drilling fluids

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drilling fluids
DRILLING FLUIDS
Scomi Oiltools –
Realising Potential in
Oilfield Drilling Solutions
Scomi Oiltools is one of the world’s leading providers
of innovative high-performance drilling fluids and
state-of-the-art waste management solutions. The
organisation features a highly qualified team of over
2,500 engineers and professionals, with combined
experience of over 60 years, spread over 54 locations
in 26 countries, plus 24-hour, round-the-clock technical
support worldwide.
Scomi Oiltools is fully equipped to provide integrated
packaged services comprising drilling fluids and
engineering services, solids control and drilling waste
management equipment and services to serve the
oil and gas industry. Our drilling solutions are
engineered to achieve optimal results while strictly
complying with international environmental standards.
Our services include:
• Drilling Fluids & Engineering Services
•Drilling Waste Management Equipment & Services
• Operations & Maintenance, Project Management.
At Scomi Oiltools, it is our ultimate goal to help our
clients recognise and realise their vast potential.
Thereby optimising their productivity and catalysing
their businesses to new levels of performance.
Scomi Oiltools – Realising Potential.
DRILLING FLUIDS &
ENGINEERING SERVICES
Scomi Oiltools is a global provider of Drilling &
Completion Fluids and Drilling Waste Management
solutions. With the reach of our international
infrastructure, and the expertise of our experienced
personnel, Scomi Oiltools is able to offer customers
the benefits of truly integrated and engineered
solutions.
Our fluids operations are supported by the Global
Research & Technology Centre headquartered
in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This centre, led by
international experts in their field, provides the
technical support to all Scomi Oiltools operations
and manages extensive dedicated laboratory
facilities with a keen focus on research and
development. The centre employs a process-driven
framework to ensure consistent best practice in
product development, technical troubleshooting,
training, procurement and product quality
assurance and control.
The dedication to service quality has created an
increase in the company’s business, establishing
operations across Asia-Pacific, the Middle East,
Europe and the USA.
Scomi Oiltools is a progressive global service
company, moving into new territories, offering
performance-driven Drilling & Completion Fluids
and Drilling Waste Management solutions.
WATER-BASED SYSTEMS
HYdro-FoilClassic KCl / PHPA system
HYdro-Foil Gen 1Inhibitive, engineered cloud
point glycol system
HyPR-Drill
High Performance
Water-Based Mud
HYdro-Foil S8
Silicate system
HyPR-Foil S8
igh-performance
H
silicate system
HYdro-Therm
High-temperature,
high-pressure system
Opta-Flo
Reservoir drill-in fluid
Rheo-PLEX
MMO system for superior
hole cleaning
NON-AQUEOUS INVERT EMULSION FLUIDS
CONFI-DRILLPremium invert emulsion
system
CONFI-DENSEHigh-temperature,
high-pressure, oil-based fluid
CONFI-DeepFlat rheology OBM for use in
deep water
Opta-Vert
Reservoir drill-in fluid
EXTRA-Vert
Non-toxic, biodegradable
ester chemistry
ENGINEERING SUPPORT SOFTWARE
HyPR-FORM
Daily reporting
HyPR-CALCHydraulics modeling software
DRILLING FLUIDS
WATER-BASED
SYSTEMS
Our water-based drilling fluid systems
deliver cost-effective performance with
minimal environmental impact. We are a
pioneer in developing high-performance
systems specially formulated for a myriad
of applications even in environmentally
sensitive drilling areas.
HYDRO-FOIL
is the original KCI / PHPA low solids, non-dispersed
fluid system that is primarily used to drill moderately
reactive shales.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
The two primary shale inhibitors in the system are potassium
ions for cation exchange with the clays, to reduce hydration
and swelling, and partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide to
encapsulate drilled cuttings for more effective solids
removal efficiency on surface. In recent times environmental
restrictions onshore have restricted the discharge of
chloride-based fluids, which has resulted in the use of
alternative aqueous-based fluids, including:
RELATIVE INHIBITION OF REACTIVE SHALES IN KCI
SOLUTION
80
TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF A
HYDRO-FOIL SYSTEM
PRODUCT
KCI / PHPA
K2S04 /
PHPA
60
INHIBITION (%)
• Moderately inhibitive water-based fluids.
• Environmentally acceptable and dischargeable in most areas.
• Relatively low lubricity coefficients.
• Easy to mix.
• Simple and fast to upgrade the inhibition of the system.
•Cost-effective.
Drillwater (bbl/bbl) 0.850.85
40
20
0
0
2
4
6
KCI (%)
8
KCI (lb/bbl)
30–
Caustic Soda
to pH 8.5
to pH 9.0
HYDRO-ZAN (lb/bbl)
0.75 - 1.0
0.75 - 1.0
HYDRO-STARCH (lb/bbl)
–
2.0 - 3.0
HYDRO-PAC LV (lb/bbl)3.0
–
HYDRO-CAP (lb/bbl)2.0 2.0
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl) 71
• Potassium sulphate
• Potassium carbonate
• Potassium acetate
• Potassium formate
Drilled Solids (lb/bbl)30
Developed in the late 1970s, salt / PHPA systems have
been used extensively throughout the world and still have
applications in the field today.
71
30
PROPERTIES
Density (lb/gal)
10.510.5
Plastic Viscosity (cP)
+/- 20
+/- 25
Yield Point (lb/100 ft2)
+/- 30
+/- 20
Gels (lb/100 ft2)
7 / 10 / 12
10 / 12 / 16
API Fluid Loss (cc/30 min)
< 5
<6
WATER-BASED SYSTEMS
For this to be the case, there must be some mechanism of
association and disassociation of the polyol in the circulating
system. The nature of these structures and their stability
in aqueous fluids is strongly controlled by the presence of
potassium cations with certain polyols.
It can be concluded that shale inhibition and formation
protection will be achieved from one or both of these
mechanisms by:
is an established inhibitive water-based fluid
designed to meet difficult drilling targets with
minimal environmental impact.
HYDRO-FOIL GEN 1 represents a significant advance on
the basic HYDRO-FOIL system. The key enhancement of the
Gen 1 system is the addition of low molecular weight polyols,
the generic name for a wide range of chemicals which includes
glycerol, polyglycerol, polyethylene, glycols, polypropylene
glycol, polyalkylene glycols and alcohol ethoxylates. These
chemicals are water soluble and non-toxic, passing existing
environmental protocols worldwide.
reservoirs.
•Low dilution and maintenance cost.
•Increased protection against stuck
pipe.
Compared with, for example, a HYDRO-FOIL (KCI/PHPA) fluid,
polyol systems exhibit improved wellbore conditions and
produce firmer cuttings that do not readily disperse into the
mud leading to reduced dilution rates which offset the higher
make up cost of the fluid.
Other wellbore problems, including bit balling, stuck pipe
and stuck loggings tools are also generally reduced. These
attributes frequently combine to give faster drilling rates,
fewer or less severe drilling problems and reduced mud
volumes that translate into reduced drilling and fluid costs.
MECHANISM OF SHALE STABILISATION
The cloud point of polyol is the temperature at which it starts
to change from being soluble to becoming insoluble in water.
invasive fluids by “clouding out”.
As the temperature of the fluid increases, the polyol starts to
come out of solution and an otherwise clear liquid starts to
become opaque and “cloudy”. The temperature at which this
occurs is usually very precise and is particular to each polyol type.
VISUALISATION OF POLYOL BEHAVIOUR AS A FUNCTION OF
TEMPERATURE
Polyol and water together at ambient
temperature; the polyol is 100% water
soluble.
Solution is heated until the polyol reaches
“cloud point” and becomes insoluble. A
thermally activated micro emulsion forms.
The graph overleaf, illustrates the effect of KCI concentration on
polyol cloud point, which is also dependent on the total salinity
of the solution, type of electrolyte, molecular weight and type
and concentration of polyol.
Given the range of cloud points the polyol is selected based
upon its cloud point, at a specified salinity and the cloud point
can be adjusted by altering the salinity of the liquid phase.
Research concludes that the polyol is absorbed by the clay.
During the absorption process, water is displaced from the clay
surface and ordered structures of polyol are formed. A weak
attachment is postulated because of the observation that there
is no rapid depletion of the polyol in the drilling fluid system.
UNITS
Low reactivity
0.2 - 0.5 0.1 - 0.3 0.1 - 0.2
bbl/ft
Intermediate
0.4 - 0.7 0.3 - 0.6 0.2 - 0.4
bbl/ft
Highly reactive
0.5 - 1.0 0.4 - 0.8 0.3 - 0.6
bbl/ft
%
HYDRO-FOIL
HYDRO-FOIL GEN 1
100
90
80
70
50
60
40
50
30
40
20
30
10
0
HOLE SIZE
Type171/2”121/2”81/2”inches
60
0
5
10
15
20
25
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (KCI) WT%
CIRRUS
APPLICATION
The principle application of the HYDRO-FOIL GEN 1 system
is in the drilling of reactive shales. Cuttings and wellbore
stability are significantly improved through the improvement
in inhibition which is seen over a wide range of temperatures
related to the cloud point of the glycol. Polyol muds are
effective in most shale types but are particularly so in young or
relatively uncompacted shales with high clay contents.
•
CLAYSTONE
INHIBITION STUDIES WITH REACTIVE CLAYSTONES
Blocking the formation pores from further ingress of
70
•Highly inhibitive water-based fluid. • Ease of mixing and maintenance.
•Excellent wellbore stability and •Non-damaging to sensitive
• Low environmental impact.
• Low lubricity coefficients.
clay minerals present in shales.
CLOUD POINTS FOR VARIOUS POLYOLS IN KCI SOLUTIONS
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
cuttings integrity.
• The polyol displacing water from adsorption sites on
TEMPERATURE (ºC)
HYDRO-FOIL
GEN 1
TYPICAL DILUTION RATES vs. HOLE SIZE
STRATUS
20
10
CUMULUS
NIMBUS
0
RECOVERY
HYDRATION
HARDNESS
TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF A HYDRO-FOIL GEN 1 SYSTEM
PRODUCT
FUNCTION
HYDRO-FOIL GEN 1
BHCT= 40 ºC
HYDRO-FOIL GEN 1
BHCT= 90 ºC
Drillwater (bbl/bbl)
Base fluid 0.85
0.75
KCI (lb/bbl)
Water activity and cation exchange
30
30
Caustic Soda / Potash Alkalinity control
to pH 8.5 - 9.5
to pH 8.5 - 9.5
HYDRO-ZAN (lb/bbl)
Viscosifier
0.75 - 1.25
0.75 - 1.25
HYDRO-PAC LV (lb/bbl)
Fluid-loss control
1.0 - 2.0
1.0 - 2.0
HYDRO-CAP (lb/bbl)
Cutting encapsulator
2.0
2.0
CIRRUS CPG (v/v%)
Shale stabilisation
3.0
–
STRATUS CPG (v/v%)
Shale stabilisation –
3.0
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl)
Weighting agent
68
206
Drilled Solids (lb/bbl)
Drilled solids
30
30
Density (lb/gal)
10.5
13
Plastic Viscosity (cP)
15 - 25
25 - 35
ft2)
15 - 25
20 - 30
Gels (lb/100 ft2)
+/- 6/10
+/- 8/14
API Fluid Loss (cc/30 min)
<5
<5
PROPERTIES
Yield Point (lb/100
WATER-BASED SYSTEMS
The HyPR-DRILL system which can be utilised in a range of fluids varying from freshwater to saturated sodium chloride consists
of the following key products in combination with a range of standard drilling fluid additives:
CORE HyPR-DRILL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
HyPR-DRILL
is a new generation High Performance Water-Based
Mud (HPWBM), which provides wellbore stability,
enhanced inhibition and rapid penetration rates.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
•Excellent shale inhibition over other inhibitive WBM.
•Enhanced wellbore stability.
• Reduced drilling cost.
•Reduced waste handling costs.
•Excellent penetration rates.
•Prevention of bit balling and shale accretion on drill string.
•Easily formulated for applications ranging from land to
deepwater drilling.
PRODUCTDESCRIPTION
FUNCTION
HyPR-HIB
Quaternery Ammonium Salt – shale and clay hydration and
dispersant suppressant.
HyPR-HIB restricts the ability of reactive formations, clays and
shales, to absorb water from the drilling fluid.
HyPR-CAP
Encapsulation polymer HyPR-CAP is a low molecular weight anionic polymer which can
– minimises shale dispersion.be used in high concentrations to provide a polymer coating on
the clay and cuttings preventing water absorption and subsequent
dispersion. Cuttings remain intact and are readily removed
by solids control equipment with minimal dispersion into the
circulating system.
HyPR-DRL
ROP Enhancer and bit / drill collar HyPR-DRL is a proprietary product designed to minimise balling
accretion minimisation.of the bit and drill string and deliver enhanced penetration rates.
The blend of lubricants and other products coat the drill-string
and bit to reduce and prevent the accretion of water wet, hydrated
cuttings.
HyPR-STAR
API fluid loss controlling agent
HyPR-STAR is a proprietary starch product; designed specifically
for the HyPR-DRILL system to control fluid loss without affecting
any other properties.
HyPR-DRILL systems are readily formulated in the field at the wellsite or in a liquid mud plant for delivery to offshore locations.
This highly inhibitive fluid exhibits low dilution rates which ensures that maintenance of the system is cost-effective and
minimises the logistics requirements for additional chemicals.
TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF HyPR-DRILL SYSTEMS
Drawing on a wide ranging review of HPWBM development
and performance coupled with extensive testing and
development of alternative products in the R&D labs of
Scomi Oiltools’ Global Research & Technology Centre,
GRTC, HyPR-DRILL has been developed to match and exceed
the performance of other water-based systems currently being
used and deliver performance as close as possible to that on
an invert emulsion system.
The use of HyPR-DRILL is particularly indicated where the
use of non-aqueous fluids will require very high costs for
waste management and disposal due to environmental
restrictions or facility limitations which prevent the installation
of waste handling equipment.
PRODUCTFUNCTION
HyPR-DRILL FRESHWATER
HyPR-DRILL
6% KCl
HyPR-DRILL
20% NaCl
Drillwater (bbl/bbl)
Base fluid
0.83
0.81
0.77
KCl (lb/bbl)
Water activity and cation exchange
NA
18
NA
NaCl (lb/bbl)
Water activity and cation exchange
NA
NA
70
pH
Alkalinity
8.5 – 9.5
8.5 – 9.5
8.5 – 9.5
HyPR-CAP (lb/bbl)
Encapsulating polymer
3
3
3
80
HyPR-HIB (%)
Shale and clay inhibitor
3
3
3
60
HyPR-DRL (%)
Anti-accretion additive
2 – 3
2 – 3
2 – 3
CUMULUS CPG (%)
Cloud point glycol
3
3
3
HYDRO-ZAN (lb/bbl)
Viscosifier
1 – 2
1 – 2
1–2
HYDRO-STAR NF (lb/bbl)
Filtration control
3 – 5
3 – 5
3–5
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl)
Weighting agent
91
79
41
10 1010
16 – 24
15 – 20
15 – 20
20 – 25
18 – 24
20 – 25
< 4
<4
<3
Utilising a blend of proprietary ammonium salts in
combination with a low molecular weight, acrylic-based,
encapsulating polymer and a newly developed clay accretion
inhibitior, HyPR-DRILL delivers benefits normally associated
only with non-aqueous fluids.
LINEAR EXPANSION OF SHALE – HyPR-DRILL (6% KCI)
PERCENT EXPANSION (%)
Environmental awareness and the application of stricter
regulations are, in many areas, restricting the discharge
of cuttings contaminated with synthetic or mineral oilbased fluids. These restrictions present logistical and waste
management costs, impact on installation design and may
present significant health and safety concerns as large
quantities of cuttings have to be handled and moved by crane
and vessel.
120
100
40
20
0
0
1000
2000
3000
TIME (MINUTES)
BENTONITE
SBM
PHPA / GLYCOL
HyPR-DRILL
PROPERTIES
Density (lb/gal)
Plastic Viscosity (cP)
Yield Point (lb/100 ft )
2
API Fluid Loss (cc/30 min) WATER-BASED SYSTEMS
HYDRO-FOIL S8
is essentially a HYDRO-FOIL system which utilises
5 – 15% v/v sodium or potassium silicate solution
to enhance inhibition and mechanical wellbore
stability, particularly in highly fractured or
unconsolidated formations.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
•Excellent shale inhibition, exceeding that of any other type of
water-based fluids.
•Cheaper than glycol systems although maintenance additions are
expected to be higher so this cost advantage can be eroded if the
rig has poor solids control.
•Good environmental properties for offshore applications.
•Potential to seal micro-fractured shales.
•Low corrosion rates.
The main application for silicate fluids is the replacement of
oil and synthetic fluids in difficult drilling applications, e.g.
wells containing reactive claystones. Silicate fluids exhibit a
very high degree of shale inhibition exceeding that of glycol
fluids, however, they have a number of limitations which
must be considered in fluid selection.
MECHANISM OF SHALE STABILISATION
When HYDRO-FOIL S8 mud filtrate and pore water mix, the
alkalinity of the fluid filtrate is lowered from pH 12 resulting
in the spontaneous precipitation of a silica gel at the near
wellbore. Coupled with this, dissolved divalent cations in the
pore fluid will precipitate silicate salts, e.g. calcium silicate.
These precipitates, or gels, form a semi permeable membrane
which prevents further fluid filtrate invasion and retards pore
pressure transmission of the hydrostatic mud column to rock
matrix. The wellbore and shale are thus “pressure isolated”.
This latter phenomenon is critical in tectonically stressed
and fractured shales, which require sufficient overbalance
mud pressure to support the borehole from collapsing. The
presence of solutes such as NaCl and KCl is synergistic, as
solutes will balance the mud and shale activities to reduce
the net flow of ions into the shale. The presence of K+ is
useful as it will exchange for Ca++ and Mg++ at the clay
surface, making these ions available to form precipitates. It
should be noted that non-aqueous fluids cannot stabilise
such fractured shales, as they are restricted from entering
or invading the shales due to capillary threshold pressures,
which are significant for intact shales with small pores but
are negligible for shales with open fractures. Soluble silicates,
however, have the ability to fill small cracks and pressure seal
them.
TABLE 4: TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF A HYDRO-FOIL S8 SYSTEM
PRODUCTFUNCTIONHYDRO-FOIL S8
HYDRO-FOIL S8
Drillwater (bbl/bbl)
0.74
0.65
KCl (lb/bbl)Water activity
and cation exchange
30
25
Caustic Soda / Potash
Alkalinity control
to pH 12 – 12.5
to pH 12 – 12.5
Soda Ash
Hardness control
to < 400 mg/L
to < 400 mg/L
HYDRO-ZAN (lb/bbl)
Viscosifier
0.75 – 1.0 0.75 – 1.25
HYDRO-PAC UL (lb/bbl) Fluid loss control
2.5 2.5
HYDRO-STAR CMS (lb/bbl)
Fluid loss control
2.0
2.0
HYDRO-SIL S (v/v%)
Shale stabilisation
11.0
9.0
OX-SCAV (lb/bbl)
Oxygen scavenger
1.0 – 1.5
1.0 – 1.5
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl)
Weighting agent
155
340
Density (lb/gal)
12
15
Plastic Viscosity (cP)
20 – 30
25 – 35
Yield Point (lb/100 ft2)
15 – 25
20 – 30
Gels (lb/100 ft2)
+/- 6/10
+/- 8/14
API Fluid Loss (cc/30 min)
< 6
<6
pH
12 – 12.5
12 – 12.5
Base fluid
PROPERTIES
Note: HYDRO-SIL S liquor has an sg of 1.5 and contains 28.1% by weight of SiO2.
SEALING OF MICRO-FRACTURED SHALES BY SILICATES
Fracture Propagation
Mp FLUID
INGRESS
Mp > Fp
Non-inhibitive Fluid
Mp = Fp = Mechanical Failure
Silicate Gel / Precipitate
Mp FLUID
INGRESS
Mp > Fp
Mp
HYDRO-FOIL S8 Fluid
Mp = Fp = Mechanical Stability
WATER-BASED SYSTEMS
TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF
HYPR-FOIL S8 WITH POTASSIUM SULPHATE
PRODUCTCONCENTRATION
operations.
•Potential to seal micro-fractured shales.
• Treated cuttings with potential to be used as fertiliser.
• Lubricant offers significant improvement in lubricity of silicate fluids.
• Low corrosion rates.
HYDRO-ZAN (lb/bbl)1.5
HYDRO-PAC LV (lb/bbl)2.5
Intensive development has identitifed high-performing
polymers to be used in the system to deliver excellent low
end rheology and fluid loss.
The treated cuttings and waste mud should yield soil material
rich in potassium and nitrates which enhance plant growth
without the introduction of potentially harmful contaminants.
Sodium and chloride are excluded from the drilling fluids
formation minimising their concentration in the drill cuttings.
The fertiliser rich “soil” can be sold or given away to farmers
or used for beneficial fill. Operators are presented with an
opportunity for the reuse of drilling cuttings or disposed mud
which essentially eliminates long term disposal liability and
cost.
PERCENT EXPANSION (%)
HyPR-FOIL S8 is a high-performance silicate system wherein
sodium and chloride ions have been replaced with potassium
cations from carbonates, sulphates, acetates, nitrates and/
or hydroxides. Potentially harmful leachates are ultimately
removed by precipitation as insoluble calcium salts.
200 RPM44
4
100 RPM29
2
6 RPM12
0
-2
0
1000
2000
3000
TIME (MINUTES)
- SHOWS THAT ALL SILICATE SYSTEMS EXHIBIT EXCELLENT SHALE INHIBITION
WITH < 10% SWELLING
SOD. SILICATE & KCI CONTROL
POT. SILICATE & POT. CARBONATE
POT. SILICATE & POT. SULPHATE
POT. SILICATE & POT. ACETATE
92.00
HYDRO
FOIL S8
K2SO4
0.45
0.413
0.40
0.35
0.353
0.30
0.262
0.25
0.207
0.20
0.15
0.10
0.05
PV (cP)21
0.00
YP (lb/100
CH3CO2K
MUD LUBRICITY COEFFICIENT OF HYPR-FOIL S8 SYSTEM
WITH HYDRO-LUBE SL
3 RPM10
ft2)33
K2CO3
SILICATE SYSTEM
Rheology-
300 RPM54
6
93.00
Potassium Hydroxide (lb/bbl)2
600 RPM75
8
94.00
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl)42
10
99.26
95.00
90.00
12
98.99
96.00
OX-SCAV (lb/bbl)1
Mud Weight (lb/gal)10.0
LINEAR EXPANSION OF SHALE COMPARING DIFFERENT
TYPES OF SALT IN SILICATE MUD SYSTEM
98.76
97.00
91.00
AHR 16 HRS, 194 ºF
98.92
98.00
OPTA-STAR PLUS (lb/bbl)6
TYPICAL PROPERTIES
The disposal of drilled cuttings, particularly in sensitive
areas on land, poses significant environmental burdens and
very high costs for disposal and site remediation. A low-cost
method of treating cuttings and waste fluids producing a
reusable material offers potentially significant savings, both
financial and environmental.
99.00
HYDRO-SIL K (lb/bbl)38
Potassium Carbonate (lb/bbl)2
•Chloride-free, highly inhibitive fluid for environmentally sensitive land
100.00
Drillwater (bbl/bbl)0.82
Potassium Sulphate (lb/bbl)35
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
SHALE RECOVERY COMPARING DIFFERENT TYPES OF
SILICATE DRILLING FLUID
SHALE RECOVERY (%)
is a high-performance silicate system engineered
and patented, to provide a sodium chloride free
drilling fluid for sensitive environments and cuttings
treatment, providing a recycling route for the
cuttings thus minimising environmental impact.
MUD LUBRICITY COEFICIENT
HyPR-FOIL S8
DISTILLED
WATER
BASE
BASE + 3%
HYDRO
-LUBE SL
BASE + 5%
HYDRO
-LUBE SL
Gel 10 sec (lb/100 ft2)9
Gel 10 min (lb/100 ft2)11
pH Mud12.1
Lubricity of the system, a traditional drawback with silicate
systems, is readily improved with the addition of HYDROLUBE SL.
API Filtrate (cc/30 min)4.0
pH Filtrate12.3
WATER-BASED SYSTEMS
CORE HYDRO-THERM PRODUCTS
HYDRO-THERM
systems have proven effectiveness in hightemperature conditions and in the presence of
contaminants, both in the field and in the laboratory.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
•Thermal stability.
•Flexibility that extends conventional systems beyond their normal limits.
•Shale stability.
•Excellent return permeability.
•Reduce corrosion rates.
•Lubricity.
•Environmentally acceptable.
•Economical.
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
FUNCTION
HYDRO THERM I
AMPS / AM Copolymer
HTHP Filtration Control
HYDRO THERM II
AMPS / AM Copolymer
HTHP Filtration Control
HYDRO THIN HT
eflocculant & rheology stabiliser for
D
high-temperature environments
Thermal Stability
HYDRO LIG
Lignite
HTHP Filtration Control
HYDRO SPERSE HT
S ulphonated Copolymer – deflocculant & rheology stabiliser
for high-temperature environments
HTHP Filtration Control
Deflocculant
OX SCAV
Oxygen scavenger
Polymer Extender
HYDRO POL
Synthetic Copolymer
HTHP Filtration Control
HYDRO REZ
Synthetic ResinHTHP Filtration Control &
Rheology Stabiliser
HYDRO THIN HT II
eflocculant & rheology stabiliser for D
high-temperature environments
HYDRO SPERSE RS
Sulphonated Copolymer HTHP Deflocculant &
Rheology Stabiliser
HYDRO CHECK
Sulphonated CopolymerHTHP Deflocculant &
Rheology Stabiliser
HYDRAMINE HT
Amine-based Corrosion Inhibitor
Thermal Stability
HTHP Corrosion Inhibitor
TABLE 1: TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF THE HYDRO-THERM SYSTEM
HYDRO-THERM is an extremely flexible, water-based drilling
fluid system used when temperature, contaminants, and / or
borehole instability make conventional systems impractical or
uneconomical.
HYDRO-THERM is primarily a synthetic polymer-based system
that is stable to > 204 °C (400 °F). The use of the HYDRO-THERM
products allow for the conversion of conventional mud systems
e.g. HYDRO-FOIL systems, to a HYDRO-THERM HTHP drilling
fluid without the need for complete displacement.
The HYDRO-THERM system is successful because it minimises
the reliance on the use of commercial bentonite for the control
of the suspension and filtration.
The system is composed of combinations of the products
shown overleaf, and if required, on combination with third
party specialist products dependent on pH, temperature and
total hardness of the drilling fluid.
PRODUCT
FUNCTION HYDRO-THERM
BHT= 176 ºC
Freshwater Base fluid
0.44
KCI (lb/bbl)
Water activity
& cation exchange
8
Caustic Soda / Potash
Alkalinity control
0.3
DRILL GEL (lb/bbl)
Viscosifier 5
HYDRO-THERM II (lb/bbl)
HTHP fluid loss 4
HYDRO-SPERSE HT (lb/bbl)
Rheology stabiliser
& deflocculant
2
OX-SCAV (lb/bbl)
Oxygen scavenger
0.5
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl)
Weighting agent 492
PROPERTIES
Density (lb/gal)
17.5
Plastic Viscosity (cP)
48
Yield Point (lb/100 ft )
18
API Fluid Loss (cc/30 min)
4
HTHP Fluid Loss
300 ºF / 500 (cc/30 min)
20
2
WATER-BASED SYSTEMS
COMPARATIVE RETURN PERMEABILITY DATA–MEDIUM PERM CORES (200-500 mD)
mD
100
350
90
300
80
70
250
60
200
OPTA-FLO
drill-in fluids are custom designed to provide
minimal reservoir damage over a wide range of
porosites and permeabilities, whilst at the same
time providing an easily removable filtercake on
drawdown that typically does not require breakers
or acid clean-ups.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
•Non-damaging – low skin values, high-return permeability.
•Negligible lift-off pressures required – for rapid cleanup.
•Ultra low-permeability filtercake – low leak off and stuck pipe mitigation.
•Low friction factors.
•Environmentally compliant.
•Reduces remediation costs.
•Works with any completion assembly.
The system is custom designed for each individual reservoir
and uses a range of high-quality components and design tools
to facilitate the design process. One such tool is the “HyPRSIZER” software programme that allows the fluids engineer to
optimise the concentration and particle size distribution of the
bridging agent to ensure solids are deposited across the pore
throats with minimum invasion yet seal off the reservoir with a
thin, compact and resilient filtercake.
The result – a system that provides strong benefits as a highperformance, non-damaging drill-in fluid that optimises
production rates across a wide range of completion methods:
• Open-hole gravel-pack or non-gravel-pack completions
• Expandable slotted screen completions
• Slotted and perforated liner completions
•Cased-hole completions where hole cleaning or minimising
40
100
30
INITIAL PERMEABILITY TO OIL
20
RETURN PERMEABILITY @ 100 PSI
10
% RETURN PERM
50
0
Mud 1:
OPTA-FLO
Mud 2:
OPTA-FLO
Mud 3:
Mud 4:
COMPETITOR A COMPETITOR B
0
THE KEY PRODUCTS IN THE OPTA-FLO SYSTEM ARE;
PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
FUNCTION
OPTA-VIS
High clarity viscosifier
Viscosity control
OPTA-ZAN
High clarity viscosifier
Viscosity control
OPTA-STAR PLUS
Modified starch derivative Fluid loss control
OPTA-CARB
Custom sized calcium carbonate
Bridging agent
OPTA-ZYME S
Enzyme
Filtercake breaker
RE-VERT
Surfactant
Emulsion prevention
TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF AN OPTA-FLO SYSTEM
PRODUCT
FUNCTIONOPTA-FLO
Drillwater (bbl/bbl)
Base fluid 0.92
KCl (lb/bbl)
Water activity and cation exchange
22.0
Performance can be enhanced with the addition of RE-VERT,
a surfactant to aid in preventing emulsion formation.
Caustic Soda / Potash Alkalinity control
to pH 8.5 - 9.0
The use of an enzyme, OPTA-ZYME S, has proven highly
beneficial, in post-drilling treatment to aid in filtercake removal
and deliver enhanced production rates.
OPTA-VIS (lb/bbl) Viscosifier 1.0 - 2.0
OPTA-STAR PLUS (lb/bbl)
Fluid loss control
3.0 - 5.0
OPTA-CARB (lb/bbl)
Bridging agent
30.0 - 50.0
Glutaraldehyde (gal/100 bbl)
Biocide
3.0 - 5.0
The OPTA-FLO system is naturally lubricious, with the filtercake’s
polymer coating imparting surface lubricity thus minimising
torque and drag. This feature is especially critical in horizontal
wells. The OPTA-FLO system’s non-damaging properties are
evident both in the laboratory and when initial production field
figures are compared to a reservoir’s anticipated production.
EFFECTIVE BRIDGING OFF AT WELLBORE
fluid invasion is critical
The OPTA-FLO system has all the characteristics required of a
high-performance drilling fluid. The system is shear thinning
providing good hole-cleaning properties which can be adjusted,
as needed, to meet specific wellbore requirements. OPTA-FLO
formulations can be effectively designed in both low-density and
high-density brines to achieve desired rheological properties.
50
150
Pore
Throat
Rock –
Filtercake
Interface
Formation
Matrix
PROPERTIES
Density (Ib/gal)
9.4
Plastic Viscosity (cP)
12 - 18
Yield Point (lb/100 ft )
12 - 20
6 RPM Reading
> 10
Brookfield Viscosity (cP)
> 40,000
API Fluid Loss (cc/30 mins)
< 4.0
2
External
Filtercake
WATER-BASED SYSTEMS
RHEO-PLEX
is a mixed metal oxide system that delivers a highly
thixotropic (shear thinning) water-based fluid in an
environmentally and cost-effective package.
Annotation of the flow profile
of RHEO-PLEX in the wellbore.
Stationary, gelled layer of mud.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
• Zero shear-stress at wall
• Minimal dynamic fluid loss
• Protects poorly consolidated or fractured formations
• Helps prevent seepage losses
• No erosion of wellbore
•Exceptional hole cleaning.
• Low torque and drag.
• Low ECD’s.
• Excellent solids removal efficiency.
• Proactive lost circulation remedy whilst drilling.
• Excellent HSE profile.
• Cost effective.
This unique rheological profile also exhibits extremely high and
flat gels. These gels are very fragile, easily broken on start up of
circulation, but are sufficient to suspend cuttings under static
conditions. The system provides unsurpassed hole cleaning,
even at very low circulating rates.
The figure on the right shows the results of a test using a
capillary viscometer to measure the pressure drop along a pipe
at constant flow rate. The RHEO-PLEX system gave a lower
pressure drop than the gel fluid, despite having a higher
yield point. These correlates with reduced pump pressures seen
in the field.
Evidence for this flow profile comes from observations made
on surface flowlines and from the occurrence of “negative”
lag times (cuttings appear to reach the surface faster than
they should).
The ability of RHEO-PLEX to proactively control severe losses
in fractured and vugular formations has been demonstrated
time and again. RHEO-PLEX is capable of achieving this as its
unique thixotropic rheology profile results in the fluid forming
a gel in the fractures due to the low shear regime present.
70
8.75 psi
60
YP = 65
40
20
Soda Ash
Alkalinity control
to < 400 mg/l hardness
DRILL GEL UA (lb/bbl)
Viscosifier
8.0 – 12.0
RHEO-PLEX (lb/bbl)
Complexing agent
0.8 – 1.2
HYDRO-STAR CMS (lb/bbl)
Fluid loss control
3.0 – 5.0
Caustic Soda
pH control
to pH 10.5
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl)
Weighting agent
192
35 – 40
10
6 RPM Reading
20 – 30
9
Gels (lb/100 ft2)
20 / 30
API Fluid Loss (cc/30 min)
<8
3
2
1
10
0
0.85
Yield Point (lb/100 ft2)
4
3.5 psi
Base fluid
15 – 20
5
30
Drillwater (bbl/bbl)
Plastic Viscosity (cP)
7
6
YP = 45
RHEO-PLEX
12
8
50
FUNCTION Density (lb/gal)
PRESSURE DROP ALONG PIPE FOR A CONVENTIONAL GEL FLUID VS. RHEO-PLEX
80
PRODUCT
PROPERTIES
Pressure (psi)
• Milling operations
• Drilling fractured and vugular lost-circulation zones
• Stabilising unconsolidated formations
• Coiled tubing drilling
• High-angle and horizontal wells
RHEO-PLEX is a third generation of Mixed-Metal Oxide (MMO)
products engineered to provide the cost-effective performance
of the mixed-metal hydroxides used in past years. Unlike its
predecessors, however, the RHEO-PLEX system delivers an
enhanced rheological profile and stability in a package that is
easy to design, mix and maintain.
Yield point (lbm/100 ft2)
The system exhibits a unique rheological profile that makes
it ideal for a wide variety of applicatons, such as:
TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF A RHEO-PLEX SYSTEM
GEL MUD
RHEO-PLEX
SYSTEM
0
WATER-BASED SYSTEMS
DRILLING FLUIDS
NON-AQUEOUS
SYSTEMS
Our non-aqueous drilling fluid systems
are designed for demanding applications,
including those requiring a high degree
of inhibition and thermal stability. Our
range has solutions specially designed
for technically challenging, yet costconscious applications to deliver optimum
performance in conventional and
unconventional drilling applications.
CONFI-DRILL
Invert Emulsion Drilling Fluids systems have long
been the preferred system of many operators for
providing excellent borehole stability under
extreme drilling conditions.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
•Increased rate of penetration, reducing overall well cost.
•Provides excellent wellbore stability while drilling through reactive shales.
•Maximise lubricity for drilling high-angle, extended reach and horizontal
TYPICAL BASE FLUID PROPERTIES
BASE FLUID
DENSITY (SG)
KV @ 40 ºC CST
FLASH POINT ºC
POUR POINT ºC
LTMO
0.80
+/- 2.0
> 85
< -10
LP
0.78
+/- 2.5
> 110
4 -10
LAO
0.78
+/- 2.5
> 110
< -10
IO
0.79
+/- 3.6
> 125
< -10
CORE CONFI-DRILL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
PRODUCT
FUNCTION
GENERIC CHEMISTRY
CONFI-GEL
Viscosifier
Organophilic bentonite
•Prevents formation related problems such as bit balling, heaving gumbo
CONFI-GEL HT
Viscosifier
Organophilic hectorite
•The ability to choose low base fluid to water ratios to reduce formulation
CONFI-MUL P Primary emulsifier
Primary emulsifier
CONFI-MUL S
Secondary emulsifier
Secondary emulsifier
CONFI-TROL
Fluid loss controller
Gilsonite
CONFI-SEAL
Fluid loss controller
Organophilic lignite
CONFI-MOD
Low end rheology modifier
Dimer / Trimer acid
CONFI-COAT
Wetting agent
Surfactant
DRILL-BAR
Weighting agent
Barite
wells.
•Provides low fluid loss as well as the best available filtercake to reduce
the potential for differential sticking.
and blinding of shale shaker screens.
cost and environmental impact.
•Excellent temperature and contamination stability.
•Flexible choice of base fluid allows compliance with Environmental
Regulations worldwide.
•Superior return permeability results, ensuring minimal formation damage.
•Provides excellent hole cleaning characteristics.
•Wide range of drilling fluid properties and densities to suit various
drilling requirements.
•Generates less waste than water-based fluid systems.
TYPICAL FORMULATIONS AND PROPERTIES OF A CONFI-DRILL SYSTEM WITH A LINEAR PARAFFIN
PRODUCT
The CONFI-DRILL invert emulsion system consists of three
phases: non-aqueous, brine and solids phase. The most
important parts of the system, however, are the emulsifying
chemicals designed to create and maintain the invert emulsion.
The system can be formulated using various base fluids,
including Low Toxicity Mineral Oil (LTMO), Linear Paraffin (LP),
Linear Alpha Olefin (LAO) and Internal Olefin (IO).
This system has excellent rheological and filtration
characteristics which are easily modified to meet changing
temperature and pressure conditions.
TYPICAL WELL COST COMPARISON USING CONFI-DRILL VS.
INHIBITIVE WBM
$
CONFI-DRILL is an invert emulsion system, the composition of
which can be tailored to meet environmental regulations and
performance criteria.
CONFI-DRILL is a very stable invert emulsion synthetic drilling
fluid, selected because of its great flexibility in meeting
changing drilling conditions.
10.5
MILLION
PROPERTIESDYNAMIC AGING
16 HOURS @ 250 ºF
Linear Paraffin (bbl/bbl)0.60
Density (lb/gal)10
Drillwater (lb/bbl)0.21
PV (cP)30
Calcium Chloride (lb/bbl)24
YP (lb/100 ft )19
CONFI-MUL P (lb/bbl)
5–7
6 RPM11
CONFI-MUL S (lb/bbl)
3–5
ES (Volts)978
CONFI-GEL (lb/bbl)
8 – 10
OWR75:25
CONFI-TROL (lb/bbl)
6–8
Excess Lime (lb/bbl)2
Lime (lb/bbl)
6–8
HTHP (500 psi, 250 ºF)
2
< 4.0
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl)116
5
MILLION
CONFI-DRILL
CONFI-DRILL
WBM
NON-AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
CORE CONFI-DENSE SYSTEM COMPONENTS
CONFI-DENSE
PRODUCT
FUNCTION
GENERIC CHEMISTRY
CONFI GEL HT
Organophilic hectorite
Viscosifier
CONFI GEL XHT
Organophilic attapulgite
Viscosifier
CONFI MUL HT
Primary emulsifier
HT emulsifier
CONFI TROL F
Proprietary blend
HT fluid loss controller
CONFI TROL HT
HT softening point gilsonite
HT fluid loss controller
CONFI TROL XHT
Synthetic polymer
HT fluid loss controller
CONFI SEAL
Organophilic lignite
Fluid loss controller
CONFI RM
Dimer / Trimer acid
Low end rheology modifier
DRILL BAR
Barite
Weighting agent
DRILL BAR XP
4.4 SG Barite
Weighting agent
CONFI MUL XHT
Primary emulsifier
XHT emulsifier
• Highly inhibitive.
• Stable to temperatures above 400 ºF (204 ºC).
•Exhibits minimal density differentiation (syneresis) under dynamic and
CONFI TEC HT
Secondary emulsifier
HT emulsifier
CONFI TEC XHT
Secondary emulsifier
XHT emulsifier
CONFI MOD HT
Polymeric viscosifierHT viscosifier and low end rheology modifier
CONFI RM HT
Polymeric viscosifierHT viscosifier and low end rheology modifier
•Can be weighted to densities above 18.5 lb/gal using barite or
CONFI MOD XHT
Polymeric viscosifierXHT viscosifier and low end rheology modifier
CONFI RM XHT
Polymeric viscosifierXHT viscosifier and low end rheology modifier
• Superior HT filtration control.
• Thin filtercake to reduce differential sticking tendency.
CONFI TROL FHT
Organophilic lignite
HT fluid loss controller
CONFI TROL L
Proprietary blend
HT fluid loss controller
CONFI TROL EHT
Proprietary blend
XHT fluid loss controller
is designed to provide emulsion and rheology
stability beyond the temperature limits of standard
CONFI-DRILL emulsion systems.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
static conditions (barite sag).
alternative weight materials such as ilmenite, haematite or micromax.
TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF
A CONFI-DENSE SYSTEM
Increasing demand for drilling deviated HTHP wells has
resulted in the development of an HTHP non-aqueous drilling
fluid with unique suspension properties to avoid commonly
observed density differentiations under extreme conditions.
The CONFI-DENSE system is stable to temperatures above
400 °F and exhibits minimal density differentiation under
dynamic and static conditions. The system can be weighted
to densities above 18.5 lb/gal (SG 2.20) using API barite, or
alternative weight materials including HyPR-BAR (fine grind
barite), NANO-BAR a proprietary, non sag, alternative weight
material with a minimum SG of 4.35, Haematite or Micromax.
The potential for barite sag can be a major concern issue
with non-aqueous fluids particularly in directional wells with
inclinations > 30° and mud weights > 12.0 lb/gal, a potential
which, if not addressed, can lead to critical well control issues
especially in HTHP wells. This potential is exacerbated at the
highest inclinations, 60° – 75° in long tangent ERD wells and
where thinning of the fluid occurs due to high temperatures
and pressures.
PRODUCT
PARTICLE SIZE AND SHAPE COMPARISON OF MICROMAX
VS. API BARITE
Iso-Paraffin (bbl/bbl)0.48
Drillwater (bbl/bbl)0.05
Calcium Chloride (lb/bbl)7
CONFI-MUL HT (lb/bbl)
4–6
CONFI-TROL F (lb/bbl)
5–6
CONFI-GEL HT (lb/bbl)
2–4
CONFI-TROL HT (lb/bbl)
4–8
Lime (lb/bbl)10
Calcium Carbonate (lb/bbl)20
CONFI-DENSE is typically maintained with an O/W
range of 85/15 - 90/10 and is specifically designed for
use with commonly available synthetic base fluids.
Static barite sag tests with CONFI-DENSE show excellent
results that fall well within the sag factor criteria specified
by major oil companies. CONFI-DENSE also exhibits very
low amounts of supernatant oil (syneresis) in samples aged
both static and dynamically. Field tests demonstrate that the
laboratory formulation properties further improve during
drilling conditions as drill solids are incorporated into the
system combined with the shear from the drilling operation.
CONFI-DENSE
Rev Dust (lb/bbl)30
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl)493
PROPERTIESDYNAMIC AGING
16 HOURS @ 350 ºF
Density (lb/gal)17.5
A simple sag factor measurement has been developed to
conveniently express the degree of settling, with CONFIDENSE results being well within the acceptable range of
0.50 – 0.53.
Calculated as follows:
Sag factor =
p bot
(p bot + p top)
Where:
p top = Maximum density (top), g/cc
p bot = Maximum density (bottom), g/cc
Recent developments include the use of alternative different
particle size weighting materials such as fine grind barite,
HyPR-BAR, NANO-BAR, an alternative 4.35 SG weight material,
fine grind Haematite and Micromax, shown on previous page,
to deliver reduced sag potential and ECD values.
CONFI-DENSE is field proven in areas including Malaysia and
Thailand giving our customers exceptional HTHP drilling
performance.
PV (cP)49
Micromax
Barite
20 microns
YP (lb/100 ft2)18
6 RPM8
ES (Volts)1655
OWR90:10
Excess Lime (lb/bbl)4
HTHP (500 psi, 350 ºF)
< 2.0
NON-AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
CORE CONFI-DEEP SYSTEM COMPONENTS
PRESMOD is capable of providing a full
suite of hydraulics simulations including:
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
• Highly inhibitive.
•Flat rheological behaviour to provide efficient hole cleaning under the
in temperature, pressure and wellbore ballooning.
PRESMOD can be utilised both in the office for planning
and monitoring and on the rig for real time application
and decision making.
AFTER HOT ROLL @ 200 ºF for 16 hours
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
temperature and pressures experienced in deep water applications.
•Contributes to reduced losses as inefficient ECD peaks due to poor hole
cleaning are eliminated.
40 ºF
70 ºF
TEMP (DEG ºF)
120 ºF 150 ºF
CONFI-DEEP + 25 ppb rev dust + 5 lb/bbc cemet
CONFI-DEEP = 40 ppb rev dust + 20% (v/v) seawater
alternative liquid viscosifiers from our product portfolio.
RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES CHARACTERISTICS
With our extensive involvement in deepwater drilling
operations, to 1500m water depth, Scomi Oiltools is able to
formulate customised deepwater drilling fluid systems to
meet customer-specific well requirements.
Scomi Oiltools uses a state-of-the-art temperature and
pressure simulator, PRESMOD, for deepwater and HTHP
hydraulics prediction.
yp (lb/100 ft2) / 6 rpm reading
AFTER HOT ROLL @ 200 ºF for 16 hours
Conventional invert drilling fluids address cold water issues
by lowering the viscosity at surface temperature in order to
achieve a decreased overall rheological profile to counter
the increased rheological profile under cold temperature
conditions, i.e. at the seafloor. This approach will give lower
ECD when encountering cold temperatures, however as a
consequence, what often results is poor hole cleaning, barite
sag and other downhole drilling problems related to a greatly
reduced low rheological profile under bottom hole static and
circulating temperatures. Conversely, adjusting the rheology
upwards to compensate for higher BHT will lead to high ECD
and excessive gel strengths producing pressure spikes that can
break down the formation and promote lost circulation.
40
Primary emulsifier
cDEEP-MOD
Flat rheology modifier
cDEEP-RM
Secondary viscosifier
cDEEP-TROLFluid loss control additive
cDEEP-THINThinner for flat rheology
system
CONFI-MUL SARheology modifier for
newly mixed fluids in LMP
TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF A
CONFI-DEEP SYSTEM
FUNCTION
BASE FLUID (bbl/bbl)0.61
CONFI-MUL SA (lb/bbl)
1–3
cDEEP-MUL (lb/bbl)
7 – 11
cDEEP-RM (lb/bbl)
0.5 – 2
cDEEP-TROL (lb/bbl)
2–5
cDEEP-MOD (lb/bbl)
1–4
Lime (lb/bbl)8.0
Calcium Chloride (lb/bbl)27.0
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl)153.0
PROPERTIESDYNAMIC AGING
16 HOURS @ 350 ºF
Density (lb/gal)10.5
35
PV (cP)22
30
25
YP (lb/100 ft2)25
20
6 RPM18
15
10
ES (Volts)1055
5
0
cDEEP-MUL
Fresh Water (bbl/bbl)0.2
CONFI-DEEP + 40 ppb rev dust
•Reduced clay content allows optimised viscosity profiles with
FUNCTION
PRODUCT NAME
CONFI-DEEP SYSTEM STABILITY
yp (lb/100 ft2)
CONFI-DEEP
is an engineered synthetic-based fluid which,
unlike the conventional invert emulsion drilling
fluid systems, has a stable flat rheology for
deepwater drilling environments. The system,
which utilises low pour point base fluids, represents
a new generation in non-aqueous drilling fluids
technology by providing rheology properties, yield
point, low shear rates and gel strengths, that are
consistent over a wide range of temperatures.
• Static and dynamic temperature profiles.
• Dynamic down hole rheological profiling.
• ECD, ESD projections over time and temperature.
•Prediction of pit volume changes with time due to changes
PRODUCT NAME
40 ºF
70 ºF
120 ºF 150 ºF
TEMP (DEG ºF)
OWR75:25
Excess Lime (lb/bbl)3
#01-SBM YP
CONFI-DEEP YP
#01-SBM 6 RPM
CONFI-DEEP 6 RPM
HTHP (500 psi, 225 ºF)
< 2.0
Drilling fluids formulated with the CONFI-DEEP technology are
designed to minimise the downhole losses normally associated
with deepwater drilling. CONFI-DEEP achieves this with the use
of an enhanced rheological modifier thus minimising the use of
organophilic clay in the formulation. The result is a fluid system
which has exceptional low end rheological characteristics over
a wide temperature range, thereby promoting hole cleaning,
whilst minimising ECD, surge and swab pressures.
NON-AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
CORE OPTA-VERT SYSTEM COMPONENTS
OPTA-VERT
drill-in fluids are custom designed to provide
minimal reservoir damage over a wide range of
porosities and permeabilities, whilst at the same
time providing an easily removable filtercake on
drawdown.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
• Non-damaging – low skin values, high return permeability.
•Negligible lift-off pressures required – for rapid cleanup.
• Ultra-low-permeability filtercake – low leak off and stuck pipe mitigation.
• Highly inhibitive.
• Low friction factors.
• Reduced remediation costs.
PRODUCT
FUNCTION
GENERIC CHEMISTRY
CONFI-MUL P
Primary emulsifier
Primary emulsifier
CONFI-MUL S
Secondary emulsifier
Secondary emulsifier
CONFI-GEL / CONFI-GEL HT
Viscosifier
Organophilic bentonite
CONFI-MOD
Low end rheology modifier
Dimer / Trimer acid
OPTA-CARB
Custom sized bridging agent
Calcium carbonate
OPTA-MUL
2 in 1 emulsifier for low mud weighting
Primary and secondary emulsifier
TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF AN OPTA-VERT SYSTEM
PRODUCT BASE
OPTA-VERT
PROPERTIESDYNAMIC AGING 16
HOURS @ 275 ºF
FLUID0.65
Density (lb/gal)9.1
Drillwater (bbl/bbl)0.12
PV (cP)26
Calcium Chloride (lb/bbl)15
YP (lb/100 ft2)21
CONFI-MUL P (lb/bbl)
6–8
6 RPM13
CONFI-MUL S (lb/bbl)
3–4
ES (Volts)1040
CONFI-GEL (lb/bbl)
4–6
OWR85:15
CONFI-GEL HT (lb/bbl)
2–4
Excess Lime (lb/bbl)4
CONFI-TROL HT (lb/bbl)
6–8
HTHP (500 psi, 275 ºF)
<4
Lime (lb/bbl)10
The system is custom designed for each individual reservoir
and uses a range of high-quality components and design
tools to facilitate the design process. One such tool is the
HyPR-SIZER software programme that allows the fluids
engineer to optimise the concentration and particle size
distribution of the bridging agent to ensure solids are
deposited across the pore throats with minimum invasion,
while sealing off the reservoir with a thin, compact and
resilient filtercake.
OPTA-VERT is recommended for reservoir drill-in and
coring applications with a raised potential for problems,
e.g. emulsion blocking, associated with water-based drill-in
fluids. Problems minimised by OPTA-VERT include:
• Wellbore instability caused by hydratable shales above
The result – a system that provides strong benefits as a
high-performance, non-damaging drill-in fluid that optimises
production rates across a wide range of completion methods:
• Open-hole gravel-pack or non-gravel-pack completions
• Expandable slotted screen completions
• Slotted or perforated liner completions
• Cased-hole completions where hole cleaning
or minimising fluid invasion is critical
The OPTA-VERT system delivers all of the characteristics
required of a drilling fluid being highly inhibitive and ideally
suited to drilling interbedded reservoirs with shale.
The OPTA-VERT system is naturally lubricious making it an
ideal choice for horizontal wells.
•Fluid instability related to high bottom hole
The OPTA-VERT system’s non-damaging properties are evident
both in the laboratory and in the field when initial production
figures are compared to the reservoir’s anticipated production.
•Excessive torque and drag related to high-angle and
EMULSION BLOCKING IN A RESERVOIR
or interbedded with reservoir sands
temperatures
extended reach drilling
OPTA-CARB (Ib/bbl)
10 – 55 (As required)
RETURN PERMEABILITY FOR THREE OPTA-VERT FORMULATIONS AGAINST +/- 1000 md CLASHACH SANDSTONE
OPERATIONAL PORE VOLUME
SEQUENCE
(cc)
FILTRATE LOSS
BASE OIL ON APPLYING PERM (md)
THE DRILLING
MUD (ml)
OIL PERMEABILITY
AFTER DRAWDOWN
AT 800 PSI (md)
(% CHANGE ON BASE PERM)
11.2 lb/gal
11.657
OPTA-VERT
(Sample A) drilling mud
followed by drawdown
to dead crude oil
5.117
935
(0.439 PV)
813
(-13.0%)
11.2 lb/gal
9.792
OPTA-VERT
(Sample B) drilling mud
followed by drawdown
to dead crude oil
4.432
984
(0.453 PV)
935
(-4.98%)
11.2 lb/gal
11.568
OPTA-VERT
(Sample C) drilling mud
followed by drawdown
to dead crude oil
3.923 947
(0.339 PV)
900
(-4.96%)
NON-AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
EXTRA-VERT
is a synthetic invert emulsion drilling fluid based on
non-toxic, biodegradable ester chemistry.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
• Excellent wellbore stability and cuttings integrity.
•Low environmental impact – suitable for discharge in most
offshore waters.
•Formulated with high-quality products specifically selected for
COMPARATIVE LUBRICITY COEFFICIENTS FOR VARIOUS
TYPES OF DRILLING FLUID SYSTEMS
TYPICAL FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF AN
EXTRA-VERT SYSTEM
•
• The system is intrinsically lubricious.
• Non-damaging to sensitive reservoirs.
• Increased protection against stuck pipe.
DRILLING FLUID SYSTEM
LUBRICITY
COEFFICIENT
PRODUCT
an ester-base fluid.
Promotes high rates of penetration and reduced drilling days.
This base fluid is produced specifically for synthetic drilling
fluid applications as an environmentally safe alternative to
both traditional and synthetic oil-based drilling fluid systems.
EXTRA-VERT is formulated with emulsifiers, rheology
modifiers and surfactants which exhibit low toxicity and high
biodegradability. The EXTRA-VERT system is temperature
stable to > 160 ºC (320 ºF) and can be formulated to densities
greater than 1.92 sg (16.0 lb/gal).
The EXTRA-VERT system conforms to current legislation
in the majority of worldwide locations including the Gulf
of Mexico (EPA).
EXTRA-VERT is a viable alternative where traditional invert
emulsion systems are precluded from use by environmental
regulations and operators must consider the expense of
alternative waste disposal technologies such as cutting
re-injection and ship to shore.
EXTRA-VERT is inherently lubricious due to the ester-base fluid
and provides extremely low torque and drag in deviated and
extended reach wells.
EXTRA-VERT is readily formulated with non-chloride salts
for use in land operations.
HYDRO-FOIL GEN 1
Field Mud0.27
HYDRO-FOIL GEN 1 &
LUBRI-GREEN0.18
EXTRA-VERT
Ester OMC 586 (bbl/bbl)0.53
Drillwater (bbl/bbl)0.26
Sodium Formate (lb/bbl)25
CONFI-MUL P (lb/bbl)
1–3
CONFI-DRILL (IO)0.19
CONFI-MUL S (lb/bbl)
3–5
CONFI-DRILL (LMO)0.21
CONFI-GEL (lb/bbl)
4–6
EXTRA-VERT0.15
CONFI-TROL (lb/bbl)
4–6
Lime (lb/bbl)1
DRILL-BAR (lb/bbl)82
PROPERTIESDYNAMIC AGING
16 HOURS @ 225 ºF
Density (lb/gal)9.5
PV (cP)27
YP (lb/100 ft )15
6 RPM7
ES (Volts)500
OWR70:30
Excess Lime (lb/bbl)2
HTHP (500 psi, 225 ºF)
< 4.0
NON-AQUEOUS SYSTEMS
DRILLING FLUIDS
ENGINEERING SUPPORT
SOFTWARE
Our range of drilling fluids engineering
support software are designed to help
the upstream oil and gas industry convert
information into useful knowledge
for improved decision-making while
minimising risks. With the combination of
our proprietary software HyPR-FORM and
HyPR-CALC as well as licensed software
including Drillbench Presmod, KMC Crystal
Maze, HyDRA-FLASH and HyPR-SIZER, we
are well-equipped to deliver the necessary
tools you need to plan, execute and analyse
a variety of well types.
HyPR-FORM
is a superior software application that brings a
dramatic new level of rig site technical excellence to
our customers worldwide through comprehensive
data management and reporting. It is a fluids
reporting software designed to assist drilling fluid
engineers in setting up a well, recording mud data,
tracking inventory and creating daily and
end-of-well reports.
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
•
• Concise, high-quality reports.
• Extensive product database creation.
• Planned and actual data comparison.
• End of well analysis and graphics.
• Well data transfer capabilities.
Standardised data gathering and reports.
A technology innovation by the Scomi Oiltools Software Design Team, HyPRFORM has powerful reporting and graphing capabilities. It allows users to create
various reports based on daily, interval, whole well or even time-based reports.
HyPR-FORM is used to capture and filter technical data
easily. It is very user-friendly, easy to use and contains all the
engineering calculations normally used while drilling wells.
It allows users to input well data efficiently and effectively
through visual daily mud report presentation.
Product
Concentration
Well Details
HyPR-FORM also paves the way towards the creation of a
central data repository system. This will help us identify and
implement best practices and allow us to make timely and
powerful decisions, to continue to help our customers to the
next level.
Well
Classification
Rig Setup
Set Mud
Property Target
Pit Setup
Fluid Properties
Solid Control Setup
Inventory & Volume
Management
Reports available include:
• Cost Summary and Detail Reports – list of products, quantity and cost.
• Fluid Property Report – fluid property targets and test results such as density,
temperature, viscosity, PV, YP, etc.
• HSE Report – HSE KPIs, activities and observation cards.
• Hydraulics Report – depth and fluid details, pressure losses, bit and hole
Pumps & Bits Calculation
Mud Losses
Hole Geometry
Inventory & Cost
Summary
Receive & Backload
Products
hydralics, hole cleanning and ECD.
• Oil on Cutting Report – mud density, sample cutting’s test results such as
weight, volume etc.
• Product Concentration Report – list of product and their concentration.
• P roduct Reconciliation Report – initial, received, returned, used, balance and
total product details.
• Volume Report – volume of products used, losses encountered, received,
returned, etc.
• Well KPI – cost performance, fluid targets, HSE and other KPIs.
ENGINEERING SUPPORT SOFTWARE
HyPR-CALC
is a comprehensive drilling hydraulics programme
to assist the user in all aspects of the circulation
system including pressure management and
wellbore stability. It incorporates fluid displacement
simulation, surge and swab calculations, mud
rheology modeling, ECD and HTHP rheological
properties and density.
HYPR-CALC GRAPH AND TABULAR REPORTS
Circulation Hydraulic
Hydrostatic Pressure
Frictional Pressure Loss
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
• Fluid displacement simulation.
• HTHP mud rheological properties and density.
• Constant or sin cycle drillstring eccentricity.
• Pressure, velocity, flow type, and cutting accumulation prediction.
• Surface pressure loss calculation.
• Surge / Swab calculation.
• Tracking in-situ properties of circulating fluid.
• Survey data or well trajectory planning.
• 3D well trajectory plot.
• Formation temperature and pressure by gradient or measured points.
3D Wellbore View
Surge / Swab
Sensitivity Analysis
HyPR-CALC takes into account all the considerations below in
its design calculations:
• Corrected bottom hole pressure prediction
• Downhole rheology and density corrected for temperature
and pressure
• Pressure surge due to drillstring movement
• Tool joints effects
•Drillstring rotation and eccentricity especially in deviated /
HyPR-CALC, a technology innovation by the Scomi Oiltools
Software Design Team, has been used for over 5 years in all
parts of the world including Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin
America.
Q Design
Under Reaming
Fluid Displacement
HyPR-CALC incorporates state-of-the-art visualisation
technology that goes beyond mere presentation. The various
2D / 3D graphs and tabular reports allow users to efficiently
and accurately perform design calculations through visual
and animated schematics.
horizontal section
• Dynamic fluid temperature profiling
• Fluid displacements
•Hydraulics calculation options using Herschel-Buckley,
Bingham Plastic, Newtonian & Power Law model
ENGINEERING SUPPORT SOFTWARE
GRTC
GLOBAL RESEARCH
& TECHNOLOGY
CENTRE
is the Global Research & Technology Centre for
Scomi Oiltools. Established in Kuala Lumpur,
Malaysia, the centre is ISO 9001 certified, and
provides state-of-the-art facilities for R&D, training
and QAQC, as well as operational technical
support for our global operations. Our cell R&D
centres are also in Houston, USA for drilling waste
management.
Our activities and services include:
• Research & Development
•Training
•QAQC
• Technical Support Services
Powered by innovation
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
The flow of technology and information among people,
enterprises and institutions is key to an innovative process,
and lends to the interaction which turns ideas into a process,
product or service. As an advocate of such holistic solutions,
Scomi Oiltools harnesses the power of innovation to generate
value for our clients.
To meet customer-focused research challenges in drilling
fluids and drilling waste management, the team at GRTC
integrates business-driven projects with value-added technical
consultancy and laboratory services.
At GRTC, we have extensive facilities for research and
development, technical services, quality assurance quality
control and industrial training. Our laboratories also provide
technical support, including troubleshooting services, and
training for our global operations.
At GRTC we train our engineers in basic, advanced and
intensive courses in drilling fluids. A curriculum for drilling
waste management is included to further prepare our
engineers to approach the entire drilling process in a more
holistic manner. GRTC is also open to our key customers where
training may be customised for their technical personnel.
The magnitude and complexity of oil and gas exploration and
development require us to work closely with our co-researchers
to ensure that we meet the exacting industry requirements
for high-performance water-based fluids, flat rheology nonaqueous fluids for deepwater drilling and non-damaging
reservoir drilling fluids. Furthermore, our collaborative projects
with customers and universities extend our ability to resolve
a regionally limited problem or develop broad strategic
capabilities.
GLOBAL RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY CENTRE
TECHNICAL SERVICES
TRAINING CENTRE
Our advisory personnel provide technical assistance and
specific expertise in the application of drilling fluids technology
for wellbore construction and productivity optimisation on
location. These include:
Our employees are essential to the company’s future growth
and success. Naturally, we are fully committed to developing
capable, confident and competent employees, with an
emphasis placed on the continuous upgrade and development
of skills and competencies.
• Development of new fluids technologies.
• Design, modification and adaptation of fluid systems.
• Problem-solving and troubleshooting.
• Recommendations of products and solutions.
• Transfers of technology.
• Collection and management of performance data.
• Guidance on technical product line training.
• Communication with the drilling industry, institutions,
and professional bodies.
We also hone and develop the skills of our clients’ personnel
worldwide. To date, we have trained over 400 chemists,
technologists and engineers from over 20 countries as drilling
fluid technologists. In addition, we have conducted advanced
seminars, software training and drilling fluids operations
management training for hundreds of personnel.
Apart from our customised courses, we also have computer
training facilities and a dedicated training laboratory with all
the equipment a drilling fluid technologist may encounter
offshore or onshore. Trainees are also introduced to advanced
analytical and software tools as well as specialised equipment
for specialty jobs.
QAQC
To maintain the quality and performance at GRTC, we employ
a team of QAQC professionals who use state-of-the-art
equipment to regularly perform random checks and productspecific testing to ensure that our products comply with
industry-certified standards. The team also manages our ISO
certification.
GLOBAL RESEARCH & TECHNOLOGY CENTRE
WATER-BASED SYSTEMS
www.scomioiltools.com.my
Asia Middle East
Americas
West Africa
T
T
T
T
+603 7717 3000
+9714 8838 236
+1281 260 6016
+234 803 402 8010
F
F
F
F
+603 7728 5202
+9714 8838 920
+1281 260 6969
+1832 550 2582
Terms & conditions apply. Please refer to www.scomigroup.com.my/t&c for further information.
Copyright® 2013 Scomi Oilfield Limited (Bermuda). All Rights Reserved.
BRCDF-Rev0613
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
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