
The present location of the most downstream of these sand slugs (otherwise referred to as ‘end slug’)
is approximately 29 kilometres upstream from the Princes Highway Bridge at Dartmoor, moving at a
rate of approximately 220 metres per year. The movement rate of the sand within the river is highly
dependent on flow conditions within the river, as a huge flood has the potential to transport large
volumes of sand rapidly.
Rutherfurd and Budahazy (1996) estimate that there is between 4 and 8 million cubic metres of
sand stored in the Glenelg River and its tributaries, although not all of this sand will be available for
transport. The quantities of sand within the Glenelg River equate to approximately 20 to 30% of the
estuary volume (Sherwood et al. 1998). The exact impacts that these quantities of sand will have on
the estuarine ecosystem are unknown. If the sand reaches the estuary it will slowly fill deep pools,
smother substrate and as is the case for the upper Glenelg, reduce species diversity through a loss
of habitat. This may have the potential to impact species that utilise the substrate – eg. Glenelg
River Spiny Crayfish.
Management actions – Soils, erosion and sedimentation
Sand extraction works are currently being undertaken within some areas of the catchment to remove
the sand before it reaches the estuary. Most of these works are currently being undertaken in the
Casterton area. The Glenelg Hopkins CMA is currently working on a management plan for sand
in the Glenelg River (GHCMA 2005), and is working with extractors to set up other extraction sites
along the river. Further work is needed to identify suitable sand extraction sites. Glenelg Hopkins
CMA Sand Management Plan identifies actions and priorities for sand management in the entire
Glenelg Catchment.
During the next twelve months, work will begin on developing methods for prevention of further
movement of the end slug. This will involve the development of a concept/feasibility study, with the
view to establishing a permanent extraction site in the area.
3.5 Poor water quality
Poor water quality can have a range of negative impacts on estuarine values. Turbidity and nutrients
are two of the water quality parameters that can influence habitat the most.
One of the main causes of poor quality can be pollution. Possible sources of pollution in the Glenelg
Estuary area may include the groundwater. As many of the cave and sinkhole systems throughout
the sub-catchment are connected to the estuary through the groundwater, it is possible that anything
may impact groundwater quality may impact estuarine water quality. Dumping of rubbish into caves
and sinkholes, which may be connected to the estuary through the groundwater, although the extent
and severity of the problem needs to be investigated.
More detail on some of the key water quality parameters is presented below.
Nutrients
Nutrients are not currently monitored within the estuary as part of the Glenelg Hopkins CMA’s monthly
water quality monitoring program, outlined in Appendix D. Nutrients are monitored at a freshwater
site at Dartmoor, and this allows estimation of the input into the estuary. There is no monitoring of the
tributaries that enter the estuary downstream of this point. Previous studies (Sherwood et al. 1998,
Mondon et al. 2003) have found that total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations have been
in excess of ANZECC guidelines.
22
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Although there is a need for monitoring the nutrients in the estuary, it may not be practical or cost
effective to include nutrients in the current monthly monitoring program. Also, monthly monitoring
of nutrients, or any water quality parameter, will not record any of the daily variation that occurs
within the estuary in response to parameters such as rainfall, runoff, stormwater and tidal inflow.
As previously mentioned, nutrient inputs into the estuary are strongly linked to rainfall making event
sampling, or sampling more frequently than once a month, more indicative of what is occurring within
the estuary.
Causes of high nutrients
The main source of nutrient loads into the estuary is from land use practices in the catchment.
Impacts of high nutrient loads
Although nitrogen and phosphorus are essential to plant growth, excessive levels can contribute to
eutrophication of a system. Eutrophication can lead to algal blooms; although to date there have
been no recorded toxic algal blooms within the Glenelg Estuary system. Non-toxic algal blooms can
also be a concern as they limit recreational access to the waterway, increase oxygen demand and
decrease light penetration.
Turbidity
Turbidity is a measure of the clarity of water, which is related to the amount of suspended particles in
the water. High turbidity means that water is carrying a large amount of suspended material, which
can be an issue in estuaries.
Turbidity in the estuary has been found to range between 0.7 and 8.2 NTU. Guideline limits for
turbidity in estuaries are yet to be developed for Victoria. More data from the Glenelg Hopkins
CMA estuary water quality monitoring program is required, in order to develop specific criteria for
acceptable turbidity within the estuary, as per the State Environment Protection Policy Waters of
Victoria (SEPP WoV).
Causes of high turbidity
High turbidity is generally indicative of a high suspended solids load. This is generally caused by
erosion within the catchment.
Impacts of high turbidity
Large amounts of suspended material in the water column results in decreased light penetration.
This in turn limits photosynthesis of seagrass and phytoplankton, retarding their growth, which can
have flow on effects on nutrient cycling and further up in the food chain. High turbidity can also
indicate a high sedimentation rate, which represents a risk to seagrass beds, which could potentially
become smothered.
Dissolved oxygen
The EPA State Environment Protection Policy for Waters of Victoria (SEPP WoV) recommends a
range between 80 and 110% dissolved oxygen for estuaries. SEPP WoV requires a minimum of
11 data points collected over a 12 month period. Analysis of the data collected so far as part of the
Glenelg Hopkins CMA monthly water quality monitoring program shows that the surface waters
(typically the top 1 to 2 metres of water) meets the SEPP WoV criteria. Waters deeper than 1 m are
generally not meeting the criteria, however this further demonstrates the need for estuary specific
criteria, as it is typically stratification, a natural and necessary estuarine process, rather than ‘poor’
water quality that is causing this lack of oxygen. Stratification is primarily a result of lack of mixing of
water through the water column, and generally occurs during periods of low freshwater inflow.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
23
Causes of low dissolved oxygen levels
Stratification, as outlined above, can cause low levels of dissolved oxygen in the bottom water of the
estuary. This is a natural process, with the bottom waters becoming re-oxygenated when freshwater
flows increase.
High levels of organic matter can lower dissolved oxygen levels. As organic matter decomposes
it requires oxygen, which can lower the dissolved oxygen levels and may even cause hypoxic or
anoxic conditions. Hypoxic conditions occur when dissolved oxygen levels are below 2mg/L. Anoxic
conditions occur when there is no dissolved oxygen in the water. Sources of organic matter can
include decomposing vegetation.
Impacts of low dissolved oxygen levels
Even short-term changes to dissolved oxygen levels can have dramatic consequences for water
quality and the ecology of the system. Aquatic fauna, such as fish and invertebrates, require oxygen
for survival. Most fish require dissolved oxygen concentrations greater than 5mg/L, although species
like the Short-finned Eel (Anguilla australis) can tolerate slightly lower levels.
Stratification represents the greatest risk to aquatic fauna when artificial river mouth openings are
conducted. Artificial river mouth openings can remove the top layer of estuarine water.
Causes of high dissolved oxygen levels
Supersaturation of dissolved oxygen can be caused by high energy inputs, for example flow over a
spillway, or may be a sign of an algal bloom.
Impact of high dissolved oxygen levels
Excessively high levels of dissolved oxygen can also have serious impacts on aquatic fauna,
especially in fish. High levels of dissolved oxygen can cause gas bubble disease. In extreme cases
this can cause death, due to the blockage of blood supple to vital organs.
3.6 Reduced water quantity
Reduction in flow causes a reduction in available aquatic habitat, which may have negative
consequences for many aquatic species. Other impacts of reduced flow may include a decrease in
water quality, which in itself may also have negative impacts.
For example, alteration of the hydrology of the estuary has the potential to have serious implications
on the successful spawning of Black Bream, as this species relies on the hydrological cycle to produce
spawning cues and the optimum conditions for hatching success (Sherwood and Backhouse 1982;
Newton 1996). Limited flushing of the system will lead to a build up of anoxic waters and potentially
also lead to high concentrations of ammonia and sulphide, which may also limit spawning success
(Sherwood et al. 1997 cited in Barton 2003). Nicholson et al. (2004) has also drawn attention to
the reliance of Black Bream on the estuary’s hydrologic regime and adequate freshwater inflow.
Missing year classes in the bream population indicate spawning may not always be successful in
the estuary.
The amount of water flowing into the estuary is also highly important to the Glenelg River Spiny
Crayfish. The species only uses the estuary during high flow conditions, when the salt wedge is
not present. When the salt wedge is present, the spiny crayfish then moves up into the spring fed
freshwater tributaries of the estuary. If the salt wedge remains for long periods of time, this can
24
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
create isolated populations of the species with no opportunity for interbreeding. Regular flushing
of the salt wedge is required to avoid genetic isolation. It is also essential to protect the spring fed
freshwater tributaries of the Glenelg Estuary, such as Moleside Creek, which is considered to be an
ecologically health river reach, as these not only provide habitat for the spiny Crayfish when the salt
wedge is present, but also provide year round freshwater inflows to the estuary. These freshwater
inflows are possibly very significant during periods of drought, and their catchment and recharge
areas need to be protected to ensure they continue to provide suitable habitat.
Water quantity, in particular flow, is an important consideration in artificial river mouth openings. High
river flows and high water heights prior to a river mouth opening can ensure that the mouth will stay
open longer.
Water quantity is also linked to water quality and other estuarine processes. For example, the
amount of freshwater inflow influences the extent of stratification. During periods of high flow, the
water column in the estuary is more likely to be well mixed (see section 1.8.4). High levels of flow
are required to flush the salt wedge, for the Glenelg estuary the flow required is thought to be
approximately 6000ML/day (Sherwood et al. 1998).
3.7 Climate change and sea level rise
Climate change has the potential for significant impacts on the habitat values of the Glenelg estuary.
Sea level rise will result in an increase in the mean estuary water level. Latest research put the rate
at which sea level rise is occurring at between 0.8 and 8 centimetres every ten years (DSE 2004a).
Also it is anticipated that freshwater inflows will decline.
Climate change
The implications of climate change for estuarine habitat and associated biodiversity values may
be significant. As estuary water level increases, many of the fringing vegetation communities will,
where possible, move landwards. If the opportunity for responding to increases in water level is not
available, then there is a risk of some vegetation communities and habitat types becoming locally
extinct.
Investment in estuarine habitat mapping and flood studies represent a responsible and pro-active
response to this threat. The extent and condition data produced from these exercises will enable
habitat zones under threat from rising water levels to be accurately located and prioritised for the
application of measures that will allow for retreat of vegetation communities as water level rises.
Measures that could allow for vegetation community retreat might include:
•
•
•
•
Fencing of retreat zones combined with vegetation enhancement plantings
and controlled grazing.
An ecosystem stewardship scheme for private landholders willing to change
adjacent landuse practices for the benefit of the ecosystem.
Strategic purchase, covenanting and resale of covenanted land freehold land.
Strategic purchase and reversion of freehold land to Crown land
Accurate prediction of the impacts of climate change is extremely difficult, as any impacts are likely to
be highly complex and dependant on future actions and emission levels. In general, it is thought that
climate change in southwest Victoria will result in higher average temperatures, decreased rainfall,
more frequent storm events and increased storm ferocity (CSIRO 2002) and reduced stream flows.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
25
average temperatures, decreased rainfall, more frequent storm events and increased
storm ferocity (CSIRO 2002) and reduced stream flows.
Implications for the estuary could include (Sherwood 1987):
x alteration of wave energy, which could have a dramatic effect on the estuary
entrance and its management, along with changes in species distributions and
Implications forlife
thecycles
estuary
could include
(Sherwood 1987):
(Howden
et al. 2003).
• x an
alteration
ofin
wave
energy,
which(Pittock
could have
a dramatic effect on the estuary
increase
shoreline
erosion
2003),
x dieback
entranceofand
its management,
along due
with changes
in species
distributions
and
reeds
and other plants
to increased
salinity
resulting from
life
cycles
(Howden
et
al.
2003).
increased estuarine area, which would also have effects on the aquatic
•
an increase
in shoreline
animals
(Pittock
2003), erosion (Pittock 2003),
•
dieback of reeds and other plants due to increased salinity resulting from increased
estuarine
area, which would
have to
effects
on the
aquaticaffected
animalsby
(Pittock
Species with
longer generational
times also
are likely
be more
seriously
climate2003),
change as they not able to quickly adapt to an altered environment.
Species with longer generational times are likely to be more seriously affected by climate change as
rise
theySea
not level
able to
quickly adapt to an altered environment.
SeaSea
levellevel
rise rise is not a recent thing. Between 18,000 and 6,000 years ago sea level rose
over
100
the last
ice Between
age ended.
In and
the last
100
years,
Sea level rise metres
is not aas
recent
thing.
18,000
6,000
years
agosea
sealevel
levelhas
roserisen
over 100
between
10
and
20
cm
(CSIRO
2003).
metres as the last ice age ended. In the last 100 years, sea level has risen between 10 and 20 cm
(CSIRO 2003).
The effect of such an increase in water level height on the state, size or location of the
at theanestuary
mouth
is unknown,
andonwould
require
a or
detailed
study
of sand
the bar
The sand
effectbar
of such
increase
in water
level height
the state,
size
location
of the
geomorphology and hydrodynamics of the estuary mouth area. It is possible however
at the estuary mouth is unknown, and would require a detailed study of the geomorphology and
that the sand bar could decrease in size if there was an increase in water level within the
hydrodynamics of the estuary mouth area. It is possible however that the sand bar could decrease
system which would subsequently lead to the estuary being opened to the sea more
in size if there was an increase in water level within the system which would subsequently lead to the
frequently. If temperatures in the region continue to increase as predicted (CSIRO 2001)
estuary
opened
sea more
frequently.
If temperatures
the region
continue
increase
it is being
possible
that to
thethe
effects
of higher
evaporation
and lowerinrainfalls
may
negatetothis.
as predicted
(CSIRO
2001) difficult
it is possible
that what
the effects
evaporation
andmay
lower
rainfalls
This makes
it extremely
to predict
effectsofanhigher
increase
in sea level
have
mayon
negate
this.
This
makes
it
extremely
difficult
to
predict
what
effects
an
increase
in
sea
level
may
the opening/closing regime the estuary.
have on the opening/closing regime the estuary.
Sea level rise has the potential to impact on the environmental values of the estuary, in
Seaparticular
level rise semi
has the
potential
to impact
the environmental
the to
estuary,
particular
aquatic
vegetation.
Anon
increase
in mean seavalues
level isoflikely
cause in
some
semiretreat
aquatic
An increase
in mean
sea level
is likely
to cause
retreat of
estuaries
of vegetation.
estuaries inland.
Inundation
of areas
around
estuaries
that some
are currently
close
inland.
Inundation
of
areas
around
estuaries
that
are
currently
close
to
mean
sea
level
is likely
to mean sea level is likely to occur. As a result, semi aquatic vegetation types will need
to occur.
As a result,
semiifaquatic
vegetation
types The
will need
to migrate
landwards
if they are to
to migrate
landwards
they are
to survive.
risk of
losing existing
vegetation
survive.
The risk to
of losing
existing
vegetation
communities
threat needs
be assessed,
communities
his threat
needs
to be assessed,
andtoif his
communities
areto identified
as and
being at risk,
for as
allowing
their
retreat
needtheir
to be
exploredretreat
in order
to to be
if communities
areoptions
identified
being at
risk,landward
options for
allowing
landward
need
ensure
their
long-term
survival.
In
addition
to
risk
posed
to
existing
estuarine
habitats,
explored in order to ensure their long-term survival. In addition to risk posed to existing estuarine
the risk
existing
and potential
developments
on theonmargins
of estuaries
needsneeds
to be to be
habitats,
thetorisk
to existing
and potential
developments
the margins
of estuaries
assessed,
appropriate
planning
policies
and controls
put intoplace
to that
ensure
that
assessed,
and and
appropriate
planning
policies
and controls
put in place
ensure
developments
developments
are
impacted
by future water levels.
are not
impacted on
bynot
future
water on
levels.
Mapping
ofestuary’s
the estuary's
habitat
values
and completion
of a study
flood that
study
that factors
in theimpact
Mapping
of the
habitat
values
and completion
of a flood
factors
in the likely
likely impact of sea level rise will allow these risk assessments to be completed with a
of sea level rise will allow these risk assessments to be completed with a high level of confidence
high level of confidence and play an important role in guiding the determination of
and play an important role in guiding the determination of investment priorities for the estuary into
investment priorities for the estuary into the future.
the future.
Management actions – climate change and sea level rise
Management actions – climate change and sea level rise
Climate Change and Sea Level Rise
Management objective: Actively manage risk associated with predicted climate change associated with
the Glenelg Estuary.
22
Management action target: Ensure that the effects of climate change are incorporated into the Glenelg
Shire Planning Scheme by 2011.
Action
Number
Action
See Section 2.1, action GH2
26
Key
Implementation
Tool
Lead
Priority
Estuary government
Management Plan
4.Glenelg
Local
planning
Local government planning represents an important method for controlling activities on
4.0 LOCAL GOVERNMENT PLANNING
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
27
Local government planning represents an important method for controlling activities on freehold
land surrounding the estuary. Appropriate planning can ensure that estuary health and condition
is not compromised by development, and in turn that estuary water level does not impact on
development.
The Glenelg Shire Planning Scheme recognises the environmental significance of the Glenelg
Estuary and the adjoining Discovery Bay Coastal Park, with both areas covered by an environmental
significance overlay (ESO). The purpose of an Environmental Significance Overlay (ESO) is to
identify areas where the development of land may be affected by environmental constraints and to
ensure that development is compatible with identified environmental values.
ESOs do not prevent development from occurring, although any development needs to be consistent
with the principles of the overlay. In assessing any development proposals for land surrounding the
estuary local government need to consider the dynamic nature of the estuary, in particular the natural
regime of mouth closure and the subsequent changes in estuary water level. The likely impact of
sea level rise on water levels supports a precautionary planning response.
Landscape values
Landscape values must be considered in planning - the views to and from the estuary are significant
socially, recreationally and economically - for tourists and local residents. While this plan recognises
the importance of landscape values, no specific direction is recommended by the management plan
regarding management of this issue. Appropriate zones and overlays applied by local government
represent the primary management tool to prevent development and uses that are not aesthetically
pleasing in areas with important vistas.
The draft Heritage Rivers and Natural Catchments Management Plan (DNRE 2002b) recommends
for the Glenelg heritage river area that “heritage river landscape values are considered in any review
of planning schemes”.
‘Sea change’ development
Sea-change type development, while not a major concern at present, could become a more important
consideration in the future as demand for coastal property increases. Appropriate local government
planning controls that consider the issues raised above need to be in place to manage this.
Crown land development in South Australia
Some Crown land along the banks of the estuary in South Australia has been used for the development
of shacks. A total of 74 shacks occur at three locations, Donovans, Dry Creek and Reed Bed. These
shacks are all on public land and are sited over water.
Crown land is reserved under the Crown Land (Reserves) Act 1978, with the South Australian
Department of Environment and Heritage the owner of these reserves. The District Council of Grant
is the committee of management (Connell Wagner 2003).
Environmental impacts of the shacks include effluent and grey water disposal. Some of the shacks
in the Donovans and Reed Bed areas have septic tanks, which have not been approved by council
and are therefore illegal (Connell Wagner 2003).
A review of the shacks in these areas has found that there was evidence of grey water being directly
disposed of to the Glenelg River (Connell Wagner 2003). This practice has some potential for
negatively impacting on water quality.
28
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
A review of the shacks in these areas has found that there was evidence of grey water
being directly disposed of to the Glenelg River (Connell Wagner 2003). This practice has
some potential for negatively impacting on water quality.
Flooding, which can occur as a result of the river mouth being closed or high flows within
the river, is a threat to these shacks, due entirely to their siting over the water. At the
Flooding,
whichflooding
can occur
as a result
ofincreases
the river mouth
beingpressure
closed ortohigh
flows within
the river,
same time,
of these
shacks
community
artificially
open the
is ariver
threat
to these
shacks,
due entirely
theestuary.
water. At the same time, flooding of
mouth,
which
represents
a threattototheir
the siting
healthover
of the
these shacks increases community pressure to artificially open the river mouth, which represents a
threat
to theland
health
of the estuary.
Crown
development
in Victoria
Prior to 1984, Crown land along the banks of the estuary in Victoria was used for similar
Crown land development in Victoria
types of development as the current uses in South Australia. Over time these shacks
Prior to 1984, Crown land along the banks of the estuary in Victoria was used for similar types of
were either removed or converted into boat sheds. Boat sheds currently occur around
development
the current
in South
timesheds
these include
shacks that
werethese
eithersheds
removed or
Nelson onas
Crown
land. uses
Conditions
of Australia.
the leases Over
of these
converted
boat in
sheds.
Boatminimising
sheds currently
occur around impacts
Nelson on
Conditions
cannot into
be slept
overnight,
the environmental
thatCrown
occurland.
from grey
of the
leases
of
these
sheds
include
that
these
sheds
cannot
be
slept
in
overnight,
minimising
the
water and effluent disposal.
environmental impacts that occur from grey water and effluent disposal.
Management actions – local government planning
Management actions – local government planning
Local Government Planning
Management objective: Direct and control development to protect the values of the Glenelg Estuary
and continue economic development within the framework of ecological sustainability.
Management action target: Adoption of planning policy, zones and overlays into the Glenelg Shire
Planning Scheme that protect and enhance the values of the Glenelg Estuary.
Action
Number
Action
GP 1
Develop local planning policy for the management plan area that
is consistent with the objectives of the estuary management plan
Identify and develop appropriate zones and overlays for the
management plan area – consistent with new planning policy
Undertake notice procedures for amendments and put new
policy, zones and overlays on exhibition.
Amend Planning Scheme including incorporation of new zones
and overlays
Require that an environmental impact statement be prepared for
major planning applications for any area within or adjoining the
estuary.
GP 2
GP 3
GP 4
GP 5
Key
Implementation
Tool
Lead
Priority
SP
GSC
H
SP
GSC
M
CE
GSC
L
SP
GSC
L
SP
GSC
H
24
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
29
5.0 GLENELG ESTUARY
SUB-CATCHMENT (G1)
30
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
The Glenelg Estuary sub-catchment is defined in the Glenelg Hopkins River Health Strategy (2004)
as G1. The sub-catchment covers 1182 square kilometres and forms part of the Glenelg River
Basin. The following sections include information on the sub-catchment and its land use, along with
a description of some of the environmental, social and cultural values of the sub-catchment.
5.1 Sub-catchment description
Land tenure and management in G1
Land surrounding the estuary is managed by a number of different stakeholders.
Parks Victoria has responsibility for the management of the Lower Glenelg National Park and the
Discovery Bay Coastal Park. National Parks and Wildlife SA are responsible for managing the Lower
Glenelg River Conservation Park, which joins the Lower Glenelg National Park.
Crown frontage in the Nelson township area, downstream of the Lower Glenelg National Park, is
managed by the Nelson Committee of Management on behalf of the Department of Sustainability
and Environment.
Substantial areas of land within the sub-catchment are freehold, particularly in the north west corner.
Almost all of the land immediately adjoining the estuary is Crown land. In some areas this is only a
small strip of land in the form of a Crown frontage reserve.
Adjacent land use
Much of the surrounding land is used for conservation purposes, with the Lower Glenelg National Park
covering 27,300 hectares and the Lower Glenelg River Conservation Park covering 127 hectares.
Other major land uses in the subcatchment include timber plantations with approximately 26% of the
subcatchment area used for the cultivation of pines (Ierodiaconou et al. 2003). Agriculture is also
another major land use, which occupies approximately 27% of the subcatchment area (Ierodiaconou
et al. 2003).
5.2 Environmental values of G1
5.2.1 Flora
Prior to 1750 there was 118,122 ha of native vegetation within the estuary sub-catchment (GHCMA
2003). Today native vegetation covers 45,655 ha, or 36% per cent of the area (GHCMA 2003).
Fifty-nine species are listed on the Department of Sustainability and Environment’s advisory list of
rare or threatened plant species (DSE 2003). There are nine species listed under the Environment
Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 and eight species listed under the Flora and
Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.
Pre 1750s and current EVC information, along with the list of threatened and endangered flora
species, are presented in Appendix J.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
31
5.2.2 Fauna
Birds
A total of 131 bird species have been observed in the Glenelg Estuary area and are presented in
Appendix K. Six of these species are introduced.
Birds observed within the estuary area include 23 species listed under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee
Act 1988, 6 species listed under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999,
13 species listed under the China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (CAMBA) and 11 species listed
under the Japan Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (JAMBA).
Environment Australia (2002) lists the Glenelg Estuary as one of the few places in Victoria where the
Little Tern (Sterna albifrons) breeds. Little Terns nest on sandy beaches, just above the high water
mark and begin laying their eggs in October (Reside unknown date). Hooded Plovers (Thinornis
rubricollis) also breed at the Glenelg Estuary, with nesting between August and February. It is
estimated that there are less than 600 birds remaining in Victoria (Weston 2003). A more detailed
discussion of the species and threats to its continued viability can be found in Weston (2003).
Mammals
Thirty-two mammal species have been recorded in the estuary area and are listed in Appendix L.
Mammals observed within the management plan area include 2 species listed under Flora and
Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 and 3 species listed under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity
Conservation Act 1999.
The limestons cave systems along the Glenelg Estuary provide important habitat for two bat species
of conservation significance, Southern Bent wing bat and Large Footed Myotis
Reptiles and Amphibians
Fourteen species of reptiles have been recorded in the estuary area and are presented in Appendix
M. Only one species is listed under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988.
Macroinvertebrates
There are two significant macroinvertebrates species the Glenelg Spiny Crayfish (Euastacus
bispinosus) and the Glenelg Freshwater Mussel (Hyridella glenelgensis), both listed under the Flora
and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988. The Glenelg Spiny Crayfish (Euastacus bispinosus) is discussed
in more detail in Section 2.2.
Glenelg Freshwater Mussel
The Glenelg Freshwater Mussel (Hyridella glenelgensis) is listed under the Flora and Fauna
Guarantee Act 1988. The species was originally described near Dartmoor in 1898, with there being
no records of the species in the Lower Glenelg area between the 1920s and 1990 (Playford 2004).
The species has been found since 1990 in a tributary of the Glenelg River.
Very little is known about the ecology or distribution of the species. Playford (2004) found a patchy
distribution of the species, with them occurring more commonly in the Crawford River.
32
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
5.3 Social values in G1
The Glenelg estuary is a popular area for recreational activities. Visitor numbers recorded for the
Nelson Visitor Information Centre for the 2002-2003 financial year were 23,010 (Parks Victoria 2004).
This is partly due to the diverse natural attractions in the area including the Lower Glenelg National
Park, the Great South West Walk and the nearby Princess Margaret Rose Caves. There are a
number of tourism-based businesses in the area, including tour boat operations and canoe hire.
A variety of recreational activities are popular in and around the Glenelg Estuary. These include
bushwalking, especially along the Great South West Walk, canoeing, fishing and water-skiing.
Camping is also popular in the area, with many campsites located within the Lower Glenelg National
Park. Canoeing is a popular recreational activity with many canoeists using the estuary each year.
There are a number of camps for canoes along the estuary in the Lower Glenelg National Park.
Facilities for recreational use include boat ramps and camping areas. Parks Victoria maintains those
facilities located in the Lower Glenelg National Park.
Threats from social activities
Social activities can also represent a threat to the environmental, social, cultural and economic
values of the estuary. Activities such as walking, cycling and the use of motorbikes include the
possible threat of increased erosion and trampling of flora and fauna, while the use of motorboats
has the potential to frighten birds, causing them to take flight frequently, and boat propellers may
damage seagrass beds. Boating is also a threat to the area through physical and noise disturbance
and potential input of pollutants. Other activities like off-road vehicles, including kite surfing and kite
buggies, are also a threat to the estuary through increased erosion of tracks and roadways.
Recreational fishing also poses a threat to the estuary, especially through the inappropriate disposal
of wastes including bait bags, fishing hooks and line. Other impacts may also include the taking of
undersized fish and overfishing. Fishing line, bait containers, hooks, etc. can have negative effects
on fish, birds and marine mammals that can become entangled in line or hooked. Other threats
include the disturbance to shoreline vegetation. Bait collection, particularly along the banks, may
cause trampling and other damage to important habitat areas.
Facilities that support some recreational activities may represent a threat to the estuary, for example
at some camping areas there are drop toilets that may be too close to the estuary, and may impact
on estuarine water quality.
Threats to social activities
Flooding is a threat to social uses of the estuary, in particular recreational fishing and boating.
Flooding causes boat ramps and jetties around the estuary to go under water, restricting their
accessibility. Jetties and boat ramps may also be closed to public access for some time following
flooding as inundation can cause a build up of sediment and algal growth on their surfaces making
them dangerous for use. Floating jetties would provide an excellent alternative to the current fixed
structures, mainly by increasing access to the system and reducing the public safety risk.
Another threat to social activities in and around the estuary is insufficient or inappropriate access.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
33
5.4 Cultural values in G1
5.4.1 Aboriginal
Forty-one sites of aboriginal cultural significance, including shell middens, have been recorded from
the lower section of the Glenelg River (DNRE 2002b).
The Dhauwurd-Wurrung name for the Glenelg River is Bugara, a word that means river (Victorian
Corporation for Aboriginal Languages 2002). Dhauwurd-Wurrung is one of the languages of the
Gunditjmara people, who live along the coast and in surrounding areas in southwest Victoria.
The Glenelg River, including the estuary, is subject to a native title claim by the Gunditjmara
people.
5.4.2 Non-aboriginal
Non-aboriginals first began arriving in the Glenelg River area around the time of the arrival of Major
Mitchell’s 1836 expedition into Australia Felix, what is now Western Victoria. Major Mitchell named
the Glenelg River after the Secretary of State for the Colonies at the time.
The township of Nelson was first surveyed in October 1851, although the Nelson Hotel dates back
to 1848 (O’Gorman 1998).
Within the Glenelg Estuary catchment there are a number of sites of significance, which include
Patterson’s Canoe Camp, a site of regional significance, and the Princess Margaret Rose Caves.
The Princess Margaret Rose Caves have significant historical values and are listed as an Historic
Place of regional significance by the LCC (1997).
Many of the non-aboriginal settlers to the area established camps and built huts along the banks of
the Glenelg River. In Victoria these huts were phased out following the proclamation of the Lower
Glenelg National Park. Although the huts are no long there, some of the campsites still exist and
now contain public facilities maintained by Parks Victoria.
Threats to cultural assets
Human impacts are the biggest threat to both aboriginal and non-aboriginal cultural assets, especially
in the form of development and tourism. Off road vehicles may also represent a threat to sensitive
cultural sites. Controlling the impacts of tourism on cultural assets is best achieved through raising
the awareness of the community of the values of the area. This can be achieved through measures
such as interpretative signage if applicable and/or limiting access to sensitive areas.
34
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
6.0 ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF
THIS MANAGEMENT PLAN
- MONITORING, EVALUATION
AND REPORTING
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
35
The mechanism for assessment of the effectiveness of investment in the implementation of this
management plan has two main components.
1.Short term assessment process
This is to be achieved through evaluation of progress towards the implementation of management
action targets. This assessment process will take place on an annual basis through a forum convened
by the Glenelg Hopkins CMA in partnership with the Western Coastal Board (see section 1.7 for
details). This process forms a component of the reporting requirement for the implementation of the
South West Estuaries Coastal Action Plan.
2.Long term assessment process
This is to be achieved through the evaluation of progress towards the implementation of resource
condition targets. Resource condition targets are the desired physical state (condition and or
extent) of particular natural resource assets at a point in time in the future. In general, resource
condition targets establish the long term target for investment in implementation of the management
plan. RCTs are currently under development for the Glenelg Hopkins Region. At present, resource
condition targets are being developed for the Glenelg Hopkins CMA Region. In general, decades
represent realistic timeframes for meaningful assessment of progress towards resource condition
targets. The effectiveness of this long term assessment process will rely heavily on the level of
investment in establishing baseline condition and extent of key components of estuary health, and
then long term monitoring to ensure that the condition of the estuary does not deteriorate from the
established baseline condition.
The annual review process outlined in section 1.7 represents a key mechanism for ensuring that the
implementation, including the monitoring evaluation and reporting, of this management plan remains
effective and relevant.
Monitoring
Management actions identified in this plan focus on protecting and enhancing the environmental,
social and economic values of the Glenelg estuary. Effectiveness of the investment in implementing
these actions will be assessed through monitoring of the condition of key resources (components) of
the estuary that define its overall health. The condition of these key resources will form the focus of
resource condition targets (RCT).
As resource condition targets are currently under development and have yet to be finalised for
estuarine environments, they have not yet been included in the management plan. The action tables
presented in this plan identify management objectives, which are defined as the desired future state
of the estuary.
Management action targets (MATs), also included in the same tables, represent the ideal state of
resource once all of the actions identified in this plan have been implemented. That is, management
action targets represent the first step towards achieving the resource condition target.
In order to ensure that progress is made towards achieving the management action target, and
consequently the management objective, it is necessary to monitor implementation of not only the
actions identified in this management plan but also the current condition of the estuary. Information
on changes, both positive and negative, in the current condition gives managers a base on which to
adapt management actions to respond to the changes in the estuary’s condition.
36
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Current monitoring programs include the estuarine water quality monitoring program, which monitors
three sites within the Glenelg estuary and one site above the estuary. This program provides
information on the water quality conditions within the estuary on a monthly basis. The advantages of
such a program not only includes the fact that it provides valuable baseline information and ensures
that managers have current information on the quality of water within the estuary, it also has the
potential to provide early warning of any changes. The estuary water quality monitoring program is
currently being evaluated to ensure that it is meeting all of the objectives required.
In order to improve our understanding of the current condition of the estuary, the current monitoring
program will need to be expanded. Monitoring is vital to ensuring that we are protecting and enhancing
the environmental assets of the estuary. Monitoring programs are also useful in quantifying the
progress of implementation, and form part of both short and long term assessment processes.
Evaluation
To ensure that management actions are effective it is necessary to critically evaluate the outcomes
from actions and understand the contribution that they make to our understanding of the estuary.
As well as evaluating management actions, it is necessary to evaluate the adequacy of monitoring
programs. Monitoring programs are the best method of quantifying progress towards the management
objective, therefore it is necessary to ensure that the likely levels of change can be detected.
Evaluation of the outcomes of actions will take place as part of the annual review of implementation.
This evaluation and review will also include any ongoing programs. Progress towards the management
objective will be evaluated once, prior to conducting a major review of the management plan. At
present no process has been identified for responding to any negative changes that may be detected
as part of monitoring.
Evaluation of the reporting programs will also need to be undertaken to ensure that reporting is
efficient and timely, as well as meeting the requirements of the target audience.
The effectiveness of investments in the implementation of this plan will be determined through the
assessment of progress towards the management objective.
Indicators identified will also need to be constantly reviewed as our understanding improves. At
present there are a number of projects currently underway that are seeking to improve our knowledge
of how estuaries respond to various pressures and potential linkages between catchment condition
and estuary health. This includes a project underway by Deakin University for the Department of
Sustainability and Environment. This is a two year project that is scheduled for completion in early
2008. The project will look at the links between catchment condition and estuary condition. Another
project currently is being undertaken by a PhD student from Flinders University that is investigating
the applicability of indicators to measure condition in a number of Victorian estuaries, including the
Glenelg. This project is due for completion in mid 2006, and the outcomes will need to be considered
when re-evaluating the indicators used to monitor resource condition in the Glenelg estuary.
Reporting
Reporting of the outcomes of current actions will take place as part of the annual review of
implementation. Informing the wider community of the outcomes of the annual review meeting will
also represent an integral component of reporting. Reporting will need to identify the actions that
have been implemented in the past 12 months, outcomes of those actions as well as identify any
new issues or priorities within the management plan area.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
37
Management actions – monitoring, evaluation and reporting
Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting
Management objective: Monitor and evaluate the health and functioning of the estuary and
implementation of the estuary management plan.
Management action target: Undertake an evaluation of the effectiveness of implementing actions
identified in this plan by 2011.
Action
Number
Action
GMER1
Develop realistic and measurable resource condition targets for
the estuarine resources of the Glenelg Estuary.
Following development of estuarine RCTs for the Glenelg
Estuary, develop a monitoring program, including development
of a series of indicators, to measure progress towards achieving
the desired resource condition target.
GMER2
Key
Implementation
Tool
Lead
Priority
SP
GHCMA
VH
SP
GHCMA
H
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45
GLOSSARY
46
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Actions - what needs to be done to maintain and enhance the values of the area.
Algal bloom - “A term used to describe the dense growth of planktonic algae which imparts a distinct colour to
the water” (Thain and Hickman 1996)
Artificial - man made; not occurring naturally; made in imitation of something natural.
Anoxic - waters are anoxic when they contain no oxygen.
Australian Height Datum - mean sea level is equivalent to zero on the AHD scale.
Benthos - the flora and fauna of sea or lake bottom from high water mark down to the deepest levels. (from
Lawrence 1989)
Biomass - total weight, volume or energy equivalent of organisms in a given area (from Lawrence 1989)
Carapace - From Heinemann (1987) “a shell or hard covering on the back of some animals, such as a crab
or tortoise.”
Density - the numbers of a species, either plant or animal, in a given area.
Diadromous - “migrating between fresh and seawater” (from Lawrence 1989). Eels are an excellent example
– they live in freshwater for most of their life but breed in saltwater. Estuaries are vital for these species, as
they need to migrate through estuaries to reach either fresh or saltwater.
Dissolved oxygen - oxygen in water is in solution. Dissolved oxygen levels in water need to be higher than
5 mg/L to be suitable for fish.
Eutrophication - From Lawrence (1989) eutrophication is the “excessive enrichment of a lake, etc. with
nutrients, resulting in growth of organisms and depletion of oxygen”.
EVC - Ecological Vegetation Class. Ecological vegetation classes provide a guide to the plant community and
individual species that occur (or once occurred) in different parts of the landscape. Maps of the extent of EVCs
prior to european settlement and the current extent have been produced by DSE.
Flocculation - The process by which small particles of fine soils and sediments aggregate into larger lumps.
Hydrodynamics - this relates to how the water moves within the estuary. In estuaries it is also relates to the
movement and changes in freshwater and saltwater.
Karst - an area of limestone in which erosion has produced fissures, sinkholes, underground streams, and
caverns
Land managers - are the persons or agencies responsible for managing the land in the area. In Section
9 where reference is made to land manager, this includes land managers for both private and public land
areas.
Littoral - growing or living near the sea shore (from Lawrence 1989). The littoral zone is the “zone of shallow
water and bottom above compensation depth (the depth at which photosynthesis cannot be supported) in
lakes” (from Lawrence 1989).
Macroinvertebrates - Bugs that are large enough to be seen with the naked eye and that lack backbones.
Morphology - the form and structure of the estuary.
Natural - normal or to be expected; genuine or spontaneous; produced by nature; not created by human
beings; not synthetic.
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
47
Objectives - these are the “preferred future” of the estuary; that is how we would like the estuary to be in the
future.
Photosynthesis - is the process by which plants use the sun’s energy and carbon dioxide to make sugars
which provide energy for growth.
Phytoplankton - plant plankton (from Lawrence 1989)
Plankton - usually small marine or freshwater plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton) drifting with
the surrounding water (from Lawrence 1989)
ppt - Parts per thousand. Usually the measurement of the salt content of water. Sea water has a salt
concentration of 35ppt.
Public land managers - are those authorities, agencies or councils that have the responsibility for managing
and maintaining public and Crown land areas and facilities.
Regionally controlled weeds - is a category of weeds listed under the Catchment and Land Protection Act
1994, and is those weed species that are considered to be widespread and considered important in a particular
region.
Regionally prohibited weeds - is a category of weeds listed under the Catchment and Land Protection Act
1994, and is those weed species that are not widely distributed in the region but are capable of spreading
further.
Riparian - frequenting, growing on, or living on the banks of streams or rivers (from Lawrence 1989).
Saltmarshes - wetland areas that are saline and subject to tidal influences, generally near the estuary
mouth.
SEPP WoV - State Environment Protection Policy Waters of Victoria. This policy can be viewed on the EPA’s
website http://www.epa.vic.gov.au
Stakeholders - are those groups or individuals that have an interest, which can be either economic,
environmental, social or cultural, in the management plan area.
Stratification - occurs in estuaries due to the difference in densities between salt and freshwater. The end
result is a layer of fresher water sitting on top of a saltwater layer.
Substrate - a surface on which an organism grows or is attached.
Targets - this is how we would like the estuary to be at the end of a given period. This time period will vary
between targets, depending on the length of time required to detect change.
Turbidity - high turbidity is caused by having large amounts of sediment or foreign particles either suspended
in the water column or stirred up by some activity. Sediment sources include erosion of land areas as well as
erosion of the river’s banks.
Zooplankton - animal plankton
48
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
FURTHER INFORMATION
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
49
AAV - Aboriginal Affairs Victoria – www.dvc.vic.gov.au/aav.htm
CAMBA - China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement. – www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/waterbirds
DEH - Department of Environment and Heritage (Federal Government Department). – www.deh.gov.au
DIMIA - Department of Immigration, Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (Federal Government Department).
www.dimia.gov.au
DOI - Department of Infrastructure. – www.doi.vic.gov.au
DPI - Department of Primary Industries. – www.dpi.vic.gov.au
DSE - Department of Sustainability and Environment. – www.dse.vic.gov.au
DU - Deakin University. – www.deakin.edu.au
DVC - Department of Victorian Communities. – www.dvc.vic.gov.au
EPA - Environment Protection Authority. – www.epa.vic.gov.au
Floating jetties - http://www.thejettyspecialist.com.au/domjet
GHCMA - Glenelg Hopkins Catchment Management Authority – www.glenelg-hopkins.vic.gov.au
GSC - Glenelg Shire Council – www.glenelg.vic.gov.au
IPA - Indigenous Protected Area – www.deh.gov.au/indigenous/ipa
IUCN - World Conservation Union – www.iucn.org
JAMBA - Japan Australia Migratory Bird Agreement - www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/migratory/waterbirds
LCC - Land Conservation Council – www.veac.vic.gov.au
NHT - Natural Heritage Trust – www.nht.gov.au
Orange-bellied Parrot Recovery Plan - www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/recovery/orange-bel-parrot/
index.html
PV - Parks Victoria – www.parkweb.vic.gov.au
SRW - Southern Rural Water – www.srw.com.au
TFN - Trust for Nature – www.tfn.org.au
VFF - Victorian Farmers Federation – www.vff.org.au
WCB - Western Coastal Board – www.westerncoastalboard.vic.gov.au
50
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
APPENDICES
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
51
Appendices
Appendix A - Relevant legislation, policies and strategies
Appendix A Relevant legislation, policies and strategies
Regional - Victorian
Lower Glenelg National Park
Management Plan (1991)
Discover Bay Parks Management Plan
(2004)
South West Estuaries Coastal Action
Plan (2002)
South West Victoria Regional Coastal
Action Plan (2002)
Glenelg Shire Coastal Action Plan
Glenelg Hopkins Regional Catchment
Strategy 2003 – 2007
Glenelg Hopkins Nutrient Management
Plan (2002)
Glenelg Hopkins Draft Native Vegetation
Plan (2003a)
Glenelg Hopkins Weed Action Plan
(2000a)
Glenelg Hopkins Rabbit Action Plan
(2000b)
Glenelg Hopkins River Health Strategy
(2004)
State - Victorian
Victorian Coastal Strategy (2002);
Victoria’s Biodiversity Strategy (1997);
Victoria’s Native Vegetation Management
– A Framework for Action (2002);
Coastal Management Act 1995
Crown Land (Reserves) Act 1978
Planning and Environment Act 1987
Water Act 1989
Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994
Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988
38
52
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Prepared for the Lower Glenelg National Park. Contains
management objectives and strategies for the area.
Prepared for the Discovery Bay Parks, and contains management
objectives and strategies for the area.
Sets out how and what to consider when preparing individual estuary
management plans.
Coastal Action Plans provide strategic coastal planning for the region.
Prepared by the Regional Coastal Board – Western Coastal Board.
Provides more detail for the area than the Victorian Coastal Strategy
Provides more detail for the area than the Regional Coastal Action
Plan and the Victorian Coastal Strategy
Prepared by the GHCMA and provides the primary planning
framework for land, water and biodiversity in the region
Prepared by the GHCMA to provide a framework for nutrient
management projects
Prepared by the GHCMA under the State framework for native
vegetation management.
Prepared by the GHCMA for the management of pest plants within
the region
Prepared by the GHCMA for the management of rabbits within the
region.
Prepared by the GHCMA and sets out strategies for ecological
sustainability and the restoration of environmental condition in the
region. Prepared under the Victorian River Health Strategy.
Prepared under the Coastal Management Act 1995 to guide planning
objectives on the Victorian Coast.
The objectives are:
x Sustain
x Protect
x Direct
x Develop
Forms a key step in the FFG program, shows how to achieve the
Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act’s objectives of conserving native
species, communities and gene pools, preventing threats and
encouraging community involvement.
The broad purpose of this framework is to achieve a net gain in
extent and quality of native vegetation across the state.
Provides for the co-ordinated and strategic planning of
Victoria’s coastal resources
Established the Coastal Boards
Provides for the preparation of the Victorian Coastal
Strategy and Coastal Action Plans
Requires consent for the use and development of Crown
Land
Provides for the reservation of Crown Lands and the management of
those lands
Established to provide a framework for planning the use,
development and protection of land in Victoria.
Provide for the integrated management of all elements of the
terrestrial phase of the water cycle; and to promote the orderly,
equitable and efficient use of water resources.
Established the Catchment Management Authorities
The key piece of Victorian legislation for the conservation of
threatened species and communities and for the management of
potentially threatening processes
State - Victorian
Wildlife Act 1975
Archaeological and Aboriginal Relics
Preservation Act 1972
Victorian River Health Strategy (2002)
Reference Areas Act 1978
Fisheries Act 1995
National Parks Act 1975
Heritage Rivers Act 1992
Land Conservation (Vehicle Control) Act
1972
Environment Protection Act 1970
State – South Australian
Estuaries Policy
Living Coast Strategy (2004)
Native Vegetation Act 1991
National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972
Crown Lands Act 1929
Fisheries Act 1982
Aboriginal Heritage Act 1988
Natural Resources Management Act
2004
Provides for the protection and conservation of wildlife; and the
prevention of taxa from becoming extinct and to prohibit and regulate
the conduct of persons engaged in activities concerning or related to
wildlife..
Provides for the protection of archaeological and aboriginal relics.
The VRHS provides the framework for regional communities to make
decisions on river protection and restoration and to find the balance
between using our rivers and maintaining their ecological condition.
Provides for the setting aside and management of reference areas
which are areas of special ecological interest and significance
Provides for the management and conservation of Victorian fisheries
resources, habitats and ecosystems.
Also aims to facilitate access to fisheries resources for commercial,
recreational, traditional and non-consumptive uses.
Provides for the establishment of National and other parks and for
their management, the appointment of a Director of National Parks
and Wildlife and the appointment of a National Parks Advisory
Council and park advisory committees. It also provides for specialised
uses and activities, including those of a non-conforming nature.
Provides for the protection of public land in particular parts of rivers
and river catchment areas in Victoria that have significant nature
conservation, recreation, scenic or cultural heritage attributes.
Controls vehicle traffic on public land to aid in the prevention of soil
erosion and damage. This includes vast areas of the coastal zone.
Purpose is to create a legislative framework for the protection of the
environment in Victoria having regard to the principles of environment
protection. Also establishes the Environment Protection Authority.
Currently underdevelopment by the SA DEH.
Sets out the state’s environmental policy directions for sustainable
management of South Australia’s coastal, estuarine and marine
environments.
Provides for the conservation, protection and enhancement of the
native vegetation of the State and, in particular, remnant native
vegetation, in order to prevent further—
x reduction of biological diversity and degradation of the land
and its soil; and
x
loss of quantity and quality of native vegetation in the State;
and
x loss of critical habitat.
Provides for the establishment of National and other parks and for
their management. Administered by the SA Department of
Environment and Heritage
Administered by the SA Department of Environment and Heritage
Provides for the conservation, enhancement and management of
fisheries, the regulation of fishing and the protection of certain fish; to
provide for the protection of marine mammals and the aquatic habitat;
to provide for the control of exotic fish and disease in fish, and the
regulation of fish processing; and for other purposes Administered by
Primary Industries and Resources SA.
Provides for the protection and preservation of the Aboriginal
heritage. Administered by Department of Aboriginal Affairs and
Reconciliation
Provides for the sustainable and integrated management of the
State's natural resources. Established the Natural Resources
Management Council and Regional NRM Boards. The Act is
administered by Department of Water, Land and Biodiversity
Conservation; Catchment and Water Management Boards, Regional
NRM Boards.
39
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
53
State – South Australian
Water Resources Act 1997
Development Act 1993
Federal
Australian Environment Protection and
Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
China Australia Migratory Bird
Agreement (CAMBA)
Japan Australia Migratory Bird
Agreement (JAMBA)
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Heritage Protection Act 1984
Native Title Act 1993
5440 Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
The object of this Act is to establish a system for the use and
management of the water resources of the State—
x that ensures that the use and management of those
resources sustain the physical, economic and social well
being of the people of the State and facilitate the economic
development of the State.
Provide for proper, orderly and efficient planning and development in
the State.
Provide for the protection of the environment, especially those
aspects of the environment that are matters of national environmental
significance; and to promote ecologically sustainable development
Agreement between China and Australia for the protection of
migratory birds and their environment
Agreement between Japan and Australia for the protection of
migratory birds and their environment
Provide for the preservation and protect places, areas and objects in
Australia and Australian waters, that are places, areas or objects of
particular significance to Aboriginals in accordance with Aboriginal
tradition.
Provides for the recognition and protection of native title and also
establishes mechanism for determining claims to native title.
Appendix B Plan consultation
Appendix B - Plan Consultation
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan Workshop Notes 28/10/04
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan Workshop Notes 28/10/04
Attendance List:
Attendance List:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Invitees
Cheryl and Chris Carson (Nelson
Boat and Canoe Hire)
Cheryl
and Mountford
Chris Carson
- Anne
(Waterwatch
(Nelson
Boat and Canoe Hire)
monitor)
Anne
Mountford
(Waterwatch
- Peter
Hill (Parks
Victoria) monitor)
- Bruce
Mackereth
(Parks Victoria)
Peter
Hill (Parks
Victoria)
Dave
Bone
(Parks
Victoria)
Bruce Mackereth (Parks
Victoria)
John
Amor
(Coast
Dave Bone (Parks Victoria)
Action/Coastcare)
John Amor
(Coast Action/Coastcare)
- Eric Green
Eric
- Green
Peter Howieson (South East
Peter Catchment
Howieson and
(South
East Catchment
Water
and Water
Management
Management
Board) Board)
- Gray
Scott Gray
Scott
(DPI (DPI
Fisheries/Fishcare
Fisheries/Fishcare
Co-ordinator)
Co-ordinator)
Winda-mara Aboriginal Corporation
Burrandies Aboriginal Corporation
District Council of Grant
South East Catchment Water Management Board
Glenelg Shire Council
Shack owners from Donovans, Dry Creek and Reed Bed.
Parks Victoria
National Parks and Wildlife SA
Friends of Mt Gambier Parks
Mt Gambier Field Naturalists Society
Portland Field Naturalists Inc.
Portland Angling Club
Portland Sport and Game Fishing Club Inc.
Dartmoor Angling Club
Glenelg River Angling Club
Nelson Boat and Canoe Hire
Paestan Canoe Hire
Glenelg River Cruises
VRFISH
Nelson Notes
Glenelg River Classic Boat Club Inc
Neslon Public Reserve COM Inc
Nelson Progress Association
Nelson Tourist Association
Friends of the Great South West Walk
GHCMA Community Facilitator
Waterwatch coordinator
Waterwatch monitor
Southern Rural Water
EPA Victoria
Portland Coast Water
Department of Environment and Heritage South Australia
Department of Sustainability and Environment
- Ben Bosschieter (DPI Fisheries)
- Angus Telford
-- Ben
Bosschieter
(DPI Fisheries)
Fred
Aslin
-- Angus
Colin Telford
Donehue (Portland Angling
- Fred
Aslin
Club)
Helen
Arundel (Portland
(Deakin Angling Club)
-- Colin
Donehue
University/Western
Coastal
Board)
- Helen Arundel (Deakin
University/
Linda
Grant
(Glenelg
Hopkins
Western Coastal Board)
CMA)
- Linda
Grant (Glenelg Hopkins CMA)
- Kylie Bishop (Glenelg Hopkins
- Kylie
Bishop (Glenelg Hopkins CMA)
CMA)
-- Geoff
GeoffBrown
Brown(facilitator
(facilitator – Tangent
– Tangent
Consulting)
Consulting)
Apologies
Ken Gazzard
Greg Creek – EPA Victoria
Neville Creed
Russell Peate – District Council of Grant
John Sherwood – Deakin University
Noel Currie
Gilbert Wood
Dave Gray
Greg Flint – Burrandies Aboriginal Co-op
41
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
55
Issues raised at the start of the workshop session:
1.
2.
How far were the invites sent out? – see previous page
The definition of an estuary needs to be clearly defined on all future
correspondence. It was assumed by some participants that today was in regards
to the lower half of the estuary from the highway bridge down rather than the
complete tidal reach.
The estuary for the purpose of this management plan is the full extent of the
tidal area from just south of Dartmoor to the mouth at Nelson.
Words that we love?
Words that describe the estuary.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
family
peace and tranquillity
preservation
pristine
aesthetic value
natural values
access
history
diversity (beyond just biology)
love, care, passion
fun and enjoyment
artistic inspiration
fish
uniqueness/lack of interference
campsites
intactness of the environment
bush meets water and feeling
of closeness
lovely place where time
doesn’t matter
remoteness
great family area
geology
fishing
natural beauty
navigable
What are the things we are doing well?
These things should continue to happen despite change
and new ideas
• Maintenance by Parks of camps and river
- Litter/toilet “whole lot”
• Balance of uses of the estuary
• National Parks management plan already done
- Integration between different plans
• Compliance re fishing regulations
- community complying with these
• “Community ownership” – care and proud
- continue to foster and grow this
• Level of community involvement in decision making
• Lack of communication along the river
• Health of the river – proud by vigilant.
What is a vision anyway?
What are some other words to describe a vision?
- focus
- aim
- milestone
- what you want
- dream
- preference
What do visions inspire?
- something to aim for
- emotion within
- relate to it – must be realistic
What is the challenge with having a vision?
- dictates change
- rethink
What if we don’t have one?
- lack of common goal
- lack of direction
Benefits?
- direction/focus/something to aim for
56
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Our task – craft a single statement that captures what we want to create in the
future.
be broad
Our
task –This
craftmust
a single
statement that captures what we want to create in the future.
This must be broad
Visions
Visions
The final
reads:
Thevision
final vision
reads:
“To protect
and enhance
the natural,
cultural,
social
economic
values
“To protect
and enhance
the natural,
cultural,
social
andand
economic
values
of the
of
the
Glenelg
River
Estuary
for
the
future.”
Glenelg River Estuary for the future.”
This vision
was compiled
group
visions,
which
were
then
discussedand
anddebated
debated to
to compile
This vision
was compiled
fromfrom
four four
group
visions,
which
were
then
discussed
compile
in a single
vision.
The four
are presented
below
in no particular
in a single
vision.
The four
visions
are visions
presented
below in no
particular
order. order.
1.1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
AnAnestuary
social
and
economic
interests
areare
protected
while
estuarywhere
wherecommunity,
community,
social
and
economic
interests
protected
maintaining and enhancing environmental values.
while maintaining and enhancing environmental values.
Maintain the integrity of the Glenelg River Estuary while catering for an increase in
Maintain recreational
the integrityand
of the
Glenelg
residential,
tourism
use. River Estuary while catering for an
recreational
tourism
use.and social attributes of the
Toincrease
continueintoresidential,
manage and
protect the and
natural,
physical
To continue
to manage
and generations
protect the to
natural,
Glenelg
River Estuary
for future
enjoy. physical and social attributes
The
will beRiver
managed
in co-operation
with community
and interstate agencies.
of estuary
the Glenelg
Estuary
for future generations
to enjoy.
Sustainable
environmental
flows
will
be
maintained,
and
the
cultural
natural
The estuary will be managed in co-operation with community
and and
interstate
values
of
the
river
protected.
Accessibility
for
recreational
opportunities
will
be
agencies. Sustainable environmental flows will be maintained, and the cultural
ensured.
and natural values of the river protected. Accessibility for recreational
opportunities will be ensured.
Some good and bad things about the estuary
Some good and bad things about the estuary
GOOD
At last, some planning
Quality of vegetation
Parks as the boundary
BAD
Possible clash with Park plan?!
Boxthorn/rabbits
Grazing erosion on private land
Non removal of old jetties
Poor signage of ski zone
I have been told that just above Dartmoor is a ‘sand slug’ – a large
conglomerate of sand, clay and nutrients that if/when it moves into the
estuary could scour banks and ultimately, when it reaches the area
near the mouth could result in algal blooms. I’ve heard predictions of
time scales from 40 to 200 years. Is this being investigated/monitored
and are there steps that can be taken to do something about it before
it enters the estuary part of the river?
Assets/threats
Assets/threats
Navigable
ASSET
Source of artistic inspiration
THREAT
Logs are natural
Sand bars are natural
Less navigable is NOT a real problem – only for power boaters
Speed is not paramount
Safety means taking the river as you find it
Siltation – aggradation of the river channel
Better signage of transit channels etc in ski zones.
Vista of pines needs to be minimised
Need to continue the diversity on the banks
43
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
57
Diversity – not just biological
People pressure
Surrounding land use
Single issue groups
Water quality (only 50% surface input)
Lack of knowledge by people loving an area to death
Mismanagement/lack of management eg. water allocation
Human interaction
Feeling of remoteness – “where time
doesn’t matter”
Development
Overcrowding – more people
- footy break-ups
- noisy campers
Anything threatening the peace and quiet
Speed of boats/types of craft (eg. jet skis)
Mobile phone access
- when it is available, there’s less remoteness (but more safety)
Needs to be considered when planning access.
Lack of education (eg. litter, fishing regulations, handling, etc.)
Carp – introduced fish
Pollution (eg. litter, nutrient runoff, motorcraft)
Overfishing – more people fishing, better technology
Excessive speed watercraft
Lack of fisheries resources
Lack of flow of river (irrigation)
Parks Vic threats to stop campfires in the Park
Injuries/death to wildlife from discarded line/hooks/sinkers
Uneducated fishers
Fishing
Family area to enjoy and have fun
Natural aesthetic beauty – “where the
bush meets the river”
Overdevelopment
Weeds – pine wildlings
Reduced flow
Declining water quality
Escalating visitor numbers
Trimming of trees on banks
Intactness of the environment
Pristine
environment
–
interference”
Fire
Built environment
Sewage
Government policy
Closure/opening
Increase visitation
Pest plant and animals
European carp
Riparian vegetation clearing
Herbicides
Pine trees
Water flows and quality
Nutrients
Sand slug
58
44
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
“little
       
Appendix
C - 
Consultation
framework for development and
 
implementation of Estuary Management Plans
 








 
 
  
  

 


   
 










  
 

•

•


•
 

•
 


•

•
 
•
 

•
 

   
  

  
  
  
 
         
       
        
         
  
   
 
 
   

Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
59
Appendix
D - Physical and chemical water quality monitoring
Appendix D Physical and chemical water quality monitoring
Chemical Monitoring
Season
Parameters
Winter
- Total Nitrogen (TN), Total
Spring
Phosphorus
(TP),
Turbidity; Flow rate (Q)
June
to
November
Winter
- Turbidity
NTU;
Total
Spring
Dissolved
Solids,
Dissolved
Oxygen;
June
to Temperature, pH
November
SummerTurbidity
NTU;
Total
Autumn
Dissolved
Solids,
Dissolved
Oxygen;
December
Temperature, pH
to May
-
60
46
monitoring sites
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Frequency
Monthly
Sites
1
site
at
freshwater
limit
Comments
Allows for nutrient inputs
catchment to be approximated
Monthly
profiles
3
Estuary
sites
Profiles are to be done at each estuary
site: a mid surface layer and a mid
bottom layer to identify any occurrence
of stratification
Monthly
profiles
3
Estuary
sites
Profiles are to be done at each estuary
site: a mid surface layer and a mid
bottom layer to identify any occurrence
of stratification
from
Appendix E - State Environment Protection Policy Guidelines
Appendix E State Environment
Protection
Policy Guidelines of Victorian
of Victorian
Estuaries
Estuaries
Estuaries
and Inlets
Total P
Total
inorganic
P
Total N
Dissolved
inorganic N
Chlorophyll
a
Dissolved
Oxygen
Transparency/
PAR
attenuation
(µg/L)
75TH
percentile
” 30
(µg/L)
75TH
percentile
”5
(µg/L)
75TH
percentile
”300
(µg/L)
75TH
percentile
”30
(µg/L)
75TH
percentile
”4
%
Max
M
Min
75TH percentile
80
110
•R25
Suspended
Solids
Turbidity
(µg/L)
75TH
percentile
”R75
(NTU)
75TH
percentile
”R75
R75 and R25 means that a single objective value could not be specified due to a lack
R75
andorR25
means that
a single
objective
couldFor
notthese
be specified
dueobjective
to a lack of data or a
of data
a variability
of data
collected
in a value
segment.
areas, the
variability
collectedand
in a is
segment.
these
the objective
to beatcalculated and
needs to ofbedata
calculated
the 75thFor
and
25thareas,
percentile
of dataneeds
collected
reference
sites.25thReference
sites
sites atwithin
segments
that characterise
is
the 75th and
percentile of
dataare
collected
reference
sites. Reference
sites are sites within
background
(orcharacterise
natural) levels,
desirable(orconditions
or thedesirable
best available
sites or
in the
thatbest available
segments
that
background
natural) levels,
conditions
segment.
sites
in that segment.
Appendix F Fish species
Appendix
F - Fish species
Abbreviations
Abbreviations
FFG – Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988
L - listed
FFG
Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988
EPBC – Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999
L - –listed
Vul
Vulnerable
VROT – Victorian Rare or Threatened Species.
EPBC EEnvironment
Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999
– Endangered
Vul
–
Vulnerable
NT – Near threatened
VROT
Victorian Rare
or Threatened
Species.
Action statements
for those
species listed
under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act
1988 areEavailable
– Endangered
from the Department of Sustainability and Environment Website
(http://www.dse.vic.gov.au).
NT – Near threatened
Action
statements
for those
species
under
Flora has
and been
Fauna
Guarantee
Information
on the fish
species
of the listed
Glenelg
Riverthe
Estuary
compiled
fromAct 1988 are
a variety of
sources
including: DCE
(1991), Sherwood
(1985), Barton
and Sherwood
available
from
the Department
of Sustainability
and Environment
Website
(http://www.dse.vic.gov.
(2004), DNRE (2002) and DSE (2003).
au).
a–
denotes an
speciesof the Glenelg River Estuary has been compiled from a variety of
Information
onintroduced
the fish species
sources including: DCE (1991), Sherwood (1985), Barton and Sherwood (2004), DNRE (2002) and
FFG EPBC VROTS
Common
Name
Scientific name
DSE
(2003).
Australian Smelt
Black Bream
Blue Morwong
Blue-Spot Goby
Bridled Goby
Broad Finned Galaxias
Brown Trouta
Common Galaxias
Dusky Morwong
East Australian Salmon
Elongate Hardyhead
Estuary Perch
Flat-headed Gudgeon
Reropinna semoni
Acanthopagrus butcheri
Nemadactylus douglasii
Pseudogobius olorum
Arenigobius bifrenatus
Galaxias brevipinnis
Salmo trutta
Galaxias maculatus
Dactylophara nigricans
Arripis trutta
Atherinosoma elongata
Macquaria colonorum
Philypnodon gradniceps
Glenelg Estuary Management
Plan
47
61
1988 are available from the Department of Sustainability and Environment Website
(http://www.dse.vic.gov.au).
Information on the fish species of the Glenelg River Estuary has been compiled from
a variety of sources including: DCE (1991), Sherwood (1985), Barton and Sherwood
(2004), DNRE (2002) and DSE (2003).
a–
denotes an introduced species
Common Name
Australian Smelt
Black Bream
Blue Morwong
Blue-Spot Goby
Bridled Goby
Broad Finned Galaxias
Brown Trouta
Common Galaxias
Dusky Morwong
East Australian Salmon
Elongate Hardyhead
Estuary Perch
Flat-headed
Gudgeon
Common Name
a
Gambusia
Greenback Flounder
King George Whiting
Long Snout Flounder
Luderick
Mulloway
Pouched Lamprey
Rainbow Trout
Red Gurnard
Red Rock Cod
Redfina
River Blackfish
Sand Flathead
Sea Mullet
Short-Finned Eel
Silver Morwong
Small Mouthed Hardyhead
Smooth Toadfish
Southern Anchovy
Southern Pygmy Perch
Southern Rock Cod
Southern Sea Garfish
Spotted Galaxias
Tailor
Tamar Goby
Tommy Ruff
Tooth-Brush Leatherjacket
Trevally
Tupong
Variegated (Ewen's) Pygmy Perch
Western Carp Gudeon
Yarra Pygmy Perch
Yellow-Eye Mullet
62
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Scientific name
Reropinna semoni
Acanthopagrus butcheri
Nemadactylus douglasii
Pseudogobius olorum
Arenigobius bifrenatus
Galaxias brevipinnis
Salmo trutta
Galaxias maculatus
Dactylophara nigricans
Arripis trutta
Atherinosoma elongata
Macquaria colonorum
Scientific name
Philypnodon
gradniceps
Gambusia holbrooki
Rhombosolea tapirina
Sillaginodes punctatus
Ammotretis rostratus
Girella tricuspidata
Argyrosomus hololepidotus
Geotria australis
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Chelidonichthys kumu
Scorpaenia papillosa
Perca fluviatilis
Gadopsis marmoratus
Platycephalus bassensis
Mugil cephalus
Anguilla australis
Meadactylus douglasii
Atherinosoma microstoma
Torguigener glaber
Engraulis australis
Nannoperca australis
Pseudophycis barbata
Hyporhamphus melanochir
Galaxias truttaceus
Pomatomus salator
Favonigobius tamarensis
Arripis georgianus
Acanthalutere vittiger
Pseudocaranx dentex
Pseudaphritis urvilli
Nannoperca variegata
Hypseleotris kluzingeri
Nannoperca obscura
Aldrichetta fosteri
FFG EPBC VROTS
FFG EPBC VROTS
47
L
Vul
E
L
Vul
NT
Appendix G Fish in estuaries
Appendix
Fish in estuaries
Fish usageGof- estuaries
Estuaries are a unique habitat, where environmental conditions can range from
completely
fresh to saline. Some estuaries can become hypersaline, with a salinity
Fish usage
of estuaries
concentration greater than that of seawater. These diverse and varying conditions
provide
forhabitat,
a variety
of species,
from marine
opportunists
that from
gain completely
access via fresh to
Estuaries
are habitat
a unique
where
environmental
conditions
can range
river
mouth
openings,
to
estuarine
and
freshwater
fish.
Marine
opportunists
are that of
saline. Some estuaries can become hypersaline, with a salinity concentration greater than
usually
juveniles
of
marine
species
that
utilise
the
benefits
provided
by
estuarine
seawater. These diverse and varying conditions provide habitat for a variety of species, from marine
habitatsthat
to complete
a stage
in their
life-cycle
(SeetoFigure
3). Estuarine
speciesfish.
are Marine
opportunists
gain access
via river
mouth
openings,
estuarine
and freshwater
those
that
complete
their
whole
life-cycle
within
the
estuary,
while
some
freshwater
opportunists are usually juveniles of marine species that utilise the benefits provided by estuarine
species
can be found
in the
upper
reaches(See
(SeeFigure
Figure3).
4). Estuarine
Other species
may
habitats
to complete
a stage
in their
life-cycle
species
areuse
those that
the
estuary
as
a
migratory
route
between
freshwater
and
seawater
or
vice
versa.
An in the
complete their whole life-cycle within the estuary, while some freshwater species can be found
example is the Short-finned Eel (Anguilla australis) that migrates from freshwater to
upper reaches (See Figure 4). Other species may use the estuary as a migratory route between
the sea from summer to autumn to breed in the Coral Sea (Allen et al. 2002). Adults
freshwater and seawater or vice versa. An example is the Short-finned Eel (Anguilla australis) that
die after breeding, but juveniles make their way to the estuaries, where they migrate
migrates from freshwater to the sea from summer to autumn to breed in the Coral Sea (Allen et al.
up-stream into freshwater areas, sometime between October and January (Allen et
2002).al.Adults
die after
breeding,
their way
to theaided
estuaries,
where they migrate
2002).
Adults
migratebut
to juveniles
the seamake
in winter
months,
by floodwaters
up-stream
into freshwater
areas, sometime between October and January (Allen et al. 2002). Adults
(McDowall
1996)
migrate to the sea in winter months, aided by floodwaters (McDowall 1996)
Other species may enter or “visit” estuaries as adults for short periods, although they
Otherare
species
may enter
“visit” estuaries
as adults
forofshort
they
not dependent
onor
estuaries
for any specific
stage
their periods,
lifecycle. although
Mullet are
an are not
dependent
on of
estuaries
for anyspecies
specifictostage
of theirestuary.
lifecycle.(See
Mullet
are5).
an example of marine
example
marine visitor
the Glenelg
Figure
visitor species to the Glenelg estuary. (See Figure 5).
One of the most important functions estuaries provide is to act as a ‘nursery’ for
One of
the most
important
functions
estuaries
provideasisato‘nursery’,
act as a there
‘nursery’
for juvenile
fish. For an
juvenile
fish.
For an area
to function
efficiently
needs
to be a low
area to
function
a ‘nursery’,
there needs
to beEstuaries
a low number
of predators
and a large
number
of efficiently
predatorsas
and
a large amount
of food.
and their
associated
wetlands
these requirements
due to their
high productivity
and relativelydue
shallow
amount
of food.fulfil
Estuaries
and their associated
wetlands
fulfil these requirements
to their high
nature.
This
‘nursery’
function
is
particularly
useful
to
marine
opportunist
species
that
productivity and relatively shallow nature. This ‘nursery’ function is particularly useful to marine
can enter
the estuary
juveniles,
or larvae,
when the
river mouth
). is open
opportunist
species
that can as
enter
the estuary
as juveniles,
or larvae,
when is
theopen
river(See
mouth
The
level
ofofpredation
in the
themarine
marineenvironment,
environment,meaning
(See ).
The
level
predationininan
anestuary
estuaryisis much
much lower than in
meaning
juveniles
a greater
survival
rate in
the estuarine
habitat.
grown
juveniles
have a
greater have
survival
rate in the
estuarine
habitat.
Once grown
to aOnce
relatively
large size,
to
a
relatively
large
size,
these
fish
return
to
the
marine
environment
where
their
these fish return to the marine environment where their larger size reduces the risk of predation.
largerofsize
reduces
the riskinclude
of predation.
Examples
of marineYellow-eye
opportunists
include
Examples
marine
opportunists
Sea Mullet
(Mugil cephalus),
Mullet
(Aldrichetta
Sea
Mullet
(Mugil
cephalus),
Yellow-eye
Mullet
(Aldrichetta
forsteri)
and
East
forsteri) and East Australian Salmon (Arripis trutta). The species of fish recruited into the
estuarine
Australian
Salmon
(Arripis
trutta).
The
species
of
fish
recruited
into
the
estuarine
system will depend on the season the mouth is open, and the period of time it remains open. Figure
system
will depend
onfor
the
seasonmarine
the mouth
is open, and the period of time it
3 shows
the lifecycle
pattern
a typical
opportunist.
remains open. Figure 3 shows the lifecycle pattern for a typical marine opportunist.
Figure 3 Life cycle of marine opportunists, e.g. mullet (adapted from Swan River Trust,
1999)
49
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
63
Figure 4 Life cycle of an estuarine species, e.g. Black Bream (adapted from Swan
River Trust, 1999)
Figure 5 Marine visitors (adapted from Swan River Trust, 1999)
Information on key fish species in the Glenelg Estuary
Information on key fish species in the Glenelg Estuary
Black Bream
Black Bream
Bream
(Acanthopagrus
butcheri),
though
sometimes
caught
the ocean,
are
BlackBlack
Bream
(Acanthopagrus
butcheri),
though
sometimes
caught
in theinocean,
are considered
to
considered
to
be
a
truly
estuarine
species,
completing
their
entire
life
cycle
within
an
be a truly estuarine species, completing their entire life cycle within an estuary. Black bream are
estuary. Black
bream
are also sometimes
caught
in up
freshwater,
been
netted
also sometimes
caught
in freshwater,
having been
netted
to 30 km having
above the
salt
wedge in the
up
to
30
km
above
the
salt
wedge
in
the
Glenelg
Estuary
(Sherwood
and
Backhouse
Glenelg Estuary (Sherwood and Backhouse 1982) and are a highly important species for recreational
1982) and are a highly important species for recreational fishing.
fishing.
Sherwood and Backhouse (1982) studied the hydrodynamics of salt-wedge estuaries
Sherwood and Backhouse (1982) studied the hydrodynamics of salt-wedge estuaries in relation
in relation to spawning of Black Bream, and in particular focused on the Glenelg and
to spawning of Black Bream, and in particular focused on the Glenelg and Hopkins river estuaries.
Hopkins river estuaries. They concluded that winter flushing of the estuary is vital,
They and
concluded
that
winter flushing
thesalt
estuary
is vital,
andback
that up
the the
advancement
of the salt water
that the
advancement
ofofthe
water
wedge
estuary following
wedge
back
up
the
estuary
following
mouth
closure
is
an
important
spawning
cue
for
Black Bream.
mouth closure is an important spawning cue for Black Bream. Newton (1996)
Newton
(1996)
confirmed
this
in
the
Hopkins
estuary
finding
that
spawning
of
species
such
confirmed this in the Hopkins estuary finding that spawning of species such as Black as Black
Bream
and anchovy
were were
related
to physical
conditions
withinwithin
the estuary.
Bream
and anchovy
related
to physical
conditions
the estuary.
Bream
eggs eggs
are neutrally
buoyant
at 15 at
parts
per thousand
(ppt) salinity,
and have
Bream
are neutrally
buoyant
15 parts
per thousand
(ppt) salinity,
and been
have found in
salinities
ranging
to
the
low
20
ppt
(Sherwood
pers
com.
2004).
This
means
that
the
eggs float in
been found in salinities ranging to the low 20 ppt (Sherwood pers com. 2004). This
the water
column,
justeggs
above
theindense
salt-water
layer.
greatest layer.
in the Glenelg
means
that the
float
the water
column,
just Spawning
above theactivity
dense is
salt-water
Estuary in October (Nicholson et al. 2004).
50
64
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Mulloway
Mulloway (Argyosomus japonicus), also known as Jewfish, is a coastal fish that can grow up to
2 metres in length. It is a popular recreational fish species, reaching maturity at about 6 years of
age.
Mulloway spawn in marine waters and are thought to spend the first four years of their lives in
estuaries. Estuarine areas, such as those at the mouth of the Murray River in South Australia, are
important nursery areas for juvenile Mulloway.
There is very little published information available on Mulloway and the current status of Mulloway
within the estuary is relatively unknown.
Estuary Perch
Estuary Perch (Macquaria colonorum) are also considered to be an important recreational fishing
species.
Whilst they haven’t been studied in the Glenelg, it is known from Hopkins Estuary that Estuary Perch
were found to vary their diet according to availability; with the most important food types found to
include the atyid shrimp (Paratya australiensis), amphipods and the hymenosomatid crab (Amarinus
lacustrine) (Howell et al. 2004). Species such as the shrimp occur commonly within estuaries with
deep channels and stable salt wedges and, in the Hopkins River estuary, are most abundant within
seagrass beds (Walsh and Mitchell 1995).
Generally, Estuary Perch prefer deep saline waters, but can be found in fresh or slightly brackish
reaches of estuaries (McDowall 1996). In July and August, Estuary Perch move to the mouths of
estuaries to breed (Allen et al. 2002, McDowall 1996). Male Estuary Perch reach maturity at about
22cm, females at about 28cm (Allen et al. 2002).
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
65
Appendix H - Regulation of artificial river mouth openings
Before 1995, artificial river mouth openings were unregulated. During 1995, growing public concern
regarding flooding of private land, and the lack of knowledge regarding the environmental impacts of
un-regulated openings prompted Southern Water (now Southern Rural Water) to initiate regulation of
openings through Works on Waterways licences, issued under the Water Act 1989. This followed an
investigation of relevant legislation, which found laws relating to works on waterways apply equally
to artificial opening of river mouths and, as such, these works should be regulated.
Artificial river mouth openings are regulated under the following legislation:
•
Section 67 of the Water Act 1989, administered by the Glenelg Hopkins CMA
through licences;
•
Section 37 of the Coastal Management Act 1995 administered by the Department
of Sustainability and Environment through consents; and
Works on Waterways License
Works on Waterways licenses provided under the Water Act 1989 expire one year from the date of
issue. A copy of the current license for artificially opening the Glenelg River Mouth, and its attached
conditions, is included in Appendix I.
Works on Waterways licenses stipulate a number of conditions that must be met prior to undertaking
an artificial mouth opening. The principal condition is that the river mouth cannot be opened artificially
until the water level in the estuary has reached a certain level. For the Glenelg estuary, this level has
been set at 1.12m AHD, which is measured on the gauge board located near the boat ramp landing
downstream of the Nelson Kiosk.
This level is referred to as the “trigger level”. Once the water level in the estuary reaches the
trigger level, the holder of the Works on Waterways license, in this case Parks Victoria, can consider
the need to artificially open the river mouth. (A common misunderstanding is that the trigger level
defines the level at which the river mouth is automatically opened by artificial means - which is not
the case.)
Before an artificial opening can go ahead, the other conditions of the license must be met.
These conditions have been established to lower the risk of damage to estuarine processes and
biodiversity.
Following attainment of the trigger level, assessment of the water quality conditions within the estuary
is the next most important consideration in the process of artificial river mouth opening (ARMO). This
is due to the often stratified nature of water quality in the estuary. Removal of the oxygenated top
layer of water from the system is the most immediate risk to biodiversity when conducting ARMO.
This can result in mass fish kills, such as those seen in the Surry River in 1997, 1999 and 2005. The
degree and extent of stratification in an estuary is controlled by many factors, including tidal inputs,
freshwater inputs and weather conditions, which is why assessment of these factors is included in
the list of licence conditions.
Coastal Management Act Consent
Along with a Works on Waterways License, consent must also be obtained under the Coastal
Management Act 1995 for the use and development of those areas that are coastal Crown land. The
Coastal Management Act 1995 is administered by the Department of Sustainability and Environment.
Coastal Management Act consent for artificial river mouth openings can be given for up to 5 years.
66
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
Appendix I - Works on Waterways Permit for artificial
river mouth openings of the Glenelg River
Standard permit conditions
1.
The works shall be constructed in accordance with the plans submitted with the application and
using sound engineering principles.
2.
The waterway shall not be deviated from the natural channel in any manner during clearing of
the obstruction, except with the specific approval of Glenelg Hopkins CMA. If necessary, the flow
shall be pumped around the construction site or construction undertaken in stages with flow
confined to one portion of the waterway.
3.
Disturbance of the bed and banks of the waterway and the use of construction plant and
equipment is to be kept to a minimum during construction. Removal, destruction or lopping
of native vegetation is also to be kept to a minimum. Suitable conservation measures are to
be implemented to prevent vegetation, silt, chemicals and spillage from clearing activities
either entering the waterway or moving downstream. No discharge/dumping of wastewater or
other materials to the waterway is permitted, unless specifically authorised by the Authority.
4.
Disturbed bank areas shall be graded to remove humps and hollows and top soiled and planted
with locally occurring native species of grasses and shrubs.
5.
Vegetation that has been cleared for construction purposes and any heaps of excavated soil
remaining after the completion of the works shall be removed from site. No material of any
sort shall be pushed into the waterway or left in a manner where it can slip or be moved by
floodwaters, into the waterway.
6.
Any works in the bed of the waterway should be designed and constructed so as not to impede
fish passage.
7.
Logs and boulders removed from the waterway as a result of clearing activity should be returned
to the waterway and randomly distributed.
8.
The works shall always be maintained in good order.
9.
It is the responsibility of the person issued with this permit to obtain the necessary approval
of the works before their commencement:
a)
b)
from the relevant planning authority;
from the Department of Sustainability and Environment (DSE) in relation to the Coastal
Management Act, Land Act 1958, Forests Act 1958 the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988,
the Conservation, Forests and Land Act 1987 and the Catchment and Land Protection Act 1994.
10.
That the applicant provide Glenelg Hopkins CMA with the following information prior to each opening:
a) Water quality test results as specified under general condition 14
b) Fauna survey results
c) Water level
d) Proposed date and time of opening
11. That the applicant report in writing to Glenelg Hopkins CMA no later than two weeks from the date of
the opening on the success of the River Mouth Opening including:
a) Any issues that arise in relation to any of the conditions
b) Copy of water quality test results prior and post river mouth opening as specified under general condition 14
c) Timing issues under general condition 12
d) The water level prior to opening
e) Any environmental impacts that occurred
f) Date and time of opening
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
67
12.
When considering the appropriate time for the mouth opening works to commence, the applicant
should consider the following conditions:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
Whether substantial break or change in the weather has occurred in the upper catchment
The presence of significant in-stream flows moving towards the river mouth
Offshore winds
Tidal conditions
Time of year
Social activities on the river
Possible effects on wildlife values e.g. Nesting water bird survey and fish spawning
behavior / habitat
Water quality (see condition 14 below)
Long term effects
13.
All works are to be supervised by the Licensee, in consultation with DSE and are to be completed
to the satisfaction of Glenelg Hopkins CMA and DSE. In this regard, the following officers are
to be contacted in advance of works commencing:
Andrew Gosden
DSE
78 Henna Street
Warrnambool VIC 3280
Ph: 5561 9956
Estuary Projects Coordinator
Glenelg Hopkins CMA
79 French Street
Hamilton VIC 3300
Ph: 5571 2526
14.
Monitoring of water quality (Dissolved Oxygen profile (DO), Electrical Conductivity profile (EC),
and temperature) must be done pre and post artificial river mouth opening, dissolved oxygen and
conductivity are required to be repeated once, 24-48 hours after artificially opening the river mouth; water level is to be monitored 12 hourly for 48-72 hours post Artificial River Mouth Opening.
15.
Should any archaeological relics or evidence be discovered during the course of the works,
the person discovering the relics or evidence must notify the Executive Director of Heritage Victoria
as soon as practicable, and works suspended until advice from Heritage Victoria is received.
16.
That works or work access cease immediately upon the discovery of any Aboriginal cultural
material, and Aboriginal Affairs Victoria be immediately notified of any such discovery.
17.
That works or access to works cease immediately upon the discovery of any suspected human
remains, the Police or State Coroner’s Office must be informed of the discovery without delay.
If there are reasonable grounds to suspect that the remains are Aboriginal, the discovery must
also be reported to Aboriginal Affairs Victoria.
18.
That Officers of Aboriginal Affairs Victoria shall be permitted access to the site at any reasonable
time, for the purpose of monitoring adherence to Conditions 15 and 16.
Glenelg River artificial opening
Specific conditions
1.
The Glenelg River mouth shall not be artificially opened until the water level is above the trigger
level of 1.12 AHD as marked on the gauge board located at the boat ramp landing downstream
of the Nelson Kiosk.
2.
The applicant shall obtain the approval of all appropriate authorities and landowners to gain access
to the waterway. Entry is to be via South Australia for machinery.
3.
That the proponent contacts Aboriginal Affairs Victoria to arrange for a cultural heritage inspection
of the proposed work site. Christina Pavlides is the contact person. Phone 03 9637 8693
4.
That the proponent contact Ms Denise Lovett (Cultural Heritage Protection Officer, Winda-Mara
Aboriginal Corporation) on 03 9616 2921 and arrange to employ a community representative
to monitor the access route across which the equipment travels to the mouth of the Glenelg River.
This community representative will have the authority to change the access route to avoid areas of cultural sensitivity.
68
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
55
Appendix J - Vegetation
EVC
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
69
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
56
70
Native
Native
Abbreviations
FFG Abbreviations
Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988
L - listed
FFG
Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988
L - listedProtection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
EPBC Environment
VU - Vulnerable
EPBC Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999
VU - Vulnerable
DSE Department of Sustainability and Environment’s Advisory List for Rare
or Threatened
Species
2005
DSE
Department
of Sustainability
and Environment’s Advisory List for Rare or Threatened
k – poorly
Species
2005known in Victoria
r – rare
k – poorly known in Victoria
r – rare
v – vulnerable
v – vulnerable
e - endangered
e - endangered
Information on the vegetation has been compiled from a variety of sources including Barson and
Information on the vegetation has been compiled from a variety of sources including
Calder (1976); Department of Conservation and Environment (1991); Gullan (1990); Beauglehole
Barson and Calder (1976); Department of Conservation and Environment (1991);
(1944), Beauglehole and Learmonth (1956), DSE (2005, Society for Growing Australian Plants
Gullan (1990); Beauglehole (1944), Beauglehole and Learmonth (1956), DSE (2005,
Warrnambool and District Group (2004).
Society for Growing Australian Plants Warrnambool and District Group (2004).
Over 600
of native
plants have
within the
management
plan area.
Overspecies
600 species
of native
plantsbeen
haveidentified
been identified
within
the management
plan
This species
list
contains
only
those
species
that
are
considered
rare
or
significant
the area.
area. This species list contains only those species that are consideredwithin
rare or
significant within the area.
Common Name
Austral Trefoil
Beauglehole's Midge-orchid
Blotched Sun-orchid
Bog Gum
Bog-rush
Broad-lip Leek Orchid
Clover Glycine
Coast Ballart
Coast Bitter-bush
Coast Bush-pea
Coast Dandelion
Coast Fescue
Coast Ground-berry
Coast Pomaderris
Coast Speedwell
Coast Stork's-bill
Curly Sedge
Cut-leaf Xanthosia
Downy Daisy
Dwarf Boronia
Elongate Woodruff
Fairy Aprons
Forked Rice-flower
Glenelg Pomaderris
Scientific Name
Lotus australis
Corunastylis nuda
Thelymitra benthamiana
Eucalyptus kitsoniana
Schoenus carsei
Prasophyllum patens
Glycine latrobeana
Exocarpos syrticola
Adriana quadripartita
Pultenaea canaliculata
Taraxacum cygnorum
Austrofestuca littoralis
Acrotriche cordata
Pomaderris oraria subsp. oraria
Veronica hildebrandii
Pelargonium littorale
Carex tasmanica
Xanthosia leiophylla
Brachyscome debilis
Boronia nana var. nana
Asperula charophyton
Utricularia uniflora
Pimelea hewardiana
Pomaderris halmaturina spp. continentis
DSE
k
r
v
r
r
r
v
r
v
r
e
r
r
r
v
k
v
r
v
r
k
k
r
r
FFG EPBC
L
VU
L
VU
L
VU
57
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
71
Green-comb Spider-orchid
Hairy Sheperd's-purse
Hoary Rapier-sedge
Ivy Flat-pea
Lax Marsh-flower
Lax Twig-rush
Leafy Greenhood
Leafy Twig-sedge
Lime Fern
Limestone Spider-orchid
Lizard Orchid
Mellblom's Spider-orchid
Metallic Sun-orchid
Neat Spear Grass
Netted Daisy-bush
Otway Bush-pea
Oval-leaf Logania
Painted Spider-orchid
Perfoliate Pond-weed
Prickly Arrow Grass
Prickly Raspwort
Prickly Spear-grass
Scaly Poa
Sea Tassel
Sharp Greenhood
Shining Peppermint
Showy Lobelia
Silver Everlasting
Slender Bitter-cress
Slender Tick-trefoil
Square Raspwort
Swamp Greenhood
Veined Spider-orchid
Water Blinks
White Correa
Wiry Bossiaea
72
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
58
Caladenia dilatata
Microlepidium pilosulum
Lepidosperma canescens
Platylobium triangulare
Villarsia umbricola var. umbricola
Baumea laxa
Pterostylis cucullata
Cladium procerum
Pneumatopteris pennigera
Caladenia calicola
Burnettia cuneatta
Caladenia hastata
Thelymtira epipactoides
Austrostipa mundula
Olearia speciosa
Pultenaea prolifera
Logania ovata
Arachnorchis colorata
Potamogeton perfoliatus
Triglochin mucronatum
Haloragis myriocarpa
Austrostipa stipoides
Poa fax
Ruppia maritima
Pterostylis x ingens
Eucalytpus willisii subsp willisii
Lobelia beaugleholei
Argentipallium dealbatum
Cardamine tennuifolia
Desmodium varians
Haloragis exalata subsp. exalata var exalata
Pterostylis tenuissima
Arachnorchis reticulata
Montia fontana subsp. fontana
Correa alba var. pannosa
Bossiaea cordigera
k
e
r
k
k
r
v
r
e
e
r
e
e
r
k
r
r
L
VU
L
VU
L
L
EN
EN
L
k
r
v
v
r
k
r
r
r
r
k
k
v
v
v
k
r
r
VU
VU
Appendix K - Bird Species
Bird
Species
FFG Appendix
FloraKand
Fauna
Guarantee Act 1988
L - listed
Flora and Fauna
Guarantee
Act 1988 Act
EPBCFFG –Environment
Protection
and Biodiversity
L
listed
E – Endangered
EPBC – Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act
CAMBA China
Australia Migratory Bird Agreement
E – Endangered
CAMBA – China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement
JAMBA
Japan
Australia
Migratory
Bird Bird
Agreement
JAMBA
– Japan
Australia
Migratory
Agreement
VROTS
–
Victorian
Rare
or
Threatened
Species
VROTS Victorian Rare or Threatened Species
Endangered
EE– –Endangered
V – Vulnerable
V – Vulnerable
NT – Near threatened
NT – Near threatened
CE – Critically endangered
CE – Critically endangered
Action statements for those species listed under the Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act
Action1988
statements
for those
listed under
the Flora and
Guarantee
Act 1988 are
are available
from species
the Department
of Sustainability
andFauna
Environment
Website
available
from
the
Department
of
Sustainability
and
Environment
Website
(http://www.dse.vic.gov.
(http://www.dse.vic.gov.au).
au).
Information on the bird species of the Glenelg estuary has been compiled from a
Information
bird species
of thethe
Glenelg
estuary has
been compiledand
fromEnvironment
a variety of sources
varietyonofthesources
including
Department
of Conservation
including
the
Department
of
Conservation
and
Environment
(1991);
Department
of Environment
(1991);
of Environment and Heritage (2001); Environment Australia
and Heritage
Environment
Australia
(2002);Wildlife;
Miller (1936);
the Atlas
Victorian
Wildlife; the
(2002); (2001);
Miller (1936);
the Atlas
of Victorian
the South
West of
Victoria
Birdlife
SouthRegister
West Victoria
Birdlife
(South
WestBird
Victorian
Branch,Club
Bird of
Observers
Club
of Australia,
(South
WestRegister
Victorian
Branch,
Observers
Australia,
2004);
2004);Barton
Bartonand
and Sherwood (2004);
Health
Strategy
(2004)
and DSE
(2004); Glenelg
GlenelgHopkins
HopkinsRiver
River
Health
Strategy
(2004)
and (2003)
DSE
(2003) and
are presented
and are
presented
in taxonomic
order.in taxonomic order.
NativeNative
Family Name
Casuariidae
Anatidae
Anatidae
Anatidae
Anatidae
Anatidae
Anatidae
Anatidae
Anatidae
Anatidae
Anatidae
Common Name
Emu
Blue-billed Duck
Musk Duck
Freckled Duck
Black Swans
Cape Barren Goose
Australian Shelduck
Pacific Black Duck
Australian Shoveler
Grey Teal
Chestnut Teal
Anatidae
Pink-eared Duck
Anatidae
Hardhead
Podicipedidae
Hoary-Headed Grebe
Podicipedidae
Great Crested Grebe
Procellariidae
Southern Giant Petrel
Sulidae
Australasian Gannet
Anhingidae
Darter
Phalacrocoracidae Little Pied Cormorant
Phalacrocoracidae Pied Cormorant
Phalacrocoracidae Little Black Cormorant
Scientific Name
Dromiaus novaehollandiae
Oxyura australis
Biziura lobata
Stictonetta naevosa
Cygnus atratus
Cereopsis novaehollandiae
Tadorna tadornoides
Anas superciliosa
Anas rhynchotis
Anas gracilis
Anas castanea
Malacorhynchus
membranaceus
Aythya australis
Poliocephalus poliocephalus
Podiceps cristatus
Macronectes giganteus
Morus serrator
Anhinga melanogaster
Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
Phalacrocorax varius
Phalacrocorax sulcirostris
CAMBA/
FFG EPBC JAMBA VROTS
E
V
E
L
L
NT
V
V
L
E
V
NT
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
59
73
Family Name
Common Name
Phalacrocoracidae Great Cormorant
Pelecanidae
Australian Pelican
Ardeidae
White-Faced Heron
Ardeidae
Little Egret
Ardeidae
Great Egret
Ardeidae
Intermediate Egret
Ardeidae
Nankeen Night Heron
Ardeidae
Little Bittern
Ardeidae
Australasian Bittern
Threskiornithidae Australian White Ibis
Threskiornithidae Straw-Necked Ibis
Threskiornithidae Royal Spoonbill
Accipitridae
Black-Shouldered Kite
Accipitridae
Black Kite
Accipitridae
White-Bellied Sea-Eagle
Accipitridae
Swamp Harrier
Accipitridae
Grey Goshawk
Accipitridae
Collared Sparrowhawk
Falconidae
Australian Hobby
Falconidae
Peregrine Falcon
Falconidae
Nankeen Kestrel
Gruidae
Brolga
Rallidae
Lewins Rail
Rallidae
Spotless Crake
Rallidae
Dusky Moorhen
Rallidae
Black-Tailed Native Hen
Rallidae
Eurasian Coot
Scolopacidae
Bar-Tailed Godwit
Scolopacidae
Eastern Curlew
Scolopacidae
Marsh Sandpiper
Scolopacidae
Common Greenshank
Scolopacidae
Common Sandpiper
Scolopacidae
Sanderling
Scolopacidae
Red-Necked Stint
Scolopacidae
Sharp-Tailed Sandpiper
Scolopacidae
Curlew Sandpiper
Haematopodidae Pied Oystercatcher
Haematopodidae Sooty Oystercatcher
Recurvirostridae Banded Stilt
Charadriidae
Red-Capped Plover
Charadriidae
Hooded Plover
Charadriidae
Masked Lapwing
Laridae
Pacific Gull
Laridae
Kelp Gull
Laridae
Silver Gull
Laridae
Caspian Tern
Laridae
Crested Tern
Laridae
Little Tern
74
60
Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
CAMBA/
Scientific Name
FFG EPBC JAMBA
Phalacrocorax alba
Pelecanus conspicillatus
Egretta novaehollandiae
L
E
Egretta garzetta
L
C&J
Ardea alba
L
Ardea intermedia
Nycticorax caledonicus
L
Ixobrychus minutus
L
Botarus poiciloptilus
Threskiornis molucca
Threskiornis spinicollis
Platalea regia
Elanus axillaris
Milvus migrans
L
CAMBA
Haliaeetus leucogaster
Circus approximans
L
Accipter novaehollandiae
Accipter cirrhocephalus
Falco longipennis
Falco peregrinus
Falco cenchroides
L
Grus rubicunda
L
Rallus pectoralis
Porzana tabuensis
Gallinula tenebrosa
Gallinula vetralis
Fulica atra
C&J
Limosa lapponica
C&J
Numenius madagascariensis
C&J
Tringa stagnatilis
C&J
Tringa nebularia
C&J
Actitis hypoleucos
C&J
Calidris alba
C&J
Calidris ruficollis
C&J
Calidris acuminata
C&J
Calidris ferruginea
Haematopus longirostris
Haematopus fuliginosus
Cladorhynchus leucocephalus
Charadrius ruficapilus
L
Thinornis rubricollis
Vanellus miles
Larus pacificus
Larus dominicanus
Larus novaehollandiae
L
CAMBA
Sterna caspia
J
Sterna bergii
L
E
C&J
Sterna albifrons
VROTS
E
V
CE
NT
E
E
V
V
V
V
NT
V
NT
V
NT
NT
V
Family Name
Laridae
Columbidae
Columbidae
Columbidae
Common Name
Fairy Tern
Spotted Turtle-Dove
Common Bronzewing
Brush Bronzewing
Red-Tailed BlackCacatuidae
Cockatoo
Yellow-Tailed Black
Cacatuidae
Cockatoo
Cacatuidae
Galah
Cacatuidae
Sulfur-crested Cockatoo
Psittacidae
Little Lorikeet
Psittacidae
Crimson Rosella
Psittacidae
Swift Parrot
Psittacidae
Blue-Winged Parrot
Psittacidae
Orange-Bellied Parrot
Psittacidae
Ground Parrot
Cuculidae
Shining Bronze-Cuckoo
Strigidae
Powerful Owl
Tytonidae
Masked Owl
Apodidae
White-Throated Needletail
Alcedinidae
Azure Kingfisher
Halcyonidae
Laughing Kookaburra
Maluridae
Superb Fairy Wren
Maluridae
Southern Emu-Wren
Pardalotidae
Rufous Bristle-Bird
Pardalotidae
White-Browed Scrubwren
Pardalotidae
Striated Fieldwren
Pardalotidae
Brown Thornbill
Pardalotidae
Yellow-Rumped Thornbill
Meliphagidae
Red Wattlebird
Meliphagidae
Little Wattlebird
Spiny-Cheeked
Meliphagidae
Honeyeater
Meliphagidae
Yellow-Faced Honeyeater
Meliphagidae
Singing Honeyeater
Meliphagidae
New Holland Honeyeater
Tawny-Crowned
Meliphagidae
Honeyeaters
Meliphagidae
White-Fronted Chat
Petroicidae
Rose Robin
Petroicidae
Pink Robin
Petroicidae
Eastern Yellow Robin
Pachycephalidae Crested Shrike-tit
Pachycephalidae Olive Whistler
Pachycephalidae Grey Shrike-Thrush
Dicruridae
Magpie-Lark
Dicruridae
Rufous Fantail
Dicruridae
Willie Wagtail
Artamidae
Australian Magpie
Scientific Name
Sterna nereis nereis
Streptopelia chinensis
Phaps chalcoptera
Phaps elegans
Calyptorhynchus banksi
graptogyne
Calyptorhynchus funereus
Eolophus roseicapilla
Cacatua galerita
Glossopsitta pusilla
Platycercus elegans
Lathamus discolor
Neophema chrysostoma
Neophema chrysogaster
Pezoporus wallicus
Chrysococcyx lucidus
Ninox strenua
Tyto novaehollandiae
Hirundapus caudacutus
Charadrius ruficapillus
Dacelo novaeguineae
Malurus cyaneus
Stipiturus malachurus
Dasyornris broadbenti
Sericornis humilis
Calamanthus fuliginosus
Acanthiza pusilla
Acanthiza chrysorrhoa
Anthochaera carunculata
Anthochaera chrysoptera
CAMBA/
FFG EPBC JAMBA VROTS
E
L
L
E
E
L
E
E
L
L
E
CE
E
L
L
V
E
L
NT
Acanthagenys rufogularis
Lichenostomus chrysops
Lichenostomus virescens
Phylidonyris novaehollandiae
Phylisdonyris melanops
Epthianura albifrons
Petroica rosea
Petroica rodinogaster
Eopsaltria australis
Falcunculus frontatus
Pachycephala olivacea
Colluricincla harmonica
Grallina cyanoleuca
Rhipidura rufifrons
Rhipidura leucophrys
Gymnorhina tibicen
61Plan
Glenelg Estuary Management
75
Family
Common
Scientific
FamilyName
Name
CommonName
Name
ScientificName
Name
Corvidae
Little
Corvus
Corvidae
LittleRaven
Raven
Corvusmellori
mellori
Family Name
CommonPipit
Name
Scientific
Name
Motacilidae
Richard's
Anthus
Motacilidae
Richard's Pipit
Anthusnovaeseelandiae
novaeseelandiae
Corvidae
Little Raven Finch
Corvus mellori
Passeridae
Red-Browed
Noechmia
Passeridae
Red-Browed Finch
Noechmiatemporalis
temporalis
Motacilidae
Richard's
Pipit
Anthus novaeseelandiae
Passeridae
Beautiful
Firetail
Stagonopleura
Passeridae
Beautiful Firetail
Stagonopleurabella
bella
Passeridae
Red-Browed
Finch
Noechmia
temporalis
Hirundinidae
Welcome
Hirundo
Hirundinidae
WelcomeSwallow
Swallow
Hirundoneoxena
neoxena
Passeridae
Beautiful
Firetail
Stagonopleura
bella
Hirundinidae
Tree
Hirundo
Hirundinidae
TreeMartin
Martin
Hirundonigricans
nigricans
Hirundinidae
Welcome
Swallow
Hirundo ariel
neoxena
Hirundinidae
Fairy
Hirundo
Hirundinidae
FairyMartin
Martin
Hirundo ariel
Hirundinidae
Tree
Martin
Hirundo
nigricans
Slyviidae
Clamorous
Slyviidae
ClamorousReed
ReedWarbler
Warbler Acrocephalus
Acrocephalusstentoreus
stentoreus
Hirundinidae
Fairy Grassbird
Martin
Hirundo ariel
Slyviidae
Little
Megalurus
Slyviidae
Little Grassbird
Megalurusgramineus
gramineus
Slyviidae
Clamorous ReedCisticola
Warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus
Slyviidae
Golden-headed
Slyviidae
Golden-headed Cisticola Cisticola
Cisticolaexilis
exilis
Slyviidae
Little
Grassbird
Megalurus
gramineus
Zosteropidae
Silvereye
Zosterops
Zosteropidae
Silvereye
Zosteropslateralis
lateralis
Slyviidae
Golden-headed Cisticola Cisticola exilis
Zosteropidae
Silvereye
Zosterops lateralis
Introduced
Introduced
CAMBA/
CAMBA/
FFG
EPBC
FFG EPBCJAMBA
VROTS
JAMBA VROTS
CAMBA/
FFG EPBC JAMBA VROTS
Introduced
Introduced
Family
FamilyName
Name
Alaudidae
Alaudidae
Family Name
Passeridae
Passeridae
Alaudidae
Fringillidae
Fringillidae
Passeridae
Fringillidae
Fringillidae
Fringillidae
Muscicapidae
Muscicapidae
Fringillidae
Sturnidae
Sturnidae
Muscicapidae
Sturnidae
Common
CommonName
Name
Skylark
Skylark
Common
Name
House
HouseSparrow
Sparrow
Skylark Greenfinch
European
European Greenfinch
House Sparrow
European
EuropeanGoldfinch
Goldfinch
European
Greenfinch
Common
CommonBlackbird
Blackbird
EuropeanStarling
Goldfinch
Common
Common Starling
Common Blackbird
Common Starling
Scientific
ScientificName
Name
Alauda
Alaudaarvensis
arvensis
Scientific
Name
Passer
Passerdomesticus
domesticus
Alauda arvensis
Carduelis
Carduelischloris
chloris
Passer domesticus
Carduelis
carduelis
Carduelis carduelis
Carduelis
chloris
Turdus
Turdusmerula
merula
Carduelis
carduelis
Sturnus
Sturnusvulgaris
vulgaris
Turdus merula
Sturnus vulgaris
CAMBA/
CAMBA/
FFG
FFGEPBC
EPBCJAMBA
JAMBA
CAMBA/
FFG EPBC JAMBA
Appendix L - Mammal species
Appendix
AppendixL LMammal
Mammalspecies
species
FFG
Guarantee
FFG
Flora
and
Fauna
Guarantee
Act
1988
FFG– –Flora
Flora
andFauna
Fauna
GuaranteeAct
Act1988
1988
Appendix
L and
Mammal
species
LLL--listed
-listed
listed
FFG
– –Flora
and Fauna
Guarantee
Act
1988
EPBC
Protection
and
Biodiversity
Act
EPBC
–Environment
Environment
Protection
and
Biodiversity
Act1999
1999
EPBC
Protection
and
Biodiversity
Act
1999
LEnvironment
listed
CdConservation
Dependent
Cd- Conservation Dependent
EPBC –VU
CdDependent
Environment
Protection
and Biodiversity Act 1999
VU–Conservation
–Vulnerable
Vulnerable
CdConservation
Dependent
VROTS
VU
–
Vulnerable
VROTS– –Victorian
VictorianRare
RareororThreatened
ThreatenedSpecies
Species
VU
Vulnerable
E
– ––
Endangered
E
Endangered
VROTS
Rare
or or
Threatened
Species
VROTSVVictorian
–V–Victorian
Rare
Threatened
Species
Vulnerable
–
Vulnerable
E
–
Endangered
ENT
––Endangered
NT
–Near
Nearthreatened
threatened
Vulnerable
VV –– Vulnerable
NT –– Near
Near threatened
threatened
NT
Common
Name
Scientific name
Common Name
Brown
BrownAntechinus
Antechinus
Common
Name
Bush
BushRat
Rat
Brown
Antechinus
Chocolate
ChocolateWattled
WattledBat
Bat
Bush
Rat
Common
CommonBrushtail
BrushtailPossum
Possum
ChocolateRingtail
WattledPossum
Bat
Common
Common Ringtail Possum
Common Wombat
Brushtail Possum
Common
Common Wombat
Common
Ringtail Possum
Dusky
DuskyAntechinus
Antechinus
CommonGrey
Wombat
Eastern
Eastern GreyKangaroo
Kangaroo
Dusky
Antechinus
Eastern
Pygmy
Eastern PygmyPossum
Possum
Eastern
Grey Kangaroo
Gould's
Gould'sWattled
WattledBat
Bat
Eastern
Pygmy Possum
Great
Pipistrelle
Great Pipistrelle
Gould's Wattled Bat
Heath
HeathMouse
Mouse
Great Pipistrelle
Heath Mouse
76
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Glenelg Estuary Management Plan
62
Scientific name
Antechinus
Antechinusstuartii
stuartii
Scientific
name
Rattus
Rattusfuscipes
fuscipes
Antechinus stuartii
Chalinolobus
Chalinolobusmorio
morio
Rattus
fuscipes
Trichosurus
Trichosurusvulpecula
vulpecula
Chalinolobus morio
Pseudocheirus
Pseudocheirusperegrinus
peregrinus
Trichosurus
vulpecula
Vombatus
Vombatusursinus
ursinus
Pseudocheirus
peregrinus
Antechinus
Antechinusswainsonii
swainsonii
Vombatus giganteus
ursinus
Macropus
Macropus giganteus
Antechinus
swainsonii
Cercartetus
Cercartetusnanus
nanus
Macropus giganteus
Chalinolobus
Chalinolobusgouldii
gouldii
Cercartetustasmaniensis
nanus
Pipistrellus
Pipistrellus tasmaniensis
Chalinolobus gouldii
Pseudomys
Pseudomysshortridgei
shortridgei
Pipistrellus tasmaniensis
Pseudomys shortridgei
FFG
FFG EPBC
EPBC VROTS
VROTS
FFG
EPBC
LL
VU
VU
L
VU
VROTS
Koala
Large Footed Myotis
Large Forest Eptesicus
KoalaLong-Eared Bat
Lesser
Large
Footed
Myotis
Little
Forest
Eptesicus
Large
Forest
Eptesicus
Long
Nosed
Potoroo
Lesser
Long-Eared
Bat
Platypus
Little
Forest
Eptesicus
Red
Necked
Wallaby
Long
Nosed
Potoroo
Short Beaked Echidna
Platypus
Southern
Bent Wing Bat
Red Necked
Southern
BrownWallaby
Bandicoot
Short
Beaked
Echidna
Southern Myotis
Southern Bent Wing Bat
Spot Tailed Quoll
Southern Brown Bandicoot
Sugar Glider
Southern Myotis
Swamp Antechinus
Spot Tailed
Swamp
Rat Quoll
Sugar
Water RatGlider
Swamp Antechinus
White-Footed
Dunnart
Swamp
Rat
Yellow Bellied Glider
Water
Rat Antechinus
Yellow
Footed
White-Footed Dunnart
Yellow Bellied Glider
Appendix
M Reptile
species
Yellow Footed
Antechinus
Phasocolarctos cinereus
Myotis adversus
Eptesicus darlingtoni
Phasocolarctos
cinereus
Nyctophilus
geoffroyi
Myotis
adversus
Eptesicus vulturnus
Eptesicus
darlingtoni
Potorous
tridactylus
Nyctophilus
geoffroyi
Ornithorhynchus
anatinus
Eptesicus
vulturnus
Macropus
rufogriseus
Potorous tridactylus
Tachyglossus
aculeatus
Ornithorhynchus
anatinus
Minopterus schreibersii
bassani
Macropus
rufogriseus
Isoodon oesulus
Tachyglossus
Myotis
macropusaculeatus
Cd
E
E
Minopterus schreibersii bassani
Dasyurus maculatus
Isoodon oesulus
Petaurus breviceps
Myotis macropus
Antechinus minimus
Dasyurus
maculatus
Rattus
lutreolus
Petaurus
breviceps
Hydromus chrysogaster
Antechinusleaucopus
minimus
Sminthopsis
Rattus
lutreolus
Petaurus australis
Hydromusflavipes
chrysogaster
Antechinus
Sminthopsis leaucopus
Petaurus australis
Antechinus flavipes
Cd
E
L
L
NT
NT
E E
NT
NT
NT
E
V NT
V
Appendix M - Reptile species
Abbreviations
Abbreviations
Appendix
M Reptile
FFG
– Flora and
Fauna species
Guarantee Act 1988
L
listed
FFG Abbreviations
Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988
Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999
EPBC –LEnvironment
- listed
VROTS
–
Victorian
Rare
Threatened
FFG – Flora and FaunaorGuarantee
ActSpecies
1988
V
–
EPBC
Environment
L Vulnerable
- listed Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999
EPBC – Environment Protection and Biodiversity Act 1999
VROTS
Victorianthe
Rare
or Threatened
Species
Information
reptile
amphibian
species found in the Glenelg Estuary has
VROTS – on
Victorian
Rareand
or Threatened
Species
been compiled
VV
– Vulnerable
for a number of sources including DCE (1991).
– Vulnerable
Information
onName
theon
reptile
and amphibian
species
found infound
the Glenelg
Estuary
has been
compiled
FFG
EPBC
VROTS
Common
Scientific
Name
Information
the reptile
and
amphibian
species
in
the Glenelg
Estuary
has
for aBlotched
number
of
sources
including
DCE
(1991).
been compiled
for aLizard
number of
sources
including DCE (1991).
Blue-tonuged
Tiliqua
nigrolutea
Common Blue-tongued Lizard
Common
Name
Eastern
Bearded
Dragon
Blotched
Blue-tonuged
Eastern Three-lined SkinkLizard
Common
Blue-tongued
Lizard
Eastern
Tiger
Snake
Eastern
Bearded
Dragon
Grass Skink
Eastern
Three-lined Skink
Jacky
Lizard
Eastern
Tiger
Snake
Long-necked Tortoise
Grass Copperhead
Skink
Lowland
Jacky
Lizard
McCoy's Skink
Long-necked
Southern
Water Tortoise
Skink
Lowland
Copperhead
Stumpy-tailed Lizard
McCoy's
Skink
Swamp
skink
Southern
Water Skink
White's Skink
Stumpy-tailed Lizard
Swamp skink
White's Skink
Tiliqua scincoides
Scientific
Name
Pogona
barbauts
Tiliqua
nigrolutea
Leiolopisma duperreyi
Tiliqua scutatus
scincoides
Notechis
Pogona
barbauts
Leiolopisma
entretcasteauxii
Leiolopismamuricatus
duperreyi
Amphibolurus
Notechis
scutatus
Chelodina longicollis
Leiolopisma
entretcasteauxii
Austrelaps
superbus
Amphibolurus
muricatus
Nannoscinus maccoyi
Chelodina longicollis
Sphenomorphus
tympanum
Austrelaps
superbus
Trachydosaurus rugosus
Nannoscinus
Egernia
corentryimaccoyi
Sphenomorphus
tympanum
Egernia whitei
Trachydosaurus rugosus
Egernia corentryi
Egernia whitei
FFG
L
EPBC VROTS
V
L
V
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77