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AJC Archives
The American Jewish
Year Book
5689
September 15, 1928, to October 5, 1929
Volume 30
Edited by
HARRY SCHNEIDERMAN
for the
AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
PHILADELPHIA
THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA
1928
COPYRIGHT, 1928 BY
THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA
Printed at
THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY'S PRESS
Philadelphia. Penna., U.S.A.
PREFACE
The leading special feature in this volume is an article by DR. H. S.
on the Jewish population of the United States, based upon
information gathered by him as director of the Statistical Department
of the American Jewish Committee. DR. LINFIELD'S study shows that
there are now in the United States approximately 4,130,000 Jews
widely distributed throughout the country in both urban and rural
places. There are Jews in all cities of the country having a population
of 25,000 or over. But it is interesting to note, that Jews do not live
only in the large cities, for they are also to be found in over 80% of the
cities of 2,500 to 25,000 population, in over 30% of incorporated villages
of less than 2,500 population and in 7% of rural unincorporated areas.
In all, there are over 6,000 places throughout the country which have
Jewish inhabitants.
DR. LINFIELD also made a study of the Jewish congregations in the
United States, as Special Agent of the United States Bureau of the
Census, in connection with the Census of Religious Bodies undertaken
by that Bureau. Unfortunately it was not possible for him to prepare a
report on the subject in time for publication in this volume, but a preliminary statement, together with a table by states is given. Although
it is not claimed that these statistics are absolutely complete, it is believed they are very nearly so. It was found that there are approximately
3,000 permanent Jewish congregations in the country. Ten years ago,
only 1,900 were recorded, and twenty years ago, only 1,700. DR. LINFIELD'S study also indicates that the sum invested in synagogue property
must be considerable, for the 1,130 congregations which reported the
value of their property, possessed buildings worth over $100,000,000.
The same remark may be applied also to the annual expenditures of
the congregations. Only 1,235 of the 3,000 responded to the inquiry on
this particular point, and these reported an annual expenditure of
approximately $16,500,000. Although the religious education of Jewish
children is not conducted by congregations only, the information gathered regarding the religious schools maintained by the congregations is
nevertheless interesting. Only 1,185 congregations reported on this
point, 554 stating that they maintained Sabbath schools, having an
enrollment of 69,439 pupils, and 631, that they maintained week-day
schools in which 70,429 pupils were enrolled. Another point that deserves
being mentioned here is, that the two studies revealed the fact that
Jews are slowly but steadily settling in rural territory, and that in 93
rural places Jewish congregations have been established.
This volume contains one other special feature, and that is a biographical sketch of the great Jewish thinker, essayist, and leader, ASHER
GINZBERG, better known as AHAD HA'AM, who died on January 2, 1927,
and a collection of whose essays was published some years ago by the
Jewish Publication Society. We are fortunate in being able to present
LINFIELD
IV
PREFACE
to our readers a biography of this outstanding figure in Jewish life, from
the pen of one who has devoted himself to a study of the man and his
works, MR. LEON SIMON, of London, England.
Only one change has been made in the recurrent features of the year
book,—in place of the article consisting of a survey of the year, which
has been a feature of this publication for the past six years, there has
been substituted a briefer review of the year, presenting only the most
important and outstanding matters of Jewish interest which engaged
public attention during the period. To this is appended, partly in abstract and partly in extenso, the report of the Joint Palestine Survey
Commission appointed last year by DR. CHAIM WEIZMANN on behalf of
the World Zionist Organization, in conjunction with MR. LOUIS MARSHALL, chairman of a non-partisan conference to discuss Palestine
affairs which had several meetings in the United States. There are also
appended to the review of the year full lists of the most important anniversaries, appointments and honors, special bequests and gifts, and
necrology for the period from April 1, 1927 to June 30, 1928.
As in former years, I have had, in the preparation of this volume, the
valuable assistance of DR. LINFIELD, and I take this occasion to express
my gratitude to him for the fine spirit of co-operation which he has
shown. DR. ISAAC HUSIK, the editor of the publications of the Society
was again helpful in the revision of the manuscripts and proofs, and
Miss ROSE A. HERZOG deserves credit for her work in compiling some
of the lists and directories. Finally, I wish to express my thanks to DR.
CYRUS ADLER, who was the originator of this publication thirty years
ago, and its editor for many years, who has wholeheartedly helped and
encouraged me during the past ten years.
HARRY SCHNEIDERMAN.
July 17, 1928.
SPECIAL ARTICLES IN PREVIOUS ISSUES OF THE
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
BIBLIOGRAPHY
A LIST OF JEWISH PERIODICALS IN THE UNITED STATES (published up
to 1900), 5660, pp. 271-282; current periodicals are listed in subsequent issues.
THE HUNDRED BEST AVAILABLE BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON JEWISH SUB-
JECTS, 5665, pp. 309-317; 5686, pp. 260-273.
ONE HUNDRED AVAILABLE BOOKS IN ENGLISH ON PALESTINE,
5666, pp.
153-162.
A LIST OF AVAILABLE STORIES OF JEWISH INTEREST IN ENGLISH, 5667,
pp. 130-142.
A CLASSIFIED LIST OF STANDARD BOOKS ON JEWISH SUBJECTS, 5684,
pp. 204-255.
BIOGRAPHY
URIAH P. LEVY, 5663, pp. 42-45.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF RABBIS AND CANTORS OFFICIATING IN THE
UNITED STATES, 5664, pp. 40-108; 5665, pp. 214-225; 5666, pp.
119-125.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF JEWS PROMINENT IN THE PROFESSIONS,
ETC., IN THE UNITED STATES, 5665, pp. 52-213.
GERSHOM MENDEZ SEIXAS, 5665, pp. 40-51.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF JEWISH COMMUNAL WORKERS IN THE
UNITED STATES, 5666, pp. 32-118.
PENINA MOISE, 5666, pp. 17-31.
SOLOMON SCHECHTER. A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH, 5677, pp. 25-67.
JOSEPH JACOBS, 5677, pp. 68-75.
MOSES JACOB EZEKIEL, 5678, pp. 227-232.
%
JACOB HENRY SCHIFF. A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH, 5682, pp. 21-64.
ISRAEL FRIEDLAENDER. A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH, 5682, pp. 65-79.
ABRAM S. ISAACS, 5682, pp. 80-83.
JEWS OF PROMINENCE IN THE UNITED STATES, 5683, pp. 109-218.
JEWS WHO HAVE RECEIVED THE NOBEL PRIZE, 5684, pp. 195-203.
MAYER SULZBERGER, 5685, pp. 373-403.
SIMON WOLF,
5685, pp. 404-419.
v
VI
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
JOSEPH KRAUSKOPF, 5685, pp. 420-447.
HENRY BERKOWITZ, 5685, pp. 448-458.
BENZION HALPER, 5685, pp. 459-471.
EMIL GUSTAVE HIRSCH, 5686, pp. 230-237.
JULIUS KAHN, 5686, pp. 238-245.
MARTIN ABRAHAM MEYER, 5686, pp. 246-259.
ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, 5687, pp. 219-234.
KAUFMANN KOHLER, 5687, pp. 235-260.
HENRY B. MALTER, 5687, pp. 261-272.
EPHRAIM LEDERER, 5687, pp. 273-285.
ISRAEL ZANGWILL, 5688, pp. 121-143.
OSCAR SOLOMON STRAUS, 5688, pp. 145-155.
COMMUNAL ACTIVITY
T H E ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE, 5661, pp. 45-65.
THE JEWISH COMMUNITY OF N E W YORK CITY, 5670, pp. 44-54.
T H E JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY, 5674, pp. 19-187.
JEWISH EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES, 5675, pp. 90-127.
T H E FEDERATION MOVEMENT IN AMERICAN JEWISH PHILANTHROPY,
5676, pp. 159-198.
JEWISH WAR RELIEF WORK, 5678, pp. 161-193.
FEDERATION FOR THE SUPPORT OF JEWISH PHILANTHROPIC SOCIETIES
OF N E W YORK CITY, 5679, pp. 103-146.
T H E JEWISH WELFARE BOARD, 5679, pp. 88-102.
JEWISH SOCIAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES, 5681, pp. 31-52.
DIRECTORIES
A LIST OF JEWISH PERIODICALS IN THE UNITED STATES (published up
to 1900), 5660, pp. 271-282; current periodicals are listed in subsequent issues.
A DIRECTORY OF NATIONAL JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS appears in every
issue.
DIRECTORIES OF LOCAL JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS, 5660, pp. 105-270;
5661, pp. 185-495; 5668, pp. 123-430 (supplementary lists appear
in all (Succeeding issues up to and including 5678); 5680, pp. 330583; supplementary lists, 5681, pp. 322-339; 5682, pp. 247-265;
5683, pp. 264-285; 5684, pp. 301-311, 5685, pp. 522-545, 5686, pp.
327-349, 5687, pp. 343-363, and 5688, pp. 191-214.
A LIST OF JEWISH FEDERATED CHARITIES IN THE UNITED STATES, 5679,
pp. 326-327; and subsequent issues.
LIST OF RABBIS AND INSTRUCTORS IN JEWISH COLLEGES IN THE UNITED
STATES, 5678, pp. 367-395.
SPECIAL ARTICLES
VII
HISTORY
PRELIMINARY LIST OF JEWISH SOLDIERS AND SAILORS WHO SERVED IN
THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR, 5661, pp. 525-622.
THE AMERICAN PASSPORT IN RUSSIA, 5665, pp. 283-305.
A SYLLABUS OF JEWISH HISTORY, 5666, pp. 163-170.
FROM KISHINEFF TO BIALYSTOK. A TABLE OF POGROMS FROM 1903
to 1906, 5667, pp. 34-89.
THE PASSPORT QUESTION IN CONGRESS, 5670, pp. 21-43.
THE PASSPORT QUESTION, 5672, pp. 19-128.
THE BEILIS AFFAIR, 5675, pp. 19-89.
JEWISH RIGHTS AT INTERNATIONAL CONGRESSES, 5678, pp. 106-160.
THE PARTICIPATION OF THE JEWS OF FRANCE IN THE GREAT WAR, 5680,
pp. 31-97.
THE STORY OF BRITISH JEWRY IN THE WAR, 5680, pp. 98-119.
THE JEWS OF ALSACE-LORRAINE (1870-1920) 5681, pp. 53-79.
THE JEWISH BATTALIONS AND THE PALESTINE CAMPAIGN, 5680,
pp.
120-140.
THE PEACE CONFERENCE AND RIGHTS OF MINORITIES, 5680, pp. 156—
168; 5681, pp. 101-130.
(1654-1787), 5687, pp. 193-218.
THE JEWS OF AMERICA
JEWISH LIFE IN OTHER COUNTRIES
THE JEWS OF ROUMANIA (two articles), 5662, pp. 25-87.
RECENT JEWISH PROGRESS IN PALESTINE, 5676, pp. 24-558.
THE JEWS OF LATIN AMERICA, 5678, pp. 35-105.
THE JEWS OF SERBIA, 5679, pp. 75-87.
THE FALASHAS, 5681, pp. 80-100.
THE JEWS OF CANADA, 5686, pp. 154-229.
STATISTICS
(Jewish Organizations in the United
States), 5662, pp. 126-156.
THE JEWISH POPULATION OF MARYLAND, 5663, pp.. 46-62.
JEWISH POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, 5675, pp. 339-378.
JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES ARMY AND NAVY (1915-1916), 5677, pp.
76-79.
STATISTICAL SUMMARY BY STATES
TABLE SHOWING ENROLMENT OF JEWISH STUDENTS IN AMERICAN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES IN 1915-1916, 5687, pp. 407-408.
THE JEWISH POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES, 5679, pp. 31-74.
THE COLLECTION OF JEWISH WAR STATISTICS, 5679, pp. 141-155.
VIII
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
AMERICAN JEWS IN THE WORLD WAR, 5680, pp. 141-155.
PROFESSIONAL TENDENCIES AMONG JEWISH STUDENTS IN COLLEGES,
UNIVERSITIES, AND PROFESSIONAL SCHOOLS, 5681, pp. 383-393.
MISCELLANEOUS
SUNDAY LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES AND JUDICIAL DECISIONS HAVING REFERENCE TO JEWS, 5669, pp. 152-189.
IN DEFENSE OF THE IMMIGRANT, 5671, pp. 19-98.
THE JEW AND AGRICULTURE, 5673, pp. 21-115.
THE NEW ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE BIBLE, 5678, pp. 161-193.
JEWISH AMERICANIZATION AGENCIES, 5682, pp. 84-111.
PORTRAITS OF EARLY AMERICAN JEWS, 5684, pp. 147-162.
JEWISH METHOD OF SLAYING ANIMALS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF
HUMANITY, 5684, pp. 163-179.
KOL NIDRE, 5684, pp. 180-194.
THE YIDDISH PRESS, 5685, pp. 165-372.
THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE SYNAGOGUE, 5687, pp. 155-192.
CONTENTS
PAGE
PREFACE
Ill
SPECIAL ARTICLES IN PREVIOUS ISSUES OF THE AMERICAN JEWISH
YEAR BOOK
V
CALENDARS:
Abridged Calendars for 5688-5693
Calendar for 5689 by Months
Time of Sunrise and Sunset in Six Northern Latitudes
2
4
19
SPECIAL ARTICLES:
• Review of the Year 5688. By Harry Schneiderman
Anniversary Celebrations During 5688
Appointments, Honors, and Elections
Special Bequests and Gifts
Necrology
Ahad Ha-am. By Leon Simon
The Jewish Population of the United States, 1927. By Harry
S. Linfield
Jewish Congregations in the United States, 1927. Preliminary
Statement
23
71
72
75
79
87
101
199
LISTS:
Jewish National Organization of the United States
Jewish Periodicals Appearing in the Linked States
Jewish Members of the Congress of the United States
203
237
243
STATISTICS OF JEWS:
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Jewish
Jewish
Jewish
Jewish
Jewish
Jewish
Population of the United States
Population of the World
Immigration into the United States
Immigration into Canada
Immigration into Argentina
Immigration into Palestine
247
248
257
266
266
267
TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE, 1927
271
REPORT OF THE FORTIETH YEAR OF THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SO-
CIETY OF AMERICA 1927-1928
337
CALENDARS
ABRIDGED CALENDARS FOR 5688-5690
Jewish
Month and Date
Festivals, etc.
m»r
urn
rfS-m—5688
B'Sin—5689
fin—S690
1927-1928
1928-1929
1929-1930
T
Th
Th
T
T
W
Th
F
M
Sept
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Oct.
Oct.
•Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Sa
M
M
Sa
Sa
S
M
T
Sa
Sa
M
M
Sa
Sa
S
M
T
F
S
•Dec. 14
F
Fast of Tebet
•Dec. 25
1928
Jan. 3
Oct. 5
Oct. 7
Oct. 14
Oct. 19
Oct. 26
Oct. 27
•Nov. 4
Dec. 3
Dec. 27
1930
Jan. 1
T
S
Jan. 10
F
1
1
New Moon
New Moon
Jan. 23
•Feb. 22
M
W
Dec. 23
1929
Jan. 12
•Feb. 11
Sa
M
Jan. 30
•Mar. 1
Th
Sa
1
13
14
New Moon
Fast of Esther
Furim
Mar. 5
Mar. 6
M
T
•Mar. 13
Mar. 25
Mar. 26
W
M
T
Mar. 13
Mar. 14
Th
F
Nisan
1
15
New Moon
Passover
Mar. 22
Apr. 5
Th
Th
Apr. 11
Apr. 25
Th
Th
Mar. 30
Apr. 13
S
S
Iyar
1
18
New Moon
Thirty-third Day of 'Omer
•Apr. 21
May 8
Sa
T
•May 11
May 28
Sa
T
•Apr. 29
May 16
T
F
Sivan
1
6
New Moon
Feast of Weeks
May 20
May 25
S
F
June 9
June 14
S
F
May 28
June 2
W
M
1
17
New Moon
Fast of Tammuz
•June 19
July 5
T
Th
•July 9
July 25
T
Th
•June 27
July 13
F
S
Ab
1
9
New Moon
Fast of Ab
July 18
July 26
W
Th
Aug. 17
Aug. 25
Sa
S
July 26
Aug. 3
Sa
S
Elul
1
New Moon
•Aug. 17
•Sept. 6
F
•Aug. 25
M
Tishri
Hashtan
Kisler
Tebet
Shebat
Adar
Adar Sheni
Tammuz
1
3
10
15
22
23
1
1
25
New Year
Fast of Gedaliah
Day of Atonement
Tabernacles
Eighth Day of the Feast
Rejoicing of the Law
New Moon
New Moon
Hanukkah
1
New Moon
10
•Second day of New Moon.
Sept.
Sept.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
•Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
27
29
6
11
18
19
27
25
19
F
15
17
24
29
6
7
15
13
8
W
ABRIDGED CALENDARS FOR 5691-5693
Jewish
Festivals, etc.
Month and Date
Tiehri
Heshvan
Kislev
Tebet
Shebat
Adar
Adar Sheni
1
3
10
15
22
23
1
1
25
New Year
Fast of Gedaliah
Day of Atonement
Tabernacles
Eighth Day of the Feast
Rejoicing of the Law
New Moon
New Moon
Hanukkah
1
New Moon
10
Fast of Tebet
1
1
New Moon
New Moon
1
13
14
New Moon
Fast of Esther
Purim
'
H3J
N'sin— S691
a'sin—5692
]"s~in—••693
1930-1931
1931-1932
1932-1933
T
Th
Th
T
T
W
Th
F
M
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Sept.
Oct.
Oct.
•Oct.
•Nov.
Dec.
•Dec. 21
S
Dec. 30
1931
Jan. 19
•Feb. 18
T
Sept.
Sept.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
•Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Mar.
Mar.
Sa
M
M
Sa
Sa
S
M
W
Sa
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
Oct.
•Oct.
•Nov.
Dec.
•Dec. 11
F
S
S
M
W
Dec. 20
1932
Jan. 9
•Feb. 8
•Dec. 30
1933
Jan. 8
Sa
M
Jan. 28
•Feb. 27
Sa
M
2
3
M
T
•Mar. 9
Mar. 21
Mar. 22
T
Mar. 9
Mar. 12
Th
S
23
25
2
7
14
15
23
21
15
12
14
21
26
3
4
12
11
5
W
M
1
3
10
15
22
23
31
30
24
Sa
M
M
Sa
Sa
S
M
W
Sa
F
Nisan
1
15
New Moon
Passover
Mar. 19
Apr. 2
Th
Th
Apr. 7
Apr. 21
Th
Th
Mar. 28
Apr. 11
T
T
Iyar
1
18
New Moon
Thirty-third Day of 'Omer
•Apr. 18
May 5
Sa
T
•May 7
May 24
Sa
T
•Apr. 27
May 14
Th
S
Sivan
1
6
New Moon
Feast of Weeks
May 17
May 22
S
F
June 5
June 10
S
F
May 26
May 31
F
W
1
17
New Moon
Fast of Tammuz
•June 16
July 2
T
Th
•July 5
July 21
T
Th
•June 25
July 11
S
T
1
9
New Moon
Fast of Ab
July 15
July 23
W
Th
Aug. 3
Aug. 11
W
Th
July 24
Aug. 1
M
T
1
New Moon
•Aug. 14
F
•Sept. 2
•Aug. 23
W
Tammuz
*Ab
Elul
'
*Second day of New Moon.
F
5689
is called 689 (tt'Enn) according to the short system (p"S^). It
is a complete Leap Year of 13 months, 55 Sabbaths, 384
days, beginning on Saturday, the seventh day of the week,
and having the first day of Passover on Thursday, the fifth
day of the week; therefore its sign is rwr i. e., r for the seventh,
0 for complete (nnbw) and n for the fifth. It is the eighth
year of the 300th lunar cycle of 19 years, and the fifth
year of the 204th solar cycle of 28 years, since Creation.
1928, Sept. 15—Oct. 14]
Day
Civil of the Jewish
Month Week Month
Sept.
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Oct.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
s
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
TISHRI 30 DAYS
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
Tishri
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
nvtns
nntssn
/Gen. 21
New YearTOPItPNTI'N \Num. 29: 1-6
New Year TWT\ 0NTI '3 /Gen. 22
rrbii nix
Fast of Gedaliah
raw nat» /irian
"11EO DV
Day of Atonement
I Sam. 1: 1-2: 10
(en 31:2-20
\Num. 29: 1-6
Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 Is. 55: 6-56: 8
Seph. none
Deut. 32
(Lev. 16
JNum. 29: 7-11
[Afternoon: Lev. 18
/Lev. 22:26-23:44
(Num. 29:12-16
Lev. 22: 26-23: 44
Tabernacles fTODT ' 3
Num. 29: 12-16
Num. 29: 17-25
Seph. 29: 17-22
Num. 29: 20-28
Seph. 29: 20-25
Num. 29: 23-31
Seph. 29: 23-28
Num. 29: 26-34
Seph. 29: 26-31
Num. 29: 26-34
Seph. 29: 29-34
(Deut. 14: 22-16: 17
Eighth Day of the Feast* (Num. 29: 35-30: 1
33: 1-34: 12
rnin nriDtp 4(Deut.
Gen. 1: 1-2: 3
Rejoicing of the Law
(Num. 29: 35-30: 1
Tabernacles ITDDT 'N
an TID«
Gen. 1: 1-6: 8
New Moon BTjn tPNTI 'N
[»"ltt?n 5689
Num. 28: 1-15
* The
of Ecclesiastes is read.
[ 'nn
'3D]Book
.rvtwna
Hos. 14:2-10; Joel 2:
15-17 or 27; Seph.
Hos. 14: 2-10; Micah
7: 18-20
fls. 57: 14-58: 14
\ Afternoon: Jonah
]Seph.add Micah 7: 18
1-20
Zech. 14
I Kings 8: 2-21
I Kings 8: 54-66
/Josh. 1
\Seph. 1:1-9
(I Sam. 20: 18-42
\Seph. add Is. 61-10:
(62:5
1928, Oct . IS—Nov. 13]
Day
Civil
of the Jewish
Month Week Month
Oct.
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Nov.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
HESHVANr 30 DAYS
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
[pntP 5689
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
nvans
nnoen
Heshv.
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
New Moon W~\f\ 'TJ '3 Num. 28: 1-15
Gen. 6: 9-U-32
/Is. 54: 1-55: 5
\Seph. 54: 1-10
Gen. 12: 1-17: 27
Is. 40: 27-41: 16
NTT
Gen. 18: 1-22: 24
II Kings 4: 1-37
Seph. 4: 1-23
[ 'nrr 'aoi ,mt2> " n
Gen. 23: 1-25: 18
I Kings 1: 1-31
ra
pp "1133 DV
New Moon BHn "11 'N
Num. 28: 1-15
1928, Nov. 14—Dec. 13]
Day
Civil of the Jewish
Month week Mouth
Nov.
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
Dec.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
KISLEV 30 DAYS
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
V\bO2 5689
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
nVBHS
mitssn
Kislev
w 1
Th 2
F 3
S 4
s 5
M 6
T 7
W 8
Th 9
F 10
S 11
s 12
M 13
T 14
W 15
Th •16
F 17
S 18
S 19
M 20
T 21
W 22
Th 23
F 24
S 25
S 26
M 27
T 28
W 29
Th 30
New Moon V~m '"PI '3 Num. 28: 1-15
rn^in
[ [ 'nn 'am .roun ,3m
Hanukkah, Feast
of Dedication
New Moon Bnn "11 rK
Gen. 25: 19-28: 9
Mai. 1:1-2:7
Gen. 28: 10-32: 3
Hos. 12: 13-14: 10; or
11:7-12: 12; or 11:
7-14: 10
Seph. 11:7-12: 12
Gen. 33: 4-36: 43
Hos. 12: 13-14: 10; or
11: 7-12: 12; or
Obad. 1: 1-21
Seph. Obad. 1: 1-21
(Gen. 37: 1-40: 23
(Num. 7: 1-17
Num. 7: 18-29
Seph. 7: 18-23
Num. 7: 24-35
Seph. 7: 24-29
Num. 7: 30-41
Seph. 7: 30-35
Num. 7: 36-47
Seph. 7: 36-41
Num. 28: 1-15
Num. 7: 42-47
Zech. 2: 14-4: 7
1928, Dec. 14—1929, Jan. 11] TEBET 29 DAYS
Day
Civil of the Jewish
Month Week Month
Dec.
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Jan.
1929
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
Tebet
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
New Moon t£Hn '"IT ' 3
Eighth Day of Hanukkah
[rQD 5689
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
rivtns
m-iBsn
Num. 28: 1-15
Num. 7: 48-53
Gen. 41: 1-44: 17
Num. 7: 54-8: 4
I Kings 7: 40-50
Gen. 44:18-47:27
razn rrwj? avs
Ezek.37: 15-28
Ex.32: 11-14:34:1-10 /Is. 55:6-56:8
{Seph. none
Fast of Tebet
TH
i 'nn '3D] maty
[ mpioi pp "riB3 av
Gen. 47: 28-50: 26
I Kings|2: 1-12
Ex. 1: 1-6: 1
(Is. 27: 6-27: 13; 29:
\ 22, 23
(Seph. Jer. 1: 1-2: 3
1929, Jan. 12—Feb. 10]
Day
Civil of the Jewish
Month Week Month
Jan.
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Feb.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
s
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
Shebat
SHEBAT 30 DAYS
SABBATHS, FESTIVAL, FASTS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
Bnn IPNT ,K"1N1
New Moon
30
New Moon Win "Til 'N
N3
[BStp 5689
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
nvms
nnoen
/Ex. 6: 2-9: 35
\Num. 28: 9-15
Is. 66
Ex. 10: 1-13: 16
Jer. 46: 13-28
Ex. 13: 17-17: 16
Judges 4: 4-5: 31
Seph. 5: 1-31
Ex. 18: 1-20: 23
Is. 6: 1-7: 6; 9:5, 6
Seph. 6: 1-13
Ex. 21: 1-24: 18
I Sam. 20: 18-42
,nTK> rat? .nVcja
(New Year for Trees
i-in'
[ mpiD] lap 1133 av
[ 'nn '3D] O'CDSPD
Num. 28: 1-15
1929, Fet). 11—Mar. 12] ADAR RISHON 30 DAYS
Day
Civil of the Jewisl
Month Week Month
Feb.
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
Mar.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
t\WVn i n « 5689
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
nvuns
nnasn
Adar
Rishon
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
New Moon Pin 'TI '3
Num. 28: 1-15
•
nnnn
mxn
i 'nn '3D] /^np'i
whpw 'D
Ex. 25: 1-27: 19
I Kings 5: 26-6: 13
Ex. 27: 20-30: 10
Ezek. 43: 10-27
Ex. 30: 11-34: 35
/I Kings 18:, (or 2O)-39
\Seph. 18: 20-39
/Ex. 35: 1-38: 20
\Ex. 30: 11-16
\Sepk. 11: 17-12: 17
"|tap TIEO DV
Num. 28: 1-15
New Moon BHjn '"T1 'H
10
III Kings 12: 1-17
1929, Mar. 13—Apr. 10]
Day
Civil of the Jewish
Month Week Month
Mar.
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Apr.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
w
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
ADAR SHENI 29 DAYS
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
[>W TIN 5689
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
nVBHS
nnt33n
Adar
Sheni
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
New Moon ttnn 'TT '3
Num. 28: 1-15
HlpS
Ex. 38: 21-40: 38
/I Kings 7: 51-8: 21
\Seph. 7: 40-50
f o r ' s ,Nnp'i
/Lev. 1: 1-5: 26
\Deut. 25: 17-19
/I Sam. 15: 2-34
\Seph. 15: 1-34
/Ex. 32: 11-14: 34:
1 1-10
f Is. 55: 6-56: 8
[Seph. none
-iriD« rnyn
Fast of Esther
D'-ns
Ex. 17: 8-16
Purim, Feast of Esther*
D'TIB ]EW
Shushan Purim
i
r n s '3 ,i3£
ttnnn 's [ 'nn 'aai ,'JW
/Lev. 6: 1-8: 36
INum. 19
/Ezek. 36: 16-38
\Seph. 36: 16-3(>
/Lev. 9: 1-11: 47
\Ex. 12: 1-20
/Ezek. 4-S: 16-46: 18
\Seph. 45: 18-46: 15
*The Book of Esther is read.
U
192? , Apr 11—May 10]
Day
Civil of the Jewish
Month Week Month
Apr.
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
?i-H
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
NISAN 30 DAYS
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
[]D'3 5689
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
miosn
Niaan
Th 1 New M o o n [PIPI 12>fO
F 2
jrirn
S 3
s 4
M 5
T 6
W 7
Th 8
F 9
•nun ran? .JTTCSD
S 10
s 11
M 12
T 13
rnyn
W 14 Fast of theD'Ton
Flrst-Born
FIDS1 'H
Th 15 Passover
Passover
I1DD1 'D
F 16
S 17 [*
S 18 r
i y \U\ 1 / M l
M 19
T 20
W 21 Passover
n D B l 'T
Passover
PIDSI
'PI
Th 22
F 23
S 24 i 'nn '3DJ ,mD 'inN
S 25
M 26
T 27
W 28
Th 29
F 30 New Moon EHn ' 1 1 'N
I
Num. 28: 1-15
Lev. 12: 1-13: 59
II Kings 4:42-5: 19
Lev. 14: 1-15: 33
[Mai. 3: 4-24; or Jer. 7:
21-8:3;9:22,23
ISeph. Mai. 3: 4-24
/Ex. 12: 21-51
INum. 28: 16-25
/Lev. 22: 26-23: 44
Num. 28: 16-25
' [Ex. 33: 12-34: 26
(Num. 28: 19-25
Ex. 13: 1-16
Num. 28: 19-25
Ex. 22: 24-23: 19
Num. 28: 19-25
Num. 9: 1-14
Num. 28: 19-25
Ex. 13: 17-15: 26
Num. 28: 19-25
Deut. 15: 19-16: 17
Num. 28: 19-25
Lev. 16: 1-18: 30
Num. 28: 1-15
T h e Song of Songs is read.
/Josh. 3:5-7;5:2-6:,27
\Sei>k. 5: 2-6: 2
II Kings 23: 1 (or 4)9: 21-25
Ezek. 36: 37-37: 14
Sepk. 37: 1-14
II Sam. 22
Is. 10: 32-12: 6
/Ezek. 22: 1-19 (or 16);
\ or Amos 9: 7-15
192^», May 11—June 8]
Day
Civil of the Jewish
Month Week Month
May
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
20
31
June
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
s
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
s
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
nVKHB
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
Iyar
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
M
T
W
Th
F
S
IYAR 29 DAYS
/Lev. 19: 1-20: 27
INum. 28: 9-15
enn '~n 'a ,wvnp
New Moon
n"H
5689
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
nnDsn
Is. 66
•
Lev. 21: 1-24: 23
Ezek. 44: 15-31
Lev. 25: 1-26: 2
Jer. 32: 6-27
Lev. 26: 3-27: 34
Jer. 16: 19-17: 14
Num. 1: 1-4: 20
I Sam. 20: 18-42
'3!P FIDS
'33d Day
"10^3 3""?
of l Omer
1
'npra
[ mpw] p p -IIBJ nv
[ 'nn '20} ,-a-Tca
13
1929, June 19—July 8]
Day
Civil of the Jewish
Month Week Month
June
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
July
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
SIVAN 30 DAYS
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
q-pD 5689
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
nvens
nncsan
Sivan
1 New Moon BHn t W l
2
3
4
5
6 Feast of WeeksmyuEH 'N
niyQEH '3
7 Feast of Weeks*
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
"in^ym
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28 [ 'nn '3D] ,~p rptp
Pp "1133 DV
29
30 New Moon tiHI"! BWV7 'X
Num. 28: 1-15
Ex. 19: 1-20: 23
Num. 28: 26-31
Deut. 14: 22-16: 17
Num. 28: 26-31
Ezek. 1: 1-28; 3: 12
(Hab. 3: 1-19
\Seph. 2: 20-3: 19
Num. 4: 21-7: 89
Judges 13:2-25
Num. 8: 1-12: 16
Zech. 2: 14-4: 7
Num. 13: 1-15: 41
Josh. 2
Num. 28: 1-15
*The Book of Ruth is read.
1929 -July 9—Aug. 6]
Day
iCivU of the Jewish
Month Week Month
|july
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
nvtfis
[nan 5689
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
nnasn
Tarn.
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M'
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
T
W
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Th
F
S
S
M
T
24
25
26
27
28
29
I9 T
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
TAMMUZ, 29 DAYS
W
Th
F
S
s
New Moon Win "11 '3
Num. 28: 1-15
•
rnp
pba ,npn
norn -it?y nya» ais
Num. 16: 1-18: 32
I Sam. 11: 14-12: 22
Num. 19: 1-25: 9
Micah 5: 6-6: 8
Ex.32: 11-14; 34:1-10 /Is. 55: 6-56:8
\Seph. none
Fast of Tammuz
DTO'S
Num. 25: 10-30: 1
Jer. 1: 1-2: 3
[ 'nn 'am .'yrao .mcap
Num. 30: 2-36: 13
/Jer. 2: 4-28; 3: 4
\SepA. 2: 4-28; 4: 12
Aug.
1
2
3
4
5
6
]Bp TIB3 DV
1929 - Aug . 7—Sept. 5]
Day
Civil of the Jewish
Month Week Month
Aug.
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
Sept.
1
2
3
4
5
w
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
AB 30
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS
DAYS
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
nvtsns
P K 5689
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
m~iBE>n
Ab
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
New Moon
EHI! WH~\ Num. 28: 1-15
3N2 nyiwi Dis
Fast of Ab 1
inra rat? ,|3nn«i
Deut. 1: 1-3: 22
Is. 1: 1-27
•Deut. 4: 25-40
I Afternoon:
lEx. 32: 11-14;
1
34: J-10
I Morning:
|jer. 8: 13-9: 23
1 Afternoon:
Is. 55: 6-56: 8
\Seph. Hosea 14: 2-10;
I Micah 7: 18-20
Deut. 3: 23-7: 11
Is. 40: 1-26
•
spy
i 'nn '3D) ,nta
Deut. 7: 12-11: 25
Is. 49: 14-51: 3
Deut. 11: 26-16: 17
Is. 54: 11-55: 5
pp TIED DV
New Moon Wlf\ tWH 'N Num. 28: 1-15
T h e Book of Lamentations is read.
1929 , Sept. 6—Oct. 4]
Day
Civil of the Jewish
Month Week Month
SABBATHS, FESTIVALS, FASTS '
t ^ N 5689
PENTATEUCHAL
PORTIONS
PROPHETICAL
PORTIONS
nVEHB
nnDsn
Elul
Sept.
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
ELUL 29 DAYS
M
T
W
Th
F
S
S
M
Enn £>N-n 'n
1 New Moon*
D'DSC
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
«an'3
16
17
18
19
20
21'
22
23
24 Selihot*
25
T
W
Th
F
26
27
28
29
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
M
T
W
Th
F
S
s
Num. 28: 1-15
Deut. 16: 18-21: 9
Is. 51: 12-52: 12
*
Deut. 21: 10-25: 19
Is. 54: 1-10
Deut. 26: 1-29: 8
Is. 60
Deut. 29: 9-31: 30
/Is. 61: 10-63: 9; or
{ 55:6-56:8
Oct.
1
2
3
4
T h e Sephardim say Selihot during the whole month of Elul
17
TIME OF SUNRISE AND SUNSET
IN SIX NORTHERN LATITUDES
TIME OF SUNRISE AND SUNSET IN SIX NORTHERN LATITUDES*
Day of
Month
Lat. 44° North
(For Maine, Nova Scotia,
Northern New York, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota,
North and South Dakota,
M o n t a n a , Washington,
Northern Oregon, Northern
Idaho)
Portland, Me.
1
i
<c
a
a
Jan. 1
10
20
Feb. 1
10
20
Mch. 1
10
20
Apl. 1
10
20
May 1
10
20
June 1
10
20
July 1
10
20
Aug. 1
10
20
Sept. 1
10
20
Oct. 1
10
20
Nov. 1
10
20
Dec. 1
10
20
5.52
5. 51
5. 47
5. 39
5.29
5.15
5 01
4 43
4 26
4 00
3 41
3 19
2 52
o 36
2 16
1 55
1 47
1 44
1 55
2 12
2 27
2 46
3 06
3.23
3 40
3 55
4 07
4.22
4 35
4 .45
5 00
5 10
5 .20
5 32
5 39
5.45
I
7.37
7.36
7.30
7.19
7.07
6.52
6.37
6.21
6.03
5.40
5.24
5.07
4.49
4.37
4.26
4.17
4.14
4.14
4.18
4.24
4.32
4.46
4.57
5.07
5.22
5.33
5.45
5.58
6.09
6.22
6.38
6.51
7.04
7.17
7.27
7.34
1c
I
Lat. 42° North
(For Massachusetts, New
Hampshire, Vermont, Central New York, Southern
Michigan, Wisconsin, Northern Iowa, Wyoming, Southern Idaho, Southern Oregon)
Boston, Mass.
-
1
.1
c
s.
4.31
4.40
4.53
5.09
5.22
5.36
5.48
6.00
6.12
6.27
6.39
6.51
7.05
7.15
7.26
7.38
7.44
7.49
7.49
7.46
7.39
7.26
7.14
6.58
6.37
6.20
6.01
5.41
5.25
5.07
4.49
4.38
4.28
4.21
4.20
4.23
6. 16
6. 25
6. 35
6 49
7 01
7 12
7 24
7 37
7 49
8 07
8 21
8 39
9 01
9 14
9 37
10 00
10 12
10 18
10 10
9.58
9 44
9 25
9 03
8 41
8 .20
7 .59
7 .39
7 .16
6 .59
6 .43
6 .28
6 .18
6 .12
6 .07
6 .08
6 .09
5. 48
5. 48
5 48
5 38
5.29
5 17
5 02
4.48
4 30
4 08
3 49
3 29
3 07
2 53
2.35
2 17
2 11
2.08
2 12
2 23
2 37
2 .55
3 .12
3 .27
3 .44
3 .55
4 .07
4.23
4.33
4 .44
4 .58
5 .07
5 .18
5 .29
5 .37
5 .43
7.30
7.29
7.24
7.14
7.04
6.50
6.35
6.21
6.03
5.43
5.27
5.11
4.54
4.44
4.36
4.25
4.22
4.23
4.26
4.32
4.40
4.52
5.01
5.11
5.24
5.34
5.44
5.56
6.06
6.18
6.33
6.44
6.57
7.10
7.19
7.26
1
1
I I*
4.38
4.46
4.58
5.14
5.26
5.38
5.50
6.01
6.12
6.26
6.35
6.45
6.59
7.08
7.18
7.29
7.35
7.39
7.40
7.38
7.32
7.20
7.09
6.55
6.36
6.21
6.04
5.43
5.29
5.13
4.55
4.44
4.35
4-. 29
4.28
4.30
•Adapted, by permission, from The Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. XI
3*
Lat. 40' North
(For Southern New York,
Connecticut, Rhode Island,
Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
Northern Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Southern Iowa, Nebraska, Northern Colorado,
Utah, Nevada, California)
New York City
Chicago, 111.
6. 20
6. 28
6. 36
6. 50
6. 59
7. 12
7.23
7 34
7 46
8 01
8 13
8 28
8 47
9.02
9 18
9 37
9 47
9 53
9 54
9 44
9 35
9 17
8 59
8.39
8 16
7 59
7 .38
7 .17
7 .00
6 .45
6.30
6 .21
6 .14
6 .09
6 .08
6 .11
5. 46
5. 46
5. 45
5. 37
5 29
5 17
5.03
4 49
4 33
4 12
3 54
3 36
3 16
3 02
2 46
2 32
2 27
2.25
2 28
2 38
2 50
3 06
3 .19
3 .34
3 .50
4 .00
4 .12
4 .25
4 .35
4 .45
4 .57
5 .09
5 .17
5.27
5.35
5.41
I
B
3
CO
7.25
7.25
7.19
7.10
7.01
6.48
6.35
6.21
6.04
5.45
5.28
5.13
4.59
4.50
4.39
4.31
4.28
4.29
4.31
4.37
4.44
4.56
5.05
5.15
5.27
5.36
5.45
5.56
6.05
6.15
6.29
6.40
6.53
7.05
7.14
7.20
%
3
CO
4.43
4.51
5.03
5.18
5.29
5.40
5.51
6.01
6.11
6.24
6.33
6.43
6.55
7.04
7.14
7.24
7.29
7.34
7.35
7.33
7.27
7.16
7.06
6.53
6.33
6.19
6.02
5.43
5.31
5.16
4.59
4.49
4.39
4.34
4.33
4.36
J
I iS
6. 22
6. 29
6. 38
6. 51
7. 00
7.12
7 22
7 32
7 44
7 56
8 08
8 21
8 32
8 45
9 00
9 23
9 32
9 36
9 37
9 31
9 21
9 .06
8 .50
8 .33
8 .10
7 .54
7.36
7 .16
6 .58
6 .43
6 .31
6 .21
6 .15
6 .11
6 .11
6 .14
TIME OF SUNRISE AND SUNSET IN SIX NORTHERN LATITUDES*
Day of
Month
Lat. 38°-36° North
(For 1District of Columbia,
Delaware Maryland, Virginia. West Virginia Southern Ohio, Southern Indiana,
Southern Illinois Northern
Missouri, Kansas, Central
Coloradc , Central Utah,
Central ]Nebraska, Central
California)
Washington, D. C.
Norfolk, Va.
k
Jan. 1
10
20
Feb. 1
10
20
Mch. 1
10
20
Apl. 1
10
20
May 1
10
20
June 1
10
20
July 1
10
20
Aug. 1
10
20
Sept. 1
10
20
Oct. 1
10
20
Nov. 1
10
20
Dec. 1
10
20
5.43
5.45
5.43
5.36
5.27
5.16
5.04
4.50
4.35
4.15
3.58
3.40
3.22
3.08
2.54
2.41
2.36
2.35
2.39
2.47
2.58
3.14
3.26
3.40
3.54
4.01
4.16
4.27
4.36
4.46
4.57
5.05
5.14
5.25
5.33
5.38
is
3
cQ
7 19
7 19
7.14
7.06
6 57
6 46
6 33
6 20
6 05
5 46
5 31
5 17
5 02
4.53
4.44
4 36
4 34
4 34
4 37
4 43
4.51
5 00
5 08
5 18
5 29
5 37
5 45
5 56
6 04
6 14
6 29
6 40
6 53
6 59
7 08
7 14
Lat. 34°-32° North
(For South Carolina, Northern Georgia, Mat)ama , Mississippi, Louisiana. Texas,
Southern Nevi M exico, Arizona, California)
Savannah. Ga.
Charleston, S. C
c
^
1 ^°
4 49
4 57
5 08
5 22
5 31
5 42
5 52
6 01
6 .11
6 22
6 30
6 40
6 .52
7 .00
7 .09
7.18
7.23
7.28
7 .19
7 .27
7 .21
7 .12
7.02
6 .49
6 .31
6 .18
6.02
5.43
5 .31
5 .16
5 .01
4 .52
4.44
4 .40
4 .38
4 .40
6.25
6.31
6.39
6.52
7.02
7.11
7.21
7.31
7.41
7.53
8.05
8.16
8.32
8.45
9.00
9.13
9.21
9.26
9.27
9.22
9.12
8.58
8.44
8.28
8.06
7.51
7.32
7.13
6.58
6.45
6.31
6.23
6.18
6.13
6.14
6.17
S
'§•
5
5
5
5
35
37
37
31
5 25
5.16
5 07
4 55
4 41
4 25
4 13
3.57
3 43
3 32
3 22
3 13
3 11
3 10
3 13
3 19
3 27
3 39
3 47
3.57
4 08
4.15
4 23
4 32
4 37
4.45
4.54
5 01
5 09
5 17
5 23
5 29
s
a
3
02
7 03
7 03
7.01
6 56
6 48
6 38
6 28
6 19
6.05
5 49
5 37
5 25
5 13
5.05
4 59
4 53
4 52
4 52
4 55
5 00
5 05
5.13
5 19
5 26
5 35
5 40
5 47
5 54
6 00
6 07
6 16
6 25
6 35
6 44
6 51
6 57
I
n
5 05
5 13
5.20
5 32
5 41
5 50
5 57
6 04
6 11
6 20
6 26
6 33
6 41
6.48
6 54
7 .01
7 05
7 10
7 .11
7 .10
7.0/
6 .58
6 .49
6 .39
6 .25
6 .14
6 .01
5.45
5.35
5.23
5 .11
5 .03
4 .57
4 .55
4.55
4.58
•Adapted, by permission, from The Jewish Encyclopedia, Vol. XI
••3
Lat. 3O°-28° North
(For Florida, Southern Geor
gia, Mabami
Mississippi,
Louisiana, Texas
Po
g
§
3 s
sH
Q
33
39
47
57
04
11
19
26
7 35
7.43
7 50
8 00
8 11
8 20
8 31
8 41
8 47
8 52
8 53
8 51
8 45
8 33
8 22
8 08
7 52
7 .39
7 23
7.08
6 57
6 .45
6 .34
6 .27
6 .23
6 .21
6 .24
6 .28
5 30
5 33
5 32
5 29
5 22
5 15
5 07
4 56
4 43
4 29
4 18
4 04
3 51
3 41
3 33
3 24
3 22
3 22
3 25
3 30
3 38
3 48
3.56
4.04
4.14
4 19
4 27
4 34
4 39
4 44
4 53
5 00
5 06
5 13
5 21
5 26
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
isacc
Flo
New Orleans. La
S
1
'8 1
6 57
6 58
6 56
6 51
6 43
6 35
6 26
6 16
6 05
5 50
5 39
5 29
5 17
5 11
5 05
5.00
4.59
4 59
5 01
5 05
5 11
5 19
5 24
5 29
5 37
5 42
5 47
5 53
5.59
6 06
6 14
6 21
6.29
6 38
6 46
6 52
_H
SB
5 11
5 18
5 25
5.37
5 45
5 52
5 59
6.05
6.12
6 19
6 24
6 .30
6 37
6 .44
6 .50
6 .55
6 .59
7 .04
7 .05
7 .03
7 .00
6 .53
6 .45
6 .36
6.23
6.12
6 .01
5 .46
5 .36
5 .25
5 .14
5 .08
5 .01
5 .00
5 .01
5 .04
6.38
6.42
6.5-1
6.56
7.05
7.12
7.19
7.25
7.33
7.39
7.45
7.54
8.02
8.13
8.22
8.31
8.37
8.40
8.41
8.38
8.33
8.24
8.13
8.00
7.4"6
7.35
7.22
7.06
6.55
6.46
6.35
6.30
6.26
6.25
6.27
6.29
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
BY HARRY SCHNEIDERMAN
THE purpose of the present article is to present in brief
outline a review of the most significant events of interest to
Jews during the period dating from April 1, 1927 to which
point Doctor Linfield's article "A Survey of the Year 5687"
in the preceding volume of this publication led, up to the
middle of July 1928.
The period under review was in a general way a fairly
normal one, insofar as Jewish life is concerned. With the
exception of those of Hungary, Lithuania and Turkey, and for
a time Roumania, the governments in power in the various
countries with which the Jewish question in an acute form
has been associated, were liberal in character and there was
no official oppression or discrimination. Unofficial antiJewish propaganda and outbreaks of a violent nature against
Jews also dwindled in number and in intensity during the
period, except for the riot in Oradeamare, Roumania, which
aroused the notice and the indignation of the civilized world.
Freedom from oppression and relief from the necessity of
forestalling and combatting unfavorable agitation, left the
Jewish communities of all countries, except those mentioned
above, free to turn their attention and to apply their energies
to communal problems, religious, cultural, and educational
interests, and to such international Jewish questions as
emigration, economic reconstruction and the restoration of
Palestine.
I.
THE UNITED STATES
In the United States there were but few incidents to divert
the Jewish community from attention to internal problems.
When the period opened the suit for libel brought by Aaron
Sapiro, an attorney for a number of cooperative agricultural
23
24
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
produce organizations, against Henry Ford, automobile
manufacturer, was being tried in a United States Court in
Detroit. This case attracted nation-wide attention and was
of considerable interest to the Jews of the United States as
well as of other countries because the charges of libel were
based upon articles which had appeared in the Dearborn
Independent, a weekly magazine published by Ford, in which
for some time there had appeared many articles derogatory
to Jews. After the trial had lasted for thirteen weeks, the
presiding judge granted the application of counsel for Ford
for a mistrial, on the ground that a juror had given an interview to a newspaper. Mr. Sapiro thereupon announced the
intention to have the case re-tried, and in July a date for
the new trial was tentatively set.
Shortly thereafter, Louis Marshall, President of the American Jewish Committee, announced that following a series
of conferences with and at the request of agents of Mr. Ford,
the manufacturer had issued a signed statement repudiating
the attacks against the Jews individually and collectively
which had appeared in the Dearborn Independent, apologizing for them and offering to make amends. 1 Following the
publication of this statement, counsel for Mr. Sapiro announced that his client's vindication had been achieved and
the libel suit would not be continued. Shortly thereafter,
this suit as well as that of Herman Bernstein, who had also
brought an action against Mr. Ford, were settled out of
court. Mr. Ford's retraction and apology attracted intense
interest and was regarded by the entire press of the United
States with great satisfaction. In November, Mr. Ford
wrote a letter to Theodor Fritsch, a notorious anti-Jewish
agitator of Leipzig, Germany, who had announced that he
would continue to publish the Dearborn Independent articles,
the publication rights of which in German and other languages he claimed, revoking these rights and demanding
that he cease the use of his (Ford's) name in connection
with the further publication, sale, or other distribution of
the articles. Ford also suspended the publication of the
Dearborn Independent at the end of 1927.
In the meantime there had occurred in New York City,
an extremely unpleasant incident. Three Jewish physicians
'For full text of this statement, see Vol. 29, pp. 383-389.
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
25
serving as internes in a public hospital complained that they
had been victims of a hazing episode at the hands of a group
of non-Jewish internes. Several of the latter were arrested
and, later, they publicly apologized to their Jewish associates. The charge of the Jewish internes that religious bias
was intense at the hospital, led to a number of investigations,
one of which was conducted by the City Commissioner of
Accounts, who submitted a report containing data to support his conclusions that the charges of anti-Jewish discrimination at the hospital were well founded.
There was during the year the usual number of cases of
clubs and the like discriminating against Jews. The action
of the Board of Governors of a golf club in Milwaukee in
adopting a resolution asking eight of the Jewish charter
members to resign, aroused some resentment in that city
because it was believed that the step aimed at the reduction
of the number of Jews in the club. A rather flagrant instance
was that of the Metropolitan Masons Country Club in New
York, which changed its name when The Jewish Tribune,
supported by a number of leading Masons, protested that
a club which discriminates as between members of races or
creeds has no right to include the word "mason" in its
designation.
Much excitement in Jewish circles was aroused also during the year by the production of the motion picture "King
of Kings" which purported to be a portrayal of the life of
Jesus of Nazareth. It was charged by many that parts of
the picture, especially those dealing with the crucifixion of
Jesus, were inaccurate and so presented as to arouse or
intensify anti-Jewish feeling, and demands were made on
many sides for the withdrawal of the picture from exhibition.
Several Jewish organizations, especially the Independent
Order B'nai B'rith, brought these criticisms to the attention
of the producers of the picture who declined to withdraw it
because of the large investment involved, but agreed to
make a number of changes calculated to minimize the harm
which it was believed the picture was doing. These changes,
however, did not give universal satisfaction and the demand
for the complete withdrawal of the picture continued.
Owing to the considerable decrease in the number of Jews
entering the country, the immigration question which had,
26
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
up to a few years ago, had so much of the attention of American Jews, has shrunk considerably in importance. Jews,
however, took part in the movement to secure legislation
to hasten the reunion of families of immigrants who had
entered the country before the coming into force of the
Immigration Law of 1924, a movement which led finally to
the passage of the Jenkins Bill which provides that one-half
of the quota of visas from each country shall be given to
the relatives of aliens already here, and also as many of the1
rest of the quota, reserved for agricultural workers, as shaft
not be used by the latter.
No other of the many immigration bills introduced, including one for the progressive halving of the present quotas
during the next five years, was passed. Bills introduced in
the Senate and House of Representatives requiring newspapers published in foreign languages to print translations
in English of all or part of their contents, also were never
brought to a vote.
During the past winter, The Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (Hias) protested to the Surgeon General
of the United States against certain types of questions which
were being put to intending Jewish immigrants by United
States medical officers attached to the American Consulate
at Warsaw. These questions, which, it was explained, were
employed to test the sanity of applicants for visas, were also
attacked on the floor of the House of Representatives. The
Surgeon General ordered an investigation on the spot.
Late in June last, much discussion was aroused by the
announcement of the Department of Labor that every alien
admitted on or after July 1, 1928 will be provided with an
identification card, which is to be produced whenever proof
of legal entry may be required. The Jewish press saw in
this device a means of bringing about by indirection the
registration of aliens, a measure which has in the past
aroused much opposition. That the measure had any such
intent was denied by government officials who insisted that
the identification cards were being issued for the benefit of
admitted aliens.
Aside from legislation in the Congress of the United
States, the passage of the so-called "Rosh Ha-Shanah Bill"
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
27
by the Massachusetts Legislature is of great interest. This
bill provides that foodstuffs may be sold on a Sunday whenever either Rosh Ha-Shanah or Yom Kippur begins on a
Monday, the object of the bill being to enable observant
Jews to obtain fresh food before the beginning of these holidays. This bill, which was introduced by Isidore H. Fox of
Boston, was at first vigorously opposed, but it was finally
passed by both Houses of the Legislature by large majorities,
and even when it was vetoed by the Governor, passed over
his veto by the required two-thirds vote.
No serious attempt was made during the year to bring
about the passage of legislation providing for the reading
of the Bible in public schools or for compulsory Sunday
observance. The movement in some European countries
for the outlawry of Shehitah, the Jewish method of slaughtering animals for food, had a counterpart in New York
State where an organization calling itself the Animal Welfare League announced its intention to have a bill introduced
in the Legislature with that aim in view. Nothing practical,
however, came out of this agitation.
During the year, the Court of Appeals of the State of
New York handed down a decision that it is legal for boards
of education in the State to excuse pupils of the public
schools for a short time one day in each week to receive
religious instruction outside the school, but the movement
in this direction which was somewhat active during the few
preceding years did not attain any great headway during
5688.
In general, the relations between Jews and non-Jews were
very amicable during the period. The movement, begun
several years ago, largely upon the initiative of the Federal
Council of Churches of Christ in America, continued, and
"good will" meetings were held in several cities between
rabbis and Christian clergymen. In Philadelphia where a
group of ministers of various denominations have organized
a Fellowship of Faiths, this tendency was given a setback
by the action of the Presbytery which went on record, in
March last, as being unalterably opposed to any fellowship
that "tends to name Christianity as one of many equally
good religions," reaffirming the belief "that Christianity is
a revelation, and so is the full and absolute religion," and
28
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
enjoining upon its ministers and elders "the duty of abstaining from any participation in such meetings and movements."
On the other hand, the movement for the conversion of
Jews was condemned at a meeting of the Home Mission
Council of the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in
America, held in Cleveland in January, when the Superintendent of Jewish Evangelization of the Presbyterian Church,
made a plea for greater activity in the direction of converting Jews. Exception to this was taken by the Rev. Dr.
Ernest M. Halliday, General Secretary of the Church Extention Board of the Congregational Church, who declared:
"When it comes to going to the Jewish people and
trying to get them to give up their faith, the background
of our own religion, I would have no faith in such a
program. . . . I would say to a young Jew who has left
his synagogue: 'Go back to your rabbi and your synagogue, and the God you and I hold in common.' "
The events of the past year having to do with Jewish
communal life may be roughly divided into two classes, first
those touching upon domestic matters, and second those
which have played a part in the life of Jewish communities
abroad. Probably the most interesting event of domestic
concern was the preparation by the Statistical Department
of the American Jewish Committee of an enumeration of
the Jewish congregations of the country in connection with
the decennial census of religious bodies conducted by the
United States Bureau of the Census. A preliminary summary of the results of this enumeration will be found elsewhere in this volume. In connection with this task, the
Statistical Department also made a careful and painstaking
inquiry into the number of persons of the Jewish faith in
the country. The methods employed and the results obtained
are discussed in detail in Dr. Linfield's article on the subject.
Not only do we know that there are approximately 4,230,000
Jews in the country, but we also know their distribution
throughout its various parts and many other interesting
facts.
Another important effort along statistical lines is the
inquiry now being conducted by the Bureau of Jewish Social
Research for the Greater New York Survey Committee.
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
29
During the year, two reports based on some of the data
gathered were published, one dealing with the movement
of Jewish population within the City, and the other with
the death rate and causes of death among Jews.
In connection with Jewish education, the survey of congregations by the American Jewish Committee showed that
out of the total 2,948 congregations, 554 reported that they
maintained Sabbath Schools with a total enrollment of
69,439, while 604 reported that they maintained week-day
schools with a total of 64,863 pupils. The National Council
of Jewish Education at its meeting in June, 1927, reported
that only 30 per cent of the 800,000 Jewish children of school
age are receiving a Jewish education, and that while new
school buildings begun or completed during the preceding
twelve months were to cost over two million dollars, only
seven millions are expended annually for the maintenance
of Jewish schools, or less than thirty dollars per pupil.
During the year the Yeshivah College of America was
granted a charter by the University of the State of New
York, authorizing it to grant baccalaureate degrees in Arts
and Science. This institution will be the first Jewish denominational college in the United States, offering the usual
college course with Jewish studies as part of the curriculum.
It is expected that one of the group of buildings planned to
house the college will be completed this fall. In this connection, it is interesting to note that the Union of Orthodox
Jewish Congregations has been considering taking vigorous
steps to bring about closer cooperation between Orthodox
congregations, especially for providing religious educational
facilities for the young.
An important event in the congregational field during the
past year was the consolidation of Temples Emanu-El and
Beth-El in New York City, two of the most famous congregations in the United States; the new organization which
has adopted the designation "Congregation Emanu-El," is
now building a new synagogue with a community center
attached. Although no statistics are available, if we may
judge by references in the Jewish press, there was a recession during the past year in the number of new buildings
erected by congregations in large cities, as compared with
the several preceding years, and an increase in this direction
30
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
in smaller cities. Unusually interesting is the case of the
synagogue being erected in Mercedes, Texas, which is to
house a congregation whose members are scattered through
no less than sixteen towns in the Rio Grande Valley, on both
sides of a highway known as a "seventy-five mile Main
Street." This has no doubt been made possible by the motorcar and good roads, and may be the forerunner of synagogues
to serve the spiritual needs of small and widely scattered
Jewish settlements, the number of which, as Dr. Linfield's
surveys show, is considerable and growing.
In the field of Jewish literature, the year was notable for
the issuance by the Jewish Publication Society of a onevolume history of the Jews by Professor Max Margolis and
Alexander Marx, and a new volume in the Schiff Library of
Jewish Classics Series. The latter comprises the Hebrew
text of the treatise Ta'anit of the Babylonian Talmud,—
critically edited on the basis of manuscripts and old editions,
together with an English translation, both provided with
many explanatory notes. This was the work of the late
Professor Henry Malter, who died on April 4, 1925, after
it had been set in type but before he could revise the proofs.
With regard to Jewish periodicals, the most important
event of the year was the absorption on June 1, 1928, of the
Jewish Daily News, the oldest Yiddish daily in the world
(established 1885), by the Jewish Morning Journal. The
disappearance of the Tageblatt was generally regarded as a
consequence of its close and unvarying adherence, despite
changing conditions and new lines of thought in Jewish life,
to the ultra-conservative policies established by its founder,
Kasriel H. Sarasohn, coupled with the decrease, due to
restricted immigration, of the number of Jewish newspaper
readers who cannot read English.
The Yiddish theatre movement suffered a serious loss during the year in the discontinuance of the Yiddish Art Theatre
of New York, after an existence of ten years, during which
time it had made a consistent effort to present, what its
director, Maurice Schwartz, believed to be the finer plays
in a superior manner. An attempt is now being made by
Mr. Schwartz and his sympathizers to secure the means for
reviving this organization. Other Yiddish theatres, more
popular in their appeal, remained in operation and not a
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
31
few of them prospered, but they have been showing a growing tendency toward assimilation to the American English
theatres, in the content and character of the plays presented,
in the type of acting, dancing, and songs, and also in the
use of more English in dialogue and lyrics, thus reflecting
the trend among the members of their audiences.
The exhibition of the paintings of Leopold Pilichowski
and of the sculpture of Henryk Glicenstein, both Jewish
artists of Polish birth, drew a great deal of public attention
and aroused much favorable criticism.
In the field of Jewish organizations a significant event was
the dissolution of the Order B'rith Abraham, after an existence of sixty-eight years. The New York State Insurance
Commissioner ordered this fraternal body to wind up its
business because it was no longer in financial condition to
meet its obligations to the dependents of members who had
recently died or to incur new obligations. This condition
resulted from the fact that the Order's insurance benefits
were not paid out of a reserve fund built up on an actuarial
basis, but by the assessment method. This Order, especially
during the many years the late Samuel Dorf was its President, was one of the most influential organizations of its
type in America.
Another interesting community event was the revival,
after it had lain dormant for many years, of the idea of
organizing Kehilloth in American cities. Efforts in this
direction were made in Philadelphia and in Los Angeles, and
in both cities such bodies, representing some but not all of
the local Jewish organizations, have been established.
Another new organization which should be mentioned here
is the Jewish Committee on Scouting, established in the
spring of 1928, upon the initiative of Mortimer L. Schiff, a
vice-president of the Boy Scouts of America, for the purpose
of promoting the formation and administration of boy scout
troops in connection with synagogues, Jewish Centers, and
similar institutions, and generally to stimulate community
interest in "scouting" for the benefit of Jewish boys.
We come now to a review of those significant events within
the Jewish community which were related to the welfare of
the Jews of other countries. These fall into three groups:
32
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
(1) those dealing with aid to Jews abroad, especially Russia;
(2) those dealing with the reactions in our community to
anti-Jewish outbreaks in Roumania, and in general, with
the rights of minorities; and (3) those dealing with the interests of American Jewry in Palestine.
In October, 1927, a Constructive Relief Conference was
held in Chicago under the auspices of the United Jewish
Campaign of the Joint Distribution Committee and associated Committees, organized in September, 1925, for the
purpose of collecting a fund of $25,000,000 for constructive
relief abroad. Reports were presented by the various officers
and by Dr. Bernard Kahn, representative of the Joint Distribution Committee in Europe, and by Dr. Joseph A. Rosen,
agent in Russia of the American Jewish Joint Agricultural
Corporation (Agro-Joint). Mr. Morris D. Waldman also
reported the impressions gained by him on a trip to Poland
made on behalf of the Joint Distribution Committee. A
similar conference was held in New York in May last, at
which the fact was brought out that the sum of $3,100,000
was needed immediately to meet commitments already
made, and to enable the Joint Distribution Committee to
respond to various urgent requests for assistance. On this
occasion, Mr. Marshall made the statement that for years
to come the work of relief will have to be continued, and
that a great part of the financial burden will have to be
borne by the Jewish community of the United States. In
July last, David A. Brown, National Chairman of the United
Jewish Campaign announced that up to the first of that
month a total of $12,400,000 had been actually paid into the
treasury of the Campaign committee, and that in response
to the emergency appeal for the $3,100,000 referred to above,
a total of $1,200,000 had been received. Earlier in the year,
Mr. Brown had announced that subscriptions to the fund
had reached $21,500,000. The work done during the year
with the cooperation of the Joint Distribution Committee
will be referred to under the various countries in which its
activities centered.
In March last, announcement was made by James N.
Rosenberg of New York City, Chairman of the Agro-Joint,
that Julius Rosenwald of Chicago had agreed to subscribe
$5,000,000 to a fund of twice that size for the continuance
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
33
and further development of Jewish colonization work in
Russia, after the program outlined in 1925 by the Joint
Distribution Committee and the Agro-Joint shall have been
completed. Later, Mr. Rosenberg announced further details
of the new plan. The Russian government had agreed to
expend for this work $10,000,000 over a period of ten years
if an equal amount is contributed by American Jewry, and,
in addition, to provide land valued at another $20,000,000.
The fund collected in the United States is to be administered
by a new organization, viz., The American Society for Jewish Farm Settlement in Russia, which is to continue the
work in Russia through agents, of whom Dr. Joseph A.
Rosen is to be the head. No campaign or drive was to be
resorted to to raise the American fund, which according to
the terms of agreement with the Russian government must
be completed before October 1, 1928. At the time this
announcement was made, the amount of $2,100,000 in addition to Mr. Rosenwald's gift had already been subscribed.
While helping the Jews of European countries to reconstruct their economic life at home, American Jewry did not
lose sight of the fact that emigration could also play a part
in the solution of the economic problem. In the spring of
1927, upon the initiative of the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society (HIAS), the Jewish Colonization Association (ICA) and the United Emigration Societies (Emigdirekt)
with headquarters in Berlin, joined the American society in
forming a new body "HICEM," for the purpose of working
as a unit in Jewish emigration matters. Information and
help of various kinds was to be extended to intending European Jewish emigrants by representatives of Hicem in various
centers. With immigration restricted in the United States
and Canada, it is the aim of this body to study the immigration possibilities of other countries, particularly some in
South America, to learn the prospects for newcomers in
them, give information to intending immigrants and prepare
them in advance for rapid adaptation to the new conditions.
At the annual meeting of HIAS in March last, it was reported
by the president that "diligent survey and research has been
made into such countries as Argentine, Brazil, Uruguay,
where by means of interviews with government authorities
and business organizations, every effort was made to see
34
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
what agricultural and industrial opportunities were open to
the Jew. This information was then referred back to the
HIAS branches in Poland, Roumania, Latvia, Lithuania and
other European countries where HIAS, by means of classes
taught languages and trades, gave instruction in agriculture
and arranged for the passage of hundreds of these people to
their new lands." Representatives of HICEM at points of
debarkation receive the immigrants, help them to find
employment, to acquire familiarity with the language and
customs of the country and the like. Since the HICEM had
begun to function, a total of 2,735 immigrants to South
America had been aided in this manner. The HIAS continued
during the year its activities on behalf of Jewish immigrants
arriving in the United States.
Foreign interests of American Jewry, outside of matters
of relief, were concentrated during the year on Roumania
where a serious anti-Jewish outbreak occurred in December,
1927, at Oradeamare, in the Transylvanian section of Roumania. In view of the fact that this outbreak occurred under
the regime of the liberal party, which had arranged a modus
vivendi with the Roumanian Jewish leaders, Jewish public
opinion in America was divided as to the attitude to be taken
toward the Roumanian Government.
In the House of Representatives, Dr. William I. Sirovitch,
a member of Congress from New York City, had introduced
a resolution urging the United States Government to abrogate existing treaties with Roumania if anti-Jewish persecution does not cease. This action led to a conference between
Mr. George Cretziano, the Roumanian Minister to the
United States, Dr. Sirovitch and Louis Marshall, president
of the American Jewish Committee, who had been in correspondence with Mr. Cretziano. At this conference, the latter
gave assurances that his Government was determined to
avert such incidents in the future. Mr. Cretziano restated
his views in a letter to Dr. Sirovitch, the contents of which
had the approval of his Government, and which Dr. Sirovitch made public. Representatives of the United Roumanian
Jews of the United States also held conferences with Mr.
Cretziano, with whom they discussed the condition of the
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
35
Jews in Roumania, and to whom they submitted suggestions
for their amelioration and improvement.
In August, 1927, the American Jewish Congress in conjunction with The Committee of Jewish Delegations, held
a conference on Jewish rights in Zurich, Switzerland. Besides representatives of the Congress, the conference was
attended by a number of representative Jews from Poland;
no English, French, German, or Roumanian Jewish organizations participated. The conference decided to establish a
Council on the Rights of Jewish Minorities, membership on
which was to be open to all Jewish Organizations dealing
with the defense of Jewish Rights and to Jewish parliamentary representatives; biennial conferences of the Council are
to be held. Its headquarters were established in Geneva.
American Jewish activities on behalf of Palestine were
many and varied during the year. Much interest was taken
in the Hebrew University. An offer to endow a chair in
Yiddish language and literature was made by David Shapiro,
the publisher of a Yiddish daily newspaper in New York,
and accepted with conditions by the Board of Governors.
In April last, at a meeting of the American Advisory Committee of the Hebrew University, announcement was made
that a Society to be known as "The Friends of the University"
had been formed, the members of which are to pledge $100.
per annum for at least five years to be contributed for the
maintenance of the University.
Interest in Palestine archeological research was stimulated
last spring when Dr. John Garstang of the Institute of
Archeology of the University of Liverpool, formerly head
of the Department of Antiquities of the Palestine Government, delivered a lecture on Archeological Exploration in
the Holy Land, under the auspices of the American branch
of the Jewish Palestine Exploration Society, which is the
only Jewish agency doing such work in Palestine.
The United Palestine Appeal which conducted a campaign
to raise funds for the Zionist Organization of America,
Hadassah, the Jewish National Fund, and the Keren Hayesod,
reported (July 15, 1928) that since the beginning of the then
current fiscal year, October 1, 1927, a total of $4,537,514.17
had been pledged, $3,257,881.14 had been paid in cash, and
$2,431,522.80 had been transmitted to Palestine.
36
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
A great deal of public attention was attracted during the
year by strife within the Zionist Organization of America.
That dissatisfaction existed with the administration headed
by the president, Louis Lipsky, became apparent at the
thirtieth annual convention of the Organization early in
the summer of 1927. On April 29, 1928, there was a meeting
in Washington, D. C , of a number of Zionists opposed to
the administration, at which charges of mismanagement
and of unauthorized financial transactions were made by
several persons who had previously been officials of the
Organization or of affiliated bodies.
These charges were promptly denied by the administration and a controversy ensued, leading eventually to a
decision on the part of the administration to ask for an
inquiry into its acts at the hands of an impartial committee
to be selected by Dr. Chaim Weizmann, President of the
World Zionist Organization. Dr. Weizmann asked Judges
Edward Lazansky, Mitchell May, Grover M. Moscowitz,
and Otto A. Rosalsky, all of New York, to investigate the
charges of mismanagement, especially those alleging the
misuse and diversion of funds, and toward the end of June,
this committee made public its report, after holding a number of hearings and examining the books and records of the
Organization. After presenting various findings of fact, the
report concludes by declaring that while there were instances
of "loose management in the financial affairs of the Zionist
Organization of America," yet "there is no proof that any
person has acted or omitted to act for personal financial
gain and there is no proof of any loss to the Zionist Organization of America." The report goes on to recommend that
no one responsible for the irregularities pointed out should
be continued as an officer or a member of any committee of
the Organization and that no officer or member of any committee should be a paid employee of the Organization.
At the Convention of the Organization held a few days
later in Pittsburgh, Pa., while delegates opposed to the
administration showed considerable strength, there were
indications that a majority of the delegates present wished
to retain Mr. Lipsky in office and he was persuaded to have
his name placed in nomination and was elected, despite his
announced intention to withdraw and the recommendation
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
37
of the judges' committee. The Constitution of the Organization was amended so as to relieve the president of responsibility for the financial affairs of the organization.
While this struggle was going on within the ranks of the
Zionist Organization of America, important meetings were
being held in London, in which American Jewry had a vital
interest. In accordance with an agreement reached between
Dr. Chaim Weizmann on behalf of the World Zionist Organization, and Louis Marshall on behalf of the Non-Partisan
Conference to Consider Palestine Problems (See Vol. 27,
p. 130; Vol. 28, p. 127; Vol. 29, p. 102), that a "Commission
should be appointed to make a thorough survey and investigation of conditions in Palestine" for the guidance of an
enlarged Jewish Agency to include representatives of nonZionist elements, such a Commission had been appointed
jointly by Dr. Weizmann and Mr. Marshall. Its members
were Sir Alfred Mond (now Lord Melchett) of England,
Oscar Wasserman, a banker, of Berlin; Felix M. Warburg
and Lee K. Frankel of the United States. The Commission,
in turn, appointed a body of experts to do the actual work
of investigation, in accordance with terms laid down by
Messrs. Weizmann and Marshall. The reports of the experts
were ready late in the spring of 1928, and the Commissioners
together with Messrs. Weizmann and Marshall, met in London in June. After a number of conferences, they unanimously agreed upon a set of recommendations for future
work of the Jewish Agency in Palestine. The report of the
Commission is published in abstract, as an appendix to
this article.
II.
OTHER COUNTRIES
We proceed now to a brief review of the most significant
events of Jewish interest in other countries than the United
States. Based on the general tenor of Jewish life in these
lands, a division of them into Western and Eastern countries
appears logical; Palestine, of course, deserves separate
consideration.
38
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
A.
WESTERN COUNTRIES
T h e appeal of a Jewish Committee in the famous Quebec
School Case (See Vol. 27, p p . 223-9) which was taken to the
British Privy Council, was lost early in F e b r u a r y last. T h e
Supreme Court of Canada had ruled t h a t the Board of
P r o t e s t a n t School Commissioners, which administers the
schools in the Province of Quebec, which are a t t e n d e d b y
Jewish as well as P r o t e s t a n t children, is not obliged to give
Jews representation on the Board or to appoint Jews as
teachers. In sustaining this decision, the Privy Council expressed agreement with the Dominion Supreme Court which
had handed down the opinion t h a t legislation for the establishment of schools for non-Christians, n o t infringing upon
the rights of the Catholic and P r o t e s t a n t communities, in
their schools, would be valid. This decision was greeted with
satisfaction b y t h a t p a r t of Quebec Jewry which favors a
separate Jewish school system, although steps in t h a t direction are not likely in the near future.
Toward the end of J a n u a r y last, Col. Leopold H . Amery,
British Secretary for the Colonies, came on a visit to C a n a d a .
T h e Zionist Federation took a d v a n t a g e of the occasion b y
appointing a delegation to wait upon him. T h e delegation
was joined b y Louis Lipsky, president of the Zionist Organization of America, who also acted as spokesman and s u b mitted a petition praying for various reforms in the internal
administration of Palestine to which the Secretary responded
sympathetically.
Canadian Jewry continued, as in years past, its active
work for Jewish immigrants, who, during the year ending
March 31, 1927, numbered 4,471, and its cooperation with
other Jewish communities on behalf of Palestine.
In E N G L A N D , the crisis over the question of Shehitah was
passed in J u n e last when the House of Commons passed a
Slaughter of Animals Bill, providing t h a t animals be stunned
before being slaughtered, except in the case of animals
slaughtered according to Jewish ritual b y an authorized
Shohet.
A committee headed b y the M a r q u i s of Reading was set
u p for the purpose of establishing a fund of $50,000 in honor
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
39
of the late Israel Zangwill, the income to be used for giving
assistance to Jewish scholars and writers. An American
committee is cooperating with the English body.
Following the anti-Jewish excesses at Oradea Mare, Roumania, the Joint Foreign Committee, which represents the
Board of Deputies of British Jews and the Anglo-Jewish
Association, took up the matter with the Roumanian authorities, especially M. Nicholas Titelescu, Roumanian Foreign
Minister, and received assurances similar to those given in
the United States by the Roumanian Minister to Washington.
In FRANCE, the chief Jewish event of the year was one
which took place on French soil, but is more closely connected with Russian Jewry. It was the trial of Sholom
Schwartzbard for the assassination in May, 1926, of Semion
Petlura, head of the short-lived Ukranian Republic. The
trial was characterized by heated disputes between attorneys. The Ukranian side while admitting that pogroms took
place, contended that Petlura was not, except officially,
responsible, and that Schwartzbard, in killing Petlura had
acted as an agent of the Bolsheviks. The efforts on the part
of Schwarzbard's counsel to prove Petlura personally condoned the pogroms, on the other hand, were bitterly resented
by the Ukranians. Contrary to expectations, the trial lasted
only a little over three weeks. Schwartzbard was acquitted.
The Ukranian press, both in the Ukraine and abroad, expressed profound dissatisfaction with the conduct and outcome of the case.
Insofar as anti-Semitism is concerned the situation of the
Jews of GERMANY has not changed during the year under
review. The desecration of Jewish cemeteries which began
in 1923 continued. The number desecrated since then approached close on to sixty during the year. After vandalism
had been perpetrated in the cemetery at Cologne, the orthodox
community issued a public appeal to the population asking
its aid in apprehending the vandals. In many cases, rewards
were offered for information leading to their arrest. Early
in the year the Central Union of German Citizens of the
Jewish Faith submitted to the Minister of Justice a memorandum calling attention to the numerous incidents of this
nature and urging that special measures be taken to protect
Jewish cemeteries. There were also two cases of attacks
40
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
upon synagogues, one at Luneberg and the other at Koenigsberg. Several anti-Jewish riots, led by Hakenkreuzler, also
took place, during the year; none of these, however, had
serious results.
The German authorities were very energetic in suppressing all outbreaks of this nature. In a number of cases, in
which the police succeeded in running down cemetery vandals,
these were severely punished. The governments of Prussia,
Bavaria and several other states issued special ordinances
against the practice and threatening those found guilty with
exemplary punishment. Anti-Jewish demonstrations were
suppressed whenever their proceedings went beyond legal
bounds. In May, 1927, a meeting in Berlin of 3,000 followers
of Hitler, a notorious agitator, was dispersed by three hundred policemen. Similar action was taken when members of
the National Socialist Party, really a reactionary group
masquerading as Socialists, during a parade in Berlin, became
abusive while passing through the Jewish quarter. Severe
sentences were imposed upon six members of this party,
convicted of terrorizing the Jewish population of Chemnitz.
A professor lecturing at the law school of the University of
Berlin who preached the desirability of expelling the Jews
from the country was suspended by the Prussian Minister
of Education. The latter created a sensation when he declined
to legalize a student organization, which proposed to limit
its membership to "Aryans." When the students persisted
in their course, the Prussian government dissolved the
organization.
An unusually interesting event in connection with the
attitude of one government toward the Jews, was one circular issued last April by the then Federal Minister of Labor,
Braun, ordering government employment offices not to exclude from the range of their activity Sabbath-observing
Jews, but to attempt to find for them such work as would
permit compliance with their religious tenets.
The anti-Shehitah movement was not absent in Germany.
A bill to make stunning compulsory was introduced in the
Diet of Bavaria. In the Prussian Diet a bill was passed
limiting the number of animals to be slaughtered according
to the Jewish method, proportionately to the consumption
of meat by the Jewish population.
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
41
Among the outstanding events within the German Jewish
community were the inauguration by the Union of Jewish
War Veterans of a movement to settle Jews on farm lands;
the decision of the Hilfsverein der Deutschen Juden to
cooperate with the American Jewish Joint Distribution
Committee in land settlement work in Russia, and to create
for that purpose a fund to bear the name of Paul Nathan,
late community leader; the formation of a committee for
the protection of Jewish minority rights in eastern and southern Europe; the decision of the Berlin Kehillah to establish
a central office for counteracting the tendency to boycott
Jewish applicants for employment; and the publication of
the first volume of the German edition of the Encyclopedia
Judaica.
B. EASTERN COUNTRIES
In AUSTRIA, anti-Jewish propaganda appears to be more
prevalent than in Germany; in any case, if we may judge
by press reports, the Austrian authorities do not display the
same vigor in suppressing this agitation as do those of Germany. For a whole month before the Passover holidays in
5687, the Vienna Volkskampf published numerous articles
accusing the Jews of the practice of "ritual" murder. Despite
the protests of the Kehillah the police did not at first take
any action. No such agitation took place before the Passover of 5688, its absence being ascribed to the decline of the
Hakenkreuz movement, following Henry Ford's retraction
of the anti-Jewish charges published in his Dearborn Independent. In June, 1927, the administration of the Vienna
University gave permission for an anti-Semitic lecture, at
the University, on the alleged necessity of a numerus clausus
for Jewish students, under the auspices of the Hakenkreuz.
Later in the same month, a two-day riot took place in the
University, when one of the students in the midst of a lecture
suddenly shouted:' 'Out with the Jews!" Students ran amuck
through the streets, raiding cafes and restaurants, molesting
their patrons and passersby on the streets. The University
was closed for a week, after a group of the students submitted
a demand to the Senate of the institution for a numerus
clausus for foreign Jewish students. There appear to have
42
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
been no occurrences of this nature during the scholastic year
1927-1928.
There was a movement against Shehitah also in Austria.
A decision to petition the government to enact legislation
against Shehitah was taken by the Vienna Society for the
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. When a similar society
in the Austrian Tyrol demanded that proceedings be taken
against ritual slaughters in the Bregenz district, the local
government declared that, in its opinion, Shehitah does not
involve cruelty.
Only two communal events appear to be worth recording
here: (1) the failure of an attempt preceding the elections
in 1927, to form a Jewish party; (2) the creation of a committee to gather funds for the support of the cultural and
welfare institutions which were established under the late
chief rabbi, Zevi Perez Chajes.
In an article in the Vienna Arbeiter Zeitung, last winter, a
writer declared that the Jews of Hungary are the most persecuted minority in Europe. Not only do they suffer from the
numerus clausus in the matter of education, but also from
general economic persecution; the government exercises a
censorship which prevents these facts from becoming known.
The brief review which follows appears to bear out this
assertion.
The most important event of Jewish interest in HUNGARY
during the past year was the modification of the numerus
clausus law. In the summer of 1927, Count Bethlen, the
premier, announced at a conference of his party that the
government intends in the near future to abolish the numerus
clausus. This announcement was followed by loud protests
from the chauvinist-nationalist elements, and when, in
November, a bill on the subject was introduced in Parliament, demonstrations occurred in many places, sometimes
accompanied by anti-Jewish excesses. There were riots in
some of the universities.
The anti-Jewish demonstrations and rioting practically
ceased when the true nature of the government's -measure
became known to the public. The bill substituted for enrollment along racial lines a system of preferences. Children of
government officials receive first preference in being admitted
to universities; the next category includes children of war
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
43
veterans and army officers; the third category comprises the
children of peasants and of small artisans; the fourth category includes the children of persons engaged in industry;
and the fifth of children of merchants. Inasmuch as an overwhelming number of the Jews of Hungary are engaged in
commerce, the new law was expected to be as effective as,
if not more than, the old in limiting the admission of Jews
to institutions of higher learning. This information mollified
the anti-Jewish elements, but aroused keen disappointment
among Jews and the liberal part of the Hungarian population. After a series of protracted debates in both Houses of
Parliament, the bill was passed in February, 1928, thus making it possible for the Hungarian representatives to the
League of Nations to report that Hungary had kept the
promise made to the Council in 1926 that the numerus clausus
would be speedily abolished.
During the discussion of this bill, the government ordered
a series of raids in the northeastern part of the country aimed
at the expulsion of aliens not possessing the legal right of
residence. In previous raids of this kind, the expulsion of
Jews born in Hungary and whose forebears had been born
in the country for generations back were seized and expelled.
The order of the Ministry of the Interior aroused such a
storm of protest that, shortly after it was promulgated, the
Council of Ministers ordered its withdrawal.
The abolition of Shehitah was threatened in Hungary as
in other lands. When a bill regulating the slaughter of animals was introduced in Parliament last spring, the demand
was made by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to
Animals that stunning be made obligatory, or if an»exemption were made for the Jewish method the number of animals
to be so slaughtered be limited in proportion to the consumption of meat by Jews. At this writing (July 15) no word is
at hand as to the fate of this measure.
The only communal item of any importance refers to
Zionism. Since the inception of the present Hungarian State,
the government had declined to legalize Zionist work. But
late in October, 1927, the Minister of the Interior approved
the statutes of the Zionist Organization of Hungary on the
ground that Zionism had been given international recognition by the League of Nation in the Palestine Mandate. The
44
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
first national convention of the new body took place in
April last.
In ROUMANIA, up to the middle of June, 1927, the situation of the Jews was most humiliating and insecure. AntiJewish outbreaks were frequent and widespread. They were,
in most cases, instigated and perpetrated by university students, members of the League of Christian Students, founded
and inspired by the notorious Professor Cuza. Complaints
and petitions were repeatedly submitted to the government,
but without result. In March, 1927, a delegation of Jews
called on Octavian Goga, Minister of the Interior, and presented to him a memorandum citing cases of attacks upon
Jewish passengers on railway trains by students. Goga's
answer was decidedly hostile. He declared that "Jews also
perpetrated excesses," and that "it is impossible for me
(him) to apply force against the Roumanian students."
Goga's statement as to excesses by Jews referred to several
cases in which Jews had tried to defend themselves against
attack. In his report to the Joint Foreign Committee, in
May, Lucien Wolf, its secretary, declared that the Roumanian
Government does not desire to restrain the anti-Jewish
propaganda.
A change in the situation came with the fall of the Averescu
Cabinet in June, 1927, when a temporary coalition cabinet
was formed by Prince Barbu Stirbey, pending general elections on July 7. The new premier issued a statement pledging his government to various reforms and the maintenance
of law and order. When the cabinet was completed it also
issued a manifesto promising protection for the life and
property of all citizens without discrimination as to race,
religion, or nationality.
Before the elections, there was some discussion in Jewish
circles regarding the advisability of creating a Jewish political party. A group of Jewish leaders, headed by Dr. William
Filderrrian, opposed this suggestion, and engaged in negotiations with the leaders of the Liberal Party which, it was
believed, would win the elections, concerning an understanding with the Jewish voters. An agreement along such lines;
was reached, and the bulk of the Jews of Roumania voted!
for the Liberal Party, although in Transylvania, the Jewish
National Party supported the National Peasant Party. In
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
45
conformity with the agreement five seats in the Chamber of
Deputies and two Senate Mandates were given to Jews.
With the advent of the new government, the anti-Jewish
agitation practically ceased. But early in December, a Congress of Christian Students held at Oradea Mare in Transylvania became the occasion for anti-Hungarian and antiJewish riot on a large scale. Many persons were injured,
stores were ransacked, houses pillaged, synagogues raided
and Scrolls of the Law profaned and other ritual articles
pilfered. The train bearing the students to their homes
stopped in various cities en route, and smaller riots along
the same lines were perpetrated. In Cluj (formerly Klausenburg) a group of the students were arrested and held for
trial. Several hundred more were arrested upon their return
to Bucharest.
These incidents aroused heated discussion in Parliament.
Dr. Filderman accused the government of having neglected
to take adequate preventive measures in spite of the fact
that it had been warned that an outbreak was likely. Members of the Opposition charged the Government with intentional negligence. In reply to an interpellation in the Senate,
M. Duca, Minister of the Interior, declared that the government profoundly deplores the riots, and will, at public cost,
rebuild the synagogues which were destroyed and repair other
damage. Later, the government removed the prefects of
police in both Oradea Mare and Cluj, and forbade all student
meetings. The University of Bucharest decided to expel all
students convicted of plundering and profaning Jewish religious objects and synagogues, and to suspend for a year those
convicted of minor offenses. In May, 1928, the Government
dissolved the Christian Student's League.
A survey made in June last by the correspondent of The
Jewish Telegraphic Agency in Bucharest showed that of the
Bucharest students accused of complicity in the Oradeamare excesses, 30 had been sentenced to from ten days to
six months' imprisonment and permanently expelled from
the University, while 380 were suspended from the University for a year. In Jassy, 15 students, and in Cluj, 8 students
were imprisoned and expelled. In addition, three prefects, a
director, an inspector, a commissioner and two sub-commissioners of police were removed from office. The press also
46
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
reported that the Roumanian Government had appropriated
a total of 24,000,000 lei (about $150,000) as compensation to
persons whose property was damaged during the excesses
and for the restoration of synagogues.
The reports of anti-Jewish disturbances and their results
and consequences overshadowed other news from Roumania.
Just before the Oradeamare outbreak, the American Jewish
Committee announced that the Government had decided to
reopen all the Jewish schools which had been closed under
the Averescu regime, to annul a regulation of that Government forbidding Jewish schools to close on Saturday, and
to excuse Jewish pupils in public schools from writing on
Saturday. In all municipal councils elected since the advent
of the new Government Jews had been included, and a number of the Councils had made provisions for contributing to
schools maintained by the Jewish communities.
Communal events centered around organization. A conference at Cernauti (Czernowitz), Bukowina, in May last,
decided to form a Jewish National Federation for Bukowina,
preliminary to the creation of a general federation for the
entire country. Later a conference of Jewish leaders from
various parts of the country decided to form a nation-wide
union for communal cooperation.
Probably the outstanding event of Jewish interest io
POLAND during the past year was the change in the political
attitude of the Jewish population. Whereas, in former years
most of the Jewish voters supported the candidates of the
ticket placed in the field by the minorities bloc, this was not
the case in the elections for the Sejm held last March. The
Jews were split up into no less than eight factions. In addition several of the National parties placed Jewish candidates
on their lists. The Agudath Israel, orthodox organization,
gave its support to the Government party; the Zionists of
East Galicia put up their own ticket. As a result, the number
of Jewish representatives returned to the Sejm at the recent
elections was half of the number in the preceding Parliament,
and not all the Jewish deputies support the same policy. At
the present time, even those deputies who have joined in
forming a Jewish bloc are in disagreement as to their attitude
toward the Government, some favoring union with the opposition Darties and others favoring an independent attitude
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
47
T h e former group point out t h a t the Government has not
realized the hopes which the Jewish population had placed
in it. In a speech in the Sejm, last April, Senator David
Schreiber expressed this view. "Unfortunately," he said,
"we have been disillusioned. T h e Tsarist restrictions against
Jews still apply in Poland. T h e compulsory S u n d a y closing
law and other injustices against t h e Jews have n o t been
removed, and no account has been taken either of the economic or the national demands of the Jews. We ask for the
realization of the just Jewish demands and then we Jews
will from all points of view take u p our stand in support of
the G o v e r n m e n t . "
T h e political condition of the Jews of Poland has nevertheless improved during the year. Incomplete figures covering a b o u t half the country show t h a t , a t the municipal
elections in August, 1927, of t h e 1597 municipal councillors
elected in 68 towns, 540 were Jews. Before the opening of
the scholastic year 1927-1928, the Government issued a
circular against the continuance of the illegal numerus clausus
which was still in force in some of t h e Universities. In October, 1927, announcement was made t h a t a D e p a r t m e n t of
Jewish Studies is to be created a t the College of Philosophy
of t h e University of Warsaw for the purpose of training
teachers for the religious instruction of Jewish pupils in the
state high schools. In J a n u a r y last, the Yiddish schools in
Warsaw were given the s t a t u s of public schools, and t h e
Education Commission of t h a t city voted to increase considerably the public allotment for the support of these schools.
T h e threatened withdrawal from Jewish hands of monopoly
concessions which was scheduled to go into effect on J a n u a r y
1, 1928, was p u t off to J u l y 1. A t the present writing there
are no reports as to whether it will actually go into effect on
that date.
In regard to Shehitah, an agitation against this practice
was begun at the beginning of 1928 by a newspaper which
was supported by a number of Polish organizations. The
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals submitted
a memorandum on the subject to the Minister of the Interior.
The National Organization of Polish Women decided to call
a conference on the subject. The belief was prevalent among
the Jewish population that the agitation was instigated by
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AMERICAN JEWISH-YEAR BOOK
elements which desired to oust Jewish merchants and workers from the meat industry. This view was partially borne
out by the fact that a memorandum asking the Government
to prohibit Shehitah was presented by the Guild of Polish
Butchers. It is said that the suggestion is supported by the
Ministry of Agriculture, but opposed by the Ministries of
the Interior and of Public Worship and Education. In the
city of Warsaw, notwithstanding the vigorous opposition of
Jewish municipal councillors, an inquiry into the advisability
of compulsory stunning of animals before slaughtering was
decided upon.
Except for a few incidents, Poland was practically free
from anti-Jewish disturbances during the past year. Polish
students of the University of Lemborg staged a demonstration in March after the results of the elections became known,
and it was found that two of the four deputies sent to Parliament from Eastern Galicia were Jews. The police, however,
took drastic measures and arrested many of the rioters. In
the preceding summer, there had been anti-Jew riots in
Lemborg, apparently an echo of similar incidents then taking place in Roumania. Jewish leaders, however, expressed
satisfaction with the attitude of the police during the
disorders.
In December, the Warsaw Technical Institute was forced
to suspend lectures for a time because a group of the students
declared a one-day strike after the Minister of Education
had refused to approve an amendment to the by-laws of the
student organization, providing for the exclusion of Jews
from membership. When the students rejected the Minister's ruling, he ordered the organization dissolved; a strike
followed and was answered by the closing of the school.
While there were no cases of desecration of Jewish cemeteries, the Jews of Stargard, Pomerania, were thrown into
a panic in August, 1927, when a Protestant cemetery in that
city was damaged and a rumor was started that the act of
vandalism had been perpetrated by Jews in revenge for the
desecration of Jewish cemeteries in Germany. Fortunately,
however, the police succeeded in apprehending the culprit
who proved to be a Christian.
The economic situation of the Jewish in Poland continued
to be unfavorable during the past year. There was a sensa-
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
49
tional report in the spring of 1927 that in Bialystok a number
parents had advertised that they were prepared to sell some
of their children in order to provide food for the others. It
was also reported that in order to provide their children with
the necessaries of life some parents were sending their children to missionary homes.
A new trade law, which went into effect early in the present
year, complicated the situation of Jewish artisans. The law
requires that artisans who wish to establish their own shops
pass an examination, eligibility for which requires a threeyear apprenticeship, which, in turn, is not open to those
who have not completed a three years' course in a trade
school. The Government, it is true, established a number
of trade schools, but their limited capacity and the fact that
they employ Polish as the language of instruction, have been
keeping many Jews away. The Joint Distribution Committee at the request of the Polish ORT, is at present making
a study of the subject with a view to determining the advisability of supplementing the Government schools with Jewish
schools.
Some relief from the hardships imposed by the compulsory
Sunday Rest Law was granted to some sections of Polish
Jewry, and the Government in the spring of 1927 decided to
permit small traders and artisans who employ no help to
engage in their business for several hours on Sundays.
During July last, the Joint Distribution Committee reported that during the year 1927, over a milllion Polish Jews
had benefitted by the credit institutions which had been
established with the support of the committee. A total
of 874 of such institutions were then in existence. These loan
Kassas are situated in cities and towns having together 80%
of the Jewish population of the country.
In communal affairs the year was made noteworthy by
the failure of the Warsaw Kehillah to agree on a budget for
the Jewish schools. The Board was split into three factions,
some opposing any allotment to the Hedarim, some being
against supporting the Tarbuth schools in which Hebrew is
the language of instruction, and the third faction being opposed to the Yiddish schools maintained principally by the
labor elements. The Government was appealed to to settle
the dispute.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
In March, 1928, the President of Poland issued a decree in
connection with the communal organization of the Jews of
Poland. According to this decree the Supreme Council of
this organization is to consist of 63 members, 34 of whom
are to be laymen, and 17 rabbis, to be elected by the communities; the remainder, 8 laymen and 4 rabbis, are to be
appointed by the Government.
In May last, the Jews in Polish Silesia organized a Union
of Democratic Jews to protect Jewish interests in the religious, cultural, economical and political fields, and to combat
anti-Semitism.
In RUSSIA, three important questions engaged the attention of the Jewish population, viz., (1) agricultural colonization, (2) urban industrialization and (3) the growth of antiSemitism.
Insofar as agricultural colonization is concerned, it may
be noted that August 30, 1928 will mark the completion of
four years of activity in this direction by the Government.
According to a report rendered to the Constructive Relief
Conference, held in Chicago last October, by Dr. Joseph
Rosen, agent of the American Jewish Joint Agricultural
Corporation, up to that time there had been settled on the
land a total of 35,000 Jewish families; the total area occupied by these colonists being approximately 800,000 acres.
During the past year this work has been continued and, as
was mentioned above under United States, an endeavor is
being made to raise sufficient funds to continue it for the
next ten years. During the year, the Government decided
to utilize a part of Siberia for agricultural colonization by
Jews. This region is known as Bureya. After it had been
made ready, a group of Jewish colonists were transported
to the region. The American Agro-Joint as has been announced, will not participate in this enterprise. Reports
which were received in May indicate that much damage was
caused to crops in some of the Jewish colonies by storms; the
Crimea colonies were, however, not seriously affected.
Demands that the Government help in the industrialization of Jews who were without work, were made by representatives of Jewish Organizations during the year. The
wretched condition of thousands of Jewish artisans gave rise
to this demand. In August, 1927, Central Executive Com-
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
51
mittee decided that the Comzet, the Government department
originally charged with the supervision of the work of settling Jews on the land, include in its activities steps to
further the industrialization of the Jewish masses. In the
spring of 1928 the Ukranian Soviet ordered the local Soviets
in a number of places to take vigorous measures to combat
the unemployment in those districts, mainly among the Jewish population, by providing the unemployed with implements and tools and undertaking public works on which they
may be employed. These Soviets were directed also to increase
the subsidies being given to Jewish technical and trade
schools.
The Russian press gave a great deal of attention during
the past year to indications that anti-Semitism was spreading among the workers and even members of the Communist
Party. The newspapers gave full publicity to numerous
instances of persecution of Jewish workers by their comrades
and warned readers that anti-Semitism would hurt the cause
of the revolution. The Government encouraged the publication of books and leaflets condemning anti-Semitism, and a
number of persons charged with molesting Jews were brought
to trial. The anti-Semitic epidemic spread even to the children in schools and several cases are on record of the cruel
maltreatment of Jewish pupils by their non-Jewish schoolmates. Indications are that the Government looks on this
phenomenon as one of its most serious problems.
The anti-religious activities of the Jewish section of the
Communist party continued during the year, but on a much
smaller scale than heretofore. The rabbis vigorously combatted this propaganda, especially the anti-Passover campaign during the past spring, when it was reported that
matzoth was sold in great quantities in the Ukraine. Traveling rabbis and preachers openly protested against the attempt
to suppress the celebration of the Passover. The traditional
collections to aid poor Jewish families in celebrating the
festival were carried on openly in White Russian and Ukrainian towns. In Moscow, the synagogues were crowded
during the Passover services and half a million pounds of
matzoth were sold.
The Jewish communists were also very much disturbed
by the wide distribution of Jewish religious books in Russia.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
In an editorial published recently, the Yiddish Communist
Daily, Ernes, asks why the Government printing plant has
published 85,000 copies of religious books, including prayer
books, Pentateuchs, and manuals for women and children,
for a single Jewish bookseller in Bobruisk, and demands t h a t
an investigation be made as to why a Jewish publisher in
Berdichev was permitted by the Ukranian Government to
print similar books of which he sold 100,000 during 1927.
C.
PALESTINE
T h e following is a summary of the most important facts
regarding Palestine contained in the report of Dr. Weitzmann, President of the World Zionist Organization, submitted
in J u n e last to Lord Plumer, British High Commissioner of
Palestine, for transmittal to the permanent M a n d a t e s Commission of the League of Nations.
Only 2,713 immigrants entered Palestine during 1927.
T h e decline was a direct result of the economic depression
during t h a t year. At the same time there was considerable
emigration of Jews from Palestine. This totalled 5,073 in
1927 as compared with 7,365 in 1926, when the economic
depression began; the net Jewish immigration during 1927
was therefore, 2,360. Sixty-three percent of the immigrants
had resided in Palestine for less than two years, and another
twenty-four percent had resided in the country for three
years or less.
As for unemployment, this continued to present a serious
problem during 1927. T h e average number of unemployed
was 7,150. At the end of the year there were 6,361 u n e m ployed on the register of the Jewish Labor Federation. By
March, 1928, however, the unemployment had decreased t o
such an extent t h a t direct relief was being paid to only 2,750
persons (as compared to 5,000 in 1927), and early in April
it was found possible to absorb the remaining unemployed
workmen and to suspend entirely the p a y m e n t of doles, in
spite of the fact t h a t during the first three months of 1928
immigration again began to exceed emigration. T h e Zionist
Organization spent during 1927, a total £150,000 on u n e m ployment relief; the Labor Federation imposed on those of
its members who had employment a tax which brought in
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
53
over £30,000, which were used also for unemployment relief.
It is to be noted that the Zionist Organization bore the entire
burden of Jewish unemployment and that no Jew became a
charge upon the public funds of Palestine.
The economic depression did not vitally affect agricultural
colonization. The older Keren Hayesod settlements covered
eighty-five percent of their requirements from the proceeds
of their own work, and only £8,000 had to be contributed
for the support of these settlements as compared with
£27,000 needed in 1926. An increase in the land devoted to
citrus cultivation is marked in the settlements not under
control of the Keren Hayesod. According to a census of the
agricultural settlements made in April, 1927, by the Palestine Zionist Executive, there were at the time, 104 such
settlements supporting a population of 30,500 souls on
1,000,000 dunams (about 250,000 acres) of land, with 11,521
head of cattle in addition to 4,567 draft animals.
Urban development naturally was retarded by the economic depression, but towards the end of 1927 there were
indications that change was about to take place; a fair amount
of new building was begun. Industrial development was also
retarded during the year, but in industry there are also signs
of approaching revival. Several firms which were obliged to
close down during 1926 reopened during 1927, and progress
was reported in the textile, tanning, woodworking, metal
working and printing industries. The year 1927 was marked
by an appreciable increase in the export of manufactures
to Syria, and three companies were formed for exporting
Palestine manufactures to various Jewish communities in
other countries. The government gave a stimulus to industry by exempting various raw materials from import duty.
The Palestine Electric Company operating the so-called
Rutenberg concession considerably extended the scope of its
operations during 1927. Statistics of the workings of the
company's power stations at Jaffa, Haifa, and Tiberias,
show that during 1926-27 the company sold a total of over
2,000,000 kilowatt hours of current for power, residential
and street lighting, and other purposes.
There was not during 1927, as in 1926, any outbreak of
typhoid fever; malaria however, was more frequent during
1927 and severely hit many of the agricultural settlements.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
During the year, 10,332 patrons were a d m i t t e d to four
Hadassah hospitals, in Jerusalem, Tel-Aviv, Haifa a n d Safed.
M o r e t h a n 115,000 new patrons of all creeds were treated
in the Hadassah clinics throughout the country. An import a n t event in connection with public health, was the dedication
of the N a t h a n and Lina S t r a u s Health Center in Jerusalem
on M a r c h 31, 1927, the gift of N a t h a n and Lina S t r a u s of
New York City, who have devoted the sum of $250,000 for
this purpose. T h e y have also offered to establish another
health center in Tel-Aviv a t the cost of $75,000.
In the m a t t e r of education it is worth noting t h a t a t t h e
beginning of the school year 1927-28, the total n u m b e r of
Jewish schools in Palestine was 275, having an enrollment of
26,537 pupils; 222 of these schools serving 18,611 pupils, are
under the supervision of the Palestine Zionist Executive. In
addition other Jewish schools are gradually accepting the
supervision of t h a t organization. Of the 222 schools under
the supervision of the Educational Committee of the Zionist
Organization, 111 are kindergartens, 97 are elementary
schools, 4 are secondary schools, 3 are technical schools, 4
are teachers' seminaries and 3 are miscellaneous institutions.
I t is interesting in this connection to note t h a t , for t h e year
1926-27, the government grant-in-aid for the Jewish schools
maintained b y the Zionist Organization was £14,870, almost
double the g r a n t in 1925-26, and almost seven times as much
as was granted in 1924-25; for the year 1927-28 t h e sum of
£19,603 has been allocated b y t h e government for this
purpose.
During 1927 the work of the existing d e p a r t m e n t s of t h e
Hebrew University has been continued and preparations
were undertaken for the establishment of new institutes, and
for the erection of several new buildings. I t should be noted
here t h a t early in 1928, the Board of Governors of the university decided to introduce under-graduate studies leading
t o the baccalaureate degree. T h e Jewish National a n d
University Library had, on t h e first of December, 1927, a
total of 173,111 volumes (137,000 works). Of this n u m b e r
57,700 books were Hebraica a n d Judaica. T h e increase in
the library during the year was approximately 36,000 volumes.
T h e promulgation of the Religious Communities Organization Ordinance in 1926 was followed in 1927 b y the publi 1
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
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cation of draft regulations for the organization of the Jewish
community. These regulations provide for three bodies
representative of the Jewish community: (1) Rabbinical
Council, (2) the Elected Assembly, and (3) the General
Council; these are empowered in their several spheres to
conduct the internal affairs of the community and to levy
taxes on its members for education, poor relief, care of the
sick, and other communal services. Steps are now being
taken by the existing National Council for the election of
thefirstElective Assembly in accordance with the regulations.
Contributions to the Palestine Foundation Fund during
the year ending September, 1927, reached the total of
£883,616. The Jewish National Fund receipts during 192627 totaled £289,000.
APPENDIX
THE REPORT OF THE JOINT PALESTINE
SURVEY COMMISSION
NOTE: At the time of going to press, there was not at hand a complete official copy
of the report of the Joint Palestine Survey Commission. This was presented in two
parts,—the first containing the findings of fact; the second, containing the recommendations of the Commission based upon these findings and the reports of the experts.
Below are given (1) a brief abstract of the first part of the report and (2) the full text
of the second part and the conclusion. Both the abstract and the text are reprinted
from the New Judaea, London, of June 29, 1928.
1. ABSTRACT OF PART ONE
Jews constitute not more than 18 per cent of the population of Palestine. They occupy a comparatively small fraction of its territory.
Moslems and Christians occupy the greater part of the land and constitute the preponderating majority of the people. A considerable part
of the country has not been developed to the extent that its economic
welfare and the health and comfort of its inhabitants require. Large
tracts of land consist of swamps and marshes which should be drained
in order to assure safe sanitary conditions. The highway system which
is necessary for effective transportation is still in its incipient stages.
Little is known as to the subterranean water supply. The land is practically without forests, and it is evident that in many other respects the
absence of necessary Public Works constitute an obstacle to the attainment of that degree of progress which is essential to the growth of the
country.
To a substantial extent the Palestine Zionist Executive has employed
its funds in carrying out projects with which in fact it is not equitably
chargeable. They benefit the entire country and in a sense have con-
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stituted the performance of what are State functions and obligations as
distinguished from those not pertaining to the administration of public
affairs. In most countries the protection of the public health, the promotion of education, the construction of highways and the drainage of
large areas, are regarded as Governmental functions. The expense incident to the reasonable exercise of these functions should be borne not
by a part but by all the people of the country to be met by means of a
just system of taxation—and not merely by a portion of the people.
So far as the public health is concerned, the establishment and maintenance of effective methods of sanitation are clearly not the business
of a comparatively small fraction of the population. The prevention of
disease and of epidemics benefits all. The elimination of malaria, for
instance, regarded even from an economic standpoint, adds to the efficiency of every single individual. The enforcement of vaccination, the
prevention of trachoma, tuberculosis and other similar ailments, safeguards every dweller in the land.
The ascertainment by a proper hydrographic survey of the surface
and subterranean water resources of the country, their protection from
defilement and waste, and the planting and protection of forests, of
necessity benefit all because they tend to add to the public wealth and
eventually would add to the revenues of the country.
The advantages of education are incapable of exaggeration, yet thus
far the Government of Palestine has contributed comparatively little
to the Jewish schools. It cannot be expected that the Government should
defray the entire cost of education, but so long as reasonable standards
established by it are observed in the schools, the expense of elementary
education should be adequately subventioned by the Government. This
does not mean that it should have any concern with religious, secondary,
technical or special lines of education. We refer merely to the most
fundamental phases of it. If any part of the people desires to supplement
sanitation or hospitalisation or education, the expense attendant upon
such further kinds of health and educational work should be borne by
those desiring such supplementation.
This brings us to a consideration of the powers and duties of the
Palestine Government as laid down in the Mandate of July 24th, 1922,
whereby His Britannic Majesty's Government became the Mandatory
for Palestine.
By Article 1 of that historic document, the Mandatory was given full
powers of legislation and administration save as limited in the terms of
the Mandate.
By Article 2 the Mandatory was made responsible for "placing the
country under such administrative and economic conditions as would
secure the establishment of the Jewish National Home" as laid down
in the Preamble of the Mandate, which recites the terms of the Balfour
Declaration. By the same Article, the Mandatory was made responsible
for the development of self-governing institutions and also for safeguarding the civil and religious rights of all the inhabitants irrespective
of race and creed.
By Article 4 the Jewish Agency was recognised "for the purpose of
advising and co-operating with the Administration of Palestine in such
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economic, social and other matters as may affect the establishment of
the Jewish National Home and the interests of the Jewish population
in Palestine, and, subject always to the control of the Administration,
to assist and take part in the development of the country." This merely
speaks of co-operation and assistance but does not impose upon the
Jews burdens which should be borne alike by all the inhabitants of
Palestine, nor does it amount to an assumption by the Jewish Agency,
nor the right by it to assume the functions pertaining to the Palestine
Government.
Article II provides that "the Administration of Palestine shall take
all necessary measures to safeguard the interests of the community in
connection with the development of the country, and, subject to any
international obligations accepted by the Mandatory, shall have full
power to provide for public ownership or control of any of the natural
resources of the country or of the public works, services and utilities
established or to be established therein. It shall introduce a land system
appropriate to the needs of the country, having regard, among other
things, to the desirability of promoting the close settlement and intensive cultivation of the land." This provision recognises, we submit, the
obligations of the Government to the extent that we are claiming.
By the second paragraph of Article 11 the Administration is permitted to arrange with the Jewish Agency for it to construct and operate,
upon fair and equitable terms, any public works, services and utilities,
and to develop any of the natural resources of the country, in so far as
these matters are not directly undertaken by the Administration. That,
however, does not imply that the cost of such construction, operation
and development is to be borne exclusively by the Jewish Agency. At
all events if fair and equitable terms with the Jewish Agency cannot be
agreed upon, it does not absolve the Government from constructing and
operating such public works, services and utilities and to develop such
natural resources as are necessary for the general welfare.
Again in Article 18 it is declared: "Subject as aforesaid and to the
other provisions of this Mandate, the Administration of Palestine may,
on the advice of the Mandatory, impose such taxes and Customs duties
as it may consider necessary, and take such steps as it may think best
to promote the development of the natural resources of the country and
to safeguard the interests of the population." Here again we find recognition of the principle which we are seeking to elucidate, narriely, that
the Jewish Agency should not be expected to meet the obligations which
rest on the Palestine Government.
Further support of this idea is afforded by the White Paper of June,
1922, and especially of the letter of the Colonial Office to the Zionist
Organisation of June 3rd, 1922, with the accompanying enclosure setting
forth the British policy in Palestine, and the communication of the
Zionist Organisation to the Colonial Office of June 18th, 1922, giving
assurance that the activities of the Zionist Organisation would be in
conformity with the policy mentioned. So, too, the correspondence of
the Colonial Office with the High Commissioner of Palestine with respect
to the proposed formation of an Arab Agency presented to Parliament
by command of His Majesty in November, 1923, strongly fortifies this
interpretation.
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Throughout these documents stress is laid on the fact that the Palestine Government was to be conducted as one affecting all the people,
and that neither the Jewish Agency nor the contemplated Arab Agency
was to undertake obligations and burdens which of right belong to the
entire population represented by the Palestine Government.
In this connection we venture to refer to the subject of taxation and
the registration of land titles. It is rather startling to learn that to a
great extent there has been no adequate provision for the settlement
and registration of titles. Recently an Ordinance has been promulgated
dealing with lands in villages. Until the titles of rural properties are
finally settled there will necessarily arise confusion and litigation, and
the owners of agricultural land will be hampered in their efforts to borrow money secured by mortgages on their land because of the possible
insecurity of the titles. Although these difficulties are recognised the
land survey undertaken is far from completion. Such a survey necessarily constitutes the first step toward the adoption of a system looking
to the quieting of titles and their registration. The expense of such a
survey is, of course, borne by the Government. The early completion
would advance land development. The facilitation of the acquisition
and the disposition of land, conforms with public policy.
The laws and the methods of taxation which are now in force are
recognised to be archaic and inequitable. They discriminate in favour
of those lands which are not cultivated, and which are therefore unproductive, and penalise the industry and enterprise of those who add to
the productivity of the soil and to the prosperity of the country. In
most countries where land taxation prevails, it is upon the basis of the
fair value of the land, whether it be cultivated or not, or whether the
methods of husbandry be good or bad. The actual value of the land is,
as it should be, the controlling factor. Any other policy obstructs the
economic development of the country. It is hoped, therefore, that a
fiscal policy may soon be adopted which will tend to equalisation in
taxation upon a reasonable basis.
In recent years the products of the Palestinian soil have largely increased and there are gratifying possibilities of further increase. The
vineyards and the tobacco fields give promise of good financial returns
were it possible to export into the British Empire the wine and other
liquors produced from the grapes as well as tobacco both in its raw and
in its manufactured state, at reduced customs rates. The home market,
confined as it is to local consumption, can absorb only a small part of
the production. Foreign markets are, therefore, essential to the profitable development of this industry. There is an encouraging demand for
these products in Great Britain. A serious difficulty, however, is encountered in the Laws regulating imports into the territory of the Mandatory
Government, and subject the Palestinian producer and his infant industry to destructive competition. If these products were afforded the
advantage of Imperial Preference, there would be an encouragement to
those who are investing their capital and devoting their labour in this
promising field of what may be called the Palestinian agricultural industry. It would add to the wealth of Palestine and thereby enable it to
expand in many directions. In view of the comparatively large imports
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it is desirable that they be counterbalanced so far as practicable by the
volume of exports.
The power to grant Imperial Preference has been questioned on the
theory that the so-called Most Favoured Nation Clauses contained in
various Treaties of the Imperial Government stand in the way. It would
seem, however, that these Clauses are inapplicable to Palestine. They
refer to "other" Foreign States or Nations or Countries or Powers, but
Palestine does not properly come within any of these designations. It
is not in reality "foreign." The language of the Clauses in question
cannot properly be stretched so as to apply to Palestine over which His
Britannic Majesty's Government is the Mandatory. The relations created
by the Mandate are of the most intimate character. Although Palestine
is not constituted British territory and cannot be said to be a Protectorate, yet its affairs are under the supervision of the British Colonial
Office. While not, strictly speaking, a British Colony, nevertheless in
some aspects it partakes of the character of a Colony. Comprehensive
duties toward Palestine have been imposed upon the Mandatory by
the Council of the League of Nations.
By Article 2 of the Mandate, the Mandatory is made responsible for
"placing the country under such political, administrative and economic
conditions as will secure the establishment of the Jewish National Home.''
By Article 3 "the Mandatory, as far as circumstances permit, is to
encourage local autonomy."
By Article 5 the Mandatory is responsible "for seeing that no Palestine territory shall be ceded or leased to, or in any way placed under the
control of, the Government of any foreign Power."
By Article 9 the Mandatory is responsible "for seeing that the judicial
system established in Palestine shall assure to foreigners as well as to
natives, a complete guarantee of their rights."
By Article 10 "pending the making of special extradition agreements
relating to Palestine, the extradition treaties in force between the Mandatory and other foreign Powers shall apply to Palestine."
By Article 12 the Mandatory is "entrusted with the control of the
foreign relations of Palestine and the right to issue exequaturs to consuls
appointed by foreign Powers. He shall also be entitled to afford diplomatic and consular protection to citizens of Palestine when outside its
territorial limits."
These among other provisions demonstrate that with the existence of
so close a relationship between Palestine and the Mandatory the idea
that they are foreign to one another is inconceivable, in fact it is implicitly excluded. Consequently we submit that the Most Favoured Nations
Clause would seem to be inapplicable.
A further significant fact bearing on this point is that Imperial Preference has by Orders-in-Council been accorded to practically all other
Mandated territories assigned to Great Britain with the sole exception
of Iraq. Although there are differences between the three classes of
Mandates created by the Covenant of the League of Nations, it is
believed, so far as the matter now under consideration is concerned, that
these differences are not material. The resolution adopted by the Permanent Mandates Commission at its session in July, 1925, to the effect
that the Council of the League of Nations "should recommend to the
60
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Mandatory Powers, and also to all States, whether members or not of
the League of Nations, which have concluded special Treaties or Conventions with the Mandatory Power . . . to extend the benefits of such
Treaties or Conventions to mandated territories . . ." would indicate
that, in the view of the Mandates Commission there is no distinction
between the various types of mandated territories on the question of
"the well-being and development" of those territories (to use the phrase
of Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations) and that they
are all to be treated on an equality as virtually forming part of the
Mandatory Power to which they are attached.
But regardless of these considerations, the relations between Palestine
and the Mandatory are of a special character which bring them outside
of the purview of the Most Favoured Nations Clause as interpreted and
applied in International Law. Various precedents have been called
to our attention illustrative of this statement. Thus, France has applied
the regime of tariff assimilation to Tunis, although the latter belongs to
the non-assimilated group of the French protectorates, and its Government is carried on under the direction of the French Foreign Office and
not—as in the case of Palestine by the British Colonial Office. The
United States extended preferential tariffs to Hawaii before its annexation. Portugal likewise granted such preference to Brazil, as did Cuba
to various Latin-American States. There have likewise been instances
of preferential practices in cases of territorial contiguity. A notable
instance is to be found in the grant of a duty reduction of 20 per cent
accorded by the United States to Cuba in 1903. Cuba was unquestionably a foreign State, yet the extraordinary circumstances which brought
the United States and Cuba into relation with one another, and the moral
obligations which the United States recognised as existing on its part
towards Cuba, were considered a justification for this procedure in the
face of the most favoured nation relations which the United States bore
to other nations. The test of "extraordinary circumstances" as shaping
the relations between two territories and as determining the interpretation of the treaty clauses under discussion may be said to have full
scope between the Mandatory and Palestine. It is not likely that any
other Nation would view the allowance of Imperial Preference by the
Mandatory to Palestine as the grant of a "favour," according to the fair
intendment of that word as employed in the clauses in the Treaties to
which reference has been made. Even though such preference be not
an absolute right, the conferring of it would be justified by considerations similar to those obtaining between a guardian and his ward.
PART TWO
2. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
I. PRELIMINARY STATEMENT
In surveying the results of ten years' Jewish activity in Palestine
due weight must be given to the special character of the problem which
had to be dealt with. The unsettled condition of Palestine at the close
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
61
of the War and the political unrest which prevailed there were in themselves sufficient to make it necessary for both the Government of Palestine and for all colonising agencies to proceed cautiously. Until 1920
Palestine was governed as a country under military occupation. A civil
administration under a British High Commissioner was established in
July, 1920, and two years elapsed before the status of Palestine was
regularised by the confirmation of the terms of the Mandate by the
Council of the League of Nations. Throughout this period Palestine
was disturbed by political agitation, which culminated in the Jaffa riots
of May, 1921. Since then there has been no disturbance of the public
peace, and the tension which had existed was gradually relaxed. The
anti-Zionist agitation among the Arabs has practically ceased, largely
because they realised that Jewish immigration, far from injuring them,
has in many respects, in fact, been materially to their advantage. Nevertheless, in appraising the work which has been done in Palestine it should
be borne in mind that the country is one in which the great majority of
the inhabitants are not Jewish.
It was, moreover, a country which not only had been devastated by
the War, but suffered from centuries of neglect. It was not without
natural resources, but little or nothing had been made of them, and both
time and money were required for their development. In the condition
existing at the termination of the War, Palestine was not a promising
field for colonisation, even had its area been more extensive and its soil
more fertile.
In important respects the problem with which the Zionist Organisation had to deal was unusual. The Zionist Organisation was devoid of
governmental powers. It did not possess a Government's resources of
land or money. It relied solely upon voluntary contributions. That it
was able to secure a fund averaging nearly £650,000 annually affords
striking testimony to the devotion and the enthusiasm of its supporters.
Most of the immigrants had little or no agricultural experience. Most
of them came from countries in whic,h living conditions were altogether
different from those prevalent in Palestine. They were, however, imbued
by a lofty ideal.
Due weight being given to these considerations, a broad survey of
Jewish activities in Palestine since the close of the War leads to the
general conclusion that the results may be regarded as hopeful for the
future, though mistakes have been committed in the course of these
years.
Based upon the reports of the Experts and upon their own personal
observations, the Commissioners have reached the following conclusions
and make the following recommendations:—
I I . — I IMMIGRATION
1. The immigration programme of the Palestine Zionist Executive
has not always been prepared with due retard to actual facts and conditions. Conclusions of too sanguine a character have sometimes been
drawn from temporary and abnormal demands for labour when they
were not sufficient grounds for assuming that they would continue.
While it is desirable to bring into Palestine as many immigrants as it
62
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
may reasonably absorb, it is clear that in the long run Jewish interests
will be best subserved by a programme pursuant to which there shall
always be maintained a reasonable balance between the number of
immigrants admitted and the economic needs of the country.
2. It is suggested as regards the immigration of persons without
means that the existing Government regulations, while generally satisfactory, might be amended so as to enable the Jewish Agency to submit
proposals for the Labour Schedule three times instead of twice a year.
The present period of six months is too long for the purpose of ascertaining the needs of the labour market.
3. A more thorough selection of individual immigrants than that
which has hitherto prevailed, and more in consonance with the needs
of the country, should be made.
4. As regards immigrants with means, the selection of such immigrants constitutes a responsibility which should not be assumed by the
Palestine Offices of the Jewish Agency. Free play must be given to
private enterprise. Immigrants should be given full and detailed information with regard to conditions prevailing in Palestine. To that end,
the Jewish Agency should maintain an efficient information bureau
which should be in constant communication with the Palestine Government and with the principal centres from which immigrants come.
5. Immigrants with means as prescribed by the Government regulations, and who are qualified to undertake industrial and commercial
enterprises should be encouraged to settle in Palestine.
6. The Palestine Offices must bear a purely economic character, working under the direct orders and instructions of the Immigration Department of the Jewish Agency and independently of local politics, it being
necessarily understood that these offices are to work in cooperation with
the local Jewish Organisations.
7. Repayments by immigrants of all advances made to or for them
should be enforced as speedily as they are able to make such repayments.
Ill.—AGRICULTURE
1. On the basis of the Experts' calculations, without allowing for the
improvement of land through artificial fertilisation, and taking into
account all of the cultivable land in Palestine, it would appear to be
possible to sub-divide such land into 33,000 irrigated and 50,000 nonirrigated farms. Of this land, approximately 8 per cent is now in Jewish
hands.
2. Until the Jewish Agency shall have in hand funds to proceed with
the consolidation of all the existing colonies where such consolidation is
deemed desirable, no new colonies shall be established.
3. The Commission regrets that the Palestine Government has not
as yet found it practicable to take steps towards the facilitation of "close
settlement of Jews on the land, including State lands and waste lands
not required for public purposes," as contemplated by Article 6 of the
Mandate. It takes note of the statement of the Government that the
apportionment of State lands to Jewish settlers cannot take place until
the cadastral survey of the country has been completed. It is believed,
however, that it would be appropriate for the Jewish Agency to urge the
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
63
Government to adopt such measures as to render certain lands available
for settlement even before the completion of the survey.
4. The importance of a systematic policy of afforestation throughout
Palestine cannot be exaggerated. It would not only favourably influence
the climate and afford protection to the water supply, but it would
render it possible eventually to utilise the hill sections of the country
which are not available for agriculture and thereby provide a new source
of revenue. It is believed that the extension of such a policy is likewise
a function of Government, and it is hoped that the Palestine Government
will seriously consider this subject.
5. No progressive. colonisation of Palestine is practicable until a
modification of the present system of taxation has been effected. The
Commissioners are aware of the fact that the Government of Palestine
have adopted as a temporary expedient a plan for the commutation of
the tithe based on an average of five years' yield of the land. This,
however, has been applied only to certain villages. Although this new
system eliminates some of the major evils of the tithe, it will not prove
satisfactory since taxation should be based not on the actual yield, but
on the unimproved value of the property to be taxed.
6. It is desirable that the Government of Palestine shall stimulate
the agricultural development of the country by exempting new agricultural enterprises from taxation for a period of five years, in conformity
with the common practice that obtains in other parts of the world where
encouragement of agricultural colonisation is sought.
7. Efforts should be made in the future to secure settlers who possess
means of their own, in addition to those immigrants who, though without means, are specially qualified for agricultural settlements. (Chaluzim.)
8. It is desirable that before a colonist is settled upon land, the preparation of the holding should be carried to a point at which it is capable,
by means of good husbandry, of providing him with a living from the
beginning. This necessitates previous drainage of the land, provision
made for water supply, in the case of irrigable land suitable irrigation
works, the construction of such roads as are required for communication
and connection with the nearest highways, and the preparation of the
soil itself for the selected crops. This selection should be made on the
basis of adequate scientific data, and the machinery and implements
placed at the disposal of the colonist should be carefully adapted to
actual requirements.
9. The Agricultural Colonisation Department should be re-organised
and conducted by the Jewish Agency in such a manner as to secure
competent business management and the application of sound economic
principles in its administration.
10. In the opinion of the Experts the further establishment of communal settlements (Kvuzoth) is undesirable, but the equipment of
existing settlements of this character should be completed. The Commissioners concur in this opinion. As regards new colonies initiated
• uring the past year, they believe that they should not be abandoned,
but that necessary means be found to proceed with their equipment,
provided their reorganisation can be effected so as to convert them into
individualistic co-operative settlements (Moshavim) or for use as training centres.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
11. In view of past experience, unless new factors come to light, the
further establishment of hill colonies should be abandoned.
12. The desirability of enabling settlers to become the actual owners
of land is recognised. Under the present Articles of Association of the
Jewish National Fund this seems to be precluded so far as its lands are
concerned. It is recognised that there are instances where the settler
will be unable to repay the entire cost of the land, because of inadequate
returns. In such cases it may become necessary to continue the existing
or a modified leasehold system by the Jewish National Fund. The
Jewish Agency should, however, in addition to the lands now owned or
hereafter acquired by the Jewish National Fund secure a land reserve
free from similar restrictions. All land purchases should be preceded by
thorough soil analyses and water surveys, and the price to be paid should
not exceed the fair value of the land.
13. In the past more colonists have been settled in given areas than
can reasonably be maintained thereon. It is important that this tendency be guarded against in future colonisation. There are existing
colonies in which the holdings per family will have to be increased if
the settlers are to become self-supporting. The needs of each individual
colony in this respect present separate problems which should be dealt
with on their merits and without delay. The problem is complicated,
both in the case of existing colonies and of new colonisation, by the
lack of reliable data concerning a number of material points, such as
the water supply available for irrigation and the extent to which the
productivity of the soil can be increased by the use of fertilisers. A
hydrographic survey should, therefore, be made at an early date, and
^he practicability of artificial fertilisation should likewise be ascertained.
The making of such a hydrographic survey seems to be a function of
Government, because of the tremendous part which an adequate water
supply plays in the future development of all Palestine.
14. Formal written contracts between the Jewish Agency and the
individual settlers should be executed at once and without the intervention of any other body. In arriving at the amount which the settler
is to repay, liberal allowances are to be made for the fact that the moneys
advanced by the Palestine Zionist Executive, as the cost of settlement,
were enhanced by causes for which the settler was not responsible. The
amount to be repaid should be fixed at a sum at which the land can be
profitably operated, due regard being had to the economic value of the
land rather than the amount expended upon it by the Agency. The
payments are to be made in instalments at times to be specified in the
contract. Settlers who fail to meet these requirements are to be replaced
by others who will.
1-5. The possibilities for Jewish settlement are limited by the supply
of cultivable land in Palestine. It is therefore desirable that prompt
investigations be made regarding the use of artificial fertilisers. This is
of special importance in view of the fact that land prices have reached
a very high figure.
16. The principle that outside labour of any kind shall not be employed by settlers, as now practised in the Zionist colonies, is indefensible
if one has in mind the ultimate success of colonisation because, among
other reasons, it results from such a system that at times when the fruits
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
65
of all the efforts expended by the colonist are at stake, he is unable to
hire the necessary labour without which it will be impossible for him
and his family to harvest his crop. Many of the difficulties sought to be
obviated by the existing system might be met by inserting in the contract
between the Colonisation Department and the settler of a clause whereby
a minimal compensation is assured to hired labour.
17. The present unscientific use of water in parts of the citurs zone
is already showing signs of lower water levels. In view of the importance
of the citrus industry, regulations should be adopted and enforced for
the proper use of water for irrigation purposes.
18. Zones for new settlement should so far as practicable be located
in areas suitable for the growing of specialty export crops, with due
regard to the general agricultural needs of the country.
19. The co-operative purchase of materials and supplies required by
the settlers and the co-operative marketing of produce are regarded as
conducive to the creation of better conditions both economic and social.
Such a system must, however, be administered by an organisation or
body uninfluenced by social theories.
20. The co-ordination of the activities of the various bodies engaged
in agricultural research and extension work is of primary Importance
in order that the planning of research activities for a number of years in
advance should become practicable, and for the further purpose that a
system of instruction and unification of the curriculum in agricultural
schools may be brought about. The present over-lapping would thus
be eliminated. To this end, a Board should be constituted, upon which
should be represented:
(a) The Government Department of Agriculture;
(b) The Department of Agricultural Colonisation of the Jewish
Agency;
(c) P.I.C.A., and Mikweh Israel;
id) The Hebrew University.
21. No subject is of more importance than that of the marketing of
the products of the colonists. This calls for careful investigation and
involves the adoption and maintenance of high standards of quality,
proper attention to the problem of shipment and transportation, and
the creation of an agency which will facilitate the handling and sale of
such products.
22. The extension of the facilities of the Experimental Station to
further the solution of practical problems in horticulture is indicated.
Advantages would accrue to the Station and the Colonisation Department from maintaining close contact with the Hebrew University to
accomplish this end.
IV.—INDUSTRY
1. The encouragement of industry should not in any sense be regarded
as a matter of subordinate importance. While it is essential that the
work of agricultural colonisation should be continued and intensified,
there is also room in Palestine for industrial development. Of the entire
population of Palestine about sixty-five per cent lives on the land, so
that taking the country as a whole, from the point of view of consump-
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
tion it cannot be said that the urban population is disproportionately
large.
2. Steps should be taken towards the establishment in London and
New York of a Palestine commercial and tourist bureau. The Jewish
Agency should offer its co-operation to the Government of Palestine in
this matter and the support of the P.I.C.A., Chambers of Commerce.
Banks and principal producers should be enlisted.
3. In Palestine, as in other new countries, it is essential that industries should enjoy some measure of protection in their infancy. The
effect of the revised Customs Tariff which has recently been promulgated
is to give protection to certain local industries. It is not suggested that
protective duties should be levied indiscriminately. Every case should
be considered on its merits in accordance with a well-considered policy.
The judicious use of tariffs for the encouragement of industries having
a reasonable prospect of establishing themselves on a self-supporting
basis, will have a beneficial effect on the conditions of life in Palestine,
and will be to the advantage of the population as a whole.
4. Bound up with the question of tariffs is that of Customs Agreements with neighbouring countries. Article 18 of the Mandate provides
that:—
"The Mandatory shall see that there is no discrimination in
Palestine against the nationals of any State Member of the League
of Nations (including companies incorporated under its laws) as
compared with those of the Mandatory or of any foreign State in
matters concerning taxation, commerce and navigation."
The same Article states that the Administration of Palestine may:—
"On the advice of the Mandatory, conclude a special Customs
Agreement with any State the territory of which in 1914 was wholly
included in Asiatic Turkey or Arabia."
There would, therefore, appear to be nothing to prevent the Palestine
Government from concluding Customs Agreements with Syria, Iraq,
Hejaz and Turkey. Customs Agreements with these neighbouring countries are of special importance since they constitute the natural markets
for Palestinian exports. A Customs Agreement approximating free trade
between Palestine and Syria was, in fact, negotiated in 1921, but it is
understood that this Agreement is not to be persisted in. If such agreements are to serve a useful purpose, it is essential that there should be
no sudden changes, since new industries cannot be expected to make
headway if they are exposed to the risk of abrupt alterations in the
conditions under which they have been established.
5. In view of the complicated problems involved in the use of protective duties, and the importance of ensuring that tariffs shall take into
consideration the interests alike of industry, revenue and the consuming
public, it would seem desirable for the Palestine Government to establish
a special Tariff Board charged with the duty of laying down and applying
definite principles of fiscal policy.
6. The existing railway tariffs in Palestine are not sufficiently flexible,
and neither favour the local manufacturer as against the importer nor
encourage export trade. It is suggested that the Government of Palestine
consider the feasibility of a general reduction of freight rates, and in
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
67
particular of the introduction of a special freight tariff on goods for
export.
7. The co-ordination of transport facilities is assuming increasing
importance, more especially in view of the harbour projects in contemplation. The establishment of a Transport Board by the Palestine
Government is therefore deemed an urgent necessity.
8. The development of home industries is of substantial importance.
Certain sections of the Jewish population—notably the Yemenites— are
well adapted for this occupation. Such industries would not only cater
for tourist traffic, but in view of the sentimental appeal of Palestine, are
likely to open remunerative markets abroad. By this means a considerable number of Jewish workers in the towns could find employment
outside of factories.
9. A co-ordinated effort between the Government of Palestine and
the Jewish Agency should be initiated for the establishment of a bureau
which would advise prospective immigrants as to the advisability of
transferring their existing plants to Palestine, or establishing new industries there. Of such a bureau there should be represented:—
(a) The Government of Palestine;
(b) The Jewish Agency;
(c) The Chambers of Commerce;
(d) The Economic Board for Palestine;
(«) Banks;
(/) Palestine Manufacturers' Association,
(g) Jewish Labour Federation.
10. It is highly desirable as a source of revenue to provide adequate
hotel facilities for the ever-increasing number of tourists.
V. EDUCATION.
1. It is the function of the Government to furnish minimum secular
education to every child whose parents demand such instruction and
grants should be made by the Government to such non-Governmental
schools, as comply with such minimum requirements as shall be laid
down officially; the grant should be based upon the proportion of children attending school.
2. The present system whereby the grant-in-aid is paid to the Jewish
Agency for further distribution is satisfactory, since it guarantees the
maintenance of proper standards. The Jewish Agency will doubtless
desire to supplement the Government grant.
VI. PUBLIC HEALTH
1. A larger share of responsibility than hitherto with regard to Public
Health should be borne by the Government. Such functions as vaccination, the suppression of epidemics, the control of contagious diseases,
drainage and improvements in the quarantine service constitute direct
duties of Government.
2. It is desirable that grants-in-aid be extended to private hospitals
upon the basis of the number of days of free treatment provided in them.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
The Jewish Agency will doubtless desire to supplement these subventions in order to maintain standards regarded by them as essential.
3. The medical and health work conducted under Jewish auspices
should be co-ordinated and consolidated. It is probable that Hadassah
is the logical organisation to undertake this co-ordination.
4. The Kupath-Cholim (Sick Fund of the Workmen's Labour Federation) should limit its activities to the task which it had primarily set for
itself, namely, workmen's insurance, sick benefits and care of convalescents, turning over to the Health Department of the Jewish Agency its
other medical and health activities. It is proper that the reorganised
Kupath-Cholim be maintained since it has been instrumental in teaching
sound principles of self-help and self-government.
5. Every effort should be made to co-ordinate the activities of the
private hospitals in Palestine in order to maintain a harmoniously working system. This may involve the formation of a Central Hospital Board
and the consolidation of a number of institutions.
VII.
LABOUR.
1. The Commission sympathises with the aspirations of the workers
to improve their social and economic condition and welcomes their
realisation.
2. Whilst fully appreciating the achievements of organisations representative of the workers in the direction of agriculture, immigration,
health services and cultural activities, it is believed that the acceptance
of the principle that industry and agriculture must be established upon
an economic basis including an equitable return on capital invested, is
a necessary preliminary to the progressive increase in the standards of
living which it is desired to establish.
3. The Jewish community should establish conciliation machinery in
order to eliminate the losses incurred by disputes in industry and agriculture. Such conciliation machinery could be best established by the
creation of a council consisting on the one side of representatives of employers in industry and agriculture, and on the other side of representatives of organisations of the workers in equal numbers. All matters in
industry or agriculture tending to lead to labour disputes, and such disputes which may already occur should be referred to this council on the
application of either side in the dispute, and the council should make
every endeavour to effect a settlement by conciliation, provided that in
its opinion the matters at issue are sufficiently important to merit consideration. The services of an impartial chairman should be availed of
where required.
4. Co-operative organisations of producers and consumers, as well as
organisations of the workers should be encouraged. Such organisations
should be founded on sound business principles, and not according to
doctrinaire theories.
VIII. FINANCE.
1. In view of the lapse of time which will inevitably precede the establishment of the enlarged Jewish Agency and the introduction of the
recommendations of the Joint Palestine Survey Commission, every effort
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
69
must be made to strengthen the position of the existing Zionist funds
(Keren Hayesod and Keren Kayemeth) during the period of transition,
so that the constructive activities and consolidation work will not suffer.
2. The minimum annual budget beginning with the fiscal year 1929-30
will roughly be £1,000,000. This total has been reached in the following
manner:—
(a) New colonisation after consolidation of existing settlements—expenditure is to be made only against
contracts specifying repayments in due course—not
less than
£250,000
(b) Consolidation of financial and co-operative institutions and to • improve shipping and marketing
facilities
:
100,000
(c) Additional land purchases (such purchases to be
made only when land can be obtained at fair market value)
200,000
(d) Loans to newly established farmers
50,000
(Items (a), (b), (c), and (d) will be eventually
recovered.)
(e) Elementary education—in addition to Government
grants-in-aid, university, technical, secondary and
religious education
120,000
{/) Training of immigrants and assistance to labour....
50,000
(g) Consolidation of and subventions to hospitals
100,000
(h) Administrative budget of Jewish Agency, and its
funds
50,000
(t) Miscellaneous
50,000
Total
£1,000,000
The above budget has been composed on the assumption that the
Government will appropriate sufficient moneys to provide for objects
which, in our opinion, are of governmental character, and that the Jewish Agency will exercise strict economies in collection and administration
expenditure.
It is not too much to expect that the United States, with the establishment of the Jewish Agency, will raise a minimum of $3,000,000
annually for five years; and that an equal amount will be raised by all
other countries contributing to Palestine funds.
It follows from the conclusions which the Commission have drawn,
and the expert investigations, that the future and continuous development of the homeland in Palestine must primarily depend on the funds
available for this purpose.
The present budget of the Keren Hayesod scarcely suffices to maintain existing services and to carry out the necessary consolidation of
the already acquired possession and the economic development of the
schemes already in existence. It is evident that, until more funds are
forthcoming, for the present no new enterprises can be undertaken.
The Commissioners, however, feel very strongly that a policy which
does not allow of further development and the acquisition of new terri-
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
tory, the founding of new colonies, and the initiation of broader schemes
of great importance to the economic life of the country, must be considered entirely unsatisfactory, and one not acceptable the Jewish community as a whole for the carrying out of its duty and obligations.
They consider a minimum budget of £1,000,000 a year should be
aimed at. They believe that this amount can and should be raised. If
there were such a budget the solution of the difficulties attending the
establishment of a National Home in Palestine and its maintenance over
a number of years, could be proceeded with and brought to a satisfactory
conclusion.
They wish, however, to emphasise the necessity for strict economy and
the best utilisation of the funds to be provided, for the reorganisation
of methods which they have concluded to be necessary, and the frank
acceptance of the Jewish Agency on the lines which have been discussed.
If these conditions are complied with, the Commissioners appeal to
the entire Jewish world to make the necessary sacrifices to establish an
ideal which will prove a just source of pride and satisfaction to all members of the community, and will be regarded by the world as a worthy
effort on behalf of Jewry for the re-establishment of the country of their
origin. The Commissioners themselves undertake to use their own personal endeavours towards the success of the appeal which they are
putting forward with a confident hope of success.
London, June 18th, 1928.
MELCHETT
LEE K. FRANKEL
FELIX M. WARBURG
OSCAR WASSERMANN
APPENDICES
NOTE: The following are selected as the most important among the items of these
groups, complete lists of which will be contained in the SUMMARY OF EVENTS OF JEWISH
INTEREST, being compiled by the Statistical Department of the American Jewish
Committee.
i
I. ANNIVERSARIES AND CELEBRATIONS
UNITED STATES
September 3, 1927. Sacramento, Cal.: Celebration of seventy-fifth
anniversary of founding of TEMPLE B'NAI ISRAEL.
December 3, 1927. New York City: Celebration of seventy-fifth
anniversary of organization of the HARMONIE CLUB.
December 19, 1927. Chicago, 111.: Celebration of seventh-fifth anniversary of the birth of ALBERT A. MICHELSON.
March 4, 1928. Philadelphia, Pa.: Celebration of ninetieth anniversary of founding of the HEBREW SUNDAY SCHOOL SOCIETY.
March 11, 1928. New York City: Celebration of seventieth anniversary of the birth of ADOLPH S. OCHS.
March 11, 1928. New York City: Celebration of ninetieth anniversary
of founding of SHAARE ZEDEK CONGREGATION.
March 25, 1928. New York City: Celebration of seventy-fifth anniversary of founding of MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL.
April 8-10, 1927. Montgomery, Ala.: Celebration of seventy-fifth
anniversary of founding of KAHL MONTGOMERY.
April 27, 1928. New Orleans, La.: Celebration of one hundredth anniversary of founding of TOURO SYNAGOGUE.
May 11, 1928. Cumberland, Md.: Celebration of seventy-fifth anni-
versary of founding of B'ER CHAYIM CONGREGATION.
June 6, 1928. Yonkers, N. Y.: Celebration of seventieth anniversary
of the birth of SAMUEL UNTERMEYER.
BRITISH EMPIRE
June 6, 1927. London: Celebration of seventieth anniversary of the
birth of CLAUDE G. MONTEFIORE.
January, 1928. Great Britain: Celebration of seventy-fifth anniversary of the birth of RABBI SIR HERMANN GOLLANCZ.
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
February 24, 1928. Prague: Celebration of eightieth anniversary of
the birth of SIEGFRIED POPPER.
DENMARK
March 17, 1928. Copenhagen: Celebration of seventy-fifth anniversary of the birth of DAVID SIMONSON.
71
72
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
GERMANY
July 13, 1927. Berlin: Celebration of seventy-fifth anniversary of
the birth of FRANZ OPPENHEIM.
July 20, 1927. Berlin: Celebration of eightieth anniversary of the
birth of MAX LIEBERMANN.
April 14, 1928. Berlin: Celebration of seventieth anniversary of the
birth of LEOPOLD BADT.
May 17, 1928. Berlin: Celebration of seventieth anniversary of the
birth of FELIX DEUTSCH.
May 17, 1928. Berlin: Celebration of seventieth anniversary of the
birth of MAGNUS HIRSCHFELD.
NETHERLANDS
December 19, 1927. The Hague: Celebration of seventieth anniversary of the birth of ERNST COHEN.
II. APPOINTMENTS, HONORS AND ELECTIONS
UNITED STATES
ADLER, SIMON L., Rochester, N. Y., appointed judge, United States
District Court for Western New York, May, 1927.
BAMBERGER, LOUIS, Newark, N. J., awarded by Newark Technical
School, degree of Doctor of Science, June 17, 1927.
BARON, SALO, New York City, appointed by Jewish Seminary of
Breslau, Professor of Jewish History, May 11, 1928.
BILLIKOPF, JACOB, awarded by the University of Richmond, degree of
LL.D., June S, 1928.
BLOCH, ERNEST, San Francisco, Cal., awarded by Musical America,
music prize of $3000.00, June 8, 1928.
BLUMENTHAL, GEORGE, New York City, appointed by the French
Government, Commander of the Legion of Honor, December IS, 1927.
BROWN, DAVID A., Detroit, Mich., awarded by the Hebrew Union
College, honorary degree of Doctor of Hebrew Law, June 1, 1928.
CARDOZO, BENJAMIN N., New York City, elected Trustee of Columbia
University, March 9, 1928.
CAYTON, NATHAN, Washington, D. C , appointed Judge of Municipal
Court, May, 1927.
FINESHRIBER, WILLIAM H., Philadelphia, Pa., awarded by Temple
University, degree of Doctor of Divinity, June 16, 1927.
FISHER, HARRY M., Chicago, 111., re-elected Judge of the Circuit
Court, June 6, 1927.
FLEXNER, ABRAHAM, New York City, appointed Rhodes Memorial
Lecturer at Oxford for the academic year 1927-1928, November 19,
1927.
FRANKEL, LEE K., New York City, awarded by the Hebrew Union
College honorary degree of Doctor of Hebrew Law, June 1, 1928.
FRIEDMAN, DAVID E., New York City, appointed Professor of Neurology and Head of Department at the University and Bellevue Hospital
Medical College, January 20, 1928.
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
73
FRIEND, HUGO M., Chicago, III., re-elected Judge of the Circuit Court,
June 6, 1927.
GOLDSMITH, IRVING I., Saratoga Springs, N. Y., appointed Supreme
Court Justice, New York State, January 1, 1928.
JACOBSON, LOUIS J., New York State, elected Senator, November 2,
1927.
KAUFMAN, DAVID E., Philadelphia, Pa., appointed Minister to Bolivia.
March 9, 1928.
KEIDAN, HARRY B., Detroit, Mich., appointed Judge of the Circuit
Court, March, 1927.
KUN, JOSEPH L., Philadelphia, Pa., appointed by Governor, Judge of
Common Pleas Court, No. 1, July 21, 3927.
LANGSDORF, ALEXANDER S., St. Louis, Mo., appointed Dean of the.
School of Engineering of Washington University, January 20, 1928.
MARSHALL, LOUIS, New York City, awarded by the Jewish Theological Seminary honorary degree of Doctor of Hebrew Literature, June
12, 1927.
MENGELBERG, WILLEM, New York City, awarded by Columbia University honorary degree of Doctor of Music, January 20, 1928.
MICHELSON, A. A., appointed by Secretary of Commerce, Herbert C,
Hoover, member of the American Committee of the World Congress of
Engineers, Tokio, Japan, February 10, 1928.
MORGENSTERN, JULIAN, Cincinnati, Ohio, elected President of the
American Oriental Society, April 19, 1927.
RIESMAN, DAVID, Philadelphia, Pa., awarded by Franklin and Marshall College, honorary degree of Doctor of Science, June IS, 1928.
ROSENBACH, A. S. W., Philadelphia, Pa., awarded by University of
Pennsylvania, honorary degree of Doctor of Fine Arts, June 15, 1927.
ROSENWALD, JULIUS, Chicago, 111., awarded by the Commission on
Race Relations, the Harmon Award (Gold Medal), March 18, 1928.
SCHWARZ, LEON, Mobile, Ala.r elected Mayor, November 2, 1927.
SEASONGOOD, MURRAY, Cincinnati, Ohio, elected by the City Council,
Mayor, November 22, 1927.
SELIGMAN, EDWIN R. A., New York City, awarded by Royal Academy
of Science, Letters and Fine Arts of Belgium, the Emile de Laveleye
prize, April 23, 1927.
SOLIS-COHEN, SOLOMON, New York City, awarded by the Jewish
Theological Seminary, honorary degree of Doctor of Hebrew Literature,
June 3, 1928.
STALMASTER, IRVING, Omaha, Neb., appointed by the Governor of
Nebraska, Judge of District Court, April 17, 1928.
STERN, HORACE, Philadelphia, Pa., appointed member of the Board
of Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, March 23, 1928.
STROOCK, MOSES J., Brooklyn, N. Y., awarded by the Board of Trustees of St. John's College, honorary degree of Doctor of Laws, June 6,
7928.
WEINSTEIN, MAXWELL, Brooklyn, N. Y., awarded by President
Coolidge, Soldier's Medal for heroism in Tientsin, China, April 21, 1928.
74
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ARGENTINE
KESSEL, JOSEPH, awarded by the French Academy, Prix de Rome, for
novel "Coeurs Purs," June 10, 1927.
ENGLAND
GOLDSTON, JOSHUA, Stockton-on-Tees, elected Mayor, November 25,
1927.
INSTONE, ALFRED, Paddington, elected Mayor, November 11, 1927.
STRAUSS, G. A., North Southwark, elected to House of Commons,
March 28, 1927.
STREIMER, MORRIS, West Ham, elected Mayor, November 11, 1927.
FRANCE
BERNSTEIN HENRI, Paris, appointed Honorary Commander of the
Legion of Honor, January 22, 1928.
ISRAEL, ALEXANDER, Paris, elected Senator, September, 1927.
DE ROTHSCHILD, MAURICE, elected Member of Parliament, May 11,
1928.
LANIADO, JOSEPH, Syria, elected by Syrian people, Representative at
Constitutional Convention, May 4, 1928.
GERMANY
BRAUN, MRS., Frankfort, appointed Judge, March 9, 1928.
FRAENKEL, ADOLPH, Marburg, appointed by University of Kiel, Professor of Mathematics, April 20, 1928.
WILLSTATTER, RICHARD, appointed by University of Manchester,
Honorary Doctor of Natural Science, June 1, 1928.
HUNGARY
WESHI, JOSEPH, Budapest, appointed member of House of Magnates'
June 4, 1928.
ZOLD, MARTIN, Sivagard, appointed by the Hungarian Government,
General, June 3, 1927.
NETHERLAND
POLLAK, DR., Hague, appointed Judge in the Highest Court, November 12, 1926.
PALESTINE
ALHADEFF, Z., Tiberias, re-elected Mayor, May, 1927.
SOLOMON, CHAYIM, Jerusalem, elected Vice-Mayor, April 26, 1927.
POLAND
ASKENASI, SIMEON, Warsaw, appointed by Ministry of Education,
Honorary Professor of History, Warsaw University, February 3, 1928.
BRODT, RABBI, elected Deputy to Seim, March 9, 1928.
FARBSTEIN, H., elected Deputy to Seim, March 9, 1928.
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
75
GREENBAUM, J., elected Deputy to Seim, March 9, 1928.
HARTGLAS, A., elected Deputy to Seim, March 9, 1928.
RASNER, CH., elected Deputy to Seim, March 9, 1928.
REICH, LEON, elected Deputy to Seim, March 9, 1928.
ROSENBLATT, DR., elected Deputy to Seim, March 9, 1928.
RUTSTEIN, MENDEL, awarded Polonia Restituta, November 19, 1927.
THON, I., elected Deputy to Seim, March 9, 1928.
WIGODSKI, DR., elected Deputy to Seim, March 9, 1928.
WISLICKI, W., elected Deputy to Seim, March 9, 1928.
ROUMANIA
BERKOVICI, ELI, Orhei (Bessarabia), elected Senator, July 18, 1927.
CARP, HORIA, elected Senator, July 18, 1927.
FILDERMAN, WILLIAM, Bucharest, elected Senator, July 18, 1927.
NIEMEROWER, I., elected Senator, July 18, 1927.
STRAUCHER, DR., elected member of Parliament, July 18, 1927.
WEISSELBERGHER, DR., elected Senator, July 18, 1927.
III. SPECIAL BEQUEST AND GIFTS
UNITED STATES
ADLER, MAX, Chicago, 111., donates $500,000 to the City of Chicago
for the construction of a planetarium, June 8, 1928.
BACHRACH, AARON, New York City, bequeaths $30,000 to Jewish and
non-Jewish charities, and residuary estate to Jewish Social Science AssociAtion (formerly United Hebrew Charities) of New York City, as
endowment fund, Mar. 27, 1927.
BAERWALD, PAUL, New York City, donates $200,000 toward $10,000,000 fund for agricultural activities in Russia, May 4, 1928.
BAMBERGER, LOUIS, Newark, N. J., donates $100,000 to Beth Israel
Hospital, Newark, for endowment fund, Jan. 30, 1928.
BARNERT, NATHAN, Paterson, N. J., bequeaths $700,000 trust fund
to Jewish charities, Jan. 10, 1928.
BLUMENBERG, EMMA, New York City, bequeaths $150,000 to Associated Jewish Charities in Baltimore, Md., and $150,000 to Jewish and
non-Jewish charities in New York City, April 15, 1927.
BRUSH, LOUIS S., New York City, bequeaths $1,467,113 to the Jewish
Theological Seminary of America, New York City, for the Louis S.
Brush Educational Fund, and for the erection of the Louis S. Brush
Memorial, a fireproof dormitory and maintenance, March 2, 1927.
BURROUGHS, HARRY E., Boston, Mass., establishes a fund of $100,000
for the Burroughs Newsboys Foundation, Boston, Mass., for the education of at least five boys each year, Dec. 15, 1927.
COHEN, GEORGE S., Houston, Texas, donates $125,000 to Rice Institute, Houston, in honor of parents for the erection and maintenance of
Robert and Agnes Cohen House, March 22, 1927.
DOBLIN, LEO L., New York City, bequeaths $400,000 to Jewish charities, May 25, 1927.
76
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ELIAS, HENRY F., New York City, bequeaths $400,000 to Mount Sinai
Hospital, New York City, and other Jewish charities, Dec. 3, 1927.
EMANUEL, VICTOR, New York City, donates $300,000 to the University of Dayton (Catholic) for a library building, May 8, 1928.
EPSTEIN, MAX, Chicago, III., donates a clinic and social hall to cost
over $250,000 to the University of Chicago, Nov. 5, 1927.
FABIAN, JACOB, Paterson, N. J., donates $150,000 to Temple Emanuel,
Paterson, Oct. 16, 1927.
FALK, MAURICE and LEON, Pittsburgh, Pa., donate $750,000 to the
University of Pittsburgh for a modern clinic and dispensary, April 20,
1928.
FOGEL, RUBE ROBERT, New York, bequeaths $1,000,000 to the Pacific
Jewish Orphan Asylum, San Francisco, of which he had been a ward,
Dec. 24, 1927.
FRANKS, JACOB, Chicago, III., establishes $100,000 Memorial Fund
in memory of his son Robert E., April 29, 1928.
FRAUENTHAL, HENRY W., New York City, bequeaths medical library
and medical apparatus to Hospital for Joint Diseases of the City of New
York; $10,000 to endowment fund for one bed in the male ward observation room in memory of father and for one bed in the famale ward
observation room in memory of mother; and residue of approximately
$300,000 (conditionally) to laboratory endowment fund for permanent
and distinct memorial, Mar. 14, 1927.
FUED FELIX, Newark, N. J. donates $250,000 to Beth Israel Hospitalf Newark, for Endowment Fund. Jan. 30, 1928.
GROSBERG, OSCAR, Boston, Mass., establishes $100,000 trust fund for
Jewish charities, Mar. 8, 1928.
DANIEL GUGGENHEIM FUND FOR THE PROMOTION OF AERONAUTICS
donates $230,000 to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Jan.
16, 1928.
HANO, HORACE G., Philadelphia, Pa., bequeaths $200,000 (conditionally) to the Federation of Jewish Charities, Philadelphia, Aug. 26, 1927.
HAYMAN, MRS. MINNIE, New York City, donates $1,550,000 to the
Montefiore Home for Chronic Invalids, the Hospital for Joint Diseases,
New York, the North Woods Sanatorium for Tuberculous, at Saranac
Lake, N. Y., and other Jewish charities upon her death, May 18, 1928.
HEINEMAN, LOUIS, Gallipolis, Ohio, bequeaths residuary estate, valued
at $280,000 to be equally divided between the Hebrew Union College,
Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Jewish Consumptive Sanatarium, Denver,
Colo., Jan. 22, 1928.
HENDRICKS, HARMON W., New York City, bequeaths $70,000 to
Jewish charity and $250,000 to non-Jewish charity, May 25, 1928.
HERRLICH, JOSEPH, Greensboro, N. C , bequeaths $100,000 to Jewish
charity, Dec. 2, 1927.
HIRSCHBERG, SAMUEL, Boston, Mass., bequeaths $100,000 to charity,
Oct. 1, 1927.
HOFMAN, SAMUEL, Chicago, HI., bequeaths $300,000 to charity, Nov.
3, 1927.
HOMBERGER, MRS. FLORENCE N., Chicago, 111., donates an infirmary
(value $277,000) to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in
memory of her son Richard M., Nov. 24, 1927.
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
77
KATZ, SAMUEL, Chicago, 111., donates $100,000 to Marks Nathan
Orphan Home, Chicago, Nov. 26, 1927.
KAUFMAN, HENRY, Pittsburgh, Pa., donates $200,000 to the building
campaign fund of the Y. M. H. A., New York City, Dec. 23, 1927; and
$625,000 to the Irene Kaufman Settlement, Pittsburgh, April 20, 1928.
KAUFMAN, LOUIS G., New York City, establishes $100,000 trust fund
for the Graveraet High School, Marquette, Mich., in memory of his
mother, May 22, 1928.
KUPPENHEIMER, Louis B., Winnetka, 111., donates $250,000 to the
University of Chicago for endowment fund to be known as the Louis B.
and Emma M. Kuppenheimer Fund, Oct. 17, 1927.
LAMPORT, NATHAN, New York City, donates $200,000 to the building
fund of the Yeshiva College, New York, May 28, 1928.
LASKER, ALBERT, Chicago, III., establishes $1,000,000 Lasker Foundation for research into causes, nature and cure of degenerative diseasesof middle life, Jan. 9, 1928.
LAVANBURG, FRED L., New York City, bequeaths $3,000,000 to
Lavanburg Foundation, New York, to build low rent apartments; and
$500,000 to Hannah Lavanburg Home for Immigrant Girls, Nov. 11,
1927.
LEHMAN, HERBERT H., New York City, donates $100,000 toward
$10,000,000 fund for agricultural activities in Russia, May 4, 1928.
LEVY, JACOB AND NATHAN, Brooklyn, N. Y., donate $125,000 to the
Jewish Hospital of Brooklyn for a dispensary, Jan. 27, 1928.
Lit, Jacob D., Philadelphia, Pa., donates $125,000 to Mount Sinai
Hospital, Philadelphia, for new hospital, Dec. 16, 1927.
LOUCHHEIM, JEROME H., Philadelphia, Pa., donates $100,000 to
Eagleville Hospital and Sanatarium for Consumptives, Philadelphia, for
dispensary, June 15, 1927.
MARSHALL, LOUIS, New York City, donates $100,000 toward the
$10,000,000 fund for agricultural activities in Russia, April 15, 1928.
PRAGER, WILLIAM, New York City, donates $100,000 for the erection
of a new building for Jewish Theological Seminary in celebration of his
70th birthday, April 20, 1928.
RATSHESKY, A. C , Boston, Mass.. donates $200,000 to Beth Israel
Hospital, Brookline, Mass., for a new building, in memory of his brother,
Nov. 3, 1927.
ROME, JOSEPH L., Brookline, Mass., establishes a trust fund of $100,000
for Jewish charity, April 5, 1928.
ROSENWALD, JULIUS, Chicago, 111., donates $5,000,000 to the $10,000,000 fund for Jewish agricultural settlements in Russia, Mar. 30,
1928; $2,000,000 to the Julius Rosenwald Fund, and provides that the
entire fund, over $20,000,000, be distributed within 25 years after his
death, May 18, 1928; $250,000 to the University of Chicago, Mar. 10,
1927.
SCHOENBERG, MRS. MOSES, and son SIDNEY, St. Louis, Mo., donate
$300,000 for nurses home for Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, in memory of
their husband and father, Nov. 25, 1927.
SHOYER, CHARLES C , Philadelphia, Pa., bequeaths $84,000 and residuary estate to Jewish and non-Jewish charities, Oct. 28, 1927.
78
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
SPEYER, JAMES, New York City, donates $250,000 to the Museum of
the City of New York, May 1, 1928.
STEINBERG, MARK C , St. Louis, Mo., donates $100,000 to Y. M.
and Y. W. H. A., Nov. 11, 1927.
STERNE, HENRY, New York City, bequeaths estate valued at $500,000
to charities, Oct. 11, 1927.
STRAUS, NATHAN, New York City, donates $100,000 in celebration
of his 80th birthday, to the United Palestine Appeal for reconstruction
work in Palestine, Jan. 31, 1928; and $75,000 for a Health Center in
Tel Aviv, Palestine, June 17, 1927.
WARBURG, FELIX M., New York City, donates $1,000,000 to the
$10,000,000 fund for Jewish agricultural settlements in Russia, April
25, 1928; $100,000 to the Y. M. H. A. building fund, May 6, 1927.
WISE, MR. AND MRS. S. D., Cleveland, Ohio, donate $100,000 trust
fund to the Jewish Welfare Federation of Cleveland, Mar. 1, 1928.
BRITISH EMPIRE
BARON, BERNHARD, London, donates £5,000 to the Middlesex Hospital, Feb., 1927; $160,000 to Jewish charity in celebration of his seventyseventh birthday, Dec. 4, 1927; £5,000 to the Central Office of the
Zionist Organization, Jerusalem, for constructive works to be executed
by Jewish workers in Palestine, May 4, 1928.
BEARSTED, LADY FANNY E., London, bequeaths £5,000 to Jewish
Maternity Home for building fund, May, 1927.
DAVIS, ISRAEL, London, bequeaths £40,000 for Palestinian institutions, March 9, 1927.
ELKAN, JOHN, M. V. O., London, bequeaths £34,000 to Jewish and
non-Jewish charities, Sep. 1927.
FRIEDLANDER, LESLIE JOHN, London, bequeaths about £100,000 to
Jewish and non-Jewish charities, June 15, 1928.
HENRY, JULIA L., London, bequeaths £4,000 to Jewish and nonJewish charities, and residue of estate (over $1,000,000) as a perpetual
trust fund to provide scholarships for American students at British
Universities and British students at American Universities, Aug., 1927.
HEYNSSEN, HANNAH, Manchester, bequeaths £13,000 to Jewish and
non-Jewish charities, Aug., 1927.
LEON, ARTHUR ; L., London, bequeaths £20,000 to University of London for the promotion and encouragement of scientific research work,
Sep., 1927.
PERRY, I. S., Shanghai, bequeaths $150,000 (conditionally) for the
erection of Jewish school in Shanghai, Aug., 1927.
TUCK, ADOLPH, London, bequeaths £10,000 to Jewish charity, Dec.
26, 1926.
FRANCE
ROTHSCHILD, EDMOND DE, Paris, donates 6,000,000 francs (about
$240,000) the income to be used to maintain the Maison de Vlnstitut de
France (a home for French students) in London, January 13, 1928;
$35,000 to Nachlath Jacob (Hassidic Colony), Palestine, April 3, 1928;
30,000,000 francs (about $1,200,000) to Scientific Foundation for the
promotion of bio-chemistry and bio-physics, July, 1927.
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
79
HUNGARY
BAUMGARTNER, HERMAN Budapest, bequeaths $1,000,000 for authors
and writers of Budapest, Dec. 4, 1927.
ITALY
LEVI, ISAIA, Rome, donates 1,000,000 lira for the restoration of the
royal palace in Turin, and 1,000,000 lira for its maintenance, June 22,
1928.
ROUMANIA
CAHAN-LINARU, Bucharest, bequeaths $50,000 to Keren Hayesod to
assist Balkan Jews to emigrate to Palestine, January 24, 1928.
IV. NECROLOGY
UNITED STATES
ANSPACHER, ABRAHAM S., rabbi, Hazelton, Pa., at Cincinnati, Ohio,
aged 50, Nov. 20, 1927.
AUSTERLITZ, EMANUEL H., journalist and founder of Freie Presse,
Cincinnati, Ohio, aged 88, March 28, 1927.
BARNERT, NATHAN, former mayor and philanthropist, Paterson, N. J.,
aged 89, Dec. 23, 1927.
BARONDESS, JOSEPH, labor and communal leader, Brooklyn, N. Y.,
aged 65, June 19, 1928.
BERNARD, SAM, actor, New York City, at sea, aged 64, May 17, 1927.
BLOOMFIELD, MAURICE, professor, orientalist and author, Baltimore,
Md., at San Francisco, Cal., aged 73, June 13, 1928.
BLOOMFIELD-ZEISLER, FANNIE, pianist, Chicago, 111., aged 64, Aug.
20, 1927.
BLOOMINGDALE, EMANUEL WATSON, merchant and civic worker, New
York City, aged 76, Feb. 6, 1928.
BOEHM, SOLOMON, Civil War veteran, New York City, aged 87, June
18, 1927.
COHEN, CHARLES J., author and communal worker, Philadelphia, Pa.,
at Atlantic City, N. J., aged 80, September 17, 1927.
CONHEIM, HERMANN, merchant and Zionist worker, New York City,
aged 69, May 2, 1927.
DINKELSPIEL, MAX, former judge of Court of Appeals of State of
Louisiana, New Orleans, La., at Pass Christian, Miss., aged 83, Aug.
27, 1927.
DRACHSLER, JULIUS, sociologist and author, New York City, at
Brown's Mills, N. J., aged 37, July 22, 1927.
EICHLER, MENAHAM MAX, rabbi, Buffalo, N. Y., aged 55, May 11,
1927.
FRANKEL, BENJAMIN, rabbi and national director of B'nai Brith Hillel
Foundation, Urbana, 111., aged 30, Dec. 21, 1927.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
FREEDMAN, ISABELLA,
May 25, 1927.
GOODFRIEND, MEYER,
July 15, 1927.
communal worker, New York City, aged 64,
communal worker, New York City, aged 66,
GROSSMAN, RUDOLPH, rabbi, New York City, aged 60, Sep. 22, 1927.
GUTTMAN, ADOLPH, rabbi, at New Haven, Conn., aged 73, Aug. 3,
1927.
HUTZLER, ABRAM G., pioneer merchant and philanthropist, Baltimore, Md., at Pikesville, Md., aged 92, October 8, 1927.
KAUFFMAN, RUDOLPH, editor and newspaper publisher, Washington,
D. C , aged 74, Sep. 19, 1927.
KOPLIK, HENRY, physician and author, New York City, aged 68,
April 30, 1927.
LIEBLING, MAX, pianist and composer, New York City, aged 82,
Sep. 24, 1927.
LOEB, HANAU W., physician, dean of Medical School of St. Louis
University, author, and communal worker, St. Louis, Mo., aged 61,
July 6, 1927.
LANDESBERG, MAX, rabbi, Rochester, N. Y., aged 82, December 9,
1927.
LAVANBURG, FRED L., manufacturer and philanthropist, New York
City, aged 54, Nov. 5, 1927.
LINDHEIM, NORVIN R., Zionist worker, New York City, aged 49,
Feb. 8, 1928.
LOEW, MARCUS, pioneer motion picture producer, New York City,
at Glen Cove, L. I., aged 58, Sep. 5, 1927.
MAY, DAVID, merchant and philanthropist, St. Louis, Mo., at Charlevoix, Mich., aged 79, July 22, 1927.
MENDES, FREDERIC DE SOLA, rabbi, author and editor, New Rochelle,
N. Y., aged 78, Oct. 26, 1927.
MORRIS, LOUIS, journalist, founder of Jewish Monitor, Ft. Worth,
Texas, Nov. 22, 1927.
PINE, MAX, labor leader, Maywood, N. J., aged 62, March 2, 1928.
RIES, ELIAS ELKAN, engineer and inventor, New York, aged 65, April
20, 1928.
ROSENBERG, ELY, lawyer and president of the New York County
Association of the Criminal Bar, New York City, aged 51, June 23, 1928.
ROSENBLATT, FRANK, publisher, communal worker and writer, New
Rochelle, N. Y., aged 44, Nov. 7, 1927.
ROSENWALD, THEODORE, merchant and communal worker, New York
City, aged 60, April 9, 1927.
ROTTENBERG, IGNATZ MORVAY, physician, former State Commissioner
of Lunacy, and civic worker, New York City, aged 72, Aug. 8, 1927.
SOUS-COHEN, JACOB DA SILVA, professor of laryngology, surgeon,
author and communal worker, Philadelphia, Pa., aged 89, Dec. 22, 1927.
SOLIS-COHEN, JUDITH, author and philanthropic worker, Philadelphia,
Pa., aged 51, Oct. 8, 1927.
SOMMERFELD, ROSE L., educator and communal worker, Baltimore,
Md., Sep. 12, 1927.
SONN, RALPH A., social worker, Atlanta, Ga., Sep. 23, 1927.
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81
SPIVAK, CHARLES D., communal worker, author and editor, Denver,
Colo., aged 66, October 16, 1927.
TRIEBER, JACOB, United States judge for Eastern District of Arkansas,
Little Rock, Ark., at Scarsdale, N. Y., aged 73, Sep. 17, 1927.
ZINGHER, ABRAHAM, bacteriologist, assistant director, N. Y. Bureau
of Laboratories, Captain in World War. New York City, aged 42, June
5, 1927.
AUSTRIA
CHAJES, HIRSCH PEREZ,
Dec. 14, 1927.
FUNK, SALOMON,
1928.
author and chief rabbi, Vienna, aged 52,
rabbi, author and scholar, Vienna, aged 63, June 1,
GESTETNER, SOLOMON, rabbi, at Stupana, aged 68, Feb. 14, 1928.
HILSNER, LEOPOLD, victim of blood libel accusation at Polna, Bohe-
mia, 1899, Vienna, aged 50, January 11, 1928.
STEINBERG, ABRAHAM MENAHEM MENDEL,
Galicia, at Vienna, aged 90, April 21, 1928.
chief rabbi of Brody,
BRITISH EMPIRE
BLAU, JOEL, rabbi and author, London, aged 49, Oct. 22, 1927.
DAVIS, MORTIMER BARNETT, financier and philanthropist, Montreal,
at Cannes, France, aged 62, March 22, 1928.
HENRY, MRS. DAVID LINDO, author, London, June 4, 1928.
LEVIN, H., rabbi, Leeds, July 14, 1927.
LEVY, JOSEPH, author, London, aged 86, July, 1927.
MELNICK, SHMUEL KALMAN, rabbi, London, aged 66, Jan. 30, 1928.
MONTAGU, LOUIS SAMUEL (LORD SWAYTHLING), financier and
com-
munal leader, London, aged 57, June 11, 1927.
SALOMON, BERENDT, rabbi, Manchester, aged 82, April 27, 1928.
SOLOMON, SOLOMON JOSEPH, portrait painter, artist and president of
Royal Society of British Artists, London, aged 66, July 27, 1927.
TANNENBAUM, WILLIAM, author, London, aged 70, Dec. 9, 1927.
WALSTON, SIR CHARLES (WALDSTEIN), fellow at Kings College, author, on Mediterranean Cruise, aged 71, March, 1927.
CZECHOSLOVAKIA
WERNER, SIEGMUND,
journalist and editor, Zuckmantel, aged 61,
May 6, 1928.
FRANCE
CITRUK, MOSES, chief rabbi, Tunis, aged
LAIZEROWITZ, I. A., (pseud: Berlowitz)
Nov. 23, 1927.
85, Dec. 16, 1927.
journalist, Paris, aged 33,
TIOMKIN, VLADIMIR, former chief rabbi of Elizabetgrad and communal
leader, Paris, aged 66, Dec. 25, 1927.
WEIL, ISIDORE, rabbi, Colmar, Alsace, aged 89, April 8, 1927.
82
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
GERMANY
AXELROD, PAUL, Russian labor leader and founder of Social Democratic Party, Berlin, aged 78, Aprill6, 1928.
BRAUNSCHWEIGER, D., rabbi and communal leader, Oppeln, May 1,
1928.
DEUTSCH, FELIX, industrialist and president of the German General
Electric Co., Berlin, aged 70, May 25, 1928.
KOENIGSBERGER, BERNARD, rabbi, Berlin, at Vienna, aged 60, June
5, 1927.
LAZARUS, RUTH, (NAHIDA REMY) author, Berlin at Mesan, aged 79,
Jan. 12, 1928.
LOWENTHAL, ABRAHAM, rabbi, Berlin, May 11, 1928.
HUNGARY
BRUCK, LEO, professor of philosophy, Budapest, Feb. 23, 1928.
HERZL, ABRAHAM, rabbi, Pressburg, May 4, 1928.
LEDERER, ALEXANDER, communal leader, Budapest, aged 75, Nov.
28, 1927.
MEZEY, FRANZ, communal leader, Budapest, July, 1927.
ITALY
ARTOM, professor and scientist, Rome, May, 1927.
SEGRO, ARTURO, professor of history, Turin, March 3, 1928.
JUGO-SLAVIA
WESZEL, SAMUEL, rabbi, Sarajevo, aged 51, April 19, 1928.
LITHUANIA
FEIVELSON, ELIJAH MEIR, rabbi, Kupisok, agedj60, Feb., 1928.
ORLIANSKY, SOLOMON ZALMAN, rabbi and teacher, Plungian, at New
York City, April 2, 1928.
RAFFALOVITCH, CHAIM, editor Unzer Zeit, July, 1927.
SCHNEIDER, JOSEPH SELIG, author, Ponievez, aged 80, March 21,
1928.
'
SHAPIRO, ELIEZER JOSHUA, rabbi, Neustadt, aged 90, January 2, 1928.
PALESTINE
CHAIKIN, AVIGDOR, former rabbi and author, Tel Aviv, aged 76, June
21, 1928.
CITRON, ABBA DAVID, chief rabbi, Petach Tikvah. at Tel Aviv, Sep.
4, 1927.
ROMBERG, JACOB, Hebrew lexicographer, Jerusalem, March 22, 1928.
POLAND
BERGHAUER, PHINEHAS, rabbi, Reinbertor at Warsaw, Aug. 10, 1927.
BERMAN, SOLOMON, Hebrew teacher and author, Homel. aged 70,
Mar. 6, 1928.
REVIEW OF THE YEAR 5688
BRANDSTETTER, MORDECAI,
15, 1928.
83
author and poet, Lemberg, aged 84, May
FROSTIG, MOSES, member of Sejm, journalist and editor, Lemberg, at
San Remo, Italy, aged 41, Feb. 14, 1928.
HERTZ, SIMON, rabbi, at Vlostchava, Feb. 24, 1928.
HUTNER, JUDAH LEIB, rabbi, Warasw, Aug., 1927.
KANTOROWITCH, P., journalist and author, Warsaw, aged 62, Dec.
1, 1927.
LEINMAN, MOSES, rabbi, Tschemelier, at Warsaw, aged 73, July 12,
1927.
MALENITZKY, HAYYIM DAVID, rabbi, Gradjist, aged 70, Oct. 8, 1927.
MELCER, HENRY, professor of music and composer, Warsaw, May 4,
1928.
NAUMBERG, CH. D., novelist, journalist and communal worker, Warsaw, aged 51, Nov. 21, 1927.
PERL, FELIX, member of Sejm, editor and labor leader, Warsaw, aged
57, April 15, 1927.
PERLOW, A. N., Hassidic rabbi of Kaidonov, Bardnowitz, at Warsaw,
July 21, 1927.
YECHIEL, MEIR, rabbi and author, Ostrowiec, aged 76, March 12,
1928.
ROUMANIA
Hassidic rabbi of Milnitz, Chernowitz,
FRIEDMAN, SHOLOM JOSEPH,
aged 57, Aug. 23, 1927.
ROSENTHAL, ELIJAH,
TEWELES, HEINEICH,
18, 1927.
rabbi, Podily, August, 1927.
dramatic critic and author, Prein, aged 72, Aug.
WALD, JACOB MEYER,
rabb', Cluj, Jan. 6, 1928.
SOVIET RUSSIA
author, journalist, Minsk, aged 69,
GOLDBERG, JOSHUA NISSAN,
March 29, 1927.
JOFFE, ADOLPH ABRAMOWITZ, statesman and diplomatist, Moscow,
aged 44, Nov. 17, 1927.
NELICK, MENDEL, author, Odessa, aged 49, March, 1928.
STERNBERG, LEV, professor at University of Leningrad, ethnographei
and anthropologist, Leningrad, aged 66, Aug. 17, 1927.
TURETZKI, JUDAH, rabbi, at Lenin, aged 97, June, 1927.
YAFFE, ZWI, author and mathematician, at Smolensk, aged 74, May
12, 1927.
REICHSBERG, NAHUM,
Jan. 7, 1928.
YELSKI, ISRAEL,
SWITZERLAND
professor at Berne University, Berne, aged 61,
rabbi, Geneva, aged 62, Dec. 26, 1927.
TURKEY
ex-president of the Jewish community, Constantinople, aged 86,
~ Aug,., 1927.
IFFENDI,
ESKENAZY, BEHOR JUDA EFFENDI,
1
Drawing by Joseph Tepper, Palestine
AHAD HA-AM
Courtesy of Jewish Tribune
AHAD HA-AM
BY LEON SIMON
Asher Ginzberg, better known by his pen-name Ahad
Ha-Am, was born on the 17th of Ab, 5616 (18th of August,
1856) in the small town of Skwira, "one of the darkest
corners of the Hassidic provinces of Russia," as he afterwards wrote. He came of a well-to-do Hassidic family,
and was brought up in the strictest traditions of that sect.
His education, which he obtained partly in the heder but
mainly from private melammedim at home, was confined
entirely to the Bible, the Talmud and later Rabbinic literature, in which he became so adept that while he was still
a youth the neighboring Rabbis used to seek his opinion on
questions of Jewish Law. In his environment, secular
knowledge was taboo, and even the liking which he early
showed for the works of the medieval Jewish philosophers
was not easily forgiven him. But even the almost incredible
obscurantism of his surroundings (intensified, no doubt,
when in his twelfth year his parents moved to a tiny village)
could not quench or wholly thwart his thirst for knowledge.
By hook or by crook he managed in his early years to acquire
some acquaintance with Russian literature, and also to
read a number of the products of the young Haskalah
movement. Throughout his childhood and youth he was a
voracious reader, and he appears to have been completely
absorbed in books: though he lived in the country, he remained as remote as any town-dweller from the appeal of
the sights and sounds of nature.
At the age of sixteen he was married by his parents to the
daughter of an illustrious Hassidic family. He continued to
live with his parents and to prosecute his studies; but the
life was becoming more and more unendurable to him.
Even as a boy he had become estranged from Hassidism
and had become a Mithnagged. Before long his critical and
rationalistic mind reached a stage at which the difference
87
88
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
between the two types of orthodoxy became of minor importance. We can only imagine what, during these years of
intellectual self-emancipation, he must have suffered in the
reactionary environment in which his lot was cast. H e was,
however, slow to cut himself adrift. I t was not till the
winter of 1882, when he was twenty-six years old, a n d had
already a child of three, t h a t he resolved to go to Vienna
a n d s t u d y a t the University. W h a t kept him b a c k was no
d o u b t in p a r t regard for his parents, b u t in p a r t also a certain lack of confidence in himself and his own powers. This
weakness stultified all his a t t e m p t s to complete his secular
education. H e returned home from Vienna after a few
weeks, having come to the conclusion t h a t it was beyond
his power to achieve the ideal which had sent him thither.
T h e same thing happened when, during the following two
years, he visited Berlin, Breslau, and again Vienna on the
same quest: on each occasion he returned home after a short
time, thoroughly disheartened. T h u s he remained, so far
as non-Jewish knowledge is concerned, a self-taught m a n .
His acquaintance—and it was considerable—with the
languages and literatures of Russia, England, France and
G e r m a n y was gained practically with no help a t all except
from books. T h a t he was so conspicuously free from the
half-bakedness of the typical " a u t o d i d a c t " m u s t have been
due to an extraordinary native gift for assimilating and
systematising knowledge picked u p in a more or less haphazard fashion.
If Ahad Ha-Am had felt o u t of t u n e with his environment before his abortive a t t e m p t s to become a university
student, he could scarcely be expected to achieve a more
contented frame of mind after the enforced a b a n d o n m e n t
of a hope which must have buoyed him up during m a n y
years of bitterness. His characteristic habit of reticence is
so strong t h a t he nowhere drops more t h a n the vaguest
hint of all t h a t he must have suffered during the period of
his youth a n d early manhood, living in an intellectual
world of his own which was entirely foreign and even hateful to all those a b o u t him, yet prevented b y his lack of selfconfidence and (it can scarcely be doubted) by filial piety
from escaping into more congenial surroundings. At length,
the strain became greater t h a n he could bear, a n d in 1884
AHAD HA-AM
89
he removed to Odessa. Even then he was compelled by
family reasons to return to the paternal hearth after a few
months; and it was only in the summer of 1886 that he was
able to settle in Odessa for good and all. At this point his
real life may be said to have begun.
In Odessa, which was one of the great centres of Jewish
intellectual life, Ahad-Ha-Am was not long in finding
himself among kindred spirits. The group to which he was
attracted was that which had as its central interest the
newly-born movement for the restoration of Jewish national
life in Palestine. No doubt news of the movement had
penetrated to him even in his remote village, and he may be
assumed to have come to Odessa with his mind made up, or
at least ready to be made up, on the question of Hibbath
Zion. At any rate, he soon became not only a "Lover of
Zion," but the "Lover of Zion" par excellence—the man
whose lot it was to make the ideals of Hibbath Zion the
pivot of his whole life and thought, to give to those ideals
their supreme literary and philosophic expression, and to
win for them a far-reaching influence in the life of the
Jewish people.
At the outset, however, he was far from entertaining any
idea of such a future. He became a member, and before
long a weighty member, of the Central Committee of the
Hoveve Zion; but it did not enter his mind to look for any
wider sphere of influence. It was only in 1889, when he had
been in Odessa for more than three years, that he consented,
at the urgent solicitation of some of his friends, to write for
publication an article setting forth the views with which his
colleagues on the Committee had learned to associate him.
The article appeared in Hd-Melitz under the title Lo zeh
ha-Derech ("The Wrong Way"), and its author's identity
was hidden from the general public by the pseudonym
Ahad Ha-Am ("One of the people"), by adopting which he
meant to indicate that he wrote just as a plain man, with
no pretension to be regarded as a leader. Strangely enough,
as it seems to us now, he had no idea at the time that this
essay was to be but the first of many. His intention was
to say what he had to say, since he had been pressed to do
so, and to retire again into the background from which he
had for a moment rather reluctantly emerged.
90
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
He would scarcely have imagined that to be possible if
he had realized how "The Wrong Way" would strike the
great body of the Hoveve Zion and their accredited spokesmen. The ideas expressed in the essay, though familiar
and obvious to his profound and keenly analytical mind,
seemed nothing less than revolutionary to his less reflective
readers. They probably knew that the work of settling
Jews on the land in Palestine was not going as well or as fast
as they would have liked it to go; but they were not prepared to be told that the fault lay in the very way in which
they approached their ideal, that they were in fact beginning
at the wrong end, and that their first efforts ought to be
directed not towards enticing as many Jews as possible into
Palestine by holding out hopes of material success which
were bound to prove illusory, but towards increasing and
strengthening that national idealism without which any
concrete achievement on a large scale and on a firm basis
was impossible. The point of view was too novel to be
immediately grasped; and Ahad Ha-Am, because he had
emphasised the need for a spiritual change as a pre-requisite
of any great material advance, was criticised as though he
were for abandoning altogether the practical work of Palestinian colonisation. Against that criticism he had to defend
himself by explaining his views more fully; the explanation
provoked more criticism; and so he was gradually drawn,
in his own despite, into the full stream of literary activity.
Meanwhile, however, his first essay had gained him supporters as well as critics. Some of the clearer-sighted of the
Hoveve Zion realised the necessity of making his point of
view an effective force in the direction of the movement,
and conceived that this might best be done by the formation
of a kind of secret society, of which he should be the head,
and his ideas should be the guiding principles. Ahad
Ha-Am did not much like the idea of a secret society; but
he allowed himself to be persuaded, and became the President of the B'ne Mosheh. This organization had as its
object the general aim of the Hoveve Zion, "the re-birth of
our people in the land of our ancestors;" but its conception
of the way in which this aim was to be achieved differed
radically from that which was expressed in the current
practice of the parent body. "In the opinion of the Society"
AH AD HA-AM
91
(so ran the statement of principles which Ahad Ha-Am
drew up) "there is no hope of success in isolated undertakings in Palestine, carried out by individuals or by Societies,
each of which is held together itself, and united with the
rest, only by a cash nexus. The statement of a national
end demands a national effort, uniting the best forces of
the nation, both material and intellectual, in an inner moral
union; it demands the effort of generations, which shall be
carried out bit by bit, not haphazard, not noisily and hastily,
but carefully, gradually, patiently, in proper order and
according to fixed rules. This effort must gather together
the scattered and downtrodden forces of our people from
all sides, and go on from generation to generation, increasing in quantity, becoming stronger in quality, ever approaching its goal by small but sure steps forward." The
official language of the Society was Hebrew, and familiarity
with that language was a necessary qualification for membership. A high standard of character was also required;
and the members were particularly enjoined to guard the
good name of the Society, and to do nothing which might
bring it into ill repute.
The Society remained in existence for about eight years.
Ahad Ha-Am held the position of President only during the
first two years or so; but his was throughout the guiding
spirit. Though in later years he called it "an unsuccessful
experiment," there can be no doubt that the Society, with
its exacting standards of character and discipline, exerted a
powerful influence for good among the Hoveve Zion. Its
members included practically all the Russian Jews who
afterwards became prominent in Zionism; and none of
them could fail to be influenced by the strong sense of
responsibility and the fearless moral and intellectual
honesty which were no less characteristic of Ahad Ha-Am
than his intense love of Zion.
In 1891, and again in 1893, Ahad Ha-Am visited Palestine on behalf of the Hoveve Zion, and after the second visit
he spent a few weeks in Paris and London in the interests of
the movement. On the second occasion he was anxious to
settle in Palestine, and was bitterly disappointed that circumstances made this impossible. For the realization of
that ideal he had to wait nearly thirty years longer. On
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
the whole it was as well t h a t in this m a t t e r his cautious
t e m p e r a m e n t made him accept as insurmountable the
obstacles, no d o u b t serious enough, which stood in his way.
H e would probably have been wasted in Palestine in those
early d a y s ; and outside Palestine there was much for him
to do.
By 1894 he had published in various Hebrew periodicals
enough essays to make a good-sized volume, and this appeared early in the following year under the title Al
Parashat D'rachim ("At the Parting of the W a y s " ) — t h e
name indicating his general view t h a t the Jewish people
had reached a crisis in its history, a t which it m u s t choose
either the road of nationalism or t h a t of assimilation and
absorption. This volume, which was to be followed in due
course b y three more, included, among others, his first
essay, Lo zeh ha-Derech; the two essays written after his
visits to Palestine, which had aroused a storm of indignation through their fearless exposure of the real condition of
the Palestinian settlements; an essay written on the occasion of Dr. Pinsker's death*, in which he first clearly enunciated his conception of Palestine as a "national spiritual
centre, which shall be a safe refuge not for the Jews, b u t for
Judaism, for the spirit of our people;" the famous "Slavery
in F r e e d o m , " with its penetrating criticism of the assimilationist point of view; a series of articles on his project of a
Hebrew Encyclopedia; the series collectively called " F r a g m e n t s , " each of which expounds some philosophical or
psychological idea and proceeds to apply it to Jewish
t h o u g h t or history; and, in singular contrast to the rest, a
satire on the then prevalent type of literary batlan, which
ends with the characteristic observation t h a t "wise men
weigh the loss of every undertaking against the gain in the
scales of their wisdom, and d o n o t move a n inch till they
can foresee the e n d ; and while they are sitting deep in
thought, the men of confidence 'have come and seen and
conquered.' " T h e essays are all alike distinguished by
clear thinking, rigoiously logical exposition, and an unsurpassed purity and lucidity of style. T h e prevailing tone is
coldly objective, b u t every now a n d then there is a hint of
* Ahad Ha-Am had a great admiration for Pinsker, with whom he worked for
many years on the Odessa Committee, and in later life translated his Auio-Emanzipation into Hebrew.
AHAD HA-AM
93
warm feeling, a flash of humor or irony, an illuminating
new use of some familiar phrase charged with a long train
of reminiscence for the Hebrew reader. The manner is
thoroughly European, the point of view as thoroughly
Hebraic. This new synthesis was the outstanding feature
of Ahad Ha-Am's contribution to Hebrew literature.
In 1896 Ahad Ha-Am suffered heavy business losses
(through no fault of his own), and was persuaded to go to
Warsaw and take charge of the Hebrew publishing company
Ahiasaf. Shortly afterwards a new Hebrew monthly,
Hashiloah, was founded, and he became its first editor.
This necessitated his removing to Berlin for a time, but
after about a year the difficulties in the way of publishing
the paper in Russia were overcome, and he was able to
return to Odessa. He accepted the position of editor with
many misgivings. It had never been his intention to make a
profession of literature. Wiiting was for him almost a holy
occupation, and to make a living out of it was to run
counter to the traditional Jewish dislike of making the
Torah "a spade to dig withal." Moreover, the idea of
becoming dependent for his livelihood on the Hebrewreading public was distasteful to his over-sensitive nature.
However, he bowed, as always, to circumstances; and,
having accepted the position, he threw himself into his
task with magnificent energy. It was his ambition to make
of Hashiloah something for which there was no precedent
in modern Hebrew literature—a paper with a standard
which would make it not unworthy of comparison with the
great monthlies of Western Europe. His paper was to be
free from the ignorance, the shallowness, the irresponsibility,
the batlanuth, which had marred its predecessors. Despite
his temperamental scepticism and his general freedom from
illusions, he probably did not realize in advance how formidable a task he was undertaking. His own standards of
taste and accuracy and style were foreign to most of those
on whom he had to rely for contributions to the paper.
Promises of help, glibly made, were as easily broken.
Much of what was sent to him fell too far below his standard to be accepted at all; a great deal of the rest had to be
drastically pruned and largely rewritten. Never perhaps in
the history of journalism has the editorial blue pencil been
94
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
wielded with such ruthlessness. Naturally, this led to protests, recriminations, heated correspondence; and Ahad
Ha-Am, by nature the most peace-loving of men, became
in his own despite "a man of strife and contention." He
was at war not only with his contributors, but also with his
publishers, who thought, not without reason, that his high
standards militated against the popularity and the sale of
the paper. It was for him a bitter and a humiliating
experience; and when, after six years, he gave up the editorship, it was with a feeling of intense relief and thankfulness, as for an escape from an intolerable bondage. But
his work and his sufferings had not been in vain. During
those six years of travail he had effected something like a
revolution in Hebrew literature. The younger generation
of Hebrew writers, many of whom (among them Bialik)
owed much to his encouragement, had been largely moulded
by his canons of taste and style, as well as by his ideas.
Even those whose articles he corrected so remorselessly
were forced to recognize that he had vastly improved them
in the process. Thus he became the dominant force in
Hebrew literature, and it profited immensely from his
idealism, his love of moderation, his stern morality and his
aesthetic sensibility.
Nor was that the only direction in which, as editor of
Hashiloah, he was able to influence the Jewish national
movement. The paper afforded him a platform from which
to attack those tendencies of the new Herzlian Zionism in
which he saw a menace to the true ideals of Jewish nationalism as he conceived it. Most of the Russian Hoveve Zion
were carried away by the glamour of political Zionism, and
were ready to believe that diplomatic bargaining would
bring them to their goal more speedily and securely than
the method of gradually building up a Jewish settlement in
Palestine on national lines. Ahad Ha-Am, who had been
the first to point out the failure of the earlier attempts at
colonisation, was fully alive to the importance of a firm
political foundation, and realized how valuable the Western
Jews, with their political influence and their knowledge of
affairs, might be to the movement. But he realized also
that political aims and activities, though they might assist,
could not replace those ideals and aspirations which lay at
AHAD HA-AM
95
the root of Jewish nationalism, and without which it would
be an empty phrase. In the columns of Hashiloah he
pointed out the fundamental differences of outlook that
divided the Eastern from the Western Zionists, exposed the
attempts of the latter to obscure them in a cloud of vague
phrases, and called on the former to refuse to be led away
by promises that in the nature of the case could never be
fulfilled, and to remember that their real aim was the salvation of Judaism through the preservation of the historic
continuity of the Jewish people, not the mere provision of a
"home of refuge" for individual Jews. He fought the battle
of Zionism against Territorialism.
At first he had to fight almost single-handed; and such
allies as offered themselves were not always to his liking,
because they resorted to methods of personal attack which
he would not countenance. But as time went on, and the
grandiose hopes held out by political Zionism did not materialize, his following grew. His criticism told at length
because it was not merely destructive. Over against the
ideal of a Jewish State, to be created by diplomatic methods
and by the almost miraculous transfer of millions of Jews
from one part of the world to another, he set up his own
conception of Palestine as a "spiritual centre," built up
slowly by the devotion of Jews imbued with the historic
culture of their people, and reacting on the scattered Jewish
communities of the world as a cementing and unifying
influence; and he brought this conception into organic connection with the facts of Jewish history and the basic
characteristics of the Hebraic outlook. It was not that he
disbelieved in a Jewish State, or did not want to see its
establishment; but his sense of reality and his sense of Jewish values alike made him place the State at the end of a
long period of development, instead of expecting it to be
brought into being by a stroke of the diplomatic pen while
the re-awakening of the national consciousness had as yet
barely begun. That re-awakening—the "revival of the
spirit," as he called it—must precede any large-scale
national effort.
Occupied as he was by his editorial work and his battle
with the new Zionism, Ahad Ha-Am did not lose touch with
practical developments in Palestine. In 1899-1900 he was
96
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
there for the third time, and as a result of this visit he wrote
two long articles, one on "The Yishub and its Guardians,"
the other on "The Jaffa Schools." In the first of these he
criticised severely the methods of administration of the
Rothschild colonies, which he found inimical to the growth
of a spirit of self-dependence among the settlers; the second
was an elaborate report on the two Hebrew schools maintained by the Hoveve Zion at Jaffa. Both these essays, with
others of the preceding three or four years, were included in
the second volume of 'Al Parashat D'rachim, which appeared in 1903. This volume was followed in 1904 by a
third, which is notable principally for the inclusion of two
of the author's finest contributions to the philosophy of
Judaism—"Flesh and Spirit" and "Moses."
By this time Ahad Ha-Am had given up Hashiloah, and
had accepted a position in the Wissotzky business. For
some time his duties necessitated his travelling a great deal
in Russia, and he had little leisure for writing or public
affairs. The outstanding literary work of this period is
"The Supremacy of Reason," his study of Maimonides
published 1904, in which, dealing with the Jewish thinker
with whom he had probably the strongest affinity, he displays to full advantage his power of logical analysis and
lucid exposition. The following year was the year of Kishineff, and Ahad Ha-Am, driven almost to despair by the
abjectness which characterised the general Jewish attitude
to this outbreak of terrorism, found some satisfaction in
assisting the efforts to organise self-defence.
Early in 1907 Ahad Ha-Am was placed in charge of his
firm's branch in London. The prospect of settling in London was not without attractions for him. He was a great
admirer of the English people and its literature (he had been
particularly influenced by Mill and Spencer); and he hoped
that, with the British Museum at hand, he would be able
to devote some time to serious study, and to carry out his
cherished project of writing a book on Jewish ethics. His
work as publicist he regarded as finished. The East Africa
affair, and the consequent secession of the Territorialists,
had brought Zionism back (in fact if not admittedly) to
what he considered sounder lines; his battle had been won,
so far as it could be won, and he could allow himself the
AHAD HA-AM
97
luxury of a return to the study, which was for him the most
congenial field of activity, but from which he had been
banished so long through stress of circumstances.
In fact, his settling in London was perhaps the most
tragic event in his career.- It meant removal from a
congenial environment to one which suited him neither
physically nor spiritually; and in neither respect had he
sufficient resilience to be capable, at fifty, of the necessary
self-adaptation. His health had never been robust, and the
strain of the last few years had told on him. In 1907 he
went to Palestine to spend a few weeks on Mount Carmel
for health reasons only. He found the London climate
trying, and the hubbub of the City and the daily underground journeys affected his nerves. He had little leisure,
and less strength, for serious study; and the Jewish life of
the English capital, so different from Jewish life as he knew
it in Odessa, afforded him no scope for activity. Thus he
was able to contribute little either to Hebrew literature or
to Zionist work. His most important activity, during the
years following his removal to London, was his participation in the ill-fated attempt to found a Technical Institute
at Haifa under the joint auspices of the Zionist movement
and the German Hilfsverein. He was in constant correspondence with old friends in Russia and Palestine, but an
occasional article in Hashiloah was all that reminded the
wider public of his existence. If, however, his literary output was small during this period, it lost nothing in point of
quality from his change of environment. 'Al Sh'te Hase'ippim ("Judaism and the Gospels," 1910), a profound
exposition of the fundamental difference between the Jewish
and the Christian outlook, displays both his analytical
power and his unerring Jewish instinct in rare measure. In
the Zionist field, again, this period produced one of his most
notable essays in Sack Ha-kol ("Summa Summarum,"
1913), which was written after a visit to the Zionist Congress (his first since 1897) and to Palestine. Both these
essays, as well as the one on Maimonides, were included in
the fourth and last volume of 'Al Parashat D'rachim, published in 1913.
The outbreak of the great war in 1914 put an end to any
hope that there might have been of Ahad Ha-Am's emerg-
98
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ing from the semi-quiescence of the preceding seven years.
The apparent breakdown of civilization, the universal orgy
of hypocrisy and injustice, caused him an agony of mind
which was all the more intense for being veiled by his
habitual reserve. The sufferings of Jews in the theatres of
war, and particularly in his own Ukraine, rubbed salt into
the wound. The blow was as shattering to his nerves as to
his peace of mind, and his health became steadily worse.
Study and writing were equally out of the question, and
there was no scope for any kind of Zionist activity. Only
after nearly three wretched years, with the beginning of
those negotiations which led to the Balfour Declaration,
was the blackness illumined by a ray of hope. Ahad Ha-Am
played an important if unobtrusive part, as a trusted
adviser, in the course of those negotiations, and later when
the Zionist case had to be presented to the Peace Conference. He neither held nor desired any position of control,
but his influence with those who were responsible for Zionist policy was considerable, and it was used always in the
interests of sanity, of moderation, and of sticking to essentials. The explicit recognition by the great Powers of the
"historic connection," of the Jewish people with Palestine
was in his view an enormous gain, and the acceptance by
Great Britain of the Mandate for Palestine was only second
to it in importance; but he doubted—not, as the event has
proved, without reason—whether the Jewish people was
capable of rising immediately to the height of its great
opportunity.
In 1921, acting on medical advice no less than in accordance with his long-cherished wish, Ahad Ha-Am left
England for Palestine. He chose for his home Tel Aviv,
where many of his old Odessa friends had by now settled,
and was provided with a house in the street bearing his
own name. With that fundamental optimism which underlay his sceptical habit of mind, he hoped that in Palestine
he would find health again, and would be spared the misery
of spending his last years in an inactivity which was more
hateful to him than death. That hope was not realized.
He remained an invalid, unable to take any active part in
public affairs or to continue his literary work. He wrote
practically nothing, and it was as much as he could do to
AHAD HA-AM
99
prepare for publication a selection from his vast correspondence of the preceding twenty-five years {Iggeroth
Ahad Ha-Am, six volumes, 1923-1925), and, during his
last months, to dictate some fragmentary reminiscences of
his early life (published posthumously in Reshumoth, vol. 5).
So, in the first Hebrew city of modern times, the great
Lover of Zion faded away, surroundered by many of those
who had been dearest to him in the days of his prime, but
little heeded by the mass of those who were busy shaping
(after their own fashion) his dream into a reality. The end
came quietly, almost suddenly, on the 2nd of January,
1927 (28th of Tebeth, 5687). Next his grave in the Tel
Aviv cemetery is that of Max Nordau. The two opponents of earlier days, the champion of political Zionism and
the philosopher of spiritual Zionism, the brilliant cosmopolitan and the intensely patriotic Hassid, lie side by side
in the soil that belongs to both by right of a common heritage and a common ideal.
JEWISH POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES,
1927
BY H. S. LINFIELD,
Ph.D.
Director of the Statistical Department
of the
American Jewish Committee
I. THE NUMBER OF JEWS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION
Late in 1927 material was collected with a view to determining the number of Jews of the United States and their
distribution at that time. A wide canvas brought returns
from 2,970 cities, towns, and villages, and 170 rural districts;
and for places and districts which were not canvassed or
which did not reply to inquiries, estimates were made. The
canvas and the estimates showed that at the end of 1927 a
total of 4,228,029 Jews lived in the country, comprising 3.58%
of the entire population. An estimate made ten years before
placed the number of Jews at 3,388,951 or 3.27% of the
total. Table I below gives the total population and the
number of Jews in 1927 and in 1917.
As was to be expected, the canvas showed that the Jews
are not evenly distributed over the country. As will be seen
in table II below, the density of the Jewish population
was found to be greatest in the northern states and in Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia, the northernmost states of the South Atlantic Division. In this large
region Jews comprise 5.25% of the total population. The
density of the Jews is only .65% in the southern states
(exclusive of Maryland, Delaware, and the District of
Columbia) and 1.66% in the western states.
101
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
102
TABLE I
NUMBER OF JEWS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION BY STATE,
1917 AND 19271
1917
STATE
Total
Population
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
D. of C
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
2,363,939
263,788
1,766,343
3,029,032
988,320
1,265,373
215,160
369,282
916,185
2,895,841
445,176
6,234,995
2,835,492
2,224,771
1,851,870
2,394,093
1,856,954
777,340
1,373,673
3,775,973
3,094,266
2,312,44S
1,976,570
3,429,595
472,935
1,284,126
110,738
444,429
3,014,194
423,649
10,460,182
2,434,381
765,319
5,212,085
2,289,855
861,992
8,660,042
625,865
1,643,205
716,972
2,304,629
4,515,423
443,866
364,946
2,213,025
1,597,400
1,412,602
2,527,167
184,970
Total
103,640,473
Jews
1927
Per
Cent
11,086 0.47
1,013
0.38
5,012
0.28
2.10
63,652
1.47
14,565
5.28
66,862
1.77
3,806
10,000 2.71
0.70
6,451
22,414 7.74
0.24
1,078
3.95
246,637
25,833 0.91
15,555 0.70
9,450 0.51
13,362 0.56
12,723 0.68
7,387 0.95
62,642 4.56
5.
189,671
63,254 2.04
31,462
1.36
3,881
0.19
80,807
2.35
2,518
0.53
13,547
1.06
0.45
503
3,257 0.73
149,476 4.96
0.20
858
1,603,923 15.33
4.915 0.20
0.19
1,492
3.19
166,361
0.23
5,186
1.13
9.767
322,406 3.72
3.27
20,502
0.29
4,816
0.18
1,262
14,034 0.61
30,839 0.86
3,737 0.84
0.61
2,221
15,403 0.69
0.57
9,117
0.36
5,129
1.13
28,581
0.27
498
3,388.951
3.27
Total
Population
Jews
2,549,000
12,891
459,000
1,455
1,923,000
8,850
4,433,000
123,284
1,074,000
20,321
1,636,000
91,538
243,000
5,310
540,000
16,000
1,363,000
13,402
3,171,000
23,179
534,000
1,141
7,296,000
345,980
3.150,000
27,244
2,425,000
16,404
1,328,000
7,792
2,538,000
19,533
1,934,000
16,432
793,000
8,480
1,597,000
70,871
4,242,000
225,634
4,490,000
89,462
2.686,000
43,197
1,790,618
6,420
3,510,000
80,687
714,000
1,578
14,209
1,396,000
77,407
264
455,000
2.779
3,749,000
225,306
392,000
1,052
11,423,000 1,903,890
8,252
2,897,000
641,192
2,749
6,710,000
173,976
2,397,000
7,823
13,075
890,000
9,730,000
404,979
704,000
25,003
1,845,000
6,851
696,000
1,584
2,485,000
22,532
5,397,00046.648
522,000
2,857
352,428
2.036
2,546,000
25,656
1,562,000
14,698
1,696,000
7,471
2,918,000
35,935
241,000
1,319
118.140,645
4.228,029
'The population figures for 1927 and other non-census years in this table and in all
subsequent tables are the estimates of the United States Bureau of the Census, or of
the writer, following the method of the Census Bureau, whenever official estimates were
not available.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
103
TABLE II
NUMBER OF JEWS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION BY DIVISION AND
STATE, 1917, 1927
Division and
State
1917
Total
1927
Jews
Per
Cent
Total
Jews
Per
Cent
NORTH
777,340
444,429
364,946
3,775,973
Massachusetts.....
625,865
Rhode Island
1,265,373
10,460,182
New York
3,014,194
8,660,042
Pennsylvania
5,212,085
Ohio
2,835,492
6,234,995
3,094,266
2,527,167
2,312,445
2,224,771
3,429,595
765,319
North Dakota
716,972
South Dakota
1,284,126
1,851,870
1,373,673
Maryland
215,160
369,282
Dist. of Columbia ..
Total
63,835,562
Maine
Mew Hampshire....
7,387 0.95
3,257 0.73
2,221 0.61
189,671 5.
20,502 3.27
66,862 5.28
1,603,923 15.33
149,476 4.96
322,406 3.72
166,361 3.19
25,833 0.91
246,637 3.95
63,254 2.04
28,581 1.13
31,462 1.36
15,555 0.70
80,807 2.35
1,492 0.19
1,262 0.18
13,547 1.06
9,450 0.51
62,642 4.56
3,806 1.77
10,000 2.71
3,126,394 4.9
793,000
455,000
352,428
4,242,000
704,000
1,636,000
11,423,000
3,749,000
9,730,000
6,710,000
3,150,000
7.296,000
4,490,000
2,918,000
2,686,000
2,425,000
3,510,000
641,192
696,000
1,396,000
1,328,000
1,597,000
243,000
540,000
72,710,620
8,480 1.07
2,779 0.61
2,036 0.58
225,634 5.32
25,003 3.56
91,538 5.59
1,903,890 16.67
225,306 6.01
404,979 4.16
173,976 2.59
27,244 0.86
345,980 4.74
89,462 1.99
35,935 1.23
43,197 1.61
16,404 0.68
80,687 2.3
2,749 0.43
1,584 0.23
14,209 1.02
/7,792 0.59
70,871 4.44
5,310 2.18
16,000 2.96
3,821,045 5.25 "
SOUTH
West Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Florida
Texas
Total
WEST
Idaho
Utah
California
Total
Grand Total
2,213,025
1,412,602
2,434,381
1,643,205
2 895,841
916,185
2,394,093
2,304,629
2,363,939
1,976,570
1,766,343
1,856,954
2,289,855
4,515,423
30,983,045
15,403
5,129
4,915
4,816
22,414
6,451
13,362
14,034
11,086
3,881
5,012
12.723
5,186
30,839
155,251
472,935
445,176
184,970
988,320
423,649
263,788
443,866
110,738
1,597,400
861,992
3,029,032
8,821,866
103,640,473
2,518
1,078
498
14,565
858
1,013
3,737
503
9,117
9,767
63,652
107,306
3,388,951
.69
.36
.20
.29
7.74
2,S46,000
1,696,000
2,897.000
1,845,000
3,171,000.
1,363,000
2,538,000
2,485,000
2,549,000
1,790,618
1,923,000
1,934,000
2,397,000
5,397,000
34,531,618
25,656
7,471
8,252
6,851
23,179
13,402
19,533
22,532
12,891
6,420
8,850
16.432
7.823
46,648
225,940
1.01
0.44
0.28
0.37
0.73
0.98
0.77
0.91
0.53
714,000
0.24
534,000
0.27
241,000
1.47
1,074,000
0.20
392,000
0.38
459,000
0.84
522,000
0.45
77,407
0.57
1,562,000
1.13
890.000
2.10
4,433,000
1.22 10,898,407
3.27 118,140,645
1,578
1,141
1,319
20,321
1,052
1,455
2,857
0.22
0.21
0.55
1.89
0.27
0.32
0.55
0.34
0.94
1.47
2.78
1.66
3.58
.70
.56
.61
.47
.19
.28
.68
.23
.86
.5
264
14,698
13,075
123,284
181,044
4,228,029
0.5
0.36
0.46
0.85
0.33
0.86
0.65
104
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Not only do the Jews live in every state of the Union but
the canvas showed that the Jews are widely distributed
within the states. The first wide canvas of the Jews in the
country, that made by Mr. William B. Hackenburg in 1877, ,
showed that in that year the Jews lived in 173 places.
Thirty years later, in 1907, Miss Henrietta Szold, expanding
statistics which she had collected in 1905, received reports
from 684 places as having Jews. Ten years later, in 1917,
Dr. Samson D. Oppenheim received reports from 724 places
which were brought up in the following year to 819 places.
The present writer found that in 1927, the Jewish dispersion
in the country reached the figure of 6,420 cities, towns, and
villages and of 3,292 rural unincorporated districts in Continental United States.1 In 1927 every city of 25,000 or over
was found to have Jewish inhabitants. Of the smaller
cities it was found that there were Jews in 93.9% of cities of
25,000-10,000; in 88.2% of the places of 10,000-5,000; and
in 84.86% of the places of 5,000-2,500. Even of the small
villages, those belonging to the class of rural incorporated
places of 2,500 or less, 30.55% have Jewish inhabitants. In
other words, as the table following will show, out of every
one hundred urban places nearly ninety have Jewish residents; of every one hundred rural villages only thirty have
Jews; while in the country districts, only seven in every one
hundred have permanent Jewish residents.
'No conclusion as to the actual number of places having Jews in the previous years
should be drawn from the above statement, nor should comparisons be attempted,
because the methods of investigation differed from one another. In 1927, in addition
to the territory canvassed, estimates were made by the use of statistical methods for
all such places as the canvas did not include; hence the figures for 1927, probably represent the sum total of places having Jews in that year. This procedure does not seem to
have been followed in 1877, 1907, and 1917. The figures for these years represent only
those places from which reports were received without making allowances for those
places which failed to reply or were not canvassed.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
105
TABLE III
TOTAL NUMBER OF PLACES AND NUMBER OF PLACES HAVING
JEWS, 1927
Class of Place
Urban
Urban
Urban
Urban
Places
Places
Places
Places
of
of
of
of
25,000 or over..
25,000-10,000..
10,000- 5,000..
5,000-2,500..
Total Number
of Places
Census of 19201
Number of
Places Having
Jews
Per Cent
287
461
721
1,321
287
433
636
1,121
100.
93.93
88.22
84.86
Total Urban Places
2.790
2,477
88.77
Rural Incorporated Places of
2,500 or less
12,908
3,943
30.55
15,698
6,420
41.22
44,5652
3.292
7.39
Total Incorporated Places..
Rural Unincorporated Districts..
Although'the distribution of Jews was found to be wide,
it appealed evident that their density was light except in the
large cities. Thus it was found that in the large cities of
100,000 population or over, the percentage of the Jews was
11.11% of the total and that the percentage became smaller
with the size of the class of place. In cities of 100,000 to
25,000 the percentage of Jews was but 3.11%. In the rural
incorporated villages it was 0.48%, and in the rural districts, but 0.15%. The following table shows the percentage of Jews among the various classes of cities, towns,
villages, and in rural territory.
TABLE IV
DENSITY OF JEWS IN URBAN PLACES AND IN RURAL TERRITORY "
Total
Class of Place
Urban Places of 100,000 or over..
Urban Places of 100,000-25,000..
Urban Places of 25,000-10,000..
Urban Places of 10,000- 5,000..
Urban Places of 5.000-2,500..
Rural Incorporated Places of
2 500 or less
Rural Unincorporated territory..
Jews
Population3
31,988,375
12,191,173
6,942,742
4,997,794
4,593,953
3,553,600
378,862
111,468
41,649
32,572
8,969.241
42,436,776
43,596
64,930
Per Cent
1927
11.11
3.11
1.61
' 0.83
0.70
0.48
0.15
'The figures for places in this table and in all other tables are those of 1920.
note on page 114.
See note on next page.
J
See
3
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
106
The preceding table gave the density of the Jewish
population in the various classes of places, taking each class
as a whole. Now, in the cities of 25,000 or over, inasmuch
as every city reported Jews, the actual density of the Jewish
population equals the percentage shown. This is not the
case, however, with the classes of cities of less than 25,000
in population, where not all the cities have Jewish residents.
The table below shows the density of the Jews in the cities,
villages and rural districts where they live.
TABLE V
THE NUMBER OF JEWS AND THEIR PER CENT OF THE TOTAL
POPULATION IN THOSE CITIES, TOWNS, VILLAGES, AND
RURAL PLACES INHABITED BY JEWS, 1927
Number of
Jews
Per Cent of
Total Population
Urban Places of 100,000 or.over
3,553,600
11.11
Urban Places of 100,000-25,000
378,862
3.11
Class of Place
Urban Places of 25,000-10,000
111,742
1.82'
Urban Places of 10,000- 5,000
41,855
0.95
Urban Places of
32,370
0.82
Rural Incorporated Places of 2,500 or less
5,000- 2,500
43,513
1.37
Rural Unincorporated Territory
66,087
1.76
'In all the tables, the figures for the total population of the rural territories and of the
small urban places of 2500-25,000, are those of the census year 1920. For, the figures
for the number of Jews in those areas and places are certainly minima due to the method
used for their ascertainment, namely, actual counts. Since our correspondents reported
only those Jewish men, women, and children that were known to them to reside in those
places, the total figures reported to us were undoubtedly less than the actual figures
for the areas and places under consideration. Hence, in order to arrive at a true percentage of the Jews to the total population, it was deemed proper not to correct the figures
for the total population for the increase between 1920 ane 1927. Thus in the case of
the rural areas and of the small urban places of 2500 to 25,000, the figures for both the
total population and the Jews are minnima and the per cent of the Jews is assumed
to be correct. The figures for the total population of places 25,000 or over and of the
United States as a whole are always those of 1927.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
107
Of the two tables that follow, one is a list giving the
total population and the number of Jews of the capital city
and of the largest city or of the next largest city in each
state, and the other a list of cities having 100,000 Jews or
more.
TABLE VI
NUMBER OF JEWS IN CAPITAL CITY AND LARGEST CITY OF EACH STATE
State and City
Alabama
*Montgomery
Birmingham
Arizona
*Phoenix
Tocson
Arkansas
•Little Rock
Fort Smith
California
•Sacramento
Los Angeles
Colorado
•Denver
Pueblo
Connecticut
•Hartford
New Haven
Delaware
•Dover
Wilmington
District of Columbia
•Washington
Florida
•Tallahassee
Jacksonville
Georgia
•Atlanta
Savannah
Idaho
•Boise
Pocatello
Illinois
•Springfield
Chicago
Indiana
•Indianapolis
Fort Wayne
Iowa
•Des Moines
Sioux City
Kansas
•Topeka
Kansas City
•Capita! City
•Number
of Jews not reported
2
See note on page 102.
Total
Population
19272
Jews
1927
Per Cent
47,193
217,500
3,000
4,000
6.36
1.84
41,596
25,261
425
400
1.02
1.58
78,582
32,296
3,000
420
3.82
1.3
80,756
1,300,000
1,100
65,000
1.36
4.998
289,800
43,962
17,000
1,200
5.87
2.73
168,300
184,900
27,000
22,500
16.04
12.17
4,267
126,400
5,000
3.96
540.000
16.000
2.96
6,070
97,006
59
4,000
0.97
4.12
250,000'
96,400
11,000
3,800
4.4
3.94
24,217
19,123
316
120
1.3
0.63
64.436
3,102,800
600
325,000
0.93
10.47
374,300
102,380
10,000
1,800
2.67
1.76
148,900
87,606
4,200
3,150
2.82
3.59
59,500
117,500
900
2,500
1.51
2.13
I
108
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
TABLE VI (Continued)
State and City
Kentucky
•Frankfort
Louisville
Louisiana
*Baton Rouge
New Orleans
Maine
•Augusta
Portland
Maryland
•Annapolis
Baltimore
Massachusetts
•Boston
Worcester
Michigan
•Lansing
Detroit
Minnesota
•St. Paul
Minneapolis
Mississippi
•Jackson
Meridian
Missouri
•Jefferson City
St. Louis
Montana
•Helena
Butte
Nebraska
•Lincoln
Omaha
Nevada
•Carson City
Reno
New Hampshire
•Concord
Manchester
New Jersey
•Trenton
Newark
New Mexico
•Santa Fe
Albuquerque
New York
•Albany
New York
North Carolina
•Raleigh
Winston-Salem
North Dakota
•Bismarck
Fargo
Ohio
•Columbus
Cleveland
Oklahoma
•Oklahoma City
Tulsa
•Capital City
'Number of Jews not reported.
Total
Population
1927
Jews
Per Cent
1927
9,805
320,100
74
12,500
0.75
3.9
26,601
424,400
750
9,000
2.82
2.12
14,746
76,762
45
3,500
0.31
4.56
13,037
819,000
68,000
8.3
793,100
195,500
90,000
13,000
11.35
6.65
75,595
1,334,500
200
75,000
0.26
5.62
250,100
447,700
13,500
22,000
5.4
4.91
23,905
23,479
169
575
0.71
2.45
16,338
839,200
80
50,000
0.49
5.96
12,037
43,323
79
540
0.66
1.25
62,630
219.200
1,050
11,000
1.68
5.02
1,685
12,820
164
22,636
84,208
120
935
1.28
0.53
1.11
136,700
466,700
11,000
65,000
8.05
13.93
8,750
18,052
40
240
0.46
1.33
119,500
5,970,800
9,000
1,765,000
7.5
29.56
28,058
66,385
150
325
0.53
0.40
8,297
27,302
400
500
4.83
1.83
291,400
984,500
8,500
85,000
2.92
8.63
145,000
135,900
1,250
2,400
0.86
1.77
l
l
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
TABLE VI (Continued)
State and City
Oregon
•Salem
Portland
Pennsylvania
•Harrisburg
Philadelphia
Rhode Island
•Providence
Pawtucket
South Carolina
•Columbia
Charleston
South Dakota
•Pierre
Sioux Falls
Tennessee
•Nashville
Memphis
Texas
•Austin
San Antonio
Utah
•Salt Lake City
Ogden
Vermont
•Montpelier
Burlington
Virginia
•Richmond
Norfolk
Washington
•Olympia
Seattle
West Virginia
•Charleston
Wheeling
Wisconsin
•Madison
Milwaukee
Wyoming
•Cheyenne
Casper
'Capital City
x
Number of Jews not reported.
Total
Population
1927
Jews
1927
Per Cent
20,188
340,740
12,000
84,600
2,035,900
S,000
270,000
3.52
5.91
13.26
280,600
73,086
21,000
570
7.48
0.78
45,367
74,343
590
2,150
1.3
2.89
3,209
32,977
210
0.64
137,800
178,900
4.000
10,000
2.9
5.59
38,387
211,400
490
8,000
1.28
3.78
135,700
37,860
2,000
290
1.47
0.77
7,125
24,396
100
900 .
1.4
3.69
191,800
179,200
8,000
7,800
4.17
4.35
8,354
411,500
12
10,000
0.14
2.43
51,236
66,404
1,200
750
2.34
1.13
47,370
536,400
1,000
25,000
2.11
4.66
15,585
17,612
800
61
S.13
0.35
109
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
no
TABLE VII
A LIST OF CITIES HAVING 1,000 JEWS OR MORE, 1927
Total
Population
1927*
City
Albany, N. Y
Allentown Pa.
Asbury Park N J.
Atlanta, Ga
Atlantic City N J.
Bethlehem, Pa
Beverly, Mass
;..
Braddock, Pa.
Bridgeport, Conn
Buffalo, N. Y
Camden, N. J
Canton, Ohio
Charleston S. C.
Charleston, W. Va
• ...
...
Chester, Pa.
Chicago 111
Cleveland Ohio
Cleveland Heights, Ohio. .
Columbus, Ohio
Dallas Tex
Detroit, Mich
Duluth, Minn
Kast Orange N J.
East St. Louis, 111
Elizabeth N. J
Elmira N. Y.
El Paso, Tex.
Erie Pa.
Flint Mich
Fort Wayne, Ind
220,500'
119,5003
94.600
67,0003
19,386
13,975
250,000"
53,896
819,000
26,800
91,600
54,272
76,622
22,735
79,649
217,500
793,100
21,944
152,500'2
65,342
44,653
550,000
123,900
133,100
112,902
74,343
51,236
72,200
48,871
71,675
3,102,800
412,200
984,500
23,832
291,400
211,600
180,700
289,800
148,900
1,334,500
113,232
62,147
37,516 •
72,521
111,444
51,144
109,200s
112,164
96,195
132,600 s
136,500
102,380
•See note on page 102.
•Local Estimate.
1925 state census.
'Estimate, U. S. Bureau of the Census for 1926.
'Census of 1920.
J
Number of
Jews
1927
7,500
9,000
1,960
1,500
2,400
1,387
11,000
12,160
68,000
1,500
12,150
1,150
1,500
1,000
2,500
4,000
90,000
2,000
13,000
4,000
7,500
20,000
5,200
7,700
3,600
2,150
1,200
3,385
20,000
2,125
325,000
23,500
85,000
8,000
8,500
7,500
4,900
17,000
4,200
75,000
3,480
2,000
1,500
2,750
9,500
1,500
2,400
1,575
1,800
5,500
1,100
1,800
Per Cent
3.4
. 7.5
2.07
2.24
12.38
9.92
4.4
22.56
8.3
5.6
13.26
2.12
1.96
4.4
3.14
1.84
11.35
9.11
8.52
6.12
16.8
3.64
4.2
5.78
3.19
2.89
2.34
4.69
40.92
2.96
10.47
5.7
8.63
33.57
2.92
3.54
2.71
5.87
2.82
5.62
3.07
3.22
4.
3.79
8.52
2.93
2.2
1.4
1.87
4.15
0.81
1.76
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
TABLE VII (Continued)
City
Fort Worth, Tex
Galveston, Tex
Gary, Ind
Grand Rapids, Mich..
Hammond, Ind
Harrisburg, Pa
Hartford, Conn
Haverhill, Mass
Hazleton, Pa
Highland Park, Mich.
Hoboken, N. J
Holyoke, Mass
Homestead, Pa
Houston, Tex
Huntington, W. Va...
Indianapolis, Ind
Irvington N. J
Jacksonville, Fla
Jersey City, N. J
Johnstown, Pa
Kansas City, Kan.. . .
Kansas City, Mo
Kingston. N. Y
Knoxville, Tenn
Lancaster, Pa
Lawrence, Mass
Lincoln, Neb
Little Rock, Ark
Long Beach, Cal
Long Branch, N. J
Los Angeles, Cal
Louisville, Ky
Lowell, Mass
Lynn, Mass
Lynnbrook, N. Y
McKeesport, Pa
Madison, Wis
Maiden, Mass
Mason City, la
Memphis, Tenn
Meriden, Conn
Miami, Fla
Milwaukee, Wis
Minneapolis, Minn.. .
Montgomery, Ala
Mount Vernon, N. Y.
Nashville, Tenn
New Bedford, Mass..
New Britain. Conn.. .
New Brunswick, N. J
New Haven, Conn...
New London, Conn..
New Orleans, La.. . .
New Rochelle, N. Y..
New York, N. Y
Newark, N. J
Newburgh, N. Y
Newport News, Va.. .
Niagara Falls. N. Y..
Norfolk, Va
Norwalk, Conn
Total
Population
1927*
163,600
49,346
82,381
161,900
52,300
84,6003
168,300'
49,232 2
37.O54
76,164
68,166
60,387
21,669
256,000'
65,100
374,300
35,002
97,006
321,500
75,618
117,500
383,100
27,234
106,848
57,296
93,5272
62,630
78,582
97.7OO3
13,677
1,300,600
320,100 1
110,296
104,653
4,371*
49,641
47,370
52,863
26,249
178,900
31,688
85,826
536,400
447,700
47,193
50,990
137,800
119,537
70,096
39,345
184,900
29,908
424,400
41,355
5,970,800
466,700
32,158
46,369
64,980
179,200
42,295
Number of
Jews
1927
2,100
1.940
2,200
1,780
1,200
5,000
27,000
3,385
1,000
1,765
2.780
2,000
1,100
11,000
1,125
10,000
1,295
4,000
18,000
1,000
2,500
22,000
1,750
1,250
1,500
3,775
1,050
3,000
1,750
3,000
65,000
12.S00
2,700
9,000
1,000
5,000
1,000
10,000
1,501
10,000
1,750
2,650
25,000
22,000
3,000
8,000
4,000
3,970
3,000
5,000
22,500
1,600
9,000
4.500
1,765,000
65,000
1,735
1,750
1,000
7,800
2.000
Per Cent
1.28
3.93
2.67
1.1
2.29
5.91
16.04
6.88
2.7
2.32
4.08
3.31
5.08
4.3
1.73
2.67
3.7
4.12
5.6
1.32
2.13
5.74
6.43
1.17
2.62
4.04
1.68
3.82
1.79
21.94
5.00
3.9
2.45
8.6
22.9
10.07
2.11
18.92
5.72
5.59
5.52
3.09
4.66
4.91
6.36
15.69
2.9
3.32
4.28
12.71
12.17
5.35
2.12
10.88
29.56
13.93
5.4
3.77
1.54
4.35
4.73
111
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
112
TABLE VII (Continued)
City
Norwich, Conn
Oak Park Village, 111.
Oakland, Cal
Oklahoma City, Okla.
Omaha, Neb
Orange, N. J
Pasadena, Cal
Passaic, N. J
Paterson, N. J
Pensacola, Fla
Peoria, III
Perth Amboy, N. J..
Philadelphia, Pa
Pittsburgh, Pa
Pittsfield, Mass
Plainfield, N. J
Portland, Me
Portland, Ore
Portsmouth, Va
Pottsville, Pa
Poughkeepsie, N. Y..
Providence, R. I
Pueblo, Colo
Quincy, Mass
Reading, Pa
Revere, Mass
Richmond, Va
Rochester, N. Y
Rock Island, 111
Sacramento, Cal
St. Joseph, Mo
St. Louis, Mo
St. Paul, Minn
Salem, Mass
Salt Lake City, Utah
San Antonio, Tex....
San Diego, Cal
San Francisco, Cal...
Savannah, Ga
Schenectady, N. Y...
Scranton, Pa
Seattle, Wash
Sheboygan, Wis
Shreveport, La
Sioux City, la
Somerville, Mass....
South Bend, Ind
South Orange, N. J..
Spokane, Wash
Springfield, Mass
Stamford, Conn
Stockton, Cal
Superior, Wis
Syracuse, N. Y
Tacoma, Wash
Tampa, Fla
Terre Haute, Ind
Toledo, Ohio
Trenton, N. J
Troy, N. Y
Tulsa, Okla
Total
Population
1927*
23,659
54,147
267,300
145.0003
219,200
35,814
58,4003
70,188
143,800
25,3053
82,540
48,417
2,035,900
665,500
48,921
32,705
76,762
340,740'
69,224
23,024
37,144
280,600
43,962
64,925
114,500
35,035
191,800
324,500
42,766
80,756
78,314
839,200
250,100
42,937
135,700
211,400
11O.4OO3
576,000 s
96,400
99,850
143,900
411.500 1
34,144
67,641
87,606
101,408
83,092
8,156
109,000*
147,400
42,066
52,226
39,671
197,000
106,220
111,997 s
71,900
305,400
136,700
72,300'
135,900'
Number of
Jews
1927
1,200
1,600
6,000
1,250
11,000
1,000
1,400
9,000
22,300
1,200
1,500
4,500
270,000
53.000
2,100
3,000
3,500
12,000
2,180
1,000
1,850
21,000
1,200
1,650
2,500
8,000
8.000
22,500
1,675
1,100
3,500
50,000
13,500
2,400
2,000
8,000
2,000
35,000
3,800
3,500
9,000
10,000
1,075
2,000
3,150
2,500
3,000
1,000
1,350
12,100
5,600
1,150
1,050
14,000
1,000
2,000
1,000
10,000
11,000
2,500
2,400
Per Cent
5.07
2.95
2.24
0.86
5.02
2.79
2.4
12.82
15.51
4.75
1.82
9.29
13.26
7.96
4.29
9.17
4.56
3.52
3.15
4.34
4.98
7.48
2.73
2.54
2.18
22.83
4.17
6.93
3.92
1.36
4.47
5.96
5.4
5.59
1.47
3.78
1.81
6.08
3.94
3.51
6.25
2.43
3.15
2.96
3.59
2.46
3.61
12.27
1.24
8.21
13.31
2.2
2.65
7.11
0.94
1.79
1.39
3.27
8.05
3.46
1.77
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
TABLE VII (Continued)
City
Union, N. J
Uniontown, Pa
Utica, N. Y
Waco, Tex
Washington, D. C
Waterbury, Conn
West Hoboken, N. J
West New York, N. J
White Plains, N. Y
Wilkes Barre, Pa
Wilmington, Del
Winthrop, Mass
Woonsocket, R. I
Worcester, Mass
Yonkers, N. Y
Youngstown, Ohio
Total
Population
1927*
Number of
Jews
1927
20.651
17,335
107,971
46,952
S40.000
104,716
43,343
41,382
24,588
78,542
126.400
16,440
52,155
195,500
118,800
169,400
4,000
1,100
5,000
1,500
16,000
5,300
1,320
2,410
1,700
5,500
5,000
2,000
1,350
13,000
7,000
8,000
Per Cent
19.37
6.35
4.63
3.19
2.96
5.06
3.05
5.82
6.91
7.
3.96
12.17
2.59
6.65
5.89
4.72
113
114
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
II. SCOPE OF THE INQUIRY AND METHODS EMPLOYED
THE forty-eight states of the Union are divided into
3,065 primary divisions, commonly known as counties, and
these counties, with a few exceptions, are subdivided into
numerous smaller
units known as minor civil divisions
(census of 1920).x Thus the country is divided geographically and politically. From another point of view the country may be said to consist of sections of sparsely populated
territory and other sections of densely populated territory.
As a rule the densely populated territory form portions of
the minor civil divisions, and they go under the name of
cities, villages, boroughs, etc., and are as a rule incorporated,
while the sparsely populated portions of the minor civil
divisions are, as a rule, not incorporated. The former are
further classified in accordance with the size of the population inhabiting them: incorporated densely populated territory of 2,500 or less is known as rural incorporated places
while places of 2,500 or more are known as urban places.
The country is thus divided into the following manner:
(Census of 1920):
Rural unincorporated territory1
42,436,776 persons
12,908 rural incorporated places of 2500
population, or less
8,969,241 persons
1,321 urban places of 2500-500
4,593,953 persons
721 urban places of 5000-10000
4,997,794 persons
461 urban places of 10000-25000
6,942,742 persons
219 urban places of 25000-100000
10,340,788 persons
68 urban places of 100000 or over
27,429,326 persons
In the present compilation of new estimates of the number
of Jews in the country efforts have been made to determine
the number of Jews and their distribution in the country as a
whole, in the states and divisions,as well as in the rural districts and villages and in the urban places of the various
sizes.
The methods used were chiefly the following: in the case
of the small communities, efforts were made to have local
•The United States Bureau of the Census does not give the number of the minor
civil divisions. By counting the divisions enumerated in 1920, we get the figure of
49,312: 4,747 incorporated and 44,565 unincorporated divisions, though many of the
latter contain portions that are incorporated.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
115
correspondents enumerate for us the men and the women of
the Jewish faith and their children. Persons of Jewish
extraction who were intermarried or were not of the Jewish
faith were excluded. But answers to our inquiries were not
received from every place. In fact, in the case of the rural
districts and the rural incorporated places, the vast majority were not canvassed at all.
To determine the number of Jews living in territories and
places which were not canvassed or did not respond to
inquiries, the method of sampling was used. The unknown
places were grouped into classes in accordance with their
size or character, and a number of places were taken at
random. The sampled places were then examined with a
view to eliminating possible disturbing elements. The
respective samples were then canvassed with a view to
determining the number of places having Jews and the
number of Jews that they had.
In the case of the urban places of 25,000 or over, estimates
of the number of Jews were received from organizations and
individuals for every place in those classes of cities. These
estimates, though reliable and assumed to be carefully
made, were, in each case, weighed as to their source and
examined in the light of available data bearing upon the
number of Jews in he respective cities. In the case of the
eleven cities that have 50,000 Jews or more, for eight cities
including the City of New York, estimates received were
checked on the basis of the number of children that abstained
from attending school on the Day of Atonement in the fall
of 1927.
In general these were the methods used to determine the
number of Jews in the various classes of urban places and of
rural places, and the estimates finally accepted were in
every case conservative.
1. JEWS IN RURAL TERRITORY
Of the 12,908 rural incorporated places of 2,500 or less in
population in the forty-eight states (U. S. Census of 1920),
figures for Jews were received from 1,068 places which reported a total of 20,141 Jews and from 170 rural districts,
minor civil divisions, which yielded a total of 9,038 Jews.
The other rural incorporated places and unincorporated
116
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
districts having Jews and the number of Jews that they had1
were then determined by the statistical method of sampling,
and it was found that (a) of these places 24.28% of the incorporated villages have Jewish residents who comprise .307% of
the total population; (b) of the unincorporated rural districts
6.78% have Jewish residents who constitute .134% of the
total population of these places. By applying these percentages to the large number of rural incorporated and the rural
unincorporated districts from which direct information was
not received, it was concluded that (a) in addition to the
number of incorporated rural places which had reported
Jews, 2,875 places in the same class also had Jews to the
number of 23,372; (b) in addition to the number of unincorporated rural districts which had reported Jews, 3,122 places
in the same class also had Jewish residents who numbered
57,049. Adding these estimated numbers of places and of
Jews to those numbers that were reported by the communities, we find that in 1927 there were permanent Jewish
inhabitants in 3,943 rural incorporated villages of 2,500 or
less, and in 3,292 rural unincorporated districts, and that a
total of 109,600 Jews lived in rural areas of the United
States.1
2. JEWS IN URBAN PLACES OF 2,500-25,000
A total of 2,503 urban places of 2,500-25,000 were
enumerated in the census of 1920 and of that number 1,615
places reported to us an aggregate of 172,269 Jews, as
follows:
of 1,321 places of 2,500-5,000,727 places reported 26,599 Jews
of 721 places of 5,000-10,000,489 places reported 36,980 Jews
of 461 placesof 10,000-25,000,399places reported 108,690 Jews
On the other hand, a total of 888 places either were not
canvassed, or refused to report, or gave ambiguous answers
which could not be used, as follows:
594 places of 2,500- 5,000
232 places of 5,000-10,000
62 places of 10,000-25,000
•See note A and Table X.
•The fact of living in rural territory does not, of course, indicate the occupation of the
residents. A large number of the 109,600 Jews living in rural territory are, no doubt,
engaged in agricultural pursuits, but not all of them. On the other hand, there are no
doubt many Jews living in urban places of 2,500 or over who engage in agricultural
pursuits.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
117
The number of these places having Jewish residents and
the number of such residents were, however, estimated by a
procedure
similar to the one used in the case of the rural
places.1 This method of computation indicated that
70.73% of these places had Jewish residents who constituted
0.304% of the population of these cities. Application of
these percentages to the three classes of urban places under
consideration showed:
a) in addition to the number of urban places of 2,500 to
5,000 population which had reported Jewish residents upon
direct canvass, 394 had such residents to the number of
5,771;
b) in addition to the number of urban places of 5,00010,000 population which had reported Jewish residents,
147 cities in the same class also had such residents to the
number of 4,875;
c) in addition to the number of urban places of 10,000
to 25,000 population which had repotted Jews, 34 cities in
the same class also had Jewish residents to the number of
3,052.
Adding these estimated numbers of places and of persons
of the Jewish faith to those numbers that were reported by
the communities upon direct canvass we find that at the
end of 1927, a total of 2,190 small towns of 2,500-25,000
had permanent Jewish residents to the number of 185,967.
3. JEWS IN URBAN PLACES OF 25,000 OR OVER
Of the remaining 287 cities, those having a population in
excess of 25,000 (census of 1920), reports were received from
every one and were furnished by the rabbis, the heads of
the chief Jewish organizations and other communal workers. The reports contained not only estimates of the number of Jews in the respective communities but also data as
to congregations and other organizations, their membership
and expenditures, and the number of children enrolled in the
religious schools, etc.
The census of 1920 enumerated 219 cities of 25,000-100,000 population, located in 39 states. These cities had a
combined population of 10,340,788 in 1920, and their
population in 1927, maybe estimated to have beenl2,191,173.
'See Note A p. 159.
118
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
The class of cities of 100,000 or over comprised 68.
These had in 1920 a total population of 27,429,326, which
was estimated by the United States Bureau of the Census
to have grown to 31,988,375 in 1927. Of these 68 cities
Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland, Detroit, Los Angeles, Newark, New York, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and St.
Louis were reported to have about 50,000 Jews or more.
The number of Jews in the remaining 57 large cities and in
the 219 cities of 25,000^100,000 was determined chiefly on
the basis of the local estimates, examined in the light of the
number of Jews that reported Yiddish and Hebrew as their
mother-tongue in the census of 1920, and in the light of the
number of Jewish children enrolled in the religious schools of
the respective cities. The 219 cities reported a total of
378,862 Jews and the 57 larger cities, 642,600 Jews.
4. JEWS IN ELEVEN CITIES HAVING 50,000 JEWS OR OVER
The number of Jews in the eleven cities enumerated above
could not be estimated in the same manner as were the
numbers of the Jews in the other cities. With regard to the
eleven cities the writer had before him figures of the number
of children who were absent from school on the Day of
Atonement of 1927, in the city of New York, Newark, Boston, Detroit, Philadelphia, and St. Louis, but not Baltimore,
Chicago and Los Angeles. In the cases of Cleveland and
Pittsburgh we were furnished with the number of Jewish
school children in each city, as determined by local social
workers. Statistical data bearing on the number that
reported Yiddish or Hebrew in the Census of 1920 were at
hand, of course, for every city. Estimating the number of
Jews on the basis of the number of Jewish children who1
abstained from attending school on the Day of Atonement
and on the basis of the number enumerated in the census as
persons of foreign birth 2with Yiddish as their mothertongue and their children, we found that the number of
Jews of the eleven cities was approximately as follows:
City of New York
Baltimore
Boston
Chicago
•See note C. p. 165.
1,765,000
68,000
90,000
325,000
'See note D. p. 167.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
119
Cleveland
85,000
Detroit
75,000
Los Angeles
65,000
Newark
65,000
Philadelphia
270,000
Pittsburgh
53,000
St. Louis
50,000
Total
2,911,000
Adding the combined number of Jews of the eleven
cities to the number of Jews in the 57 other large cities of
100,000 or over, we estimate that in 1927, a total of 3,553,600 Jews lived in the 68 cities of 100,000 or over.
5. SUMMARY OF RESULTS
The results arrived at may be summed up as follows:
68 cities of 100,000 or over have
3,553,600 Jews
219 cities of 100,000-25,000 have
378,862 Jews
461 cities of 25,000-10,000 have
111,742 Jews
721 cities of 10,000-5,000 have
41,855 Jews
1,321 cities of 5,000-2,500 have
32,370 Jews
12,908 villages of 2,500 or less have
43,513 Jews
Rural unincorporated territory has
66,087 Jews
Total
4,228,029 Jews
Our figure 4,228,029 for the Jewish population in the country in 1927, may now be examined in the light of other
methods of computation. In 1914, the late Dr. Joseph
Jacobs undertook to estimate the number of Jews on the
basis of foreign stock, mother-tongue, and immigration.
The former two methods offer exceptional difficulties and
can, besides, be relied upon only in a census year like 1910
or 1920. The method based on immigration, however, may
profitably be examined.
The number of Jews in 1917, was estimated as 3,388,951.
The net immigration between 1917 and 1927 may be
easily determined by taking the number of the immigrant
Jews that were admitted to the country less the number of
those that departed and those that were deported. By this
method it is found that between January 1918 and December 1927, the net Jewish immigration, the excess of admissions over departures and deportations, amounted to 323,984
Jews
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
120
In 1914, Dr. Jacobs estimated that the birth-rate among
Jews in the United States was 35 per thousand, and the
death rate at 15 per thousand, and he assumed that the
increase of births over deaths was 2% per year. His estimates of the rates of births and of deaths were probably
too high; on the other hand, his assumption that the young
Jewish population of the United States increased at the
rate of 2% per year through the surplus of births over
deaths, was probably correct for the years with which he
dealt. The 3,388,000 Jews that were in the country in 1917,
due chiefly to a different age grouping, probably had a
smaller surplus of births over deaths. But we may still
assume this rate of 2% increase for the immigrants who
entered the country between 1917 and 1927. If we assume
that these immigrants increased by 2% a year (1% during
the year of arrival) their increase amounts to 33,073. In
other words, the Jewish immigrants who entered the country during 1918-1927, plus the natural increase among them,
may reasonably
be assumed to have totalled 358,777 at the
end of 1927.r
'This increase has been determined by taking the net immigration (admissions leas
departures and deportations) of each of the ten years under consideration and adding
in each case, 2% for each year between the year of entrance and the end of 1927 (1%
for the year of arrival) as follows:
Year
Net
Immigration
Increase
Total
January-July 1918.
1,193
Increase of 1918-1927 . . 19%
226
1,419
1918-1919
2,665
Increase of 1918-1927.. 17%
453
3.118
1919-1920
13,881
Increase of 1919-1927.. 15%
2.OS2
15,963
1920-1921
118,419
Increase of 1920-1927.. 13%
15,394
133.813
1921-1922
52,480
Increase of 1921-1927.. 11%
5,772
58,252
1922-1923
49,207
Increase of 1922-1927.. 9%
4,428
53,635
1923-1924
49,616
Increase of 1923-1927.. 7%
3,473
53,089
1924-1925
9,751
Increase of 1924-1927.. 5%
487
10,238
1925-1926
9.751
Increase of 1925-1927.. 3 %
292
10.043
1926-1927
11,075
Increase of 1926-1927.. 1%
110
11,185
5,946
Increase of July-Dec,
1927
0.5%
29
5,975
32.746
356.730
July-Dec, 1 9 2 7 . . .
Totals
323,984
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
121
If we now assume that the 3,388,000 Jews who were in
the country at the end of 1917, had, during the ten following
years a surplus of births over deaths of 1.5% a year, their
increase, compounded, would amount to 544,058.
We may summarize our findings as follows:
Total number of Jews in United States, end of
1917
3,388,000
Natural increase, 1918 to 1927
544,058
Net immigration of Jews, 1918 to 1927
323,984
Natural increase of same
32,746
Total number of Jews in United States based on
this method of computation
4,288,788
The number thus arrived at is somewhat higher than the
total obtained on the basis of the canvas made in 1927.
The difference is comparatively small, and is probably
owing to the estimate accepted in 1917, being too high.
As a matter of fact, Dr. Oppenheim tacitly admitted this
when he finally settled upon 3,300,000, instead of the total
of his state estimates 3,388,000. (SEE AMERICAN JEWISH
YEAR BOOK, 5679, p. 73.)
122
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
III.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE J E W S IN THE COUNTRY,
1927
For a n u m b e r of reasons it has been found useful in the
p a s t t o k n o w t h e distribution of t h e J e w s of t h e United
S t a t e s b y s t a t e s a n d also their percentage of t h e t o t a l population of each s t a t e . A t t e m p t s were also m a d e to examine
t h e distribution of t h e J e w s in t h e c o u n t r y b y region, and
their percentage in t h e various regions or divisions. T h e
present wide canvas enables us to go further than that. It
is obviously important to know to what extent the Jews
live in the large cities, in the small towns, and in the rural
districts, and their ratio to the total population in the rural
and in the urban places of the various sizes both in the country as a whole and in the divisions and states. Finally, what
is the density of the Jews in those places where they live?
For instance, in the class of places of 5,000-10,000, the
density of the Jews is 0.95% of the total population of that
class of urban place, but this figure is misleading without
the additional fact that the Jews live in only 636 of the total
of 721 places of that class. How thickly or sparsely settled
are the Jews in those places where they actually live?
1. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
The United States is divided as follows:
THE NORTH:
(Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut)
MIDDLE ATLANTIC (New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania)
EAST NORTH CENTRAL (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and
Wisconsin)
WEST NORTH CENTRAL (Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, North
Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and Kansas)
NEW ENGLAND
THE SOUTH:
(Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia,
Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina,
Georgia, and Florida)
EAST SOUTH CENTRAL (Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, and
Mississippi)
WEST SOUTH CENTRAL (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and
Texas)
SOUTH ATLANTIC
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
123
THE WEST:
MOUNTAIN (Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Nevada)
PACIFIC (Washington, Oregon, and California)
The majority of Jews live in cities of 25,000 or over.
A geographic distribution of the Jews based on the latter's
distribution in these cities would therefore not be affected
by possible variation in their distribution in the smaller
urban places and in the rural places. This fact together
with the fact that these cities, each one, reported Jews will
therefore be examined as to the geographical distribution
of the Jews. The table below gives the total population
and the number of Jews in the cities 25,000 and over.
TABLE VIII
NUMBER OF JEWS IN CITIES 25,000 OR OVER BY STATE,
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Dist. of Columbia...
Florida
Georgia
Illinois
Iowa
Kentucky
Louisiana
"Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Minnesota
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska. .
New H a m p s h i r e . . . .
New Jersey
New York
. . .
.
North Carolina
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas.
Utah.
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
•See note on page 102.
....
Total Population 1
331,949
41 596
110,879
2,719,389
364,586
826,471
126,400
540,000
259,658
506,737
3,913,991
1,053,554
480,787
258,012
454,577
479,375
139,235
890,589
2,765,594
2,259,315
811,032
1,371,728
43,323
281,830
114,249
2,044,011
8,126,053
195,378
3,219,211
253,834
340,740
3,969,115
468,588
119,701
32,977
490,747
1,198,306
173,560
614.918
682,831
222,066
882,656
44,179,548
Jews
7,950
425
3,420
115,175
18,700
81,750
5,000
16,000
9,850
17,120
336,780
21,646
10,142
4,100
14,350
11,000
5,650
69,320
212,700
83,008
38,980
76,210
540
12,050
1,370
191,940
1,873,390
1,815
157,181
3,850
12,000
366,410
24,070
2,740
210
18,635
36,585
2,290
21,315
13,050
3,310
30,435
3,932,462
1927
Per Cent
2.39
1.02
3.08
4.23
5.13
9.89
3.95
2.96
3.79
3.38
8.60
2.05
2.11
1.60
3.15
2.29
4.06
7.78
7.69
3.67
4.80
5.55
1.24
4.28
1.19
9.39
23.05
0.98
4.88
1.52
3.52
9.23
5.13
2.29
0.63
3.79
3.05
1.32
3.46
1.91
1.49
3.44
8.8
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
124
A perusal of the percentages that the Jews constitute of
the total population in the states shows great variation from
23.05% in the state of New York and 9.39% in New Jersey,
to 0.63% in South Dakota. Closer examination, however,
shows that in the region along the Atlantic seaboard comprising the states between Maine and Delaware (including
the District of Columbia), the Jews constitute 14% of the
total; in the division commonly called EAST NORTH CENTRAL, 5.55%; in the WEST NORTH CENTRAL division,
4.37%; and in those regions combined 10.4%. On the
other hand, in the major division of the South (less the
States of Maryland, Delaware, and District of Columbia)
the Jews form but 2.9%, and in the West, 3.71%. The table
below gives the distribution of the Jews in the cities 25,000
or over on the basis of the divisions as modified and their
subdivisions.
TABLE IX
NUMBER OF JEWS IN CITIES 25,000 OR OVER BY DIVISIONS,
SECTIONS, AND STATES, 1927
State and Division
NORTH
Maine
New Hampshire
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Maryland
Delaware
District of Columbia
Total North East
Ohio
Michigan
Wisconsin
Illinois
Indiana
Total East North Central. ..
Minnesota
Iowa
Missouri
South Dakota
Nebraska
Kansas
Total West North Central...
Total North
Total
Population
139,235
114,249
2,765,594
468,588
826,471
8,126,053
2,044,011
3,969,115
890,589
126,400
540.000
20,010,305
3,219,211
2,259,315
882,656
3,913,991
1,053,554
11,328,727
811,032
480,787
1,371,728
32,977
281,830
258,012
3,236,366
34,575,398
Jews
5,650
1,370
212,700
24,070
81.750
1,873,390
191,940
366,410
69,320
5,000
16,000
2,847.600
157,181
83,008
30,435
336,730
21,646
629,050
38,980
10,142
76,210
210
12,050
4,100
131,692
3,618,342
Per Cent
4.06
1.19
7.69
5.13
9.89
23.05
9.39
9.23
7.78
3.95
2.96
14.23
4.88
3.67
3.44
8.60
2.05
5.55
4.80
2.11
5.55
0.63
4.28
1.60
4.37
10.4
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
125
TABLE IX (Continued)
State and Division
SOUTH
Virginia
West Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
Florida
Total
Kentucky
Tennessee
Alabama
Total East South Central. . .
Arkansas
Oklahoma
Louisiana
Texas
Total West South Central.. .
Total South
WEST
Colorado
Utah
Montana
Arizona
Total Mountain
Washington
Oregon
California
Total Pacific
Total West
Grand Total
Total
Population
614,918
222,066
195,378
119,701
506,737
259,658
1,918,458
454,577
490,747
331,949
1,277,273
110,879
253,834
479,375
1,198,306
2,042,394
5,238,125
364,586
173,560
43,323
623,065
682,831
340,740
2,719,389
3,742,960
4,366,025
44,179,548
Jews
21,315
3,310
1,815
2,740
17,120
9,850
56,150
14,350
18,635
7,950
40,935
3,420
3,850
11,000
36,585
54,855
151,940
18,700
2,290
540
425
21,955
13,050
12,000
115,175
140,225
162,180
3,932,462
Per Cent
3.46
1.49
0.98
2.29
3.38
3.79
2.92
3.15
3.79
2.39
3.20
3.08
1.52
2.29
3.05
2.68
2.9
5.13
1.32
1.24
1.02
3.52
1.91
3.52
4.23
3.74
3.71
8.8
It would appear, therefore, that appreciable differences
exist between the densities of the Jewish population in the
three divisions, North, South and West, except that Maryland, Delaware and the District of Columbia belong insofar
as density of their Jewish populations is concerned to the
North rather than to the South. In discussing the distribution of the Jews of the Country we shall, therefore, refer to
the Divisions and sub-divisions employed by the United
States Bureau of the Census, except that we shall add Delaware, Maryland and District of Columbia to the Northern
Division, and that in this division we shall combine the New
England and the Middle Atlantic States (to which we are
adding Delaware, Maryland and District of Columbia) into
one subdivision which we shall call North East.
126
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
2. D E N S I T Y O F J E W I S H P O P U L A T I O N A N D S I Z E O F P L A C E
T h e density of the Jews in t h e country varies however,
not only according to geographic divisions of t h e country
b u t also, or better, especially according to another factor,
namely the size of the place, city or town. Our canvas
tends to show t h a t , in a general way, so far as cities are concerned, the density of the n u m b e r of Jews in a place increases
in something approaching geometrical proportion with the
increase in the n u m b e r of the total population. For
example, in places of 2,500 to 5,000 population, the Jews
form b u t 0 . 7 % of the total, while in places of 5,000 to
10,000 the Jews constitute . 8 3 % of t h e total, a n d in cities
of 25,000 to 100,000, nearly 4 % of t h e total, a n d in cities of
100,000 or over, nearly 1 2 % . I t is, therefore, interesting to
examine t h e distribution of the Jews from t h e points of view
of both the geographic division a n d the size of t h e places.
a. R U R A L T E R R I T O R Y : — I n t h e case of t h e rural territory,
reports a n d estimates showed t h a t a t the end of 1927, a
total of 109,600 Jews lived in such territory; 66,087 in rural
unincorporated territory and 43,513 in rural incorporated
places. As was to be expected, the density of the Jews in
rural places was found to be light, only 0.21% of the total
(0.15% in the unincorporated territory and 0.48% in incorporated places). The percentage of Jews to the total population in the three major divisions was found to be as
follows:
DENSITY OF JEWS IN RURAL TERRITORY, BY DIVISION
Percentage of Jews in Rural Territory
Division
Unincorporated
Incorporated
O.IS
0.48
North
0.15
0.58
South
0.16
0.43
0.13
0.24
United States
West
.'
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
127
It will be seen that there is but little variation in the percentage of Jews in rural territories, as between the North
and the South, but that in the West the percentage is considerably lower than in the other two Divisions, especially
in the incorporated territory. This uniformity is only general,
however, for upon analyzing the Division of the North we find
that a few adjacent States along the Atlantic Seaboard have a
much higher density than any other part of the country.
This region of highest density is the rural territory surrounding the city of New York, namely, the rural territory in
the states of New York, Connecticut, and New Jersey where
the combined Jewish population constitutes over one half of
of one percent of the total rural population: 0.48% in unincorporated territory and 2.04% in incorporated areas. The
greatest density in the case of the rural unincorporated
territory was found to be in Connecticut and in the case
of the rural incorporated territory in New Jersey.
As the following table will show at a glance the Jewish
distribution in rural territory varies slightly from the norm
for the entire population in the North and the South, but
differs considerably from the norm for the West. This conformity so far as the North is concerned is only general for
the entire Division. For upon analysis we find that the
region of highest density, comprising the states of Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey, proportionately contains
nearly four times as many Jews (18.93%) as the norm for the
region (5.68%). The variation from the norm is slightly
greater in the incorporated rural territory than in the unincorporated rural territory.
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS IN RURAL TERRITORY, BY DIVISION
Division
United States
Total
Population
100.
Jews
100.
North
46.79
53.28
South
45.01
40.79
West
8.20
5.93
128
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
TABLE X
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS AND THEIR DENSITY IN RURAL TERRITORY, 19271
A. RURAL UNINCORPORATED TERRITORY
66,087
28,894
Percentage
Jews
of Total
0.15
0.15
Total
100.
44.08
Jews
100.
43.72
20,392,095
32,790
0.16
48.05
49.62
3,336,438
4,403
0.13
7.87
6.66
Population
Jews
42,436,776
18,708,243
South
West
Division
and
State
United States
North
Distribution
Region of greatest density
433,724
3,473
0.80
17.96
33.92
New York
1,448,500
4,357
0.30
59.99
42.56
New Jersey
Total
532,262
2,414,486
2,408
10,238
0.45
0.42
22.05
5.66
23.52
15.72
Connecticut
B. RURAL INCORPORATED PLACES
United States
North
South
West
8,969,241
5,341,765
43,513
29,498
0.48
0.58
100.
59.55
100.
67.79
2,747,405
11,917
0.43
30.63
27.39
880,071
2,098
0.24
9.82
4.82
Region of greatest density
New Jersey
Total
10,568
70
0.67
2.09
.68
346,877
4.786
1.38
68.53
46.35
148,702
506,147
5,471
10.327
3.68
2.04
29.38
5.67
52.97
23.72
A. AND B. RURAL TERRITORY (UNINCORPORATED AND INCORPORATED)
.21
United States
51,406,017
109,600
100.
100.
North
24,050,008
58,392
.24
46.79
53.28
South
23,139,500
44,707
.19
45.01
40.79
West
4,216,509
6,501
.15
8.20
5.93
Region of greatest density
444,292
3,543
.8
15.21
17.23
New York
1,795,383
9,143
.51
61.47
44.46
New Jersey
Total
680,964
2,920,639
7.879
20,565
1.16
23.32
5.68
38.31
18.93
Connecticut
•See note on page 106.
.7
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
129
b. CITIES OF 2,500 TO 25,000:—In the urban places of less
than 25,000 population our reports and estimates showed
that 185,967 Jews lived in such places at the end of 1927:—
32,370 in places of 2,500-5,000, 41,855 in places of 5,00010,000 and 11,742 in places of 10,000-25,000. The density
of the Jews and their distribution differ little as between
the two former classes where the Jews form less than 1%
of the total, and in each class the region of greatest density
was the region in the center of the northeast section, comprising the states of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. On the other hand, in the last class of small cities,
namely those of 10,000-25,000, the Jews form more than
1.5% of the total population, and the region of the highest
density comprises the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut,
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Ohio. The
density of the Jews in this class of cities as a whole is a little
over one percent.
DENSITY OF JEWS IN CITIES
25,000 OR LESS, BY DIVISIONS
Class of Place
Division
United States
2,5005,000
5,00010,000
2,50010,000
10,00025,000
2,50025,000
0.71
0.84
0.77
1.61
1.12
North
0.83
0.88
0.86
1.80
1.28
South
0.49
0.71
0.59
1.13
.79
West
0.56
0.76
0.66
1.03
.79
The above table shows that the density of Jewish settlement is the same in the West as it is in the South in the
group of cities of 2,500-25,000, as a whole, whereas, as we
noted before in the rural territory, the density of the Jews
is less in the West than in the South. However, upon
analysis, we find that in the two groups of smaller cities of
this class, namely in the cities of 2,500-5,000 and 5,00010,000, the density of the Jews in the South is considerably
lower than the density in the West. On the other hand, in
the group of cities of 10,000-25,000, the South again gains
over the West in density of Jews.
130
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
25,000 OR LESS,
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS IN CITIES
Division
2,5005,000
BY DIVISION
10,00025,000
2,50010,000
5,00010,000
2,50025,000
Total Jews Total Jews Total Jews Total Jews Total Jews
United States
North
South
West
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
100.
61.06 71.79 68.96 72.97 65.17 72.46 72.34 81.01 68.19 77 60
27.65 19.15 21.26 18.09 24.33 18.55 19.76 13.90 22.40 15.75
11.29 9.06 9.78 8.94 10.50 8.99 7.90 5.09 9.41 6.65
The above table shows that in general the proportion of
Jews in the North is above the norm for the total population, and below the norms in the South and the West. The
variations from the norm is less in the West than in the
South for the two groups of smaller cities, namely 2,500 to
5,000, and 5,000-10,000. The situation is the reverse in the
case of the cities of 10,000 to 25,000.
The comparatively high percentage of Jews in this class
of cities in the North and the fact of their being an excess of
the norm, as far as distribution is concerned, is due to the
presence of a region of abnormally high density. This
region in the case of the small towns of 2,500-10,000 consists of the three Middle Atlantic States, New York, New
Jersey, and Pennsylvania. In the case of the larger towns
of 10,000 to 25,000, the States of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Ohio adjacent to the Middle Atlantic States are
included.
P. C. OF JEWS AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN REGIONS OF HIGHEST DENSITY
Class of Place
2,5005,000
5,00010,000
2.50010,000
10,00025,000
1.64
1.61
1.61
2.49
Total
20.86
22.29
21.60
41.77
Jews
47.99
42.84
45.09
64.69
Percentage
Distribution
If we were to subtract, in each case, the region of highest
density from the North, that division would closely approach
the South and the West both in the matter of density of
Jews and their distribution. In this region of highest density for cities of 2,500 to 10,000, the Jews constitute 1.6%
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
131
of the total population. Furthermore nearly half of all
Jews living in this class of town are to be found in the three
states referred to, whereas only about one-fifth of the total
population in this class of towns reside in this region.
In the region of highest density for towns of 10,000 to
25,000, the ratio of Jews to the entire population is close to
2.5%. Furthermore of the total number of Jews in that
class of cities, nearly 70% are in this region, whereas only a
little over 40% of the total population in this class of cities
live in that region.
TABLE XI
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS AND THEIR DENSITY
IN SMALL URBAN PLACES 19271
A. URBAN PLACES OF 2,500-5,000
Division
and
State
Population
United States
4.593,953
32,370
0.71
North
2,804,828
23,239
0.83
61.06
71.79
South
1,270,239
6,198
0.49
27.65
19.15
518,886
2,933
0.56
11.29
9.06
286,192
6,547
2.29
29.86
42.11
New Jersey
162,408
3,802
2.34
16.94
24.48
Pennsylvania....
Total
509,812
5,188
1.02
53.20
33.41
958,412
15,537
1.64
20.86
47.99
West
Region of Highest
Density:
New York
United States
Jews
B. URBAN PLACES OF
4,997,794
41,855
Percentage
of
Jews to
Total
Distribution
Total
Jews
100.
100.
5,000 TO 10,000
0.84
100.
100.
North
3,446,234
30,543
0.88
68.96
South
1,062,821
7,572
0.71
21.26
18.09
488,739
3,740
0.76
9.78
8.94
West
Region of Highest
Density:
New York
72.97
200,606
4,605
2.3
18.01
25.68
New Jersey
242,399
6,434
2.65
21.76
35.88
Pennsylvania....
670,916
6,894
1.03
60.23
38.44
1,113,921
Total
'See note on page 106.
17,933
1.6
22.29
42.84
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
132
TABLE XI (Continued)
A- B. URBAN PLACES OF 2,500 TO 10,000
Percentage
of
Jews to
Total
Distribution
Division
and
State
Population
Jews
United States
9,591,747
74,225
.77
North
6,251,062
53,782
.86
65.17
72.46
South
2,333,060
13,770
.59
24.33
18.55
1,007,625
6,673
.66
10.50
8.99
486,798
11,152
2.29
23.49
33.32
West
Region of Highest
Density:
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania....
Total
Total
Jews
100.
100.
404,807
10,236
2.53
19.53
30.58
1,180,728
12,082
1.02
56.98
36.101
2,072,333
33,470
1.61
21.60
45.09
C. URBAN PLACES OF 10,000 TO 25,000
6,942,742
111,742
1.61
North
5 022 849
90 529
1.80
72.34
81.01
South
1,371,524
15,523
1.13
19.76
13.90
548,369
5,690
1.03
7.90
5.09
United States
West
Region of Highest
Density:
Massachusetts...
100.
100.
594,111
9.344
1.57
20.49
12.93
Connecticut
152,390
5,631
3.69
5.25
7.79
New York
540 139
10,205
1.89
18.62
14.12
New Jersey
267,130
15,251
5.71
9.21
21.10
Pennsylvania....
889,740
20,854
2.34
30.69
28.85
Ohio
456,388
10,998
2.41
15.74
15.12
2,899,898
72,283
2.49
41.77
64.69
Total
. .
D. URBAN PLACES OF LESS THAN 25,000
United States
North
South
West
. .
16,534,489
185,967
1.12
11,273,911
144,311
1.28
68.19
77.60
3,704,584
29,293
0.79
22.40
15.75
1,555,994
12,363
0.79
9.41
6.65
100.
100.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
133
Beginning with cities 25,000 or over, reports were received
from every place and these showed that every city of that
size in the country had permanent inhabitants of the Jewish
faith totalling 378,862 persons and constituting 8.8% of the
total.
c. CITIES OF 25,000-100,000:—In the cities of 25,000 to
100,000, the Jews constitute 3.11% of the total. But the
states show great variation in the density of the Jews, .
ranging from 8% in New Jersey to 0.63 in South Dakota.
Similarly, the divisions vary from 3.5% in the North and
2.28% in the South, to 1.47% in the West. As in the other
classes of places, the states of greatest density are found in
the central portion of the northeast and include Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, which have a combined density of 5.65% of the
total, the state of greatest density being New Jersey with
8.06%. From the point of view of distribution, these five
states have nearly two-thirds of the total number of Jews
living in the class of cities, compared with a little over onethird for the total population. In the divisions as a whole,
however, the distribution of the Jews varies less from that of
the norm for the total population.
Jews: North 81.29%; South 15.06%; West 3.65%
Total: North 71.85%; South 20.47%; West 7.68%
d. CITIES OF 100,000 OR OVER:—As for the large cities of
100,000 or over there live a total of 3,553,600 Jews comprising 11.11% of the total population of those cities. The
divisions vary greatly, as between the North on the one
hand, and the South and the West on the other. The Jews
constitute 12.82% in the large cities of the North, but only
3.46% and 4.32% in those of the South and the West
respectively. The distribution, however, does not vary as
greatly as is often supposed. It is true that 93% of all
Jews who live in large cities are found in the North, but in
the case the total population, over 80% live in the same
cities of the North. The distribution by divisions is as
follows:
Jews: North 93.16%; South 2.67%; West 4.17%
Total: North 80.70%; South 8.57%; West 10.73%
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
134
In four adjacent states in the North East the Jews constitute 10% or more in each state, showing a combined percentage of 19.74% of the total. These states are Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. To this
region of high density must be added another state in the
East North Central division, namely Illinois, 10.47%,
which, however, has only one large city, Chicago. The
large cities of the four adjacent states in the North East
named above contain over two-thirds of the total number of
Jews in those cities, and over half (55.78%) of the total
number of Jews in the country as a whole, whereas over
one-third of the total population in this class of cities is
found in these four states, their number constituting only a
little over 10% of the entire population of the country.
TABLE XII
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS AND THEIR DENSITY IN URBAN
PLACES OF 25,000-100,000, 1927
Distribution
Division
and
State
Population
Jews
Percentage
of
Jews to
Total
United States
12,191,173
378.862
3.11
North
8.759.363
307,992
3.51
71.85
81.29
South
2,495,825
57,040
2.28
20.47
15.06
935,985
13.830
1.47
7.68
3.65
1,143.259
80,230
7.02
9.38
21.18
5.08
West
Total
Jews
100.
100.
Region of Greatest
Density
Massachusetts...
Connecticut
320,771
19,250
6.
2.63
New York
845,453
35,890
4.24
6.93
9.48
New Jersey
842,211
67,940
8.06
6.91
17.93
1,009,315
31,910
3.16
8.28
8.42
4,161.009
235,220
5.65
34.13
62.09
Pennsylvania....
Total
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
135
TABLE XIII
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS AND THEIR DENSITY
IN CITIES 100,000 AND OVER
Division
and
State
United States
Nprth
South
West
Region of Greatest
Density
Connecticut
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania....
Total
Population
Jews
31,988,375
25,816,035
3,533,600
3,310,350
2.742,300
94,900
3,430.040
148,350
Percentage
of
Jews to
Total
11.11
12.82
Distribution
Total
Jews
100.00
80.70
100.00
93.16
3.46
8.57
2.67
4.32
10.73
4.17
505,700
62,500
12.36
1.58
1.76
7,280,600
1,837,500
25.23
22.76
51.71
1,201,800
124,000
10.32
3.76
3.49
2,959,800
11,947.900
334,500
2,358,500
11.3
19.74
9.25
37.35
9.41
66.37
3. SUMMARY OF DISTRIBUTION
We may now summarize the facts we have gathered about
the distribution of the Jews in the United States, and their
density. In the country as a whole, the Jews constitute
3.58% of the total population. The density and distribution of the Jews in the country by Divisions and Sections is
as follows :
(a.) MAJOR DIVISIONS:—The Division called the North,
embracing the New England, the Middle Atlantic (plus
Maryland, Delaware, and District of Columbia), the East
North Central and the West North Central States, have
over 90% of the Jews of the country (90.39%) their number
constituting over five percent of the population of the Division; the Division called the South, embracing the South
Atlantic (minus Maryland, Delaware, and the District of
Columbia), the East South Central, and the West South
Central States, has only 5.35% of the Jews of the country
who constitute but a little over one-half of one percent of
the population of the Division; while the Division called the
West, embracing the Mountain and Pacific States has only
4.26% of the Jewe of the country, constituting, however, a
little over one and one-half percent of the population of the
Division.
136
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
TABLE XIV
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS AND THEIR DENSITY IN THE
UNITED STATES BY DIVISION AND SECTION,
Section
and
Division
Total
Population
Jews
United States
118,140,645
THE NORTHI
72,710,620
Percentage
of
1927
Distribution
Jews to
Total
Total
Jews
4,227,029
3.58
100.00
100.00
3,821,045
5.25
61.54
90.39
48.77
78.04
35,464,428
2,981,826
8.41
East North Central... 24,564,000
672,597
2.74
33.78
17.60
West North Central..
12,682,192
166,622
1.28
17.45
4.36
34,531,618
225,940
.65
29.23
5.35
.63
39.15
37.54
Northeast
T H E SOUTH
2
13,518,000
84,811
East South Central.. .
9,362,618
61,376
.65
27.11
27.16
West South Central..
11,651,000
79,753
.68
33.74
35.30
10,898,407
180,044
1.65
9.23
4.26
Mountain
4,013,047
29,987
.75
36.83
16.66
Pacific
6,885,000
150,057
2.18
63.17
83.34
South Atlantic
T H E WEST
(b.) THE NORTH:—In this Division, the section we have
called the North East, embracing the New England and the
Middle Atlantic States, with the addition of Maryland,
Delaware, and the District of Columbia, has 78.04% of the
Jewish population of the Division, constituting 8.41% of
the total (in the three Northern New England States, the
Jews are much less densely settled than in the rest of this
section). The East North Central (Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Indiana) has 17.60% of the Jews of the
North, forming not quite three percent of the total population; while the West North Central section (Minnesota,
Iowa, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska,
and Kansas) has only 4.36% of the Jews of the Division,
constituting a little over one per cent of the total.
'Includes Maryland, Delaware and District of Columbia.
!
Does not include Maryland, Delaware and District of Columbia
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
137
(c.) THE SOUTH:—In this Division the Jews are almost
equally divided among the three sections; 37.54% live in
the South Atlantic section (Virginia, West Virginia, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida); almost
the same proportion (35.30%) live in the West South Central (Arkansas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Texas); while the
East South Central section (Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, and Mississippi) has 27.16% of the Jews of the Division. The similarity among the three sections of the South
is even closer in the matter of density of the Jewish population, ranging around the percent for the whole division
namely 0.65%. As we have already pointed out, in the
South, the distribution of the Jews closely corresponds to
that of the total population. Here it is interesting to note
that more than half (58.49%) of the Jews of the entire
Division, live in the single state of Texas.
(d.) THE WEST:—In this Division, the Pacific States
(Washington, Oregon, and California) have 83.34% of the
Jews of the Division, this large percentage being due to the
number of Jews in California, which constitutes over 80%
of the total number of Jews in this Division. The Mountain
States (Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Montana, Idaho,
Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico) have only 16.66% of the
Jews of the Division. Here it should be noted that in the
state of Colorado alone there are 18,700, Jews, more than
twice as many as in the other Mountain States taken together. In Colorado the density of the Jews reaches nearly
two percent, making it the region of highest density in this
section. The Jews in the Pacific States constitute over 2%
of the total population of the section as compared with only
three-quarters of one percent in the Mountain States.
138
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
TABLE XV
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS AND THEIR DENSITY IN THE UNITED
STATES BY STATE, SECTION, AND DIVISION, 1927
1
Total
Population1
Jews
Percentage
of
Jews to
Total
Total
Jews
72,710,620
3,821,045
5.25
61.54
90.39
35,464,428
793,000
455,000
352,428
4,242,000
704,000
1,636,000
11,423,000
3,749,000
9,730,000
1,597,000
243,000
540,000
2,981,826
8,480
2,779
2,036
225,634
25,003
91,538
1,903,890
225,306
404,979
70,871
5,310
16,000
8.41
1.07
0.01
0.58
5.32
3.56
5.59
16.67
6.01
4.16
4.44
2.18
2.96
48.77
2.24
1.28
0.99
11.96
1.99
4.61
32.21
10.57
27.44
4.50
0.69
1.52
78.09
0.28
0.09
0.07
7.57
0.84
3.07
63.85
7.56
13.58
2.37
0.18
0.54
100.00
100.00
24,564,000
6,710,000
4,490,000
2,918,000
7,296,000
3,150,000
672,597
173,976
89,462
35,935
345,980
27,244
2.74
2.59
1.99
1.23
4.74
.86
33.78
27.32
18.28
11.88
29.70
12.82
17.60
25.85
13.30
5.35
51.45
4.05
100.00
100.00
12,682,192
2,686,000
2,425,000
3,510,000
641,192
696,000
1,396,000
1,328,000
166,622
43,197
16,404
80,687
2,749
1.584
14,209
7,792
1.28
1.61
0.68
2.3
0.43
0.23
1.02
0.59
17.45
21.18
19.12
27.68
5.05
5.49
11.01
10.47
4.36
25.92
9.85
48.42
1.65
0.95
8.53
4.68
100.00
100.00
The South
34,531,618
225,940
0.65 •
29.23
5.35
SOUTH ATLANTIC
13,518,000
2,546,000
1,696,000
2.897,000
1,845,000
3,171,000
1,363,000
84.811
25,656
7,471
8.252
6,851
23,179
13,402
0.63
1.01
0.44
0.28
0.37
0.73
0.98
39.15
18.83
12.55
21.43
13.65
23.46
10.08
37.54'
30.25
8.81
9.72
8.08
27.34
15.80
100.00
100.00
9,362,618
2,538,000
2,485,000
2,549,000
1,790,618
61,376
19,533
22,532
12,891
6,420
0.65
0.77
0.91
0.50
0.36
27.11
27.11
26.54
27.22
19.13
27.16
31.82
36.72
21.00
10.46
100.00
100.00
State,
Section and
Division
The North
NORTHEAST
Maine
New Hampshire
Vermont
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
Maryland
Delaware
District of Columbia..
EAST NORTH CENTRAL . .
Ohio
Michigan
Wisconsin
....
Indiana
WEST NORTH CENTRAL.
Minnesota
Missouri
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
Virginia
West Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
Florida
EAST SOUTH CENTRAL. .
Kentucky
Tennessee
Alabama
Mississippi
•See note on page 102.
Distribution
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
139
TABLE XV (Continued)
State,
Section and
Division
Total
Population
Jews
Percentage
of
Jews to
Total
Distributiqn
Total
Jews
33.74
16.50
20.57
16.60
46.33
35.30
11.10
9.81
20.60
58.49
100.00
100.00
WEST SOUTH CENTRAL..
11,651,000
1,923,000
2.397,000
1,934,000
5,397,000
79,753
8,850
7,823
16,432
46,648
0.68
0.46
0.33
0.85
0.86
The West
10,898,407
180,044
1.65
9.23
4.26
MOUNTAIN
4,013,407
1.074,000
241,000
522,000
714,000
534,000
77,402
459,000
392,000
29,987
20.321
1.319
2,857
1,578
1,141
264
1,455
1,052
0.75
1.89
0.55
0.55
0.22
0.21
0.34
0.32
0.27
36.83
26.76
6.00
13.00
17.79
13.35
1.92
11.43
9.75
16.66
67.77
4.40
9.52
5.27
3.80
0.88
4.85
3.51
100.00
100.00
PACIFIC
6,885,000
1,562,000
890,000
4,433,000
150,057
14,698
13,075
122,284
2.18
0.94
1.47
2.76
63.17
22.68
12.93
64.37
83.34
9.79
8.72
81.49
100.00
00.00
Arkansas
Oklahoma
Louisiana
Texas
Colorado
Wyoming
Utah.
. . .
Montana
Idaho
Nevada
Arizona
New Mexico
Washington
Oregon
California
140
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
IV. SPECIFIC DENSITY OF THE J E W S IN THE U N I T E D STATES
The paragraphs that precede give the percentage that the
Jews form of the total population. While there are Jews in
all cities of 25,000 population and over, Jews do not live in
all rural places or in all urban places of less than that size.
Hence, the density of 1.61%, for example, assigned to towns
of 10,000-25,000 means that the total number of Jews in
cities of that class is 1.61% of the total population of all the
cities in the group.
We may call this the general density of the Jewish population of a particular group of places. If, however, we consider only those places in which there are Jews, we shall of
course find that their specific density is much greater. We
shall now examine our data with a view to determining this
specific density in rural places and in cities of 25,000 population and less.
Our canvas shows that the proportion of such places
having no Jews varies with the size of such places, and that
generally speaking, this proportion increases as the size of
the place decreases. Even of the small towns a comparatively large proportion have Jews, but the percentage shows
a sharp decline when we reach rural territory.
As will be seen from the accompanying table, the specific
density of the Jews is highest in the cities of 25,000 or over,
where Jews constitute 8.8% of the total population. Next
come the rural places, where the percentage is 1.58%.
Finally, come the urban places of 25,000 or less, where the
specific density for that group of towns is 1.28%. In the
rural territory, it is the UNINCORPORATED places that show
the higher specific density (1.74%). Within the class of the
urban places of 25,000 or less, the specific density of the
Jews tends to decrease with the size of the place, it being
1.82% in towns of 25,000-10,000; 9 5 % in towns of 10,0005,000, and 0.82% in towns of 5,000-2,500.
The above results were readily arrived at in the case of
cities of 25,000 and over, since every such place reported
Jews. In the case of rural territory and of places 25,000 or
less, since our figures for both the number of places and the
number of Jews were estimated partly through reports and
partly through the statistical method of sampling, it was
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
141
necessary to determine the number of places having Jews
and the number of Jews in each class, namely, (1) those
that reported and (2) those that were estimated. The density of the Jews in the former was readily determined as
follows:
TABLE XVI
DENSITY OF JEWS IN PLACES REPORTING JEWISH RESIDENTS
Class of Place
Places
Reporting
Jews
RURAL TERRITORY
Unincorporated
Incorporated Villages of
2,500 or Less
URBAN PLACES
Total
Population of
These Places
Number of
Jews
Reported
12272
Per Cent
Jews to
Total
170
412,641
9,038
2.19
1,068
1,329,001
20,141
1.51
2,500-5,000
727
2,629,125
26,599
1.01
5,000-10,000
489
3,461,978
36,986
1.06
10,000- 25,000
399
6,028,991
108,690
1.80
25,000-100,000
219
12,191,173
378,862
3.11
100,000 or Over
68
31,988,375
3,553,600
11.11
We have no right to assume that the Jews constitute the
same percentage of the total population in towns from
which reports were not received, but which were estimated
to have Jews. For, the former class includes the thickly
settled Jewish communities which were known to us, were
canvassed, and furnished reports. We may, however,
determine the percentage of the total estimated number of
Jews to the total population in the latter class of places1
and, by taking the percentage of the total Jews to the total
population of both the places that reported and the places
that were estimated, determine the specific density of the
Jews in all places in which Jews live.
•See Note A.
2
See notes on pp. 105, 106.
142
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
1. S P E C I F I C D E N S I T Y O F J E W S I N R U R A L T E R R I T O R Y
As the following table shows, only 7.39% of rural unincorporated places have Jews, T h e region in which such
places are proportionately most numerous embraces the
states of Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey, where the
proportion of places having Jews exceeds 10%. It is also
interesting to note t h a t the states constituting the geographic division called South, have the largest proportion
of such places, more than twice as m a n y as the N o r t h , and
almost half again as m a n y as the West. T h e difference in
the distribution of rural unincorporated places, as between
those which have Jews and the total number, is somewhat
pronounced in the North and the South.
In the rural incorporated places, almost one-third (30.55%)
of them have Jews as residents, and in the region of highest
density in this respect, again the States of Connecticut, New
York and New Jersey, over 4 0 % of the rural incorporated
places have Jews as residents. T h e South again has the
largest proportion of this type of place, although the
Divisions do not show the disparity exhibited by the unincorporated rural places.
PLACES IN RURAL TERRITORY HAVING JEWISH RESIDENTS
Per Cent of
Places in Which
Jews Live
Unincorporated
Incorporated
Distribution of Places
Unincorporated
Total
Jews
Incorporated
Total
Jews
7.39
30.55
North
S.32
29.56
51.03
36.80
60.15
58.20
South
11.23
32.81
28.97
43.50
30.81
33.10
West
7.29
29.39
20.
19.70
9.04
8.70
4.29
4.11
5.46
United States
Region of Greatest
Density
10.5
40.57
100.
3.02
100.
100.
100.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
143
As was stated above our canvas shows that the specific
density of Jews in the rural territory where they live is a
little higher than that in the small urban places. In the
region of highest density it reaches nearly 3>^% of the total
population and this region contains almost one-fifth
(18.94%) of the total number of Jews in rural territory
compared with nearly six percent for the total population.
Considering the unincorporated territory and the incorporated territory in the region of highest density separately, we find that in the former the Jews constitute nearly
three percent (2.91%) of the total in this region, and in the
latter almost four and a half percent. Further, of all the
Jews living in unincorporated territory, 15% live in this
region, while of the total number of Jews living in incorporated villages, this region contains nearly one-fourth.
The variation from the distribution of the total population
is very great.
But also outside of this region the percentage of the Jews
to the total is over 1% in the places where the Jews live,
except the villages of the West where it is less than 1%.
The major divisions show variation in the case of the percentage of the Jews to the total, due largely to the presence
of the region of highest density. As for distribution, that
of the Jews varies from that of the total, especially in the
West, both in the unincorporated territory and in incorporated territory.
SPECIFIC DENSITY OF JEWS IN RURAL TERRITORY
Distribution
Per Cent
UninUnin- Incorporated
corpo- corpo- Total
rated rated
Total Jews
Division
United S t a t e s . . . .
North...
.
South .
West
Region of Highest
Density
Incorporated
Total
Jews
Total
Total
Jews
1.37
1.58 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
2.35
1.62
1.92
44.09 44.39 59.56 67.79 46.79 S3.77
1.45'
1.12
1.34
48.05
1.35
0.70 0.996
7.86
5.23
9.81
4.82
8.20
5.06
2.91
4.38
3.49
5.69
15.73
5.64
23.73
5.68
18.94
1.76
50.38 30.63 27.39 45.01 41.17
144
A M E R I C A N J E W I S H Y E A R BOOK
2. SPECIFIC D E N S I T Y IN URBAN PLACES OF 25,000 OR L E S S
The difference in the proportion of places having Jewish
residents, as between rural regions and cities is very great.
We have seen that 7.39% of unincorporated and 30.55%
of incorporated rural places have Jewish residents. But of
cities of 25,000 population or less, fully 85 out of every 100
have Jewish residents. The region of highest density in this
class of towns, as a whole, embraces the Middle Atlantic
States of New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania, though
in the case of those of 25,000 to 10,000 the region is larger,
comprising in addition the adjacent states of Connecticut,
Massachusetts and Ohio. The percentage of places having
Jews does not differ materially as between the divisions nor
in the region of highest density, and the distribution of
places having Jews closely approaches the distribution of
the whole class of towns among the Divisions.
When, however, we analyze our figures as to the number
of Jews residing in these cities, we find great variations.
Taken as whole the specific density of the Jews in the
large class of urban places of 25,000 or less is a little less
than that in the rural territory, namely, 1.28% of the total.
In the region of highest density, namely, the Middle
Atlantic States, the specific density of the Jews is over 2 % ,
and the distribution of the Jews differs radically from that
of the total population. The Divisions show variation, the
density of the Jews being higher in the North than in the
South or the West.
This important class of urban places, however, should be
divided from the point of view of the specific density of the
Jews, into two classes: 25,000 to 10,000 and 10,000 to 2,500.
In the former class the region of highest density comprises
the Middle Atlantic States, (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania), and the three adjacent states of Connecticut,
Massachusetts and Ohio. In this region the Jews form over
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
145
2.5% of the total, and it contains nearly 65% of the total
number of Jews, living in such places compared with 42%
for the total population. The density of the Jews in such
places in the country as a whole is 1.82%; the division of the
North differs greatly from the others; and the distribution
among the Divisions varies from that of the total population.
In the class of towns 10,000-2,500, the percentage that
the Jews form of the total is less than 1%, but in the Middle
Atlantic States the density reached 1.8%, and this region
contains 45% of the total number of Jews living in these
small urban places, compared with 22% for the total population. The major divisions vary, the lowest being the
division of the South. On the other hand, the distribution of the Jews does not differ materially from that of the
total population. Within this class of towns, the urban
places of 10,000 to 5,000 differs little from that of the places
of 5,000 to 2,500 class.
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
10.
22
s
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63
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6.71
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79.4
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JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
8
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11
IS
147
148
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Summing up the results of our canvass as related to the
distribution of the Jews and their density in the rural territory and in the urban places of the various sizes, we note
that the spread of the Jews to the places of 25*000 and over
has reached 100%, and that also to places of smaller size the
spread of the Jews is already considerable, but the spread of
the Jews to the rural villages and to the unincorporated
rural places is still limited in scope, the penetration of the
Jews in the rural unincorporated districts being especially
slight. Inasmuch as the canvasses of the Jews made ten
and twenty years ago and also previously did not lend
themselves to an examination of the distribution of the
Jews and their densities at those years, it is not possible to
make comparisons or to trace the movement of the Jews
from the ports of their entry to the interior and from the
large places to the small places, or to indicate the pace of
their spread over the country. But the striking lightness of
the density of the Jews in the rural places and especially in
the small towns of 25,000 or less would indicate that their
spread to these places is recent.
In the case of rural territory, the chief source of the
dispersion seems to be the City of New York, from which
place the Jews are spreading to the rural territory in the
states roundabout,—New York, Connecticut, and New
Jersey. In the case of the small urban places, the chief
sources of origin include also Philadelphia (perhaps also
Pittsburgh) and to a smaller degree the city of Boston, from
which centers the Jews are spreading to the states near the
former three cities, namely, New York, New Jersey and
Pennsylvania. This process is evidently more advanced as
far as the penetration to places is concerned, than the
advance in the matter of density. The density of the Jews
in the small towns is especially light in the West and in the
South.
The tables that follow give in detail the data upon which
are based the summary tables which precede1.
•See Note A.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
351,
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No. of Place
:
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in towns 1
No. of Jews
No. of Jews
Total J
Per Cent of
Per Cent of
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2
a
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44,56
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149
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
©00
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727
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JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
COO
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151
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
152
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26
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860
179
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69
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60.5
61.8
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Total
Per Cent o
Per Cent o
Per Cent o
C/5
Total
Population
to have
X
933
.63
1.29
9.06
W
418
033
900
m
886
257
161
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JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
13
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Total J
Per Cent of Jews c
Per Cent of Distri;
Per Cent of' Distrii
3,73
>
,S36
!
O
Total Population in Town
having J<?ws.. .
Number of.Jews in Towns
Number of,Jews in Towns
5
ES 3 •*-«3
3,06
2,57
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470
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268
Total
00 cs eN
Total Population.
Population in Tow
Population in Tow
to have J
>_.
o
<N u")
win
73
9.03
9.07
9.06
nsit
ro **
363
igh
c
c
,130
7.60
3.18
4.31
New J
Region
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767
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ision
o
Per Cent oi: PlacesI Havini
Per Cent oi:: DistributionPer Cent oi Distribution-
Stai
V)
V
Number of Places
Number of Places Reporti
Number of Places Estima
to have J
11
[Tnii
154
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
c*i
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a
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otal Population
16,942,742 5,022, 849
opulation in Towns
Reporting Jews
16,028,991 4,265,
op. in Towns Estimated to have Jews | 111,912
55,
Tot. Population in
Towns having Jews 6,140,903
umber of Jews in
Towns Reported
108,690
o. of Jews in Towns
Estimated
1
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Total Jews
90,
C. of Jews of Total.,
2
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JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
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Number of fewsi n Towns Report*
Number of fewsi n Towns Estima
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Total Popu ation
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Population in Towns Reporting . ews . 12,12O,C
Population in To wns Estimated
to Have lews.
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27.1
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-ibution—Total
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Sou
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Total.
Per Cent of
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Per Cent oi
Nor
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B
Number of Place s
Number of Place s Reporting Jew
No. of Plac<?sEst mated to Have '
Unite
State
156
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
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JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
157
V. GROWTH OF THE JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES
Decennial estimates are available of the number of Jews
in the country beginning with 1897. Previous to that date,
a careful estimate was made as of 1877. A number of other
estimates are available, the earliest being one made in 1818
ESTIMATES OF TNE NUMBER OF JEWS, 1818-1927
Year of
Estimate
181811
1826
184011
1848
1877
18881
1897
1905
1907
1910
1914
1917
1920
1927
Jews
Authority
Isaac Harby
The American Almanac
M. A. Berk
William B. Hackenburg
.
David Sulzberger
The Jewish Encyclopedia (Joseph Jacobs)
American Jewish Year Book (Miss Henrietta Szold).
Bureau of Jewish Statistics and Research of A. J. C.
(Joseph Jacobs)
Bureau of Jewish Statistics and Research of A. J. C.
(Joseph Jacobs)
Bureau of Jewish Statistics and Research of A. J. C.
Bureau of Jewish Social Research(H. S. Linfield)...
3,000
6,000
15,000
50,000
229,087
400,000
937,800
1,508,435
1,777,185
2,043,762
2,933,874
3,388,951
3,600,800
4,228,029
'Date of publication of estimate.
The estimates previous to those of 1877 and 1888 were
made on bases so different from those of later years that no
comparisons between the two groups of estimates are possible. Of the one made in 1897 by Mr. David Sulzberger,
the latter wrote: "This estimate is, I believe, conservative.
It is not capriciously made yet is put forward tentatively as
material for criticism and discussion." The estimate was
made "upon the basis of earlier computations and with the
aid of persons in various parts of the country." Greater
finality was claimed for the remaining estimates. But,
owing to differences in their scope and the methods employed in gathering the data, even these can scarcely be
compared with the estimate for 1927. Certainly no conclusions should be drawn as to the rate of growth of the
Jewish population on the basis of these estimates.
The data in the tables below, though they permit of the
making of a comparison between the figures of the total and
that of the Jews, should, therefore, be regarded only as a
summary of the estimates. The only conclusion that we
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
158
may draw from the data of the table below is that during
1877-1927, there has been a continuous rise in the percentage of the Jews to the total population of the country, i. e.
the Jews" have been growing a little faster than the tota
population, and that this growth is slowing down.
TABLE XIX
TOTAL POPULATION AND NUMBER OF JEWS, 1877-1927
ncrease
Year
Population
Jews
P. C.
Jews
Total
P. C.
Interval
Number
P. C. Number
1877...
43,661,968
229,087
0.52
1897...
72,106,120
937,800
1.31
20 yrs 28,444,152 65.15
708,713 309.36
1907...
88,787,058 1,776,885
2.
10 yrs. 16,680,938 23.13
839,085
89.47
1917... 103,690,473 3,388,951
3.27
10 yrs. 14,853,415 16.73 1,612,066
90.72
1927... 118,140,645 4,228,029
3.58
10 yrs. 14,500,172
24.76
13.99
839,078
The estimates of 1887, 1997, 1907, 1917, and 1927 may
be compared from the point of view of the density of the
Jews and their distribution among the major divisions in
the country. The table below would indicate that the rate
of the growth of the Jews has varied in the major divisions
of the countr. In the North the Jews have increased from
0.57% of the total population in 1877 to 5.25% in 1927.
On the other hand, in the South and especially in the West
the gain in the percentage has been insignificant, from 0.27%
in 1877 to 0.65% in 1927 in the South and from 1.6% in 1877
to 1.66% in 1927 in the West. As for the distribution of the
Jews as compared with the distribution of the total population during the past half century, we note that the percentage of distribution of the Jews in the North has gained continually at the expense of the South and the West up to
1917. Thus, in 1877, 76.36% of the total number of Jews
lived in the North, compared with 14.27% and 9.37% in the
South and in the West respectively. But in 1917 the North
contained 92.25% of the total number of Jews in the country, the South 4.59%, and the West 3.16%. Since the
estimate of 1917, it appears, however, that the North has
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
159
been losing to the South and to the West (of the total population in 1927, 90.39% lived in the North and 5.35% and
4.26% in the South and West respectively). The distribution of the Jews, thus, shows the same trend as does the
total population: during the past fifty years the percentage
of distribution of the total population has been decreasing
in the North (from 69.69% in 1877 to 61.54% in 1927) and
increasing in the South and West (from 27.24% in 1877 to
29.23% in 1927 in the South; from 3.07% in 1877 to 9.23%
in 1927 in the West).
TABLE XX
NUMBER OF JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES BY DIVISION
1877, 1897, 1907, 1917 and 1927
Year< and
Division
Population
Jews
Per Cent
30,428,480
46,945.468
55,761,703
63,835,562
72,710,620
174,930
748,000
1,622,000
3,126,394
3,821,045
11,894,780
21,113,735
27,180,855
30,983,045
34,531,618
1877
1,338,708
4,046,917
1897 . . .
1907
5,844,500
1917
8,821,866
1927
10,898,407
'See note on p. 102.
NORTH
1877
1897.
1907
1917.. . .
1927
SOUTH
1877
1897
1907
1917 . .
1927
WEST
Distribution
Total
Jews
0.57
1.59
2.91
4.89
5.25
69.69
65.11
62.61
61.59
61.54
76.36
79.76
91.28
92.25
90.39
32,692
127,500
90,185
155,251
225,940
0.27
0.6
0.33
0.5
0.65
27.24
29.28
30.62
29.89
29.23
14.27
13.60
5.08
4.59
5.35
21,465
62,300
64,700
107,306
181,044
1.6
1.44
1.11
1.22
1.66
3.07
5.61
6.57
8.52
9.23
9.37
6.64
3.64
3.16
4.26
160
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
NOTES
NOTE A.
ON METHOD OF ESTIMATING NUMBER OF JEWS IN PLACES WHICH
DID NOT REPORT
The method of sampling was applied in the following manner: At a
certain stage of the inquiry the rural incorporated villages which had not
responded were arranged in alphabetical order by states; each twentieth
was then selected for special convassing. To avoid possible error, every
place that was found to be located in the so-called metropolitan districts of, or in the territory adjacent to large cities was eliminated. A
total of 571 places having a combined population of 363,188 (census of
1920) then remained for special canvassing, as a sample of the 11,840
places from which no information as to the number of Jews in them had
yet been received.
A similar procedure was followed in the case of the unincorporated
rural districts except that in the latter case every one hundredth of the
minor civil divisions, alphabetically arranged by state, county, and
division, was set aside for canvassing. Of the list thus obtained the
following were eliminated: every minor civil division which was wholly
incorporated territory or which included incorporated territory the
population of which was not specified, and every part of a minor civil
division which was incorporated. A total of 403 minor civil divisions
with a combined population of 390,013 were thus set aside for special
canvassing in the belief that they represented a true sample of the
44,397 places of this class from which no information as to the number
of Jews in them had yet been received.
Similar was the procedure in the case of the small urban places of
2,500-5,000, except that every fifth was set aside for special canvassing.
A total of 132 places with a combined population of 438,131 were thus
set aside for canvassing.
Of the 571 rural incorporated places having a combined population
of 363,188, a total of 490 having a combined population of 319,584
responded, and of these 119 reported having 984 Jews; of the 132 urban
places of 2,500-5,000, a total of 82 having a combined population ei
265,391 responded and of these 58 places reported having 807 Jews; but
of the 403 unincorporated minor civil divisions, 226 with a combined
rural population of 195,734 responded and of these but 23 reported
having 330 Jews. An examination of the places which did not answer
in the case of the two former samples did not convince the writer that
the relative results would have been affected had those places answered.
The places that did not respond were, therefore, disregarded. This
procedure was not followed in the case of the unincorporated districts.
In order to arrive at a conservative estimate, the unresponsive districts
were divided into two classes: those having less than 1,000 residents
and those having more than that number. The places of the latter
class were disregarded on the supposition that had they answered the
relative results would not have been affected; on the other hand, all the
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
161
places of the former class numbering 113, and having a combined population of 50,861 were included and were counted as if they had reported
no Jews.
The findings were then examined from the point of view of the major
divisions of the country, namely North, South, and West as well as for
the country as a whole, and the examination yielded the following
results:
SAMPLE A.—INCORPORATED RURAL PLACES
Divisions
United
States
Number of Places Canvassed
Total Population
Places Reporting Jews
Number of Jews Reported
Per Cent of Places Having Jews
Per Cent of Jews Among Uncanvassed Population
490
319,584
119
984
24.28
North
South
West
313
194,436
74
646
23.7
135
94,085
35
219
26.
42
31,053
10
47
24.
0.307
.31
.33
.15
SAMPLE B.—UNINCORPORATED RURAL PLACES
Number of Places Canvassed
Total Population
Places Reporting Jews
Number of Jews Reported
Per Cent of Places Having Jews
Per Cent of Jews Among Uncanvassed Population
339
246,595
23
330
188
115,527
9
128
6.78
4.78
0.134
0.11
SAMPLE C—URBAN PLACES OF
Number of Places Canvassed
Total Population
Places Reporting Jews
Number of Jews Reported
Per Cent of Places Having Jews..
Per Cent of Jews Among Uncanvassed Population
82
99,865
9
161
11.
0.16
69
i 1,203
5
41
7.24
0.13
2,500-5,000
82
265,391
58
807
70.73
48
155,589
35
528
73.
22
69,132
13
102
60.
12
40,670
10
177
84.
0.304
0.339
0.148
0.436
The percentages for both, places and Jews, of each division were then
applied to the states within each division. For example: in order to
determine the number of places having Jews among the uncanvassed
rural places in Illinois, 23.7%, which is the percentage of the North,
was taken from the total number of uncanvassed places in the state of
Illinois and the result accepted as the number of places having Jews
among those. Similar was the procedure in the case of the number of
Jews among the population of the uncanvassed places. The figures
attained for the states of a division, both for places and for the number
of Jews, were then added, and the sum totals accepted as number of
places and of Jews for that division, as follows:
162
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
RURAL UNINCORPORATED
DISTRICTS
North
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Total Population
Population of Places Reporting Jews
Population of Places Not Reporting
Per Cent of Jews Among Uncanvassed
Population (Sample B)
10. Number of Jews
Among Uncanvassed
Population1
8,914
8
8,906
7.24
641
18,708,243
359,864
18,348,379
20,392,095
40,349
20,351,746
3,336,4.18
12,428
3,324,010
0.11
0.16
0.13
20,173
32,557
4,319
PLACES
North
Total Number of Places
Number Reporting Jews
Number of Uncanvassed Places
Per Cent Having Jews (Sample A)
Number of Places Having Jews1
6.
7.
8.
9.
Total Population
Population of Places Reporting Jews
Population of Places Not Reporting
Per Cent of Jews Among Uncanvassed
Population (Sample A)
10. Number of Jews
Among Uncanvassed
Population1
West
12,912
22
12,890
11.
1,410
RURAL INCORPORATED
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
South
22,739
140
22,599
4.78
1,071
Total Number of Places
Number Reporting Jews
Number of Uncanvassed Places (1 minus 2)
Per Cent of Places Having Jews 1(Sample B)
Number of Places Having Jews
South
West
7,764
605
7,159
23.7
1,690
3,977
376
3,601
26.
929
1,167
87
1,080
24.
256
5,341,765
727,857
4.613,908
2,747,405
480,365
2,267,040
880,071
120,779
759.292
0.33
0.31
0.15
15,217
7,021
1.134
URBAN PLACES 2 ,500-5,000
North
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Total Number of Places
Number Reporting Jews
Number of Uncanvassed Places
Per Cent Having Jews (Sample C)
Number of Places Having Jews1
Total Population
Population-of Places Reporting Jews
Population of Places Not Reporting
Per Cent of Jews Among Uncanvassed
Population (Sample C)
10. Number of Jews
Among Uncanvassed
Population1
800
445
355
73..
248
South
West
374
198
176
60.
99
147
84
63
84.
47
2,804,828
1,604,124
1,200,704
1,270,239
716,744
553,495
518,886
308,257
210.629
0.339
0.148
0.436
4,060
811
900
•The estimated number of places having Jews and the number of Jews in them are
minima due to the fact that in the course of the application of the percentages of the
divisions to the individual states, fractions were lost, as a result, the sum total of the
number of places having Jews in the states within a division, were less than the totals
that would have been attained had we applied the percentages of the samples directly
to the numbers of uncanvassed places. For the same reason the numbers of Jews are
also minima. Similar is the case with regard to the United States as a whole, both as to
number of places estimated to have Jews, and the density of the Jews therein.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
163
The urban places of 5,000 to 25,000 which did not respond to our
direct canvass were comparatively so few that no sample could be
taken from that class of places. Inasmuch as the places of this class of
cities which did not respond have few Jews, we deemed it correct to
apply the results of the sample for places of 2,500 to 5,000 to the places
of 5,000-25,000.
URBAN PLACES
5,000-10,000
North
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Total Number of Places
Number Reporting Jews
Number of Uncanvassed Places
Per Cent Having Jews (Sample C)
Number of Places Having Jews1
6.
7.
8.
9.
Total Population
Population of Places Reporting Jews..
Population of Places Not Reporting...
Per Cent of Jews Among Uncanvassed
Population (Sample C)
10. Number of Jews
Among Uncanvassed
Population1
South
West
490
322
168
73.
115
158
121
37
60.
16
73
46
27
84.
16
3,446,234
2,317,259
1,128,975
1,062,821
825,829
236,992
488,739
318,890
168,849
0.339
0.148
0.436
3,819
347
709
URBAN PLACES 10,000-25,000
North
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Total Number of Places
Number Reporting Jews
Number of Uncanvassed Places
Per Cent Having Jews (Sample 1 C)
Number of Places Having Jews
6.
7.
8.
9.
Total Population
Population of Places Reporting Jews..
Population of Places Not Reporting...
Per Cent of Jews Among Uncanvassed
Population (Sample C)
,.
10. Number of Jews
Among Uncanvassed
1
Population
West
South
330
279
51
73.
30
94
89
5
60.
2
37
31
6
84.
2
5,022,849
4,265,639
757,210
1,371,524
1,306,237
548,369
457,115
65,287
91.254
0.148
0.436
96
396
0.339
2,560
To determine the number of places having Jews and the number of
Jews among uncanvassed places in the United States as a whole, the
conservative figures of the three major divisions, namely North, South,
and West, were added and the result accepted as the sum total for the
country 1as a whole, in spite of the fact that this procedure affected
changes.
•See footnote on p. 162.
164
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
NOTE B.
ON METHOD OF DETERMINING THE SPECIFIC DENSITY OF JEWS
IN PLACES WHICH DID NOT REPORT JEWS
The density of the Jews in places estimated to have Jews was computed in the following way: Since the number of all the uncanvassed
places and the combined population thereof are known, the average
size of the uncanvassed places may be determined. Multiplying
then the number of places estimated to have Jews, previously determined, by the number of the average size of the uncanvassed places, we
arrive at the total population of such of these places estimated to
have Jewish residents. The density of the Jews in such places is then
found by computing the percentage of the estimated number of Jews to
the estimated total population. These computations, applied to the
Divisions, yielded the following results:
RURAL UNINCORPORATED PLACES
North
South
22,599
12,890
Number of Uncanvassed Places
18,348,379 20,351,746
Population of Uncanvassed Places
812
1,580
Average Size
1,071
1,410
Number of Places Estimated to Have Jews.. .
869,652
2,227,800
Population in Estimated Places
20,173
32,557
Number of Jews in Estimated Places
2.32
1.46
Per Cent of Jews
RURAL INCORPORATED PLACES
Number of Uncanvassed Places
7,159
3,601
4,613.908
2,267,040
Population of Uncanvassed Places
627
644
Average Size
929
1,690
Number of Places Estimated to Have Jews.. .
1,088,360
584,341
Population of Estimated Places
Number of Jews in Estimated Places
15,217
7,021
1.40
1.20
Per Cent of Jews
West
8,906
3,324,010
373
641
239,093
3,319
1.39
1,080
759,292
703
256
179.968
1.134
0.63
500-5,000
Number of Uncanvassed Places
, ..
Population of Uncanvassed Places
Average Size
Number of Places Estimated to Have Jews...
Population of Estimated Places
Number of Jews in Estimated Places
Per Cent of Jews
355
1,200,704
3,382
248
838,736
4,060
0.48
176
553,495
3,144
99
311,256
811
0.26
63
210,629
3,343
47
157,161
900
0.57
37
236,992
6,405
16
102,480
347
0.34
27
169,849
6,290
16
100.640
709
0.70
5
65,287
13,057
2
26,114
96
0.37
6
91,254
15,209
2
30,418
396
1.30
30-10,000
Number of Uncanvassed Places
Population of Uncanvassed Place9
Average Size
Number of Places Estimated to Have Jews.. .
Population of Estimated Places
Number of Jews in Estimated Places
Per Cent of Jews
168
1,128,975
6,720
115
752,800
3,819
0.51
)OO-25,0O0
Number of Uncanvassed Places
Population of Uncanvassed Places
Average Size
Number of Places Estimated to Have Jews.. .
Population of Estimated Places
Number of Jews in Estimated Places
Per Cent of Jews
51
757,210
18,460
30
55,380
2,560
4.62
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
165
To determine the density of the Jews in those places in the United
States as a whole which have been estimated to have Jewish residents,
the figures obtained for the three major divisions were added, and the
sum total was adopted as the total population of the estimated places
in the United States as a whole. The figures this method yielded did not
tally with those we would have obtained had we applied to the United
States as a whole the method followed in the case of the divisions (See
footnote on p. 162).
NOTE C.
ON METHOD OF COMPUTING POPULATION ON BASIS OF NUMBER
OF SCHOOL CHILDREN
The method of computing the number of Jews on the basis of the
number of Jewish school children involved the following: In addition
to the population of given city as of 1927, the number of children enrolled
in the elementary public schools and junior high schools (but not kindergartens) of an average day was determined. To the latter figure were
added the enrollment in the Catholic elementary schools and junior high
schools, and in the case of New York, the enrollment in the Jewish
parochial schools. By adding the latter the ratio of the number of
children in the public schools to the population of the given city was
established in terms of a coefficient. The number of Jewish children was
then determined in the following way: by examining the enrollment
and the attendance on an average school day, the percentage of normal
absentees in the elementary public school was determined.
This figure was then deducted from the enrollment on the. Day of
Atonement, and the resulting figure showing the undue absence of
children on that day was considered as representing the number of
Jewish children in the elementary public schools. By multiplying the
figure for the Jewish children in the public elementary schools (in the
case of New York also those enrolled in the Jewish parochial schools) by
the coefficient for the given city, the number of Jews in that city was
determined. (For criticism of this method see below.) Below are
given the statistical data for eight cities. October 6th represents the
Day of Atonement in the fall of 1927 and October 4th the average school
day (in the case of Philadelphia, October 1st). In the case of St. Louis,
the figures for 1927 could not be used because of the tornado that struck
that city about that time and the figure given is that of 1925, September
28th representing the Day of Atonement and September 30th, the average school day. In the case of Pittsburgh, the figures are those of 1926,
and in the case of Cleveland, for 1925.
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
166
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JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
167
NOTE D.
ON METHOD OF COMPUTING JEWISH POPULATION ON BASIS OF
MOTHER-TONGUE STATISTICS
The method employed to estimate the number of Jews on the basis of
mother-tongue involved the following: In the census of 1920 as well as
in the census of 1910, the census enumerators collected data on the
mother-tongue of the foreign-born persons, and summaries were then
prepared of the number of such persons and the number of their nativeborn children, by state and city. In 1910, a total of 1,051,768 foreignborn persons were enumerated as reporting their mother-tongue to have
been Yiddish and Hebrew, and these had 612,371 children. In 1920,
a total of 1,091,820 foreign-born persons reported Yiddish and Hebrew
as their mother-tongue and those had 951,793 native-born children.
The difference in the number of foreign-born who reported Yiddish and'
Hebrew as their mother-tongue between 1910-1920 was only 40,052,'
but during 1910 and 1920 there entered the country a total of 460,000
Jews, the vast maiority of whom would ordinarily report Yiddish and
Hebrew as their mother-tongue. It is therefore evident that numerous
foreign-born persons with Yiddish as their mother-tongue were erroneously reported as of some other mother-tongue.
Now in 1910 a total of only 57,000 foreign-born persons reported
Russian as their mother-tongue and these had in that year 33,415
native-born children. Ten years later 392,049 foreign-born persons*
reported Russian as their mother-tongue with 303,900 native-born
children. It is obvious that the small immigration of Russians during
the ten years cannot account for the enormous increase of 334,123
foreign-born persons with 306,485 native-born children. The statisticians of the United States Bureau of the Census, therefore,rightly
concluded that the number 731,949, reported as of Russian mothertongue "probably includes a considerable proportion of Hebrews
erroneously reported as of Russian mother-tongue." It is possible,
however, to go further than this general statement, for we know that
the various people of Slavic and Lettic mother-tongues, other than
Russian, numbered 3,103,306 in 1910 and 4,538,632 in 1920, an increase
of 1,435,326 or 46.25%. Assuming that the persons of Russian mothertongue increased in the same proportion, such persons numbered
132,232 in 1920. The figure of 731,949 reported in 1920 thus includes
599,717 foreigners and their children of a mother-tongue or mothertongues other than, but erroneously reported as Russian. Inasmuch as
the figure given for foreigners and their children with Yiddish and
Hebrew as their mother-tongue is probably too low by 550,000 from
the point of view of the number of immigrants that entered the country between 1910 and 1920 and their native-born children (even after
allowing for a decrease by death of, say, 8 per 1,000) we may assume
that at least 75% of the 731,949 persons reported as of Russian mothertongue were "Hebrews erroneously reported as of Russian mothertongue." On this basis the actual number of persons of Yiddish or
Hebrew mother-tongue in 1920 probably was 2,592,575, made up of the
2,043,613 who reported Yiddish or Hebrew and 548,962 or 75% of the
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
168
731,949 erroneously reported as of Russian mother-tongue.1 Hence to
determine the number of foreigners in 1920 of Yiddish mother-tongue
and their progeny in a given city, it is necessary, other circumstances
permitting, to add 75% of the number reporting Russian to the number
reporting Yiddish as mother-tongue. Thus, the actual number of persons of Yiddish mother-tongue and their children in the city of New
York in 1920 may be determined as follows:
Number of persons reporting Yiddish
946,139
75% of 221,153 reported as Russian by error
166,865
Corrected number of persons of Yiddish mother-tongue
1,113,004
It is evident that if we can determine the ratio which the number of
persons reported as of Yiddish mother-tongue and their children bears
to the number of Jews who are native-born of native parentage, or
foreign born of mother-tongues other than Yiddish, it would be possible
to estimate the total number of Jewish people of a given place. Now,
estimates based on a method other than mother-tongue or school
children, prepared by Dr. Laidlaw, gave the total number of Jews in
the city-of New York as 1,643,002 in 1920. The corrected figure for
Jews with Yiddish as their mother-tongue and their progeny was
1,113,004 or 67.74% of the total. This ratio, however, cannot be
accepted for the other largest cities, for an examination of data for
these cities indicates that this percentage was too low for the other
cities in the East and too high for cities in the West. It was, therefore,
proposed that in 1920 the foreign-born Jews of Yiddish mother-tongue
and their native-born children be assumed to have constituted 60% of
the total number of Jews in the cities of the Middle West and the West,
'To show how this erroneous reporting of mother-tongues affected the eleven cities
under consideration, we append hereto the following table:
City
Detroit
Los Angeles
Newark
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
St. Louis
Persons Reported as of
Yiddish mother-tongue
1910
1920
26,943
56,864
110,089
7,568
9,986
5,681
857,700
33,787
119,560
20,655
18,606
39,333
60,042
159,518
6,898
34,727
10,540
946,139
39,863
143,514
22,752
20,420
Persons Reported as of
Russian mother-tongue
1910
1920
1,620
607
2,782
351
583
329
27,155
590
4,207
1,405
483
8,665
12,571
28,199
2,841
13,414
8,812
221,153
8,865
42,826
7,286
6,335
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
169
and 75% in the cities of the East other than the City of New York.
On this basis, estimates of the Jewish population of the ten cities on the
basis of the mother-tongue statistics, have been worked out as follows:
CITIES OF THE EAST
Newark,
N. J.
Boston,
Mass.
Philadelphia
Pa.
Number Enumerated as of Yiddish or Hebrew Mother-Tongue, and their Children,
Census of 1920
39,863
60,042
143.514
Add 75% of Number Enumerated as of
Russian Mother Tongue, 1920
6,649
9,428
32,120
Corrected Total of Yiddish Speaking Jews
and Their Children
46,512
69,470
175,634
Estimated to be 75% of Total Number of
Jews, 1920 . .
62,016
92,626
234,180
Estimated Total for 1927
69,818
98,185
261,409
CITIES OF THE WEST
Cleveland,
Ohio
Pittsburgh,
Pa.
Number Enumerated as of Yiddish or Hebrew Mother-Tongue and their Children,
Census of 1920
30,383
22,752
20,420
Add 75% of Number Enumerated as of
Russian Mother Tongue, 1920
10,609
5,464
4,752
40,992
28,216
25,172
68,320
84,371
47,027
53,106
41,953
45,484
Corrected Total of Yiddish Speaking Jews
and their children
Estimated to be 60% of
Total Number of Jews, 1920
Estimated Total for 1927. . . ..
St. Louis,
Mo.
If we assume that the percentage of foreign-born Jews of Yiddish
mother-tongue and their children to the total number of Jews in the
city of Baltimore is the same as in the majority of the large cities of the
East namely Boston, Newark, and Philadelphia, while in the case of
Chicago and Los Angeles it is similar to the other cities in the West
namely Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and St. Louis, we have the following:
170
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Baltimore
Md.
Chicago,
111.
Los Angeles
Cal.
Number Enumerated as of Yiddish or Hebrew Mother-Tongue and their children.
Census of 1920
39,333
159,518
10,540
Add 75% of Number Enumerated as of
Russian Mother Tongue, 1920
6,499
21,149
6,609
Corrected Total of Yiddish Speaking Jews
and their children Estimated to be 60*%.
45,832
180,667
17.149
Total Number of Jews 1920 (60*% of
Item 3)
61,109
301,112
28.582
Estimated Total for 1927.
68,140
345,651
64,480
The city of Detroit, though not one of the cities of the East, appears
to have the same percentage of foreign-born Jews of Yiddish mothertongue and their children as do the cities of the East, namely 75%. The
number of Jews on the basis of mother-tongue in the city of Detroit is
thus 80,070 Jews as follows:
Number of persons reporting Yiddish
34,727
Number erroneously reported as of Russian mother-tongue
10,061
Corrected total of Yiddish speaking
44,788
Total number of Jews in 1920
59,717
Total number of Jews in 1927
80,070
NOTE E.
COMPARISON OF RESULTS OF THE TWO PRECEDING METHODS
In the case of the city of New York the estimate arrived at on the
basis of school children in the fall of 1927 which was 1,765,982 may now
be compared with two other figures. As has been stated above, in 1920
Dr. Laidlaw, using a method other than those used here, estimated the
Jewish population at 1,643,012. Assuming that the increase of the
Jewish population equalled the increase of the total population during
the seven years following, the number of Jews in 1927, on the basis of
Dr. Laidlaw's 1920 estimate, would be 1,745,264. Again, the Bureau
of Jewish Social Research on the basis of a study of Jewish deaths in a
number of districts in New York, estimated that in 1925 the Jewish
population was 1,713,000, which would give a Jewish population in 1927
of 1,741,085 Jews. It will be seen that the figures arrived at on the basis
of Dr. Laidlaw's estimate and on the basis of the estimate of the Bureau
of Jewish Social Research so closely approach our estimate of 1,765,982,
as to give us the right to assert that the Jewish population of New York
City, at the end of 1927 was close to 1,765,000.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
171
In the case of the three cities for which we used only one method,
namely, that based on the mother-tongue statistics, the figures of 68,140
for Baltimore and 64,480 for Los Angeles probably approach the true
figures for the respective cities.
On the other hand, the figures of 345,651 for the city of Chicago
may be a little too high because our estimate that its Jews of foreignbirth of Yiddish mother-tongue constituted 60% of the total number of
Jews was probably a little too low. We have therefore estimated the
number of Jews in Chicago as 325,000 in 1927.
In the case of the remaining seven cities, the figures arrived at on the
basis of mother-tongue statistics closely approach the figures arrived at
on the basis of the number of school children. The latter method is to
be preferred except in the case of Boston where it gives 84,324 while the
former method give 98,185. It is, of course, conceivable, that between
1920 and 1927 the ratio of increase among the Jews in Boston was less
than the increase of the non-Jews of the city of Boston, but that would
not decrease our figure materially inasmuch as the increase of the city
of Boston during the seven years was but by 45,000 persons. Now in
1920 over 60,000 foreign-born persons and their children actually
reported Yiddish as their mother-tongue and over 9,000 "Hebrews"
were probably erroneously reported as of Russian mother-tongue.
The foreign-born Jews of Yiddish mother-tongue with their children
could hardly constitute more than 80% of the total number of Jews in
that city. Hence, the Jewish population of the city of Boston cannot be
estimated as less than 90,000 in 1927.
The number of Jews in each of the remaining six cities may be fixed
as follows:
On basis
of school
children
Cleveland. .
Detroit
Newark....
Pittsburgh 1 .
Philadelphia
St. Louis
86,439
76,376
65,806
55,635
277,263
51,023
On basis
of mothertongue
84,371
80.070
69,818
53,106
261,409
45,484
Figure
adopted
85.000
76,000
65,000
53,000
270,000
50,000
Our chief method, namely that of determining the number of Jews on
the basis of the number of school children absent on the Day of Atonement suffers chiefly from three possibilities of error: The undue absence
on the Day of Atonement includes a percentage of non-Jewish children
who abstain from attending school because they know that Jewish
children would be absent.
'The number of Jewish children in the city of Pittsburgh, was determined on a different basis from that in other cities. The lower figure is, therefore, adopted.
172
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
The ratio of Jewish children to the total number of Jews is probably
larger than the ratio of the whole number of children to the total population. These errors would have a tendency to render too large the
estimate of the number of Jews arrived at on the basis of this method.
On the other hand, it is undoubtedly incorrect to assume that fully
100% of the Jewish children in the large cities are recorded as absent
on the day in question. A certain percentage are undoubtedly recorded
as "present." From this point of view, the number of Jews arrived at
would be too small. Is it not possible that the errors neutralized one
another or nearly did so in the fall of 1927? The fact that the figures
for the cities arrived at on the basis of the number of children correspond
closely to those arrived at on the basis of mother-tongue statistics leads
the writer to believe that the method used for the group of cities as a
whole is correct, and the figures arrived at approach the true number of
the Jews in these cities.
GENERAL TABLES
The general tables that follow deal with the number of
places, total population, number of places that have Jews,
and the number of Jews in them. In the case of the Jews,
the year of estimate is 1927, as is also the case with the total
population by state and of cities 25,000 or over. In all other
cases the figures are for the census year of 1920. The figures
for numbers
of places are always those of the census year of
19201.
LIST OF GENERAL TABLES
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
Incorporated Places Reporting Jews.
Rural Areas Reporting Jews
Urban Places 25,000 to 2,500 Reporting Jews.
Jews in Urban Places 25,000 or Over
Estimates of Jews by States, 1877 to 1927
List of Places2 Reporting Jews and Number Reported.
'See note on p. 106.
2
In that table are given only those incorporated places and those unincorporated areas
constituting minor civil divisions, which were enumerated in the last census. Places
since incorporated and areas smaller than a minor civil division are given under the
name of the minor civil division in which they were located at the time of the census.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
173
GENERAL TABLE A
INCORPORATED PLACES REPORTING JEWS
State
Total
Places
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
294
30
349
254
229
41
50
1
202
Total
'585
148
1,111
491
913
525
391
202
44
120
169
450
692
333
712
107
513
16
29
275
47
534
468
294
820
475
198
973
27
261
275
236
455
137
76
203
210
203
457
73
15,698
Places
Having
Jews
119
19
135
154
82
34
20
1
85
208
53
417
200
295
168
157
96
29
47
146
206
237
137
232
41
164
5
22
181
27
295
173
103
323
176
65
488
21
112
92
94
224
45
33
85
77
83
188
26
6,420
Number
of Jews
Reported
9,692
1,056
6,225
121,087
19.543
87,968
5,141
16,000
12,247
19,285
581
341,306
24,827
13,438
5,385
16,418
14,414
7,772
70.016
223,615
86,931
40,812
3,765
77,628
900
12,566
184
2,411
222,015
656
1,897.910
4,595
1,934
169,876
. 4,964
12,302
398,644
24,526
4,490
699
19.477
40,953
2,3711,618
22,833
13,630
5,517
33,457
1,102
4,124,872
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
174
GENERAL TABLE B
RURAL AREAS REPORTING JEWS, 1927
Unincorporated Territory
States
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Iowa
Louisiana
Maryland
Minnesota
No. of
Places
Total
Report- Populaing Jews
tion
3
1
2
2
2
43
132,145
3,141
1
1
620
465
25
12
3
2
1
2,622
2,045
862
16
9
1
1
6
1
7
9
3
1
1,478
11,884
1,809
11,719
11,461
1,969
2,401
2
54
27
213
152
17
12
3
18
1
21
2
3,572
47,197
1,874
71,920
6,629
2,841
3
2,668
17
11
45,134
264
2
3
6
1,057
3,821
12,833
10
24
46
1
1
1
4,739
1,817
6
3
30
1
>64
Missouri
Montana
Nevada
New Mexico
New York
....
North Carolina
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Rhode Island
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Washington
Wyoming
Total
4,000
2,464
4,522
8,261
No. of
Jews
Reported
1
6
170
707
715
117
1,763
7,061
412,641
25
3
28
12
26
Incorporated Places
No. of
Total
Places
Report- Population
ing Jews
26
2
29
26
13
3
8
19
27
6
51
25
32
7
32
28
2
11
34,128
2,154
34,669
40,349
15,470
4,742
10,240
24,889
36,059
8,429
66,392
30,412
37,661
7,215
37,867
32,599
3,732
14,549
213
17
431
268
198
51
129
361
223
32
458
178
172
23
172
395
14
191
47
47
44
30
8
30
1
54,798
52,503
46,657
40,960
10,466
29,842
2,173
458
278
824
261
62
146
20
44
11
71
25
32
38
23
4
56,227
12,116
93,989
33,340
23,661
41,462
30.708
7,674
82,382
5,116
41,961
25,594
15,028
75,983
6,766
14,544
18,178
7,746
18,299
36,952
7,436
469
170
79
727
17
72
232
53
19
1
20
36
60
12
9,038
No. of
Jews
Reported
61
35
24
11
49
4
9
15
6
13
33
6
1,068
74
3,951
333
221
515
186
37
991
311
836
-86
1.329,001 20,141
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
175
GENERAL TABLE C
URBAN PLACES OF
2,500 TO 25,000
Places of
2,500—5,000
State
No.
of
PopuPlaces lation
Jews
REPORTING JEWS
Places of
5,000—10,000
No.
of
Place;
Population
Jews
Places of
10,000—25,000
No.
of
PopuPlaces lation
Jews
Alabama
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut....
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
....
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Massachusetts..
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire
New J e r s e y . . . .
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina.
North D a k o t a . .
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania.
Rhode Island .
South Carolina.
South Dakota. .
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington....
West Virginia...
Wisconsin
Wyoming
12
5
12
30
12
5
1
8
22
6
47
26
29
12
20
14
4
6
15
20
17
7
21
3
7
45,087
354
18,652
66
42,264 379
110,368 1,034
45,654 298
16,564
170
3,854
12
29,211
200
75,086 614
19,417
53
157,322 531
94,821
331
104,867
271
43,452
79
70,119 344
48,620 471
12,734 166
20,168 261
49,012 660
76,869 414
60,608 224
25,449 279
79,655 429
11,032
15
26,586
64
6
3
7
17
4
4
39,597 244
21,970 148
46,909 645
116,598 2,222
28,333 137
30,851 360
7
1
4
11
2
9
99,293
931
20,292
400
53,280 1,350
170,530 2,388
21,864 210
152,390 5,631
10
11
4
30
20
15
6
10
7
7
3
18
22
14
7
11
5
7
68,645
74,649
28,370
212,572
146,786
95,389
44,077
74,642
46.272
46,221
21,037
134,857
160,134
102,606
45,381
73,763
31,698
49,989
4
32
g
45
15
6
29
IS
7
83
4
10
3
12
33
3
2
7
9
8
27
1
15,677
72
108,983 3,621
29,990 284
161,983 6,126
49,902 380
22,903 125
108,008 514
61,230 228
28,301
92
308,709 4,507
14,281 121
38,677 497
9,489
68
43,927 276
115,667 954
9,671
52
9,792
38
21,859 194
31,693 135
49,646 217
97,787 369
4
3,479
23
2
25
11
3
28
11
3
60
2
7
5
4
18
1
4
6
5
6
11
2
31,677 193
168,597 6,184
14,269
58
167,909 4,495
74,813 553
18,889 608
207,326 889
78.968 261
61
20,802
442,444 6,120
17,649 135
50,826 415
36,981
121
26,443 131
119,827 642.
5,282
5
27,316 397
38,805 457
35,937 208
40.052 335
80,189 277
15.631
51
2
7
2
21
18
9
11
4
4
5
1
28
14
7
9
6
4
3
1
5
15
1
31
10
3
25
8
2
52
1
4
1
3
16
1
3
5
4
6
11
2
32,986
101,857
36,394
309,076
288,135
157,555
151,731
69,057
65,055
77,189
11,066
445,182
179.991
95,652
136.201
88,392
63.926
36,060
12,016
73,947
223,587
15,157
464,231
153,903
46,447
391,000
113,438
24,620
819,326
11.375
67,303
14,537
39,349
218,382
10,303
47,741
67,639
56,737
88,494
181,029
25,276
Total
727
2,629,125 26,599
489
3,461,978 36.980
399
6.028,991 108,690
1,716
363
60
1,164
768
425
72
440
418
642
142
1,415
1,218
579
605
339
81
181
180
965
436
2,373
1,904
2.428
1,111
1,112
2,130
1.300
102
8,840
1,833
751
2.057
389
292
125
164
776
15,104
240
9,948
1,514
980
10,777
439
112
20,616
200
369
130
356
2.045
7
1.111
635
184
1,344
1.540
861
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
176
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
180
GENERAL TABLE F
LIST OF PLACES REPORTING JEWS AND NUMBER REPORTED
ALABAMA
Albany
Alexander City
Anniston
Athens
Bessemer
Birmingham
Brookside
Cordova
Decatur
Demopolis
Dothan
Enterprise
17
20
125
28
Ill
4,000
11
14
47
150
47
11
Eufaula
Fairfield
Florala
Florence
Gadsden
Greensboro
Huntsville
Hursboro
Jasper
Leeds
Marion
Mobile
29
11
14
43
116
12
68
15
38
20
25
950
Montgomery
3,000
Parish (Prec. 22)
Walker Co
11
Quinton (Prec. 21) Ebenezer Walker Co
12
Selma
281
Sheffield
85
Talladega
34
Troy
29
Tuscaloosa
208
Tuskegee
16
Places having 10 Jews or less: Aliceville. Andalusia, Atmore, Boyles, Brundige,
Columbiana, Corona (Preo. 181 Walker Co.. Foley, Girard, Greenville, Hartsell, Heflin,
Inglenook, Jackson, Linden, Monroeville, Opp, Pell City, Red Bay, Roanoke, Spring
Hill (Prec. 12) Mobile Co., Tarrant City, Union Springs, Uniontown, Wetumpka.
ARIZONA
Douglas
Globe
Jerome
108 Mesa
20 Phoenix
18 Prescott
20 Tucson
...425 Yuma
20
400
18
Places having 10 Jews or less: Casa Grande, Clifton, Flagstaff, Holbrook, Superior
(Prec. 2) Pinal County.
ARKANSAS
Altheimer
Augusta
Blytheville
Brinkley
Camden
Clarendon
Conway
Dumas
Earle
El Dorado
England
Eudora
Forrest City
11
19
71
24
54
12
15
20
25
124
31
40
27
Fort Smith
Helena
Hot Springs
Hughes
Jonesboro
Lake Village
Little Rock
McGehee
Manila
Marianna
Marked Tree
Marvel
Morrillton
420
400
250
26
94
20
3,000
42
16
41
11
30
17
Newport
North Little Rock
Osceola
Paragould
Parkin
Pine Bluff
Smackover tnsp.
Union Co
Stuttgart
Texarkana
Wynne
24
500
32
21
28
400
20
15
200
60
Places having 10 Jews or less: Arkadelphia, Arkansas City, Bates, Batesville, Corning, Crawfordsville, Danville, Dardanelle, De Vails Bluff, De Witt, Edmonson, Fayetteville, Holly Grove, Lonoke, Paris, Readland, Sheridan, Turrell (Fogleman Township)
Crittenden Co., Van Buren, Wilmot.
CALIFORNIA
Alameda
Albany
Alhambra
Anaheim
Arcata
Bakersfield
Benicia
Berkeley
Burbank
Burlinjame
Calexico
Chico
400
\ .12
240
20
18
240
14
300
24
50
20
90
Colton
Compton
El Monte
Eureka
Fort Bragg
Fresno
Fullerton
Glendale
Hayward
Healdsburg
Hollister
20
33
25
31
14
700
14
200
46
20
16
Huntington Beach
Huntington Park
Lodi
Long Beach
Los Angeles
Madera
Martinez.
Marysville
Merced
Modesto
Monrovia
20
60
20
1,750
65,000
~T1
._. .^5
59
.T50
"330
45
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
Napa
Oakdale
Oakland
Oroville
Oxnard
Pasadena
Petaluma
Piedmont
Pittsburg
Placerville
Pomona
Redding
Redlands
Redondo Beach
Redwood City
Riverside
38
15
6,000
41
64
5,600
500
150
41
13
125
15
50
24
18
72
Sacramento
Salinas
San Diego
San Fernando
San Francisco
San Jose
San Leandro
San Luis Obispo
San Mateo
San Rafael
Santa Ana
1,100
55
2,000
42
35,000
375
48
11
450
200
300
Santa Barbara
Santa Cruz
Santa Maria
Santa Monica
Santa Paula
Santa Rosa
South Pasadena
Stockton
Taft
Tracy
Tulare
Ukiah
Vallejo
Venice
150 Ventura
90 Visalia
17 Watts
181
700
24
91
30
1,150
104
23
41
12
80
400
50
27
25
Places having 10 Jews or less: Beaumont, Brea, Colusa, Davis, Dunsmuir, Exeter,
Fillmore, Fowler, Gridley, Lompoc, Manteca, Mill Valley, Pleasanton Point Arena,
Red Bluff, St. Helena, Sanger, Santa Rosa Township (ex. Santa Rosa) Sonoma Co,,
Sunnyvale, Vacaville, Verona (Vernon Township) Sutter Co., Whittier, Yreka.
Aurora
Boulder
Brighton
Colorado Springs
Denver
Durango
Englewood
Fort Collins
Fort Morgan
Golden
30
60
24
500
17,000
24
50
75
23
20
COLORADO
Grand Junction
Greeley
La Junta
Lamar
Las Animas
Leadville
Littleton
Longmont
Loveland
12
100
33
11
51
40
40
32
18
Montrose
24
Precinct 8 Pueblo Co. . 500
Precinct 59 El Paso Co. . 2 5
Pueblo
1,200
Rocky Ford
20
Salida
21
Trinidad
110
Walsenburg
22
Westminster
12
Places having 10 Jews or less: Arvada, Ault, Buena Vista, Edgewater, Florence,
Lakeside. Monte Vista, Pagosa Springs, Saguache, Silt, Tolland (Prec. 9) Gilpin Co.
CONNECTICUT
Ansonia
2,400
Berlin (Hartford Co.)... 13
Bethel (Fairfield C o . ) . . . 15
Bozrah (Yantic) New
London Co
110
Branford
16
Branford Borough (New
Haven Co.)
35
Bridgeport
13,000
Bristol
250
Canaan (Litchfield Co.). 25
Canton (North Canton)
Hartford Co
50
Columbia (Tolland Co.) 110
Danbury
400
Danielson
33
Derby
150
Durham
(Middlesex Co.)
20
East Haddam (Moodus)
Middlesex Co
465
Ellington (Tolland Co.) 156
Enfield (Thompsonville)
Hartford Co
41
Franklin
(New London Co.)
18
Glastonbury
(Hartford Co.)
27
Graaby (Hartford Co.).. 12
Greenwich
160
Griswold (excl. Jewett
City) New London Co.. 16
Groton
25
Guilford
25
Hartford
27,000
Hebron (Amston)
Tolland Co
324
Jewett City
87
Lebanon (ChestnutHill)
New London Co
100
Marlborough (Marlboro) Hartford Co.. . .21
Meriden
1,750
Meriden Trary New
Haven Co
.200
Middletown
565
Monroe, (Stepney)
Fairfield Co
225
Montville
(New London Co.)... 169
Morris (Litchfield Co.) .. 16
Naugatuck
76
New Britain
3,000
New Haven
22,500
New London
1,600
North Haven
(New Haven C o . ) . . . . 18
Norwalk
2,000
Norwich
1,200
Orange (West Haven)
New Haven Co
150
Portland (Middlesex Co.)34
Preston
(New London Co.).... 35
Putnam
100
Rockville
17
Shelton
83
Simsbury (Tariffville)
Hartford County
20
Stafford Springs
15
Stamford
5,600
Stonington
20
Suffield (Hartford Co.).. 20
Torrington
250
Vernon (excl. Rockville
City) Tolland County. 51
Waterbury
5,300
Watertown
(Litchfield Co.)
20
West Hartford
(Hartford Co.)
500
Westport (Fairfield Co.) . 43
Wethersfield
(Hartford Co.)
18
Willimantic
340
Woodbury
(Litchfield County)... 17
182
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Places having 10 Jews or less: Bethlehem (Litchfield Co.). Bloomfield (Fairfield Co.)
East Granby (Hartford Co.), East Windsor (Hartford Co.), Guilford (Leetes Island) New
Haven Co., Hampton (Windham Co.,) Ridgefield, (Salisbury) Litchfield Co., Sharon
(Litchfield Co.), Windsor (Windsorville) Hartford Co.
DELAWARE
Harrington
Middletown
Milford
12 New Castle
30 Newark
92
lfi Seaford
44 Wilmington
Georgetown
25
5,000
13
Places having 10 Jews or less: Bridgeville, Delaware City, Elsmere, Hartly, Lewis,
Millsboro, Milton, Selbyville, Townsend.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Washington
16,000
FLORIDA
Chipley
11 Lake City
42
Dade City
14 Lakeland
60
Daytona
250 Lake Worth
12
DeLand
12 Larkins (Prec. 17) South
Fernandina
27
Miami, Dade Co
25
Fort Lauderdale
75 Live Oak
27
Fort Pierce
18 Manatee
19
Gainesville
58 Miami
2,650
Hollywood (Prec. 29)
60
Duval Co
30 Ocala
290
Jacksonville
4,000 Orlando
1.200
Key West
80 Pensacola
Perry
Quincy
St. Augustine
St. Petersburg
Sanford
Sebring
Tallahassee
Tampa
West Palm Beach
West Tampa
Winter Haven
14
41
300
100
60
60
59
2,000
600
12
12
Places having 10 Jews or less: Arcadia, Bartow, Blountstown, Bowling Green, Dania,
Homestead, La Belle, Mayo, Monticello, Panama City, Plant City, Wauchula, Winter
Garden.
GEORGIA
15
Albany
275 Dalton
18 Ocilla
22
25 Pelham
Athens
185 Decatur
16
26 Quitman
Atlanta
11,000 Douglas
225
31 Rome
Augusta
970 Dublin
19
21 Sandersville
Bainbridge
220 Elberton
3,800
31 Savannah
Barnesville
13 Fitzgerald
28
Brunswick
120 Forsythe
11 Statesboro
Cairo
17 Fort Valley
37 Tallulah (Rabun Co.)... .12
26 Thomasville
92
Camilla
11 Gainesville
33 Tifton
21
Carrdllton
23 Griffin
81
Cedartown
20 Hawkinsville
15 Valdosta
Cochran
16 Jesup
15 Vidalia
23
47 Washington
12
Columbus
700 La Grange
650 Waycross
Cordele
53 Macon
32
Covington
27 Milledgeville
25 Waynesboro
27
Cuthbert
12 Moultrie
25 West Point
48
Places having 10 Jews or less: Arlington, Bremen, Buford, Cornelia, Doerun, Eatonton, Edison, Fayetteville, Glenwood, Lumber City, Manchester, Marietta, Milan,
Norman Park, Palmetto, Rochelle, Rockmart, Royston, Soperton, Sylvania, Tennille,
Toccoa, Uvalda, Vienna, Woodbury.
Bedrock Prec.
(Nez Perce Co.)
Boise
Idaho Falls
IDAHO
Lewiston
12 Pocatello
316
18 Twin Falls
15 Twin Falls (Prec. 5)
120
Twin Falls County . . . 48
25 Weiser
17
Places having 10 Jews or less: Ashton, Blackfoot, Buhl, Burley, Eden, Gooding, Hailey, Jerome, Montpelier, Rexbury, St. Anthony, Wallace.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
183
ILLINOIS
Alton
Aurora
Batavia
Belleville
Benld
Benton
Bloomington
Blue Island
Cairo
Canton
Carlinville
Centralia
Champaign
Chester
Chicago
Chicago Heights
Christopher
Cicero
Clinton
Coal City
Collinsville
Crystal Lake
Danville
Decatur
Dixon
Du Quoin
Dwight
East St. Louis
Elgin
Evanston
Evergreen Park
Fail-field
Forest Park
Galena
160
480
12
206
21
21
350
42
75
21
20
45
300
15
325,000
325
20
250
46
17
72
29
335
85
36
19
15
2,750
300
315
58
14
100
17
Galesburg
Geneseo
Geneva
Gillespie
Glen Carbon
Granite City
Granville
Harrisburg
Harvard
Harvey
Herrin
Highland Park
Homewood
Joliet
Kankakee
Kewanee
La Grange
LaSalle
Lawrenceville
Lincoln
Litchfield
Marion
Maywood
Mendota
Milford
Moline
Momence
Morris
Mount Carmel
Mount Olive
Mount Vernon
Murphysboro
Nokomis
North Chicago
150
11
41
21
12
275
20
17
28
98
30
125
16
630
120
46
50
69
21
50
18
17
400
12
11
60
11
33
18
14
28
32
15
100
Oak Park
O'Fallon
Olney
Ottawa
Pana
Pekin
Peoria
Peru
Petersburg
Pittsfield
Pontiac
Quincy
Rochelle
Rock Falls
Rockford
Rock Island
St. Charles
Sesser
Springfield
Spring Valley
Staunton. . . .'
Sterling
Streator
Sycamore
Taylorville
Toluca
Urbana
Villa Park
West Chicago
West Frankfort
Woodhull
Woodstock
Zeigler
1,600
16
11
59
26
57
1,509
40
15
25
49
350
11
17
500
1,675
22
12
600
71
56
50
49
15
iz
18
37
20
11
53
12
22
18
Places having 10 Jews or less: Abington, Anna, Arcola, Assumption, Athens, Barry,
Brown Township (Excl. Fisher Village) Champaign Co., Bushnell, Champaign Township (excl. Champaign City) Champaign Co., Carbondale, Carmi, Cornell, Deerfield,
Earlville, East Moline, Elizabeth, Fairbury, Farmington, Flanagan, Flora, Frankfort,
Gibson, Glencoe, Glenwood, Greenville, Havana, Hebron, Herscher, Hinsdale, Johnston
City, Lake Forest, Lanark, Lyons, McLeansboro, Macomb, Maiden, Manito, Marshall,
Marysyille, Maryville, Metropolis, Mound City, Mounds, Mount Morris, Mount
Pulaski (Logan Co.), Newman, North Chillicothe, Oglesby, Paxton, Peotone, Pinckneyville, Plainfield, Plainfield Township (excl. Plainfield), Wills Co., Posen, Princeton,
Riverdale, Rock Creek (excl. Lanark City) Carroll Co., St. Anne, Salem, Shelbyville,
Silvis, Venice City. Vienna, Villa Grove, Viola, Virginia.JWatseka, Westville, Willisville,
Witt.
INDIANA
Alexandria
Anderson
Attica
Aurora
Bedford
Bloomington
Clinton
Columbia City
Columbus
Connersville
Crawford ville
Crown Point
Dunkirk.
East Chicago
Elkhart
Elwood
Evansville
Fort Wayne
Gary
Goshen
36
150
51
14
24
18
25
36
40
50
20
25
14
220
102
11
1,800
1,800
2,200
51
Greencastle
Greensburg
Hammond
Hartford City
Huntington
Indianapolis
Jeffersonville
Kendallville
Kokomo
Lafayette
La Porte
Lawrenceburg
Ligonier City
Linton
Logansport
Madison
Marion
Michigan City
Mishawaka
Mount Vernon
11
15
1,200
13
42
10,000
25
21
100
350
50
39
50
27
84
24
500
300
159
120
Muncie
New
New Albany
Castle
North Manchester
Plymouth
Portland
Richmond
Rochester
Rockport
Seymour
Shelbyville
South Bend
South Whitley
Sullivan
Terre Haute
Union City
Valparaiso
Vincennes
Wabash
Warsaw
131
59
58
12
15
22
45
12
12
12
30
3,000
11
13
1,000
12
100
86
150
39
184
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Places having 10 Jews or less: Albany, Albion, Bicknell, Bremen, Brookville, Churubsco, Decatur, Delphi, Earl Park, Ellettville, Fowler, Frankfort, Garrett, Gas City,
Greenfield, Huntingburg, Jasonville, Jasper, Kentland, Lakeville, Lebanon, Liberty,
Lyons, Martinsville, Milan, Mitchell, Monon, Morocco, North Vernon, Pendleton, Peru,
Princeton, Rising Sun. Salem, Sellersburg, Spencer Township (Harrison Co.). Summitville, Tipton. Wakarusa, Union County, Washington, Washington Township (Starke
County), West Baden, Winamac.
Albia
Ames
Anamosa
Atlantic
Boone
Burlington
Cedar Rapids
Centerville
Charles City
Cherokee
Clarinda. :
Clarion
Clinton
Council Bluffs
31
24
16
18
22
107
697
84
12
13
12
18
41
600
IOWA
Creston
Davenport
Decorah
Des Moines
Dubuque
Emmetsburg
Fairfield
Fort Dodge
Glenwood
Grinnell
Iowa City
Iowa Falls
Keokuk
Marshalltown
35
690
12
4,200
420
11
50
140
16
17
151
12
27
139
Mason City
Monona
Muscatine
Newton
Onawa
Osage
Osceola
Oskaloosa
Sioux City
Spencer
Valley Junction
Victor
Waterloo
Webster City
1,501
11
300
36
17
18
12
73
3,150
17
23
15
385
12
Places having 10 Jews or less: Ackley, Akron, Algona, Altoona, Anthon, Belle
Plaine, Bellevue, Chariton, Charter Oak, Chatsworth, Clear Lake, Columbus Junction,
Cushing, De Witt, Dyersville, Eagle Grove, Eldora, Elkader, Estherville, Forest City.
Fort Des Moines, Hampton, Independence, Jefferson, Le Mars, Lynn Grove Township
(excl. Lynnville and Sully) Jasper Co., Manchester, Maquoketa, Marengo, Marion.
Mount Pleasant, Moville, Neola, New London, Oto, Parkersburg, Pocahontas, Red
Oak, Riceville, Rock Rapids, Rockwell, Sheldon, Shenandoah, Storm Lake, Stuart,
Vinton, Volga, Waukee, Waverly, West Union, Woodbine.
KANSAS
Arkansas City
Augusta
Chanute
Coffeyville
Eldorado
Emporia
Eureka
12
11
14
48
38
14
12
Fort Scott
Galena
Gardner
Hutchinson
Iola
Junction City
Kansas City
29
17
12
73
29
11
22,000
Lawrence
Leavenworth
Manhattan
Parsons
Salina
Topeka
Wichita
25
800
12
17
41
900
700
Places having 10 Jews or less: Caney, Dodge City. Florence, Garden City, Girard,
Goodland, Great Bend, Holton. Horton, Kiowa, Lacygne, McPherson, Marysville,
Ogden, Oskaloosa, St. Marys, Wellington, Winfield.
KENTUCKY
Ashland
Bowling Green
Central City
Corbin
Covington
Cynthiana
Danville
Falmouth
Frankfort
Georgetown
Greenville
170
30
23
30
500
29
28
12
74
15
25
Harlan
Harrodsburg
Hazard
Henderson
Hopkinsville
Lexington
Louisville
Madisonville
Mayfield
Maysville
Middlesborough
33
11
18
93
86
750
12,500
21
15
21
42
Newport
Owensboro
Paducah
Paris
Pineville
Princeton
Providence
Russellville
Shelbyville
Somerset
Winchester
600
49
800
70
41
18
21
12
34
18
53
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
185
Places having 10 Jews or less: Adairville, Anchorage, Augusta, Campbellsville,
Catlettsburg, Colombia, Crofton, Elizabethtown, Eminence, Evarts, Flemingsburg,
Fulton, Hawesville, Hickman, Hustonville, Jackson, La Grange, Lebanon, Marion,
Midway, Mount Sterling, Neon, Nicholasville, Olive Hill, Owenton, Owingsville, Pewee
Valley, Pikeville, Salt Lick, Sco'ttsville, Springfield, Stanford, Sturgis, Taylorsville,
Uniontown, Vanceburg, Williamsburg.
LOUISIANA
18 Opelousas
75
Abbeville
28 Houtna
132
11 Plaquemine
Alexandria
560 Kenner
Rayne
25
Bastrop
29 Lecompte
12 St. Francisville
24
Baton Rouge
750 Lafayette
100 St. Joseph
17
Berwick
13 Lake Charles
320 Shreveport
2,000
Bogalusa
100 Lake Providence
,.39 Tallulah
12
Bunkie
16 Monroe
500 Ward 1 (excl. Bayou
Crowley
48
Sara and St. FrancisMorgan City
97
Donaldsonville
80 Napoleonville
ville) West Feliciana
14
Parish 17 Ward 2 (excl.
Farmerville
17 Natchitoches
60
Village) Caddo
44 . Vivian
Ferriday
25 Newellton
Parish
12
42 Waterproof
Franklin
26 New Iberia
25
New Orleans
9,000 White Castle
71
Gretna
13
Oakdale
21 Winnsboro
24
Haynesville
13
Places having 10 Jews or less: Baldwin, Elton, Glenmore, Homer, Kaplan, Kinder
Mansfield, Mansura, Marksville, Rayville, Ruston, Slidell, Thibodaux, Vidalia Ward
(Beauregard Parish), Ward 3 (Oil City) Caddo Parish, Ward 7, (Caddo) Caddo Parish
Welsh. Winnfield, Zachary.
MAINE
120 Old Town
Auburn
480 Gardiner
64
147 Portland
Augusta
45 Hallowell
3,500
650
Bangor
1,500 Lewiston
Rockland
100
Bath
300 Millinocket
231
Biddeford
325
(Penobscot Co.)
14 Rumford Falls
Saco
76
Brewer (So. Brewer)
16 Old Orchard
(York County)
15 Waterville
Brunswick
35
150
Places having 10 Jews or less: Ashland (Aroostook County), Brownville (Brownville
Junction) Piscataquis County, Eastport, Fairfield, Lincoln, Madison, Newport (Penobscot County), Oakfield (Aroostook County), Pittsfield, Richmond (Sagadahoc
County).
MARYLAND
Baltimore
68,000 Elkton
43 Laurel
22
Bel Air
29 Ellicott City
40 Mount Rainier
35
Bowie Town
18 Frederick
102 Riverdale (Dist. 19)
Brunswick
52 Frostburg
60
Prince Georges County. 2 7
Cambridge
32 Hagerstown
650 Salisbury
50
Centreville
12
38 Takoma Park
40
Chestertown
35 Hancock
38 Westminster
53
Cumberland
720 Havre de Grace
Places having 10 Jews or less: St. Michaels, Snow Hill, Solomons, Taneytown,
Thurmont.
MASSACHUSETTS
5,200 Falmouth
43
Amesbury
81 Cambridge
20,000 Fitchburg
580
Amherst
20 Chelsea
430 Foxborough
33
Athol
180 Chicopee
Attleboro
200 Clinton
360
105 Framingham
Ayer
36 Danvers
60 Gardner
150
Belmont (Waverly)
52 Dedham
49 Gloucester
260
Beverly
1,000 Easthampton
24
Great
Barrington
80
Boston
90,000
185
200 Greenfield
Brockton
4,000 Everett
5,500 Hampshire County
20
Brookline
7,500 Fall River
186
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Haverhill
3,385
Holliston
75
Holyoke
2,000
Hudson
100
Ipswich
29
Lawrence
3,775
Leominster
120
Lexington
(East Lexington).... 163
Longmeadow
100
Lowell
2,700
Ludlow Town (Indian Orchard) Hampden Co. 14
Lynn
9,000
Maiden
10,000
Marblehead
40
Marlborough
90
Maynard
135
Medfield
25
Medford
680
Medway
265
Middleborough
20
Milford
220
New Bedford
3,970
Newburyport
300
Newton
520
North Adams
800
North Attleborough
21
Northampton
500
Norwood
140
Palmer
25
Peabody
1.400
Pittsfield
2,100
Plymouth
132
Quincy
1,650
Randolph
33
Revere
8,000
Rockland
48
Rockport
12
Salem
2,400
Saugus
150
Sharon (Norfolk Co.)... 150
Somerville
2,500
Southbridge
4S
Southwick
(Hampden County).. .20
Springfield
12,100
Stoneham
12
Stoughton
250
Swampscott
150
Taunton
785
Wakefield
105
Waltham
725
Ware
75
Watertown
102
West Brookfield
(Worcester Co.)
12
Westfield
110
Whitman
64
Winthrop
2,000
Woburn
100
Worcester
13.000
Places having 10 Jews or less: Ashland (Middlesex County), Avon (Norfolk County).
Berkley (Bristol County), Deerfield, Holbrook, Holden. Kingston, Ludlow, Marshfield
(Plymouth County), Orange, Warren (West Warren), West Bridgewater.
MICHIGAN
32
575 Negaunee
Adrian
35
29
140 Niles
Albion
38
13
16 Norway
Alpena
52
42
1,765 Owosso
Ann Arbor
150
18
40 Paw Paw
Bad Axe
15
120
14 Petoskey
Bangor
30
12
23 Plymouth
Battle Creek
58
375
130 Pontiac
Bay City
695
180
228 Port Huron
Bellaire,
29
12
27 Redford
Benton Harbor
800
250 Redford township (excl.
Big Rapids
11
Redford) Wayne Co.. . 19
345
Birmingham
19
13
200 Richmond
Buchanan
17
23
40 Rogers
Boyne City
19
410
34 Saginaw
Charlotte
13
32
12 Sault Ste Marie
Detroit
75,000
250
19 South Haven
Dowagiac
24
Traverse
City
34
11
East Grand Rapids
30
25
43 Trenton
East Tawas
14
Washington
Heights....
24
11
Escanaba
115
140 Washington township
Flint
1.100
(Gratiot County)
24
500
Geneva Township
16 Wayne
17
275 West Branch
14
(Van Buren Co.)
87
25 Wyandotte
95
Grand Rapids
1,780
Places having 10 Jews or less: Ahmeek, Algonac, Alma, Alpha, Belding, Belleville,
Cadillac, Carson City, Caspian, Cheboygan, Charlevoix, Chelsea, Chesaning, Clifford,
Curtis Township (Glennie) Alcona County, Custer, Decatur, Dryden township (excl.
Dryden village) Lapeer County, Durand, Fruitport, Garden, Gladstone, Greenville,
Grout township (Gladwin County) Harbor Beach, Ionia, Kingston, Lake Linden, Lakeview, Lapeer, Lawton, Manton, Menominee, Mikado, Mount Pleasant, Newberry, Niles
township (excl. Niles) Berrien Co., Onaway, Otsego, Pigeon, Plymouth township (excl.
Plymouth) Wayne County, Port Austin, Richmond township (Palmer) Marquette
County, Rose City, St. Clair, St. Ignace, St. Joseph, St. Louis. Scottville. Sebewaing.
Shelby, Tawas City, Three Rivers, Utica. Wakefield, West Branch Township (Prescott)
Ugemaw Co., Whittemore.
Hamtramck
Hancock
Harbor Springs
Highland Park
Holland
Houghton
Huron County
Iron Mountain
Ironwood
Ishpeming
Jackson
Kalamazoo
Lansing
Ludington
Manistee
Manistique
Marcellus
Marine City
Marquette
Midland
Monroe
Mount Clemens
Munising
Muskegon
Muskegon Heights
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
187
MINNESOTA
Albert Lea
Anoka
Austin
Belle Plaine
Bemidji
Bovey
Brainerd
Buhl
Chisholm
Crookston
Crosby
Duluth
29
12
32
15
19
16
28
13
134
24
16
3,480
Ely
Eveleth
Faribault
Fergus Falls
Grand Rapids
Hastings
Hector
International Falls
Mankato
Minneapolis
Moorhead
Northfield
20
200
80
27
11
20
13
54
57
22,000
22
11
Park Rapids
Red Wing
Rochester
St. Paul
South St. Paul
Stillwater
Tracy
Virginia
Windom
Winona
Worthington
20
28
96
13,500
25
22
15
160
11
51
18
Places having 10 Jews or less: Afton, Aurora, Blackduck, Blue Earth, Breckenridge ,
Browntown, Bruno, Buffalo, Calumet, Cambridge, Cloquet, Coleraine, Danube, Dennison, Ellsworth, Foley, Frazee, Fulda, Gibbon, Gilbert, Grasston, Houston, Jasper,
Jordan, Kinney, Lake City, Lake Crystal, Le Sueur, Maple Ridge Township (Beltrami
Co.), Maple Ridge Township (Isanti County), Marble, Melrose, Montevideo, Mora.
Morristown township (Rice Co.), Mountain Iron, New Rickland, North St. Paul,
Owatonna, Paynesville, Preston, Proctorknott, (Proctor), Riverton, Royalton village,
Ruthton, Sandstone, Sebeka, Staples, Stewartville, Thief River Falls, Two Harbors,
Wabasha, White Bear Lake, Willmar, Zumbrota.
MISSISSIPPI
Aberdeen
Alligator
Beat 1: Lula, Coahoma
Co
Beat 5: (Glen Allen),
Washington Co
Belzoni
Benoit
Biloxi
Brookhaven
Canton
Clarksdale
Columbus
Corinth
Drew
Greenville
Greenwood
24 Gulf port
12 Gunnison
Hattiesburg
12 Hazlehurst
Holly Springs
12 I verness
34 Isola
12 Jackson
18 Jonestown
60 Lambert
108 Laurel
200 Leland
80 Lexington
29 Moorhead
51 Marks
375 Meridian
250 Natchez
22
21
148
25
27
20
11
169
30
12
74
24
77
29
24
575
151
Okolona
Oxford
Port Gibson
Rolling Fork
Ruleville
Shaw
Shelby
Starkville
Sumner
Sunflower
Tunica
Vicksburg
Webb
West Point
Winona
Woodville
Yazoo City.,
20
12
48
14
47
48
31
39
19
23
38
467
24
13
15
11
88
Places having 10 Jews or less: Anguilla, Beat 3 (Rich) Quitman Co., Beulah, Bude,
Coahoma, Como, Flora, Hollandale, Ittabena, Macon, Mayersville, Newton, Pascagoula, Picayune, Pickens, Polarville, Rome, Shubuta, Summit, Tupelo, Wiggins.
MISSOURI
11 Mexico
Bonne Terre
17 Elvins
28 Moberly
Boonville
21 Excelsior Springs
Festus
20
New Madrid
Cape Girardeau
47
88 Portageville
Caruthersville
36 Hannibal
12 Richmond Heights
Cardwell
14 Hayti
Jefferson City
80 St. Joseph
Central township
Joplin
350 St Louis
(Richmond Heights)
22,000 Sedalia
St. Louis County
40 Kansas City
21 Sikeston
Charleston
12 Kennett
27 Springfield
Chillicothe
14 Kirksville
36 Trenton
Clayton
50 Kirkwood
18
Columbia
115 Lexington
95 Washington
DeSoto
24 Louisiana
Webb City
Maplewood
92
Doniphan
11
36 Webster Grove
East Prairie
13 Marshall
23
24
18
17
50
3,500
50,000
35
.23
360
14
14
21
84
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
188
Places having 10 Jews or less: Bernie, Bowling Green, Bridgeton, Brookfield, Butler,
Clarksville, Dexter, Fayette, Fulton, Greenfield, Ironton, Keytesville, King City,
Lebanon, Lees Summit, Linneus, Maiden, Marceline, Martinsburg. Maysville, Milan,
Morehouse, Neosho, Oronogo, Parma. Panell, Richmond, Salisbury, Slater, Unionville,
Warrensburg, Warrenton.
MONTANA
Anaconda
Billings
Butte
Bozeman
Cascade County
14
52
540
15
12
Great Falls
Helena
Lewistown
Livingston
125
79
35
14
Malta
Miles City
Missoula
Scobey
16
14
36
24
Places having 10 Jews or less: Big Timber, Dillon, Froid, Glendive, Harlowton,
Kalispell, Poison, Red Lodge, Roundup. Twin Bridges.
Alliance
Beatrice
Columbus
Grand Island
Hastings
12
30
54
56
42
NEBRASKA
Lincoln
1,050 Plattsmouth
Nebraska City
27 Scottsbluff
Norfolk
35
North Platte
27 Sidney
Omaha
11,000 Walthill
14
22
21
19
Places having 10 Jews or less: Allen, Arapahoe, Ashland, Atkinson, Bloomfield,
Chadron, Chappell, Clearwater. Dakota City, Decatur, Elk Creek, Ericson. Friend,
Fullerton, Gretna, Hartington, Havelock, Hooper, Huntington, Kearny, Laurel. Lyons,
McCook, Madison, Mitchell, Neligh, Oakland, Pender, Pierce, Ponca, Schuyler,
Spencer, Wakefield, Winnebago, York.
Elko.
NEVADA
. 20
Reno
.164
NEW HAMPSHIRE
46 Milford
13
Berlin
250 Franklin
435
Claremont
100 Keene.
.64 Nashua
117 Newport
26
Concord
120 Laconia
27 Portsmouth
225
Derry
39 Lebanon
935 Rochester
20
.29 Manchester
Exeter.
Places having 10 Jews or less: Canaan (Enfield) Grafton County, Marlow (Cheshire
County), Newmarket, Whitefield (Coos County).
NEW JERSEY
14
Absecon
23 Branchville
300
Alpha
20 Bridgeton
650
Asbury Park
1,387 Burlington
Atlantic Highlands
45 Caldwell
300
7,700
Atlantic City
12,160 Camden
28
Audubon
28 Cape May Point
12
Bayonne
12,150 Chatham
69
Beach Haven
15 Clayton
Clifton
625
Belmar
600
40
Bergenfield
150 Collingswood
Beverly
34 Deerfield Township
Blommfield
1,400
(Coromel 100
Rounhayn 200)
Bogota
25
300
Boonton
128 Cumberland Co
Bordentown
25 Delaware township
Bound Rock
130
<Raven Rock),
Hunterdon Co
26
Bradley Beach
394
Dover
800
Branchburg Tnshp.
Dover township (Toms
(North Branch)
RiverJOcean Co
300
' Somerset County
60
Dumont
49
East Am well Tnshp.
(Ringoes) Hunterdon
County
31
East Orange
2,000
Edgewater
120
Egg Harbor
69
Elizabeth
9,500
Elmer
112
Englewood
750
Englishtown
64
Flemington
97
Fort Lee
70
Franklin
90
Freehold
400
Frenchtown
45
Garfield
600
Glen Ridge
450
Gutenberg
150
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
189
168
Hackensack
500 Netcong
11 Salem
Haddonfield
40 New Brunswick
5,000 Sea Bright
16
Haddon Heights
40 Newark
65,000 Somerville
600
100 South Amboy
Hasbrouck Heights
55 Newton
115
3,200 South Orange
1,000
High Bridge
16 North Plainfield
Stanhope
21
Highlands
43 North Plainfield
township (Watchung)
South River
375
Highstown
48
Somerset Co
12 Stockton
32
Hoboken
2,780
11
Irvington
1,295 Nutley
60 Stone Harbor
Jamesburg
123 Oaklyn
40 Summit
115
Jersey City
18,000 Ocean City
33
15 Swedesboro
11,000
Kearny
750 Orange
1,000 Trenton
4,000
Kenilworth
20 Palisades Park
400 Union
50
Keyport
175 Park Ridge
110 Verona
Lakewood Tnshp. (LakePassaic
9,000 Vineland
700
wood) Ocean Co
400 Paterson
22,300 Warren township
(Warrenville)
Lambertville
46 Paulsborb
94
Somerset County
120
Linden
1,800 Pennsgrove
103
Little Ferry
20 Perth Amboy
140
4,500 Westfield
1,320
Lodi
46 Phillipsburg
82 West Hoboken
Westmont
32
Long Branch
3,000 Pittsgrove Township
2,410
Madison
23
(Norma) Salem Co.. .150 West New York
Magnolia
12 Plainfield
3,000 West Orange
(Plesantdale)
560
Merchantville
95 Point Pleasant Beach. . .52
30
Metuchen
105 Princeton
100 West Paterson
Rahway
500 Westville
.45
Millstone Tnshp.
(Perrineville)
Ramsey
12 Westwood
45
• Monmouth County. .160 Raritan
22 Wharton
19
Milltown
14 Raritan township CroWildwood
400
Millville
560
ton (Hunterdon Co.).. 32 Woodbine
1,200
Monroe township
Red Bank
520 Woodbridge township
(Monroeville)
220
(Woodbridge)
Gloucester Co
150 Ridgefield Park
41
Middlesex County... 110
Montclair
450 Rockaway
Roosevelt
(Carteret)..
.500
Morristown
850
Woodstown
33
Places having 10 Jews or less: Barnegat City, Fanwood, Garwood, Hamilton Township (Mays Landing) Atlantic County, Harrison township (Mullica) Atlantic County
and Gloucester Co., Helmetta, Linwood, Mount Olive township (Flanders) Morris
County, Mountainside, New Providence, Northfield, Rocky Hill, Rumson. Sussex,
Tuckerton, Waterford Township, (Atco) Camden County.
Albuquerque
Carlsbad
Clovis
Gallup
LasCruces
NEW MEXICO
240 Las Vegas
14
(East Las Vegas)
16
25 Las Vegas
29 Roswell
Sante Fe
86 Silver City
70 Socorro
18 Tucumcari
40
12
12
41
Places having 10 Jews or less: Carrizozo, Clayton, Deming, Hot Springs, Jemez
Springs (Prec. 10) Sandoval County, Lordsburg, Portales, Roy, Santa Rosa, Springer,
Vaughn.
NEW YORK
Coxsackie
26
Albany
9,000 Cairo (Gayhead)
11
Greene Co
21 Depew
Alden
43
Deposit
,
11
Amsterdam
720 Callicoon (Jefferson43
ville) Sullivan Co
120 Dobbs Ferry
Angola
30
22
48 Dolgeville
Auburn
480 Carthage
Dunkirk
112
Castleton
20
Baldwinsville
260
15
200 East Rochester
Ballston Spa
30 Catskill
425
900 Ellenville
Batavia
126 Cedarhurst
1,500
29 Elmira
Bath
14 Chatham
65
142 Elmsford
Beacon
200 Cohoes
120
20 Endicott
Binghamton
2,500 Corinth
60 Fallsburgh (HurleyBrewster
37 Corning
ville and S. Falls20
Bronxville
25 Cornwall
burg)Sullivan Co... 1,660
66
Buffalo
20,000 Cortland
190
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
257
200 Rome
Fleischmans Village
100 Lawrence
300 Riverhead (Suffolk Co.). 127
Fort Plain
11 Liberty
112 Rochester
22,500
Freeport
950 Little Falls
21 Rockville Center
505
Friendship
30 Lowville
1,000 Rye
15
Fulton
27 Lynbrook
M
alone
45
Sag
Harbor
90
Geneva
64
St. Johnsville
1..11
Glen Cove
350 Mamakating (Summitville) Sullivan Co
29 Salamanca
40
Glens Falls
560
350 Saranac Lake
300
Gloversville
1,500 Mamaroneck
22 Saratoga Springs
250
Goshen
34 Margaretville
102 Scarsdale
35
Gouverneur
45 Massena
66 Schenectady
3,500
Gowanda
27 Mechanicville
12 Saugerties
50
Granville
51 Middleburg
520 Sea Cliff
157
Green Island
11 Middletown
1,200 Seneca Falls
25
Greenport
96 Monticello
8,000 Shodack (excl. CastleGreenwich
29 Mount Vernon
19
ton Rensselaer Co
50
Hastings on Hudson. .. 130 Newark
Rochelle
4,500 Spencerport village
24
Haverstraw
450 New
Newburgh
1,735
Spring yalley
900
Hempstead
250
Newburgh Town (Burling- Springville
16
Hempstead
ham), Orange Co
24 Stamford
18
(W. Hempstead,
New
York
1,765,000
Stephentown
Baldwin, Bellmore,
Niagara Falls
1,000
(Rensselaer Co.)
42
Port Washington)
23 Suffern
250
Nassau County
450 Northport
North
Tonawanda
40
Syracuse
14,000
Henrietta (East Henri42 Tarrytown
500
etta) Monroe Co
24 Norwich
Nyack
250 Ticonderoga
17
• Herkimer
84 Lgdensburg
150
Troy
2,500
Highland Falls
63 Old Forge
21
Hilton
12 Olean
5.000
175 Utica
Holley
14
69
29 Walden
Honeoye Falls
12 Oneonta
Walton
33
300
Hornell
33 Ossining
Wappinger Falls
11
Oswego
125
Hoosick Falls
100 Owego
49 Warwasing
Hudson
680 Patchogue
(Greenfield
625
Hunter
190 Peekskill
Dairyland)
1,000
Huntington
Ulster
County
276
250
(Suffolk Co.)
305 Pelham Manor
11
Penfield Monroe Co.)... 12 Waterloo
Ilion
32 Pittsford
450
13 Watertown
Ithaca
200 Plattsburg
Watkins
20
416
Jamestown
150 Pleasantville
47
65 Waverly
Johnson City
25 Port Chester
24
850 Webster
Johnstown
50 Port Henry
Whitehall
18
55
1,700
Kings Park
Port Jervis
260 White Plains
800
(Suffolk Co.)
73 Poughkeepsie
1,850 Woodridge
Wurtsboro
36
Kingston
1,750 Ramapo Monsey)
7,000
Rockland County.... 200 Yonkers
Lake Placid
62
85 Youngstown
50
Lancaster
11 Rensselaer
Places having 10 Jews or less: Adams, Ardsley, Arkville (Delaware County), Bloomingdale, Briarcliff Manor, Brightwaters, Brocton, Caledonia, Canisteo, Cattaraugus,
Cazenovia Cherry Valley, Clay (Onondaga County), Cobleskill, Cold Spring, De
Ruyter, Delhi, De Witt (excl. E. Syracuse and Eastwood) Onondaga County, East
Syracuse, Eastwood, Edwards, Fonda, Gardiner (Ulster County), Hancock, Horseheads, Hudson Falls, Interlaken, Irvington, Jordan, La Grange (Hudson Co.), Manchester, (Port Gibson) Ontario County, Manlius, Middleport, Millerton, Monroe.
Ogden (Spencerport) Monroe Co., Penn, Yan, Perry. Potsdam, Rifton, Rosendale(Binnewater). Rouses Point, Salem, Schuylerville, Silver Creek, South Dayton, Spencer,
Taghkanic (E. Taghkanic) Columbia County, Victory Mills, West Haverstraw, Whitesboro, Yorkville.
NORTH CAROLINA
15 Goldsboro
120
Ahoskie
21 Dunn
375 Greensboro. :
Albermarle
24 Durham
400
Asheville
700 Elizabeth City
19
16 Hamlet
Belhaven
11 Enfield
190
19 Henderson
Brevard
12 Fairmount
19 Hendersonville
115
Burlington
26 Fayetteville
116 Hickory
34
Chapel Hill
13 Forest City
13 High Point
101
40
Charlotte
400 Gastonia
99 Kinston
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
Lenoir
Lumberton
Marion
Mebane
Mooresville
Mount Airy
Mount Gilead
Mount Holly
New Bern
Raleigh
Reidsville
Roanoke Rapids
11
27
14
15
13
22
15
12
60
ISO
47
15
Roanoke Rapids (Rosemary or Roanoke Jet.).
Halifax. County
15
Rockingham
51
Rocky Mount
40
Rocky Mount Mills
36
Roxboro
21
Salisbury
29
Salisbury (excl. E. Spencer, Salisbury and Spencer City) Rowan Co...42
Sanford
20
Statesville
Tarboro
Thomasville
Wallace
Warsaw
Washington
Weldon
Wilmington
Wilson
.*
Winston-Salem
191
40
38
19
18
13
22
32
390
140
325
Places having 10 Jews or less: Asheboro, Benson, Bessemer City, Biltmore, Edenton,
Gatesville (Gates Co.) Greenville, Jacksonville, Laurinburg, Rutherfordton, St. Pauls,
Scotland Neck (Scotland) Halifax County, Southern Pines, Troy, Williamston.
NORTH DAKOTA
Ashley
Beulah
Bismarck
Devils Lake
Dickinson
Dogden
29
14
400
180
24
14
Fargo
Garrison
GlenUllin
Grand Forks
Jamestown
Mandan
500
17
19
350
28
19
Minot
Tuttle
Valley City
Williston
Zap
130
19
20
49
11
Places having 10 Jews or less: Bowdon, Casselton, Edgeley, Fessenden, Flasher,
Fullerton, Golden Valley, Grafton, Halliday, Hankinson, Harvey, Hazen, Hebron,
Hillsboro, Larimore, Linton, Milnor, New Salem, Oakes, Palermo, Parshall, Rubgy,
Streeter, Tappen, Velva, Wahpeton, White Earth.
OHIO
Ada
70
Akron
7,500
Alliance
208
Ashland
34
Ashtabula
40
Barberton
220
Bellaire
300
Bellefontaine
15
Bellevue
r
15
Berea
11
Bowling Green
35
Bucyrus
30
Cambridge
56
Canal Winchester
15
Canton
3,600
Chillicothe
58
Cincinnati
23,500
Circleville
52
Cleveland
85,000
Cleveland Heights.... 8,000
Clyde
40
Columbus
8,500
Conneaut
28
Coshocton
45
Crestline
18
Cuyahoga Falls
20
Dayton
4,900
Delaware
29
Dover
32
East Cleveland
850
East Linden
100
East Liverpool
500
East Youngstown
14
Elmwood Place
12
Elyria
310
Fairport Harbor
17
Fremont
63
Galion
18
Gallipolis
13
Geneva
152
Girard
64
Grand View Heights.... 15
Hamilton
450
Harrisburg
14
Hilliard
12
Hubbard
23
Ironton
65
Johnstown
15
Lakewood
555
Lancaster
60
Lebanon
40
Lima
400
Linden Heights
50
Lockbourne
15
Lockland
15
Lorain
975
Lowell ville
13
Mansfield
160
Mantua
21
Marietta
100
Marion
49
Martins Ferry
38
Marysville
16
Massillon
128
Medina. . . .'
19
Middletown
215
Mingo Junction
Mount Vernon
Murray City
Napoleon
Newark
Niles
Norwalk
Orrville
Painesville
Piqua
Portsmouth
Salem
St. Marys
Sandusky
Shaker Heights
Sidney
Springfield
Steubenville
Struthers
Tiffin
Toledo
Troy
Upper Sandusky
Urbana
Wadsworth
Warren
Wellsville
Westerville
Wilmington
Wooster
Xenia
Youngstown
Zanesville
24
44
14
12
72
41
37
10
86
92
200
40
27
95
300
26
580
920
60
41
10,000
34
13
15
12
710
29
15
17
101
45
8,000
260
192
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Places having 10 Jews or less: Arcanum, Brunswick (Medina County). Byesville,
Caldwell, Canfield, Carey, Carrollton, Corning, Dennison, Dublin, Forest, Flushing,
Franklin, Gahanna, Greenfield, Grove City, Groveport, Hanford, Hillsboro, Huron.
Jackson, Jamestown, Lisbon, London, Mantua (Excl. Mantua) Portage County, Marble
Cliff, Maumee, Miamisburg, Montpelier, New Albany, New Lexington, Pomeroy, Rittman. Sebring, Seville, South Euclid, Spring Valley, Thompson (Geauga Co.), Upper
Arlington, Van Wert, Wellston, Willard, Worthington.
OKLAHOMA
Ada
Anadarko
Ardmore
Atoka
Bartlesville
Blackwell
Bristow
Broken Bow
Chandler
Cleveland
Coalgate
Cushing
25
11
67
27
46
15
35
11
13
11
18
20
Drumright
Duncan
Elk City
Enid
Erick
Guthrie
Hartshorne
Henryetta
Lawton
McAlester
Muskogee
Nowata
22
23
11
41
15
23
17
61
27
46
200
15
Oklahoma City
Okmulgee
Pawhuska
Pawnee
Perry
Picher
Sapulpa
Shawnee
Stillwater
Tahlequah
Tulsa
Wetumka
1,250
125
27
19
28
51
56
35
15
18
2,400
17
Places having 10 Jews or less: Avant, Beaver City, Caddo, Carney, Claremore,
Collinsville, Durant, El Reno, Fort Gibson, Frederick, Hennessey, Idabel, Keota
Locust Grove, Newkirk, Okemah, Purcell, Ramona, Sentinel, Stroud. Tecumseh.
Valliant, Vinita, Wagoner, Weatherford, Wellston, Woodward.
OREGON
Albany
Astoria
Baker City
Burns
24
51
35
20
Eugene
Hood River
McMinnville
Marshfield
61
13
12
15
Oregon City
Pendleton
Portland
Roseberg
12
14
12,000
20
Places having 10 Jews or less: Ashland, Hillsboro, (Klamath County) .Klamath Falls
St. Helens, Tillamook.
PENNSYLVANIA
Aliquippa
Allentown
Altoona
Ambler
Ambridge
Archbald
Ashland
Ashley
Aspinwall
Athens
Avoca
Bangor
Barnesboro
Beaver Falls
Beliefonte
Bentleyville
Berwick
Bethel (Broughton)
Allegheny Co
Bethlehem
Blairsville
Bloomsburg
Boyertown
Braddock
Bradford
Bridgeport
115
1,960
1,500
40
200
30
30
99
15
13
37
40
93
300
44
68
100
12
1.500
43
87
.15
2,000
400
29
Bristol
Brookville
Brownsville
Burgettstown
Butler
Butler twnshp.
Butler County
California
Carbondale
Carnegie
Catasauqua
Canonsburg
Carlisle
Carmichaels
Carnegie
Castle Shannon
Centralia
Chambersburg
Charleroi
Chester
Clearfield
Clymer
Coaldale
Coatesville
Collingdale
(Darby P.O)
120
12
400
23
300
25
Ill
600
422
14
240
61
11
422
12
11
100
300
2,125
180
29
41
675
110
Columbia
Connellsville
Conshohocken
Coraopolis
Corry
Cresson
Danville
Darby
Delta
Derry
Dickson City
Donora
Doylestown
DuBois
Dupont
Duquesne
East Pittsburgh
East Stroudsburg
Easton
Eddystone
Elizabeth
Ellwood City
Erie
Exeter Boro
Fairview
Farrell
60
100
80
200
55
18
140
190
21
12
150
800
31
240
41
920
500
180
1,500
130
49
150
1,575
150
57
500
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
Fayette City
Fell (Simpson)
Lackawanna Co
Finleyville
Ford City
Forest City
Forty Fort
Franklin
Freedom
Freeland
Gallitzin
Gettysburg
Glassport
Greensburg
Greenville
Grove City
Hanover
Harrisburg
Hawley
Hazleton
Homestead
Honesdale
Hooverville
Houtzdale
Houghesville
Indiana
Ingram
Irwin
Jeannette
Jenkintown
Jermyn
Jersey Shore
Johnsonburg
Johnstown
Kano
Kennett Square
Kingston, L
Lancaster
Lansdowne
Larksville
Latrobe
Lebanon
Leechburg
Lehighton
Lewisburg
Lewiston
Lock Haven
Luzerne
McAdoo
McDonald
McKeesport
McKees Rock
Mahanoy City
Masontown
Mauch Chunk
Mayfield
Meadville
49 Mechanicsburg
17
Media
157
Middletown
100
Milton
52
Miners Mills
83
Minersville
140
Monaca
32
Monessen
265
Monqngahela City
142
Morrisville
50
Morris (Morristown)
Clearfield County.... 600
Mount Carmel
325
Mount Jewett
12
Mount Pleasant
197
Mount Union
44
Munhalk
50
Nanticoke
200
Nanty-Glo
45
Nazareth
28
New Bethlehem
23
New Brighton
95
Newcastle
750
New Kensington
640
New Salem
20
Norristown
750
Northampton
90
Northampton Heights.. 100
Northumberland
14
Oakdale
20
Oil City..
500
Olyphant
600
Osceola Mills
21
Palmerton
57
Parsons
25
Pen Argyl
15
Philadelphia
270,000
Philipsburg
140
Phoehixville
128
Pittsburgh
53,000
Pittston
160
Plymouth
165
Portage. . .
64
Portland (Mt. Bethel)... 14
Pottstown
700
Pottsville
1,000
Punxsutawney
125
Quakertown
44
Reading
2,500
Redstone (Fairbank,
Republic)
Fayette County
.42
Renovo
13
Reynoldsville
14
Rochester
62
Roscoe
33
St. Clair (Allegheny Co.) 50
47
13
68
63
36
34
15
85
13
19
140
450
391
121
28
5,000
44
1,000
1,100
90
13
24
15
106
23
88
200
250
28
30
13
1,000
94
19
400
1,500
200
35
100
135
63
325
19
150
125
131
38
70
5,000
240
200
90
14
33
80
193
St. Clair (Schuylkill Co.) 36
St. Marys
32
Sayre
47
Scottdale
57
Scranton
9,000
Sewickley
25
Shamokin
450
Sharon
700
Sharpsburg
44
Sharpsville
34
Shenandoah
600
Shickshinny
12
Shippensburg
16
Slatington
25
Slippery Rock
12
Smethport
11
Somerset
30
South Brownsville
500
South Fork
48
Steelton
?00
Stroudsburg
100
Sunbury
300
Susquehanna Depot
12
Swissvale
150
Swoyersville
125
Tamaqua
125
Tarentum
300
Titusville
400
Towanda
50
Tyrone
40
Uniontown
1,100
Wall
12
Warren
65
Warrington (Warrington) Bucks County. . .18
Warrington (Neshaminy) Bucks County... 61
Washington
575
Waynesboro
47
Waynesburg
27
Weissport
71
Wellsboro
23
West Chester
350
West Eaton
12
Westfield
11
West View
..12
West Wyoming
18
Wilkensburg
200
Wilkes Barre
5,500
Williamsport
500
Wilson
51
Windber
70
Winton
50
Wyoming
32
Wyoming Boro
30
York
750
Places having 10 Jews or less: Austin, Avondale, Bangor (Martins Creek) North
Hampton Co., Bath, Bedford, Bessemer, Blossburg, Buckingham (Forest Grove) Bucks
County, Burgettstown Borough (Avilla) Washington Co., Coalport, Curwensville,
Daisytown, East Brady, Elizabethtown, Elizabethville, Elmhurst, Emaus, Emlenton,
Galeton, German (Adah) Fayette Co., Girardville, Glen Rock, Grata, H«rndon, Juniata,
Lumber City, Lykens, Mclntyre (Ralston) Lycoming, Manheim, Meyersdale, Mifflintown, Milford, Montgomery, Montgomery (Arcadia) Indiana County, Muncy, Narberth,
Newport, North York, Penn, Perkasie, Pertolia, Port Carbon. Red Lion, Roseville,
Rouseville, Salisbury (Gap) Lancaster Co., Schuylkill Haven, Solebury (Lumberville)
Bucks County, State College, Sugar Notch Borough (No-canaqua) Luzerne Co., Sutersville, Sykesville, Trafford, Tremont (Schuylkill County), Wind Gap, Zelienople.
19-i
Bristol
Cranston
East Greenwich
Newport
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
200
400
91
750
RHODE ISLAND
North Providence
50 West Warwick
Pawtucket
570
(Artie), Kent
Providence
21,000
Co
Westerly
85 Woonsocket
79
1,350
Places having 10 Jews or less: Barrington, North Smithfield, Tiverton, Warwick
(Conimicut).
Abbeville
Aiken
Allendale
Anderson
Andrews
Bamberg
Batesburg
Branchville
Camden
Charleston
Chester
Columbia
Conway
18
75
20
66
12
19
12
14
108
2,150
23
590
13
SOUTH CAROLINA
Darlington
85
Denmark
14
Dillon
39
Elloree
18
Estill
11
Florence
28
Gaffney
25
Georgetown
135
Greenville
195
Greenwood
35
Johnston
11
Kingstree
31
Lake City
18
Lancaster
Little Rock
Manning
Newberry
Orangeburg
Rock Hill
St. Matthews
Spartanburg
Summerville
Sumter
Walterboro
Whitmire
Williston
22
12
38
27
88
17
39
80
31
200
50
12
18
Places having 10 Jews or less: Belton, Clinton, Clio, Ehrhardt, Eutawville, Hardeeville, Hillsboro Township (Lake View) Dillen Co., Inman, Kershaw, Lane, Laurens,
Liberty, Loris, Mayersville, Norway, Olar, Pickens, Saluda, Sharon, Timmonsville,
Wagener.
SOUTH DAKOTA
24 Rapid City
2t
Aberdeen
130 Madison
Mitchell
49 Sioux Falls
210
Deadwood
36 Parker
18 Vermilion
40
.17
Eureka.
11 Yankton
27
Huron
17 Parkston
Places having 10 Jews or less: Avon, Avon (Bon Homme County), Blunt City,
Canton, Centerville, Dell Rapids, Elk Point, Ethan, Herman (Lake County), Ipswich,
Lennox, Leola, Marion, Menno, Platte, Pollock, Redfield, Roscoe, Springfield, Sturgis,
Tyndall, Viborg, Wagner, Watertown.
Bristol
Brownsville
Chattanooga
Clarksville
Dyersburg
Fayetteville
Harriman
Humboldt
108
100
3,385
62
32
19
17
27
TENNESSEE
Jackson
188 Rutherford County
12
Johnson City
60 Somerville
17
Knoxville
1,250 Springfield
18
Memphis
10,000 Trenton
16
Murfreesboro
29 Union City
21
Nashville
4,000
21
Pulaski
33 No. 3 (Obion Co.)
Ripley
29 No. 12 (Rutherford Co.) 12
Places having 10 Jews or less: Alamo, Cleveland, Cookeville, Dayton, Decherd
Dresden, Greenville, Halls, Kenton, Lebanon, Leroir City, Newbern, Paris, Raleigh'
Shelbyville, South Pittsburg, No. 16 (Dyer Co.), No. 17 (Wilson Co.).
Abilene
Austin
Bartlett
Bay City
Beaumont
Beeville
Big Spring
Brady
Brenham
31
490
12
42
1,150
12
56
22
69
TEXAS
Brownsville
Bryan
Calvert
Cameron
Clarksville
Colorado
Corpus Christi
Corsicana
Dallas
40
60
37
18
40
44
200
330
7,500
Denison
Dublin
Eagle Lake
Eagle Pass
Eastland
El Campo
Electra
Elgin
El Paso
36
12
29
29
21
41
14
24
2,400
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES, 1927
Ennis
Florenceville
Fort Worth
Gainesville
Galveston
Greenville
Grosbeck City
Hallettsville
Harlingen
Hearne
Henderson
Highland Park
Houston
Itasca (Prec. 2)
(Hill Co.)
Jacksonville
Jefferson
Kenedy
Kerens
Kerrville
Kingsville
40
12
2,100
12
1,940
41
16
27
35
17
14
11
11,000
18
14
40
15
18
11
16
Laredo
Liberty
Lockhart
Luling
McAUen
McKinney
Marlin
Marshall
Mart
Mercedes
Mexia
Midland
Mineral Wells
Mount Pleasant
Nacogdoches
Navasota
New Braunfels
Palestine
Pharr
Port Arthur
Robstown
128
21
80
30
52
20
24
170
20
250
94
17
18
16
19
30
26
120
11
173
18
Rosenberg
San Antonio
San Benito
San Marcos
Schulenburg
Seguin
Sherman
Sour Lake
Sweetwater
Taylor
Temple
Terrell
Texarkana
Texas City
Tyler
Victoria
Waco
Wharton
Wichita Falls
Yorktown
195
52
8,000
24
12
18
30
56
14
32
70
30
73
175
19
500
96
1.500
75
505
16
Places having 10 Jews or less: Albany, Arlington, Athens, Ballinger, Barstow, Belton, Boerne, Brownwood, Carrizo Springs, Caraanche, Coolidge, Cooper, Crockett,
Denton, Farmersville, Flatonia, Fort Hancock (Prec. 2) Hudspeth County, Fort
Stockton, Freeport, Frost, Granger, Haskell, Italy, Jourdanton, Lampasas, Maypearl,
Memphis, Mineola, Nocona, Paris Plainview, Rockdale, Rogers, Rusk, San Angelo, San
Diego (Prec. 1) Duval County, Slaton, Smithville, Spur, Weatherford, Weimar, West
Columbia (Prec. 2) Brazoria Co., Precinct 4 (Victoria County). Precinct 6 (Matagorda
County), Precinct 7 (Jackson County).
UTAH
a
T " : : : : : : 290 | Park City
H | Salt Lake City
2,000
Places having 10 Jews or less: Brigham, Cedar, Lewiston, Provo, Salina, Sandy.
Tooele.
VERMONT
13 St. Albans
98
Barre
51 Fair Haven
100 Springfield
Bellows Falls
24 Montpelier
24
12 Winooski
Bennington
175 Richford
14
160
Burlington
900 Rutland
Places having 10 Jews or less: Bristol, Enosburg Falls, Hartford (White River
Junction) Windsor County, Ludlow, Northfield, Swanton, Vergennes, Woodstock.
VIRGINIA
Alexandria
Appalachia
Bedford
Bristol
Charlottesville
Clifton Forge
Covington
Culpeper
Danville
Farmville
140
44
14
95
112
35
29
16
180
20
Franklin
Fredericksburg
Hampton
Harrisonburg
Hopewell
Lynchburg
Martinsville
Newport News
Norfolk
Norton
24
30
144
105
SO
425
46
1,750
7,800
15
Petersburg
Phoebus
Pocahontas
Portsmouth
Potomac
Richmond
Roanoke
Staunton
Strasburg
Suffolk
705
66
26
2,180
30
8,000
455
108
20
114
Places having 10 Jews or less: Berryville, Crewe, Galax, Gordonsville, Hemdon,
Martinsville District (excl. Martinsville) Henry County, Onancock, Orange, St.
Charles, Scottville.
196
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
WASHINGTON
Aberdeen
Auburn
Bellingham
Bremerton
Centralia
Chehalis
Colfax
98
25
200
54
90
31
40
Everett
500
Kelso
34
Lake Bay Prec. (Lake
Bay) Pierre County... 30
Olympia
12
Pasco
12
Port Angeles
48
Seattle
Spokane
Stephens County
Tacoma
Vancouver
Walla Walla
Yakima
10,000
1,350
18
1,000
40
59
75
Places having 10 Jews or less: Colville, Ellensburg, Hoquiam, Lynden, Port Townsend
Raymond, Republic, Sedro-Woolley, Toppenish, Wapato, Wenatchee, Zillah.
WEST VIRGINIA
Bath Dist. (Hancock)
Huntington
1,125 Mount Hope
18
Morgan Co
36 Keyser
15
20 New Martinsville
Beckley
51 Keystone
74
37 Northfork
Bluefield
220
392
42 Parkersburg
Charleston
1,200 Kimball
41
116 Princeton
Charlestown
32 Logan
37
11 Thomas
Chester
16 Marlinton
12
304 Wellsburg
Clarksburg
235 Martinsburg
Elkins
25 Montgomery
95
47 Weston
Fairmount
140 Morgantqwn
750
250 Wheeling
Grafton
,
26
128
Moundsville
33 Williamson
Places having 10 Jews or less: Berkeley Springs. Bramwell, Buckhannon, Franklin,
Matewan, Piedmont, Richwood, Romney, Sistersville.
WISCONSIN
Antigo
75
Appleton
215
Arpin (Wood Co.)
20
Ashland
75
Baraboo
16
Barron
20
Beaver Dam
20
Beloit
125
Burlington
35
Clintonville
14
Eagle River (Vilas Co.).. 15
Eau Claire
280
Fond-du-Lac
142
Green Bay
350
Independence
17
Janesville
22
Kenosha
900
La Crosse
Lodi
Madison
Manitowoc
Marinette
Marshfield
Mayville
Merrill
Milwaukee
Neenah
Oconto
Oconto Falls
Oconomowoc
Oshkosk
Phillips
Port Washington
Racine . . J
190
15
1,000
160
220
30
12
27
25,000
32
52
12
28
135
22
28
735
Rhinelander
Rice Lake
Seymon
Sheboygan Falls
Sheboygan
Sparta
Stevens Point
Superior
Thiensville
Tomah
Viroqua
Watertown
Waukesha
Waupaca
Wausau
West Aljis
Wisconsin Rapids
25
35
11
600
1,075
18
66
1,050
12
15
20
30
60
14
200
100
12
Places having 10 Jews or less: Algoma, Amery, Auburndale. Berlin, Black River Falls,
Brodhead, Butternut, Clayton, Coleman, Cuba City, Delavan, De Pere, Durand,
Florence (Florence County) Fort Atkinson, Fox Lake, Goodrich (Taylor County)
Hartford, Hilbert, Hillsboro, Hudson, Jefferson, Kewaunee, Lady Smith, Lake Geneva,
Lena (Oconto County), Lisbon (Sussex) Waukesha County, Mauston, Medford,
Menasha, Monroe, Mosinee, Necedah, New London, Ontario, Osceola, Park Falls,
Redgranite, Richland Center, Rio, Rothschild, Shiocton, Sturgeon Bay, Sun Prairie,
Tomahawk, Washburn, West Bend.
WYOMING
Casper
61 I Cody
150 ITorrington
14
Cheyenne
800 I Rock Springs
34 | Sheridan
17
Places having 10 Jews of less: Evanston, Glenrock, Kemmerer, Lovell, District 20
(Cowley and Deaver) Big Horn Co., District 25, Park Co.
JEWISH POPULATION OF UNITED STATES 1927
197
. JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1927
P . C. OF JEWS TO THE TOTAL POPULATION
JEWS IN INCORPORATED,PLACES
P. C. OF PLACES HAVING JEWISH RESIDENTS TO TOTAL NUMBER OF PLACES
-Urban-
Rural
Under
2,500
2.5005,000
5,00010,000
10,00025,000
Population Groups
25,000-
and over
198
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
DENSITY OF THE JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES
P. C. OF JEWS TO TOTAL POPULATION (CRUDE DENSITY) AND 10 POPULATION
OF THE PLACES IN WHICH JEWS RESIDE (SPECIFIC DENSITY)
3 Crude
-Rural -
^ ^ H Specific
-Urban -
100,000
and svar
Unincorporated
Population Groups
DISTRIBUTION OF THE JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES
DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL POPULATION AND OF JEWS AMONG THE
MAJOR DJVISIONS OF THE COUNTRY
Rural
Total Jews
<
Urban
Total Jaws
Total Jews
>
Total Jews
100%
Wfest
90
80
Sooth
70
60
50
4O
North
30
20
10
2.500
25.00 0
£5.000100,000
Population Groups
JEWISH CONGREGATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES
A Preliminary Statement
BY H. S. LINFIELD, PH. D.
Director of the Statistical Department
of the
American Jewish Committee
Late in 1927 a canvass was made of Jewish congregations
in the country as a part of the United States Census of Religious Bodies. Below are given data for the Jewish congregations, by State. All figures are preliminary and subject to
correction.
The canvass of the Jewish congregations shows that there
are 2,948 permanent congregations in the country: 2,855
congregations are located in urban places (incorporated places
of 2,500 inhabitants or more) and 93 congregations, in rural
areas.
The urban places and the rural areas in which the 2,948
congregations are located, reported a combined number of
4,087,357 Jewish men, women, and children. In another
place (see pp. ), the total number of Jews in the country
was estimated as 4,228,019. It is thus found that 96.67 per
cent (4,087,357 persons) of the Jews in the country live in
places where they can be served by the permanent congregations in the places; while 3.33 per cent (140,672 persons) live
scattered all over the country in groups too small to have
permanent congregations. Some of these 140,672 Jews have,
however, "High Holidays congregations" and others have
access to permanent congregations in near-by cities. Generally speaking, there exists in the country one permanent
congregation to serve every 1,386 Jewish men, women, and
children (one congregation for every 1,426 Jewish men,
women, and children in the urban places, and one congregation for every 166 Jews in the rural areas).
Of the 2,948 congregations, 1,335 reported that they spent
during the last fiscal year a total of $16,445,235 for current
199
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
200
expenses, improvements, taxes, loans, etc.: 1,202 urban congregations reported $16,334,214, or an average of $13,589,
and 33 rural congregations reported $111,021, or an average
of $3,364.
Of the total number of congregations, 1,131 reported that
the value of their synagogue buildings was $100,890,669:
1,100 urban congregations valued their synagogue buildings
at $100,317,169, or an average of $91,197, and 31 rural congregations, $573,500, or an average of $18,500.
It may also be stated here that 554 congregations reported
Sabbath schools with 4,247 officers and teachers and 69,439
pupils; and 604 congregations reported week-day schools
with 2,248 officers and teachers and 64,863 pupils.
The figure of 2,948 congregations given above, and the
information about them cover only those congregations
which were actually reported to us. A thorough canvass was
made; but it is not claimed that the results are absolutely
complete.
JEWISH CONGREGATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
BY STATES
Expenditures
No. of ' MemConbership
gregaNo.
tions
Report- Amount
ing
State
2,948
2,855
93
TOTAL
Urban
Rural
N E W ENGLAND:
Maine
New Hampshire
Vermont
Massachusetts
Rhode Island
Connecticut
:.
M IDDLE ATLANTIC :
New York
New Jersey
Pennsylvania
.....
Value of
Synagogue
Buildings
No.
Reporting
Amount
4,087,357 1,235 $16,445,235
4,071,889 1,202 16,334,214
111,021
15,468
33
1,131
1,100
31
$100,890,669
100,317,169
573,500
8
3
19
8
5
142
19
66
7.582
2,129
1,433
213,085
23,385
89,895
9
3
71
7
31
23,480
7,500
(**)
748,457
139,700
240,167
70
7
24
169.500
38,500
(**) «
4,891,500
684.000
1.352,200
1,126
184
295
1,896.593
217,258
392,544
365
79
130
6,720,538
882,237
1,385,319
359
71
119
44,394,260
5,085.000
10,092,583
•States having less than 3 congregations (or less than 3 congregations reporting
expenditures or value of synagogue buildings).
•"Included in the amount shown for "Other States."
THE JEWISH.CONGREGATIONS BY STATES
201
JEWISH CONGREGATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
BY STATES (Continued)
Expenditures
No. of
Congregations
State
Membership
No.
Reporting
Amount
Value of
Synagogue
Buildings
No.
Reporting
Amount
EAST NORTH CENTRAL:
Ohio . . .
Indiana
Wisconsin
109
46
171
62
34
166,264
23,620
338,179
83,353
32,013
46
26
79
35
18
829,072
193,867
936,262
346,774
146,361
46
19
86
34
16
7,247,100
946,500
7 754 478
1,722,300
678,100
33
26
61
9
4
10
7
39,925
12,712
76,604
1,653
380
12,141
24,473
14
14
23
7
10
9
13
4
5
3
170,165
65,212
829,184
16,640
(**)
69,626
21,500
6
3
577,000
111,500
1,468,500
213,000
(**)
223,500
110,000
4
66
5
28
17
22
15
23
28
5,000
69,654
16,000
22,330
5,059
3,602
3,234
18,366
12,060
4
32
5
13
9
10
7
11
17
48,942
331,328
83,014
95,255
66,981
75,042
18,628
89,308
247,589
3
29
4
12
6
8
6
9
13
128,000
2,392,400
343,000
820 000
454,000
290,000
140,000
423,000
722,000
18
15
21
19
15,548
19.031
9,218
3,091
10
6
15
8
90,795
50,782
73,600
38,538
8
6
10
8
447,500
404.000
320,500
161,000
15
23
9
49
5,140
13,845
4,098
39,237
7
9
4
35
22,155
95,924
46.484
625,874
5
6
4
31
142,000
283,000
215,000
2,215,248
3
22
3
4
3
671
18,950
351
933
2,290
10
470 000
(**)
13
8
75
4
WEST NORTH CENTRAL:
Missouri
North Dakota
South Dakota
Nebraska
SOUTH ATLANTIC:
Maryland
Dist. of Columbia. . .
West Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
Florida
EAST SOUTH CENTRAL:
Kentucky
Tennessee
.. ,
Mississippi
WEST SOUTH CENTRAL:
Arkansas
Oklahoma
Texas
.. .
MOUNTAIN:
Colorado
Utah....
3
3
(**
105,676
(•*)
5,650
24,200
13,090
12.000
118,024
6
3
33
83.348
40,406
294,183
30
639,000
(**)
954,500
1,314
8
19.472
9
1.167,000
12
(**)
PACIFIC :
Washington
California
Other States*
. .
7
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN THE
UNITED STATES
A. GENERAL ORGANIZATIONS
[Note.—The information given below is as of June 30, 1928.]
"Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
**Indicates that data were collected in the latter part of 1927.
***Taken from Report.
ALEPH ZADIK ALEPH OF THE
B'NAI B'RITH
Org. 1924. OFFICE: 301 Peters Trust Bldg., Omaha, Nebr.
Fifth Annual International Convention, July 16-18, 1928, Denver,
Colo.
Chapters, 20. Members, 800.
PURPOSE: Mental, moral and physical development of Jewish youth.
Inculcation of Jewish ideals.
OFFICERS: Pres., Sam Beber, Omaha, Neb., First Vice-Pres., Jacob
J. Lieberman, Los Angeles, Cal.; Second Vice-Pres., Julius J. Cohn, Chattanooga, Tenn.; Third Vice-Pres., Joseph Herbach, Philadelphia, Pa.;
Treas., Harry Lapidus, Omaha, Neb.; Sec, I. F. Goodman, Omaha,
Neb.; Ex. Sec, Philip M. Klutznick, Omaha, Neb.
ALPHA EPSILON PHI SORORITY
Org. 1909. OFFICE: 111 W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago, III.
Triennial Convention, June 27-July 1, 1927 Ithaca, N. Y.
Members, 1,680.
PURPOSE: TO foster close friendship between members, to stimulate
the intellectual, social and spiritual life of the members, and to count
as a force through service rendered to others.
OFFICERS: Dean, Gertrude Friedlander, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Sub-Dean,
Ida Kellner Youdelman, N. Y. C ; Treas., Edna Belle, Diamond, CleveO.; Scribe, Ruth I. Wien, Chicago, 111.; Ex. Sec, Sophie A. Aries.
ALPHA EPSILON PI FRATERNITY
Org. 1913. OFFICE: Suite 2305, 1440 Broadway, New York City.
Eleventh Annual Convention, Dec. 25-28, 1927.
*
Chapters, 11. Alumni Clubs, 5. Members, 700.
PURPOSE: A national collegiate Greek-letter fraternity for Jewish
students.
OFFICERS: Pres., I. L. Rubin, Philadelphia, Pa.; Vice-Pres., Sigmund
Steinberg, Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., David Schlesinger, N. Y. C ; Sec,
Alexander L. Grossman, N. Y. C.
203
204
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ALPHA MU SIGMA FRATERNITY
Org. 1914. OFFICE: 531 W. 123d, New York City
Annual Convention, Dec. 29, 1926-Jan. 2, 1927, New York City.
Next Annual Convention, Dec. 21-25, 1928, N. Y. C.
Members, 550.
PURPOSE: TO foster and perpetuate the fraternal spirit among its
personnel, to cultivate and promote an ideal social relationship among
them, to voluntarily give aid to fraters in distress and to perpetuate the
ideals which gave origin to its existence.
OFFICERS: Grand Chancellor, Irving H. Fisher, N. Y. C ; Grand Prior,
Maurice Krivit, Jersey City, N. J.; Grand Vice Prior, Arthur Kulick,
N. Y.-C; Grand Chancellor of the Exchequer, Harold L. Weinstein, N.
Y. C ; Grand Scribe, Milton S. Abramson, N. Y. C ; Grand Historian,
Sidney Svirsky, New Haven, Conn.
ALPHA OMEGA FRATERNITY
Org. 1907, Inc., 1909. OFFICE: Secretary, 419 Boylston, Boston, Mass.
Twentieth Annual Convention, Dec. 25-27, 1927, Baltimore, Md.
Members, 2,500.
PURPOSE: Uphold the highest standards of the dental profession,
further the causes of Judaism and to promote fraternalism.
OFFICERS: Chancellor, A. H. Mendelsohn, Baltimore, Md.; ViceChancellors, Victor Bard, Los Angeles, Cal.; J. T. Rothner, Detroit,
Mich.; Sol. Vineberg, Waterbury, Conn.; Supreme Scribe, A. M.
Flaschner, 419 Boylston, Boston, Mass.; Quaestor, J. W. Malkinson,
Hartford, Conn.; Editor, S. Birenbach, N. Y. C.; Historian, Henry
Brown, N. Y. C ; Marshall, J. J. Glazin, Maiden, Mass.; Macer, Max
H. Jacobs, Boston, Mass.
ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF DROPSIE COLLEGE
Org. 1924. OFFICE: Broad and York, Philadelphia, Pa.
Annual Meeting, March 11, 1928, Philadelphia, Pa.
Members, 38-.
PURPOSE: TO advance the interests of the Dropsie College and further
spirit of friendship among its graduates.
OFFICERS: Pres., Samuel Nirenstein, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., S. L. Skoss,
Phila., Pa.; Sec.-Treas., Joseph Reider, Broad and York, Phila., Pa.
•ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF THE HEBREW UNION
COLLEGE
Org. 1889. Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, O.
Annual Meeting, Oct. 19-23, 1925, Cincinnati, O.
Members, 200.
PURPOSE: TO promote welfare of the Hebrew Union College and to
strengthen fraternal feeling among graduates of the college.
OFFICERS: Pres., George Solomon, Savannah, Ga.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
205
"AMERICAN ACADEMY FOR JEWISH RESEARCH
Org. June 15, 1920. OFFICE: Philadelphia, Pa.
Members, 14; Honorary member, 1.
PURPOSE: TO advance Jewish learning in America.
OFFICERS: Pres., Louis Ginzberg, N. Y. C ; Treas., Jacob Z. Lauter.bach, Cincinnati, O.; Sec, David S. Blondheim, 808 Reservoir, Baltimore, Md.
AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
Org. Nov. 11, 1906; inc. Mch. 16, 1911.
OFFICE:
171 Madison Av.
New York City
For report, see p. 271
AMERICAN JEWISH CONGRESS
Org. March, 1916. Re-org. 1920. OFFICE: 8 W. 40th, New York City
Sixth Meeting, Feb. 20-21, 1927, Washington, D. C.
Delegates, 400.
PURPOSE: TO further and promote Jewish rights; to safeguard and
defend such rights wherever and whenever they are either threatened
or violated; to deal generally with all matters relating to and affecting
specific Jewish interests.
OFFICERS: Pres., Stephen S. Wise; Vice-Pres., Gustave Hartman;
Louis Lipsky; Julian W. Mack; A. J. Rongy; Carl Sherman; Mrs. Archibald Silverman; Max D. Steuer; Chairman Exec. Comm., Julius I.
Peyser; Treas., Geo. I. Fox; Ex. Sec, B. G. Richards, 8 W. 40th, N. Y. C.
•AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY
Org. 1892. OFFICE: 531 W. 123d, New York City.
Thirty-fifth Annual Meeting, Nov. 23-24, 1927. Philadelphia, Pa.
Members, 450.
Has issued thirty volumes of publications and an index to publications
1-20. Maintains a collection of books, manuscripts, and historical
objects in fts room in the building of the Jewish Theological Seminary,
531 W. 123d, N. Y. C.
OFFICERS: Pres., Abraham S. W, Rosenbach, Phila., Pa.; Vice-Pres.,
Simon W. Rosendale, Albany, N. Y.; David Philipson, Cincinnati, O.;
Max J. Kohler, N. Taylor Phillips, Richard J. H. Gottheil, N. Y. C ;
Teas., Henry S. Hendricks; Curator, Leon Huhner; Cor. Sec, Albert
M. Friedenberg, 38 Park Row; Rec. Sec, Samuel Oppenheim, N. Y. C.
AMERICAN JEWISH JOINT AGRICULTURAL CORPORATION
Org. July, 1924. OFFICE: 40 Exchange Place, N. Y. C.
PURPOSE: TO assist and give material aid to Jews to engage in agricultural pursuits and to settle upon the land in Russia.
OFFICERS: Pres., Joseph A. Rosen; Vice-Pres., E. A. Grower; Samuel
Lubarsky: Bd. of Trustees Sec, Joseph C. Hyman.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
206
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
AMERICAN JEWISH PHYSICIANS' COMMITTEE
Org. May 24, 1921. OFFICE: 106 E. 85th., New York City.
Eighth Annual Meeting, May, 1928, New York City.
Members, 3,000.
PURPOSE : To build a medical college and hospital in connection with
the Hebrew University in Palestine.
OFFICERS: Pres., Nathan Ratnoff; Vice-Pres., Meyer R. Robinson
and Albert A. Epstein; Treas., Harry E. Isaacs; Sec, Israel S. Wechsler,
N. Y. C ; Chairman Exec. Comm., Emanuel Libman, N. Y. C.
THE AMERICAN ORT
Org. 1922. OFFICE: 331 Madison Av., New York City
PURPOSE: Promotion of technical trades and agriculture among the
Jews in Eastern and Central Europe.
OFFICERS: Chairman, Jacob Panken; Chairman Exec. Com., Henry
Moskowitz; Vice-Chairman, Joseph Boskin, Louis B. Boudin, Samuel
Ellsberg, Gustave Hartman, B. C. Vladeck; Treas., Morris Berman;
Hon. Sec, Herman Bernstein.
AMERICAN PRO-FALASHA COMMITTEE
Org. Aug. 1922; inc. 1923. OFFICE: 305 Broadway, New York City.
PURPOSE: The educational and religious rehabilitation of the Falasha
Jews of Abyssinia.
OFFICERS: Hon. Chairman, Cyrus Adler, Phila., Pa.; Chairman,
Hyman J. Reit; Vice-Chairman, Joseph Rauch; Treas., Elias L. Solomon; Sec, J. Max Weis, N. Y. C ; Executive Director, Jacques
Faitlovitch.
AMERICAN ZION COMMONWEALTH
Org. 1924. OFFICE: 111 Fifth Av., New York City.
Next Annual Convention, June, 1928, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Members, 6,000.
PURPOSE: Acquisition and sale of Palestinian land and securities.
OFFICERS: Pres., Harry S. Medinets; Vice-Pres., Loufe Germain;
Treas., Feibus Kobak, Sec, J. S. Adlerblum, N. Y. C.
*AVUKAH, AMERICAN STUDENT ZIONIST
FEDERATION
Org. June, 1925. OFFICE: Union Trust Bldg., Washington, D. C.
First Annual Convention, June 27, 1926, Buffalo, N. Y.
Members, 1,500.
PURPOSE: An intercollegiate organization of undergraduates and
alumni to promote the ideals and work of Zionism among the American
Jewish academic youth, on the basis of cultural and practical activity,
with a view primarily to education and training for Zionist leadership.
OFFICERS: Pres., Max Rhoade, Washington, D. C ; Vice-Pres., Samuel Blumenfield, N. Y. C ; Milton Goell, N. Y. C ; Isidore Lapson, N.
Y. C ; Joseph Shubow, Cambridge Mass.; Hymen Smoler, Chicago,
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
207
III.; Treas., Emanuel Aaronson; Exec. Sec, Nettie Zimmerman, Washington, D. C ; For. Sec, Carl Goldenberg, Washington, D. C.
BARON DE HIRSCH FUND
Org. Feb. 9, 1891; inc. 1891. OFFICE: 233 Broadway, New York City.
Thirty-seventh Annual Meeting, Jan. 29, 1928, New York City.
PURPOSE: TO Americanize and assimilate the immigrants with the
masses and teach them to become good and self-supporting citizens,
and to prevent by all proper means their congregating in large cities.
OFFICERS: Pres., S. G. Rosenbaum; Vice-Pres., Samuel Greenbaum;
Treas., Simon F. Rothschild; Hon. Sec, Max J. Kohler, 253 Broadway,
N. Y. C.
B'NAI B'RITH HILLEL FOUNDATIONS
IN AMERICAN COLLEGES
Org. 1923. OFFICE: 625 E. Green, Champaign, 111.
Foundations, 5.
PURPOSE: A Jewish organization devoted to social and religious work
among students at the university.
ADMINISTRATORS: Acting Dir., Louis Mann, 4600 S. Parkway,
Chicago, 111.; Boris D. Bogen, Alfred M. Cohen, H. M. Fisher, Solomon
Goldman, James G. Heller, Isaac Kuhn.
BUREAU OF JEWISH SOCIAL RESEARCH, INC.
Org. April, 1919. OFFICE: 71 W. 47th, New York City.
Merger of Bureau of Philanthropic Research, and the Field Bureau
of the National Conference of Jewish Charities, and supported by funds
provided by the New York Foundation, Hofheimer Foundation, and
the Federations of Jewish Philanthropies throughout the country, in
addition to private contributions.
PURPOSE: Research into problems of Jewish social and communal
life in America and in other centers of Jewry throughout the world.
OFFICERS: Chairman, Adolph Lewisohn; Treas., and Chairman Exec.
Com., David M. Heyman; Sec, Solomon Lowenstein; Director, Samuel
A. Goldsmith.
CENTRAL CONFERENCE OF AMERICAN RABBIS
Org. July 9, 1899. OFFICE: Rochester, N. Y.
Thirty-sixth Annual Convention, Oct. 19-23, 1925, Cincinnati, O.
Members, 268.
Has issued thirty-six volumes of its Year Book; and besides, the Union
Prayer Book; the Union Hymnal; the Union Haggadah; Prayers for
Private Devotion; Army Ritual for Soldiers of the Jewish Faith (1916);
and various other publications.
OFFICERS: 1925-1926: Pres., Louis Wolsey, Phila., Pa.; Vice-Pres.,
Hyman G. Enelow, N. Y. C ; Treas., Morris Newfield, Birmingham,
Ala.; Rec. Sec, Isaac E. Marcuson, Macon, Ga.; Cor. Sec, Joseph L.
Fink, Buffalo, N. Y.
208
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN
See: NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN
COUNCIL OF YOUNG ISRAEL AND YOUNG ISRAEL
SYNAGOGUE ORGANIZATIONS
Org. 1923. OFFICE: 38 Park Row, New York City.
Annual Convention, June 17, 1928, Asbury Park, N. J.
Members, 5,000.
PURPOSE: TO promote traditional Judaism and to further the religious
and cultural development of the American Jewish youth.
OFFICERS: Pres., Moses H. Homenig; Vice-Pres., Edw. S. Silver;
Flora Hyman; Treas., M. Mandell Schachne, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Sec,
Jane Heller.
COUNCIL ON AMERICAN JEWISH STUDENT AFFAIRS
Org. 1925. OFFICE: New York City.
Annual Convention, Dec, 1927, New York City.
PURPOSE: Advisory body for discussion of problems of interest to
Jewish students at American colleges and universities, and presentation
of such recommendations as the Council shall deem wise, proper and
constructive, educational and otherwise.
OFFICERS: Chairman, Harold Riegelman, N. Y. C ; Sec.-Treas.,
Aaron ,E. Stein, 22 W. 77th St., N. Y. C.
DROPSIE COLLEGE FOR HEBREW AND COGNATE
LEARNING
Org. 1905. Inc. May 20, 1907. Broad and York, Philadelphia, Pa.
Incorporated in State of Pennsylvania.
Invested funds about $884,939.28.
LIBRARY: Volumes and pamphlets, 35,587.
OFFICERS: Pres., Cyrus Adler; Vice-Pres., Horace Stern; Treas., D.
Hays Solis-Cohen; Sec, Lessing Rosenwald, Phila., Pa.
BOARD OF GOVERNORS: The Officers, and Arthur Bloch, Philadelphia,
Pa., Harry Friedenwald, Baltimore, Md.; Isaac Gerstley, Louis Gerstley, Philadelphia, Pa.; Louis Marshall, N. Y. C ; Simon Miller, A. S. W.
Rosenbach, Edwin Wolf, Philadelphia, Pa.
FACULTY: Pres., Cyrus Adler (M. A., Pennsylvania; Ph. D., Johns
Hopkins; D. H. L. Hebrew Union College); Professor in charge of the
Biblical Department, Max L. Margolis (M. A., Ph. D., Columbia);
Professor in charge of the Rabbinical Department, Solomon Zeitlin
(Th. D., Ecole Rabbinique; Ph.D., Dropsie); Associate Professor Historical Department, Abraham A. Neuman (M. A., Columbia; H. L. D.,
Jewish Theological Seminary of America); Associate Professor Department of Egyptology, Nathaniel Reich, (Ph.D., Vienna); Instructor
Biblical Department and Librarian, Joseph Reider (B. A., College of
the City of New York; Ph.D., Dropsie); Instructor in Arabic, Solomon
L. Skoss (M. A., Denver; Ph.D., Dropsie).
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
209
EDUCATIONAL LEAGUE FOR THE HIGHER EDUCATION
OF ORPHANS
Org. 1896. OFFICE: 336 Engineers' Bldg., Cleveland, O.
Thirty-first Meeting, Oct. 8, 1926, Cleveland, 0.
OFFICERS: Pres., Alfred A. Benesch, Cleveland, O.; Vice-Pres., M. J.
Mandelbaum, Cleveland, O.; Hon. Vice-Pres., Nathan Cohn, Tenn.;
Adolph Freund, Mich.; Milton R. Hart, 111.; Sol. S. Kiser, Inc.; Max S.
Schayer, Colo; Treas., Maurice Gusman, Cleveland, O.; Sec, Eugene
E. Wolf, Engineer's Bldg., Cleveland, O.
THE EX- PATIENTS' TUBERCULAR HOME
OF DENVER, COLO.
Org. 1908. OFFICE: 8000 E. Montview Blvd., Denver, Colo.
Members, 60,000.
PURPOSE: TO care for patients who have been discharged from a Tubercular Sanatorium or Hospital who are in need of further treatment,
and to rehabilitate the patients through the Industrial Department.
OFFICERS: Pres., Edward Grimes; Vice-Pres., Adolph Kiesler; Sec,
A. M. Blumberg, P. O. Box 1768; Treas., M. Bronstine.
**FEDERATION OF HUNGARIAN JEWS IN AMERICA
Org. Nov. 1, 1909. OFFICE: SO Union Square, New York City.
Seventh Convention, May 28-29, 1926, New York City.
Members, 35,000.
Societies, 107.
PURPOSE: TO promote the political, educational, social and religious
interests of the Hungarian Jews here and in Hungary.
OFFICERS: Pres., Samuel Buchler; Vice-Pres., B. J. Feuerstein, Simon
Miller, Bernard Price; Treas., Samuel Baum; Acting Sec, Dorothy
Buck, N. Y. C.
FEDERATION OF ORTHODOX RABBIS OF AMERICA, INC.
Org. 1926. OFFICE: 256 East Broadway, New York City.
Members, 91.
PURPOSE: TO promote Judaism in America.
OFFICERS: Chairman, Jacob Eskolsky; Chairman of the Exec. Com.,
S. L. Hurwitz; Sec, Joseph Peimer.
PUBLICATION: Degel Israel.
FEDERATION OF POLISH JEWS IN AMERICA
Org. 1908. OFFICE: 32 Union Square, New York City.
Twentieth Annual Convention, May 12-13, 1928, New York City.
Members, 50,000.
PURPOSE: Interest in all Jewish matters. Provide for the sick an hospital in case they cannot afford to pay for their treatment; culture work
and aims to build centers all over the United States for their members
and to erect a Hyam Salomon Monument in New York City. Organized relief committee from the organizations bearing the names of their
home towns. Organized fifty-four committees.
••Indicates that data were collected in the latter part of 1927.
210
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Publishes a monthly, in Yiddish and English, Der Verband.
Pres., Benjamin Winter; Vice-Pres., Harris Koppelman,
Sol. Rosenfeld, Alfred Rosenstein, Jacob I. Steinberg; Treas., Herman
Rosenblum; Sec, M. Schafer; Ex. Dir., Z. Tygel.
OFFICERS:
HADASSAH
THE WOMEN'S ZIONIST ORGANIZATION
Org. 1912. OFFICE: 111 Fifth Av., New York City.
Fourteenth Annual Convention, June 27-29, 1928, Pittsburgh, Pa.
Chapters, 285. Sewing Circles, 791.
Junior Hadassah Groups, 232.
PURPOSE: TO promote Jewish institutions and enterprises in Palestine, and to foster Zionist ideals in America.
OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Henrietta Szold; Pres., Mrs. Irma L. Lindheim; Hon, Vice-Pres., Mrs. Nathan Straus; Vice-Pres., Pearl Franklin,
Mrs. Edw. Jacobs, Mrs. A. Silverman; Treas., Mrs. H. B. Lefkowitz;
Sec, Mrs. Robert Szold.
HEBREW SHELTERING AND IMMIGRANT AID SOCIETY
OF AMERICA
OFFICE: 425 Lafayette, New YorJc City.
An amalgamation of the Hebrew Sheltering House Association,
organized Nov., 1888, and the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, organized
1901.
Nineteenth Annual Meeting, March 18, 1928, New York City.
Contributors, 125,000.
PURPOSE : To facilitate the lawful entry of Jewish immigrants at the
various ports in the United States, to provide them with temporary
assistance, to prevent them from becoming public charges, to discourage
their settling in congested cities, to prevent ineligibles from immigrating
to the United States, to foster American ideals, and to instil in them a
knowledge of American history and institutions, and to make better
known the advantages of desirable immigration, to advise and direct
emigrants abroad, to develop new centers for Jewish immigration.
OFFICERS: Pres., Abraham Herman, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Adolph
Copeland, Chicago III.; Harris Poorvu, Boston, Mass.; Leon Kamaiky,
N. Y. C ; H. H. Cohen, Phila., Pa.; Max Meyerson, N. Y. C ; Albert
Rosenblatt, N. Y. C.;Leo S. Schwabacher, Seattle, Wash.; Israel Silberstein, Baltimore, Md.; Harry K. Wolff, San Francisco, Cal.; Treas.,
Harry Fischel, N. Y. C ; Hon. Sec, Aaron Benjamin; General Manager,
Isaac L. Asofsky, N. Y. C.
HEBREW THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE
Org. 1921. OFFICE: 3448 Douglas Blvd., Chicago, 111
Sixth Annual Meeting, Jan. 3, 1928, Chicago. 111.
Graduates, Rabbinical Course, 1927, 9.
Whole number of Graduates, Rabbinical Course, 19.
Graduates, Teachers Course, in 1928, 4.
Whole number of Graduates, Teachers Course, 20.
PURPOSE: An Institution for Higher Jewish Learning, and the promotion and perpetuation of Traditional Judaism in America, giving its
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
211
students the opportunity to become the well prepared Rabbis, Teachers,
and Leaders of American Israel.
OFFICERS: President, Rabbi Saul Silber; Hon. Vice-Pres., Rabbi A.
I. Cardon, Vice-Pres., Samuel Ginsberg, Gershon Guthman, Rabbi B.
Z. Margolin; Treas., B. Laser; Recording Sec, M. Perlstein; Financial
Sec, J. L. Rubin, Ex. Sec, Rabbi Samuel S. Siegel.
FACULTY OF THE COLLEGE: Pres., Rabbi Saul Silber; Instructors of
Talmud and Codes, Rabbi Chaim Yitzok Korb; Rabbi C. Regensberg,
Rabbi H. Rubenstein, Rabbi Z. Starr; for Bible, Hebrew Grammer and
Literature, Rabbi Sax, S. Seligman, Rabbi Shulman; for Jewish History
and Philosophy, Prof. Meyer Waxman, (Ph.D. Columbia); for Midrash
and Homiletics, Rabbi Saul Silber; for Public Speaking, J. R. Tyson; for
Yeshivah Etz Chaim, Rabbi Kaplan, Rabbi Miller, Arthur Rabinowitz,
Rabbi Menahen B. Z. Sachs; Nusach Hutfiloth, Rabbi S. Siegel; Dean,
Rabbi Jacob G. Greenberg.
HEBREW UNION COLLEGE
Org. 1875, Inc. Cincinnati, 0.
Maintained by the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (q.v.)
until 1926.
Chartered separately under the laws of the State of Ohio, with the
Union of American Hebrew Congregations recognized as a patronizing
body.
Library: Printed volumes, 80,000; manuscripts, 2,500.
Fifty-third commencement, June 2, 1928, graduates, Rabbinical,
Course in 1928, 14, whole number of graduates, 289.
School for Teachers in New York City, established 1923. Graduates
1928, 24, whole number of graduates 95.
BOARD OF GOVERNORS FOR 1928: Chairman, Alfred M. Cohen, Cincinnati, O.; Vice- Chairman, Maurice J. Freiberg, Cincinnati, O.; Sec,
Benj. Mielziner, Cincinnati, O.; Asst. Sec, Isaac Bloom, Cincinnati, O.;
Marcus Aaron, Pittsburgh, Pa.; James H. Becker, Chicago, 111.; Oscar
Berman, Cincinnati, O.; Edw. Calisch, Richmond, Va.; Harry W.
Ettelson, Memphis, Tenn.; Albert Freiberg, Cincinnati, O.; A. B. Frey,
St. Louis, Mo.; Jacob S. Goldbaum, Philadelphia, Pa.; Moses E. Greenebaum, Chicago, 111.; Joseph H. Hagedorn, Phila., Pa.; James G. Heller,
Cincinnati, O.; Simon Lazarus, Columbus, O.; David Lefkowitz, Dallas,
Tex,; Lee j . Loventhal, Nashville, Tenn.; Alfred Mack, Cincinnati, O.;
Ralph W. Mack, Cincinnati, O.; Louis L. Mann, Chicago, 111.; Isaac E.
Marcuson, Macon, Ga.; Leslie V. Marks, Cincinnati, O.; Julian Morgenstern, Cincinnati, O.; David Philipson, Cincinnati, O.; Carl E. Pritz,
Cincinnati, O.; Wm. Rosenau, Baltimore, Md.; Murray Seasongood,
Cincinnati, O.; Ben. Selling, Portland, Ore.; Chas. Shohl, Cincinnati,
O.; Abba H. Silver, Cleveland, O.; Abram Simon, Washington, D. C ;
Henry Wineman, Detroit, Mich.; Jonah B. Wise, N. Y. C ; David I.
Wolfstein, Cincinnati, O.;
FACULTY: Julian Morgenstern, Ph.D., President and Professor of
Bible and Semitic Languages; Jacob Z. Lauterbach, Ph.D., Professor of
Talmud; Moses Buttenweiser, Ph.D., D.H.L., Professor of Biblical
Exegesis; Henry Englander, Ph.D., Registrar and Professor of Biblical
Exegesis; Jacob R. Marcus, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Jewish His-
212
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
tory; Jacob Mann, D.Litt., Professor of Jewish History; Israel Bettan,
D.D., Professor of Homiletics and Midrash; Abraham Cronbach, D.D.,
Professor of Social Studies; Samuel S. Cohon, B.A., Professor of Jewish
Theology; Abraham Z. Idelsohn, Professor of Jewish Music; Sol. B.
Finesinger, Ph.D., Instructor in Rabbinics; Sheldon H. Blank, Ph.D.,
Instructor in Hebrew and Bible. Nelson Glueck, Ph.D., Instructor in
Hebrew and Bible. Special Instructors: David Philipson, D.D., LL.D.,
Lecturer on History of the Reform Movement and the Activities of the
Rabbi; Cora Kahn, Instructor in Elocution. Corresponding Members of
the Faculty: Aaron Hahn (1887), David Davidson (1892), Adolph S.
Oko, Librarian. Walter E. Rothman, Ph.D., Teaching Fellow in Jewish
Philosophy; Bernard J. Bamberger, Rabbi Heinsheimer, Fellow.
HEBREW UNIVERSITY IN PALESTINEAMERICAN ADVISORY COMMITTEE
Org. April, 1925. OFFICE: 71 W. 47th, New York City.
OFFICERS:
Chairman, Felix M. Warburg; Hon. Vice-Chairman,
Julian W. Mack; Vice-Chairman, Walter E. Meyer; Treas., Maurice
Wertheim; Sec, Elisha M. Friedman.
HISTADRUTH IVRITH
Org. 1916. Re-org. 1922. OFFICE: 111 Fifth Av., New York City.
Convention, June 16-17, 1928, Paterson, N. J.
Societies, 94. Members, 3,000.
PURPOSE: Development of Hebrew culture and Hebrew language.
OFFICERS:
Pres. Ab. Goldberg; Vice-Pres., P. Churgin; Treas.,
Philip Wattenberg; Chairman Exec. Comm., Wm. Spiegelman.
INDEPENDENT ORDER OF B'NAI B'RITH
Org. Nov. 1, 1843. OFFICE: 9 W. 4th, Cincinnati, O.
Twelfth Quinquennial Convention, April 20-25, 1925, Atlantic City,
N. J.
Members, 85,000.
Lodges, 500 (in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa).
Districts, 15 (7 in the United States).
Institutions founded by the Order in the United States; HEBREW
ORPHANS' HOME, Atlanta, Ga.; B'NAI B'RITH CEMETERY, Chicago, 111.;
FREE EMPLOYMENT BUREAU, Chicago, 111.; JEWISH WIDOWS' AND OK-
PHANS' HOME, New Orleans, La.; TOURO INFIRMARY, New Orleans, La.;
HOME FOR AGED AND INFIRM, Yonkers, N. Y.; JEWISH ORPHANS' HOME,
B'NAI B'RITH FREE EMPLOYMENT BUREAU, Pittsburgh,
Pa.; RELIEF COMMITTEE, Hot Springs, Ark.; B'NAI B'RITH CLUB, San
Francisco, Cal.; HOME FOR JEWISH ORPHANS, LOS Angeles, Cal.; IMMIGRANT SCHOOLS at Kalamazoo, Mich., and Memphis, Tenn.; SABBATH
SCHOOLS, at Houghton, Mich.; Trenton, N. J.; Sharon, Pa.; and Madison, Wis.; B'NAI B'RITH ORPHANAGE, at Erie, Pa.; LEO N. LEVI HOSPITAL, Hot Springs, Ark.; UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN and UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA;BOY'S VACATION CAMP, Chicago, 111.; SOCIAL SERVICE
BOYS' SUMMER CAMP, Minneapolis, Minn.; B'NAI B'RITH HILLEL
Cleveland, O.;
FoUNDATiONSvat University of Illinois, University of Wisconsin, University of Ohio; NATIONAL JEWISH HOSPITAL FOR CONSUMPTIVES, Denver,
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
213
Colo.;
MEXICO IMMIGRATION BUREAU and numerous other institutions.
OFFICERS: Pres., Alfred M. Cohen, Cincinnati, O.; First Vice-Pres.,
Lucius L. Solomons, San Francisco, Cal.; Second Vice-Pres., Archibald
A. Marx, New Orleans, La.; Treas., Jacob Singer, Phila., Pa.; Sec, Boris
D. Bogen, Cincinnati, O.
INDEPENDENT ORDER BRITH ABRAHAM
Org. Feb. 7, 1887. OFFICE: 37 Seventh, New York City.
Forty-second Annual Convention, June 17, 1928, Saratoga Springs,
N. Y.
Members, 135,000.
Lodges, 550.
OFFICERS: Grand Master, Max Silverman; First Deputy Grand
Master, Nathan D. Perlman; Second Deputy Grand Master, Samuel
Kalesky; Grand Sec, Max L. Hollander, Grand Treas., Alex Goldberg.
INDEPENDENT ORDER BRITH SHOLOM
Org. Feb. 23, 1905. OFFICE: 506-508 Pine, Philadelphia, Pa.
Twenty-third Annual Convention, June 3-5, 1928, Washington, D. C.
Members, 25,593.
Lodges, 197.
OFFICERS: Grand Master, Sol. C. Kraus, Phila., Pa.; Grand Sec,
Martin O. Levy, Phila., Pa.; Asst. Grand Sec, Adolph Rosenbaum,
Phila., Pa.; Grand Treas., Jacob Edelstein, Phila., Pa.
•INDEPENDENT ORDER FREE SONS OF ISRAEL
Org. Jan. 18, 1849. OFFICE: 3109 Broadway, New York City.
Triennial Convention, May 25, 1924, Atlantic City, N. J.
Next Triennial Convention, May 29, 1927, Atlantic City, N. J.
Districts, 2. Lodges, 73. Members, 8,468.
OFFICERS: Grand Master, Solon J. Liebeskind; First Deputy Grand
Master, Leopold Spitz; Second Deputy Grand Master, Monte M.
Jacobs; Third Deputy Grand Master, David H. M. Weynberg; Grand
Sec, Henry J. Hyman; Grand Treas., Jacob Strauss.
•INDEPENDENT ORDER SONS OF DAVID
Org. June, 1905. OFFICE: 828 Market, McKeesport, Pa.
Convention, June 28, 1925. McKeesport, Pa.
Members, 876.
PURPOSE : Life insurance and to further Jewish activities.
OFFICERS: Grand Master, Harry Halpert, McKeesport, Pa.; Deputy
Grand Masters, D. Hartstein, Swissvale, Pa.; Sam Pollack, McKeesport,
Pa.; Grand Treas., Max Lazear, Braddock, Pa.; Grand Sec, S. J. Klein,
Swissvale, Pa.; Grand Master-at-Arms, M. J. Sadowsky, Braddock, Pa.;
Grand Inner Guard, Jacob Graff, Braddock, Pa.; Grand Outer Guard,
Max Newhouse, McKeesport, Pa.
•Indicates that revised date were not furnished upon request.
214
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
"INDEPENDENT WESTERN STAR ORDER
Org. Feb. 13, 1894. OFFICE: 1127 Blue Island Av., Chicago, 111.
Annual Convention, Aug. 2-3, 1926, Chicago, 111.
OFFICERS: Grand Master, J. Reubens, Chicago 111.; Grand Sec, I.
Shapiro, 1127 Blue Island Av., Chicago, 111.
•INDEPENDENT WORKMEN'S CIRCLE OF AMERICA, INC.
Org. Dec. 28, 1906. OFFICE: 86 Leverett, Boston, Mass.
Nineteenth Annual Convention, May 28-31, 1927, Philadelphia, Pa.
Members, 5,933.
OFFICERS: Chairman, Hyman Hurwitz, Revere, Mass.; Vice-Chairman, Jack Shneider, Roxbury, Mass.; Treas., Morris Ricklin, Roxbury,
Mass.; Rec. Sec, David Monoson, Roxbury, Mass.; Gen. Sec, Morris
H. Tubiash, Boston, Mass.
INTERCOLLEGIATE MENORAH ASSOCIATION
Org. Jan. 2, 1913. OFFICE: 63 Fifth Av., N. Y. C.
Conference, Jan. 29-31, 1927, New York City.
Members, 5,000.
Societies, 73.
PURPOSE: The promotion in colleges and universities and in the community at large of the study of Jewish history, culture,and problems,
and the advancement of Jewish ideals.
OFFICERS: Hon. Chairman Board of Governors, Irving Lehman,
N. Y. C ; Chairman, Leo F. Wormser, Chicago, 111.; Treas., S. W.
Straus, N. Y. C ; Chancellor, Henry Hurwitz, N. Y. C.
Issues the Menorah Journal.
MENORAH EDUCATIONAL CONFERENCE
Org. Dec. 29, 1918, and composed of University teachers
PURPOSE: TO foster and guide Menorah education in American
colleges and universities and among university graduates and other men
and women in the general community interested in Jewish culture and
ideals.
OFFICERS: Chairman, Nathan Isaacs, Harvard University School of
Business; Vice-Chairman, Wm. Popper, University of California; SecTreas., Adolph S. Oko, Hebrew Union College Library.
IOTA ALPHA PI SORORITY
Org. 1902. OFFICE: 815 Military Park Bldg., Newark, N. J.
Convention, Dec. 20-25, 1927, New York City.
Members, 300.
PURPOSE: TO establish and maintain a Society among women who
are members of colleges, universities, or professional schools.
OFFICERS: Dean, Hannah F. Sokobin, Newark, N. J.; Treas., Elva
W. Slate, N. Y. C ; Sec. Lillian Albert, Prudential Bldg., Newark, N. J.
••Indicates that data were collected in the latter part of 1927.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
215
JEWISH AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, INC.
Org. Feb. 12, 1900: OFFICE: 301 E. 14th, New York City.
Twenty-eighth Annual Meeting, Feb. 8, 1928, New York City
Branch Offices: Chicago III.; Philadelphia, Pa.; Ellenville, N. Y.
PURPOSE: The encouragemsnt of farming among Jews in the United
States.
OFFICERS: Pres., Percy S. Straus; Vice-Pres., Lewis L. Strauss; Treas.,
Francis F. Rosenbaum; Sec, Reuben Arkush, N. Y. C ; General Manager, Gabriel Davidson.
JEWISH CHAUTAUQUA SOCIETY
Org. Apl. 29, 1893. OFFICE: 1305 Stephen Girard Bldg., 21 S. 12th,
Philadelphia, Pa.
Thirty-seventh Assembly, Dec. 26-30, 1926, Atlantic City, N. J.
Correspondence Students, 377. Members, 4,000.
OFFICERS: Hon. Chancellor, William Rosenau, Baltimore, Md.;
Chancellor, Louis Wolsey, Phila., Pa.; Vice-Chancellors, Harry W.
Ettelson, Memphis, Tenn.; Louis Mann, Chicago, 111.; Hon. Pres.,
Abram I Elkus, N. Y. C ; Pres., Athur A. Fleisher, Phila., Pa.; VicePres., Joseph J. Greenberg, Phila., Pa.; Marvin Nathan, Phila., Pa.;
Treas., Emil Selig, Phila., Pa.; Sec, Jeanette Miriam Goldberg.
**JEWISH CONSUMPTIVES, RELIEF ASSOCIATION OF
CALIFORNIA
Org. Sept. 28, 1912. OFFICE: 318 W. 9th, Los Angeles, Cal.
Sanitarium at Duarte, Cal.
Auxiliary Societies, 15. Members, 75,000.
PURPOSE: Sanatorium of 126 beds for treatment of pulmonary
tuberculosis.
OFFICERS: Pres., Chaim Shapiro; Vice-Pres., Joseph A. Rosenkranz;
Sec, Harry K. Cohen; Treas., Irving H. Hellman; Exec. Dir., Abr.
Shohan, Los Angeles, Cal.
JEWISH CONSUMPTIVES, RELIEF SOCIETY OF DENVER
Org. Jan. 2, 1904. Inc. June 25, 1904. Denver, Colo.
Twenty-third Annual Convention, May 21-23 1927, Atlantic City,
N. J.
Contributors, 100,000. Capacity, sanatorium, 300 beds.
Auxiliary Societies, 11.
Organized Districts, 9.
Publishes: The Sanatorium.
OFFICERS: Pres., Philip Hillkowitz, 236 Metropolitan Bldg.; VicePres., I. Rude; H. J. Schwartz; Jos. Durst; Treas., Ben Grimes; Asst.
Sec, Ben Friedland, C. D. Spivak.
••Indicates that data were collected in the latter part of 1927.
216
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
JEWISH INSTITUTE OF RELIGION
Org. Oct. 1, 1922. OFFICE: 40 West 68th, New York City.
PURPOSE: A school of training for the Jewish Ministry, Research
and Community Service. Graduate School and Dept. of Advanced
Studies.
Incorporated in the State of New York—Invested funds, $408,926.35.
Library—20,000 Volumes.
Third Commencement, May 26, 1928; Graduates, 8; total number of
graduates, 26.
Students, 50.
OFFICERS:
Pres., Stephen S. Wise; Chairman Bd. of Trustees,
Julian W. Mack; Treas., H. M. Kaufmann; Asst. Treas., Frederick L.
Guggenheimer; Hon. Sec, Nathan Straus, Jr.; Sec, Gertrude Adelstein.
BOARD OF TRUSTEES: Julian W. Mack, N. Y. C ; Salo Baron, N. Y.
C ; Charles E. Bloch, Emilie Bullowa, Abram I. Elkus, N. Y. C ; Leon
Falk, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Mrs. Norman S. Goetz, Sidney E. Goldstein,
Richard Gottheil, N. Y. C ; M. E. Greenebaum, Chicago, III.; Albert
M. Greenfield, Phila., Pa.; Frederick L. Guggenheimer, N. Y. C ;
Joseph Hagedorn, Phila., Pa.; Maurice H. Harris, Walter S. Hilborn,
N. Y. C ; Edmund I. Kaufmann, Washington, D. C ; H. M. Kaufmann,
N. Y. C ; Louis Kirstein, Boston, Mass.; Geo. A. Kohut, N. Y. C ;
Gerson B. Levi, Chicago, 111.; Joseph M. Levine, N. Y. C ; Harry S.
Lewis, N. Y. C.; Louis I. Newman, San Francisco, Cal.; Mrs. Sol.
Rosenbloom, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Henry Schorr, Nathan Straus, Jr.; Israel
N. Thurman, Albert Valensi, N. Y. C ; Samuel Wasserman, Stephen S.
Wise, N. Y. C.
FACULTY: President and Professor of Practical Theology and Homiletics, Stephen S. Wise, Ph.D., LL.D. (Columbia); Professor of Ethics
and Philosophy of Religion, Henry Slonimsky, Ph.D. (Marburg); Dean
and Asst. Professor of Hebrew, Harry S. Lewis, M.A. (Cambridge
Univ.); Professor of Bible and Semitic Philosophy, Julian J. Obermann,
Ph.D. (Univ. of Vienna); Professor of Talmud, Chaim Tchernowitz,
Ph.D., (Wiirzburg); Professor in Social Service, Sidney E. Goldstein,
B.A. (Chicago University) ;Professor of Hebrew and Literature, Nisson
Touroff, Ph.D. (Lausanne); Professor of History and Acting Librarian,
Salo Baron, Ph.D. (University of Vienna).
INSTRUCTORS: Instructor in Music, Abraham W. Binder; Instructor
in Public Speaking, Windsor P. Daggett, Ph.D.; Honorary Instructor in
Talmud, Moses Marcus; Instructor in Bible and Hellenistic Literature,
Ralph Marcus, Ph.D., (Columbia University).
LECTURERS:
Samson Benderly, B.A., (American University of
Beirut); *Isaac B. Berkson, M.A., Ph.D. (Columbia); Homiletics,
Nathan Krass, B.H.L., Litt.D.; Jewish Literature and Philosophy,
Harry A. Wolfson, Ph.D. (Harvard); H. St. John Thackeray, M.A.
(Cambridge), D.D. (Oxford).
LIBRARY STAFF: Acting Librarian, Salo Baron; Assistants, Mary
Nover, Isaac Kiev.
SECRETARY: Gertrude Adelstein.
STUDENT PUBLICATION : Jewish Institute Quarterly.
*On leave.
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
217
•JEWISH MINISTERS' ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA
Org. Mch., 1917. OFFICE: 74 E. 118th, New York City.
Members, 76.
OFFICERS: Sec, S. L. Hurwitz, 203 W. 113th, N. Y. C ; Chairman of
the Executive, S. Buchler, 1800 Seventh Av., N. Y. C.
JEWISH MINISTERS CANTORS' ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA
Org. June 1, 1900. OFFICE: Libby's Hotel, Delancey and Christie,
New York City.
»
Convention, May 8, 1927, Newark, N. J.
Members, 300.
PURPOSE: TO uplift the profession and give aid to cantors in need
and to their families.
OFFICERS: Pres., Louis Lipitz; Vice-Pres., Chaim Kotyliansky; Sec,
Maurice Erstling; Treas., M. Aranoff, N. Y. C.
JEWISH NATIONAL WORKERS' ALLIANCE OF AMERICA
Org. 1912. OFFICE: 189 Second Av., New York City.
Eleventh Biennial Convention, May, 1928, Detroit, Mich.
Branches, 122. Members, 6,759.
PURPOSE: Fraternal, Social, Beneficial, and Educational Order.
OFFICES: Pres., Meyer L. Brown; Vice-Pres., Nathan Zvirin; Treas.,
Ruben Plattrot; Sec, Louis Segal, N. Y. C.
JEWISH PALESTINE EXPLORATION SOCIETY
(American Committee)
Org. 1922. OFFICE: 2107 Broadway, New York City.
Members, 306.
PURPOSE: Conducts extensive excavations in special localities in
Palestine under the joint supervision of the Jewish Palestine Exploration
Society and the Hebrew University.
OFFICERS: Chairman, Elisha M. Friedman, N. Y. C;Vice-Chairman, Rabbi D. de Sola Pool, N. Y. C ; Treas., Arthur L. Malkenson,
N. Y. C ; Sec, J. Max Weis, N. Y. C.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA
Org. June, 1888. OFFICE: 219 N. Broad, Philadelphia, Pa.
For the Report of the Fortieth Year of The Jewish Publication
Society of America, see p. 337.
JEWISH SABBATH ALLIANCE OF AMERICA, INC.
Org. 1905. OFFICE: 302 E. 14th, New York City.
Twenty-third Annual Convention, Dec 24, 1927, New York City.
PURPOSE: TO promote the observance of the Seventh Day Sabbath
in every possible way and manner. To secure employment for Seventh
Day Observers where they need not desecrate the Sabbath. To protect
and defend the Seventh Day observing storekeeper against the strict
Sunday Laws, always working to secure proper exemption for them
under such laws.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
218
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
OFFICERS:
Pres., Bernard Drachman; Vice-Pres., Isser Reznik;
Treas., R. L. Savitzky; Exec. Sec, Wm. Rosenberg, 302 E. 14th, N.Y.C.
JEWISH SOCIALIST LABOR PARTY POALE ZION
OF UNITED STATES AND CANADA
Org. 1905. OFFICE: 32 Union Square, New York City.
Sixteenth Convention, Oct. 12-16, 1927, Chicago, 111.
Members, 5,000.
PURPOSE: The, restoration of the Jewish people in Palestine; the
establishment of a socialistic commonwealth; the organization of the
Jewish labor class for its economic and political interests in America;
the organization of the Jewish workmen ready to settle in Palestine in
co-operative groups for the creation of better living conditions; the
education of the Jewish masses in America; the issuing of literature
devoted to the interests of the Jewish workmen and of books treating
of the new life of the Jew developing in Palestine; the organization of
the Jewish labor classes into trade unions.
OFFICERS: General Sec, P. Cruso; Treas., S. Siegel, N. Y. C.
JEWISH SOCIALIST VERBAND
Crg. 1921. OFFICE: 175 E. Broadway, New York City.
Fifth Convention, Dec, 1927, New York City.
Members, 2,500.
PURPOSE: TO organize the Jewish Socialists for the Socialist Movement in America.
Publishes weekly, "Der Wecker."
OFFICERS: Chairman, Saul Rifkin; Sec, Nathan Chanin.
JEWISH THEATRICAL GUILD OF AMERICA, INC.
Org. 1924. OFFICE: 1560 Broadway, New York City.
Members, 2,000.
PURPOSE: Perpetuating Judaism in the theatre; to aid sick and unfortuna'te; to build memorial hall.
OFFICERS: Pres., William Morris, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Eddie Cantor,
Great Neck, L. I.; George Jessel, N. Y. C ; S. Silverman, N. Y. C ;
Treas., Hugo Riesenfeld, N. Y. C ; Sec, Harry Cooper; Fin. Sec, Fred
Block; Field Sec, L. Haskell, 215 W. 98th, N. Y. C.
JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA
Org. 1886. OFFICE: 531 W. 123d, New York City.
Incorporated in State of New York. Invested Funds for Seminary,
$3,019,245.90; for Teachers' Institute, $196,659.98; for Library, $21,988.07. Library: Printed volumes, 80,000; Manuscripts, 6,000.
Thirty-fourth Commencement, June 3, 1928.
Graduates, Teachers Institute, Teachers Training Course, in 1928, 23.
Extension Course, in 1928, 23.
Whole number of graduates, Teachers 1928, 8. Institutes, 430.
OFFICERS OF THE BOARD: Chairman Board of Directors, Louis
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
219
Marshall; Hon. Sec, Sol. M. Stroock; Treasurers, Lewis L. Strauss;
and Arthur Oppenheimer, N. Y. C.
DIRECTORS: (for life) Daniel Guggenheim, Adolph Lewisohn, Louis
Marshall, Felix M. Warburg, N. Y. C ; Philip S. Henry, Asheville,
N. C ; Cyrus Adle/, Phila, Pa.; Henry A. Dix, N. Y. C ; Simon M.
Roeder, N. Y. C ; Samuel Greenbaum, N. Y. C ; (Term expiring 1929);
William Fischman, Lewis L. Strauss, N. Y. C ; Max Drob, Phila., Pa.;
Harry Friedenwald, Baltimore, Md.; David S. Ellis, Boston, Mass.
(Term expiring 1930): Irving Lehman, Solomon M. Stroock, William
Prager, Israel Unterberg, N. Y. C ; William Gerstley, Phila., Pa.;
(Term expiring 1931): Arthur Oppenheimer, Jacob Kohn, Henry S.
Hendricks, N. Y. C ; Felix Fuld, Newark, N. J.; Jacob Solis-Cohen,
Phila., Pa.
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: Louis Marshall, Chairman, Cyrus Adler,
Sol. M. Stroock, Simon M. Roeder, Felix M. Warburg.
FACULTY: President, Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. (Johns Hopkins); Professor
of Talmud, Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D. (Heidelberg); Professor of History,
Alexander Marx, Ph.D. (Koenigsberg); Professor of Homiletics, Mordecai M. Kaplan, M. A. (Columbia); William Prager Professor of
Medieval Hebrew Literature, Israel Davidson, Ph.D. (Columbia); Professor of Codes, Moses Hyamson, B.A., LL.D. (University of London);
Sabato Morais Professor of Biblical Literature and Exegesis, Jacob
Hoschander, Ph.D. (Marburg); Associate Professor of Hebrew, Morris
D. Levine, M. A. (Columbia); Instructor in Talmud and Solomon
Schechter Lecturer in Theology, Louis Finkelstein, Ph.D. (Columbia);
Instructor, Benjamin Cohen, B.A. (Columbia); Instructor in Hazanuth,
Israel Goldfarb, B.S. (Columbia); Hazan, M. Jacobson; Instructor in
Public Speaking, Walter H. Robinson.
REGISTRAR: Israel Davidson.
SECRETARY: Joseph B. Abrahams.
LIBRARY OF THE JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA,
Incorporated in State of New York, 1924.
OFFICERS OF THE LIBRARY BOARD: President, Louis Marshall; VicePresident, Cyrus Adler; Hon. Sec, Sol. M. Stroock; Treasurers, Lewis
L. Strauss and Arthur Oppenheimer.
DIRECTORS OF LIBRARY: Cyrus Adler, Phila., Pa.; Louis Bamberger,
Newark, N. J.; William Gerstley, Phila., Pa.; Louis Marshall, Samuel
Greenbaum, Irving Lehman, Mortimer L. Schiff, Felix M. Warburg,
Sol. M. Stroock, Simon Roeder, N. Y. C. Abram S. W. Rosenbach,
Max Drob,
LIBRARY STAFF: Librarian, Alexander Marx; Assistant Librarian,
Benjamin Cohen; Cataloguers, Israel Shapira, Saul Gittelson, Isaac
Rivkind, Andor Gabor; Assistant in Library, Michael Shapiro; Secretary to Librarian, Anna Kleban.
TEACHERS INSTITUTE:
34 Stuyvesant. Principal, Mordecai M.
Kaplan, 1 W. 89th; Instructors: Morris D. Levine, Joseph Bragin,
Leo L. Honor, Paul Chertoff, Zevi Scharfstein, Osher Ovsay, I. S. Chipkin, Hillel Bavli, Benjamin Silk, S. E. Goldfarb, Milton Steinberg,
Samuel Dinin, Leon Liebreich, Samuel Rubinstein, Max Slavin, Anna
Grossman, Emanuel Baron, Joshua H. Neumann, Mordecai Soltes,
Tillie Weitzman.
220
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
COMMITTEE ON TEACHERS INSTITUTE:
Chairman, Cyrus Adler,
Sol. M. Stroock, Mordecai M. Kaplan, Samuel Greenbaum, Irving
Lehman, Israel Unterberg, Felix M. Warburg.
"JEWISH VALOR LEGION .
Org. Feb. 1921. OFFICE: 101 W. 42nd, New York City.
Members, 638.
PURPOSE: Welfare of the Ex-Service men of Jewish faith; compilation
of records of Jewish soldiers in American army in World War.
' OFFICERS: Commander, Sydney G. Gumpertz; Sr. Vice-Commander,
Benjamin Kaufman; Jr. Vice-Commander, Abraham Krotoshinsky;
Adjutant, David Bernstein, 427 E. 134th, N. Y. C.
JEWISH VETERANS OF THE WARS OF THE REPUBLIC
Org. 1900, Inc. 1920. OFFICE: 15 Park Row, New York City.
Annual Convention, July 2-4, 1927, Troy, N. Y.
Next Annual Convention, Sept. 1-3, 1928, Boston, Mass.
Posts, 23. Members, 10,300.
PURPOSE: TO maintain allegiance to the United States of America;
To uphold the fair name of the Jew; To foster comradeship; To aid
needy comrades and their familes; To preserve the records of patriotic
service of Jews; To honor the memory and shield from neglect the graves
of our heroic dead.
OFFICERS: Past Commanders-in-Chief, Maurice Simmons, N. Y. C.;
David Solomon, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Commander-in-Chief, Morris J.
Mendelsohn, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Sr. Vice-Corn.-in-Chief, Sam'l E. Fine,
Phila., Pa.; Jr. Vice-Com.-in-Chief, Philip Muskat, Troy, N. Y.; Chief
of Staff, Abraham Goldstein, Troy, N. Y.; Judge Adv. Gen., Jacob
Rubinoff, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Adj. Gen., Hyman Margulies, Brooklyn.
N. Y.
JEWISH WELFARE BOARD
Org. 1917. OFFICE: 71 W. 47th, New York City.
Amalgamated with Council of Young Men's Hebrew and Kindred
Associations, July 1, 1921.
Affiliated National Organizations, 16. Constituent Societies, 308.
PURPOSE: TO stimulate the organization and to assist in the activities of Jewish Community Centers, including Young Men's Hebrew
Associations, Young Women's Hebrew Associations, and kindred organizations, and to co-operate with similar bodies in the development of
Judaism and good citizenship. To promote the welfare of soldiers, sailors
and marines in the service of the United States and disabled veterans
and especially to provide for men of the Jewish faith in the Army and
Navy adequate opportunity for religious worship and hospitality of
Jewish communities adjacent to military and naval posts.
OFFICERS: Pres., Irving Lehman, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Felix M.
Warburg, N. Y. C ; Jacob M. Loeb, Chicago, 111.; Jacob K. Newman,
N. Y. C ; M. C. Sloss, San Francisco, Cal.; Sec, Joseph Rosenzweig,
N. Y. C ; Treas., Benjamin J. Buttenwieser, N. Y. C.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
221
ADMINISTRATION: Exec. Dir., Harry L. Glucksman; Dir. Jewish
Center Activities, Louis Kraft; Dir. of Campaigns, Philip R. Goldstein;
Dir. Army and Navy Service Dept., Isadore Abelson; Dir. Jewish
Extension Education, Mordecai Soltes.
JOINT DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE OF THE AMERICAN
FUNDS FOR JEWISH WAR SUFFERERS
Org. Nov. 24, 1914. OFFICE: 40 Exchange Place, New York City.
Constituent bodies, 3.
FUNCTIONAL DEPARTMENTS: Committee on Cultural Affairs: Chairman, Cyrus Adler; Committee on Reconstruction: Chairman, Herbert
H. Lehman; Committee on Medical Affairs:
Chairman, Bernard
Flexner; Committee on Russia: Chairman, Louis Marshall; Committee
on War Orphans: Chairman, Solomon Lowenstein; Committee on
Refugees: Chairman, David M. Bressler.
Members, 99.
PURPOSE: Distribution of funds received by the American Jewish
Relief Committee, the Central Committee for the Relief of Jews Suffering Through the War, and the People's Relief Committee.
OFFICERS: Chairman, Felix M. Warburg; Vice-Chairman, Herbert
H. Lehman, Jas. N. Rosenberg; Treas., Paul Baerwald; Associate Treas.,
George W. Naumburg; Comptroller, Mrs. H. B. L. Goldstein; Sec,
Joseph C. Hyman.
KAPPA NU FRATERNITY
Org. June 12, 1911. OFFICE: 33 Tyler, Rochester, N. Y.
Tenth Annual Convention, Dec. 1926-Jan. 2, 1927, Phila., Pa.
Twelfth Annual Convention, Dec, 1928-Jan. 2, 1929, N. Y. C.
Chapters, 15. Members, 1,500.
PURPOSE: A Greek-letter brotherhood for college men of Jewish
consciousness.
OFFICERS: Pres., Garson Meyer, Rochester, N. Y.; Vice-Pres., Harry
S. Mackler, N. Y. C ; Treas., Jacob Rosenzweig, Rochester, N. Y.; Sec,
Milton Greenebaum, Saginaw, Mich.
LEO N. LEVI MEMORIAL HOSPITAL ASSOCIATION
Org. 1911.
OFFICE: Hot Springs, Ark.
Maintains the Leo N. Levi Memorial Hospital.
Members, 1,500.
OFFICERS: Pres., Archibald A. Marx, New Orleans, La.; Hon. VicePres., Dan Daniel, Shreveport, La.; Vice-Pres., J. K. Hexter, Dallas,
Tex.; Treas., D. Burgauer, Hot Springs, Ark.; Sec, A. B. Rhine, Hot
Springs, Ark.; Chairman, Bd. of Managers, E. N. Roth, Hot Springs,
Ark.
MIZRAHI HATZOIR
Org. May, 1920. OFFICE: 31 Union Sq., New York City.
Sixth Annual Convention, June, 1927, New York City.
Members, 3,000.
PURPOSE: TO organize groups of the Jewish youth, both senior and
junior, to spread Judaism and a love for Jewish knowledge, to acquaint
222
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
the Jewish youth with the national aspirations of the Jews, and to strive
for the rehabilitation of Palestine in accordance with Jewish traditions
and in the spirit of the Torah.
OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Meyer Berlin; Pres., Harry Karp; Vice-Pres.,
Morris Schussheim, Isidor Epstein; Treas., Max Hagler; Sec, Bluma
Berman.
THE MIZRAHI ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA
Org. June 5, 1912. CENTRAL BUREAU: 31 Union Sq., New York City.
Convention, Jan. 8-10, 1928, Boston, Mass.
Members, 20,000. Organizations, 298.
PURPOSE: Rehabilitation of Palestine in the spirit of Jewish Torah
and Tradition. Fundamental principle: The land of Israel, for the people
of Israel, in the spirit of the Law of Israel.
OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Meyer Berlin; Pres., Gedalia Bublick; VicePres., E. Inselbuch, Wolf Gold; Treas., Max Nadler; Sec, Moses
Levene.
*MU SIGMA FRATERNITY
Org. 1906, Inc., 1925. OFFICE: 220 W. 42d, New York City.
Annual Convention, Dec. 26-27, 1926.
OFFICERS: Grand Lumen, Wm. Heckler, N. Y. C ; Grand Filium,
Archibald Kamenkawitz, Bangor, Me.; Grand Fiscus, Leon Kranztohr,
Newark, N. J.; Grand Scribe, Maurice J. Dinnerstein, Brooklyn, N. Y.;
Grand Ossa, Michael Kaplan, N. Y. C ; Chairman Exec. Com., Bernard
L. Baron, 220 W. 42d, N. Y. C.
NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF JEWISH COMMUNITY
CENTER SECRETARIES
Org. 1918. OFFICE: 71 W. 47th, New York City.
Tenth Annual Convention, May 9-13, 1928, Cincinnati, O.
Members, 150.
PURPOSE: TO foster and develop an interest in Jewish Center work
and to promote friendly and helpful relations among Jewish Community
Center workers.
OFFICERS: Pres., Louis Kraft, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Abraham W.
Rosenthal, N. Y. C, Samuel B. Kaufman, Mt. Vernon, N. Y., Mrs.
Celia L. Strakosch, N. Y. C ; Sec-Treas., Maurice Bisgyer, Washington,
D. C.
NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF JEWISH SOCIAL SERVICE
Org. 1899 as National Conference of Jewish Charities in the United
States. OFFICE: 71 W. 47th, New York City.
Twenty-ninth Annual Conference, May 9-13, 1928, Cincinnati, O.
Members, 210. Societies, 1,000 individuals.
OFFICERS: Pres., Samuel A. Goldsmith, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Samson
Benderly, N. Y. C.; Herman Passamaneck, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Mrs. M. C.
Sloss, San Francisco, Cal.; Treas., Ferdinand S. Bach, St. Louis, Mo.;
Sec, Hyman Kaplan, N. Y. C.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
223
THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN
Org. Sept. 1893. OFFICE: 2109 Broadway, New York City.
Eleventh Triennial Convention, Nov., 1926, Washington, D. C.
Sections, 232, Junior Auxiliaries, 84.
The Council and its Sections are engaged in Religious, Social Welfare,
Civic and Educational Work. Its activities are promoted through
Departments of Community Co-operation, Education, Extension and
Field Service, Farm and Rural Work, Finance and Budget, Immigrant
Aid and Immigrant Education, Junior Auxiliaries, Legislation and
Civics, Peace, Religion and Religious Education, Social Service, and
Vocational Guidance and Employment. Department of Farm and
Rural Work: offices in New York City, 5 Columbus Circle; Department
of Immigrant Aid offices in New York City, 799 B'way. Official publication, "The Jewish Woman," issued quarterly, Estelle M. Sternberger,
Editor-in-Chief.
OFFICERS: (1926-1929) Pres., Mrs. Joseph E. Friend, 1807 Palmer
Av., New Orleans, La.; First Vice-Pres., Mrs. Alvin L. Bauman, St.
Louis, Mo.; Second Vice-Pres., Mrs. Alexander Wolf, Washington, D.
C ; Third Vice-Pres., Mrs. S. M. Blumauer, Portland, Ore.; Treas., Mrs.
David M. Greenwald, Milwaukee, Wis.; Rec. Sec, Mrs. I. K. E. Prager,
Boston, Mass.; Exec. Sec, Mrs. Estelle M. Sternberger, 2109 Broadway, N. Y. C.
THE NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL
Inc. Apr. 10, 1896. SCHOOL AND FARMS: Farm School, Bucks Co., Pa.
OFFICE: 1101 Market, Philadelphia, Pa.
Thirtieth Annual Meeting, Oct. 9, 1927, Farm School, Bucks Co., Pa.
Twenty-eighth Annual Graduation, Mch. 18, 1928.
OFFICERS: Chairman Bd. of Trustees, Harry B. Hirsh; Pres., Herbert
D. Allman; Vice-Chairman, Jos. H. Hagedorn; Treas., Isaac H. Silverman; Sec, Miss E. M. Bellefield, 1101 Market, Room 809, Phila., Pa.;
Dean, C. L. Goodling, Farm School, Pa.
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF TEMPLE BROTHERHOODS
Org. 1923. OFFICE: Merchants' Bldg., Cincinnati, O.
Second Biennial Convention, Jan. 17-19, 1927, Cleveland, O.
Third Biennial Convention, Feb. 10-15, 1929, San Francisco, Cal.
Societies, 120.
PURPOSE: TO stimulate interest in Jewish worship, Jewish studies,
social service and other kindred activities. To co-operate with Union
of American Hebrew Congregations in its national plans.
OFFICERS: Pres., Roger W. Straus, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Leonard
S. Levin, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Arnold M. Schmidt, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Treas.,
Julius W. Freiberg, Cincinnati, 0.; Exec. Sec, George Zepin, Cincinnati, ,
O.; Asst. Exec. Sec, Louis I. Egelson, Cincinnati, O.; Arthur L. Reinhart, Cincinnati, O.
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF TEMPLE SISTERHOODS
Org. Jan. 1913. OFFICE: Merchants' Bldg., Cincinnati, O.
Seventh Biennial Assembly, Jan. 16-20, 1927, Cleveland, O.
224
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Eighth Biennial Assembly, Feb., 1929, San Francisco, Cal.
Societies, 340.
PURPOSE : Closer co-operation between the various Sisterhoods.
The work of the Federation is conducted under the following Committees: Co-operation, Religion, Religious Schools, Propaganda, Scholarships, Union Museum, Uniongrams, and State or District Federations,
Student Activities and on Peace.
OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Mrs. Abram Simon, Washington, D. C ; Pres.,
Mrs. J. Walter Freiberg, Cincinnati, O.; Vice-pres., Mrs. Maurice
Steinfeld, St. Louis, Mo.; Mrs. Jacob Wertheim, N. Y. C ; Mrs. Henry
Nathan, Buffalo, N. Y.; Rec. Sec, Mrs. Adolph Rosenberg, Cincinnati,
O.; Treas., Mrs. Jos. M. Herman, Boston, Mass.; Exec. Sec, George
Zepin, Cincinnati, O.; Asst. Exec. Sec, Helen L. Strauss.
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF UKRAINIAN JEWS OF
AMERICA
Re-org. Sept., 1920. OFFICE: 1 Union Square, New York City.
Convention,—June 1928.
PURPOSE: Relief work for Ukrainian Jews.
OFFICERS: Pres., B. Saphir; Vice-Pres., L. Dinion, New Haven,
Conn.; P. Miller, Philadelphia, Pa.; M. Shatzen, Detroit, Mich.; L.
Smirnoff, N. Y. C ; A. Solovioff, N. Y. C ; Treas., H. Shupack; Sec,
F. Feingold, N. Y. C.
NATIONAL HOME FOR JEWISH CHILDREN AT DENVER
Org. June 12, 1907. OFFICE: Empire Bldg., Denver, Colo.
Annual Convention, June 12, 1927, Denver, Colo.
Members, 50,000.
Auxiliary Societies, 15.
PURPOSE: TO shelter children of tuberculous parents, who come to
Denver seeking restoration of health.
OFFICERS: Pres., Mrs. J. N. Lorber; Yice-Pres., Mrs. B. Willens, Mrs.
S. Francis, Mrs. M. Lifshutz; Fin. Sec, Samuel Isaacson; Treas.,
Morris Cohn; Nat'l Sec, George Greenspun; all of Denver, Colo.
NATIONAL JEWISH HOSPITAL AT DENVER
Org. Dec. 10, 1899. OFFICE: 3800 E. Colfax Av., Denver, Col.
Twenty-seventh Annual Meeting, Jan. 23, 1927, Buffalo, N. Y.
Contributors, 125,000 Individuals; 75 Federations; 200 Lodges and
Societies. Capacity, 300; buildings, 14. Collected (1927-1928) ($526,025.32. Maintains Research Department and a Preventorium for Children, predisposed to tuberculosis.
Patients treated to July 1, 1928, 5,800.
OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Louis D. Beaumont, N. Y. C ; Pres., Wm. B
Woolner, Peoria, 111.; Yice-Pres., Wm. S. Friedman, Denver, Colo.
David May, St. Louis, Mo.; Harmon August, N. Y. C ; B. Flesher
Denver, Colo.; Chas. H. Studin, N. Y. C.; Herman Wile, Buffalo, N. Y.
Harry H. Lapidus, Omaha, Neb.; Edwin ]. Schanfarber, Columbus, O.;
Treas., Benj. Altheimer, N. Y. C ; Sec, Mrs. S. Pisko, 3800 E. Colfax
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
225
Av., Denver, Colo.; National Supervisor, Samuel Schaefer, Denver,
Colo.
NATIONAL LEGAL FRATERNITY LAMBDA ALPHA PHI
Org. 1919. OFFICE: 972 Broad, Newark, N. J.
Annual Convention, May, 1928, Newark, N. J.
Members, 270.
PURPOSE: TO inculcate in Jewish members of the Bar the highest
principles of legal ethics in order to maintain the respect of the Bench
and Bar.
OFFICERS: Supreme Chancellor, David M. Engelson, N. Y. C ;
Supreme Vice-Chancellor, Michael G. Alenick, Newark, N. J.; Supreme
Keeper of the Exchequer, Louis Selenfriend, Newark, N. J.; Supreme
Archon, Saul Tischler, Newark, N. J.; Supreme Historian, Gustave L.
Goldstein, Newark, N. J.
NU BETA EPSILON FRATERNITY
Org. 1919. OFFICE: 1505-77 W. Washington, Chicago, 111.
Convention, May 13, 1927, Chicago, 111.
Members, 95.
PURPOSE: Greek letter Fraternity for Jewish students at credited
Law Schools.
OFFICERS: Grand Chancellor, Barnet Hodes; Exchequer, Alfred
Schwerdlin; Recorder, Seymour Scheffries, Chicago, 111.
**OMICRON ALPHA TAU FRATERNITY
Org. 1912. OFFICE: New York City.
Annual Convention, Dec. 29, 1926, New York City.
Chapters, 20. Members, 1,020.
PURPOSE: Greek-letter college fraternity for Jewish students.
OFFICERS: Grand-Chancellor, I. Robt. Broder, New Haven, Conn.;
Vice Grand Chancellor, Alvin H. Berson; Grand Scribe, Irving N.
Levine, 19 Garden Walk, New Rochelle, N. Y.; Grand Bursar, Sid. S.
Silverman, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Editor, Mack Morgenstern, Brooklyn, N. Y.
*ORDER KNIGHTS OF JOSEPH
Org. Feb. 14, 1896. OFFICE: 1022-28 Engineers Bank Bldg.,
Cleveland, O.
Twenty-seventh Convention, Aug. 22, 1926, Buffalo, N. Y.
Members, 10,587. Lodges, 68.
OFFICERS: Supreme Commander, H. A. Rocker, Cleveland, O.; First
Supreme Vice-Commander, I. Liederman, Chicago, 111.; Second Supreme
Vice-Commander, L. Gottlieb, Buffalo, N. Y.;T hird Supreme ViceCommander, B. Heimovitz, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Supreme Sec, D. J.
Zinner, Cleveland, O.; Supreme Treas., Jos. C. Bloch, Cleveland, O.
Endowment Treas., A. Silberman, Cleveland, O.
••Indicates that data were collected in the latter part of 1927.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ORDER SONS OF ZION
Org. Apr. 19, 1908. OFFICE: 111 Fifth Ave., New York City.
Eighteenth Annual Convention, June 24-25, 1928, Long Branch, N. J.
Camps, 57. Members, 4,000.
PURPOSE: Fraternal and Zionistic.
OFFICERS: Nasi, Joseph I. Bluestone; Segan Rishon, Max Perlman;
Segan Sheni, Louis Hochberg; Gisbor, Max Fanwick; Maskir, Hyman
Danelson; Counsel, Samuel Weinstein; Chief Medical Examiner, Solomon Neumann.
*ORDER OF THE UNITED HEBREW BROTHERS
Org. Nov. 15, 1915. OFFICE: World Exchange Bank Bldg., 174
2nd Av., New York City.
Quinquennial Convention, Oct. 18, 1925, New York City.
Members, 9,309.
OFFICERS: Grand Master, Meyer Greenberg, 99 Nassau; Vice-Grand
Master, Samuel Hirsh; First Deputy Grand Master, Alb. Halle; Grand
Treas., Philip Adler; Grand Sec, Kallman Flus, 174 2nd Av., N. Y. C.
•PALESTINE DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL
Org. 1921. OFFICE: 27 William, New York City.
PURPOSE: The social and economic development of Palestine through
the creation of business corporations.
OFFICERS: Hon. Chairman, Louis D. Brandeis, Washington, D. C ;
Chairman, Julian W. Mack, Woolworth Bldg., N. Y. C ; Vice-Chairman, Julius Simon, N. Y. C ; Sec, Nathan Straus, Jr., 119 Fifth Av.,
N. Y. C.
PHI ALPHA FRATERNITY, INC.
Org. 1914. OFFICE: 917-918 Munsey Bldg., Baltimore, Md.
Annual Convention, Dec. 30, 1927-Jan. 1, 1928, New York City.
Chapters, 34. Members, 1,413.
PURPOSE: Jewish student fraternal relationships in certain American
Colleges and Universities where established.
OFFICERS: Pres., Samuel M. Dodek, Phila., Pa.; Vice-Pres., Irving
Cohen, N. Y. C ; Adm. Sec, Alexander Goodman, Baltimore, Md.;
Treas., Maurice Levitan, Washington, D. C ; Sergeant-at-Arms, Louis
B. Fine, Norfolk, Va.; Editor, Irving B. Grandberg, Baltimore, Md.
**PHI BETA DELTA FRATERNITY
Org. 1912. OFFICE: 67 W. 44th, New York City.
Next Convention, Dec. 23-25, 1927, New York City.
Members, 1,400. Chapters, 26.
OFFICERS: Pres., William Biederman, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Isidore H.
Schweidel, Phila., Pa.; Leo Selinger, Tulsa, Okla.; Treas., Ira A. Schur,
N. Y. C ; Sec, Will N. Schleicher, N. Y. C ; Historian, Samuel J. Schur,
N. Y. C.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
""•Indicates that data were collected in the latter part of 1927.
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
227
**THE PHI BETA FRATERNITY
Org. 1920. OFFICE: 111-11 Liberty Av, Richmond Hill, L. I.
Seventh Annual Convention, Sept. 1-6, 1926, Hartford, Conn.
Members, 497. Chapters, 19.
PURPOSE: A national Jewish fraternity with chapters located in High
and Preparatory Schools, for boys meeting for educational, social and
fraternal purposes.
OFFICERS: Hon. Grand Superior, Louis D. Shapiro, Philadelphia, Pa.;
Grand Superior, Abe Rosenthal, West New York, N. J.; Grand ViceSuperior, Jack Rottner, Hartford, Conn.; Grand Sec, Herman Cipnic,
111-11 Liberty Av., Richmond Hill, L. I.; Harry Perlmutter, Newark,
N. J.; Grand Treas., Morton Crossman, Phila., Pa.; Grand Marshall,
Louis Schact, Stamford, Conn.
PHI DELTA MU FRATERNITY, INC.
Org. 1920. OFFICE: 225 Broadway, New York City.
Annual Convention, Dec. 28, 1926, New York City.
Members, 225.
PURPOSE: TO promote the intellectual, social and spiritual status of
Jewish students at colleges in the United States and Canada.
OFFICERS: Chancellor, Samuel D. Turk; Vice-Chancellor, Henry
Dann; Chancellor of the Exchequer, Jack Davis; Historian, H. Hersehel
Goebel; Keeper of the Scrolls, Harry Kisver, 225 B'way, N. Y. C.
PHI EPSILON PI FRATERNITY
Org. 1904. OFFICE: 506 Witherspoon Bldg., Philadelphia, Pa.
Convention, Dec. 28-31, 1926, Chicago, 111.
Next Convention, Dec. 29-31, 1928, Atlantic City, N. J.
Members, 2,200.
PURPOSE: College Fraternities.
OFFICERS: Grand Superior, Edward Davis, Philadelphia, Pa.; Grand
Vice-Superior, Louis M. Fushan, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Grand Treas., Emanuel W. Wirkman, Philadelphia, Pa.; Grand Secretary, Alex. J. Whynman, 239 B'way, N. Y. C.
PHI LAMBDA KAPPA MEDICAL FRATERNITY
Org. 1907. OFFICE: 486 E. 4th, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Convention, Dec. 24-26, 1926, New York City.
Members, 1,000.
PURPOSE: Fraternity.
OFFICERS: Grand Superior, Louis Edeiken, Phila., Pa.; Grand Scribe,
Julius Winston, 5360 W. Arlington, Phila., Pa.; Grand Guardian
Exchequer, Max Bernanke, N. Y. C.
PHI SIGMA DELTA FRATERNITY
Org. 1909. OFFICE: 13 Astor Place, New York City.
Next Annual Convention, Dec. 23-25, 1928, Cleveland, O.
Members, 1,700.
PURPOSE: Promote brotherhood, friendship, good-fellowship, and
good character.
"^Indicates that data were collected in the latter part of 1927.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
OFFICERS: Pres., A. Leigh Robbins; Vice-Pres., Marvin J. Laronge;
Treas., Benjamin A. Etler; Sec, Joseph Kruger.
PHI SIGMA EPSILON FRATERNITY OF THE UNITED
STATES AND CANADA
Org. 1910. OFFICE: Illinois Merchant's Bank Bldg., Chicago, 111.
Convention, Dec. 26-29, 1926, Detroit, Mich.
Next Convention, Dec. 26-29, 1928, Toronto, Can.
Members, ISO.
PURPOSE: A Social and Philanthropic Organization.
OFFICERS: Grand Pres., Leon Fischel, Montreal, Can.; Grand VicePres., Sidney Kahn, Toronto, Can.; Grand Treas., Annin Hartman,
Detroit, Mich.; Grand Sec, Harold Landau, Chicago, 111.
PI TAU PI FRATERNITY
Org. Jan., 1909.
Sixteenth Annual Conclave, Dec. 27-30, 1927, Cincinnati, O.
Members, 600. Chapters, 32.
PURPOSE: TO bring into closer relation and promote sociability among
the Jewish young men of the country and to aid the less fortunate.
OFFICERS: Pres., Albert E. Auer, St. Louis, Mo.; Vice-Pres., Robt.
Weiler, Columbus, O.; Treas., Howard Weilar, N. Y. C ; Sec, Theo.
Rothschild, 1462 1st Nat'l Bank Bldg., Cincinnati, O.; Editor, Roy G.
Rosenthal, Seattle, Wash.; Historian, Leonard Nachman, Peoria, 111.;
Chaplain, Philip Bookstaber, Harrisburg, Pa.; Senior Counsellor, I. Ed.
Tonkon, Dallas, Tex.; Junior Counsellor, L. Kenneth Schoenfeld,
Seattle, Wash.; Past Pres., Alfred Mayer, Omaha, Neb.
PROBUS CLUB NATIONAL
Org. 1926. OFFICE: Hartford, Conn.
Members, 450.
PURPOSE: TO promote and participate in communal and civic activities; to foster social and intellectual ideals; to encourage friendship
among its members in local clubs and other clubs of the organization.
OFFICERS: Pres., Samuel L. Calechman, New Haven, Conn.; VicePres., Abr. H. Bayer, Springfield, Mass.; Harry D. Cohan, Hartford,
Conn.; Saul S. Cowan, New Haven, Conn.; Chas. J. Goldman, Lynn,
Mass.; L. R. King, Bridgeport, Conn.; Israel Nair, New Britain, Conn.;
Joseph Talamo, Worcester, Mass.; Treas., Milton Bacharach, Hartford,
Conn.; Sec, James M. Kent, 902 Chapel, New Haven, Conn.
PROGRESSIVE ORDER OF THE WEST
Org. Feb. 13, 1896. OFFICE: 406-7-8 Frisco Bldg., 9th and Olive,
St. Louis, Mo.
Convention, July 26-28, 1925, Kansas City, Mo.
Members, 11,874.
OFFICERS: Grand Master, Joseph Schiller, Chicago, 111.; Vice Grand
Master, I. D. Goldberg, St. Louis, Mo.; Endowment Treas., Win. H.
Goldman, St. Louis, Mo.; Grand Councellor, Louis Joffie, St. Louis,
Mo.; Grand Medical Examiner, L. G. Frumson, St. Louis, Mo.
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
229
RABBI ISAAC ELCHANAN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY
AND YESHIVA COLLEGE
Org. 1896. Charter amended 1928, to permit the organization of the
Yeshiva College, authorized by the Regents of the University of the
State of New York to give courses leading to the degrees of B.A. and
B.S. OFFICE: 301-3 E. Broadway, New York City.
Incorporated in State of New York. Invested funds about $2,400,000.
Library: Printed volumes, 18,000, manuscripts, small collection.
Entire number of graduates, Rabbinical course, 102; Teachers Institute, 74.
PURPOSE: TO disseminate Jewish knowledge; to train rabbis and
teachers; to present in a Jewish atmosphere general courses leading to
degrees of B.A. and B.S.
OFFICERS: Pres., Nathan Lamport; Treas., M. Gottesman.
FACULTY: Pres. and Professor of Codes, B. Revel, Ph.D.; Professor
of Talmud, S. Polacheck; Instructors of Talmud, B. Aronowitz; A.
Burack; J. Kaplan, M.A.; L. Levin, S. Olshevsky; M. Paleyeff; S.
Rackovsky; J. Weill; Asst. Prof, of Homiletics, Herbert S. Goldstein,
M.A.; Instructor of Bible, N. Klotz, Ph.D. Asst. Prof, of Hebrew,
Ph. Churgin, Ph.D.; Lecturer in Jewish History, Solomon Zeitlin, Ph.D.;
Lecturer in Jewish Philosophy, Isaac Husik, M.A., Ph.D.; Lecturer in
Arabic, S. Gandz, Ph.D.
LIBRARY STAFF: Acting Librarian, S. Gandz, Ph.DREGISTRAR: Samuel L. Sar.
RABBINICAL ASSEMBLY OF THE JEWISH
THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY OF AMERICA
Org. July 4, 1901.
Annual Convention, June 25-27, 1928, Long Branch, N. J.
Members, 201.
• OFFICERS: Pres., Max Drob, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Louis Finkelstein,
N. Y. C.;Rec. Sec, Max Davidson, Asbury Park, N. J.; Cor. Sec,
Abraham Burstein, N. Y. C ; Treas., Max Arzt, Scranton, Pa.
*RHO PI PHI FRATERNITY, INC.
Org. 1912.
Annual Convention, July, 1925, New York City.
Members, 1,000. Chapters, 11.
PURPOSE: Students of Pharmacy. To raise the standard and dignity
of the profession scientifically and socially.
OFFICERS: Sup. Councillor, Harry Rosenblatt, N. Y. C ; Vice-Sup.
Councillor, William Schrier, Paterson, N. J.; Fin. Sec, Harold Verman,
150 W. 111th, N. Y. C.
SEPHARDIC BROTHERHOOD OF AMERICA, INC.
Re-org. 1921. OFFICE: 1720 Madison Av., New York City.
Annual Convention, April 3, 1927.
Members, 900. Branches, 5.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
230
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
PURPOSE: TO promote the industrial, social, educational and religious
welfare of its members and to engage in philanthropic endeavors for
the welfare of Sephardic immigrants.
OFFICERS: Pres., Leon Saady; Vice-Pres., Daniel Botton; Treas.,
Edward V. Besso; Fin. Sec, Benzion Grottas; Sec, Hyman M. Nadjari.
SIGMA ALPHA MU FRATERNITY
Org. Nov. 26, 1909. OFFICE: 15 Park Row, New York City.
Eighteenth Annual Convention, Dec. 24-27, 1927, Toronto, Can.
Chapters: Undergraduates, 33; Alumni Clufjs, 30.
Members, 3,000.
PURPOSE: Greek-letter College Fraternity for Jewish students.
OFFICERS: Pres., Victor H. Blanc; Vice-Pres., Samuel Shinbach;
Treas., H. I. Jacobson; Sec, Samuel Rabinowitch.
*SIGMA DELTA TAU SORORITY
Org. 1917. OFFICE: 56 Berkeley PI., Buffalo, N. Y.
Convention, Dec, 1926.
Chapters, 10. Members, 375.
OFFICERS: Pres., Miriam H. Jacobs, Ft. Wayne, Ind.; Vice-Pres.,
Miriam S. Levy, Phila., Pa.; Sec, Olga S. Weil, Cincinnati, O.; Historian, Leah R. Rudman, Urbana, 111.
**SIGMA EPSILON DELTA FRATERNITY
Org. 1901. OFFICE: 294 New York Av., Brooklyn, N. Y.
Convention, Feb. 21, 1927, New York City.
Members, 700.
PURPOSE: TO promote the highest excellence in the science and art
of dentistry and its collateral branches; to bring about a closer acquaintance among the student body and graduates through fraternal
co-operation.
OFFICERS: Grand Master, J. A. Boley, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Grand
Chaplain, M. A. Heckler, N. Y. C ; Grand Scribe, B. Rosenfeld, N. Y.
C ; Grand Treas., D. M. Arkin, N. Y. C ; Grand Historian, A. V. Greenstein, N. Y. C.
SIGMA OMEGA PSI FRATERNITY
Org. 1916. OFFICE: 200 Fifth Av., New York City.
Annual Convention, Dec. 24-27, 1927, New York City.
Chapters, 18.
Members, 1,250.
PURPOSE : Greek letter college fraternity for Jewish students and to
foster the spirit of true brotherly love and self sacrifice.
OFFICERS: Grand Superior, Louis A. Freedman, N. Y. C ; Grand
Vice Superior, David J. Sandman, Worcester, Mass.; Grand Exchequer,
Wm. M. Raphael, Newark, N. J.; Grand Scribe, Abram Lebson,
Palisade, N. J.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
••Indicates that data were collected in the latter part of 1927.
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
231
SYNAGOGUE COUNCIL OF AMERICA
Org. 1925. OFFICE: 11 W. 42d, New York City.
Members, 36.
PURPOSE: TO take council together for the sacred purpose of preserving and fostering Judaism; composed of representatives of national,
congregational and rabbinical organizations of America for purpose of
speaking and acting unitedly and furthering such religious interests as
the constituent organizations and the Council have in mind.
OFFICERS: Chairman, Abram Simon, Washington, D. C ; ViceChairman, N. Taylor Phillips, Elias Solomon, N. Y. C ; Treas., Ben.
Altheimer, N. Y. C ; Sec, Abr. Burstein, N. Y. C ; Sec, J. B. Pollak.
*TAU DELTA PHI FRATERNITY
Org. 1910. OFFICE: 604 W. 114th, New York City,
Annual Convention, Dec. 24-28, 1926, Boston, Mass.
Members, 1,500.
OFFICERS: Grand Consul, Herman L. Baskin, N. Y. C.; Grand ViceConsul, Joseph Lang, N. Y. C ; Grand Quaestor, Herman S. Kerstein,
Boston, Mass.; Grand Custor, Geo. M. Feigin, N. Y. C ; Grand Scribe,
Hilliard Bernstein, 34 W. 12th, N. Y. C.
TAU EPSILON PHI FRATERNITY
Org. Oct. 19, 1910, Inc., 1917. OFFICE: 618 W. 113th, New York City.
Convention, Dec. 30, 1927-Jan. 1, 1928, Philadelphia, Pa.
Next Convention, Dec. 30, 1928-jan. 1, 1929, Chicago, 111.
Chapters, 27 Undergraduate; 5 Alumni. Members, 2,050.
PURPOSE: TO foster the spirit of true brotherly love and self-sacrifice.
OFFICERS: Consul, Frederic R. Mann; Vice-Consul, Louis S. Lebenthal; Quaestor, Chas. H. Tobias; Tribune, Alf. J. Kleinberger; Annotator, Julius Abeson; Praetor Supreme, Sol. Freeman; Editor, Mark
Apfel.
THE TAU EPSILON RHO FRATERNITY
Org. 1919. OFFICE: 214 Society for Savings Bldg., Cleveland, O.
Annual Convention, Dec. 25-27, 1927, Cleveland, O.
Undergraduate Chapters, 6; Graduate Chapters, 2.
Members, 238.
PURPOSE: Legal fraternity with undergraduate chapters in accredited day law schools and graduate chapters in cities.
OFFICERS: Supreme Chancellor, Manuel Levine, Cleveland, O.;
Supreme Exec. Chancellor, Jerome W. Moss, Cleveland, O.; Supreme
Vice-Chancellor, Samuel Goldstock, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Supreme Master
of the Rolls, Herman Ellis, Philadelphia, Pa.; Bursar and Pledgor,
Baruch A. Feldman, Cleveland, 0.; Supreme Historian, Graham
Susman, Denver, Colo.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
232
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
TRAINING SCHOOL FOR JEWISH SOCIAL WORK
Org. 1925. OFFICE: 71 W. 47th, New York City.
Members, 25.
OFFICERS: Pres., Louis E. Kirstein, Boston, Mass.; Vice-Pres., Lee
K. Frankel, N. Y. C ; Fred M. Butzel, Detroit, Mich.; Treas., I. Edwin
Goldwasser, N. Y. C ; Sec, Solomon Lowenstein, N. Y. C.; Chairman
Exec. Com., Felix M. Warburg, N. Y. C ; Dir., M. J. Karpf; Asst. Dir.,
Frances N. Harrison.
UNION OF AMERICAN HEBREW CONGREGATIONS
Org. 1873. OFFICE: Cincinnati, O.
Thirty-first Council, January, 1929, Cleveland, O.
Members, 279 congregations.
PURPOSE: TO maintain the Hebrew Union College of Cincinnati, O.,
an institution for educating rabbis; to promote religious instruction
and encourage the study of the tenets and history of Judaism.
Four Departments: I. Executive and Financial: Chairman of Exec.
Bd., Ludwig Vogelstein, N. Y. C.; Hon. Pres., Charles Shohl, Cincinnati,
O.; II. Board of Finance: Chairman, David A. Brown, Detroit, Mich.;
III. Hebrew Union College: Chairman, Board of Governors, Alfred M.
Cohen, Cincinnati, O.; Julian Morgenstern, President, Cincinnati, O.;
IV. Board of Managers of Synagogue and School Extension; Chairman,
Julius W. Freiberg; Dir., George Zepin, Cincinnati, O.
EXECUTIVE BOARD FOR 1927: Chairman of Exec. Bd., Ludwig Vogelstein, N. Y. C ; Hon. Pres., Charles Shohl, Cincinnati, O.; Vice-Pres.,
Julius Rosenwald, Chicago, 111.; Marcus Rauh, Pittsburgh, Pa.; Maurice
D. Rosenberg, Washington, D. C ; Jacob W. Mack, Cincinnati, O.; Sec,
George Zepin; Asst. Sec, Jacob D. Schwarz, Merchants Bldg., Cincinnati, O.
UNION OF ORTHODOX JEWISH CONGREGATIONS OF
AMERICA .
Org. June 8, 1898. OFFICE: 50 W. 77th, New York City.
Twenty-eighth Convention, Nov. 19-21, 1927, New York City.
OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Bernard Drachman, H. Pereira Mendes,
Julius J. Dukas, N. Y. C ; Pres., Herbert S. Goldstein, N. Y. C ; VicePres., Leo Jung, M. S. Margolies, N. Y. C ; Samuel Feuerstein, Boston, Mass.; Israel S. Gomborov, Baltimore, Md.; Israel Rosenberg, N.
Y. C ; Moses Seidel, Baltimore, Md.; Treas., M. Boas Lande, N. Y. C ;
Rec. Sec, Mortimer M. Menken, N. Y. C ; Fin. Sec, Morris Engelman,
N. Y. C ; Corr. Sec, Albert Wald; Exec. Sec, I. L. Bril.
UNION OF ORTHODOX RABBIS OF UNITED STATES
AND CANADA
Org. Tammuz 24, 5662 (1902). OFFICE: 136 E. Broadway,
New York City.
Twenty-fourth Annual Convention, May 4-6, 1926, Far Rockaway,
N. Y.
Members, 315.
OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., B. L. Levinthal, Phila., Pa.; M. S. Margolies,
N. Y. C ; &residium, L. Silver, Springfield, Maes.; B. Revel, N. Y. C."
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
233
J. Konwitz, Newark, N. J.; I. Siegel, Bayonne, N. J.; Sec, J. L. Seltzer,
N. Y. C ; Treas., Ch. I. Bloch, Jersey City, N. J.; Fin. Sec, Sh. Karlinsky, N. Y. C ; Exec. Sec, A. B. Kahan, N. Y. C.
•UNITED ORDER "TRUE SISTERS"
Org. Apr. 1846, as Independent Order of True Sisters.
OFFICE: 309 W. 109th, New York City.
Seventy-sixth Annual Convention of the Grand Lodge, Dec. 7, 1926,
New York City.
Lodges, 32. Members, 11,100.
Publishes a monthly, The Echo, editor, Mrs. Esther Davis.
OFFICERS: (For December, 1925, to December, 1927) Grand Monitress, Mrs. Julia Levy; Grand Pres., Mrs. Juliet B. Howard; Grand
Vice-Pres., Mrs. Amelia Oppenheimer; Mrs. Henriette Prinstein; Grand
Sec, Mrs. Rose Baran; Grand Financial Sec, Mrs. Flora H. Fish;
Grand Treas., Mrs. L. Schwarzkopf; Grand Mentor, Mrs. Rose Deutschberger; Grand Warden, Mrs. Martha Gould.
UNITED ROUMANIAN JEWS OF AMERICA
OFFICE: 799 Broadway, New York City.
Nineteenth Annual Convention, Jan. 29, 1928, New York City.
PURPOSE; TO further, defend and protect the interests of the Jews
in Roumania, to work for their civic and politicakemancipation and for
their economic reconstruction and rehabilitation; and to represent and
further the interests of the Roumanian Jews in the United States and
Canada.
OFFICERS: Pres., Bennett E. Seigelstein; Vice-Pres., Peter Ferester,
Leon Fischer, Morris Florea, Abraham Hirsh, Samuel Kanter, Paul R.
Silberman; Treas., Haimi Haimowitz; Sec, Herman Speier.
UNITED SYNAGOGUE OF AMERICA
Org. Feb. 23, 1913. OFFICE: 531 W. 123d, New York City.
Sixteenth Annual Convention, April 29-May 1, 1928, Chicago, 111.
PURPOSE: The promotion of traditional Judaism in America.
FOUNDER: Solomon Schechter.
OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Elias L. Solomon, N. Y. C ; Pres., S. Herbert
Golden, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Louis Ginzberg, N. Y. C ; Jacob Kohn,
N. Y. C ; Charles E. H. Kauvar, Denver, Colo.; H. P. Koppleman,
Hartford, Conn.; Rec. Sec, Sol. Mutterperl, N. Y. C ; Cor. Sec, Chas.
I. Hoffman, 624 High, Newark, N. J.; Treas., Nathan Levy; Executive
Director, Samuel M. Cohen, N. Y. C.
UPSILON LAMBDA PHI FRATERNITY
Org. 1916; Inc. 1917. OFFICE: 217 Brighton Av., Perth Amboy, N. J.
Ninth Annual Convention, Aug., 1926, Asbury Park, N. J.
Chapters, 31. Members, 1,300.
PURPOSE: An International Fraternity laying particular stress on
Judaism, open to male students of the Jewish faith in the high and
preparatory schools, with the purpose of uniting them socially and
fraternally.
•Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
234
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
OFFICERS:
Master Ulp, Nathaniel Weltchek, Elizabeth, N. J.;
Deputy Master Ulp, J. Bernard Saltzman, Passaic, N. J.; Fin. Ulp, S.
Leon Israel, Phila., Pa.; Sec. Ulp, Jacob H. Bernstein, 217 Brighton
Av., Perth Amboy, N. J.
WOMEN'S BRANCH OF THE UNION OF ORTHODOX
JEWISH CONGREGATIONS OF AMERICA
(Affiliated with the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregationsof America)
Org. Apr. 19, 1924. OFFICE: 50 W. 77th, New York City.
PURPOSE: The uniting of all the Orthodox women and organizations
of the country into one strong body; the intensification and furtherance
of Orthodox Judaism in the home, the religious school, amongst students
in institutions of higher learning; the dedication of a dormitory for the
students of the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Yeshiva.
OFFICERS: Pres., Mrs. Herbert S. Goldstein; Hon. Vice-Pres., Mrs.
Joseph Mayer Asher, Mrs. Moses Hyamson, Mrs. N. Taylor Phillips,
Vice-Pres., Mrs. Isadore Freedman, Mrs. Mark Hurewitz, Mrs. Leo
Jung, Mrs. Abraham Levitan, Mrs. Jacob Rabinowitz; Treas., Mrs.
Adolph Schwarcz; Cor. Sec, Mrs. Edwin Kaufman; Rec. Sec, Mrs.
Ralph Harte.
WOMEN'S LEAGUE OF THE UNITED SYNAGOGUE
OF AMERICA
Org. Jan. 21, 1918. OFFICE: 531 W. 123d, New York City.
Eleventh Annual Convention, April 29-May 1, 1928, Chicago, 111.
PURPOSE: TO advance traditional Judaism by furthering Jewish
education among women, by creating and fostering Jewish sentiment
in the home, by promoting the observance of Jewish dietary laws and
home ceremonials, Sabbath and Festivals, and by generally strengthening the religious institutions of the home.
FOUNDER: Mrs. Solomon Schechter.
OFFICERS: Hon. Pres., Mrs. Chas. I. Hoffman, Newark, N. J.;
Pres., Mrs. Samuel Spiegel, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Mrs. Cyrus Adler,
Phila., Pa.; Mrs. J. Bienenfeld, Syracuse, N. Y.; Mrs. Benj. Davis,
Chicago, 111.; Mrs. Joseph Herzog, N. Y. C ; Sarah Kussy, Newark, N.
J.; Mrs. Morris Lurie, N. Y. C ; Mrs. Sol. Rosenbloom, Pittsburgh, Pa.;
Treas., Mrs. Louis Gottschall, N. Y. C ; Rec. Sec, Mrs. Leon M. SolisCohen, New Rochelle, N. Y.
WOMEN'S ORGANIZATION FOR THE PIONEER WOMEN
OF PALESTINE
Org. 1926. OFFICE: 32 Union Square, New York City.
Convention, Oct. 29-31, 1926, New York City.
Members, 3,000.
PURPOSE: TO help the Pioneer Women's Co-operatives in Palestine.
OFFICERS: Treas., Mrs. Leah Brown, N. Y. C ; Sec, Leah Biskin,
901 E. 179th, N. Y. C.
THE WORKMEN'S CIRCLE
Org. Sept. 4, 1900. OFFICE: 175 East Broadway, New York City.
Twenty-seventh Convention, May 3-7, 1927, Cleveland, O.
JEWISH NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
235
Members, 78,000.
PURPOSE: Fraternal insurance and mutual aid.
OFFICERS: Pres., J. Weinberg; Treas., Jacob Fishman; Sec, Joseph
Baskin.
*YOUNG JUDAEA
Org. 1908. OFFICE: 114 Fifth Av., New York City.
Eighteenth Annual Convention, May 28-31, 1926, Long Branch, N. J.
Number of Circles, 900.
PURPOSE: TO advance the cause of Zionism; to further the mental,
moral and physical development of the Jewish youth; and to promote
Jewish culture and ideals in accordance with Jewish tradition.
OFFICERS: Pres., David de Sola Pool; Chairman Exec. Com., Sam'l J.
Borowsky, Vice-Pres., David Tannenbaum, Sylvan H. Kohn; Treas.,
Theodore R. Racoosin.
YOUNG PEOPLE'S LEAGUE OF THE UNITED SYNAGOGUE
OF AMERICA
Org. 1921. OFFICE: 531 W. 123d, New York City.
Sixth Annual Convention, Feb. 10-13, 1928, New York City.
Members, 15,000. Societies, 130.
PURPOSE: TO bring the Jewish youth nearer to traditional Judaism
and to the Synagogue.
OFFICERS: Pres., Herbert J. Roeder, N. Y. C ; Vice-Pres., Jos.
Fishberg, Trenton, N, J.; Henry Landau, N. Y. C ; Sam'l A. Margolis,
Boston, Mass.; Henry N. Rapaport, N. Y. C ; Joseph Warren, Philadelphia, Pa.; Treas., Emanuel R. Polack, N. Y. C.
. YOUNG POALE ZION
Org. 1915. OFFICE: 32 Union Square, New York City.
Sixth Annual Convention, Sept. 2-5, 1927, Toronto, Can.
Members, 1,200. Branches, 35.
PURPOSE: Junior; Socialist and Zionist education and activities.
OFFICERS: Sec, Ben. V. Codor.
ZETA BETA TAU FRATERNITY
Org. 1898; Inc. 1907. OFFICE: 551 Fifth Av., New York City.
Twenty-eighth Annual Convention, Dec. 24-26, 1926, New York City.
Next Annual Convention, Aug. 2-5, 1928, Los Angeles, Cal.
Members, 4,000.
Ranking as an intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity with chapters
in thirty-two universities and colleges, open to Jewish university men.
OFFICERS: Sup. Nasi, Grover M. Moscowitz, Brooklyn, N. Y.; Sup.
Vice-Nasi, I. Emanuel Sauder; Sup. Sophar (Sec.) Michael B. Wagenheim, Norfolk, Va.; Sup. Gisbar (Treas.), Samuel R. Firestone, N. Y. C ;
Sup. Historian, Walter M. Barnett, Jr., New Orleans, La.; Sec. of
Supreme Council, George Macy, 551 Fifth Av., N. Y. C.
*Indicates that revised data were not furnished upon request.
236
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ZIONIST LABOR PARTY "HITACHDUT
ZEIRE ZION" OF AMERICA
Org. 1920. OFFICE: 425 Lafayette, New York City.
Annual Convention, May 30-June 2, 1926.
Members, 2,000.
PURPOSE: TO help in creating a Jewish free working community
in Palestine and to renew the life of the Jewish people in the Diaspora
on the basis of work and Hebrew culture.
ZIONIST ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA
Org. 1897; Reorg. 1918. OFFICE: 111 Fifth Av., New York City.
Twenty-ninth Annual Convention, June 27-29, 1926, Buffalo, N. Y.
Members, 65,000.
Central Fund, United Palestine Appeal, comprising Keren Hayesod,
Jewish National Fund, Hadassah Medical Organization and Hebrew
University Fund.
Constituent Organizations: Hadassah, Order Sons of Zion, Young
Judaea, American Zion Commonwealth, Inc.
PUBLICATIONS: The New Palestine, a weekly for members, in English,
Dos Yiddishe Folk; a weekly in Yiddish; Hatoren, a monthly, in Hebrew;
Young Judean, a monthly for the Jewish youth, in English.
OFFICERS: Pres., Louis Lipsky, N. Y. C ; Hon. Vice-Pres., Henrietta
Szold, N. Y. C ; Joseph Barondess, N. Y. C ; Reuben Brainin, N. Y. C;
Max Heller, New Orleans, La.; Hirsch Mfesliansky, N. Y. C ; David A.
Lurie, Boston, Mass.; Vice-Chairman, Bernard A. Rosenblatt, N. Y. C;
Max Shulman, Chicago, III.; A. H. Silver, Cleveland, O.; Abr. Goldberg,
N. Y. C.;Mrs. Norvin R. Lindheim, N. Y. C ; Mrs. Archibald Silverman, Providence, R. I.; Treas., Isaac Meister, N. Y.; Assoc. Treas.,
Harry P. Fierst, N. Y. C ; Hon. Sec, David J. Kaliski, N. Y. C ; Sec,
Meyer W. Weisgal, N. Y. C.
JEWISH PERIODICALS IN THE UNITED STATES
APRIL 1, 1928
[NOTE.—• indicates that revised data were not furnished by request]
THE AMERICAN HEBREW.
Est. 1879.
THE AMERICAN ISRAELITE.
Weekly. Est. 1854.
71 W. 47th, New York City.
Weekly.
N. W. cor. 7th and Elm, Cincinnati, O.
THE AMERICAN JEWISH WORLD.
Palace Building, Minneapolis, Minn.
Weekly. Est. 1912 as THE JEWISH WEEKLT.
DER AMERIKANER (The Jewish American—Woman's Magazine and
Gazette). 77 Bowery, New York City, Yiddish. Weekly. Est. /904.
APIRYON. 2 Palisade Av., Flagg Bldg., Yonkers, N. Y. Hebrew.
Monthly. Est. 1923.
* ATLANTIC WEEKLY. 15. S. Congress Av., Atlantic City, N. J. Yiddish
and English. Weekly. Est. 1922.
B'NAI B'RITH MAGAZINE. 40 Electric Bldg., Cincinnati, O. Monthly.
Est. 1886.
B'NAI B'RITH MESSENGER.- 2d and Hill, Los Angeles, Cal. Weekly.
Est. 1896.
THE BOSTON JEWISH AMERICAN AND WOMEN'S MAGAZINE. Boston,
Mass. Yiddish. Weekly. Est. 1908.
BROOKLYN REVIEW. 201 Montague, Brooklyn, N. Y. Weekly. Est. 1927.
THE BUFFALO JEWISH REVIEW. 35 Pearl, Buffalo, N. Y. Weekly.
Est. 1912 as THE AMERICAN JEWISH REVIEW.
CALIFORNIA JEWISH REVIEW. I l l W. 4th, 305
Los Angeles, Cal. Weekly. Est. 1921.
I. W. Hellman Bldg.,
CHICAGO CHRONICLE. 35 N. Dearborn, Chicago, 111. Weekly. Est.
1918.
THE CHICAGO ISRAELITE. 116 S. Michigan Av., Chicago, 111. Weekly.
Est. 1853.
CONNECTICUT HEBREW RECORD.
Weekly. Est. 1920.
251 Causeway, Boston, Mass.
T H E DAILY JEWISH CALL. Chicago, 111. Yiddish. Daily. Est. 1900
DER TEGLICHER YIDDISHER KOL.
*THE DAILY JEWISH COURIER (Der
Taeglicher Juedischer Courier).
1214 S. Halsted, Chicago, 111. Yiddish. Daily. Est. 1887.
THE DAY. 183 E. Broadway, New York City. Yiddish. Daily.
Est. 1914.
THE DETROIT JEWISH CHRONICLE.
525 Woodward Av., Detroit,
Mich. Weekly. Est. 1916.
EMANU-EL. Hardie Bldg., 222 Kearney, San Francisco, Cal. Weekly.
Est. 1895.
EVERY FRIDAY. 430 Reading Road, Cincinnati, O.. Weekly. Est.
1927.
237
238
FAR'N FOLK.
Est. 1923.
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
425 Lafayette, New York City. Yiddish. Bi-monthly.
(Free Voice of Labor). 48 Canal, Xcw
York City. Yiddish. Weekly. Est. 1899.
*FREIHEIT. 30 Union Square, New York City. Yiddish. Daily. Est.
1922.
*DER GROISER KUNDES (The Big Stick). 201 E. Broadway,' New York
City. Yiddish. Weekly. Est. 1909.
HADOAR. I l l Fifth Aw, New York City. Hebrew. Weekly. Est. 1921.
1921.
HEBREW WATCHMAN. 266 Vance, Memphia, Tenn. Weekly. Est. 1925.
HUDSON JEWISH NEWS. 92 Montgomery, Jersey City, N. J. Yiddish
and English. Weekly. Est. 1922.
THE INDIANA JEWISH CHRONICLE. 819 Meyer-Kiser Bank Bldg.,
Indianapolis, Ind. Weekly. Est. 1921.
IN SICH. 771 Grote, New York City. Yiddish. Monthly. Est. 1925.
INTERMOUNTAIN JEWISH NEWS. 1950 Curtis, Denver, Colo. Weekly.
DIE FREIE ARBEITER STIMME
Est. 1915 as DENVER JEWISH NEWS.
THE JEWISH ADVOCATE. 251 Causeway,
Boston, Mass. Weekly. Est.
1897.
JEWISH CENTER. 71 W. 47th, New York City.
Est. 1922. Issued by the Jewish Welfare Board.
THE
THE JEWISH CHRONICLE.
Est. 1921.
Quarterly.
190 Badger Av., Newark, N. J. Weekly.
1003 Clark Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Weekly.
THE JEWISH CRITERION.
Est. 1895.
JEWISH DAILY BULLETIN.
611 Broadway, New York City.
Daily.
Est. 1924.
JEWISH EXPONENT. New Public Ledger Bldg., Philadelphia,
Pa. Weekly. Est. 1887.
JEWISH FARMER. 301 E. 14th, New York City. Yiddish and English.
Monthly. Est. 1908.
THE JEWISH FORUM. 2000 Broadway, New York City. Monthly.
Est. 1918.
THE JEWISH INDEPENDENT. 731 Bolivar Rd., Cleveland, Ohio.
Weekly. Est. 1906.
THE JEWISH INDICATOR (Vegviser). 1520 Center Av., Pittsburgh, Pa.
THE
Yiddish and English. Weekly. Est. 1884 as JEWISH VOLKSFREUND.
Reorg. 1921.
JEWISH INSTITUTE QUARTERLY.
terly. Est. 1924.
THE JEWISH LEDGER.
Est. 1895.
JEWISH LEDGER.
40 W. 68th, New York City. Quar-
938 Lafayette, New Orleans, La. Weekly.
1239 Granite Bldg., Rochester, N. Y. Weekly.
Est. 1924.
THE JEWISH MONITOR.
287 W. 10th, Forth Worth, Texas. Weekly.
Est. 1914.
Tageblat (Der Morgen
Journal and the Jewish Daily News) 77 Bowery, New York City.
Yiddish. Daily. Est. 1901. Amalgamated with Jewish Daily
News (Est. 1885) April, 1928.
THE JEWISH MORNING JOURNAL—Yiddisher
JEWISH PERIODICALS
239
5 Beekman,
New York City. Yiddish. Monthly. Est. 1923.
JEWISH PRESS. 490 Brandeis Theatre Bldg., Omaha, Neb. Weekly.
Est. 1920.
THE JEWISH PRESS. 576 12th, Milwaukee, Wis. Yiddish and English. Weekly. Est. 1919.
THE JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW. S. E. cor. Broad and York, Philadelphia, Pa. New Series. Est. 1910.
Published by the Dropsie College for Hebrew and Cognate Learning.
*THE JEWISH RECORD (Der Yiddisher Record). 1127 Blue Island Av.,
Chicago, 111. Yiddish. Weekly. Est. 1909.
THE JEWISH RECORD. 5030 Eaton Av., St. Louis| Mo. Yiddish.
Weekly. Est. 1913.
•JEWISH RECORD. 119 W. Nueva, San Antonio, Tex. Weekly. Est.
1924.
THE JEWISH REVIEW. 906 Union Trust Bldg., Providence, R. I.
Weekly. Est. 1920.
THE JEWISH REVIEW AND OBSERVER. 1150 W. 3d, Cleveland, Ohio.
Weekly. Est. 1888.
JEWISH SOCIAL SERVICE QUARTERLY. 330 S. 9th, Philadelphia, Pa.
Quarterly. Est. 1924.
THE JEWISH TIMES. Suite 911, Lexington Bldg., Baltimore, Md.
Weekly. Est. 1919.
JEWISH TRANSCRIPT. 1616 8th Av., Seattle, Wash. Weekly. Est.
1924.
THE JEWISH TRIBUNE. Cowan Bldg., 57O-7th, Av., New York City.
Weekly. Est. 1903 at Portland, Ore., moved to New York City,
1919. HEBREW STANDARD (est. 1882) amalgamated with THE
JEWISH MUSICAL WORLD AND THEATRE MAGAZINE.
JEWISH TRIBUNE, 1922.
JEWISH VETERAN. 15 Park
Row, New York City. Monthly. Est.
Published by Jewish Veterans of the Wars of the Republic.
' THE JEWISH VOICE. 28 Nicholson, Newark, N. J. English-Yiddish.
Weekly. Est. 1924.
JEWISH VOICE. 239 Peyton Bldg., Spokane, Wash. Weekly. Est. 1928.
THE JEWISH WOMAN. 2109 Broadway, New York City. Quarterly.
Est. 1921. Published by The National Council of Jewish Women.
THE JEWISH WORLD. 50th and Woodland, Cleveland, Ohio. Yiddish.
Daily. Est. 1908.
1925.
THE JEWISH WORLD.
223 S. 5th, Philadelphia, Pa.
Yiddish and
English. Daily. Est. 1914.
THE JEWISH WORLD. 1824 Washington Av., St. Louis, Mo. Yiddish
and English. Weekly. Est. 1928.
THE KANSAS CITY JEWISH CHRONICLE. 304 W. 10th, Kansas City,
Mo. Weekly. Est. 1920.
MENORAH JOURNAL. 63 5th Av., New York City. Monthly. Est.
1915. Published by the Intercollegiate Menorah Association.
DER MILWAUKER WOCHENBLATT (The Milwaukee Weekly). 576
12th, Milwaukee, Wis. Yiddish and English. Weekly. Est. 1914.
THE MODERN VIEW. 210 Olive, St. Louis, Mo. Weekly. Est. 1901.
240
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
THE NEW PALESTINE.
I l l 5th Av., N. Y. C. Weekly.
Est. 1921.
Successor to THE MACCABEAN, Est. 1901.
Organ of the Zionist Organization of America.
OHIO JEWISH CHRONICLE. 508 Schultz Bldg., Columbus, O. Weekly.
Est. 1920.
OIFKUM. 84 Bowery, New
PASSAIC JEWISH RECORD.
York City. Yiddish. Monthly. Est. 1925.
625 Main Av., Passaic, N. J. Yiddish and
English. Weekly. Est. 1926.
PHILADELPHIA JEWISH TIMES.
S. W. cor. 9th and Chestnut, Phila-
delphia, Pa. Weekly. Est. 1925.
REFLEX. 250 W. 57th, New York City. Monthly. Est. 1927.
THE REFORM ADVOCATE. 7 S. Dearborn, Chicago, 111. Weekly. Est.
1891.
THE SCRIBE. 625 Railway Exchange Bldg., Portland, Ore. Weekly.
Est. 1919.
THE SENTINEL. 116-124 S. Clinton, Chicago, 111. Weekly. Est. 1910.
SHRIFTEN (Writings). 425 Lafayette, New York City. Quarterly.
Est. 1912.
SPRINGFIELD HEBREW RECORD.
251 Causeway, Boston, Mass.
Weekly. Est. 1923.
STARK COUNTY JEWISH NEWS. 1333 Shorb Av., N. W., Canton, O.
Bi-monthly. Est. 1921.
TEXAS JEWISH HERALD. 41 iyi Fannin, Houston, Texas. Weekly.
Est. 1908 as THE JEWISH HERALD.
THE TOLEDO ISRAELITE. 614 Spitzer
Bldg., Toledo, Ohio. Monthly.
Est. 1915.
Published by the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
UNION TIDINGS. Merchants' Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio. Monthly.
Est. 1919.
Published by the Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
UNITED SYNAGOGUE RECORDER. 531 W. 123d, New York City.
Quarterly. Est. 1921. Organ of the United Synagogue of America,
the Women's League, and the Young People's League.
THE VANGUARD. 32 Union Square, New York City. Monthly. Est.
1927.
LA YARA. 7 Rivington, New York City. Judeo-Spanish. Weekly.
Est. 1922.
VORWARTS (Jewish Daily Forward). 175 E. Broadway, New York
City. Yiddish. Daily. Est. 1897.
WISCONSIN JEWISH CHRONICLE.
383 Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wis.
Weekly. Est. 1920.
Dos YIDDISCHE FOLK. I l l Fifth Av., New York City. Yiddish.
Weekly. Est. 1909.
Yiddish Organ of the Zionist Organization of America.
YIDDISHER ARBEITER. 32 Union Sq., New York City. Yiddish.
Weekly. Est. 1923.
YOUNG ISRAEL. Merchants' Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio. Monthly. Est.
1913.
Published by the Department of Synagogue and School Extension,
Union of American Hebrew Congregations.
JEWISH PERIODICALS
241
YOUNG JUDAEAN. I l l Fifth Av., New York City. Monthly. Est. 1910.
Published by Young Judaea.
DIE ZUKUNFT (The Future). 175 E. Broadway, New York City.
Yiddish. Monthly. Est. 189S.
JEWISH NEWS AGENCY
THE JEWISH TELEGRAPHIC AGENCY, 611 Broadway, New York City.
Est. 1920.
JEWISH MEMBERS OF THE CONGRESS OF THE
UNITED STATES
PAST
ANSORGE, MARTIN C, 1882. Rep. from N. Y., 1921-1922.
BENJAMIN, JUDAH PHILIP, 1812-1884. Sen. from La., 1853-1861.
CANTOR, JACOB A., 1854-1920. Rep. from N. Y.( 1913-1915.
EINSTEIN, EDWIN, 1842-1906. Rep. from N. Y., 1879-188L
EMERICH, MARTIN, 1847-1922. Rep. from 111., 1903-1907.
FISCHER, ISRAEL F., 1858. Rep. from N. Y., 1895-1899.
FRANK, NATHAN, 1852. Rep. from Mo., 1889-1891.
GOLDFOGLE, HENRY M., 1856. Rep. from N. Y., 1901-1915, 1919-
1921.
GOLDZIER, JULIUS, 1854-1925. Rep. from 111., 1893-1895.
GUGGENHEIM, SIMON, 1867. 'Sen. from Colo., 1907-1913.
HART, EMANUEL B., 1809-1897. Rep. from N. Y., 1851-1853.
HOUSEMAN, JULIUS, 1832-1891. Rep. from Mich., 1883-1885.
JONAS, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, 1834-1911. Sen. from La., 1879-1885.
KAHN, JULIUS, 1861-1924. Rep. from Cal., 1889-1902, 1905-1924.
KRAUSS, MILTON, 1866. Rep. from 111., 1917-1922.
LESSLER, MONTAGUE, 1869. Rep. from N. Y., 1902-1903.
LEVIN, LEWIS CHARLES, 1808-1860. Rep. from Pa., 1845-1851.
LEVY, DAVID. See YULEE, DAVID LEVY.
LEVY, JEFFERSON MONROE, 1852-1924. Rep. from N. Y., 1899-1901,
1911-1915.
LITTAUER, Lucius NATHAN, 1859. Rep. from N. Y., 1897-1907.
LONDON, MEYER, 1871-1926. Rep. from N. Y., 1915-1917, 1921-1923.
•MARX, SAMUEL, 1867-1922. Rep. from N. Y., 1922.
MAY, MITCHELL, 1871. Rep. from N. Y., 1899-1901.
MEYER, ADOLPH, 1842-1908. Rep. from La., 1891-1908.
MORSE, LEOPOLD, 1831-1892. Rep. from Mass., 1877-1885; 1887-1889.
PERLMAN, NATHAN D., 1887. Rep. from N. Y., 1920-1927.
PHILLIPS, HENRY MYER, 1811-1884. Rep. from Pa., 1857-1859.
PHILLIPS, PHILIP, 1807-1884. Rep. from Ala., 1853-1855.
*Died before taking his seat.
243
244
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
PULITZER, JOSEPH, 1847-1911. Rep. from
RAYNER, ISADOR, 1850-1912. Rep. from
N. Y., 1885-1886.
Md., 1887-1895. Sen. from
Md., 1905-1912.
ROSENBLOOM, B. L., 1880. Rep. from Wheeling, W. Va.,
ROSSDALE, ALBERT B., 1878. Rep. from N. Y., 1921-1922.
SIEGEL, ISAAC, 1880. Rep. from N. Y., 1915-1922.
SIMON, JOSEPH, 1851. Sen. from Ore., 1897-1903.
STRAUS, ISIDOR, 1845-1912. Rep. from N. Y., 1894-1895.
STROUSE, MYER, 1825-1878. Rep. from Pa., 1863-1867.
VOLK. LESTER DAVID, 1884. Rep. from N. Y., 1921-1923.
WOLK, HARRY B., 1880. Rep. from Md., 1907-1909.
YULEE, DAVID LEVY, 1811-1886. Del. from Fla., 1841-1845. Sen.
1921.
from
Fla.. 1845-1851, 1855-1861.
PRESENT
(MEMBERS OF THE SEVENTIETH CONGRESS)
BACHARACH, ISAAC, Republican, Representative, Atlantic City ,1915—
BERGER, VICTOR L., Socialist, Representative, Milwaukee, 1923—
BLOOM, SOL., Democrat, Representative, New York City, 1923CELLER, EMANUEL, Democrat, Rspresentative, New York City, 1923COHEN, WM. W., Democrat, Representative, New York City, 1926—
DICKSTEIN, SAMUEL, Democrat, Representative, New York City, 1923GOLDER, BENJAMIN,M. Republican, Representative, Philadelphia, 1924—
JACOBSTEIN, MEYER, Democrat, Representative, Rochester, 1923KAHN. FLORENCE PRAG (MRS. JULIUS), Republican, Representative,
San Francisco, 1925SABATH, ADOLPH ]., Democrat, Representative, Chicago, 1907SIROVICH, WM.
I., Democrat, Representative, New York City, 1926—
STATISTICS OF JEWS
BY H. S. LINFIELD, PH. D.,
Director, Statistical Department
of the
American Jewish Committee
INTRODUCTORY NOTE
The present article on statistics of Jews is largely a reprint of the
writer's article published in the preceding volume of the AMERICAN
JEWISH YEAR BOOK. Every table, however, has been revised and
brought up-to-date.
With regard to Jewish population statistics, it should be borne in
mind that the figures arrived at on the basis of a religious or nationality
census are likely to be inaccurate to some extent. This is partly due
to the fact that there is sometimes a tendency on the part of census
enumerators to minimize the number of persons of a minority religion
or nationality, and partly because some Jews report their nationality
as that of the majority population, or decline to answer the question
as to religion or nationality.
245
246
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
A LIST OF THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD AND THEIR JEWS'
The total in Jews of the world is over 15,324,515 persons scattered
over the whole earth. Almost every country in the world has its Jews.
The table below gives a list of the countries, the number of the Jews
which is known.
TABLE I
Name of Country
Number of jews
Name of Country
Number of Jewa
Abyssinia
50,000
Morocco (French)
117,512
Aden and Perim
3,747
Morocco (Spanish)
8,000
Afghanistan
18,135
Netherlands 2
150,000
2
Alaska
500
New Zealand
2,380
Algeria
100,000
Norway2 2
1,457
Arabia
25,000
Palestine
157,800e
2
Argentina2
200,000
Panama
25e
Australia
21,615
750
Panama Canal
Zone....
Austria
400
350,000
Paraguay 2
40.000
Azerbajdjan
Persia
24,676c
300e
Belgium
Peru
44,000
500
Brazil
30,000e
Philippine
Islands
British Empire
514,442
Poland2
2,854,000
British Malaya
703
Porto Rico
200
Bulgaria
43,209
Portugal
1.000
2
126,196
Canada
Portuguese
East
Africa..
100
2,000
Chile22
(Mozambique)
China
12,000
Rhodesia (Northern)....
110
Congo (Belgian)
177
Rhodesia (Southern)....
1,289
51,516
Crimea2
Roumania2
900,000
Cuba
8,200
Russia (R. S. F. S. R.) 2 . .
518.260
Curacao
565
Russia (R.
S. F. S. R.) in
2
195
Europe
Cyprus
2,662,139
2
354,342
Czecho-Slovakia
Russia (U. S. S. R . ) . . . . .
2,820,429
9,239
Danzig2 2
Russia2 (U. S. S. R.) in
5,947
114,953
Denmark
Asia
55
Saar Region
4,554
Dominican
Republic. . .
59,581
Egypt 2
Serb-Croat-Slovene Sta.
64,159
4,566
Esthonia
Siberia
44,725
1,715
S. W. Africa
200
Finland
200,000
Spain
4,000
France
551,000
Surinam (Dutch Guiana)
818
France and Possessions.
23,433e
Syria and Lebanon2
35,000
Georgia
564,379
Germany2
Sweden
6,469
1,123
Gibraltar
Switzerland2
20,979
297,000
Tanganyika (German
Great Britain
125,000
East Africa)
10
Greece
l,786e
15,000c
Guiana (British)
Tangier Zone
77
Trans-Caucasian
R
e
p
.
.
.
.
57,608
Hawaii
150
Tunisia2
65,000
Hong Kong
473,310
70,000
Hungary
Turkey in Asia
21,778
120,000
India
Turkey
in
Europe
1,000
1,795,540
Indo-China (French) 2 . .
Ukraine2
87,488
62,103
Union of South Africa'.. .
Iraq
5,148
4,228,029
United States (Contin'l).
Irish Free State 2
50,000
United States and
Italy
1.250
Possessions
4,229,401
Jamaica
1.000
UruRtiay
150
Japan
100
Uzbek and Turcoman
Kenya
2,120
25,683
Republics
Latvia
95.675
Venezuela
411
Kirghizia2
43,000
70
Virgin Islands
Libya2
2
155,125
WVn Russia (Gov't of
Lithuania 2
1,353
115,613
Witebsk)
Luxemburg
35
395,184
White Russia
Malta
16,000
Mexico
'Basel on trie- l.ircst official census or authoritative estimate. For details aee tables
III to VII. See also explnnatory notes following Table VIII.
2
See notes on Tables I—VIII.
STATISTICS OF JEWS
247
A. JEWS IN THE UNITED STATES
The Government of the United States and the Governments of the
States, in making their various censuses, take no account of the religious
affiliations of the inhabitants. There are therefore, no official statistics
of the number of Jews in the country, and such figures as have been
used from time to time were all based on estimates. In 1927, new estimates were compiled according to methods described elsewhere in this
volume. (See pp. 000.) These figures are the first compiled on a comprehensive scale since 1917. For various detailed tables the reader is
referred to these pages. Below we present only a summary table giving
the number of Jews in continental United States and in the outlying
possessions.
TABLE II
JEWS IN CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES AND OUTLYING POSSESSIONS
(Estimated, 1927)
Continental United States
Outlying Possessions:
Alaska
,
Porto Rico
Virgin Islands
Total Outlying Possessions
Grand Total
'Census of 1920
Census December 31, 1918
'Census November 1, 1917
!
Total
Population
Jews
Per Cent
118,628,000
4,228,029
3.5
500*
775
25'
200»
500«
70«
55,036'
255,9121
22.858
1,299,809
10,350,640*
26,051>
12,010,306
1,372
.01
130,638,306
4,229,401
3.2
'Estimate of 1917
'Estimate of 1926
•Estimate of 1923
The table given above shows that in 1927 Jews formed 3.5% of the
total population in continental United States compared with 3.2%
estimated in 1917. The number of Jews in the outlying possessions,
however, was small compared with the total populations of those possessions, the percentage of Jews being 0.01.
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
248
B. JEWISH POPULATION OF THE WORLD
Although Jews live all over the world, the density of the Jewish population varies. Of the 15,324,515 Jews in the world, nearly two-thirds live
in Europe and over 30% live in North and South America. Asia, Africa,
and Australasia together have but 7.45% of the total Jewish population:
Asia, 3.85%, Africa, 3.41%, and Australasia, 1.1%.
TABLE III
DISTRIBUTION OF THE JEWS OF THE WORLD BY CONTINENTS
Continent
Jewish Population
Per Cent of Total
9,570,118
4,617,705
522,182
589,938
24,572
62.45
30.13
3.41
3.85
.16
15,324,515
100.00
Europe
Africa
Asia
Australasia
Total
AMERICA
Of the Jews who live on the American continent, 4,381,250 dwell in
North America and the West Indies, where they constitute 2.96% of the
total population, and 236,455 in Central and South America, forming
0.42% of the total population. In North America the Jews are concentrated in Continental United States (3%) and in Canada (1.43%).
In South America more than 92% of the Jews live in Argentina, where,
however, they constitute only 2.09% of the total population.
TABLE IV
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS OF AMERICA BY GEOGRAPHICAL
DIVISIONS AND COUNTRIES
Name
Gen.
Population
Yr.
Jewish
Population
Yr.
Per
Cent
NORTH AMERICA AND WEST INDIES
Canada3
United States (Continental)
Alaska
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Jamaica
Mexico
Panama Canal Zone
Porto Rico
Virgin Islands
Total.
8,788.483c.
118,628,OOOe.
55.036c.
2,889,004c.
897,405c.
858,188c.
14.234,799c.
22,858
1,299,809c.
26,051c.
1921
126,196c.' 1921
1927 4,228,029e. 1927
1920
500e. 1917
1918
8,2OOe. 1925
1921
55c. 1921
1921
1.250c. 1921
1921
16,000e. 1927
75Oe. 1926
1920
200e. 1917
1917
70e. 1923
1.43
3.5
4,381,250
2.96
147,699,633
.006
.14
SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICA
Argentina1
Brazil
Chile2
Curacao
Guiana (British)
Panama
Paraguay
Peru
Surinam
Uruguay
Venezuela
Total.
9,548,092c.
30,635,605c.
3,754.723c.
56,371c.
297.691c.
442,522e.
1,000,000c.
5,S5O,OO0e.
133,561c.
l,S64,620c.
3,026,878e.
56,010,063
1924
1920
1920
1923
1921
1923
1917
1921
1923
1922
1926
200,000e.
30,000e.
2,000e.
565c.
l,786e.
25e.
400e.
300e.
818c.
150c.
411c.
236,455
1924
1927
1924
1920
1925
1926
1924
1927
1923
1910
1894
2.09
.13
.42
Grand Total
203,709,696
4.617,705
2.27
•The letter "c" following a figure !indicates that it is based on a census, "e" that it
is based on an estimate.
See notes on Tables I—VIII.
STATISTICS OF JEWS
249
EUROPE
The bulk of the Jews of Europe live in a group of adjacent countries
located in the center of the continent, which region may be designated
as the "Jewish" Central Europe. In it the Jews form 6.58% of the
total population. In the countries to the north of this "Jewish" Central Europe, Jews form not more than .33 % of the total population;
while in the countries to the west and south of that region the Jewish
numbers represent .65% of the total population.
TABLE V
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS OF EUROPE BY GEOGRAPHICAL
DIVISION AND COUNTRIES
Name
Gen.
Population
Yr.
7,666,055e.
5,483,125c.
310,715c.
383,995c.
3,267,831c.
40,743,851c.
62,348,782c.
22,018c.
42,918,253c.
5,536,375c.
2,972,802'c.
38,755,576c.
260,767c.
224,680c.
6,865,314c.
6,032,991c.
773,764c.
12,017,323c.
21,347,335c.
3,888,320c.
1,203,151c.
1923
1926
1921
1924
1921
1926
19?S
1921
1921
19?0
1926
1921
197?
1921
19?0
1970
1976
1920
1970
1920
1927
Jewish
Population
Yr.
Per
Cent
W E S T E R N AND SOUTHERN EUROPE
Belgium
Danzig 2
Denmark 2
Gibraltar 2
Irish Free State 2
Italy
Netherlands
Portugal
2
Serb-Croat-Slovene State
Spain
Turkey (Eur.) 2
263,023,023
Total
44,000e.
43,209c.
195c.
9,239c.
5,947c.
200,000e.
564,379c.
1,123c.
297,000e.
125,000e.
4,555e.
50,000e.
1,353c.
35e.
150,000e.
1,000e.
5,000e.
64,159c.
4,000e.
20,979c.
12O,000e.
1921
1926
1921
1924
1921
1926
1925
1920
1924
1925
1911
1924
1922
1920
1925
1921
1920
1920
1970
1920
1923
.79
2.4
.18
.09
2.25
.17
.52
5.1
.53
.02
.54
.65
1,711,320
CENTRAL E U R O P E
Czecho-Slovakia 2
Poland 2
Russia (U.S.S.R.) in Europe 2
Crimea 2
West Russia (Gov't of Witebsk) 2 .
White Russia 2
Ukraine 2
Total
NORTHERN E U R O P E
Russia (R. S. F. S. R. exclusive of
Crimea and West Russia) *
Total
Grand Total
'Preliminary figure.
6,535,759c.
13,613,172c.
7,987,143c.
1,844,805c.
2,203,312e.
27,192,674c.
17,700,OOOe.
1923
35O,OOOe. 1920
1971
354,342c. 1921
1970
473,310c. 1970
1925
95,675c. 1925
197S
155,125c. 1971
1921 2,854,00Oe. 1921
197S
900,000e. 1925
7,616,000e.
1,353,078c.
2,444,675e.
26.178,O0Oe.
1971
51,516c.
1920
115,613c.
1974
395,184c.
1924 1.795,540c.
114,668,618
1920
1920
1970
1920
7,540,305
2.7
6.0
5.18
10.49
5.5
7.15
6.58
1,110,538c. 197?
3,558,O59e. 19?fi
2,646,306c. 1970
4,566c. 1977
l,715e. 1926
1,457c. 197(1
.41
.05
.06
82,850,000e. 1924
5,904,489c. 1920
304,286c. 1920
6,469c. 1920
.11
96,069,392
318,493
.33
473,761,033
9,570,118
2.02
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
250
ASIA
On the continent of Asia the Jews live in concentrated numbers only
in Palestine and in the Arabic-speaking countries to the north, east,
and south of Palestine. In this region the Jews form 1,95% of the
total population. In the adjacent countries of Asia Minor, Central
Asia, and Northern Asia, the Jews constitute .4% of the total population. In the countries to the east and south, namely, India, China,
and Japan, the number of Jews is comparatively very small, being only
.005% of the total population. However, the percentage of the Jewish
population to the total white population is considerable in some
of those countries.
TABLE VI
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS OF
ASIA
BY GEOGRAPHICAL
DIVISIONS AND COUNTRIES
Name
PALESTINE AND NEIGHBORING
COUNTRIES
Palestine2
Iraq
Syria and Lebanon'
Total
Gen.
Population
887,OOOe.
10.000,000e.
54,923c.
2.849,282c.
2,046.857e.
Yr.
1926
1921
1920
1921
1926
15,838,062
Jewish
Population
157,8OOe.
25,000e.
3,747c.
87,488c.
35,OOOe.
Yr.
Per
Cent
1926
17 79
1911
1920
1922
6.82
3.1
309,035
1.95
ASIA MINOR, CENTRAL AND
NORTHERN ASIA
Azerbajdjan
%
Georgia 2
,
Kirghizia
Persia
.
. .
Siberia
Turkey in Asia
Uzbek and Turcoman Republics2..
Total.
12,000,000e.
2,205,2O0e.
2.541,4O0e.
5,058,553c.
10.000,000e.
11,069,550c.
12,446,794e.
5,194.7OOe.
1925
1976
1926
1923
1920
1927
1926
60,516,197
18.135e.
24,676c.
23,433c.
2,120c.
40.000e.
44,725c.
70,000e.
25,683c.
1971
1922
1920
1920
1923
1923
244,272
.4
0.4
EASTERN AND SOUTHERN A S I A
British Malaya
China 1
India, States and Agencies
Indo-China (French) 2
Japan
Total
Grand Tota!
3,358,054c.
318,653,000e.
625,166c.
318,942.480c.
16,813,000c.
59,460,252c.
1971
1911
1921
1921
1914
1922
703c.
12,000e.
150e.
21,778c.
l.OOOe.
l,000e.
717,851,952
36,631
794,206,211
589,938
1921
1921
1920
1921
1924
1922
.02
.01
.001
.005
STATISTICS OF JEWS
251
AFRICA
The great majority of the Jews of Africa live in the northern part
of the continent in the Arabic-speaking countries along the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The combined population of these
countries, of 26,508,315 includes 408,093 Jews, 1.53%. There are also
Jewish communities in the central part of the African continent, the
so-called Black Africa, where the Jews constitute a considerable percentage of the white European populations. This is especially the case
in the Union of South Africa where the Jews form 4.1% of the white
population of 1,519,488 in that country. There are said to be 50,000
Falashas in East Africa (Abyssinia).
TABLE VII
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS OF AFRICA BY GEOGRAPHICAL
DIVISIONS AND COUNTRIES
Name
Gen.
Population
Yr.
6,064,865c.
12,750,918c.
765,000
4,216,824e.
55O,OOOe.
100,000e.
2,059,708c.
1926
1917
1921
1926
1921
1927
1926
Jewish
Population
Yr.
Per
Cent
NORTHERN PART (ARABICSPEAKING COUNTRIES)
Algeria
Egypt 1
Libya'
Morocco (French) 1
Morocco (Spanish)
Tangier
Zone
Tunis 2
26,508,315
Total
lOO.OOOe. 1926
59,581c.
43,000
117,512e.
8,000e.
15,000e.
65,OOOe.
1917
1921
1926
1927
1927
1926
408,093
23.08
3.1
1.53
EASTERN PART
Abyssinia
10,000,000e. 1925
50,000e. 1922
8,510,037
2,344,000e. 1921
177e. 1923
lOOe. 1924
3,120,000e.
lOOe. 1923
SOUTHERN PART (BLACK AFRICA)
Congo (Belgian)
Kenya
Portuguese East Africa
(Mozambique)
Rhodesia:
North Rhodesia
South Rhodesia
South-West Africa
Tanganyika (German 2East Africa).
Union of South Africa
Total
Grand Total
5
See notes.
931,500e. 1921
803,620c. 1921
227,732e. 1921
4,107,000c. 1921
6,928,580c. 1921
110c.
1,289c.
200e.
lOe.
62,103c.
26,972,469
64,089
63,480,784
522,182
1921
1921
1925
1923
1921
.16
.01
.24
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
252
AUSTRALASIA
Only 24,645 Jews live in Australasia, constituting .14% of the total
population. Of that number, 21,615 Jews live in Australia, where
they constitute .37% of the total population.
TABLE VIII
DISTRIBUTION OF JEWS OF AUSTRALASIA BY COUNTRIES
Name
Australia2
2
N e w Zealand ...
Philippine Islands
Grand Total
See notes on Tables I-XI.
Gen.
Population
Yr.
5,777,262c.
255,912c.
1,284,873c.
10.350,640c.
1921
1920
1921
1918
17.668.687
Jewish
Population
Yr.
21,615c.
77c.
2.380c.
SOOe.
1921
1926
1921
1917
Per
Cent
.37
.19
.14
24,572
2
TABLE IX
LIST OF IMPORTANT CITIES AND THEIR JEWS 1
Name
Alexandria
Algiers
Amsterdam
Antwerp
Bagdad
Brussels
Budapest
Cairo
Copenhagen
Cracow
Czernowitz
Ghomel
Haifa
Jaffa
Jerusalem
Johannesburg
Kiev
Kovno
Lemberg
Leningrad
Lodz
Minsk
Montreal
Moscow
Prague
Rabat
Riga
Rome
Safed
Sofia
Tallinn (Revel)
Tiberias
Toronto
Tripoli
Tunis
Vienna"
Warsaw
Winnipeg
'See notes on Tables I—VIII
Jewish
Yr. Population Yr.
Per
Cent
450,000
206,595
647,427c.
334,000
250,000c.
685,000
925,724c.
795,000
561,344
183,706
91.852c.
64,786
24,469
47.709c.
62,578c.
288,131
272,573
91.302c.
219,388
1,018,630
452,079
152.587
618,506
1,424,854
676,657c.
30,953c.
181,443c.
600,000
8,760c.
154,431c.
1920
1921
1920
1921
1920
1921
1920
1920
1921
1921
1919
1917
1922
1922
1922
1921
1923
6.5
7.7
10.4
6.5
20.0
2.9
23.5
3.1
1.04
24.6
47.4
46.8
25.4
42.2
54.7
7.75
47.
27.04
35.
5.14
34.5
44.3 I
6.9
6.04
4.69
9.7
6,950c.
521,893
64,759c.
79,175c.
1,856,780c.
936,046c.
179,087
1922
1921
1918
1921
1923
1921
1921
Gen.
Population
1921
1923
1921
1917
1921
1923
1921
1921
1920
1922
1920
29,207
15,943c.
67,249c.
22,OOOe.
50,000c.
20,000e.
217,545c.
24,885
5,875c.
45,192
43,555c.
30,320
6,230
20,152c.
33,971c.
22,335c.
128,141
24,691c.
76.854
52,370
155,860
67,599
42,817
86,171
31,751c.
3,004c.
39,443c.
11,000
2,986c.
20,000
1,929c.
4.427c.
34.619
12,951c.
19,029c.
201,513c.1
309,165c.
14,449
1920
1921
1920
1921
1920
1921
1920
1920
1921
1921
1919
1917
1922
1922
1922
1921
1923
1921
1923
1921
1917
1921
1923
1921
1921
1922
1922 34.1
1920 12.9
1922
1922 63.7
6.6
1921
1918 20.0
1921 24.0
1923 10.8
1921 33.
1921
8.1
STATISTICS OF JEWS
253
NOTES ON TABLES MX
ARGENTIN \. The figure for the Jewish population is the estimate of
the Jewish Colonization Association.
AUSTRALIA. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive of the
possible number of Jews among the 20,544 enumerated in 1921 as of
"no religion" and 92,258 as of "unknown" religion.
AZERBAJDJAN. The figure for the Jews is that for those who were
enumerated in the towns in the census of 1923. No Jews were enumerated
in the country places.
BRITISH MALAYA.
The figure for the general population includes
14,954 Europeans.
CANADA. The figure for the Jewish population is on the basis of nationality. It has been estimated that the Jewish population numbered
140,000 in 1921.
CHILE. The figure for the Jewish population is an estimate of the
number of Jews who lived in Santiago, Valparaiso, Concepcion, and
Temuco in 1924.
CHINA. The figure for the Jewish population is an estimate of the
number of Jews who lived in 1920 in Harbin, Tientsin, Shanghai, Haitar,
Chang-Blung, Dairen (Baluy), and Kiarta Hankow.
CRIMEA.
See the note on the UNION OF SOCIALIST SOVIET REPUBLICS.
CUBA. The figure given for the Jews includes 2,700 Sephardic Jews
and 5,500 Ashkenasic Jews.
CZECHO-SLOVAKIA. The figure for the Jewish population is on the
basis of religion and it is exclusive of the possible number of Jews among
the 724, 507 enumerated in 1921 as of "no religion," 522,333 not included
in the religious census, and 238,808 aliens.
DANZIG. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive of the possible number of Jews among the 2,815 enumerated in 1924 as of "no
religion," or of "unknown" religion.
DENMARK. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive of the
possible number of Jews among the 12,744 enumerated in 1921 as of "no
religion."
254
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
EGYPT. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive of the possible number of Jews among the 8,814 enumerated in 1917 as being of
"unknown" religion.
GIBRALTAR. The figure for the Jewish population is that of the ecclesiastical return of the four synagogues of the city of Gibraltar for
1920.
GEORGIA. The figure for the Jews is that for those who were enumerated in the towns in the census of 1922. No Jews were enumerated in the
country places.
INDO-CHINA. The figure for the Jewish population is an estimate of
the number of Jews who lived in Haiphong, Hanoi, Tourane, and Saigon
in 1924.
IRISH FREE STATE. The figure for the Jewish population is that of
the census of 1911 and includes the number of Jews who lived in 1911
in Northern Ireland.
KENYA. The figure for the general population includes 9,651 Europeans and 10,102 Arabs.
KIRGHIZIA.
PUBLICS.
See the note on the
UNION OF SOCIALIST SOVIET RE-
LIBYA. The figures given include 571,000 enumerated in the district
of Tripolitania in 1921 with an estimated number of 40,000 Jews, and
195,000 enumerated in the district of Cyrenaica in 1926 with 2,997 Jews
in the town of Benghazi.
LITHUANIA. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive of the
number of Jews in the District of Memel of 141,274 inhabitants, January
1, 1925. (In the census of 1923, 155 were enumerated as Karaites.)
LUXEMBURG. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive of
the possible number of Jews among the 10,300 enumerated in 1922 as
of "no religion," or, "unknown" religion.
MEXICO. Thefiguregiven for the Jews includes about 10,000 oriental
Jews and about 6,000 European Jews.
MOROCCO. Thefigurefor the Jews in the French Zone includes 107,512
native Jews enumerated in the census of 1926 and 10,000 European Jews
estimated to live in all of Morocco; the figure for the Jews in Spanish
Morocco includes only those estimated to live in the four cities of
Alcazar, Arzila, Larache, and Tetuan; and the figure for the Jews in
Tangier Zone includes only those living in the city of Tangier.
STATISTICS OF JEWS
255
NETHERLANDS. The figure for the Jewish population is an estimate
for the year 1925. In 1920 the census return was 121,167 Jews, exclusive
of the possible number of Jews among the 533,714 enumerated as of "no
religion" and 1,010 as of "unknown" religions.
NEW ZEALAND. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive
of the possible number of Jews among the 5,329 enumerated in 1921 as
of "no religion" and 43,302 of "unknown" religion.
NORWAY. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive of the
possible number of Jews among the 17,780 enumerated in 1920 as of
"no religion," or "unknown" religion.
PALESTINE. The figure for the Jewish population is the official estimate for 1926.
PANAMA CANAL ZONE. The figure given for the Jews includes 175
men of the army and navy and 25 civilian employees of the American
government.
PARAGUAY. The figure for the Jewish population is an estimate of
the number of Jews who lived in 1924 in Villarrica, Borche, Cabaliero,
Ipcarai, Caifunto and Encarmaaion.
POLAND. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive of the possible number of Jews among the 105,000 enumerated in 1921 as of "unknown" religion or as of "other religions." In the census of 1921, the
returns gave 2,829,456 Jews, exclusive of the number of Jews among the
318, 452 persons who were in the army on the day of the census.
PORTUGUESE EAST AFRICA. The figure for the total population includes about 9,000 white Europeans.
RHODESIA (NORTHERN). The figure for the total population includes 3,750 Europeans.
'
RHODESIA (SOUTHERN). The figure for the total population includes 33,620 Europeans.
ROUMANIA. The figures given are official estimates. In 1918, the
religious census returned 9,696,714 as belonging to the Orthodox Church;
1,456,147, Greek Orthodox; 1,482,391, Roman Catholics} 1,344,970,
Protestants; 44,087, Mohammedans; 17,586, Armenians; 834,344, Jews;
total, 14,876,789, leaving 2,516,360 unaccounted for.
RUSSIA (RSFSR). The figure for the Jewish population in the European governments of the Russian Socialist Federated Soviet Republics
is exclusive of the civil Jewish population enumerated in 1920 in the
district of Ghomel, which district was later ceded to White Russia.
256
SIBERIA.
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
See the note on UNION OF SOCIALIST SOVIET REPUBLICS.
SOUTH WEST AFRICA.
The figure for the total population includes
19,432 Europeans.
SWITZERLAND. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive of
the possible number of Jews among the 35,656 enumerated in 1920 as
of "no religion" and 3,200 as of "unknown" religion.
SYRIA AND LEBANON. The figure for the Jewish population is an
estimate. In 1921-1922, the census returned 16,145 Jews. The latter
figure was exclusive of those among the 71,566 enumerated as "aliens,"
50,000 "recent immigrants from Turkey," and 350,000 classed as
"nomads."
TANGANYIKA
(GERMAN
EAST AFRICA).
The figure for the total
population includes 2,447 Europeans.
TUNIS. Thefigurefor the Jewish population is an estimate. In 1926,
the census returned 54,243 Jews, exclusive of the number of Jews among
the "Europeans."
UKRAINE.
See the note on the UNION OF SOCIALIST SOVIET REPUB-
LICS.
UNION OF SOCIALIST SOVIET REPUBLICS.
The figure for the total
number of Jewish population in the Union includes 43,337 Jews who were
in the army and in the navy at the time of the census of 1920. The figures
for the Jewish population of Crimea, Kirghizia, Siberia, Ukraine, West
Russia, and White Russia are those of the civil Jewish population
enumerated in the census of 1920, as are also the figures given for the
total number of Jewish population of the Union in Europe and of that
in the Union in Asia.
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA.
The figure for the total population in-
cludes 1,519,488 whites. Thefigurefor the Jewish population is exclusive
of the possible number of Jews among the 8,775 enumerated in 1921 as
of "no religion," or of "unknown" religion.
UZBEK AND TURCOMAN REPUBLICS.
The figure given for the Jews is
that of those Jews who were enumerated in the towns in 1923. No figures
are available for those who live in the country places.
VIENNA. The figure for the Jewish population is exclusive of the
possible number of Jews among the 33,087 persons enumerated in 1923
as of "no religion."
STATISTICS OF JEWS
257
C. JEWISH IMMIGRATION INTO THE UNITED STATES
JEWISH IMMIGRATION 1881-1921
Little is known, statistically, of the earlier waves of Jewish immigration to the United States, the immigration of Spanish, Portuguese, and
Dutch Jews and of German Jews. We are in possession of satisfactory
figures relative to Jewish immigration from 1881 onward.
TABLE X
A SUMMARY OF JEWISH IMMIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES,
1881-1927
Year
Number
1881-1898 Not deducting departures or adding admissions through ports
other than New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore
1899-1907 Gross increase (departures not deducted)
1908-1927 Net increase (departures deducted)
Total
533,478
829,244
987,478
2,350,200
If we assume that during the period of 1881-1898 the number of Jewish departures equalled the number of Jewish admissions through ports
other than New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore, and if we neglect
for the moment the number of Jewish departures during 1899-1907, the
net increase of Jewish immigration to the United States during 1881—
1927 amounts to 2,350,200.
TABLE XI
NUMBER OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS ADMITTED AT THE PORTS OF NEW
YORK, PHILADELPHIA, AND BALTIMORE, 1881-1898
Year
1881-84
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
Number
Admitted
74,310
19,611
29,658
27,468
31,363
23,962
34,303
69,139
Year
Number
Admitted
1892...
1893...
1894...
1895 ..
1896...
1897...
1898...
60,325
32,943
22,108
32,077
28,118
20,684
27,409
Total
533,478
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
258
From 1881 to 1898, 533,478 Jews entered at the ports of New York,
Philadelphia, and Baltimore. No figures are available for Jewish immigrants who entered the United States through other ports during these
seventeen years, but it is believed that the number of these immigrants
was inconsiderable.
Beginning with 1899 we possess figures for the total Jewish immigration at all ports, but up to 1907 no statistics of departures were kept by
the United States authorities. The total number of Jews admitted from
1899 to 1907 was 829,244, which is 11.9% of the total number of immigrants admitted during the same period.
TABLE XII
TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS AND NUMBER OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS
ADMITTED TO THE UNITED STATES, 1899-1907
Year
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
Grand Total..
Total
Jews
Per Cent of Jews to Total
311.715
448,572
487,918
643,743
857,046
812.870
1,026,499
1,100,735
1,285,349
37,415
60.764
58,098
57,688
76,203
106.236
129,910
153,748
149,182
12.0
13.55
11.9
8.96
8.9
13.1
12.7
13.9
11.6
6.974.447
829.244
11.9
During 1908-1927, for which years we possess complete statistical
data, 1,040,628 Jews were admitted to the United States, constituting
8.97% of the total number of immigrants admitted. During the same
period, 53,150 Jews departed from the United States. The last figure
forms 5.1% of the number of Jews admitted; while the percentage of
total departures to total admissions was 32.94%. The net increase of the
Jewish immigration during this period was 987,478 or 12.7 % of the total
net increase as against 8.97% of Jewish admissions to total admissions.
With the year ending June 30, 1925 we have probably begun a new
period in Jewish immigration. Under the immigration law of 1924,
only a limited number of Jews can be expected to enter the country.
During the year ending June 30, 1927, only 11,483 Jews entered, and 224
Jews left the country, leaving an increase of only 11,259.
STATISTICS OF JEWS
259
TABLE XIII
TOTAL NUMBER DF IMMIGRANTS1 AND NUMBER OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS,
ADMITTED, DEPARTED, AND NET INCREASE,
Admissions
Year
Total
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
G.T.
Jews
103,387
782,870
751,786
57,551
1.041,570
84,260
878,587
91,223
838,172
80,595
1,197,892
101,330
1,218,480
138,051
326,700
26,497
298,826
15,108
295,403
17.342
110,618
3,627
141,132
3,055
430,001
14,292
805,228
119.036
309,556
53,524
522,919
49,719
706.896
49,989
294,314
10,292
304,488
10,267
335,175
11,483
11,590,613 1,040,628
Departures
P.C.
Jews Total
to
Tot.
13.2
7.6
8.1
10.4
9.6
8.5
11.3
8.1
5.1
5.8
3.
2.6
3.3
14.7
17.3
9.5
7.
3.5
3.3
3.4
8.97
395,073
225,802
202,436
295,666
333,262
308,190
303,338
204,074
129,765
66,277
94,585
123,522
288,315
247,718
198,712
81,450
76,789
92,728
76,992
73,366
3,818,060
1908-192^*
Net Increase
Per Cent to
Jews Admissions
Total Jews
7,702
6,105
5,689
6,401
7,418
6,697
6,826
1,524
199
329
687
373
358
483
830
413
260
291
341
224
53,150
Total
Jews
P. C.
Jews
to
Tot.
50.46 7.44 387,797 95,685 24.2
30.
10.60 525,984 51,446 9.7
19.43 6.8
839,134 78,571 9.3
33.67 7.01 582,921 84,822 14.5
39.76 9.20 504,910 73,177 14.4
25.7 6.60 889,702 94,633 10.6
24.89 4.94 915,142 131,225 14.3
62.46 5.75 122,626 24,973 20.3
43.42 1.31 169,061 14,909 8.8
22.43 1.89 229,126 17,013 7.
85.51 18.9
16.033 2,940 18.3
87.51 12.2
17,610 2,682 15.2
67.05 2.5
141,686 13,934 9.8
30.76 4.1
557,510 118,553 21.2
64.2 1.5
110,844 52,694 47.5
15.57 .83 441,469 49,306 11.16
.52
10.8
630,107 49,729 7.89
31.51 3.
201,586 10,001 5.
25.2 3.3
227,496 9,926 4.3
1.9
21.8
261,809 11,259 4.3
32.94 5.1 7,772,553 987,478 12.7
• In the tables which follow, the words "Immigration" and "Immigrant" refer to
alien immigration and alien immigrants only.
• Year ending June 30.
During 1899-1927, for which years we possess statistical data, 29,979,
Jews were debarred from entering the United States, 1.6% of the
number of Jews who were admitted; while the percentage of total
debarred to the total admitted was 2.36%.
During the same period of time, 3,732 Jews were deported after having
been admitted. The latter figure includes 2,429 Jews who were deported
during 1911-1927, during which years the Jewish deported constituted
but 0.32% of the net increase of Jewish immigration, while the percentage of the total deported to the total net increase was 4.4%. During
1927 the percentage of the total deported to the total net increase was
1.26%, while the percentage of deported Jews was only 1.6%.
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
260
TABLE XIV
TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS AND NUMBER OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS
REJECTED ON APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION AND THOSE DEPORTED
FROM THE UNITED STATES AFTER ADMISSION, 1899-1927
Debarred
Year
1899-1910
1911.
1912
1913
1914.
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922 . .
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
Number
Total
Jews
116,255
22 349
16 057
19,938
33 041
24,111
18,867
16 028
7,297
8 626
11,795
13,779
13 731
20.619
30,284
25 390
20.550
19,755
10,785 1.2
1 999 2.5
1 064 1.9
1,224 1.6
2 506 2.7
1 398 7.3
949 6.3
607 5.4
222 6.5
199 6.1
268 2.7
1,195 1.7
1 256 4.4
1,455 3.9
1,754 4.3
1 137 8.6
871 6.7
1,090 5.9
Total 1889-1927. 438,472
Total 1911-1927.
29,979
Deported
Per Cent to
Admission
Total
2.36
Jews
Number
Total
Jews
1.0
2.1
1.3
1.2
1.9
5.2
6.2
3.5
6.0
6.5
1.8
1.0
2.3
2.9
3.5
11.1
8.4
9.4
12,177
2,788
2,456
3.461
4,137
2.670
2.906
1,918
796
3,102
2,762
4,517
4,345
3,661
4,294
9,495
10.904
11,662
1,303
209
191
253
317
68
79
46
27
17
53
134
214
99
113
250
175
184
1.6
88,051
3,732
75,874
2,429
Per Cent to
Net Increase
Total
Jews
.5
.4
.4
.4
2.1
1.8
.9
4.9
17.6
1.9
.8
3.9
.82
.68
4.7
4.7
4.4
.2
.2
.2
.2
.2
.5
.3
.9
.7
.4
.1
.4
.02
.2
2.5
1.7
1.6
1.26
0.32
JEWISH IMMIGRATION DURING THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1927
During the year ended June 30, 1927, 11,483 Jews were admitted to
the country, about as many as during the previous year; the number of
Jews that departed was insignificant, namely, 224; and the net increase
through immigration was thus only 11,259.
The Jewish immigrants constituted 3.4% of the total. But the number of Jewish immigrants who departed amounted to only 1.9% of the
total number of Jewish immigrants admitted, as against 22.5% for the
non-Jews. The increase of Jewish immigrants admitted over Jewish
immigrants departed was, as a result, 4.4% of the total increase.
'Of the 224 Jewish emigrants who departed, 76 went to Palestine, 21 to Poland, 35
to Canada, 17 to Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 7 to Roumania, and 68 to more
than 22 other countries. Of these 224 Jewish alien emigrants, 146 came from the
State of New York and the remainder from sixteen other States.
STATISTICS OF JEWS
261
Unlike the years prior to 1924, and evidently as a result of the operation of the Immigration Law of 1924, the percentage of Jewish immigrants debarred during the year under review was larger than that of
the non-Jewish immigrants, the respective percentages being 9.4% for
the Jewish immigrants, and 5.76% for the non-Jewish immigrants. However, the percentage of the number of deported Jewish immigrants after
having been admitted, continued to be smaller than the percentage of
the number of the deported non-Jewish immigrants. Only 184 Jews
were deported during 1927 as against 11,478 non-Jews, constituting
1.6% and 4.58% respectively of the net increase of Jewish and of nonJewish immigrants.
TABLE XV
TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS, NUMBER OF NON-JEWISH IMMIGRANTS,
AND NUMBER OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS, ADMITTED, DEPARTED, INCREASE,
DEBARRED, AND DEPORTED, YEAR ENDED JUNE 30,
Admis9 ons
No.
%
of
Tot.
Non-Jews.... 323,692 96.6
Jews
11,483 3.4
Total
Departures
No.
%
of
Adm.
Increase
No.
%
of
Tot.
73,142 22.5 250,550 95.6
224 1.9 11,259 4.4
335,175 100.0 73,366 21.8 261,809 100.0
Debarred
No.
%
of
Adm.
1927
Deported
07
No.
of
Incr
18,665 5.76
1,090 9.4
11,478 4.58
184 1.6
19,755
11,662
5.9
4.4
Table XVI below shows the distribution of the Jewish immigrants
on the basis of the states of destination given by the Jewish immigrants
at the ports of their admission.
262
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
TABLE XVI
DISTRIBUTION OF TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS, AND JEWISH
IMMIGRANTS ON THE BASIS OF THE DESTINATION, YEAR ENDED
JUNE 30,
1927
Per Cent
Number
States
California. .
Connecticut
Maryland
Massachusetts
....
New Jersey
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Other States
. .
Total
NonJews
26.029
6,321
20.723
1,241
25,907
28,104
17,059
87,864
9,126
20,097
92,333
25,815
214
6,166
155
19,961
762
1,140
101
25,522
385
27,634
470
16,535
524
80.796 7,068
8,857
269
19,310
787
91,586
7471
Total Outlying Possessions of Hawaii,
Porto Rico. Philippine Islands and
Virgin Islands
Grand Toral
371
NonJews Jews Total
Jews
Total States and Territory of Alaska... 334,804 323,322 11,482
370
335,175 323,692 11,483
P. C. of total no.
admitted to U.S.
NonJews
Jews
99.16
97.55
96.33
92.00
98.57
98.32
96.92
91.96
97.91
96.14
99.09
7.98
1.86
.84 7.77
1.88
1.90
1.35
2.45
6.18
6.17
6.64
3.67
.37
.35
.88
8.00
7.73
7.88 3.35
1.43
8.38
8.54
4.09
1.68
5.09
5.11
4.56
3.08
8.04 26.22 24.96 61.57
2.73 2.74 2.34
2.09
5.99
5.96
6.85
3.86
.91 27.55 28.30 6.51
96.57
3.43 99.89 99.89 100.00
1 100.00
96.57
*
.11
.11
*
3.43 100.00 100.00 100.00
*Less than .01%.
•The 747 Jews went to the following States: Alabama (12), Alaska (1), Arizona (1)
Arkansas (2), Colorado (15), Delaware (13), District of Columbia (33), Florida (33)'
Georgia (19), Idaho (4), Indiana (51), Iowa (29), Kansas (5), Kentucky (7), Louisiana
(6), Maine (17), Minnesota (80), Mississippi (12), Missouri (73), Montana (2), Nebraska (28), Nevada (1), New Hampshire (5). North Carolina (21), North Dakota (7),
Oklahoma (8), Oregon (22). Rhode Island (34) South Dakota (3), Tennessee (11),
Texas (42), Utah (3), Vermont (20), Virginia (12). Washington (47), West Virginia (4),
Wisconsin (64).
STATISTICS OF JEWS
263
Table XVII below shows the countries whence the immigrants came.
Of the total of 11,483 Jewish immigrants more than half, 5,187, came
from Poland; 1,268 came from Canada; 921 from Russia; 690 from Roumania; 546 from Germany; and 2,871 from 42 other countries. Jewish
immigrants came from every continent: 9,361 came from Europe,
1,666 from the Western Hemisphere, and 462 came from Asia, Africa,
and Australasia.
We also note that the Jews constituted 87.9% of the number of immigrants who came from Russia; 58% of those who came from Poland
and 49.8% of those who came from Roumania.
TABLE XVII
COUNTRIES OF ORIGIN OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS,
NON-JEWISH IMMIGRANTS, AND JEWISH IMMIGRANTS, YEAR
ENDED JUNE 30, 1927
Per Cent of
Total Immigration.
Number
Countries
Great Britain and NorLithuania
Palestine
Poland
Roumania
Total
NonJews
Jews
NonJews Jews Total
81,506 80,238
3,020 2,826
3,540 3,282
4,405 4,223
48,513 47,967
1,268
194
258
182
546
98.44
93.58
92.71
95.87
98.87
1.56
6.42
7.29
4.13
1.13
24,160 23,674
813
652
154
403
486
161
249
464
131
333
9,211 4.024 5,187
580
1,270
690
262
921
1,183
155,917 155,221
696'
97.99
80.20
38.22
59.48
28.23
43.76
45.67
22.15
99.55
2.01
19.80
61.78
40.52
71.77
56.24
54.33
77.85
335,175 323,692 11,483
96.57
168,368 159,007
3,669 3,261
94.44 5.56 50.23 49.12 81.53
88.88 11.12
1.10
1.01
3.55
.16
.14
.41
90.77 9.23
.22
.80
.23
.05
99.20
98.97 1.03 48.29 49.50 14.46
Total
Canada
Cuba
NonJews
Distribution
770
520
746
458
472
740
Western Hemisphere... 161,872 160,212
312
9,361
408
48
6
1.660
.45
24.32 24.79
.90
.87
1.05
1.01
1.31
1.31
14.48 14.82
7.21
.24
.12
.23
.14
2.75
.38
.35
46.52
Jews
11.05
1.69
2.25
1.59
4.76
7.31
.20
.05
4.24
1.40
2.17
.14
2.72
.04 2.90
1.24 45.13
.18
6.01
.08
8.02
47.96 6.07
3.43 100.00 100.00 100.00
1696 Jews came from the following Countries: Albania (1), Austria (68), Australia
and appertaining islands (6), Belgium (71), Brazil (44), Bulgaria (1), China (36), Free
City of Danzig (16), Denmark (10), Egypt (18), Esthonia (6), Greece (25), India (2).
Irish Free State (14), Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia (10), Japan (l), Jugoslavia
(7), Mexico (70), Netherlands (62), Newfoundland (3), Norway (7), other Africa (30),
other Asia (11), other Central America (3), other Europe (1), other South America (75),
other West Indies (3), Portugal, including Azores, Cape Verde and Madeira Islands (2),
Spain, including Canary and Balearic Islands (1), Sweden (9), Switzerland (17).
Syria (23), Turkey in Asia (2), Turkey in Europe (41).
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
264
Tables XVIII and XIX show that the Jewish immigration during the
year ended June 30, 1927, included 24.81% children, while only 15.09%
of the total number of non-Jewish immigrants admitted were children.
Similarly 18.60% of the total Jewish immigrants were men and women of
45 years of age and over, while only 8.27% of the non-Jewish immigrants
belonged to this age group. The percentage of immigrants between 16
and 44 years of age was consequently smaller among Jews (56.59%) than
among the total number of non-Jewish immigrants (76.64%).
With regard to sex, as in the previous year, the number of Jewish females exceeded the number of Jewish males (54.24% and 45.76%); while
among the non-Jewish immigrants the number of males exceeded the
number of females (58.37% and 41.63%).
TABLE XXVIII
AGE OF TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS, OF NON-JEWISH IMMIGRANTS
AND OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS, ADMITTED DURING THE YEAR
ENDED JUNE 30, 1927
Number
Age
Distribution
Total
NonJews
Jews
Total
NonJews
Jews
Under 16
16-44
51,689
254,574
28,912
48,840
248,077
26,775
2,849
6,497
2,137
15.42
75.95
8.63
15.09
76.64
8.27
24.81
56.59
18.60
Total
335,175
323,692
11,483
100.00
100.00
100.00
TABLE XXIX
SEX OF TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS, OF NON-JEWISH IMMIGRANTS,
AND OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS, YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1927
Number
Sex
Females
Total
Per Cent of Admission
Total
NonJews
Jews
Total
NonJews
Jews
194,163
141,012
188,908
134,784
5,255
6,228
57.92
42.08
58.37
41.63
45.76
54.24
335,175
323,692
11,483
100.00
100.00
100.00
STATISTICS OF JEWS
265
During the year ended June 30, 1927, 95.96% of the Jews admitted
came to join relatives and only 1.99% came to neither relatives nor
friends, as compared with 78.84% and 17.16% respectively, among the
non-Jewish immigrants.
TABLE XX
TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS, NUMBER OF NON-JEWISH IMMIGRANTS,
AND NUMBER OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS WHO CAME TO JOIN RELATIVES,
FRIENDS, AND THOSE WHO HAD NO RELATIVES OR FRIENDS, YEAR
ENDED JUNE 30, 1927
Persons Joined
Relatives
Friends
None
. . .
Total
,
Total
Number
NonJews
Distribution
NonTotal Jews Jews
Jews
246,791
30,867
57,517
235,773
30,631
57,288
11,018
236
229
73.63
9.21
17.16
72.84
9.46
17.70
95.96
2.05
1.99
335,175
323,692
11,483
100.
100.
100.
JEWISH IMMIGRATION DURING JULY-DECEMBER,
1927
Statistics for the year ended June 30, 1928, were not available when
this article was compiled, but as the figures for the second half of 1927
are at hand, a summary table based on these is given herewith. During
July-December, 1927, only 6,215 Jews were admitted to the country,
3.77% of the total.
TABLE XXI
TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS, NUMBER OF NON-JEWISH IMMIGRANTS'
AND NUMBER OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS, ADMITTED, DEPORTED,
INCREASE, DEBARRED AND DEPORTED, DURING JULYDECEMBER, 1927.
Departures
Admissions
%
%
No.
No.
of
of
Tot.
Adm.
Increase
No.
%
of
Tot.
Non-Jews.... 158,450 96.23 44,386 28.02 114,064 94.95
149 2.4 6,066 5.05
6,215 3.77
Jews
Total
164,665. 100.
44,535 27.07 120,130 100.
Debarred
No.
Deported
%
of
Adm
No.
3
6.1
Incr.
5,788 5.07
479 7.71
120 1.98
9,666
10,145 6.16 5,908
4.92
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
266
D. JEWISH IMMIGRATION INTO CANADA
During; 1901-1927, 106,846 Jews were admitted to Canada, 2.04% of
the total immigration. The figure given for the Jews does not include the
number of Jews who immigrated from the United States. During 1927,
taken separately, the Jewish immigration via ocean ports constituted
3.11% of the total.
TABLE XXII
TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS AND NUMBER OF JEWISH IMMIGRANTS
ADMITTED TO CANADA
Year
Total
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
49,149
67,379
128,364
130,331
146,266
189,064
124,667
262,469
146,908
208,794
311,084
354,237
402,432
384,878
Jews
Per Cent
(via ocean Jews to Total
ports)
2.765
5.6
1.5
1,015
1.6
2,066
2.8
3,727
5.2
7,715
3.8
7,127
5.2
6,584
2.9
7,712
1.1
1,636
1.5
3,182
1.6
5,146
1.5
5,322
1.8
7,387
2.9
11,252
Year
Total
1915..
144,789
1916.
48.537
1917.
75,374
1918.
79,074
1919.
57,702
1920.
117,336
1921.
148,477
1922.
89,999
1923.
72,887
1924.
148,560
1925.
111,362
1926.
96,064
1927.
143,991
Total. 5,240,174
Jews
Per Cent
(via ocean Jews to Total
ports)
3,107
2.1
65
136
32
22
116
2,763
8,404'
2.793»
4.255
4,459
3,587
4,471
106,846
.1
.1
.04
.04
.09
1.9
9.3
3.8
2.8
4.
3.7
3.11
2.04
E. JEWISH IMMIGRATION INTO ARGENTINA
During 1913-1915 and 1919-1926, 64,757 Jews entered Argentina.
About 7,534 Jews were admitted during 1926.
TABLE XXIII
TOTAL AND JEWISH IMMIGRATION INTO ARGENTINA, 1913-1915 AND
1919-1926
Year
1913
1914
1915
1919
1920
1921'
1922'.
1923'1
1924
1925'
1926'
Total
•Communicated by ICA.
Per Cent
Jews to Total
Total
Jews
302,047
284.449
137,716
69,879
155,332
108,591
139,953
195,063
159,939
125,365
135,111
10,860
3,693
606
280
2,071
4,095
7,198
13,701
7,799
6,920
7,534
1.3
.4
.4
1.3
3.8
5.2
7.0
4.8
5.5
5.6
1,813,445
64,757
3.6
3.5
STATISTICS OF JEWS
267
F. JEWISH IMMIGRATION INTO PALESTINE, 1917-1927
From the date of the British occupation of Palestine, December 9,1917,
to the end of 1927,100,780 immigrants entered the country. Of that number 96,601 were Jews and 4,179 were non-Jews. But the government kept
no statistics of the religion of the 14,101 persons who entered the country
during December 9, 1917-May, 1921, with the result that the number of
Jews given includes an indefinite but probably small number of non-Jews
and the number given for the non-Jews is a minimum. The proportion
of non-Jewish immigrants fluctuated between 1.6% during June-December of 1921 and 7% in 1923.
Statistics of emigration are incomplete. During 1922-1926, 16,522
Jews, 22% of the number of Jews admitted, left the country, leaving
an increase of 57,380, or 76.4% of the number of Jews admitted.
In compiling the statistics for some of the years, the writer had the
valuable and courteous cooperation of the Controller of the Permits Section of The Palestine Government.
TABLE XXIV
SUMMARY OF IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION OF JEWS AND
NON-JEWS, 1917-1927
A. NUMBER
Immigration
Emigration
Increase
NonNonTotal Jews Jews Total Jews Jews Total Jews
•
*
*
Dec. 9,1917-May, 1921 14,101 14,101 *
*
*
•
*
77 *
4,861 4,784
June-Dec. 1921
Year
18,962 18,885
Total
8,128
7,991
13,553
.14,641
13,910
3,595
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
7,844
7,421
12,856
33.801
13,081
2,713
NonJews
•
*
77
284 2,939
570 4,947
697 2,511
840 4.100
829 9,429
882 6,978
1,503
3,466
2,037
2,151
7.365
5,071
1,436 5,189 6,341 1,152'
1,481 3,044 3,955 911'
474 11,042 10,819 223
1,949 30,541 31,650 1,109'
2,064 4,481 5,716 1,235'
1,907 3,383i 2,358' 1.0Z5'
Total 1922-1927.. 81,818 77,716 4,102 30,904 21,593 9,311 50,914 56,123 5,209
Grand Total
100,780 96,601 4,179
•Figures not available.
'Decrease.
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
268
B. PERCENTAGES
Immigration
Emigration
NonNonTotal Jews Jews Total Jews Jews
He
*
*
100.0 100.0
*
*
100.0
94.4
1.6
Year
Dec. 9,1917-May, 1921
June-Dec. 1921
Total
.
...
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
Total 1922-1927
96.5
93.0
87.3
97.6
3.5 100.0
7. 100.0
*
2.4 100.0
6. 100.0
100.
*
52.4 47.5
94.
78.1 21.9
75.46 24.54 100.0 72.67 27.33
100.0 94.99 5.01
f.ranrf Tntal
51.1 48.9
70.0 30.0
12.7
95.85
100
69.87 30.13
4.15
Table XXV below gives the number of immigrants by month and
shows that the monthly immigration was irregular.
TABLE XXV
TOTAL NUMBER OF IMMIGRANTS BY MONTHS, 1922-1927
A. NUMBER
Year
Month
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
January.. . .
February...
March
April
May
June
July
August
September..
October....
November..
December. .
905
890
736
788
689
498
349
487
712
577
829
641
955
831
871
839
849
700
386
558
452
561
520
379
357
336
500
775
597
1,311
1,350
1,879
2,055
1,017
1,705
1,665
1,775
1,730
3,154
2,585
2,819
3,758
2,717
3,333
3,415
3,838
2,832
2,685
1,711
1,476
2,323
1,485
1,599
1,308
783
873
677
641
521
513
181
218
265
329
330
376
273
283
362
310
415
253
Total. .
8,101
7,901
13,553
34,641
13,910
3,595
Average
675
66
1,129
2,887
1,159
300
STATISTICS OF JEWS
269
B. DISTRIBUTION
Month
January...
February..
March
April
May
June
July
August... .
September.
October. ..
November.
December.
Total
Year
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
11.17
10.99
9.09
9.73
8.50
6.15
4.31
6.01
8.79
7.12
10.23
7.91
11.95
10.39
10.89
10.49
10.63
8.76
4.84
6.98
6.78
7.03
6.51
4.75
2.7
2.5
3.7
5.7
4.4
9.7
. 10.
13.9
15.2
7.5
12.5
12.2
5.1
5.0
9.1
7.5
8.1
10.8
7.8
9.6
9.8
11.2
8.2
7.8
12.3
10.6
16.7
10.7
11.5
11.8
5.6
6.3
4.9
4.6
3.7
3.7
5.03
6.06
7.39
9.15
9.18
10.45
7.59
7.88
10.07
8.63
11.54
7.03
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
100.00
1927
Table XXVII below gives the number of immigrants and emigrants,
Jews and non-Jews, and the number of persons refused admittance during 1927, by month. With regard to emigration, it will be noted that the
government of Palestine classifies persons who permanently leave the
country in two groups, viz.: (1) emigrants, Palestine citizens, and (2)
returning immigrants, aliens who are permanently returning to their
countries of origin.
270
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
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TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL REPORT OF THE
AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
OFFICERS AND EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
OFFICERS
President, LOUIS MARSHALL
CYRUS ADLER
]
JULIUS ROSENWALD j Vice-Presidents,
Treasurer, ISAAC M. ULLMAN
EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
CYRUS ADLER (1931) Chairman
JAMES H. BECKER (1931)
DAVID M. BRESSLER (1931)
LEO. M. BROWN (1929)
ABEL DAVIS (1929)
ABRAM I. ELKUS (1928)
ELI FRANK (1931)
FELIX FULD (1931)
MAX J. KOHLER (1929)
IRVING LEHMAN (1929)
LOUIS MARSHALL (1929)
A. C. RATSHESKY (1929)
MILTON J. ROSENAU (1929)
JULIUS ROSENWALD (1930)
HORACE STERN (1930)
LEWIS L. STRAUSS (1930)
CYRUS L. SULZBERGER (1930)
ISAAC M. ULLMAN (1929)
.,
'
Philadelphia, Pa.
Chicago, 111.
New York, N. Y.
Mobile, Ala.
Chicago, III.
New York, N. Y.
Baltimore, Md.
Newark, N. J.
New York, N. Y.
New York, N. Y.
New York, N. Y.
Boston, Mass.
Boston, Mass.
Chicago, 111.
Philadelphia, Pa.
New York, N. Y.
New York, N. Y.
New Haven, Conn.
SECRETARY
MORRIS D. WALDMAN
ASSISTANT SECRETARY
HARRY SCHNEIDERMAN,
171 Madison Ave., New York City.
271
272
To
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
THE M E M B E R S OF THE AMERICAN J E W I S H COMMITTEE:
Your Executive C o m m i t t e e begs leave to present a brief
account of the most i m p o r t a n t of the m a t t e r s related to
t h e objects of the Committee, to which a t t e n t i o n has been
devoted during the past year.
A. D O M E S T I C
1.
MATTERS
IMMIGRATION
At the Annual Meeting last year, your Executive Committee called attention to the fact t h a t there was then
pending in both Houses of Congress a bill, t h e purpose
of which was to afford relief to those lawfully admitted
aliens whose wives and minor children are still abroad,
being unable to join t h e m owing to the restrictions established under the q u o t a law of 1924. T h e bill referred to
had been introduced in the Senate b y the Honorable
J a m e s W . Wadsworth of New York and in t h e House
of Representatives b y the Honorable N a t h a n D . Perlman of the same state. I t provided for the admission
outside of the quota of the wives a n d minor children of
aliens who had been legally a d m i t t e d as p e r m a n e n t residents to the United States prior to J u l y 1, 1924, a n d who
had declared their intention to become citizens. T h a n k s
to Senator WadswortK's persistence in the face of w h a t
appeared to be certain failure, the bill was passed by the
Senate as an a m e n d m e n t to another bill on a cognate
subject which had already been a d o p t e d by t h e House
a n d was likely to pass the Senate. In the confusion of
the closing d a y s of the session this measure with m a n y
others succumbed to the filibuster.
It is not unlikely t h a t this measure will be brought up
again for consideration in the Seventieth Congress which
will open its sessions in December. T h e r e are m a n y individuals as well as civic organizations holding the vi^ws
which your C o m m i t t e e has expressed from the beginning,
t h a t the q u o t a law is causing unmerited hardship to aliens
who were a d m i t t e d prior to its going into effect and to the
members of their families who are still abroad. T h e opponents of this remedial measure come entirely from the ranks
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
273
of those who advocate laws even more drastically restrictive
than any that have gone before and who have hardened
their hearts to any proposal, however logical or humane,
•-vhich would have the effect of increasing to even a limited
extent the number of persons who are admitted to the
United States even though it be to meet a temporary
emergency. They argue that these aliens ought to have
familiarized themselves with the possibilities of the quota
legislation before its enactment and should have known
that they would find it difficult to have their relatives join
them. The Commissioner General of Immigration, the
Honorable Harry E. Hull, in a recent statement to the
press, has voiced the same view, saying that much of the
fault for the separation of families may be attributed to the
immigrants themselves, that they know the law, and "yet
they leave their wives and families to come here on the
gamble that they will be able to slip in in the next monthly
quota." Whatever may be said of immigrants admitted
after the passage of the Immigration Law of 1924, it is
unreasonable to apply the same argument to those who
came earlier, under the previous less restricted quota law
which was expressly limited in its duration and who would
not have anticipated the complete departure by Congress
from the established legislative policy of nearly a century.
President Coolidge had in his message to Congress in
December, 1925, declared with regard to the immigration
situation that it should "be carefully surveyed, in order to
ascertain whether it is working a needless hardship upon
our own inhabitants." He went on to say: "If it deprives
them of the comfort and society of those bound to them
by close family ties, such modifications should be adopted
as will afford relief . . . we should not be forgetful of
the obligations of a common humanity." In his message
of December, 1926, the President again referred to this
subject, pointing out that the purpose of restriction of
immigration was to confer economic benefits upon the
United States, but that "it ought not to cause a needless
separation of families and dependents from their natural
source of support, contrary to the dictates of humanity."
Your Committee fervently hopes that the incoming Congress will heed the advice of President Coolidge and that
274
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
an amendment to the law may be passed which shall
moderate the harshness and obviate the injustice of this
phase of the present law.
Little effort was made at the last session of the Sixtyninth Congress to push through the proposals for the
compulsory registration of immigrants. In his Annual
Report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1926, the Honorable James J. Davis, Secretary of Labor, did not as in
previous years again recommend the passage of such an
act. Instead, he suggested that registration be made
voluntary and that it should constitute the basis for certificates of arrival for use in naturalization proceedings
and other kindred purposes. A bill somewhat along these
lines was introduced in the House of Representatives, but
was not reported. On the other hand a drastic deportation bill was strongly urged and was opposed, because of
its unjustifiable stringency which would have made it the
medium of blackmail and persecution.
2. NATURALIZATION
Serious difficulties of various kinds prevent the naturalization of many thousands of foreign-born residents. This
is largely due to a failure to provide adequate facilities in
New York City and in other important centres, where
naturalization has been wholly taken over by the overcrowded federal courts, due to insufficient personnel, to
crowded calendars and insufficient accommodations. Another cause has been the application of harsh and often
arbitrary and unreasonable educational tests to those seeking citizenship. This has resulted in serious increases in
the percentage of rejections by recent legislation. To a
marked degree this is attributable to the fact that responsibility has been shifted practically from the judges to
bureaucratic examiners. But in addition to this, in passing on the legal qualification of applicants, it is believed
that the statute has been erroneously interpreted in various
courts, whose dicta are apt to be regarded as law by the
lay examiners and to govern their action. A ruling which
was obiter has been made recently by one of the federal
courts approving of the contentions of the Labor Depart-
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
275
ment as to the supposed non-naturalizability of residents
of the United States whose wives and minor children are
still abroad being unable to join them here. This theory
was considered at length in our Annual Report ofNovember, 1925 (reprinted in the American Jewish Year Book
for 1926-7, pages 454-467). The remarks to which we
refer are contained in an opinion rendered in which it
was said:
"In this connection I cannot help but call attention to the fact
that the provisions of the immigration law which confer privileges
and immunities upon aliens desiring to enter this country by virtue
of judicial action under the naturalization laws clearly was the
inducting cause for the reprehensible conduct of this alien. It has
been with a sense of deep concern that I have noted the large number of aliens seeking naturalization who have wife and minor children
abroad.. Some of them who have come into court before me have
frankly admitted that the reason they seek naturalization is to be able to
bring members of their family from foreign countries, who are unable
to meet the requirements of the immigration law, but who would be
privileged were the applicant a citizen of the United States. An alien
who approaches our courts, asking that he be made a citizen, with no
higher purpose than to circumvent the immigration law, clearly is dis-
qualified. He has not met the requirements of our naturalization
law, nor the ideals of the American people with reference to that
subject."
We permit ourselves to say that there are those who
believe that the converse of this reasoning seems to be
more persuasive, namely, that an applicant for naturalization who does not desire or who would falsely assert that
he does not wish to have his family join him, would thereby demonstrate himself to be unworthy of American
citizenship. It is to be hoped that this proposition may
soon be subjected to the critical scrutiny of a federal
apellate court.
Another recent naturalization decision is likely to cause
much hardship. It was rendered by the U. S. Circuit
Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in the case of
U. S. vs. Maney, reported in 21 Fed. (2) 28, where a divided
court reversed the decision of the U. S. District Court in
favor of naturalization. There, applicant's certificate of
arrival was not attached to his petition for naturalization
when filed, as it should have been; but twenty days later,
the Department of Labor caused it to be filed. When the
application for naturalization subsequently came up for
276
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
hearing, the naturalization examiner asked for the dismissal of the proceeding for the reason that the landing
certificate was not attached to the application when originally filed. The District Court, however, amended the proceeding by ordering the certificate to be regarded as filed
with the petition. Naturalization having been granted,
the Government instituted a proceeding to cancel the
decree of naturalization upon this technicality. The proceedings of the Government were dismissed in the District Court in an able opinion (13 Fed. (2) 662). On appeal,
however, the majority of the Circuit Court of Appeals held
this defect to be fatal, and vacated the naturalization on a
literal interpretation of an obscurely phrased clause of the
naturalization law. In ex parte naturalization proceedings,
in which applicants are rarely represented by counsel,
innumerable petty technical errors of no significance have
arisen from time to time, through inadvertence and without fault on the part of the applicants. It, therefore, is to
be feared that this decision, if not reversed, may lead to
many cancellations of naturalization. This Committee
has urged the counsel in charge of the case to apply to the
U. S. Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari in order that
there may be an authoritative determination of this important proposition. Such an application is now pending.
3. RELIGIOUS AND RACIAL INTOLERANCE
In respect of religious and racial intolerance in our
country, the past year witnessed the practical cessation of
all organized anti-Jewish propaganda. In January, the
attention of the Committee was called to the fact that the
announcer of a New York City radio broadcasting station
maintained by Mrs. Augusta E. Stetson and a group calling themselves Christian Scientists frequently delivered
himself of scurrilous remarks aimed at Roman Catholics
and Jews. The President of your Committee looked into
the matter and the following correspondence ensued:
January 10, 1927.
DEAR MRS. STETSON:
I am informed that Radio Station WHAP is conducted under
your auspices or those of the organization to which you belong. I
have recently heard your readings from that station. It has become
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
277
notorious that for some time past addresses have been delivered
from this station by one Ford and others, consisting of violent
attacks upon Jews and Catholics. They are persistent, malignant
and vicious. I would scarcely have believed the reports as to the
character of these attacks had I not with my own ears listened to one
of them some weeks ago. It seemed extraordinary to me that anybody would venture in this free land to indulge in such vituperation.
What accentuates the evil of such an act is the fact that the speaker
was acting under the auspices of a religious body, a branch of the
Christian Science Church. Judging from your readings, its fundamental idea seems to be that salvation is to be attained through the
science oTxeligion, which is to bring about mental and physical
health. /But how can^that b_e_accomglished_when the very air is
poisonea^nd rendered mephiticby the emanations of hatred,, prejudice anb^rmrolerance"which proceed from the station which your
organization is maintaining? It would seem to me that you would
advance the cause of mental and moral hygiene by abating this
nuisance.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) Louis MARSHALL.
Mrs. Augusta E. Stetson,
7 West 96th Street,
New York City.
Mr. Louis Marshall,
120 Broadway,
New York City.
January 13, 1927.
DEAR MR. MARSHALL:
Your letter in regard to Station WHAP was received. You are
correct, in your estimate of the readings, which are given by me
from the writings of Mary Baker Eddy, the Discoverer and Founder
of Christian Science, and my forever Leader and Teacher, as well as
the readings from my books and those of my student practitioners,
given by my students. The purpose of these readings is, to bring
healing to the world. This healing includes the three-fold work of
the Messiah,'or Christ, the eternal Son of God, namely, the healing
of sin, sickness, and death.
Your letter protests against certain denunciatory addresses,
delivered from Station WHAP, which you say are directed against
Roman Catholics and Jews. I have been taught, dear Mr. Marshall, by my Leader and Teacher, Mary Baker Eddy, from my
earliest touch with her, that the healing of sin involves and requires
the denunciation of sin and the sinner. There is no other way under
heaven whereby sin can be destroyed; neither is the healing of sickness and so-called death possible, except through the destruction of
iin. It is written in the Scriptures: "Without holiness, no man shall
see God." Christ Jesus did not hesitate to denounce sin and sinners, in the strongest language, to the end, that the sin and evil
. which hold the world in bondage, shall, and must be destroyed.
278
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
However, these denunciations are never personal, but are
directed against any system which teaches, encourages or allows
the committing of evil, in any form. The Roman Catholic system,
under its pope and hierarchy, does teach, encourage and allow the
committing of evil, in all its forms, and this system is designated in
Holy Scripture as "anti-Christ," "the great red dragon," and similar names, symbolic of its evil character. (See Revelation.) This
system, in its practice and teaching, perpetuates the propagation of
flesh and blood, which constitutes the belief of life in matter, which
is the foundation of all evil, since God is spirit, and He is not the
author of flesh and blood. There is no (one) on the earth, who can
successfully contradict this statement. Mrs. Eddy writes:
Man is not material; he is spiritual.
(Science and Health, page 468.)
Therefore, Station WHAP does denounce and condemn Roman
Catholicism, its pope and hierarchy, its prelates, its ecclesiastical
and lay militant orders, and its entire membership, as well as its
practice; and this Station will continue so to denounce and condemn
Roman Catholicism, until the entire system of popery is expelled
from America. This is the command of Christ.
The case is somewhat different with Jewry. I have, among my
body of Christian Science students, many Jews, who are noble,
good, true, pure men and women, and who are living lives in accordance with the highest ideals of Christ's Christianity. I count them
among my best students. There are many Jews in the outside
world, also, who recognize the value of the pure Christian idealism
for which America stands, and which is essentially involved in
American citizenship, and fundamental thereto.
Nevertheless, there is another class of Jew, unfortunately, who
seeks, for some unaccountable reason—perhaps from the common
perversion of the natural man—to break down American ideals of
purity in morals, honesty in business, and refinement and culture
in society. We have evidence a-plenty of this evil tendency on the
part of these evil-minded Jews, in the growth of vile literature,
including popular magazines, the increase of lewd plays and moving
pictures, the corrupt practices in the business world, and the lowering of the American standards of social refinement and culture.
Dear Mr. Marshall, I, as a follower of Christ Jesus and Mary
Baker Eddy, and as an American, whose ancestors were among the
Pilgrim fathers and mothers, who came to America, in the Mayflower, in 1620, to "find freedom to worship God,"—I may say,
that I am descended from Captain Myles Standish, and also from
John Alden and Priscilla Mullins—I have the right, as a Christian
Scientist and an American citizen, to denounce evil and all evildoers, and I shall not flinch from this imperative duty, until all evil
shall depart from America, and from the world.
To those who earnestly desire the healing which comes through
the beneficient ministration of Christian Science, and who are willing to obey the loving command of Christ, who, when he healed,
said, "Go, and sin no more." I and my students stand ready to
speak the word and give the healing of which the world today
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
279
stands in so great need. My books are a record of my work for
forty years, and they attest, upon unimpeachable authority and
evidence, that I and my student body have freely bestowed this
healing work upon thousands of people, which work we are today
extending to millions, by means of the radio, through station
WHAP.
With kindest regards, dear Mr. Marshall, I am,
Sincerely yours,
(Signed) AUGUSTA E. STETSON.
JAMES P. B. HYNDMAN,
Assistant Secretary.
January 15, 1927.
DEAR MRS. STETSON:
I am in receipt of yours of the 13th instant, in answer to mine
regarding Station WHAP. I have likewise received various books
explanatory of Christian Science, which I shall be very glad to
keep for further study and future reference.
I must confess that I am greatly surprised that you justify the
denunciation and condemnation of Roman Catholicism and of
Jews who are not included in what you describe as your "body of
Christian Science students." All through the books which you
have sent me there runs the thought of the Fatherhood of God and
that God is Love. I tuink it is proper to quote your own words from
the book entitled "Greetings and a Message to the Dear Children."
There you say (pp. 9, 10):
"You know that you must love your little brothers and sisters
and be unselfish and kind, and share with them the good things
you have if you wish to be happy, and make your earthly father
and mother and home happy. As you grow older you will see, that
if there is but one God, one creator, and this God is Life and Love,
that every one must be your brother or sister and you must love
them, because God is Life and Love, and He made them like
Himself,—good, and that they are all His good children, whom
He made in 'His own image.' "
I also note that throughout your books you quote Scripture,
including not only the so-called New Testament, but also the Old
Testament. I do not therefore imagine that you repudiate the
words of Malachi, that have thundered down through the ages:
"Have we not all one father?
Hath not one God created us?
Why do we deal treacherously every man against his brother,
By profaning the covenant of our fathers?"
There seems to be a great gap between what you have preached
and what you are now saying and doing. You seek to justify yourself by saying that Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science, has declared that the healing of sin involves and requires the
denunciation of sin and the sinner. What you are doing is not to
denounce individual sinners or individual wrongdoing. You are
attacking the Roman Catholic Church, the Pope and the hierarchy,
and its entire membership, and you calmly say that Station WHAP
"will continue so to denounce and condemn Roman Catholicism un-
280
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
til the entire system of popery is expeclled from America." You are
thus permitting yourself to sit in judgment upon the opinions and
convictions of your brothers and sisters of the Catholic Church.
Your characterize them as "anti-Christ" and by other names,
which you say are "symbolic of evil character."
Upon analysis it would seem that the real ground of your attack
is that the doctrines and teachings of Mrs. Eddy are not accepted
by the Roman Catholics. But are they accepted by Episcopalians,
Presbyterians, Baptists and Methodists to refer to only a few of the
many Christian sects? And are they adopted by the hundreds of
millions of human beings who live in Asia and Africa and other
parts of the world? Do you seriously believe that you and the
members of the Christian Science Church, whose very existence
dates back but a few decades, have the right to condemn and
threaten with expulsion from America millions of other Christians
who do not see eye to eye with you? Have you any better right to
regard them as "anti-Christ," whatever that may mean, than they
have to make the same charge against Christian Science? You are
assuming a tremendous responsibility.
You say that the case is somewhat different, with Jewry. In
what respect? We are not even Christians. / W e do not accept
Christ. We have entertained these views for .fifty centuries. jWe
have given to the world the very Bible upon which" you baSfi-your
faith. You say that you have in your body of Christian Science
students many Jews "who are living lives in accordance with the
highest ideals of Christ's Christianity." Of course you count them
among your best students, and yet you still call them Jews and
through your station are attacking them as well as those who do
not recognize Christian Science. You then proceed to say that
there is another class of Jews who "break down American ideals
of purity in morals, honesty in business and refinement and culture
in society."
Has it occurred to you that these people whom you call Jews,
are merely individuals who have no regard for Judaism or for any
other faith, just as there are millions of so-called Christians who
have no regard for any form of Christianity? They are condemned
by Jews, not only for their wrongdoing, but also because of the
stain which is placed upon the name of the Jew in consequence of
the perverted ideas of many non-Jews who attribute the sins of an
individual to the race or creed to which the ancestors of such persons may have been attached. You would at once rebel at the
thought that, because there are some Christian Scientists who are
evil-doers; their sins should be laid at the door of Christian Science.
I can assure you that, so far as purity in morals, honesty in business and refinement and culture in society are concerned, the Jews
need not be ashamed of comparison with the descendants of the
Pilgrim fathers and mothers, or with any other section of the
American people.
If you wish to denounce sin and the sinner, do so, provided we
really know what is meant by those terms; but in the name of all
that is sacred do not disregard the lesson that you yourself have
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
281
taught to little children in the passage which I have quoted from
your book. It does not seem possible that you think it consistent
to teach the doctrine of brotherhood and love to little children, and
at the same time inculcate in them the thought that when they
grgBL-up they may turn their faces against that humane doctrine.
(My mind is so constituted that I have no patience with metaphysics or ecclesiastical refinements. I believe that all of us have
the right to seek salvation in our own way, without let or hindrance.
So long as we observe the laws of the state and the rules of decency
and morality, we should be free from wanton attacks and insults.
That is my interpretation of the doctrine of the Fatherhood of God
and the Brotherhood of ManTTYour philosophy, led to its logical
conclusion, would justify the extermination by Christian Scientists,
if they were strong enough, of all Roman Catholics and all Jews
who are unwilling to accept the revelation of Mary Baker Eddy.'
Apparently it will do no good, but as an American citizen who
believers in the sanctity of the Constitution, and as a human being
who believes in the sanctity of humanity, I protest against the dangerous practice that you have adopted of instilling in the public
mind hatred and enmity against Roman Catholics and Jews because
their religious beliefs differ from yours. Such actions are to my
mind the very acme of sin.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) Louis MARSHALL.
Mrs. Augusta E. Stetson,
7 West 96th Street,
New York City.
This correspondence was followed by a cessation of the
anti-Jewish attacks, but there was no abatement of the
virulence of those directed against the Roman Catholic
Church.
You have already been informed of the proceedings
which culminated, on June 30, 1927, in the publication by
Mr. Henry Ford of Detroit, of a statement whereby he
retracted the anti-Jewish charges published from time to
time since May, 1920, in his weekly the Dearborn Independent and in pamphlet form under the title the International Jew, apologized to the Jewish people for having
permitted the publication of these charges, promised to
withdraw from circulation the pamphlets which have been
distributed throughout the country and in foreign lands,
and to make it known in every way possible that these
charges have his unqualified disapproval. The documents
relating to these negotiations between the representatives
282
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
of Mr. Ford and your President are appended to this
report.*
The correspondence was widely published and commented upon in the press not only of the United States
but also of practically every country of the world. Your
Committee believes that Mr. Ford's step will go a long
way toward counteracting the evil done by the dissemination of the libels which had been published in the Dearborn Independent and collected in pamphlet form. There
is no doubt, however, that anti-Jewish propagandists will
continue to use much of this voluminous material, and to
this extent the harm done is irreparable.
Shortly after the issuance of Mr. Ford's statement of
June 30, 1927, in which, among other things he announced
that the pamphlets which have been distributed throughout
the country and in foreign lands would be withdrawn from
circulation, the notorious anti-Semitic agitator Theodor
Fritsch and the Hammer Verlag of Leipzig, Germany,
with which he appears to be connected, publicly denied
that Mr. Ford had made the statement, adding: "Were it
true, Mr. Ford would have withdrawn from me the publication rights of the International Jew," thus asserting that
he claimed to possess such publication rights. In a subsequent statement he announced that the publication and
distribution of the pamphlet would be continued, and indulged in a series of falsehoods which were an insult not
only to the Jews, but also to Mr. Ford.
Your president called these facts to the attention of
Mr. Ford, who, under date of November 1, 1927, sent the
following letter to Fritsch:
Dearborn, Mich., Nov. 1, 1927.
THEODOR FRITSCH,
Koenigstrasse 17,
Leipzig, Germany.
DEAR SIR:
On June 30, 1927, I issued a statement regarding articles concerning the Jews which had appeared in the Dearborn Independent
and some of which had been reprinted in pamphlet form under the
title "The International Jew." Being satisfied that these publications were unwarranted and that consequently it was my duty as
• an honorable man to retract the charges against the Jews con* See AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK, Vol. 29, pp. 383-389.
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
283
tained in these publications and to withdraw the publications
from circulation, I gave this statement the fullest publicity, and
took it for granted that my wish in this regard would be scrupulously observed. I am enclosing a correct and authorized copy of
that statement. All of the copies of "The International Jew" in
the possession or under the control of the Dearborn Publishing
Company have been destroyed at my instance.
I am informed through the public prints that you are still publishing and circulating these pamphlets in various European countries
in a number of languages, using my name in connection therewith
and asserting that the publication rights thereof have not been
withdrawn.
In order that there may be no misunderstanding as to my wishes
in this regard, you are accordingly notified that whatever rights
you have or claim to have to publish "The International Jew"
anywhere or in any language whatsoever, are hereby revoked and
terminated, and that the publication, sale or other distribution of
"The International Jew" and the use of the name of Henry Ford or
of the Dearborn Publishing Company in connection therewith, by
you or by any person or corporation claiming under you or acting
by your authority as agent, licensee or otherwise, are hereby
forbidden.
In acknowledging this letter will you kindly inform me of your
assurance that you will in all respects acquiesce in this demand.
Yours truly,
HENRY FORD.
An identical letter was sent to Hammer-Verlag of Leipzig, the publishers of the foreign editions of "The International Jew."
In September, the Executive Board of the National
Federation of Temple Brotherhoods called your Committee's attention to the activities of an organization called
the Industrial Defense Association, Inc., having its headquarters in Boston, Mass., which was disseminating antiSemitic literature, in the form of an official publication
entitled What's What and leaflets put out by The Britons,
an anti-Semitic organization in England. As the most
prominent name on the Advisory Board of the Industrial
Defense Association, Inc., was that of General Clarence R.
Edwards, your President sent the foliowing letter to him
to the address of the Association :
September 21, 1927.
DEAR GENERAL EDWARDS :
My attention has been called to Vol. I, No. 3, of a publication
entitled "What's What," also to a pamphlet entitled "The Future
Domination" purporting to be published by The Britons Publish-
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ing Society, and to another pamphlet entitled "White Labor Versus
Red," with a Synopsis of "The Protocols," both stamped "Distributed by Industrial Defense Asso., Inc., 7 Water St., Boston."
It appears from the official publication of that association that you
are one of its Advisory Board and that Mr. Edward H. Hunter is the
Executive Secretary.
I will assume that you do not intend to give your sanction to the
circulation of forgeries, but I can say without hesitation that all
that is said in these two pamphlets with regard to the so-called
Protocols and to a pretended discourse claimed to have been
delivered_by a Rabbi with the authority of one "Sir John Redcliffe"Hs an unqualified fabrication. j^That has been established by
disclosures fiiady s>eveitft years ago "By The London Times. That is
likewise established by the intrinsic evidence of the alleged .Protocols. In brief the facts are these:
About 1865 one Joly, a Catholic lawyer of Paris who was inimical to Napoleon III, who was then the Emperor of France, and
who desired to make him appear in a despicable light, wrote an
imaginative work called "The Discourse in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu." In the course of this dialogue Machiavelli,
who was intended to represent Napoleon III, made use of expressions as indicating his policy, which are identical with those contained in the Protocols, which are claimed to have been written a
third of a century later. Some years after the July book was written
one Goedsche, a German who had been convicted of forgery, wrote a
book called "Paris-Biarritz" under the pseudonym of Sir John Redcliffe. In this book appeared a fantastic chapter purporting to give
an account of a meeting held in a cemetery at Prague at which reprepresentatives of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, ten of which had been
lost for centuries, reported at midnight what they had done during
the previous century for the purpose of carrying out a plot to obtain
world power for the Jews. Anybody who reads this chapter and
believers a word of what there appears must be in~ a psychopathic
condition. Some years later this chapter of Goedsche's novel based
on Joly's book was transformed into a pretended discourse by a
Rabbi who never existed, and was published in a number of antiSemitic newspapers, but was so absurd that no attention was given
to it at the time of such publication. Still later the Secret Police of
Russia, for the purpose of carrying out their usual plan of making
the Jew a scapegoat for the sins of the Russian autocracy, caused one
Nilus to create, on the basis of these several concoctions, the socalled "Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion." In their present form
they have undergone various changes, and the account of how the
so-called documents came into the possession of Nilus is utterly
preposterous.
The Joly book had been forgotten until it was discovered in
Constantinople, some time in 1923, by a correspondent of The
London Times. He immediately recognized its practical identity
with the Protocols, which had recently been published. He called
the subject to the attention of his newspaper, which on making
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
285
inquiry at the British Museum found that a copy of the Joly book
was in that library. In consequence of this discovery The London
Times, which had previously been somewhat impressed by ths
Protocols, denounced them as a base forgery.
Now your organization, using your name as one of its sponsors,
is circulating what it calls a Synopsis of this vile forgery, is making
it the basis of an attack upon the Jews, and is lending support to
the extraordinary theory that the Jews are not only seeking to
dominate, but are actually dominating, capital and labor. In
other words fifteen million people, of whom the greater part are in
abject poverty as a result of age-long persecution to which they
have been and still are being subjected, are controlling the one
billion five hundred million and more of the inhabitants of the
earth. Your organization is likewise making it appear that the
mythical Sir John Redcliffe was a reality, and by his alleged authority is distributing the so-called discourse by a Rabbi who never
existed, which is nothing more or less than a re-hash of the blood
and thunder story of the forger Goedsche, whose inspiration comes
from the Joly book, which, as I have said, has no relation to the
Jews and was merely a satire against Napoleon III.
As an honorable man I am confident that with these facts brought
to your attention you will put an end to this wanton attack upon
your fellow-citizens of the Jewish faith
Let me call your attention to the fact that in the Dearborn Independent and in the pamphlets called The International Jew, based
upon articles contained in the Dearborn Independent, these same
Protocols were made the starting point of a long continued attack
upon the Jews. You must be aware of the fact that on June 30,
1927, Mr. Henry Ford, the owner of the Dearborn Independent
and the publisher of The International Jew, having as a result of a
careful investigation satisfied himself that the charges made in
those publications against the Jews were false, confessed the wrong
that he had done, retracted the charges made, and asked forgiveness of those whom he had greatly injured by the dissemination of
the wicked accusations contained in these publications. For your
information I am handing you a pamphlet in which will be found
Mr. Ford's statement, which was forwarded to me at his instance,
and my reply thereto.
I earnestly hope that the Industrial Defense Association, Inc.,
will follow the example of Mr. Ford and will cease to issue such
literature as that to which I have referred. "The Britons" or "The
Britons Publishing Society," whose imprint your pamphlets bear,
is an organization with which men like you should be unwilling to
affiliate.
Very cordially yours
{Signed) Louis MARSHALL.
GEN. CLARENCE R. EDWARDS,
Care Industrial Defense Association, Inc.,
7 Water Street, Boston, Mass.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Upon learning that this letter had not been forwarded
to General Edwards, a copy was sent to him to his home.
This brought the following reply:
September 28, 1927.
MY DEAR MR. MARSHALL:
I did not receive your letter of September 21st. I hasten to tell
you that early this summer somebody came here and mentioned
that the Industrial Defense Association was making charges that
could not be substantiated and I immediately told them to take my
name off of their letterhead.
In fact my connection with the Association came through General Bisbee, one of my old Generals who brought me up. He was
the head of it and he told me that they were working to defeat this
radicalism and "Peace at any Price" even "Peace with dishonor
but Peace." At the time I told them I was so busy I could not be
active . . . and would have to count on General Bisbee and his
Board of Directors to be very careful of their statements. I must
say that I have only read one or two of their circulars as I did not
think they would put me on their Board when I said that I could
not be active.
As regards my attitude toward the Jew it is rather amusing.
Rabbi Wise will tell you that because in my Division I had some
1500 or 1600 Jews, 85 of whom were killed and about 300 wounded,
I have made several addresses paying tribute to their valor like
other Americans and always praising the doing away of the antipathy relating to race, religion and class. So I am sorry that I have
been supposed to endorse anything of that nature. As Mr. Hunter
has already told you that I have resigned I do not think there is
anything more to say except that I am awfully sorry this has
happened.
Sincerely yours,
(Signed) C. R. EDWARDS.
In response to this, your President wrote:
September 30, 1927.
DEAR GENERAL EDWARDS:
I wish to thank you for your very satisfactory letter of the 28th
instant. I was confident that you could not possibly entertain
such views as those which are advocated by the Industrial Defense
Association and that you would not sanction the circulation of such
demonstrated falsehoods as were contained in the publication of
The Britons and The Briton Publishing Company. One who has
seen the Jews in action in times of peril, as you have, and has beheld
them fighting for our country's flag and laying down their lives for
the perpetuation of its institutions, knows how impossible it is for
the Jews in time of peace to do anything which would militate
against our country's welfare. Nothing can be more hostile to that
spirit of unity which should exist among our citizens than to stir up
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
287
hatred, prejudice and antipathy because of differences of race,
religion or social position.
With best regards, I am,
Very cordially yours,
{Signed) Louis MARSHALL.
Gen. C. R. Edwards,
Doneroving,
West wood, Mass.
4. JEWISH POLITICAL CLUBS
Recently, the President of your Committee received a
letter from the secretary of a so-called "Hebrew" Democratic Club, containing the information that the club had
been organized in July of this year and that within three
months thereafter an active membership of more than
250 men had been built up. "The objects of our organization," wrote the secretary "are to promote the welfare
of the Jewish people, to take an active part in civic welfare and betterment, charitable interests, and to get behind
those Jewish young men who are deserving of political
recognition." He went on to inform Mr. Marshall that
there had been some discussion "in regard to the use of
the name 'Hebrew' in connection with a political organization" and the club was desirous of obtaining the views on
that question of leading Jews. In response to the secretary's request that Mr. Marshall give his impartial opinion
on the matter, he wrote the letter which follows:
DEAR SIR:
I am in receipt of yours of the — instant, in which you ask my
opinion as to the propriety of using the word "Hebrew" in connection with a political organization. I am very glad to embrace this
opportunity to express to you my views on this important subject.
To my mind nothing can be more objectionable than to resort to
such practice. It is undignified, it is un-American, it is un-Jewish.
In this country, where there is a separation of Church and State,
where freedom of conscience is guaranteed by State and Federal
Constitutions, where every dweller in the land may unquestionably
observe his religious belief, where we are all one people, to designate a political club as Hebrew, Jewish, Catholic, German, Irish
or Italian, is an evidence of shockingly bad taste and of a lack of
appreciation of what America stands for. Whenever I hear of any
body of men who thus brand themselves politically, I immediately
ask myself what is their game, whose political chestnuts are they
seeking to pull out of the fire, what is their conception of citizenship
and politics, whose collar are they wearing and what boss are they
.288
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
seeking to influence? Every decent-thinking man when confronted
with such a situation recoils in disgust.
I approve of political clubs, whether they be Republican, Democratic or Independent, provided they are devoted to the serious
study of political and governmental principles, to the education of
their members in the organic law of the State and Nation and in
matters of public concern. But when such a club is called either
the Hebrew Republican Club or the Hebrew Democratic Club, it
at once gives rise to the impression that the men in the club are
influenced by sordid reasons and not by those elevated considerations which should lead to the formation of such an organization.
The non-Jew at once entertains suspicion of such an organization
and loses respect for its members. Even politicians gauge the club
by the name which it adopts and draw inferences which are not
complimentary to the sponsors.
We Jews especially owe a duty to ourselves to occupy a dignified
attitude toward public questions—not to cheapen our name, not
to permit it to be dragged through the mud of ward politics. It
should have to us a sacred connotation and should not be placed in
danger of being soiled and contaminated. Moreover, why should
we Jews give rise to any inference that we have a special ax to
grind, that our politics have a selfish tinge, and why should we, who
in the past suffered because of our religion, now create even a
suspicion that we are entering into politics under the banner of
separatism? We are opposed to the Ku-Klux-Klan, we were
opposed to the A. P. A. and to the Know Nothings, but we are imitating them when we call ourselves Hebrew Democrats and Hebrew
Republicans, and Hebrew this and Hebrew that
I have at various times been approached by men high in political
life with the question, What can be done to gather in "the Hebrew
vote?" I have told them invariably that there is no Hebrew vote,
that we are American citizens, and that we adopt the principles of
one or the other of the parties in accordance with our idea as to what
best contributes to the welfare of the country. I have also told
them that if I ever heard of any attempt by my own party to differentiate between its members on the basis of their religious faith, I
would denounce it as being hostile to the spirit which should prevail
in our country. On every occasion these gentlemen have apologized and have thanked me for the opinions expressed.
I am perhaps speaking more vehemently than is necessary, but
I regard this to be a matter of vital importance. I am probably
impelled to do so the more by that part of your letterhead which
reads: "Hebrew Democratic Club of X for the Interest of Hebrew
Citizens of X." Can anything be more damning than such an
expression? What is the interest of the Hebrew citizens of X as
distinguished from the interest of all the citizens of X—Jewish,
Catholic or Protestant? Suppose our Catholic friends should form
a club and call it the Catholic Republican Club of X for the Interest
of the Catholic Citizens of X, or some of our Protestant friends
should call a club the Presbyterian Democratic Club of X for the
Interest of the Presbyterian Citizens of X. Who would protest
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
289
loudest under such circumstances? I venture to say that it would
be the citizens of the Jewish faith, and they would be entirely
justified unless by their own example they encouraged such forms
of organization.
Coming to the second paragraph of your letter, I feel shocked.
You say: "The objects of our organization are to promote the
welfare of the Jewish people,'to take an active part in civic welfare and betterment, charitable interests, and to get behind those
Jewish young men who are deserving of political recognition."
I do not understand why you differentiate between "the welfare of the Jewish people" and "civic welfare and betterment."
Does not the promotion of the latter promote the welfare of the
Jewish people as fully as it deserves to be promoted?
I do not know what "charitable interests" have to do with a
political club. I know that there are some political clubs which
during election time seek charitable contributions from political
candidates. To me this is a degradation of one of the noblest
sentiments of humanity.
And then to form a club for the purpose of having it advance
the interests of "Jewish young men who are deserving of political
recognition." You are playing with fire and with edged tools when
you announce this as the ultimate purpose of your organization.
This idea of getting political recognition because one is a Jew is,
to me, unspeakably shameful. Men will get their deserts without
that kind of boosting. Let the Jewish young men become good
citizens, perform their public and private duties, gain a reputation
for integrity and ability and modesty, and it will not be necessary
to form a club to hoist them into public office.
I earnestly hope that your organization will revise its purposes
and change its name without delay. By doing so its members
would honor the Jewish name instead of debasing it.
Very truly yours,
(Signed) Louis MARSHALL.
5. BUREAU OF JEWISH SOCIAL RESEARCH
During the past year, the Committee continued to maintain its connection with the Bureau of Jewish Social Research in which the Bureau of Statistics, formerly maintained by the Committee, merged, and toward the support
of which the Committee as for several years past, made
an annual contribution of $8,500. The Department of Information and Statistics of this Bureau, under the direction of Doctor H. S. Linfield, has been performing the
functions which had formerly been the work of the Bureau
of Statistics; these include the maintenance of information
files and indices, and the preparation of statistical tables,
directories and other data for the American Jewish Yeaj
290
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Book; this department also prepared for the Committee
a Summary of Events of Jewish Interest which appeared
as a monthly from September 8, 1921 to May 31, 1926,
and since then has been a quarterly publication.
During the year, your Committee and the Trustees of
the Bureau of Jewish Social Research, in the course of
conferences to discuss the work of the Bureau, agreed that
it would be to the best interest of both the Bureau and
the Committee if the existing arrangement were terminated
and that such work as was being done for the Committee
by the Bureau, be continued under the direct auspices of
the Committee. Accordingly, it has been mutually agreed
that the present arrangement come to an end with the close
of 1927, it being understood that the Statistical Department of the Committee is not to duplicate the functions of
the Bureau, and that whenever this is practicable the services of the Bureau are to be employed in such surveys or
investigations as the Committee may decide to have made
from time to time. Your Committee will, in the meantime,
determine to what extent the statistical work heretofore
done under the auspices of the Bureau shall be continued
by the Committee.
6. CENSUS OF JEWISH CONGREGATIONS
Since April of the present year, a special staff under
the supervision of Doctor Lin field, has been cooperating
with the United States Bureau of the Census in obtaining
the information as to Jewish religious organizations required for the decennial census of religious bodies. It
was estimated, as we informed you at our last meeting,
that the minimum cost of this work would not be much
below $35,000. An endeavor was made by the Committee
to raise the necessary money, and to this end the following
special contributions were secured:
Paul Baerwald, $500; Henry Ittleson, $250; Ludwig
Vogelstein, $100; Felix Fuld, $1,700; Joseph Leblang,
$500; New York Foundation, $3,500; Felix M. Warburg,
$500; A. M. Heinsheimer, $200.
In addition, a number of our sustaining members responded to the Committee's plea for additional funds to
carry on this work and to enable the Committee to engage
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
291
in other activities by increasing their contributions. This
subject will be further discussed under finances.
In all but eleven cities, it will be possible by correspondence to secure the information required by the Census
Bureau which will prove also of great importance to our
own community. In the following cities, however, special
methods involving the employment of canvassers will have
to be worked out in cooperation with the leaders of the
local communities: Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cleveland,
Detroit, Los Angeles, Newark, New York, Philadelphia,
Pittsburgh, and St. Louis. Inasmuch as the information
to be gathered in these cities is likely to be of value to the
local communities, it is hoped that it may be possible to
have the work financed by each of these communities so as
to relieve the Committee of the financial burden involved.
A memorandum on the scope and progress of the work
of this Census will be presented later and appended to this
report.*
7. THE AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
The twenty-ninth volume of the American Jewish Year
Book which was published last September was, as were
nineteen of its predecessors, prepared in the office of the
Committee. In addition to biographies of the late Oscar
Sblomon Straus and Israel Zangwill, the Year Book contains as a special feature an article on the Jews of Hungary
based on the Census of 1920 and prepared by Doctor Linfield. The data included in the article will be found of
great interest as reflecting the life of Jews in another
country, especially those statistics which bear upon birth,
marriage and divorce, conversion and apostasy, death, and
especially, in view of the existence of the legal restriction
upon the enrollment of Jews in universities, those bearing
upon that feature. The Year Book also contains the usual
Survey of the Year and the various directories of organizations, lists and tables which were all painstakingly revised and brought up to date. The Twentieth Annual
Report of the American Jewish Committee is published in
permanent form in this volume.
* See pages 00 to 000.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
B. CONDITION OF JEWS IN FOREIGN
COUNTRIES
During the past year, there were several events of a distressing nature affecting Jews in various countries. Your
Committee believes, however, that these are merely temporary set-backs and that the trend toward better times
noted in the reports rendered to you at the Nineteenth and
Twentieth Annual Meetings, has not been hindered. In
Palestine, there was a severe unemployment crisis which
is still continuing; in Russia there has been an increase of
anti-Semitism not among the masses, but among the communist factory workers; in Poland the economic stagnation has been disheartening although there are definite indications of improving conditions; in Roumania there were
outbreaks of violence against Jews; in Germany and in
Austria, there were manifestations of bigotry and intolerance. At the same time, these untoward events were not
regarded with apathy by the enlightened public opinion of
the various countries involved, and there is reason to expect that though there may at times transpire recurrencs of
these unfortunate incidents, with the improvement of economic conditions, the life of the Jewish people in foreign
lands will become more tolerable.
1. WESTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE
In Norway, the bill for the prohibition of Shehitah, the
Jewish method of slaughtering animals for food, which
had been introduced in the Norwegian Diet last year, and
was the subject of correspondence last year between your
President and the Secretary of State, was re-introduced
during the past spring. Two of the organizations represented in this Committee, the United Synagogue of America
and the Rabbinical Assembly of the Jewish Theological
Seminary of America, adopted resolutions on the subject.
Following the transmission of these resolutions to the Norwegian government, through its minister at Washington,
and similar action by organizations abroad, it appears that
the proposal was either withdrawn or allowed to lapse.
In Germany, there were during the past year numerous
indications of the existence of a more or less planned anti-
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
293
Jewish propaganda. The Berlin section of the German
Alpine Association, a sports organization, decided to expel
from its membership all Jews, including men prominent in
public life, some of whom had been members for many
years. At the recent celebration of the anniversary of the
Battle of Tannenberg, arrangements to have a rabbi participate in the ceremonies were cancelled as a result of pressure on the part of influential persons of anti-Jewish leanings
who threatened to disturb the celebration if the rabbi were
permitted to speak. There have occurred numerous instances of the desecration of Jewish cemeteries, by the overturning of gravestones and the mutilation of monuments.
Other outbreaks of even more violent character were prevented by the timely action of the civil authorities.
These sad happenings have, in some Jewish quarters,
brought about a spirit of discouragement. This was vividly
indicated at an annual conference of the Federation of German Students of the Jewish Faith, which took place in
Freiburg in August. At the meeting, the speakers complained that while the Jewish youth had done its full duty
during the War, they had lost their Fatherland, and must
begin all over again the struggle for their rights as citizens.
In Austria anti-Jewish feeling is largely a by-product of
political conflict between the Christian Socialists who control the national government, and the Social Democrats
who are masters in Vienna, and among whom Jews are
prominent. This fact explains in part the student riot at
the University of Vienna last spring in which brass-knuckles,
iron-tipped canes, and cudgels were lavishly employed;
eleven students were seriously injured and other scores
hurt, and the authorities were compelled to close the institution. There was also the protest of the students against
the appointment of Professor Hupka, a Jew, as dean of the
College of Law, the attempt to establish an "Aryan"
theatre, whence everything and everybody "Semitic" was
to be excluded, and the disgraceful propaganda of the
Volkskampf, organ of the Hakenkreuzler, to spread the
"ritual" murder myth, during the weeks before Passover.
In Hungary, the victory of the anti-Semitic Party in the
Budapest municipal elections was greeted by the pealing of
church bells. Here the appointment of a Jewish surgeon
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
who had performed great services for members of the
government, to a chair in the University of Budapest was
a signal for rioting. Not satisfied with the numerus clausus,
which has reduced the Jewish enrollment at the instituyions of higher learning to less than twenty-five percentum of what it was before the law went into effect, the
Minister of Education even proposed a percentage norm
for admission of Jews to the bar. This proposal was, however, condemned at a meeting of the Budapest Bar Association. Numerus clausus is so fashionable in Hungary
that the municipality of Kecskemet put one into effect at
the municipal theatre, by restricting Jews to only five percentum of the seats. Evidently the non-Jews did not take
full advantage of this regulation for the theatre was compelled to close its doors for lack of support, and appeal was
made to the Jews to forgive and forget.
Only a few weeks ago, the Hungarian government began
the wholesale expulsion of aliens, almost all of them Jews,
without having given them sufficient time to liquidate
their affairs. Many of these exiles have reached Cracow,
Paris, and other cities, where they present a most pitiable
appearance.
About a month ago, Premier Bethlen announced that
the government intended to introduce at the forthcoming
session of Parliament an amendment to the numerus
clnusus law, limiting its application only to certain faculties. This announcement was the signal for vociferous
protests on the part of the so-called "race purifiers," and
riots broke out in Budapest in which students of the university played a leading part. It is reported that they
maltreated many Jewish students, tearing the clothes from
their backs, forcing them to show their credentials, and
then expelling them from the university building.
2.
EASTERN E U R O P E
In Poland, as a result of a coup d' etat by Marshal Josef
Pilsudski in July, 1926, referred to in our last report, a
government with liberal tendencies is still in power. Apparently, this government is anxious to make the lot of the
Jews easier, but it is hampered by the fact that it lacks a
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
295
strong backing in the Parliament and must therefore act
cautiously if it would remain in power. Although the
Jewish deputies in the Sejm are dissatisfied with the lack
of progress made in Jewish reforms, it cannot be denied
that the Pilsudski government has taken a number of positive and beneficial steps. For one thing, it definitely abolished the illegal numerus clausus instituted arbitrarily by
the Minister of Education of a previous regime. It has
ameliorated the conditions affecting Sunday closing for
Jewish small traders and artisans who employ no help, by
permitting them to remain open a few hours on that day.
Its educational commission reported against any restriction
of enrollment for Jews and recommended the recognition
of Yiddish and Hebrew schools which meet certain requirements. The government has also postponed putting into
effect the law which sought to deprive their present holders,
mostly Jews, of licenses to deal in tobacco and other commodities of state monopoly. It has ruled that trials in
which Jews are involved shall not be held on Saturdays or
Jewish holidays, and has publicly condemned the antiJewish boycott propaganda. On the other hand, it has not
satisfied Jewish demands in three directions, to wit, the
admission of Jews to state employment, the abolition of the
old Czaristic laws, and the recognition of existing Jewish
schools by granting them a subsidy.
The undoubted good will of the government could not
altogether prevent outbreaks showing that the lower strata
of the Polish populace have not suppressed their hatred
of the Jews so sedulously cultivated by the Czarist regime
and by the Polish reactionaries.
There was even a "ritual" murder scare in two towns,
but this was quickly cleared up and an official was dismissed for failure to suppresss the agitation with sufficient
promptitude. The accusation of well-poisoning was also
raised against the Jews, when a number of soldiers in a
certain garrison became ill after drinking the water of a
nearby well. As might be expected, investigation proved
that the water was polluted. In Lemberg, toward the end
of June, a student riot in which Jews were beaten and the
office of Chwila a Jewish Polish newspaper, was raided, was
vigorously suppressed by the police. Recently, the govern-
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ment closed the bank established by the anti-Semitic organization, Rozvoj, for the purpose of financing the boycott
agitation a'gainst the Jews. An official investigation disclosed that the funds of depositors had been misused and
the accounts of the bank falsified.
The economic life of the Jews of Poland is still far from
satisfactory, but there has been some improvement. The
cooperative movement is growing apace, and the funds
provided through the American Jewish Joint Distribution
Committee are helping many traders and artisans who
lacked neither energy nor skill, but only capital, to become
self-sustaining. A suggestion that Jews be helped to go
on the land was not welcomed by the government which
pointed out that in Poland there was no appreciable amount
of vacant arable land. The subject is, however, receiving
due consideration.
In Lithuania, in the summer of 1926, as a result of a
national election, a liberal government came into power.
During the life of this government the conditions of the
Jews who had been harassed by the preceding reactionary
regime, were ameliorated. Documents were brought to
light which showed that the former government had itself
circulated anti-Jewish propaganda. The new government
also took steps to recognize the Jewish schools and to
amend the compulsory Sunday rest law which was unnecessarily burdensome in some of its provisions. This
liberal government was not long-lived, however, for after
scarcely six months of existence it was overthrown in
December, 1926, by a coup d' etat executed by Smetona,
formerly president of the republic, who established a new
cabinet under Professor Valdemaras, which abandoned the
liberal policy toward Jews and other minorities. As a
result, the present condition of the Jews is no better than
it was before June, 1926.
3.
ROUMANIA
In Roumania the Averescu government, which many had
hoped would not pursue the anti-Jewish policies of former
regimes, turned out to be even worse than its predecessors.
One of its first acts was to reinstate Alexander Cuza,
apostle of anti-Semitism, in the faculty of the University
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297
of Jassy, over the protests of the other members. The
offices of Jewish organizations and of individuals were
raided and searched, in vain of course, for treasonable
documents. No help was extended to the Jewish school
system in the educational budget. The numerus clausus
was not introduced, but at the baccalaureate examinations
for admission to the universities, discrimination was practiced against Russian, Hungarian, or Jewish students, and
a virtual numerus clausus was thus effected. The situation was most flagrant in Czernowitz, Bukowina, where
seventy per cent of the non-Roumanian students were
"flunked." The leaders of a public demonstration which
grew into a riot were arrested, and at the court hearing,
one Nicholas Totu, a Roumanian student, whipped out a
revolver and shot David Falik, one of the accused. This
cold-blooded murder created a tremendous sensation and
filled the Jews of Bukowina with dread. Many Roumanian lawyers offered to conduct the defense of the murderer,
who was acquitted on the ground that his act was the
result of "patriotic zeal." After that, the students, appreciating that they were immunized, redoubled their efforts
to embitter the lives of Jewish students with the result
that in some of the universities a virtual numerus clausus
came into effect.
This paved the way for the student excesses beginning
on December 2, in Kishineff, perpetrated by about three
hundred students who were invited to visit the city after
attending a student conference at Jassy. En route they
had beaten all the Jews traveling on the same train, and
at every way station they h#d assaulted Jews who were
unlucky enough to be on the platforms. Arrived at Kishineff, they beat up Jews, or those who looked like Jews, in
the railway station and then marched to the Cathedral,
where a service was held. This was followed by a sightseeing trip, in the course of which they attacked Jews,
tore down store-signs, smashed shop windows. Terror
reigned in the city, and troops were called to suppress the
students. Later, they broke out again, damaging synagogues, dragging Jews off street cars, and beating them.
On the way back to the station they encountered a squadron of cavalry which attempted to disperse them, and
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
several were thrown down a n d trampled b y the horses.
A t the station, t h e y repeated their former tactics. On
the way to their homes in other cities, the s t u d e n t s stopped
the train a t Kalarash and perpetrated excesses in t h e
Jewish q u a r t e r of the town.
All over the world these events which were, in t h e
beginning, somewhat exaggerated in press reports, aroused
indignation, and meetings of protest were held in m a n y
countries. T h r o u g h the good offices of M r . William Nelson Cromwell of New York City, President of the organization Friends of Roumania, a meeting was arranged in
J a n u a r y last between your President a n d M r . George
Cretziano, R o u m a n i a n Minister to the United S t a t e s . At
this meeting the situation of the Jews of R o u m a n i a was
thoroughly discussed. While regretting the violence with
which R o u m a n i a had been a t t a c k e d recently in the press,
the R o u m a n i a n Minister a d m i t t e d , to his great regret, t h a t
the anti-Semitic p a r t y in R o u m a n i a had violently a n d unjustly attacked the Jews. He was anxious to p u t an end to
the unfortunate controversy and he was sure t h a t his gove r n m e n t was desirous of protecting the Jews against t h e
a t t a c k s of the anti-Semites. Your President took occasion
to m a k e a complete s t a t e m e n t of the grievance of the Jews
a n d presented suggestions as to w h a t could be done to p u t
a n end to t h e indignities from which t h e y were suffering.
T h e Minister received t h e s e / e m a r k s in good p a r t a n d M r .
Cromwell endorsed them strongly. T h e Minister requested
M r . Marshall to furnish him with a copy of the letter
written to Mr. Titulescu a year ago, which is set forth in
our T w e n t i e t h Annual Report. M r . Marshall p r o m p t l y
complied with this request and correspondence with t h e
Roumanian Minister ensued, in the course of which, M r .
Marshall from time to time called the Minister's a t t e n t i o n
to a n u m b e r of flagrant instances of anti-Jewish propaganda, which the Minister promised to bring to the a t t e n tion of his government. This correspondence follows:
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
I.
299
MR. MARSHALL TO M. CRETZIANO
YOUR EXCELLENCY:
January 31, 1927.
In conformity with your request I am handing you a copy of the
letter which I wrote to His Excellency, M. Nicholas Titulescu on
January 5, 1926, regarding the relations of the Roumanian Government and the Jews of Roumania. We had previously discussed the
subject orally at a small dinner in honor of M. Titulescu at the
Lotos Club, at which Hon. Julian W. Mack and Rev. Dr. Stephen
S. Wise were also present. For that reason their signatures were
appended to the letter. M. Titulescu thought it would be helpful
if I reduced to writing what I had said orally on the basis of official
documents and various books, pamphlets and newspaper publications which I had with me. He sent me a radiogram from the steamship Berengaria on his return voyage to London, in which he said:
"Recois momente embarquer votre memoire. Examinerai et
transmittrai Gouvernment." I received no further communication
from him.
I wish to express my great appreciation for the pleasant evening
at your apartments and for the fine spirit of cooperation manifested
by you and by Mr. Cromwell looking toward an amicable and
•effective solution of existing misunderstandings. From my point
of view, based on the experience of the United States with its citizenship derived from fifty nationalities, as well as on the conclusions
that I have derived from the teachings of history, it is certain that
whatever redounds to the happiness of the Jews of Roumania will
inure to the welfare of Roumania, and that whatever leads to the
prosperity of the country will inevitably bring about the happiness
of its people. I know that the Jews of Roumania are loyal to Roumania, as the Jews are to every country in which they live. They
have demonstrated this to a remarkable degree in the United States.
They are recognized as a great asset. They have developed important industries and are engaged in every form of commeice.
The Roumanian Jews who came to this country have become
valuable citizens. Those who remain in Roumania will, if given
•equality of opportunity and protection against the onslaughts of
anti-Semitism, unquestionably prove a blessing to the country.
Wherever any considerable part of the citizenry under any government are the victims of discrimination and the objects of hatred,
•contempt or suspicion, evils are certain to develop and injury to the
nation is sure to follow. The best results have always been consequent upon a spirit of unity and friendship and mutual confidence.
I shall be very glad at any time to confer with you further on
this subject and to do whatever lies within my power to bring about
a complete rapprochement between the various elements of the
population of Roumania. The country is rich in natural resources,
it is fortunately located, and it has expanded its boundaries and its
population to an extraordinary extent. What is most important
for its growth and progress is the utilization of its human resources
and the favorable opinion of the world.
I am, with great respect,
Very Cordially yours,
(Signed) Louis MARSHALL.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
II.
M. CRETZIANO TO MR. MARSHALL.
Legatiunea Regalia a Romaniei,
Washington, D. C.
February 3, 1927.
MY DEAR MR. MARSHALL:
Let me first express to you my gratitude for your kind note of
January 31, 1927, and for the copy of your letter of January 5, 1926,
addressed to His Majesty Nicolas Titulescu, the contents of which
I did not fail to communicate to my Government, calling their
attention to this very important question.
In the meantime, through a strange coincidence, as you will see
from the enclosed communication, no less than Rabbi Niemirower
himself, in his position as Senator by right, declared before the
Roumanian Parliament that he "protested and still protests categorically against the exaggerations and the intrigues of foreigners
against Roumania," and, therefore, without any doubt confirmed
the statement of my Government concerning the campaign lately
launched against Roumania in such a violent and subversive spirit.
As we are, I hope, due to your splendid reconciliatory spirit, just
on the road to new cooperation, hand in hand, for leveling, or, at
least, for smoothing the difficulties still existing in this question,
permit me (based on the "dementis" always given by the facts,
and, this time, by the declarations of such an authority in this
matter as Rabbi Niemirower) to suggest that, in future, when such
sensational and malicious stories are launched against my Country,
I can count on your precious assistance, before starting such a
campaign, to previously ask for the established facts, either through
me or through the American Minister in Bucharest, or, even
directly, through the most authorized co-religionists in Roumania
(according to your choice "ad libitum.") I count on your known
loyalty, not only in the interest of Roumania, but also, and especially, in the interest of the loyal Jewish population in Roumania,
which forms an important part of good Roumanian citizenry.
In the hope that our thoughts will meet entirely on this way of
loyal and devoted collaboration for the common welfare of the
Roumanian Jewish cause, I am, with great consideration.
Yours very sincerely,
Louis Marshall, Esq.,
120 Broadway, New York, N. Y.
(Signed) G. CRETZIANO.
[Enclosure]
COMMUNICATION RECEIVED FROM THE PRESS BUREAU OF THE
MINISTRY OF FOREIGH AFFAIRS IN BUCHAREST,
FEBRUARY 1, 1927.
The Jewish newspapers of Roumania accentuate the importance
of the declarations made by the new Senator, by right, Rabbi
Niemirower, before the Roumanian Parliament:
"We Israelites living in this Country know how pacific and goodhearted the Roumanian people are. We know that we cannot
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
301
make the Roumanian people responsible for the excesses of an
isolated anti-Semitic party.
"There is a difference between the Israelites of the Old Kingdom,
who are happy to have become entirely Roumanian citizens, and
the Israelites of the reunited provinces, who are not all yet in the
frame of this Country. I can testify that I have protested and still
protest categorically against the exaggerations and the intrigues
of foreigners against Roumania."
III.
MR. MARSHALL TO M. CRETZIANO.
FEBRUARY 7, 1927.
YOUR EXCELLENCY:
I am in receipt of yours of the 3rd inst. containing communication regarding declarations made by Chief Rabbi Niemirower
before the Roumanian Parliament. My attention has been previously called to his statement. I am well acquainted with him,
having met him in Paris in 1919 during the Peace Conference, and
have a very high opinion of him. I have also read editorials from
Jewish newspapers, published in Roumania, in which they take
exception to publications which have been made in other countries
to the effect that there have been pogroms in Roumania. This the
articles deny, but they nevertheless call attention to various abuses
of the anti-Semites, some of which I referred to in my letter to his
Excellency M. Titulescu. I have just received a copy of Curierul
Israelit of January 15th, 1927, which I enclose. You will find on
the first page a reproduction of a part of a pamphlet which is in
general circulation throughout Roumania, of the most obnoxious
and dangerous character. It purports to portray a pretended
ritual murder, a charge against the Jews which has been exploded
over and over again, and which was finally dealt with in the celebrated Beilis case, which was tried in Kief shortly before the war.
You will also observe the Swastika, which is the symbol of the
anti-Semites. Both Mr. Titulescu and I happen to have had in
our possession at the time of our conference copies of this pamphlet,
of which the illustration which is reproduced is only one of many
others equally offensive and equally calculated to arouse hatred,
animosity and intolerance against the Jews. On the third page
appears a contrast to the infamous attack made upon the morals
and the honor and the loyalty of the Jews. The last page referred
to, gives an account of the services held in the Cathedral of St.
John of New York, in which I had the honor to participate, at
which our Christian fellow-citizens launched a campaign for the
raising of funds to help the unfortunate Jews of Eastern Europe
who were suffering from disease, famine and extreme poverty. I
am confident that you sympathize in every way with that highminded movement launched by Catholics and Protestants in aid
of the Jews and at which General Pershing, who was the Commander-in-Chief of the American troops during the late war,
General O'Ryan, one of the division commanders of our Army, Dr.
Cadman, one of the leading divines of America, and Bishop Man-
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ning, the head of the Episcopal Church of New York, participated.
These gentlemen know what the Jews have done and are doing for
America and their testimony should be accepted all over the world.
In the address which I delivered on that occasion I said that it was
entirely unimportant whether the campaign which they were conducting would result in small or large contributions, the very fact
that it was demonstrated that the people of the United States
treated the Jews as on an equality and as human beings, was all
sufficient.
I fully appreciate the importance of preventing the spread of
sensational stories reflecting upon Roumania, and that it is necessary that the exact facts be in every case ascertained. I shall be
happy to cooperate with you in this direction. The best way,
however, of preventing misunderstanding is to avoid the occasion
of it.. The Government of Roumania is powerful enough to prevent
such libels of a whole people as those to which I have called your
attention and the other abuses which have been particularized.
When that has been accomplished then a friendly feeling, coupled
with one of appreciation and gratitude, will take the place of that
discontent and unhappiness which now exists. Mischief-makers,
whoever they may be, would thereby be disarmed.
With best regards to you,
Very cordially yours,
(Signed) Louis MARSHALL.
IV.
M. CRETZIANO TO MR. MARSHALL.
Legatiunea Regalia a Romaniei,
Washington, D. C.
February 9, 1927.
MY DEAR MR. MARSHALL:
Many thanks for your letter of February 7th, the contents of
which interested me in a high degree. I was very pleased to see that
you know personally and appreciate Chief Rabbi Niemirower who,
as a Senator by right, high minded and moderate as he is, will be
able to obtain much for the amelioration of the Jews in Roumania.
I think that the fact that our new Constitution has provided for a
permanent seat in the Senate for a representative of the Jewish
religion means real progress. I trust that rest will come by degrees
with mutual good will.
It would certainly be an ideal to see one day in Roumania, manifestations of human solidarity like the one which took place in the
Cathedral of St. John in New York, as detailed by "Curierul
Israelit" that you sent me. This is the future which I hope to see
one day, and if not I, at least my children may see it. I must confess that the present as discussed in the first page of said paper is
very far from it, but one must not despair.
I wired to my Government, drawing its attention on the infamous
anti-semitic libels, and I hardly can imagine that no measures have
been taken to prevent their circulation. I also trust that my Gov-
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
303
ernment will give full attention to the remarks contained in your
memoir to Minister Titulescu, of which I sent him a copy.
In my opinion it would constitute a good base for discussions
between the government and the Chief Rabbi.
Very cordially yours,
(Signed) G. CRETZIANO.
V.
MR. MARSHALL TO M. CRETZIANO.
March 5, 1927.
YOUR EXCELLENCY:
Availing myself further of your suggestion that I bring to your
attention my additional information that I may have regarding
the treatment accorded the Jews of Roumania, I enclose a translation of a number of newspaper articles and manifestos which have
been circulated recently in Roumania. They include an article
which appeared in Carpatii, the organ of the Christian League of
National Defense, the head of which I understand to be Mr. Cuza.
This article, of which I can send you a photostatic copy, is entitled
"UCIDE," which I understand to mean "Kill." By this publication the readers are incited to kill the Jews. They are told that to
do so is not a crime, but "the greatest honor of the Roumanians."
So far as I have been able to learn nothing has been done by the
Government to deal with so incendiary a document or to punish
the offenders. What does silence under these circumstances portend? Would not one infer that silence gives consent?
The next article is a manifesto issued by the Committee of the
Christian League in Bucharest, which asks Christians to rid the
country of Jews, "who," it is said, "like spiders, suck the blood and
vitality out of the poor Roumanian Christian, who is struggling to
extricate himself from the clutches of death."
The third is a manifesto issued by another section of the League
and distributed in the various towns and villages, which seeks to
arouse animosity and hatred against the Jews among the various
classes of Roumanian citizens. Still another urges Roumanians
to employ the economic boycott against the Jews.
All this is most painful, because there can be no doubt that the
constant repetition and reiteration of foul slanders and libels and
appeals to hatred and prejudice, cannot result otherwise than in
infinite harm to the State as well as to the individual.
As you know, it is my earnest desire to bring about a friendly
feeling between the Roumanian Government and the Jews. But
you must concede that an unreproved and unpunished continuance
of such dangerous appeals and incitements as those to which I
have called your attention in my several communications, cannot
but alarm the Jews of Roumania and arouse the indignation of the
Jews and all right-thinking men and women everywhere.
With best regards, I am,
Very cordially yours,
(Signed) Louis MARSHALL.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
VI.
M. CRETZIANO TO MR. MARSHALL.
Legatiunea Regala a Romaniei,
Washington, D. C.
March 8, 1927.
Louis MARSHALL, ESQ.,
120 Broadway, New York, N. Y.
MY DEAR MR. MARSHALL:
As soon as I received your letter of March 5, I cabled its contents
to Bucharest, drawing the attention of my Government to the
facts related. I could not certify that these new and regrettable
manifestations are not partly a consequence of the campaign
started abroad against Roumania under the pretext of pogroms, a
pretext which has, at last, been abandoned, as it appears to me
from the reports of the Jewish Congress in Washington, after having
been carried on for three months at several meetings and assemblies,
in order to raise the public opinion and to provide the intervention
of the American Government.
At any rate, my Government has taken measures to prevent
any excesses on the part of students against the Jewish population,
as results from the enclosed letter (rendered public) of the Premier
General Averescu to the Minister of Public Instruction, and I hope
that no new incidents will occur, as the Jewish question in Roumania can be solved only in an atmosphere of peace and serenity.
Very cordially yours
(Signed) GEORGE CRETZIANO,
Minister of Roumania.
[Enclosure]
ROMANOLEG, WASHINGTON.
I transmit to you the following note addressed by the Prime
Minister to the Minister of Public Instruction:
"Mr. Minister:
I beg to bring to the knowledge of all the students in the country
—by the means which you will deem advisable—to abstain from
all manifestations. The Government has no need of any help—
outside of the legal means at its disposal—to guarantee the national
interests as well as the public order and any inmixtion on the part
of the uncalled for is illegal and cannot but be punished with all the
severity of the laws. It is well not to forget that in several parts of
the country, including the capital, the guaranteeing of peace and
order imposes upon us the necessity of maintaining the martial
law which does not admit any exception and the government has
no right to depart from the general rule in anyone's favor.
[Signed] GENERAL AVERESCU."
MITILINEU
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
VII.
305
MR. MARSHALL TO M. CRETZIANO.
March 10, 1927.
YOUR EXCELLENCY:
I am in receipt of yours of the 8th instant and am glad to learn
that you have cabled the contents of my letter of March 5th to
Bucharest.
I also note the communication addressed by the Roumanian
Prime Minister General Averescu to the Minister of Public Instruction, which urges the latter to bring to the knowledge of the Roumanian students the desire on the part of the Government that they
abstain from all manifestations against the Jewish population. It
is particularly pleasing to observe the statement that the Roumanian Government "has no need of any help, outside of the legal
means at its disposal, to guarantee the national interests as well as
the public order" and that any intrusion on the part of the students
is uncalled for and illegal and must be punished with all the severity
of the laws.
To my mind this is an evidence of the adoption of a sound policy.
It is a recognition by the Government that it has the power to
prevent the objectionable manifestations that have taken place
and that it can and will protect the public interests and maintain
public order.
Referring to that part of your letter in which you intimate that
the manifestations referred to may partly result from action taken
abroad against Roumania, I can only say that Roumania is too
great a nation to permit the action of a small number of irresponsible hotheads to lead her to justify the shameful treatment to
which the Jews of Roumania have been subjected, not merely by
irresponsible hotheads, but by cool, calculating anti-Semites like
Prof. Cuza and his political party. As you know, I have deplored
the actions of the men to whom you have referred and have been
diligent in seeking to counteract their proceedings. I am not a
member of the American Jewish Congress. Nevertheless I have
used my influence in such a way as to moderate, at least, the action
that it was intended by these hotheads to take at the Jewish
Congress.
I am sure that through your good offices and those of Mr. Cromwell, and of the enlightened men of Roumania who appreciate that
the welfare of their beloved country depends upon the maintenance
of mutual confidence and cooperation by all of the citizens of the
country, so that its prosperity and happiness may be advanced
by the prosperity and happiness of its entire population, the misunderstandings of the past will speedily disappear. You have my
positive assurance that the great body of Jews in the United States
entertains these views and will not be carried away by the ill-considered words or acts of a small group. You will appreciate, however, that every right-thinking Jew in this country is greatly
concerned in everything that pertains to the welfare of his coreligionists in Roumania, that he is not indifferent to any suffering
or injustice to which they may be subjected, and that he regards
the outbursts of anti-Semitism as directed not only against the
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Jews of Roumania, but against the Jews everywhere. He has,
however, an abiding conviction that if Roumania exercises the
powers which she possesses as a great nation, she will be able in
short order to put an end to all complaints, and to benefit not only
from the loyal support, the intelligence and the industry of her own
Jews, but also from the friendship, appreciation and respect of the
Jews of America.
Since dictating the above I have received yours of the 10th
instant, in which you inform me that you received a cablegram
from Premier General Averescu stating that three consecutive
numbers of "Carpatzi," containing incitation to murder, have been
confiscated by the police, and that a new bill relating to the press
is to be proposed shortly in order to deal with like abuses. I am
gratified beyond words at this evidence of what has been done and
of what is intended to be done, and I congratulate you upon the
part that you have taken in bringing about such prompt action.
With best regards, I am.
Very cordially yours,
(Signed) Louis MARSHALL.
His Excellency, M. George Cretziano,
Roumanian Legation,
Washington, D. C.
VIII. M.
CRETZIANO TO MR. MARSHALL.
LAGATIUNEA REGALA A ROMANIEI,
WASHINGTON, D. C.
March 10, 1927.
My DEAR MR. MARSHALL:
Continuing my letter of March 8th, I am glad to inform you
that, today, I received a cablegram from Premier General Averescu
stating that, by his order, three consecutive numbers of the paper
"Carpatzi," containing incitation to murder, were confiscated by
the police. I understand that more could not be done due to the
actual state of our press legislation, but a new bill on this matter
will be proposed shortly, in order to limit the abuse of excessive
liberty in publications.
Yours very cordially,
(Signed) GEORGE CRETZIANO,
Minister of Roumania.
After the fall of the Averescu cabinet, early last summer, it transpired that Octavian Goga, a poet, who had
been Minister of the Interior, had not concealed his satisfaction with the anti-Jewish agitation and outbreaks regarding them with the enthusiasm of a perverted nationalist. The present government, headed by loan Bratianu,
came into power after a national election held last July,
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
307
preceding which Jewish leaders reached an understanding
with Bratianu that the government, in return for the suffrages of the Jews, and their support in Parliament, would
grant certain of their demands. Nine out of the ten
anti-Semites including Cuza who served in the preceding
Parliament, were re-elected. Eight Jews were, however,
elected to parliament, four to the Senate and four, including
Dr. William Filderman, to the Chamber of Deputies. It
remains to be seen how this compact will be observed.
Within the past fortnight the Roumanian Ministry has
rendered a most important decision which involves the
immediate reopening of all Jewish schools which were
closed by the Averescu Government; granting the right
to all Jewish schools to observe Saturday and annulling a
contrary regulation of the former government; the taking
of such steps as will accelerate favorable action upon the
demands of the Jewish schools for conformity with the
requirement of the public law with respect to Jewish
schools. This is a progressive step which augurs well for
the future.
4. RUSSIA
In Russia, anti-Semitism is spreading among the workers. The communist press frequently refers to the matter
and urges the Soviet government to embark upon a campaign against it. Lunacharsky, People's Commissar for
Education, delivered a public address on the subject.
Bucharin, members of the Executive of the Party, placed
much of the blame for the spread of the plague on so-called
Jewish jokes. A conference of Jewish workingmen in the
Kiev District held last March, expressed deep concern over
the matter
Numerically Jews are not active in the Soviet government. Last December, official figures were published
showing that only 30,000 Jews are members of the Party,
in a membership of over a million. At the end of April
when the Communist Party held its elections, no Jew was
chosen on the Council of People's Commissars (Cabinet)
of eleven, and only twenty of the 450 members elected
to the Central Executive Committee of the Party are of
Jewish birth.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
After the breach in Anglo-Russian relations last spring
there was a marked increase in anti-Jewish propaganda
from monarchist sources, which sought to fix the blame
for the breach upon the Jews. In the Ukraine this was
so noticeable that a committee of Jews appealed to the
authorities to stamp it out.
August 30, 1927, marked the completion of three years
of activity by the Comzet, the government commission for
the settlement of Jews on the land. According to a report
rendered at that time, a total of 15,729 Jewish families,
from 60,000 to 75,000 souls, have been settled on the land
under the supervision of this Commission. According to
the recent report of Dr. Joseph Rosen, agent of the American Jewish Joint Agricultural Corporation (Agro-Joint)
a total of 35,000 Jewish families have settled in 180 agricultural-colonies; of this number 27,000 were assisted by
the Agro-Joint. The total area devoted to this purpose
was 295,917 desiatin, or. about 800,000 acres, in thirteen
regions. The cost of this work borne by public agencies
was 13,656,000 gold roubles, of which 7,349,000 were contributed by the Agro-Joint, which is financed by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee; the State contributed 2,403,000 roubles, besides 2,993,000 from bank
credits and other government sources, while the balance,
1,011,000 roubles came from the lea and the Ort. According to many witnesses, the colonies are in a throving condition; the success of this project has greatly encouraged
the various cooperating agencies, and the work is to be
continued. During the past few months, the Hilfsverein
der Deutschen Juden has decided also to cooperate in this
work.
In the meantime, the Soviet government, appreciating
that it cannot reconstitute the economic life of the Jews
solely on the basis of land settlement, has begun to take
steps to assist them to enter industry, and instructions to
that effect have been given to the Comzet.
5.
PALESTINE
Among the most important happenings having to do with
Palestine were the passage by the British Parliament of
an act authorizing the floating of a loan of $22,500,000 by
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
309
the Palestine government, to be guaranteed as to principal
and interest by the British treasury, for railroad, telephone,
highway, harbor, and other improvements; the establishment by Nathan Straus of a Health Center in Jerusalem
and of a Children's Sanitarium at Tel Aviv; and the founding, by Nathan Lamport of New York, of a Free Loan
Association. On the other hand, there has existed an
unemployment crisis due in part to credit inflation and
over-activity in urban building, themselves the result of too
rapid immigration.
During the past year, the government finally approved
the organization of the Palestine Electric Company, which
has control of the so-called Rutenberg Concession for the
generation of power from the Jordan and its tributaries.
The Palestine Economic Corporation of the United States
announced that it had expected to participate to the extent
of £150,000 (approximately $750,000) in the completion
of the hydro-electric station on the River Jordan. The
Corporation also decided during the year to make available
$200,000 for credits to workingmen for the building of
homes in Palestine, to place $100,000 with the central
bank and cooperative institutions in Jerusalem for loans to
agricultural and other groups in Palestine; and to buy
certain obligations of Jewish farmers to the Keren Hayesod
so as to make additional operating capital available for
the latter. All of these decisions have not as yet been
carried into effect.
Although not much more than two years has elapsed
since the Hebrew University on Mount Scopus was dedicated, the progress that has been achieved in the development of that Institution as shown in the announcement
issued by the University in May, 1927, has been substantial. The furthest advanced department in the University is, naturally enough, the Institute of Jewish Studies,
which has a considerable endowment, and has been able to
secure a larger Faculty than any other department. While
not yet completely organized, it has added during the past
year, lectureships in mediaeval Hebrew poetry and Jewish
sociology, and in co-operation with the Jewish Exploration
Society and Institutions in America, has also carried on
interesting archaeological researches. The School of Ori-
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ental Studies has undertaken two pieces of research work
in the realm of Arabic literature and Islamic culture. The
Institute of Microbiology has made some useful discoveries
which while adding to the world's fund of knowledge on
parasites peculiar to Palestine, have also been of practical
benefit to the country and its population. Good work has
also been begun by the Institute of Chemistry and of Palestine Natural History.
The Department of Hygiene, which is being supported
partially from funds received through the American Joint
Distribution Committee, has been engaged in researches
connected with the sandfly fever, typhoid, dysentery and
malaria.
The Institute of Mathematics was opened at the beginning of the present academic year.
The University Library which, in 1920, had 32,000
volumes on its shelves, now has 180,000, and has been
named official depository for the publications issued by the
League of Nations, the World Court, and other important
public bodies. A new building to house this collection is
now in course of construction.
During the year further progress was made toward the
proposed enlargement of the Jewish Agency for Palestine,
to include non-Zionists. In January, an agreement was
reached between Doctor Chaim Weitzmann, President of
the International Zionist Organization and Louis Marshall,
Chairman of the Non-Partisan Conference of American
Jews, to Consider Palestine Problems, whereby as a preliminary step a joint commission was to be designated "to
make a thorough survey and investigation of conditions in
Palestine, including an expert study of the resources and
of the agricultural, industrial, commercial and other economic possibilities of Palestine and neighboring territory
and to acquire a complete conspectus of Jewish activities
and achievements in the Holy Land." Later in the year
the Commission, consisting of Sir Alfred Mond of London,
England, Doctor Oscar Wasserman of Berlin, and Messrs.
Felix M. Warburg and Doctor Lee K. Frankel of New York
City was appointed, and aided by a staff of experts began
the investigation. The experts include: Professor Elwood
Mead, Agriculture; Professor Jacob G. Lipman, Agricul-
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
311
ture; Professor Frank Adams, Agriculture; Professor
Knowles A. Ryerson, Agriculture; Professor A. T. Strahorn,
Agriculture; Mr. C. K. Henriques, Water Supply and Irrigation; Dr. Leo Wolman, Labor-Industry; Sir John Campbell, Colonization; Dr. Ernst Kahn,-Banking; Price, Waterhouse & Co., Accountants; Mr. R. D. Kesselman, Accountant; Dr. Maurice B. Hexter, Secretary to the American
Commissioners; Dr. Milton J. Rosenau, Public Health; Dr.
Charles F. Wilinsky, Public Health.
The Terms of Reference and the accompanying specifications giving in detail the lines along which the survey is
to be made are given in full.
Upon the basis of the report of the experts and of the
Commission which will be ready by the spring of 1928, it
is expected that the program of work to be undertaken by
the Jewish Agency will be arranged and steps taken to
effect the proposed enlargement of the Agency.
6. THE RIGHTS OF MINORITIES
In our Nineteenth Annual Report attention was called
to the fact that in the summer of 1925 the President of
the Committee, while at Geneva, submitted to the Secretariat of the Council of the League of Nations a memorandum in which he called attention to the desirability of
amending the procedure with respect to the presentation
of complaints on behalf of minorities of infractions of the
so-called Minority Treaties and urged that wherever the
Government against which complaint might be made had
lodged an answer to the complaint, the terms of such answer should be communicated to the complainants, who in
turn should be permitted to reply to it and to indicate
wherein they agreed or disagreed with the Government's
contentions as to the law or the facts, and that they should
likewise be made cognizant of the conclusion reached by
the so-called Committee of Three appointed by the Council
to consider the complaint.
It is gratifying to know that this subject has received
attention from the International Law Association, an organization composed of experts in that branch of the law.
The suggested amendment in procedure was fully set
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
forth in the address of R. E. L. Vaughan Williams, Esq.,
C h a i r m a n of the committee of the Association dealing with
t h e subject of Minorities. A sub-committee consisting of
Prof. Brunet, Professor of the Faculty of Law of Caen,
a n d of Mile. M a r t h e H u e t , submitted a report to like effect.
T h e r e u p o n the following resolution was a d o p t e d :
" T h e Committee, convinced of the a d v a n t a g e s of p u b licity in respect to petitions on behalf of minorities, urges
t h e Council tihat it shall provide t h a t answers s u b m i t t e d
b y Governments be communicated to the petitioners, and
t h a t they m a y , if they so desire, present their c o m m e n t s
on such answers."
T h e manifest fairness of such amended procedure will,
it is confidently hoped, be recognized b y the League of
Nations. If the proposed change should be adopted, it
will a d d to the effectiveness of the Treaties a n d go far
toward t h e elimination of existing difficulties in respect to
their enforcement.
7.
TURKEY
A t the preceding Annual Meeting your C o m m i t t e e referred to the action taken in August, 1926, b y a group of
Jews in T u r k e y . Following negotiations with t h e T u r k i s h
G o v e r n m e n t on the subject of the reorganization of Jewish
communities in T u r k e y , this group of so-called Notables
adopted resolutions proclaiming " t h e complete renunciation
b y Turkish Jewry of all national minority rights guaranteed by the T r e a t y of L a u s a n n e . " A t t h a t time your Presid e n t characterized this to be a blow a t the principle of t h e
rights of minorities a n d as not only utterly futile b u t
unspeakably cowardly and disgraceful as well, a n d expressed
the belief t h a t b y taking this action the Jewish notables
had placed in jeopardy the welfare of the entire Jewish
population.
Since t h a t time, reports which have been received from
T u r k e y indicate t h a t the situation of the Jews has become
difficult in the extreme, and t h a t they have undergone
numerous vexations as a result of a strong chauvinisticnationalistic movement. Charges of disloyalty have been
t r u m p e d u p against t h e m a n d a newspaper campaign of
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
313
vilification has been going on. Whereas, Greek, German
and other tongues are permitted as languages in the schools
of minorities, and the Ashkenazic community is permitted
to use German in its schools, the use of Spaniola (a JudeoSpanish tongue prevalent among the Sephardic Jews,) is
restricted in schools maintained by them. The right to
travel freely throughout the country possessed by all other
Turkish nationals is withheld from the Jews, who are
required to secure special passports every time they wish to
proceed from the cities into the interior, and these passports are obtained only with difficulty.
Although many Jews are engaged in commerce and
trade, not a single Jew is a member of a Chamber of Commerce. It is also practically impossible for a Jew to enter
the legal profession, as all candidates, after passing an
examination are required to serve for two years as clerks
to a government official, and the government accepts only
"real," i. e., Moslem Turks for such clerkships. Annoying
obstacles have also hampered Jewish effort in commercial
and other fields of activity. In short, the Jews who have
always been and still are one of the most loyal and useful
sections of the population of Turkey are being degraded to
second class citizenship in violation of the obligations which
the Turkish Republic assumed when it entered into the
Treaty of Lausanne.
8. EMERGENCY WORK FOR JEWISH REFUGEES
In our report last year we referred to the condition of
those intending immigrants who were stranded in various
European ports because of the drastic reduction of the
quotas from the countries from which they had emigrated,
and we informed you that their distress had been considerably relieved, thanks to the work of an Evacuation Committee established in Europe by the American Emergency
Committee for Jewish Refugees, which comprises representatives of various Jewish organizations in this country,
including the American Jewish Committee.
For the purpose of making accessible a further record of
these activities attention is called to the following additional facts:—
During the year, the work of settling these stranded
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
refugees located in various centers and ports in Europe
has gone on apace, and the latest report of Doctor Bernhard Kahn, the representative on the Evacuation Committee of the American Emergency Committee, shows that the
number of such stranded refugees has diminished considerably, and, except for those in Bucharest, almost to the
vanishing point. Some of them were repatriated, others
were permitted to remain in the countries of their temporary sojourn, while still others were enabled to start life
anew in other lands. Doctor Kahn advises us that there
is every reason to believe that during the coming year this
phase of the refugee problem will have been liquidated.
The work of the Emergency Committee on behalf of the
immigrants, some 5,000 in number, who were induced by
steamship agents to go to Cuba, was continued during 1927,
though on a reduced scale. These immigrants have now
been in Cuba from three to six years, and through aid
extended to them successively by the Joint Distribution
Committee, the Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid
Society, the Council of Jewish Women and, for the past
three years, by the Emergency Committee, they have been
materially assisted to become self-supporting and to adjust
themselves to their new surroundings. For almost three
years, the Committee has had a well-equipped office in
Havana under competent leadership, in close touch, at all
times, with the immigrants, serving their needs in almost
every direction. They have been aided with temporary
immediate relief, have been taught trades; schools for both
children and adults have been created for general educational purposes, and, in the case of adults, there have been
classes in Spanish, the language of the country. A selfsupport fund has been made available to such men and
women as required a loan to start a business on their own
account, and, above all, it was the aim of the Committee,
through its director in Cuba, to organize the community in
such a way that it would begin to function, as most organized communities do, for their own religious, social and
philanthropic needs. During the past year such a community organization has been established and gives promise
that within a reasonable period of time, it will become adequate to meet the needs of the population.
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
315
Aside from the desirability of ending the supervision of
the Committee over the activities of the local community
and training it to meet their own responsibilities and problems, it may be fairly said that after several years' residence
in Cuba, this group of the Jewish population of Cuba can
no longer be dealt with as immigrants. They have had
several years of residence in their new home, and while their
material progress has been necessarily slow, their problems
can no longer be regarded as requiring the type of help
which the Emergency Committee was organized to render.
Doubtless, there is still occasion for continuing in their
behalf some of the activities hitherto conducted, it is also
true that the Cuban activities of the Emergency Committee
have already consumed a considerable share of the entire
fund raised by the Committee for all purposes, including
that of helping the many thousands of stranded refugees in
Europe—and latterly of those who have settled in Mexico.
After a thorough investigation, completed in September of
this year, the Committee decided to adhere to its original
program, to liquidate its Cuban activities by November 1,
1927, a decision which was communicated to the Cuban
community in the latter part of 1926. However, the Committee voted to continue some of the more important activities, but on a reduced scale, for a further period ending
November 1, 1928. The almost complete exhaustion of the
funds raised by the Emergency Committee has made it
impossible to pursue any other course.
In 1925, the Independent Order B'nai B'rith established a
Bureau in Mexico City, to aid recently arrived refugee
immigrants who had been induced by steamship company
agents to go there. They required aid to adjust themselves
to their new surroundings and to tide them over the period
of their adjustment. Upon representation of a committee
of the I. O. B. B. and after careful investigation by a representative of the Emergency Committee, who was sent to
Mexico for that purpose, the Committee granted a subsidy
of $50,000 to the I. O. B. B. to enable its Bureau more
thoroughly to carry out its program on behalf of the refugee
immigrants, utilizing the grant made by the Emergency
Committee almost exclusively for the creation of a selfsupport and loan fund. Doctor Boris D. Bogen, executive
316
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
secretary of the I.O. B. B., is directing the work of the Mexico
Bureau. His reports of the progress of the immigrants
along all lines is most encouraging, and indicates that by
the end of another year, the need for continuing the bureau
will have disappeared.
C. ORGANIZATION MATTERS
1. DEATHS
The Executive Committee is grieved to report that since
our last meeting, five members passed away. These were
Julius Levy of Baltimore, Maryland, who died on November 22, 1926, Jules E. Mastbaum of Philadelphia, who died
on December 7, 1926, A. J. Sunstein of Pittsburgh, who died
on December 8, 1926, Horace J. Wolf of Rochester, who
died on February 17, 1927, and C. D. Spivak of Denver,
who died on October 16, 1927. On behalf of the Committee,
the Executive Committee has adopted the following resolutions as expressive of the esteem in which these men were
held by us and by the community at large:
Julius Levy of Baltimore
The Executive Committee of the American Jewish Committee has learned with deep sorrow of the death of Julius
Levy of Baltimore, Maryland, a member of the General
Committee since 1920. Mr. Levy always took an active
interest in the organization, responding to all calls for aid
or advice, and gave the Committee at all times the full
benefit of his influence and standing in his own community.
The Committee regards his death as a distinct loss, and
extends to his widow its sympathy in their bereavemept.
Jules E. Mastbaum of Philadelphia
The Executive Committee of the American Jewish Committee has learned with deep sorrow of the death of Jules E.
Mastbaum of Philadelphia, Pa., who was a member at large
of the Committee since 1922. Mr. Mastbaum was beloved
by the entire population of his native city, which profoundly
mourned the sudden death of a distinguished citizen. He
was a leader in Jewish educational and philanthropic activities both here and abroad, giving to them without stint of
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
317
his means and his time. It has truly been said of him that
while his public benefactions were numerous, his private
benevolences were conducted on a large scale of which only
a few intimate friends were aware. He was a man of great
personal charm with a genius for friendship. During the
years of his membership in this Committee, he was keenly
interested in and contributed generously to its work. The
Committee regards his death at the early age of 54 as a
great loss not only to the Jewish people, but to humanity
as a whole. We extend to his mother, his widow, and his
children, a sincere expression of our sense of loss and of our
sympathy with them in their bereavement.
A. J. Sunstein of Pittsburgh
The Executive Committee of the American Jewish Committee has learned with deep sorrow of the death of A. J.
Sunstein of Pittsburgh, a member of the Committee since
1923. Mr. Sunstein was highly respected and esteemed in
his own city, being an active worker in its commercial and
philanthropic affairs. At the same time, he was deeply
interested in the welfare of his co-religionists in all parts of
the world, and was an active member of the Committee,
participating in its councils and extending material support
to its work. We extend to his family our heartfelt sympathy
in their bereavement.
Horace J. Wolf of Rochester
The Committee has learned with deep sorrow of the
death of Rabbi Horace J. Wolf of Rochester, New York, a
member of the Committee since 1917. Rabbi Wolf was
regarded with affection and esteem by the people of Rochester, of which city he had been a public-spirited citizen since
1910, participating actively as a member and officer in
many civic and philanthropic bodies. His splendid services
to the community at large endeared him to Jew and Gentile
alike, and he was a noble representative of the best qualities
of Jewish manhood. We extend to his bereaved family our
heartfelt sympathy.
C. D. Spivak of Denver
The Executive Committee of the American Jewish Committed has learned with deep sorrow of the death of Doctor
318
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Charles D. Spivak of Denver, Colorado, a member of the
Committee since 1914. As a physician, Doctor Spivak
devoted his entire life to the alleviation of suffering. He
was especially interested in the condition of the Jewish
tuberculous and for the last twenty-three years of his life
served unselfishly as a member of the medical staff as well as
secretary of the Jewish Consumptives Relief Society of
Denver. At the same time he maintained an active interest
in Jewish community life, and helped to promote all constructive causes. He spent a considerable period in Poland
in connection with the medical work of the Joint Distribution Committee where he rendered meritorious service. His
death removes from our midst a man of lovable personality
and a self-sacrificing humanitarian. We extend to his
family the sincere expression of our heartfelt sympathy.
2. MEMBERSHIP
Your Committee is pleased to state that all the gentlemen who were elected to membership at the last Annual
Meeting and whose names are listed in the Twentieth
Annual Report on pages 10 and 11, have agreed to serve.
Your Committee wishes to report further that, in order
to fill the vacancies caused by the death of Julius Levy
of Baltimore and Horace J. Wolf of Rochester, it has elected
Albert Berney of Baltimore and Henry M. Stern of Rochester, respectively.
In accordance with the provisions of the By-Laws, the
President appointed the following Nominating Committee,
which was asked to make nominations for representatives
to succeed those members whose terms expire today and to
fill vacancies wherever they exist:
District
I. Lionel Weil, Goldsboro
II. Nathan Conn, Nashville
III. Barnett E. Marks, Phoenix
IV. Charles Jacobson, Little Rock
V. Louis M. Cole, Los Angeles
VI. Henry M. Butzel, Detroit
VII. General Abel Davis, Chicago
VIII. David Philipson, Cincinnati
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
319
IX. Morris Wolf, Philadelphia
X. Siegmund B. Sonneborn, Baltimore
XI. Colonel Isaac M. Ullman, New Haven
XII. David M. Bressler, New York City (Chairman)
XIII. Simon Fleischmann, Buffalo
XIV. Felix Fuld, Newark
Following is a list of the nominees suggested by this
Committee, and who have agreed to serve if elected:
District
I. Leonard Haas, Atlanta, Ga., to be reelected.
IV. Simon Binswanger, St. Joseph, Mo., to be reelected.
V. Ben Selling, Portland, Ore., to be reelected; Leo J.
Falk, Boise, Idaho, and Samuel Platt, Reno
Nev., to fill existing vacancies.
VI. Isaac Summerfield, St. Paul, Minn., Nat Stone,
Milwaukee, Wis., to be reelected.
VII. Bernard Horwich, Chicago, 111., to be reelected.
VIII. Isaac W. Bernheim, Louisville, Ky., and Paul L.
Feiss, Cleveland O., to be reelected.
IX. Alfred W. Fleisher, Philadelphia, Pa., to be reelected.
X. Edward N. Calisch, Richmond, Va., to be reelected.
XI. Henry Lasker, Springfield, Mass., A. C. Ratshesky,
Boston, Mass., to be reelected; Jacob B. Klein,
Bridgeport, Conn., to succeed Louis Raffel,
Waterbury, Conn.; George Newman, Pittsfield,
Mass., to succeed Benjamin England, Pittsfield,
Mass.
XII. Elias A. Cohen, Irving Lehman, Joseph Silverman,
I. M. Stettenheim, Lewis L. Strauss, New York
City, to be reelected.
XIII. Eugene Warner, Buffalo, N. Y., to be reelected.
XIV. Isaac Alpern, Perth Amboy, N! J., Isaac W. Frank,
Pittsburgh, Pa., to be reelected; Michael Hollander,
Newark, N. J., to succeed Milton M. Adler, Newark, N. J.; Philip Dimond, Paterson, N. J., to
succeed Lewis Straus, Newark, N. J.; Irvin F.
Lehman, Pittsburgh, Pa., to fill existing vacancy.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
These nominations were submitted to the Sustaining
Members, who were asked to make independent nominations if they chose to do so. The list of independent nominees who agreed to serve if elected, follows:
District
IV. Harry Block, St. Joseph, Mo., to succeed Simon
Binswanger, St. Joseph, Mo., whose term expires
today.
VI. Gustavus Loevinger, St. Paul, Minn., to succeed
Isaac Summerfield, St. Paul, Minn., whose term
expires today.
Ballots were prepared and issued, which will be canvassed
today and the results reported by the tellers appointed by
the President, in accordance with the provisions of the ByLaws.
Your Committee recommends the election of the following to membership at large: Louis Bamberger, Newark;
James Becker, Chicago; Leo M. Brown, Mobile; Benjamin
N. Cardozo, New York City; Abel Davis, Chicago; Jacob
Epstein, Baltimore; S. Marcus Fechheimer, Cincinnati; Eli
Frank, Baltimore; Herbert Friedenwald, Washington; Sol.
Kline, Chicago; Louis E. Kirstein, Boston; Jacob M. Loeb.
Chicago; Nathan J. Miller, New York City; Milton J,
Rosenau, Boston; Victor Rosewater, Philadelphia; Henry
Sachs, Colorado Springs; Murray Seasongood, Cincinnati;
Horace Stern, Philadelphia; Solomon M. Stroock, New York
City; and Frederick W. Wile, Washington.
Your Committee recommends that at this meeting an
amendment to the by-laws be approved providing that the
term of District Members which is now five years, be
reduced to three years.
3.
FINANCES
During the past year a systematic effort was made during a number of months to increase the Sustaining Membership and revenues of the Committee, in harmony with
your unanimous vote at our last meeting that the budget
of the Committee for the year be made up on a basis of a
fund of $100,000. Under the direction of the Finance Com-
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
321
mittee assisted by Mr. Victor Rosewater, an endeavor was
made to secure the cooperation of the District Members to
secure such a fund. Your Committee regrets that it cannot
report more than partial success. The total of new sustaining members enrolled was 490, and their aggregate contribution $13,498.83. In addition, 233 former contributors who
in 1926 gave $2,923.50, this year gave $6,554.00, a net
increase from this source of $3,630.50. The cost of these
accretions which are to a great extent, likely to be repeated
annually was $4,456.19, covering salaries, printing, postage,
mailing, etc.
Your Committee has reached the conclusion that it needs
a permanent Membership Secretary, whose sole function
shall be, under the supervision of the Finance Committee,
to carry on continuously the work of enlisting new Sustaining Members and obtaining from other sources as well,
the funds needed for the support of the Committee.
Following is a list of the Districts showing the total
amount received from each during the fiscal year just
closed, compared with the total contributed during the
preceding year:
District
Territory
Contributions
Received
for Fiscal
Year Ended
Oct. 31, 1926
Florida, Georgia, N o r t h
Carolina, South Carolina
II. Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee
III. Arizona, Louisiana, New
Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas
IV. Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas,
Missouri
V. California, Idaho, Nevada,
Oregon, Utah, Washington..
VI. Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota
Montana, Nebraska,
North Dakota, South Dakota, Wisconsin, Wyoming
VII. Illinois
VIII. Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio,
West Virginia
IX. City of Philadelphia
Contributions
Received
for Current
Year Ended
Oct. 31,1927
Increase
I.
$295.50
$949.00
$653.50
302.00
327.00
25.00
414.50
555.50
141.00
839.50
1,595.00
755.00
783.50
1,060.00
276.50
706.00
3,416.00
2,099.33
1,393.33
1,707.00 —1,709.00
1,108.00
2,191.00
1,633.00
2,884.00
525.00
693.00
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
X. Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia
XI. Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Rhode Island, Vermont..
XII. New York City
XIII. New York (exclusive of the
City
XIV. New Jersey, Pennsylvania
(exclusive of Philadelphia)
Canada
1,003.00
1,137.50
134.50
1,123.00 1,470.50
8.961.20 16,402.20
^347.50
7.441.00
1,146.00
1,985.50
839.50
1,858.50
10.00
4,044.50
15.00
2.186.00
5.00
$24,157.50 $37,865.03 $13,707.33
It will be noted that there were considerable increases in
the amounts received from Districts I, IV, V, VI, XII, XIII,
and XIV. These increases were due to the personal efforts
of members and sustaining members in these districts. In
District Number VI, which includes the State of Michigan,
the amount for 1927 is actually greater by $2,500 than the
amount stated above. An arrangement, however, has been
made for quarterly installments of the contribution of the
Detroit Jewish Welfare Federation of $3,333.33, and only
one-fourth of this had been paid at the time this report was
made up. Much of the increase in District Number XII
was a result of the personal efforts of Mr. David M. Bressler.
In District Number XIV, the increase noted was due almost
entirely to the contribution from Mr. Felix Fuld.
In connection with the Census of Jewish organizations
which the Committee has been financing, several contributions are deserving of special notice here. The New York
Foundation, which has cooperated with the Committee on
several previous occasions agreed to contribute $3,500, onetenth of the estimated cost of the work. Other special contributions, made in view of the increasing needs of the Committee, were $3,333.33 from the Jewish Welfare Federation
of Detroit, Michigan, $2,000 from Mr. Felix Fuld, of Newark, New Jersey, $500 from Mr. Paul Baerwald, $500 from
Mr. Henry Ittleson, $250 of which is to be regarded as an
annual contribution, $200 from Mr. Ludwig Vogelstein, of
which $100 is to be regarded as an annual contribution,
$500 from Mr. Joseph Leblang, $700 from Mr. Felix M.
Warburg, of which $200 is to be regarded as an annual con-
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
323
tribution, and $400 from Mr. A. M. Heinsheimer, $200 of
which is to be regarded as an annual contribution.
The report of the auditor of the Committee's accounts
is appended to this report. It shows that there were
received from Sustaining and Contributing members a
total of $35,865.03. The contribution of $2,000 from the
New York Foundation, interest on bank balances and
income from other sources totalled $2,148.13, making a
total of $38,013.16. Of this sum
$17,699.38
was expended for the maintenance of the Committee's office. This amount does not include 4,456.19
which was the cost of the effort to increase the
sustaining membership and revenues; expenditures for other purposes include:
1. The Committee's appropriation to the
Bureau of Jewish Social Research. . .
8,500.00
2. Our contribution to the Foreign Language
Information Service
500.00
3. Miscellaneous expenses in connection with
compilation of the American Jewish Year
Book
156.86
4. Expenses in connection with the printing
and distribution of pamphlet on Henry
Ford's retraction and apology
1,624.92
5. The cost of the Census Work
5,832.82
6. Salary of Committee's agent at Geneva..
750.00
7. Miscellaneous Special expenses
254.28
The total expenses paid and accrued were
Being in excess of the receipts of the year.
$39,774.45
138,013.16
By
$1,761.29
Since the close of the fiscal year, however, the sum of
$3,730 has been received from Chicago, as a result of the
efforts of Mr. Rosenwald, and $1,393 has been received from
the State of Connecticut as a result of the efforts of the district members in that State. Furthermore, there are still
$2,500 due on account of the contribution of the Jewish
Welfare Federation of Detroit, and $1,500 due on account
of the appropriation of the New York Foundation. Had
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
these sums been received before the close of the fiscal year,
there would have been a credit balance of $7,361.71.
Your Committee takes this occasion to thank all those
who contributed toward its support, and especially those
members who made personal efforts to secure contributions.
It is hoped that the example of these members will be followed by others during the coming year, to the end that the
Committee may be able to carry forward the important
tasks upon which it is engaged or may during the year
assume.
Respectfully submitted,
The Executive Committee.
APPENDIX I
CENSUS OF JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS
HARRY S. LINFIELD, Ph.D.,
Director, Department of Information and Statistics.
Bureau of Jewish Social Reserch.
1. T H E PROGRESS OF THE WORK.—The census of the Jewish denomination is a part of the United States decennial census of the denominations of the country. The preliminary work of the census of Jewish
denomination began in June, 1925. In April, 1926, Doctor Cyrus Adler,
accompanied by the writer, conferred with the United States Director
of the Census, and at this conference the work of the census of the Jewish denomination was arranged. Early in July, 1926, the writer was
appointed United States Agent. In October, 1926, a memorandum on
the probable cost of the census of Jews, totaling $30,000, was presented
to the American Jewish Committee. Finally, in April, 1927, a staff was
employed and the actual work of the census begun.
2. THE IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVES.—The census of the Jewish denomination seeks primarily to ascertain the names and addresses of Jewish
bodies (congregational, educational, charitable, social, etc.), together
with certain other data including "membership," and the names and
addresses of rabbis. For us the work involves the following:
(a) Supply to the Government of correct and full information on the
Jewish denomination for the Government's forthcoming publication on
the denominations in the United States;
(b) The revision of our own directories of Jewish national organizations, of local organizations, of rabbis, etc.;
(c) The gathering of statistics of Jews in the country and their
distribution.
Recently it has been decided to add:
(d) The publication in the forthcoming American Jewish Year Book
of two articles to be written by Doctor Linfield which will summarize
the results of the census.
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
325
3. THE WORK COMPLETED.—By November 8, 1927, a total of 3,145
schedules were received: 2,508 from congregations and other Jewish
societies; 462 schedules giving the number of Jews in the towns but
stating that there are no Jewish societies in those towns; and 175 schedules conveying the information that the Jewish societies about which
we inquired are out of existence, or never existed, or are private organizations, and the like.
The schedules received from the Jewish organizations contain information about their respective branch societies, or affiliated societies, if
any. Numerous schedules sent to us by federations, national organizations, and important local organizations contain lists of non-affiliated
societies known to them to exist in their respective cities. The field
work is not yet completed, but we hope to complete it by the middle of
December. In the meantime the schedules are being edited and transcribed with the view to tabulation and summarizing.
4. OUR SPECIFIC TASKS AT THE PRESENT MOMENT.—In addition to
the editing of the schedules and their transcription, the following tasks
specially engage our attention at the present time:
(a) Census of Jews in Small Communites. In 1916 only 825 localities
reported Jewish inhabitants. Our lists of such localities have increased
to 2,300, as a result of the cooperation of the Jewish national organizations and our use of directories. This figure is exclusive of over 1,000
rural places (towns of 2,500 inhabitants or less). Each of the urban or
rural places on our lists contains the name of a Jewish resident with
whom we correspond. Concerning the towns which have small Jewish
communities, but task is to find out, through correspondents, the number of Jews in the localities which are on our lists and to estimate, by
the use of statistical methods, the number of Jews in the localities which
are not on our lists. Special attention is being paid to those localities
which are sitnated in territory adjacent to large cities.
(b) Census of Jews in Large Communities. The ascertainment of the
number of Jews in the large Jewish communities offer difficulties. This
is especially the case with the City of New York, Chicago, Philadelphia,
and seven or eight other cities, having 50,000 Jews or more. To date,
information is available, to determine, on the basis of school attendance,
the number of Jews in the following cities: New York, Philadelphia,
Detroit, Cleveland and Pittsburgh. Dr. Mann of Chicago has promised
to send data for the City of Chicago. No such data will be available
for the cities of Baltimore and Los Angeles. The case of a few other
cities is not yet determined. Our present task is to examine all the available statistical information for each city which has a large number of
Jewish inhabitants, with a view to determining the number of Jews on
the basis of all the data which is available for the respective cities.
(c) Enumeration of Jewish Organizations. It is our plan to use canvassers to complete the enumeration of the Jewish organizations in the
ten or eleven large communities, namely, New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Detroit, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Boston, Baltimore,
Newark, and possibly Los Angeles. The preliminary work of the preparation of our lists of Jewish societies by the use of city directories, etc.,
has been completed. We are now engaged in zoning those cities and in
allocating the Jewish societies to their respective zones. Each can-
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
yasser, when engaged, will be assigned a zone or zones together with a
list of the known Jewish organization situated therein, so that he may
be in a position to verify and to complete our information and to search
out new Jewish societies. In all cities other than the eleven cities enumerated above, we are enlisting the services of a correspondent for the
work of verifying and completing our information and for searching out
new organizations.
5. CO-OPERATION WITH JEWISH ORGANIZATION.—We are continuing
to receive the co-operation of Jewish organizations, specifically the
national organizations, the federations, and important local organizations. The growth of our lists of Jewish societies and of towns having
Jewish inhabitants, was due chiefly to their co-operation. At present
we are especially calling on the co-operation of the Rabbis in the various
communities.
6. COMPLETION OF THE WORK.—The actual work of the census did
not start until April 1, 1927. Only a portion of the work could be done
during the summer months. Since the fall our staff has been greatly
enlarged and the writer has been giving a great deal of his time to the
work. It is hoped to complete the work by the end of the present calendar year.
APPENDIX II
JOINT PALESTINE SURVEY COMMISSION
TERMS OF REFERENCE
New York, June 1, 1927.
To the Right Hon. Sir ALRED MOND, Bart., M. P.,
Dr. LEE K. FRANKEL,
FELIX M. WARBURG, Esq., and
Dr. OSCAR WASSERMAN.
GENTLEMEN :
A Joint Palestine Survey Commission, upon which you have had the
goodness to accept membership, has been created, pursuant to an agreement entered into by the undersigned, for the purpose of ascertaining,
by means of a survey and investigation conducted on scientific lines, the
resources, economic conditions and possibilities of Palestine, to facilitate
the framing of a comprehensive and systematic programme for future
constructive work in Palestine and for the guidance of a reorganized
Jewish Agency.
With this end in view, the Commission is requested to inquire into
and report upon the following subjects, and any other related matters,
which, in its discretion, it may deem to come within the scope of the
purposes for which it has been formed, special reference being had to the
annexed specifications, which are made a part hereof:
I. GENERAL SURVEY.
(a) The economic resources of Palestine. •
(b) The present state and future prospects of:
(i) agriculture;
(ii) mining;
(iii) industry;
(iv) commerce.
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
327
(c) The nature, extent and results of Jewish activities in Palestine
during the past ten years, including the activities of
(i) the Zionist Organization and its subsidiaries;
(ii) other public bodies and institutions;
(iii) private undertakings.
The Commission is requested to make or cause to be made an accurate and detailed examination of all available records with a view to
ascertaining the receipts for the past ten years of the various Jewish
bodies engaged in activities in or for Palestine and the sources of such
receipts, the expenditures of such bodies, their plan of organization,
methods of management and operation, and their respective assets
and liabilities, and to report thereon.
II.
IMMIGRATION.
The selection, transport, reception and distribution of immigrants,
with special reference to the separate requirements of
(a) immigrants without means;
(b) immigrants with means.
III.
AGRICULTURAL COLONIZATION.
(a) The possibility and desirability of acquiring additional land for
colonization:
(i) in areas where Jewish colonization has already begun;
(ii) in other parts of Palestine;
(iii) in any neighboring territory in which suitable land may
be, or may become, available.
(b) Methods of facilitating the advantageous acquisition of land.
(c) Methods of colonization, with special reference to
(i) the prospects and relative advantages of cereal-farming, fruit-farming, dairy-farming, poultry-farming,
and other branches of agriculture;
(ii) the relative advantages of the various types of settlement;
(iii) the relations, including in particular the financial relations, between the settler and the colonizing agency.
(d) Irrigation, dry-farming and afforestation.
(e) Agricultural education, experiment and research.
(f) Generally, the means by which further progress can be made with
close settlement by Jews on the land as contemplated in Article 6 of the
Mandate for Palestine.
IV.
INDUSTRY.
(a) Openings for the investment of capital in industries, large or
small (including fisheries), providing employment for Jewish labor.
(b) The feasible measures which can be taken to encourage the development of Jewish industry in Palestine, with special reference to the
needs of industrialists possessing moderate capital.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
V. THE CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT.
The development of the co-operative movement in its various branches, its place in the economic life of the Jews in Palestine, and the
practicable measures, if any, which can be taken to strengthen the
movement and increase its ability, including measures designed to promote the establishment on a co-operative basis of small industries producing goods for local consumption.
VI.
BANKING AND CREDIT.
The adequacy of the existing machinery for the provision of credit,
and the measures, if any, which can safely be taken to make credit more
readily available for
(a) agriculture;
(b) industry;
(c) commerce;
regard being had to the activities of existing financial institutions,
including co-operative credit institutions, both urban and agricultural.
VII. PUBLIC HEALTH.
The nature, extent, cost and results of Jewish activities in the field
of public health, and the division of responsibility between the various
Jewish organizations concerned, and between those organizations and
the official public health authorities.
VIII. LABOR.
The relations of employer and employed and the problems existing
or to be anticipated with respect thereto in agriculture, industry (including the building trades), and commerce are to be specially considered.
IX.
FINANCE.
(a) The Commission is requested to prepare a budget in which shall
be set forth an itemized estimate of the expenditure reasonably required
to give effect to its recommendations, so far as such expenditure can at
present be computed.
(b) The Commission is also requested to make such recommendations as it may think fit with regard to the means by which the necessary
financial resources are to be provided, and the machinery by which they
are to be administered, the object in view being to insure the utmost
degree of efficiency and economy and the elimination of every form of
waste. In such recommendations the revenue and administrative
machinery of such financial institutions as the Palestine Foundation
Fund (Keren Hayesod) and the Jewish National Fund (Keren Kayemeth) are to be taken into account for the time being.
It is earnestly hoped that you may be able as speedily as is consonant
with the importance of the inquiry which you are to institute and the
far-reaching results which will follow from your action, to render an
exhaustive report upon the several subjects referred to you, embodying
your findings and recommendations with respect thereto.
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
329
It is scarcely necessary to add that the recommendations of the
Commission should take, into account among other things the conditions peculiar to Palestine and the distinctive characteristics of its
population:
Sincerely yours,
(Signed) Louis MARSHALL,
Ch. WEIZMANN.
SPECIFICATIONS
A Joint Palestine Survey Commission having been designated pursuant to agreement to make a scientific and thorough survey and investigation of the agricultural, industrial, commercial, economic and financial conditions of Palestine and adjacent countries, and related subjects, it has been determined that the general lines of inquiry to be
pursued are the following:
I. PHYSIOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL.
(a) The general climatic conditions of the region throughout the
year as affecting agriculture, horticulture, fruit growing and animal
husbandry, and in their relation to the public health, are to be studied.
(b) The topography and geological and other characteristic features
of Palestine and adjacent countries, as bearing on the economic development of the region, are to be carefully noted.
This will embrace a geographical study, including a consideration of
the diversifiedcharacter of the land extending from the sea plain to the
mountains, of the various harbors and water courses, of the highway
system, the facilities for advantageous inland and foreign transportation, the possibilities of developing hydro-electric power, of obtaining
water adequate for irrigation, and of increasing the now available
potable and commercial water supply by the sinking of artesian wells
and otherwise and the construction of reservoirs and aqueducts.
(c) Soil analysis. This will involve the ascertainment of the nature,
qualities and characteristics of the soil in the various parts of the region,
its chemical and mineral constituents, its adaptability for the growth of
forests, orchards, cereal and other crops, truck farming, forage, and such
other products for which markets ekist or can be created.
(d) Mining and other possibilities. This relates to the ascertainment
of the sub-surface resources in the various regions, including the development of oil wells, quarries, and the production of minerals, metals and
other substances possessing valuable physical or chemical properties.
This would include a consideration of the utilization of the waters of the
Dead Sea and the feasibility of reforesting the mountain slopes and other
lands not adapted for agriculture.
In respect to each of these subjects it is important to secure the fullest
statistical information available, which it is appreciated will be dependent, to a large extent, upon data to be derived from Government and
other authoritative reports.
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AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
II. DEMOGRAPHY.
(a) An accurate account of the inhabitants of Palestine and adjoining
regions, dealing with the composition and characteristics of the population, its various race stocks, their relations to each other, their respective
standards of living, occupations pursued, languages spoken, and the
literacy of the several elements.
(b) Vital statistics; giving such information in tabular form as is
accessible relating to births, deaths, marriages, divorces and health
conditions.
(c) Tabular information as to immigration and emigration annually
during the past ten years, according to sex, age, lands of nativity and
occupations, the present method of distributing immigrants, their
employment, living conditions, economic status and financial resources.
III.
AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES AIYD POSSIBILITIES.
The ascertainment of the area of land in Palestine and adjacent
countries suitable for productive and profitable use and cultivation for:
(1) cereal and other usual crops;
(2) the growth of citrus and other fruits, including dates, figs, olives,
bananas, and small fruits;
(3) vegetable and other products of truck farming;
(4) grazing, pasturage and forage;
(5) dairying;
(6) the growth of sugar, cotton, tobacco and grapes
(7) the incidental manufacture of wine, cigars and cigarettes and of
vegetable oils, and the canning or preserving of fruits;
(8) animal husbandry, including poultry farming
and the extent to which these several forms of cultivation and other
related activities are economically practicable.
In each instance statistical information so far as accessible, or such
data as are available, should be collected for the purpose of determining
to what extent these various forms of agriculture and allied industries
have been conducted in the past, the cost of the land and buildings
employed therein, the expense of development, the methods pursued
and the results attained, and the use, cost, need and availability of
fertilizers; also to what extent additional arable cultivable or grazing
lands are available, and at what cost, for additional development, and
the districts where such lands are located
The quality and marketability of the various products enumerated,
the extent to which they may be respectively improved and the degree
to which the methods heretofore adopted may be advantageously varied:
or modified, should be ascertained, due regard being had to the suitability of the soil in the various districts for that particular form of
agriculture now practical or which may be advantageously substituted
with a view to the introduction of such methods as will best correlate
soil and products.
Information should also be secured as to the character of farming and
other implements used in connection with the various agricultural
activities, the extent to which irrigation is now employed or is necessary
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
331
or practicable or may be successfully extended, to what degree and how
existing methods of irrigation may be improved and at what cost to the
distributor and the user of the water supplied. The feasibility of dry
farming in the various districts should also be carefully investigated,
•with a statement of the results to be reasonably anticipated and the
probable cost incident to the system recommended.
Attention should especially be directed to the establishment of proper
standards for the maintenance of a high quality of products and to
the introduction of the most approved forms of planting, harvesting,
packing, grading, storing, transporting, and of domestic and foreign
marketing.
In connection with cattle-raising and dairying, attention should be
given to the breed of cattle best adapted for home and other markets,
their suitability to climatic conditions and their susceptibility to or immunity from cattle diseases. This also applies to the raising of horses,
donkeys, sheep and goats.
It is also desirable to ascertain the amount now invested by Jewish
organizations and Jewish settlers in land, buildings, improvements,
equipment, tools and live-stock; the nature of the prevailing landtenure and the general provisions of the contracts under which settlers
are operating; the living conditions of the settlers; the total area under
cultivation, the yield per acre of the various kinds of products, the unit
prices obtained and amounts realized for crops, fruits, dairy products,
cattle and other of the animals above specified, during each of the past
five years.
Special attention should be given to the various classes: laborers,
their efficiency, and their rate of compensation.
IV.
INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL POSSIBILITIES OF
PALESTINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS.
This involves a study of:
(1) the existing industry and commerce of Palestine;
(2) the raw materials, native and imported, available, and their cost,
compared with like materials in other countries;
(3) the amount of capital involved in industry and commerce;
(4) the supply of suitable labor and its cost;
(5) foreign and domestic markets for manufactured products.
This will necessitate a classification of such industries as are now or
which have been carried on in Palestine during the past ten years, the
extent and the degree to which the various undertakings in that field
have proven successful or unsuccessful, and the reasons for such failures
as may have occurred, so far as ascertainable; the number of Jewish and
Arab workmen now engaged in the various industries, and the average
number employed in the various industrial establishments.
The labor problem generally and particularly in connection with
these several classes of industry, including the building and other
trades, should also be thoroughly considered in its various aspects.
This includes a consideration of the several classes of labor available
and the cost and efficiency of each, the standards of living of the various
classes of employees, their hours of labor, their expertness, and the cost
of the various classes of labor, and especially by way of comparison with
332
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
the cost of like labor in those countries where goods similar to those
produced in Palestine are manufactured for disposition in markets with
which Palestine will have to compete.
In respect to Palestinian commercial activities, it is desirable to
ascertain to what extent merchandise has been or can be profitably
disposed of at home and abroad. It would also be useful to ascertain
to what extent hydro-electric power produced or about to be produced
will be available and at what cost to the consumer.
Careful attention should be given to the relative extent of urban as
contrasted with agricultural development, and consideration given to
the special problems growing out of past experience in connection with
building operations and with respect to unemployment.
V. BANKING AND FINANCE.
This calls for the ascertainment of the capital resources as supplied by:
(1) banks of loan and deposit;
(2) land or mortgage banks;
(3) public or private trust companies;
(4) credit facilities.
In each instance it is desirable to secure reliable information as to
the amount of capital available, the terms and conditions on which
loans are made or credit is extended, including the cost of obtaining
loans, the rate of interest and the security required, the relation of
demand and supply, the term for which loans are obtainable, the percentage of losses sustained by the lenders, and the promptitude with
which payments have been made by the borrowers. This also necessitates an inquiry regarding the extent to which the introduction of new
and improved methods of banking and the extension of credits may be
feasible without involving substantial risks to the lender. It will likewise be desirable to ascertain whether, and if so to what extent, a coordination of the various capital resources is practicable.
VI.
PUBLIC HEALTH AND HYGIENE.
This will involve a study of climatic and other conditions affecting
public health, the maintenance of an appropriate Jewish health service
co-operating with governmental and other agencies, a survey of hospitals, clinics and dispensaries, of nursing, public and private; the
extent to which endemic diseases exist or have been ameliorated, the
adequacy and potability of the milk and the water supply, and the possibilities of public health education in personal and public hygiene; the
development of adequate facilities for infant and child hygiene, and
other methods of sanitary control, and the subject of sewage disposal.
VII.
ACCOUNTING, AUDIT AND BUDGET.
There is to be a detailed examination, with a report thereon, by
qualified accountants of all available records to ascertain the receipts,
the sources whence derived and the expenditures made in connection
with the carrying on of the various official Jewish activities conducted
in or for Palestine during the past ten years, their plan of organization,
methods of management and operation, and their respective assets and
liabilities. A budget is also to be prepared which will so far as practic-
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
333
able indicate the expenditures reasonably required to carry into effect
such a programme as may be regarded as necessary and practicable to
effectuate the conclusions reached by the Commission as the result of
the survey to be made as herein provided.
The above enumeration of subjects to be investigated and of details
mentioned under the several heads is not to be regarded as exclusive,
but may be added to or modified from time to time
CORPORATE MEMBERSHIP
I. DISTRICT MEMBERS
DIST. I:
FLORIDA, GEORGIA, NORTH CAROLINA, SOUTH CAROLINA.
4 members: Simon Benjamin, Jacksonville, Fla. (1931); Leonard Haas,
Atlanta, Ga. (1930); Lionel Weil, Goldsboro, N. C. (1931); August
Kohn, Columbia, S. C. (1928).
DIST. II: ALABAMA, MISSISSIPPI, TENNESSEE. 3 members: Moses V.
Joseph, Birmingham, Ala. (1928); Ben H. Stein, Vicksburg, Miss.
(1930); Nathan Cohn, Nashville, Tenn. (1928).
DIST. I l l : ARIZONA, LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, TEXAS.
6 members: Barnet E. Marks, Phoenix, Ariz. (1929); Max Heller, New
Orleans, La. (1929); Ivan Grunsfeld, Albuquerque, N. Mex. (1928);
Isaac H. Kempner, Galveston, Tex. (1931); J. K. Hexter, Dallas, Tex.
(1928).
DIST. IV: ARKANSAS, COLORADO, KANSAS, MISSOURI. 6 members:
Chas. Jacobson, Little Rock, Ark. (1929); Henry Wallenstein, Wichita,
Kan. (1928); Simon Binswanger, St. Joseph, Mo. (1930); Aaron Waldheim, St. Louis, Mo. (1931); A. C. Wurmser, Kansas City, Mo. (1929).
DIST. V:
CALIFORNIA, IDAHO, NEVADA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHING-
TON. 8 members: Louis M. Cole, Los Angeles, Cal. (1928); Harry C.
Camp, Oakland, Cal. (1929); Max C. Sloss, San Francisco, Cal. (1931);
Leo J. Falk, Boise. Ida. (1930); Samuel Platt, Reno, Nev. (1930); Ben
Selling, Portland, Ore. (1930); Daniel Alexander, Salt Lake City, Utah
(1928); Emanuel Rosenberg, Seattle, Wash. (1929).
DIST. VI:
IOWA, MICHIGAN, MINNESOTA, MONTANA, NEBRASKA,
NORTH DAKOTA, SOUTH DAKOTA, WISCONSIN, WYOMING. 13 members:
Eugene Mannheimer, Des Moines, Iowa (1930); David A. Brown,
Detroit, Mich. (1931); Henry M. Butzel, Detroit, Mich. (1929); Meyer
S. May, Grand Rapids, Mich. (1931); Joseph H. Schanfeld, Minneapolis,
Minn. (1930); Isaac Summerfield, St. Paul, Minn. (1930); Harry A.
Wolf, Omaha, Neb. (1929); D. M. Naftalin, Fargo, N. D. (1929); David
B. Eisendrath, Racine, Wis. (1928); Nat Stone, Milwaukee, Wis. (1930).
DIST. VII: ILLINOIS. 8 members; James Davis (1929); M. E.
Greenebaum (1928); B. Horwich (1930); Julian W. Mack (1928): Julius
Rosenwald (1930); Joseph Stolz, Chicago, 111. (1929); W. B. Woolner,
Peoria. 111. (1931).
DIST. VIII: INDIANA, KENTUCKY, OHIO, WEST VIRGINIA. 11 members: Samuel E. Rauh, Indianapolis, Ind. (1930); Sol S. Kiser, Indianapolis, Ind. (1929); Isaac W. Bernheini, Louisville, Ky. (1930); Samuel
Ach, Cincinnati. O. (1929); Edward M. Baker, Cleveland, 0. (1928);
334
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
David Philipson, Cincinnati, O. (1929); Sigmond Sanger, Toledo, O.
(1928); Paul L. Feiss, Cleveland, O. (1930); D. A. Huebsch, Cleveland,
O. (1931); Louis Horkheimer, Wheeling, W. Va. (1930).
DIST. IX: CITY OF PHILADELPHIA, 6 members: Cyrus Adler (1928);
Alfred W. Fleisher (1930); Win. Gerstley (1929); B. L. Levinthal (1930);
M. Rosenbaum (1930); Morris Wolf (1928).
DIST. X: DELAWARE, DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, MARYLAND, VIRGINIA,
6 members: David Snellenburg, Wilmington, Del. (1929); Fulton BryIawski, Washington, D. C. (1930); Albert Berney, Baltimore, Md.
(1931); Jacob H.Hollander, Baltimore, Md. (1930); Siegmund B. Sonneborn, Baltimore, Md. (1930); Edward N. Calisch, Richmond, Va. (1930).
DIST. XI: CONNECTICUT, MAINE, MASSACHUSETTS, NEW HAMPSHIRE,
RHODE ISLAND, VERMONT. 20 members: Philip N. Bernstein, Water-
bury, Conn. (1930); Nestor Dreyfus, New London, Conn. (1931); Jacob
B. Klein, Bridgeport, Conn. (1930); Isaac M. Ullman, New Haven,
Conn. (1931); Isidore Wise, Hartford, Conn. (1930); Gordon F. Gallert,
Augusta, Me. (1931); Jacob Asher, Worcester, Mass. (1931); Louis Baer,
Boston, Mass. (1929); David A. Ellis, Boston, Mass. (1928); Lewis
Goldberg, Boston, Mass. (1928); A. Hartman, Haverhill, Mass. (1930);
Henry Lasker, Springfield, Mass. (1930); David A. Lourie, Boston,
Mass. (1931); George Newman, Pittsfield, Mass. (1930); A. C. Ratshesky, Boston, Mass. (1930); Felix Vorenberg, Boston, Mass. (1929);
Chas. Wineapple, Salem, Mass. (1930); Edward M. Chase, Manchester,
N. H. (1929); Archibald Silverman, Providence, R. I. (1930); Barnett
Frank, Burlington, Vt. (1931).
DIST. XII: NEW YORK CITY.
31 members: Benjamin Altheimer
(1929); Herman Bernstein (1931); Nathan Bijur (1930); David M.
Bressler (1928); Elias A. .Cohen (1930); Abram I. Elkus (1930); H. G.
Enelow (1930); William Fischman (1930); Lee K. Frankel (1928); Henry
M. Goldfogle (1929); Maurice-H. Harris, (1928); Henry Ittleson (1931);
Max J. Kohler (1929); Jacob Kohn (1931); Joseph Leblang (1931);
Irving Lehman (1930); Adolph Lewisohn (1930); William Liebermann
(1929); Judah L. Magnes (1930); Louis Marshall (1930); Alexander
Marx (1931); Edgar J. Nathan (1928); S. Rottenberg (1929); Bernard
Semel (1929); Joseph Silverman (1930); I. M. Stettenheim (1930);
Lewis L. Strauss, Jr. (1930); Cyrus L. Sulzberger (1931); Israel Unterberg (1928); Ludwig Vogelstein (1929); Felix M. Warburg (1928).
DIST. XIII: NEW YORK (EXCLUSIVE OF THE CITY). 8 members:
Mortimer Adler, Rochester, N. Y. (1929); Moses F. Aufsesser, Albany,
N. Y. (1929); Simon Fleischmann, Buffalo, N. Y. (1930); Louis J.
Kopald, Buffalo, N. Y. (1931); Henry M. Stern, Rochester, N. Y.
(1928); Benjamin Stolz, Syracuse, N. Y. (1929); Eugene Warner,
Buffalo, N. Y. (1930); Herman Wile, Buffalo, N. Y. (1928).
DIST. XIV: NEW JERSEY AND PENNSYLVANIA (EXCLUSIVE OF PHILADELPHIA). 17 members: Isaac Alpern, Perth Amboy, N. J. (1930);
A. J. Dimond, East Orange, N. J. (1928); Philip Dimond, Paterson, N. J.
(1928); Felix Fuld, Newark, N. J. (1929); Michael Hollander, Newark,
N. J. (1930); David Holzner, Trenton, N. J. (1930); Frederick Jay,
Newark, N. J. (1928); William Newcorn, Plainfield, N. J. (1929);
Joseph B. Perskie, Atlantic City, N. J. (1931); B. S. Pollak, Newark,
N. J. (1928); Lewis Straus, Newark, N. J. (1930); Isaac W. Frank,
REPORT OF AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE
335
Pittsburgh, Pa. (1930); William Harris, Allentown, Pa. (1930); Irvin F.
Lehman, Pittsburgh, Pa. (1930); A. L. Luria, Reading, Pa. (1928);
Isaiah Scheeline, Altoona, Pa. (1929); Isador Sobel, Erie, Pa. (1931);
A. Leo. Weil, Pittsburgh, Pa. (1929).
II. MEMBERS-AT-LARGE
(Elected for one year.)
Louis Bamberger, Newark, N. J.; James H. Becker, Chicago, 111.;
Leo M. Brown, Mobile, Ala.; Benjamin N. Cardozo, New York City;
Abel Davis, Chicago, 111.; Jacob Epstein, Baltimore, Md.; S. Marcus
Fechheimer, Cincinnati, O.; Eli Frank, Baltimore, Md.; Herbert
Friedenwald, Washington, D. C ; Sol. Kline, Chicago, 111.; Louis E.
Kirstein, Boston, Mass.; Jacob M. Loeb, Chicago, 111.; Milton J.
Rosenau, Boston, Mass.; Victor Rosewater, Philadelphia, Pa.; Henry
Sachs, Colorado Springs, Colo.; Horace Stern, Philadelphia, Pa.;
Solomon M. Stroock, New York City; Frederick W. Wile, Washington,
D. .C.
III.
DELEGATES FROM NATIONAL JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS
AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORICAL SOCIETY, A. S. W. Rosenbach; FEDERATION OF HUNGARIAN JEWS IN AMERICA, Samuel Bettelheim and
Samuel Buchler; HADASSAH, Miss Alice L. Seligsberg; HEBREW SHELTERING AND IMMIGRANT AID SOCIETY OF AMERICA, Harry Fischel,
Abraham Herman, Leon Kamaiky, Jacob Massel and Albert Rosenblatt; INDEPENDENT ORDER BRITH ABRAHAM, Max Eckman, Gustave
Hartman, Max L. Hollander, Aaron J. Levy and Adolph Stern; INDEPENDENT ORDER BRITH SHOLOM, Sol. C. Kraus and Martin O. Levy;
INDEPENDENT ORDER FREE SONS OF ISRAEL, Solon J. Liebeskind;
INDEPENDENT WESTERN STAR ORDER, Joseph Rubens; NATIONAL CONFERENCE OF JEWISH SOCIAL WORK, Fred M. Butzel; NATIONAL COUNCIL
OF JEWISH WOMEN, Mrs. Estelle M. Sternberger; ORDER BRITH ABRAHAM, Alexander M. Katsky, Adolph Solomon and Geo W. Leisersohn;
ORDER OF THE UNITED HEBREW BROTHERS, Meyer Greenberg; PROGRESSIVE ORDER OF THE WEST, Samuel Epstein; RABBINICAL ASSEMBLY
OF THE JEWISH THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, Mordecai M. Kaplan; UNITED
ROUMANIAN JEWS OF AMERICA, Solomon Sufrin; UNITED SYNAGOGUE
OF AMERICA, Samuel C Lamport; WOMEN'S LEAGUE OF THE UNITED
SYNAGOGUE OF AMERICA, Mrs. Charles I. Hoffman.
REPORT
OF THE
FORTIETH YEAR
OF
THE JEWISH PUBLICATION
SOCIETY OF AMERICA
1927-1928
THE JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF
AMERICA
OFFICERS
PRESIDENT
SIMON MILLER, Philadelphia
FIRST VICE-PRESIDENT
ADOLPH S. OCHS, New York
SECOND VICE-PRESIDENT
HORACE STERN, Philadelphia
TREASURER
LIONEL FRIEDMANN Philadelphia
SECRETARY
JULIUS GRODINSKY, Philadelphia
EDITOR
ISAAC HUSIK, Philadelphia
TRUSTEES
1
MARCUS)'AARON
DR. CYRUS ADLER1
Pittsburgh
Philadelphia
EDWARD BAKER
HART BLUMENTHAL3
Cleveland
Philadelphia
LEO M. BROWN
HON. JOSIAH COHENS
LIONEL FRIEDMANN1
JOSEPH HAGEDORN2
REV. DR. NATHAN KRASS2
S. CHAS. LAMPORT2
Louis E. LEVINTHAL1
FELIX H. LEVY3
HOWARD S. LEVY1
HON. WM. M. LEWIS1
Pittsburgh
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
New York
New York
Philadelphia
New York
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
SIMON MILLER3
Philadelphia
3
3
REV. DR. LOUIS L. MANN2
•Terms expire in 1929.
Terms expire in 1930.
339
Mobile
Chicago
'Terms expire in 1931.
340
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ADOLPH
S. OCHS'
New York
PHILIP B. PERLMAN3
CARL
H.
Baltimore
2
PFORZHEIMER
New York
3
DR. A. S. W. ROSENBACH
JACOB RUBEL1
DR. FRANK I. SCHECHTER2
Philadelphia
,
Philadelphia
New York
2
JOSEPH SCHOENTHAL
Columbus
RABBI ABBA HILLEL SILVERS
Cleveland
MEIR STEINBRINK
2
Brooklyn
HON. HORACE STERN3
CYRUS L. SULZBERGER2
LUDWIG VOGELSTEIN3
Philadelphia
New York
New York
A. LEO WEIL 1
JULIUS
S.
Pittsburgh
WEYL 1
EDWIN WOLF
Philadelphia
1
Philadelphia
MORRIS WOLF 1
RALPH WOLF3
Philadelphia
New York
HONORARY VICE-PRESIDENTS
ISACC
W.
BERNHEIM1
Cincinnati
REV. DR. HENRY COHEN2
HON. ABRAM
I. ELKUS
2
HENRY FERNBERGER
Galveston
1
New York
Philadelphia
3
REV. DR. MAX HELLER
2
S. W. JACOBS
Louis E. KIRSTEIN2
HON. JULIAN W. MACK2
New Orleans
Montreal
Boston
New York
3
HON. SIMON W. ROSENDALE
Albany
MURRAY SEASONGOOD1
1
HON. M. C. SLOSS
Cincinnati
San Francisco
SIGMUND B. SONNEBORN3
REV. DR. JOSEPH STOLZ1
Baltimore
Chicago
PUBLICATION COMMITTEE
DR. CYRUS ADLER,
Chairman
DR. DAVID S. BLONDHEIM
DR. SOLOMON SOLIS-COHEN
REV. DR. H. G. ENELOW
REV. DR. HARRY W. ETTELSON
FELIX N. GERSON
DR. ISAAC HUSIK
RABBI MAX D. KLEIN
;
Baltimore
Philadelphia
New York
Memphis
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
New York
DR. JACOB KOHN
OSCAR LOEB
DR. MAX L. MARGOLIS
DR. ALEXANDER MARX
SIMON MILLER
,
LEON S. MOISSEIFF
DR. JULIAN MORGENSTERN
•Terms expire in 1929.
Philadelphia
Terms expire in 1930.
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
New York
Philadelphia
New York
Cincinnati
'Terms expire in 1931.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
REV. DR. DAVID PHILIPSON
DR. JOSEPH REIDER
DR. A. S. W. ROSENBACH
DR. FRANK I. SCHECHTER
REV. DR. SAMUEL SCHULMAN
SAMUEL STRAUSS
HENRIETTA SZOLD
341
Cincinnati
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
New York
New York
New York
Jerusalem
JEWISH CLASSICS COMMITTEE
DR. CYRUS ADLER
DR. SOLOMON SOLIS COHEN, Chairman
DR. ISRAEL DAVIDSON
REV. DR H. G. ENELOW
DR. LOUIS GINZBERG
DR. JACOB Z. LAUTERBACH
DR. ALEXANDER MARX
REV. DR. DAVID PHILIPSON
REV. DR. SAMUEL SCHULMAN
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
New York
New York
New York
Cincinnati
New York
Cincinnati
New York
342
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEET
FOR YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31,
1927
Assets
Fixed Assets:
Plant, Hebrew Press
Dies and Plates
Furniture and Fixtures
$13,770.00
1,000.00
1,000.00
$15,770.00
Current Assets:
Cash
$ 3,620.75
Investments
20,843.75
Accounts Receivable
20,020.60
Loans Receivable
140.00
Pledges
4,150.00
Inventory
22,368.80
Work in Process, Hebrew Press.. 6,450.00
$77,593 90
$93,363.90
Liabilities
Current Liabilities:
Accounts Payable
Loans Payable
$25,802.59
1,000.00
$26,802.59
Funds:
Classic Fund
Friedenthal Fund
Citternvin Fund
Hackenburg Fund
Levy Fund
LoebFund
Surplus
$39,460.65
2,000.00
4,487.01
500.00
3,000.00
13,127.23
$62,574.89
3,986.42
-
$93,363.90
INCOME STATEMENT
FOR YEAR ENDING DECEMBER 31,
Revenue:
Dues
Sales
Donations
1927
$42,514.30
71,663.35
8,349.72
$122,527.37
Expenses:
Administrative Expenses
Manufacturing Expenses
Surolus
$41,577.45
44,617.76
36 332.16
$122,527.37
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
343
Statement of Membership
Life
Alabama.... *
Arizona
Arkansas
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Washington , D. C.
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maryland
Maine
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi
Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire. . .
New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North C a r o l i n a . . . .
North Dakota
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South C a r o l i n a . . . .
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington. . . . . • •
, Sustaining
Friend
Patron
4
Library
I
I
14
7
1
16
3
3
6
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
3
15
1
1
1
20
2
7
15
1
1
34
4
2.
1
10
13
2
5
1
2
2
1
21
3
22
2
242
2
1
3
24
2
17
2
107
2
1
1
2
3
Annual
30
9
11
225
51
81
27
27
22
29
1
401
71
34
10
46
60
264
11
230
152
83
18
94
5
35
1
3
405
11
2350
19
14
407
21
20
2199
27
12
2
34
99
5
1
36
18
344
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Statement of Membership (Continued)
Life
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Australia and
New Zealand....
Belgium
British West Indies.
Canada
Central America. . .
China
Cuba
Denmark
EgyptEngland
France
Germany
Hungary
India
Ireland
Italy
Mexico
Palestine
Porto Rico
Portugal
Scotland
Union of South
Africa
Spain. •
Virgin Islands
U.S. A
Wales
Sustaining
Friend
Patron
Library
2
4
2
4
Annual
33
57
19
2
5
150
1
1
1
7
3
1
1
5
177
1
3
1
1
3
2
1
11
1
1
5
98
1
1
78
1
16
4
6
64
543
3
8300
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
345
THE ANNUAL MEETING OF THE JEWISH
PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA
The Fortieth Annual Meeting of the Jewish Publication
Society of America was held at Dropsie College, Broad and
York Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., on Sunday evening, March
25, 1928.
The feature of the evening was a fascinating discussion by
the eminent English novelist, Mr. Louis Golding, on the
subject of Creative Art in Jewish Life. Mr. Golding called
particular attention to the remarkable help which the Jewish
Publication Society has given to creative authors the world
over. He emphasized the fact which has been inadequately
appreciated, that the storehouse of knowledge which the
Society has made available serves as an invaluable guide for
the Jewish artists in all lands.
The work of the Society during the preceding year was
reviewed by Dr. Cyrus Adler, the Chairman of the Publication Committee, in the absence of the President of the
Society, who was unfortunately taken ill.
The last annual meeting of the Jewish Publication Society
of America was largely given over to the interesting ceremonies connected with the publication of the History of the
Jewish People, at which Mr. Abraham Erlanger and the
authors, Professors Max L. Margolis and Alexander Marx,
were the special guests of the evening. At the present meeting, therefore, it is due to the members that they have a
report of the publications and some of the other activities
of the past two years.
Since the meeting held in March, 1926, the Society has
published the following works, exclusive of reprintings: An
English translation of Sholom Ash's novel, Kiddush Hashem; the History, already alluded to; the very interesting
work on Travels in North Africa by Nahum Slouschz; the
two Year Books, volumes 28 and 29; and two works in the
Schiff Classics Series, the Hebrew Ethical Wills by Israel
Abrahams, and the Ta'anit of the Babylonian Talmud by
Professor Henry Malter. The earlier volumes mentioned
were distributed to all the members. The volumes of the
Classics are published in a small edition and are sold to the
members and to others. There has likewise appeared the
346
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
sixth volume of Ginzberg's Legends of the Jews, completing
his Notes to that very valuable work and leaving a seventh
volume, which will be a very careful index, thus making this
important collection really accessible to all readers and scholars who are interested in the great legendary literature of
the Jewish people.
You will observe that of the publications of these two
years, one was an historical novel, and one a book of travels.
The History covered in a single volume the entire record of
the Jewish people from the beginning to modern times. Both
of the Year Books contained notable contributions in addition to surveys and statistical matter. That for 1926-27,
being the year of the Sesqui-Centennial, had a brief outline
of the History of the Jews of America from their settlement
in this country in 1654 to 1787, and a well illustrated article
on the architecture of the Synagogue, beside biographies of
Israel Abrahams, Kaufmann Kohler, Henry Maker and
Ephraim Lederer, all of whom had been intimately connected with the work of the Society. The 29th volume contained biographies of Oscar S. Straus and Israel Zangwill.
In passing I want to point out that there is no annual volume
of equal significance for Jewish reference purposes published
anywhere.
The History was of course our most notable production
of the past two years and has evoked a great number of
reviews and letters. There have been criticisms here and
there of particular points, principally in the modern period,
always dangerous to treat, but upon the whole we feel satisfied that an important contribution has been made not only
to Jewish literature in the English language but to the entire
Jewish world. The interest in the book is evidenced by the
fact that we have received applications for its translation
into French and into Hebrew. We have entered into an
arrangement with a well-known publishing firm in Paris, at
their request, and likewise with a publishing house in Jerusalem. In the latter case the publication in Hebrew is aided
by the Society through the continued generosity of Mr.
Abraham Erlanger.
The Classics Volumes too, now that they total five in
number, are beginning to be increasingly appreciated. Abrahams' volume of Ethical Wills has brought to the attention
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
347
of the world a type of literature which is almost exclusively
Jewish and of the finest import, and Maker's Ta'anit is
textually an epoch-making work, whilst the translation itself is charming and gives the reader an insight into one of
the most interesting tractates of the Talmud.
The Society contemplates publishing in the near future a
volume of essays by Professor Louis Ginzberg, and a juvenile book by the late Abraham S. Isaacs. The Year Book
for 1928-29 is likewise in preparation. The efforts in the
direction of publishing the Series of popular commentaries
to the Bible and the Jewish Community Series are now being
revived. These plans, formed many years ago, had to be
suspended owing to our then financial conditions. While we
are by no means affluent I am happy to say that we meet
this year under better financial circumstances than any time
in the course of the past five or six years, and I gladly ascribe
much of this improvement to the energetic and able conduct
of our office by our Secretary, Doctor Julius Grodinsky, who
has been with us since July, 1926.
The balance sheet, as of December 31, 1927, will be presented to you. It indicates a surplus for the year of $3,986.42
and lest you get a wrong impression from this statement I
would point out that at the end of December, 1927, our
total debts were in the neighborhood of some $60,000, and
as these were more than $80,000 in the previous year, it
means that we have carried on our work and reduced
our indebtedness during the year about $20,000. Since
January 1, 1928, we have further reduced our indebtedness
by $8,000. and we hope to progressively reduce this debt
during the course of the present year.
The total membership at the end of the year was about
8,995 and we have made arrangements which I trust will
increase both our membership and our sales, particularly in
the large city of New York. There has always been a considerable turn-over in the membership and during the year
1927, about 1000 new members were added to our rolls.
Mr. Miller has on frequent occasions referred to the need
of a proper working capital, the absence of which has always
been our most serious handicap, and he suggested the sum
of $100,000. as requisite for this purpose. While but a very
limited effort has been made thus far we have received indi-
348
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
vidual subscriptions in the amount of $1,000 each, to a total
of $25,000, conditioned upontheentireamountbeingsecured.
Speaking now only for the year 1927, there were distributed
to the members about 25,000 volumes, and in addition
thereto, the Society sold another 25,000 volumes. It is interesting to consider the kind of books that people buy because
after all this represents their voluntary act and not the
choice of the Publication Committee. Among these 25,000,
of course, the largest number was the Bible, but the new
History was entirely sold out and a second edition was published; Graetz's History is still a good seller; among the
miscellaneous books the biographies, even,though they are
old publications, sold the best, and altogether the general
theory that novels or childrens' books are most popular is
not borne out by our experience. The people who want to
read Jewish books apparently want to read serious ones.
Since the creation of the Society, forty years ago, there
have been 138 separate titles which contain our imprint and
as some of these books range from two to five volumes you
will see that we have probably averaged durjng the whole
period nearly four volumes a year. I am not prepared to
state on the basis of any definite statistics how many copies
we have actually distributed but I am quite sure that it
would run well over two million volumes. The number alone
is significant. Of these, 140,000 have been the Translation
of the Bible, which has now reached its seventh impression.
I have briefly referred to all the departments of our work
except the Press. Our own volumes of the Classics are printed
on it and we have executed orders for the Jewish Theological
Seminary, the Hebrew Union College, the Dropsie College,
Brown University, Harvard University, the United Synagogue of America, besides private publishing firms who have
given us their Hebrew work to do. This Press is a distinct
addition to the Jewish cultural life of America and not yet
fully appreciated.
The endeavor has been made in this report to state the
facts without either undue optimism or pessimism. Had the
conditions been rosy the Trustees would probably have felt
like making the fortieth annual meeting a celebration. We
prefer, however, to leave it to our successors to celebrate
the fiftieth anniversary.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
349
This Society is one of the most potent factors in the educational movement of the Jewish people in America, and
indeed has a distinguished place in the entire English-speaking world. In spite of its ups and downs it has for forty years
steadily continued to issue publications which, in average
distinction, will compare favorably with the output of any
Society or publishing house in the world. One of our Trustees, Mr. Julius Weyl, at a meeting a few years ago said that
the greatest gamble in any business was in the publishing
business. The wisest professional readers never know
whether a book is going to take or not. Our proportion of
books which take has been very high.
For an educational institution the aid granted us has been
less, I think, than for any other Jewish institution in America.
We have gone along under severe handicaps, it is true, with
occasional distinguished gifts, but always without capital.
I feel that we have not been granted the support financially
and morally to which we are entitled. On the other hand,
we gratefully acknowledge the unselfish labors of the Publication Committee and the Classics Committee who plod
their way through dozens of manuscripts before one is
accepted.
The Synagogue, the School, the fraternal order, every
movement in Jewish life will find us their best aid if they
are willing to make use of us, because in the last analysis
these institutions will break down unless the elders and the
youth of the community have a knowledge of the history
and literature of their people. An ignorant Jewry is inconceivable and we are prepared to furnish the information if
only the Jewish public is willing to receive it. We are publishers, not propagandists, but we feel that we have the right
to expect every Rabbi, every teacher and every communal
leader in America to be our propagandists even without
asking them.
350
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
MEMBERS
ALABAMA
Alexander City
Schoenbaum, O., Box 57
Mobile
LIFE MEMBERS
Brown, Leo M., Box 953
Hammel, Mrs. M., 930 Government
Kahn, S., 250 Church
Andalusia
Berman, S. M.
Bessemer
Erlick, Sam, 1701 Clarendon Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Birmingham
Abelson, F. A., 1311 N. 24th
Abelson, I., 2306 1st Av.
Abramson, H., 2306 2d Av. N.
Adler, Ike, 11f>! j N. 21st
Birmingham Heb. Schl. Lib'yEmanu El Congr. S.S. 2150 16th Av. S.
Feldstein, J., 1620 S. 15th Av.
Friedman, J., 2126 16th Av. S.
Katz, Rabbi S., 1215 Maplewood Av. S.
Newlield, Rabbi M., 2150 16th Av. S.
Shevinsky, F., 210 N. 18th
Shugerman, Dr. H. P., 1131 S. 30th
Y. M. H. A. Ass'n., 900 N. 18th
Ensley
Goldstein, S., 1720 Av. G.
Gads den
Frank, Ferd, 802 Chestnut
Freibaum, Lee
Hecht, Hugo H.
Adler, J. G., Box 303
Brown, H., 106 St. Michael
Gabriel, Heyman, 73 N. Reed Av.
Hess, Henry, P. O. Box 406
Kohn, M., 55 S. Bayon
Lowenstein, Mrs. A., 256 Rapier Av.
Schwartz, Leon, City Hall
Shaaray Shomayim Cong. 19 S. Water
Montgomery
LIFE MEMBER
Schloss, Mrs. B.
LIBRARY MEMBER
Greil, M. L., Box D
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Loeb, Lucien S., 912 S. Perry
Moritz, Chas. F., 424 S. Perry
Mount, Dr. B., Bell Bldg.
Weil, Bert C , Carter Hill Road
Selma
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Tuscumbia
Perry, Harry
ARIZONA
Bisbee
Frankenberg, B.
Douglas
Kline, M., P. O. Box 1079
Levy, B., 1100 10th
Phoenix
Bergen, B., 1404 W. Van Buren
Marks, B. E., 33 W. Willetta
Tucson
Rosenfeld, B., 446 S. 3d
Nogales
Bracker, Chas. J.
Chernin, H. G., Morely Av.
Rochlin, J., P. O. Box 39
Young Route
Steinman, Rev. Dr. I., F. O. Bar
Ranch c/o Bostrom
ARKANSAS
Fort Smith
Cohen, Louis, 923 N. 6th
Langfelder, L., P. O. Box 49
Marks, M. H., 1217 N. 13th
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Cong.
Helena
Leiser, Rabbi, J., 714 Liberty
Hot Springs
Fellheimer, H., Box 85
Leo M. Levi Memorial Hospital Assn.,
Nat'l Park
Little Rock
Back, Wm., 201 E, 15th
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Lasker, Mrs. II., 2200 Arch
Safferstone, I. L.. 2205 Arch
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
351
CALIFORNIA
Berkeley
Blochman, L. E., 1325 Spruce
B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundation, 2600
Bancroft Way
Kay, Joseph, 1200 Glenn Av.
Popper, Dr. Wm., 529 The Alameda
Radin, Prof. M., 2597 Buena Vista
Way
Beverly Hills
Laemmle, C , 1051 Benedict Canyon
Rd.
Magnin, Rabbi E. F., 615 Walden Dr.
Rosenberg, A. P., 513 Rexford Dr.
Chico
Goldstein, J. O., 1310 Esplanade
Tochterman, D.
Folsoin
Wahrhaftig, P. S. Route 1
Fresno
Tyre, Ben, 1458 Poplar
Hollywood
Breitstein, M., 1326 Sycamore Av.
Kirstein, L., 1743 N. Kenmore Av.
Louis, A. L., 840 N. Corson Av.
Huntingdon Park
Greenfield, J., 8014 Seville Av.
Taffe, L., 3333 Santa Ana
Levin, B., 353 S. Miles
Mathews, F. D., 126 N. Pacific Blvd.
Long Beach
*
LIBRARY MEMBER
Cohen, I. J., 3811 E. 4th
ANNUAL MEMBER
Leibert, Rabbi J. A., 206 Euclid
Los Angeles
PATRON
Schulberg, B. P., 525 Lorraine Blvd.
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Dolcart, L., Box 62, Arcade Station
Isaacs, 1... 725 S. Broadway
Lazard, Mrs. E. M., 547 S. Kingsley
Dr.
Los Angeles Lodge 487, I. O. B. B.
Newmark, M. R., 977 Arapahoe
Salinger, N., 1256 S. 7th
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Adelman, M. L., 812 N. Sycamore
Arkush, J. R., I l l S. Citrus Av.
Arnold, J. R., 3715 W. 1st
Bakerman, Dr. B., 207 Higgins Bldg.
Beaver, Ch., 1225 W. 5th
Behrstock, I., 402 Title Guar. Bldg.
Brown, Ira L., 136 W. 7th
Cahen, Dr. C. G., 1220 Westlake Av.
Cahn, Henry S., 629 S. Norton Av.
Cal. Jewish Voice, 317 W. Pico
Cohen, H. A., 1240 S. Olive
Cohen, H. K., 402 Bryson Bldg.
Cohn, M. M., 125 W. 48th
Cole, Luuis M., 1815 Sacramento
Cushner, Chas. I., 535 W. Pico
Deutsch, Jacob, 1040 S. Los Angeles
Edelman, Dr. D. W., 1052 W. 6th
Enisman, Sig., 1071 Dundas
Farbstein, J., 949 Date
Feigilman, L , 331 W. 3rd
Feldraan, Rabbi M. J., 4264 S. Harvard Bd.
Fisch, A., 2040 N. Berendo
Formaker, B., 240 N. Main
Frank, M., 695 S. Wilton PI.
Friedman, W., 2921 Van Buren PI.
Gerecht, E. F., 418 Fay Bldg.
Gillman, A., 1053 Dundas
Goldman, A., 418 S. Boyle Av.
Goodfriend, Mrs. S. E., 842 S. Sycamore
Goodrich, T., 3470 E. 5th
Gordon, D., 932 Windsor Blvd.
Gordon, M. j . , 926 W. 50th
Gumbincr, H. L., B'way & 8th
Haber, P. R., 1742 Westmoreland Blvd.
Hackel, Aaron Wm., 203 S. Citrus Av.
Haiman, J. H., 1816 W. 38th PI.
Harrison, F., 3009 Ganahl
Hellman, Irving H., 7th & Spring
Hendler, M. A., 2807 S. Western Av.
Hollzer, Judge H. A., 245 S. Norton
Av.
Isenstein, Chas., 1247 Arapahoe
Jonas, Tos. L., 830 Traction Av.
Kahn, P. M., 502a S. Hobart Blvd.
Karl, P., 207 S. Main
Keen, W., 1938 N. Berendo
Kerner, M., 1309 Martel Av.
Krohn, Dr. H. N., 1104 Edwards &
Wildey Bldg.
Lerner, Leo., 2435 Michigan Av.
Levine. H., 140 S. Rio
Levy, J. C . 220 S. Berendo
Lick'er, M. L., 627 S. Soto
Lieberman, J. J., 1005 Pacific N. B.
Bldg.
Ltnce, T. B., 512 N. Rossmore Av.
Lindenbaum, Morris, 1443 W. 11th
Lindenberger, H., 201 Currier Bldg.
Lissauer, H., 631 S. Manhattan PI.
Lissner.Dr. H. H., 318 W. 9th
Loeb, Joseph P., 610 Pacific Mutual
Bldg.
Loewenthal, M., 1833 S. Flower
Los Angeles Public Library
Lyon, R., 600 N. Temple
Maharam, Mrs. E., 222 S. Gramercy
PI.
Malsman, S.. 454 S. Rossmore Av.
Marks, D. H., 412 S. Main
Naumoff, I., 415 Metropolitan Bldg.
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
352
Newmark, M. H., 905 Beacon
Norrtlinger, L. S., 515 S. Lorraine
Blvd.
Norton, S. T., 66 Fremont PI.
Potter, D. M., 511 Chapman Bldg.
Preluzsky, Jos. I., 460 S. Spring
Rapt.rel, I., 206 S. Mansfield
Reinhart, M. H., 3227 E. 5th
Religious Sch. B'nai li'rith., 9th &
Hope
Rich. Louis, 444 N. Gower
Riche, Aaron. 4619 Rosewood Av.
Rittenberg, Mrs. W. B., 515 S. Cummings
Rosenbium, A., 314 S. Alexandria
Rosenthal, H., 226 Rosemont Av.
Rothschild, L., 418 S. Boyle Av.
Savetnick. D., 1021 S. Plymouth Blvd.
Saylin, Dr. G. J., 2202 Brooklyn Av.
Scher, A. C, 704 Los Angeles
Schireson. ] . , 337 S. Westminster Av.
Schireson, L., 2907 Hillcrest Dr.
Schultz, M. B., 258 S. Harvard Blvd.
Shabo, Dr. Geo., 1744 W. 6th
Shalitt, R., 804 Forest Av.
Shapiro, J., 609 S. Gramercy PI.
Shapiro & Shapiro, 1307 Edgecliffe Dr.
Silverman, Rev. A., 319 S. Berendo
Silverman, Wm., 2030 N. Edgemont
Sinai Rel. Schl., 438 S. Hobart Blvd.
Smith, Sam S., 436 N. Norton Av.
Sohmer, Theo., 237 S. Los Angeles
Steinberg, J., 134 S. Van Ness Av.
Strasburg, M., 2994 W. 9th
Tanner, H. B., 536 S. B'way
Temple Emanu El, 631 S. Manhatan
PI.
Trattner, Rabbi E. R., 1035 S. Rimpan
Blvd.
Wellington, Rev. S. A., 619 N. Kingsley Dr.
Zeitlin, M. G., 835 S. B'way
Los Gatos
Lesser, A. M., 35 Jackson
Marysville
Cheim, H., 620 D
Merced
Wolf, George
Oakland Lodge, No. 252 I. O. B. B.
Rosenson, A., 1966 B'wav
Samuels, Dr. H. J., 1319 Central Bk.
Bldg.
Sapper, H. J., 732 14th
Schneider, Morris N., 348 Grand Av.
Silverstein, B., Tribune Tower
Ocean Park
Feldstein, M., Merritt Jones Hotel
Ontario
Sellers, Jos. M., 105 S. Euclid Av.
Pasadena
Jasin, Dr. Jos., 273 S. Hudson Av.
Piedmont
Camp, H., 25 King Av.
Sacramento
Elkus, Albert, 9th & King
Kauffman, M., 309 "K"
Lubin, S. J., 1300 39th
San Bernardino
Lindenbaum, W., 588 3d
San Diego
PATRON
Hillkowitz, S., Box 223
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Fox., S. I., 1004 24th
Wolf, Hytnan S., 524 " F "
San Francisco
F.hrman, M., 2618 Jackson
Gross, D., Bellevue Hotel
Jacobs, Isidor, 1811 California
Levi, J., Jr., c/o H. Levi Co.
Neustadter, Mrs. J. H., Hotel St.
Francis
Rosenthal, I. L., 177 Post
Weinstock, Harris, 19 Presidio Ter.
Weil, L. P., c/o Buckingham & Hecht
PATRON
B'nai B'rith Library, 149 Eddy
Oakland
LIBRARY MEMBER
PATRON
Cerf. Dr. Alvin E., 1080 Flood Bldg.
Jewish Educ. Society, 745 Buchanan
Redlick, Henry, 98 Jordan Av.
Lavenson, A. S., 3921 Harrison
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Kahn, Helen L., 3933 Harrison
Oakland Jewish Federation, 732 14th
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Coffee, Rabbi R. I., 28th & Webster
Fiat, N., 13th & Brush
Joslyn, M. A., 502 E. 16th
Miller, D., Sheridan Rd.
Mosbacher, B. L., 517 14th
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Alter Marcus, 235 Clay
Bender, Albert M., 1369 Post
Benfield, B., 711 Kohl Bldg.
Bernstein, Wm., 1165 Davisadero
Braun, P. A., 387 Ellis
Cohn, Miss Pauline, 1732 Geary
Dinkelspiel, H. G. W., 901-8 De Young
Bldg.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Fried, Rev. Michael, 295 14th Av.
Goldman, Heim, 302 Mills Bldg.
Gruhn, J. M., 1916 Pine
Heineberg, T. A., 16 California
"
'
S. A., 1119 Fillmore
1916 California
1901 California
Personal Ser., 436
O'Farrell
Kahn, Wm., 1707-35 Howard
Lesser, J., 2856 Washington
Levey, E. C , 114 Sansome
Levinson, J. B,, 2420 Pacific
Levy, M. H., 436 O'Farrell
Meto, J., 3933 Clay
Newman, Juda, 110 Market
Newman, Rabbi L. I., 125 Jordan Av.
Oppenheimer, J., 1262 Russ Bldg.
Peyser, J. M., Fairmount Hotel
Rinder, R. R., 3877 Jackson
Roeder, S. M., 1302 Humboldt Bk.
Bldg.
Samuelson, S., 30 Cornwall
Savannah, M., 1830 Clay
Schmulowitz, N., 625 Market
Schwabacher, L. A., Hotel St. Francis
Sinsheimer, Henry, 110 Market
Sloss, Mrs. M. C , 1830 Jackson,
Apt. F.
Sommer, P. S., 593 Market
Temple Eman. E. Rel. School, Lake &
Anguella Blvd.
Tuchler, Dr. A. S., 703 Van Ness Av.
Waiss, Milton, 216 Market
Weisinger, Chas. I., 256 Sutter
Wolff, Harry K., 408 Bolfour Bldg.
Wolkow, I. Leo, 516 Van Ness
Y. M. and Y. W. H. A., 121 Haight
Zussman, Dr. S., 1411 Scott
San Jose
Franklin, Rabbi H. B., 251 Singletary
Av.
353
Santa Ana
Hurwitz, Sam'l, 1620 N. Broadway
Santa Monica
Pehr, M. H., 973 Sumac Lane
Santa Rosa
Rosenberg, Max, 511 B
Trackman, Dr. H. J., Box 95
Sierra Madre
Schlesinger, T., 153 S. Hermosa Av.
Sonora
Gibbs, Henry
South Pasadena
Blackstone, W. E., 1525 Columbia
Stockton
Ryhim Ahoovim Congr., P. O. Box
405
Seville, E., 1440 N. Commerce
Stamer, Dr. J. A., 702 F. & M. Bldg.
Stein, I. F., 33 S. Eldorado
Torrance
Isenstein, P., 2067 Carson
Van Nuys
Trachtenberg, Marck
Venice
Liknaitz, Dr. D. L., 745 Amorosa
Yolo
Borach, B., Box 7
COLORADO
Colorado Springs
Lifton, J. R., 234 Conejos
Newman, A., 1221 N. Cascade Av.
Schaefer, Dr. S. W., 1029 N. Nevada
Av.
Denver
PATRON
Bernheim, I. W., 825 York
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Adelman, DT. Louis, 1240 Ogden
B. M. H. Religious School, ' 16th &
Gaylor
Braun, M., 1944 Logan
Bronfin, Dr. I. D., 3800 E. Colfax Av.
Chernoff, H , 951 Steele
Cowen, A. B., 636 Symes Bldg.
Dveirin, Dr. H. E., 650 Corona
Emerson, Myer, 700 Knox Ct.
Feldman, Jos. S., 1574 Irving
Friedman Rabbi W. S., 733 E. 8th Av.
Frumess, H. H., 1220 Clayton
Gerstein, Rabbi I., 2649 Gaylord
Goldberg, S. M., Ernest & Cranmer
Bldg.
Greenfield, D. H., 564 Emerson
Grimes, J., 3631 E. 7th Av.
Heller, Simon J., 515 E. & C. Bldg.
Hillkowitz, Dr. P., 236 Metropolitan
Bldg.
Jaffa, Jos., 822 Foster Bldg.
Kauvar, Rabbi C. H., 1220 Elizabeth
Kolinsky, Is. J., 1619 Lawrence
Kwartin, Rev. G., 1440 Williams
Lorber, J. N., 1689 Adams
Miller, Dr. L. I., Metropolitan Bldg.
Morris, Ernest, 815 Symes Bldg.
354
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Nat. Jew. Hosp. Cun., 3800 E. Colfax
Av.
Neusteter, Meyer, 1243 Filmore
Priess, S., 645 Madison
Radetsky, M. S., 768 Gilpin
Radinsky, A. D-, 3025 W. 21st Av.
Robinson, M. H., 2300 Lawrence
Rosenbaum, C , 3021 E. 10th Av.
Rude, Mrs. I., Colburn Hotel
Schaeffer, Mrs. S. H., 716 Monroe
Schayer, M. M., 1209 Elizabeth
Schayer, M. S., Empire Bldg.
Schlesinger, M. H., 1277 Williams
Schwartz, H. J., 1255 Humboldt
Spiegleman, M. H., 1680 Steele
Strauss, M. J., 1300 Lafayette
Striker, Nathan, 1357 York
Denver National H. for Jew. Children
The Expatients Tubercular Home
Waskin, J. M., 1637 Lawrence
Yaker, M., 324 W. 13th Av.
Zigmond, Jos., 1232 Pearl
Ft. Collins
Klein, J., 718 W. Mountain Av.
Connecticut]
Pueblo
Bergman, Rabbi M., 1705 Grand
Grunfeld, Dr. R., Colo. State Hospital
CONNECTICUT
Ansonia
Luria, K., 120 S. Cliff
Bridgeport
Brody, Sam'l., 138 Parrott Av.
Elson, Irving, 1401 Fairfield Av.
Goldstein, H. A., 945 Main
Hirsch, Marcus, 288 State
Hoffman, M., 209 Knowlton
Klein, J. B., 164 State
Kotler, Rev. H., 1586 North Av.
Lieberthal, Dr. R. H., 186 Laurel PI.
Lifshiz, Ely, 1629 North Av.
Mellitz, Sam'l., 2681 Fairfield Av.
Schine, I. E., 400 Brooklawn Av.
Schnee, S. N., 35 Laurel Av.
Silverstone, Harry, 1115 E. Main
Wcinstein, B. J., 1865 North Av.
Bristol
Appell, D. A., 107 N. Main
Danbury
Feinson, S., 71 Franklin
Fairfield
Marcuse, S., 20 Longview Av.
Greenwich
Mendelsohn, Rabbi J. I., 23 E. Elm
Hartford
LIFE MEMBER
Herrup, Sol. R., 435 Farmington Av.
ANNUAL MEMPERS
Cantarow, Dr. J. I., 63 Campfield Av.
Cohen, Dr. G. II., 120 Capitol Av.
Donner, Dr. S., 449 Albany Av.
Feldman, Rabbi A. J., 145 Ballard Dr.
Finkelstein, Frank, 135 Mansfield
Freedman, Jos. M., 54 Church
Goldenthal, M., 181 Westbourne
Pkway.
H.irtman, E. M., 115 N. Oxford
Hershman, S., 27 Colebrook
Hoffenberg, Jos. A., 31 Seyms
Hoffman, Abraham, 35 Brook
Joseloff, M., Box 2108
Katz, Louis H., 20 Lorraine
Kopplemann, H. P., 83 Canton
Kovarsky, Freda A., 63 Lenox
Levin, H., 33 Congress
Levine, Dr. Sinclair S., 69 Windsor
Liftig, Dr. M. D., 524 Albany Av.
Nirenstein, E., 1062 Albany Av.
Reichlin, N. 195 Holcomb
Schwalsky, J., 983 Main
Shapiro, A., 336 Trumbull
Silverman. Rabbi M., 195 Ridgefield
Soifer, Dr. M. E., 983 Main
Le Witt, Geo., 85 Russell
New Britain
Le Witt. M. C , 295 Main
Saxe, M. D., 74 Hart
New Haven
Baker, M. L., 331 East
Botwinik, Hyman, 450 Norton
Caplan, Jacob, 42 Church
Friedman, A. M., 207 Orange
Goldman, B. F., 75 Brownell
Gordon, Israel, 696 Elm
Heyman, J. H., 615 Central Av.
Hoffman, Bernard E., 293 Division
Jacobs, A., 7 Waverly PI.
Kleiner, Isaac L., 188 Livingston
Kraft, Herman, 87 Norton
Persky, S., 19 Congress Av.
Prince, L.. 190 Ellsworth Av.
Sachs, M., 97 Oak
Ullman, Isaac M., 558 Whitney Av.
Ullman, Jos. H., 115 Linden
Wolfe, Isaac, 42 Church
Y. M. and Y. W. H. A., 304 Crown
Spitz, E., 410 Bank
Norwalk
Miller, A. J., 43 Orchard
Norwich
Strom, A.. 255 W. Main
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Sbelton
Krieger, A.
South Norwalk
Gans, Edward M., 92 S. Main
Stamford
Adler, Noah, 135 Main
Altman, L. M., 110 Washington Av.
Siegelbaum, A., 302 Summer
Spelke, A., 249 Strawberry Hill
Wilk, M. M., 69 Lafayette
Waterbury
Berman, Dr. M. D., 220 N. Main
355
Jennes, J. K., 18 Crescent
Rosengarten, C., 257 Lincoln
Schwartz, Rabbi H. E., Cong. Beth Et
Spirit, Morris, 129 Willow
Stoll, I., 134 E. Main
Walzer, Chas., 252 Hillside
Waterville
Gelman, M. B., 1658 Thomaston Av.
Kramer, S., 45 Wheeler
West Haven
Jacobs, Jacob, 29 Martin
DELAWARE
Dover
Kelso, J. M., 406 N. Bradford
Nurock, B. M., 46 S. New
Seaford
LIBRARY MEMBER
Van Leer, Chas.
Wilmington
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Himber, J., 517 W. 3d
Miller, N., 612 N. Broome
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Barsky, Nathan, 904 West
Breuer, Chas. K., 724 Market
Breuer, Max, 2601 N. Franklin
Cannon, E. S. 328 Del. Tr. Bldg.
Caplan, Ph., 705 Church
Cong. Beth. Emeth. School, 911 Washington
Faber, Mrs. Jacob, 700 W. 24th
Finger, Aaron, 2305 Harrison
Finger, M., 805 W. 23rd
Finkelstein, I. B., 1618 Franklin
Ginns, O., 424 McCabe Av.
Ginsburg, A., P. O. Box 33
Keil, Max, 300 E. 4th
Kreshtool, Dr. I. K., 832 Market
Levy, Morris, 708 N. Rodney
Mischkind, Rabbi L. A., 911 Washington
Poland, M. D., 509 Market
Rich, B. O., 2420 Madison
Robin, Dr. A., 1011 Washington
Rosenblatt, Jacob, 312 W. 14th
Rosenblatt, Louis, 2206 Jefferson
Schagrin, C. W., 2403 Harrison
Topkis, Chas., 1914 Blvd.
Tokpis, Harry, 413 W. 21st
Topkis, Louis, 217 French
Wilmington Institute Free Library
Wolters, Mrs. R. W., 600 N. Broome
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
Washington
PATRONS
Berliner, E., 1458 Columbia Rd.
Cohen; M., 2146 Wyoming Av.
Friedenwald, Dr. H., 1509 Sixteenth,
N. W.
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Brandeis, Justice Louis D. Stoneleigh
Ct.
Gichner, F. S., 1214 D. St., N. W.
Hecht, Alex., 515 7th, N. W.
Lyon, Simon, 2029 Conn. Av.
Rosenberg, M. D., 7th & E.
Sworzyn, G. Jos., 1219 G., N. W.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Behrend, R. B., 1315 F., N. W.
Berg, John, 1022 Nat'l Press Bldg.
Bierman, Dr. M. I., 1200 Ouincy,
N. W.
Freedman, J., 1630 Webster, N. W.
Gottlieb, L. S., 2814 Conn. Av., N. W.
Heilprin, G. F., 1329 F, N. W.
Hershfield, I., 1115 Connecticut Av.,
N. W.
Herzmark, D., 705 Florida Av.
Kaufman, E. I., 1415 H, N. W.
Loeb, Rabbi J. T., 222 Eye, N. W.
Mintz, I., 938 F, N. W.
Musher, N., 710 14th, N. W.
Newhouse, Dr. Benj., 4213 16th, N. W.
Peyser, J. I., 1833 19th, N. W.
Rhoade, Max, 205 Union Trust Bldg.
Sabath, Hon. A. J., House of Representatives
Selis, A C , 1410 Tavlor, N. W.
Selis, Jacob R., 920 O, St., N. W.
Shalowitz, A. L., 124 Webster, N. W.
Simon, Rev. A., 3722 Harrison
Stein, J. M., 523 13th
Tepper, B. L., 416 5th, N. W.
356
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Tepper, J. L., 3733 Northampton
Tobriner, Leon, 932 Southern Bldg.
Wallack, N. N., 3933 Military Rd..
N. W.
Washington Heb. Cong., 816 8th,
N. W.
Wilner, T. A., 2603 Conn. Av., N. W.
Wolpe, J. H., 1402 N. Y. Av., N. W.
FLORIDA
Rosin, S.
Arcadia
Ft. Pierce
Holtsberg, Max
Jacksonville
Cohen, J. E., 604 Laura
Cohen, L. H., 753 Edgewood Av.
Davis, Mrs. D., Margaret
Finkelstein, Neal, 139 W. Ashey
Hirschberg, Julius, 1417 Blvd.
Kaplan, Rabbi Israel L., Laura &
Ashley
Klepper, S. J., 1711 College
Klepper, Solon, 1744 Laura
Peiser, I., 2142 Pearl
Richardson, L., 325 W. Bay
Rubin. Mrs. Max, 2063 Post
Miami
LIBRARY MEMBER
Cohen, Isidore, 1st Nat'l Bk. Bldg.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Apte, D. J., 94 N. W. 10th
Covran, M. L., 2120 S. W., 6th
Engler, A., 1744 S. Miami Av.
Feibelman, H. W., Box 2750
Kaplan, Rev. Dr. J. H., 249 N. 1
17th Ter.
Plant, M., 309 12th
Roth, Nathan, Box 412
Zeintz, Louis, Box 458
Pensacola
Friedmann, Rev. Dr. M., Temple
Beth El
Tampa
Katz, A., 1728 7th Av.
Katz, M., 2108 7th Av.
Maas, Ernest, 835 S. Edison Av.
Steinberg, C. S., 2112 Marjorie Av.
Steinberg, Oscar, 720 South Blvd.
GEORGIA
Albany
Columbus
Landau, Rev. E. A., 511 Commerce
LIBRARY MEMBER
Stern, Siegmund, 504 Pine
Hirsch, Miss Addie, 1341 3d Av.
Athens
ANNUAL MEMBER
Michael, M. G., Box 22
Rosenthal, Rabbi F. L., 1528 4th Av.
Morris, Lee, 190 Univ. Dr.
Elberton
Atlanta
Patz, S., College Av.
LIBRARY MEMBER
Frachtenberg, L. J., Morris Bldg.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Goettinger, B., 160-64 Trinity Av.,
S. W.
Goldstein, M. F., 37 Park Lane
Haas, Herbert J., 616 Ponce de Leon
Av.
Heyman, Arthur, 507 Conolly Bldg.
Hirsch, Harold, 70 Waverly Way
Jacobs, H. S., Piedmont Av., N. E.
Levitas, Louis ) . , 25 Poplar
Marx, Rev. D., 1017 St. Charles Av.,
N. E.
Montag, Mrs. A., 928 Oakdale Rd.
Oberdorfer. E., 1124 Piedmont Av.
Saltzman, N. H., 49 Windsor
Wilensfcy, H., 40 W. Alabama
Augusta
Children's Mite Society
Glenwood
Segall, Joseph
Rome
Hebrew Sunday School, P. O. Box 383
Savannah
Ehrenreich, H. S., 303 W. Gevinett
Epstein, L. S., 210 W. 37th
Hornstein, S., 601 W. 37th
Jewish Edu. Alliance, 328 Barnard
Lewin, Geo., 414 Broughton W.
Lieberis, R., 314 Huntington E.
Pinsker, Wm., c/o Jew. Edu. Alliance
Rosenthal, E . W., 15 E. 36th
Solomon, G., 19 E. 46th
Tallulah Park
Magid, Louis B.
West Point
Hagedorn, Mrs. Phillip (Hagedorn)
Heyman, Miss Bertha
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
357
IDAHO
Pocatella
Gottberg, J., 308 W. Center
ILLINOIS
Alton
Olian, Leo S., 710 E. B'way
Aurora
Joseph, I., 240 Oak Av.
Rubenstein, Rabbi N,, 429 Fox
Swimmer, J., 732 Galena
Zidell, J., 364 Grand Av.
Belvidere
Silver, L., 311 S. Main
Bloomfngton
Livingston, Sig., Livingston Bldg.
Rosenbluth, S., 306 E. Walnut
Silvers, C. W., 209 S. Main
Champaign
Frankel, Rabbi B. M., 623 E. Green
Hillel Foundation, 623 E. Green
Jung, Dr. Moses, 623 E. Green
Kuhn, Isaac
Chicago
L I F E MEMBERS
Lidov, Mrs. S. J., 1244 Independence
Bd.
RosenwaH, Julius, 4901 Ellis Av.
PATRON
De Lee, Dr. J. B., 5028 Ellis Av.
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Ascher, F., 3229 S. Ashland Av.
Becker, J. H., 137 S. La Salle
Block, Dr. L. H., 1525 Milwaukee Av.
Elkan, L. H., 1521 Webster Av.
Frankenstein, W. B., 110 S. Dearborn
Glick, L. G., 835 S. Hermitage Av.
Goodman, M. D., I l l W. Monroe
Grollman, L., 1st Nat'l Bldg.
Grossman, M., 32 W. Randolph
Jaffe, E. M., 1020 W. 36th
Kaplan, N. D., 110 S. Dearborn
Klee, Max., 1200 Milwaukee Av.
Leopold, N. F., 1517 Conway Bldg.
Levine, Win., 127 N. Dearborn
Loeb, A. F., 6738 Ridgeland Av.
Lurie, Max, 1810 Blue Island Av.
Newberger, Dr. Chas., 310 S. Mich.
Av.
Platt, S. P., 3422 W. Monroe
Rigot, M., 225 N. Wabash Av.
Romberg, Mrs. E., 5492 S. Shore Dr.
Rosenblatt, S. J., 110 S. Dearborn
Rosenthal, James, Chicago Beach
Hotel
Rubovits, T., 4439 Drexel Blvd.
Schur, Mrs. Herman, 5125 Ellis Av.
Smidt, J., 6428 N. Francisco Av.
Sultan, W m , 7628 Rogers Av.
Turner, Rabbi J., 4167 Ogden Av.
Weinberg, M. A., Harris Trust Bldg.
Weinfeld, Chas., 6746 Bennett Av.
Woolner, W. B., 536 People's Gas
Bldg.
Wormser, L. F., 4912 Woodlawn Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Aaron, Chas., 5748 S. Park Av.
Abram, Harry, 3930 Lexington
Abrams. M., 722 Independence Blvd.
Alter, J., 361 W. Superior
Andalman, M. N., 5528 Indiana Av.
Andalman, Mrs. S. J., 527 W. 62d
Antonow, S. L.. 3642 W. 13th
Arkin, Dr. M. L., 4627 N. Monticello
Av.
Armin, Mrs. Chas., 1551 W. 69th
Augustus, M., 208 S. La Salle
Baker, I. E., 809 Roosevelt Rd.
Barnett, S. B., 155 N. Clark
Bauer, Lester L., 56 W. Randolph
Becker, A., 5038 N. St. Louis Av.
Becker, Mrs. A. G., 137 S. La Salle
Beilin, L., 4941 N. Washtenau Av.
Benjamin, A. S., 3623 Leland Av.
Bensinger, B. E., 623 S. Wabash Av.
Berkman, Mrs. H., 4745 Kenwood Av.
Berkson, E., 10 S. La Salle
Berman, J., 1410 S. Turner
Bernstein, A. L., 6730 Merrill Av.
Bernstein, Fred, 7025 Cregier Av.
Bernstein, G. D., 1120 E. 54th
Bernstein, M. A., 6532 Peoria, S.
Birkenstein, H., 377 W. Ontario
Birkenstein, L., 444 Wrightwood Av.
Bishkow, Dr. I. E., 517 Belmont Av.
Blair, Saml.. 707 Briar PI.
Bloch, M. N., 3136 Douglas Blvd.
Bloch, S., 4809 Washington Blvd.
Block, M., 2151 N. Spaulding Av.
Bloom, David, 144 S. Wabash Av.
Blum, H. S.. 646 Bittersweet PI.
Blumenthal, Dr. A. R., 4721 Ellis Av.
Bollotin, Mrs. D., 3653 Leland Av.
Boosel, Jos., 3855 N. Francisco Av.
Boten, David, 1323 Independence Blvd.
Braude, L., 29 E. Madison
Broyde, S., 343 S. Central Pk. Av.
Burr, Maurice, 111 W. Monroe
Buxbaum, J., 4743 Drexel Blvd.
Callner, Jos. M., 6201 S. Park Av.
Chevlen, Mrs. S., 4518 Christiana Av.
Coffman, E. M., 3169 B'way
358
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Cohen, A. E., 176 W. Adams
Cohen, Archie H., 3842 W. Jackson
Blvd. '
Cohen, Geo. B., 19 S. La. Salle
Cohen, J. A., 7630 Oglesby Av.
Cohen, L., 115 S. Dearborn
Cohen, Louis A., 6451 Sheridan Rd.
Cohen, Dr. S. J., 65 E. Chicago Av.
Cohen, A. A., 5032 Woodlawn Av.
Cohn, J. W., 857 Margate Ter.
Colenian, C. L., 5100 Ellis Av.
Comroe, Dr. Jos. I., 25 E. Wash.
Coner, M. J., 959 E. 55th
Copeland, A., 4919 Wash. Blvd.
Cowen, Mrs. I., 5125 Drexel Blvd.
Cristol, M. J., 3105-07 N. Cicero Av.
D'Ancona, A. E., Windermere Hotel,
E.
D'Ancona, E. N., 1038 Stock Ex.
Bldg.
Daiches, EH, Shoreland Hotel
David, J. B., 839 County Bldg.
Davis, Dr. H. I., 4752 Ellis Av.
Davis, I. C , 6752 Evans Av.
Davis, Tos., 1400 Milwaukee Av.
Davis, M., 314-24 W. 43rd
Davis, Meyer, 1003 Milwaukee Av.
De Leeuw, P., 808 Junior Ter.
Delson, Louis J., 32 W. Randolph
Dentelbaum, Leopold, c/o Chicago
Home for Jewish Orphans
Deutsch, Saml., 4936 Ellis Av.
Diamond, Jacob, 11 S. La Salle
Dottenheim, H. H., 4745 Kenwood
Av.
Dulsky, Louis, 29 S. La Salle
Durskin, Dr. A. M., 1800 Selden
Eger, A., 1348 Hyde Pk. Blvd.
Einstein, D. G., 1419 Conway Bldg.
Eisenstaedt, R., 320 S. Franklin
Eisenstein, S., 3243 Douglas Blvd.
Elenbogen, H., 3222 Lawrence Av.
Elfenbaum, Dr. A., 2423 Lawrence
Av.
Elkan, H., 833 Haines
Elman, Rabbi A., 1037 Hearst Bldg.
Emanuel Sab. Sch., 701 Buckingham
PI.
Enelow, B. F., 110 S. Dearborn
Epstein, Dr. H., 3727 W. Flournoy
Ettelson, Julius, 5016 Sheridan Rd.
Farber, Rev. Dr. R., 3344 Ainslie,
Apt. H-2
Feder, S., 337 S. Market
Feldman, M. J., 111. Mer. Bk. Bldg.
Felsenthal, Eli B., 69 W. Wash.
Ferguson, I., City Hall Square Bldg.
Fienberg, J., 1022 E. 54th
Fisher, H. H., 5412 Ingelside Av.
Fisher, Dr. M., 3300 Douglas Blvd.
Flaxman, L., 6201 S. Park Av.
Fleischman, M., 3347 W. Monroe
Foreman, Oscar G., 30 N. La Salle
Fox, Rabbi G., 7215 Jeffrey Av.
Frazin, A. L., 9119 Commercial Av.
Freed, I. B., 1222 Arthur Av.
Freedman, Dr. I. V., 5816 Kenmore
Av.
Freehof, Rabbi S. B., 54th & Cornell
Av.
Fridstein, S. H., 10 S. La Salle
Fridus, Dr. S. L., 1809 W. 47th
Friedberg, S., 3918 Jackson Blvd.
Friedland, M. N., 33 S. Clark
Friedlander, H., 169 E. 16th
Frumkin, J., 643 E. 47th
Gaertner, L., 5227 Drexel Av.
Gerngross, L., 1219 Madison Pk.
Gesas, Michael, 5062 Sheridan Rd.
Goldberg, B., 1326 Blue Island Av.
Goldberg, Dr. J. B., 1208 Independence Blvd.
Goldberg, Max, 9009 Commercial Av.
Goldberg, M., 4420 Ellis Av.
Goldberg, S. B., 115 New Hampshire
Av.
Goldblatt, P., 115 N. Kidare Av.
Golden, Dr. I. J. K., 2238 W. North
Av.
Goldfine, Dr. A. H. C , 3844 W. Jackson Blvd.
Goldman, Louis, 5 S. Wabash Av.
Goldman, Ph., 5522 W. Jackson Blvd.
Goldstein, A. W., 2415 N. Kedzie
Blvd.
Goldstein, I., 140 N. Dearborn
Goldstein, M., 4635 N. Lawndale Av.
Gollen, Dr. I. S.; 2200 W. Division
Green, H., 3149 N. Racine Av.
Greenfield, Miss G., 4656 N. Spaulding
Av.
Grollman, I., 310 S. Racine Av.
Gross, Louis J., 7719 Phillips Av.
Gross, M. M., 1356 S. Racine Av.
Gross, P. A., 175 W. Jackson Blvd.
Grossman, B. J., 5108 Glenwood Av.
Gruskin, Mrs. B., 1545 E. 60th St.
Gunther, Mrs. S. L., 4752 Virginia
Av.
Guthman, Max, 106 N. La Salle
Halperin, A. Z., 4642 Maiden
Hamilton, L., 3248 Hollywood Av.
Harrison, Sol, 10 S. La Salle
Hebrew League, 3513 Douglas Blvd.
Heldman, J. N., 11 S. La Salle
Herr, Simon, 5339 Calumet Av.
Hershenson, H. G., 160 N. La Salle
Herson, H.. 4520 W. Jackson Blvd.
Herst, F., 332 S. Michigan Av.
Herst, W., 549 E. 47th
Hevesh, Dr. Jos., 3507 Lawrence Av.
Hodes, B., 7025 Chappel Av.
Hollander, H., 4962 N. Spaulding Av.
Homer, Hon. H., 647 County Bldg.
Horwich, A. N., 5049 DTexel Blvd.
Horwich, B., 2455 Archer Av.
Horwich, L. J., 5429 Lakewood Av.
Israel, M. H., 929 B. 47th
Jacobs, H. A., 1821 Ins. Exch. Bldg.
Jacobs, I., 105 S. La Salle
Jacobson, F., 3260 Maypole Av.
jadwin, B., 1316 Independence Blvd.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Jewish Peoples Institute, 3500 Douglas
Blvd.
Kadushin, M., 2060 Humboldt Blvd
Kahn, J., 2122 Potomac Av.
Kahn, Dr. M., 4627 S. Ashland Av.
Kalish, K., 1213 S. Halsted
Kaplan, A. L., 1918 Hancock
Kaplan, I. H., 212 S. Market
Kaplan, J., 4759 Drexel Blvd.
Kaplan, Dr. M. I., 3837 "W. Roosevelt Blvd.
Karno, L., 1141 Independence Blvd.
Karpen, A., 810 S. Wabash
Katz, H., 1244 W. Division
Katz, H., 134 W. La Salle
Katz, Mayer, 1244 W. Division
Katz, Samuel, 1244 W. Division
Kaufman, S., 5122 University Av.
Kehilath Jacob Library, 1447 Hamlin
Klein', J., 745 N. Clark
Klein, Martin, 1707 Greenleaf Av.
Klein, Morris, 747 N. Clark
Koenig, H. D., 726 Conway Bldg.
Koenigsberg, D., 2448 W. Division
Koenigsberg, S., 502 Ashland Block
Kohn, A. R., 3555 W. Grand Av.
Komaiko, S. B., 175 W. Jackson Blvd.
Kompel, Morris, 102 S. Hamlin Av.
Konecky, M., 6327 S. Talman Av.
Korach, H., 1327 Wash. Blvd.
Krakaw, O., 123 W. Madison
Kramer, N., 5311 Woodlawn Av.
Kraus, Adolph, East End Park Hotel
Kreeger, M., 213 W. 63d
Kremen, B., 669 W. 12th
Krinsky, H. H., 1632 S. Clifton Pk.
Av.
Kurtzon, M., 14th & Talman
Lachman, N., 38 S. Dearborn
Lackritz, P. N., 29 E. Madison
Landfield, H. S., 155 N. Clark
Lappen, M., 2711 Giddings
Laser, M. T., 1308 N. Halsted
Lasker, I., 139 N. Clark
Lassen, Rabbi A. L., 6642 N. Ashland
Av.
Lassers, I. A., 1828 Euclid Av.
Lavick, S. B., 4617 N. Lawndale Av.
Lavin, Mrs. W., 3436 Douglas Blvd.
Lazar, S., 6644 Newgard Av.
Lebensohn, Dr. M. H., 800 W. Roosevelt Rd.
Lee, Harry, 7806 Bennett Av.
Lehrfeld, Rabbi H., 1352 N. Springfield Av.
Lehrfield Rabbi, L. J., 5511 Congress
Levin, I. A.. 155 N. ClarkLevin, Dr. I. M., 5500 W. Flournoy
Levin, Louis, 1340 Carroll Av.
Levinson, Dr. A., 3245 Douglas Blvd.
Levinson, Miss L., Windermere East
Hotel
Levinson, M. K., 11 S. La Salle
Levinson, Dr. S. A., 3415 W. Monroe
Levinstein. E. H., 4930 W. Adams
Leviton. P. B., 155 N. Clark
359
Levy, Aaron D., 1039 Hollywood Av.
Levy, Rabbi F. A., 707 Melrose
Levy, M., 217 W. Superior
Levy, O., 907 Ainslee
Lewis, E. J., 701 Junior Ter.
Lewison, Dr. M., 5800 W. Adams
Lib'y of Moody Bible Inst., 153 Inst.
PI.
Lieberman, I. K., 327 S. La Salle
Lieberman, J. L., 5518 Everett Av.
Lieberman, J., 327 S. La Salle
Linder, A. T., 1632 Pratt Blvd.
Lipsky, H. A., 1214 S. Halstead
Loeb, I. A., 155 N. Clark, R. 322
Loeb, J. M., 175 W. Jackson Blvd.
Loeb, S., 39 S. La Salle
Loewenberg, M. L., 1317 S. Avers Av,
Lund, I. A.. 6749 Paxton Av.
Lustig, A. N., 139 N. Clark
Mack, Hon. J. W., 4140 Drexel Blvd.
Manilow, Dr. L., 851 N. Western Av.
Mann, Rabbi L. L., 4622 Grand Blvd.
Margolies, Rev. Dr. J. H., 7631 Yates
Av.
Margolis, H., 697 Milwaukee Av.
Margolis, J., 543 \V. Division
Markowitz, Ph., 3934 Pine Grove Av.
Marland, B., 5750 Kenwood Av.
Marshall, Dr. N. W., 2634 W. North
Av.
Mayer, C. F., 7405 Crandon Av.
Melcher & Landow, 208 W. Adams
Meltzer, A., 6720 Merrill Av.
Mendelsohn, Rabbi S. F., 4845 Drake
Av.
Mendelsohn, Wm., 1213 W. Van Buren
Metcoff, Mrs. S., 3818 W. Congress
Meyer, J. H., 30 N. La Salle
Miller, I., 3607 Grenshaw
Minkus, L., 1743 Humboldt Blvd.
Minn, Dr. S., 3222 Le Moyne
Monsby, A., 702 Englewood Av.
Morrison, T. S., 2632 N. Spaulding
Av.
Moskow, H., 6749 Paxton Av.
Nechin, H., 1314 S. Troy
Nemiro, Dr. A. F., 631 S. Ashland
Blvd.
Newberger, H. H., 844 W. Jackson
Newburger, Miss J., Chicago Beach
Hotel
Newman, J., 11 S. La Salle
Nickelson & Berger, 8501 Balto. Av.
Nierman, E. A., 4537 Drexel Blvd.
Ogus, A. L., 1414 S. Albany Av.
Osherman, Miss M. E., 116 S. Michigan Av.
Ovitsky, Dr. P., 3929 W. Arthington
Av.
Ovson, M., 110 N. Franklin
Pann, Judge Hugo, 3843 Mich. Av.
Pearlman, Dr. S. J., 180 N. Michigan
Av.
Pennish, L. E., 110 S. Dearborn
Perlstein, Mrs. E.. 430 S. Dearborn
Phillipson, S., 828 W. Roosevelt Rd.
Pincus, Sam'l. Z., 139 N. Clark
360
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Piser, S. S., 3111 W. Roosevelt Rd.
Pitzele, Nat., 11338 S. Mich. Av.
Platt, B. N., 840 La Fayette Pkwy.
Pollock, S. S., 5823 Winthrop Av.
Quasser, J. H., 517 Harris Trust Bldg.
Rabinovich, S., 1426 S. Hamlin Av.
Reis, Mrs. I . J . , 4746 Ellis Av.
Richman, S. J., 1402 S. Peoria
Rhode, A. M., 223 W. Madison
Rosenbaum, Rabbi D., 1227 Independence Blvd.
Rosenbaum, H., 323 W. Jackson Blvd.
Rosenberg, A. H., 2052 Pierce Av.
Rosenberg, .B. D., 6165 Winthrop Av.
Rosenberg, H. L., 4928 N. Ridgway
Av.
Rosenberg, J., 2953 N. Troy
Rosenberg, N., 3544 W. 12th PI.
Rosenfeld, Mrs. M., "The Drake"
Rosemnan, Sam'l., 947 Winona Av.
Rosenstein, L., 6716 Clyde Av.
Rosenthal, J., 1106 Independence Blvd.
Rosenzweig, I., 14 E. Jackson Blvd.
Roth, Adolph, 2936 Wilson Av.
Ruben, Chas., 1021 E. 53d
Rubin, Mrs. I., 1613 S. Millard Av.
Ruekberg, B. P., I l l W. Monroe
Sabath, M., 1914 S. Ashland Av.
Salomon, S. S., 454 Melrose
Salzman, Dr. H. A., 3508 W. Roosevelt Rd.
Schaar, B. E., 556 W. Jackson Blvd.
Schaffner, R. C , 137 S. La Salle
Schanfarber, Rev. T., 5042 Drexel
Blvd.
Scheftel, Ben., 1812 S. Clifton Pk. Av.
Schiff, Chas., 423 W. 63d
Schloesinger, H. J., Standard Club
Schloss, Max, 1325 Rosedale Av.
Schonberger, S., 6 N. Cicero Av.
Schwartz, H., 1209 Hey worth Bldg.
Schwartz, Dr. J. J., 4942 N. Albany
Av.
Schwartz, S. D., 4600 Grand Blvd.
Seelig, Leo, 443 S. Halsted
Seiden, B. R., 212 S. Market
Seifer, N., 394 Lincoln Way
Sentinel Publishing Co., 118 S.
Clinton
Shabad, H. M., Sutherland Hotel
Shafer, A. W., 912 Glengyle PI.
Shaffner, Chas., 4717 N. Maplewood
Av.
Shapiro, I., 3351 Douglas Blvd.
Shulman, B., 5424 East View Pk.
Shure, Mandel 5308 University Av.
Shure, Nathan, 237 W. Madison
Silberman, A., 69 W. Wash.
Silverman, J., 2500 Ogden Av.
Silverman, R., 175 W. Jackson Blvd.
Simon, Mrs. A., 3857 W. Van Buren
Singer, Mrs. D., 1108 Independence
Blvd.
Singer. Rabbi J., 6932 N. Ashland
Blvd.
Soble, Aaron, 1903 Humboldt Blvd.
Soboroff, Saml., 2432 McLean Av.
Solomon, Mrs. H. G., 2146 Lincoln
Pk., W.
Sonnenschein, Dr. R., 180 N. Michigan Av.
Sopkin, B., 4601 Wentworth Av.
Sopkin, L., 4601 Wentworth Av.
Spira, S., 2852 Logan Blvd.
Spivek, Herman, 1647 Farwell Av.
Staller, J. H., 3831 W. Adams
Stein, L., 2852 Logan Blvd.
Steindler, A., 11 N. Green
Stern, C. H.. 3258 Douglas Blvd.
Stern, Mrs. H. B 4300 Drexel Blvd.
Stern, Max, 833 Haines
Stern, M., 5022 Woodland Av.
Stolz, Rev. Dr. J., 5010 Drexel Blvd.
Stolz, Rabbi J. H., 5480 Cornell Av.
Sulzberger, S. L., 331 S. Peoria
Tanon, Rabbi M. N., 902 Margate
Ter.
Teller, Carrol A., 127 N. Dearborn
Teller, Rabbi M., 547 E. 60th
The Temple Rel. Schl., 5035 Greenwood Av.
Thorek, Dr. M., American Hospital
Tint, Dr. L., 185 N. Wabash Av.
Trotzkey, E., 1550 S. Albany Av.
Van Gelder, M., 5747 Sheridan Rd.
Vinik, H., 6631 S. Green
Wald, Benedict, 5455 University Av.
Walpert, Dr. B. E., 5212 Ingelside Av.
Wash. Blvd. Temple, 25 N. Karlov Av.
Weil Emanuel, 39 S. La Salle
Weinberg, J., 1466 Milwaukee Av.
Weiner, Abr., 3728 Douglas Blvd.
Weiner, M. S. 2007 S. California Av.
Weinfield, Dr. H., 2758 W. Van Buren
Av.
Weinger, Sol., 918 Maxwell
Weiss, S. H., 624 Roosevelt Rd.
Weissenbach, J., 1630 Tribune Bldg.
Winsberg, Geo., 941 Winona Av.
Witz, Samuel, 175 W. Jackson Blvd.
Woldenbere. M., 159 W. Kinzie
Wolf, H. M., 830 Oakwood Blvd.
Wolf, J. D., 5119 W. Chicago Av.
Wolfson, C. J., 307 W. Van Buren
Yoffe, Dr. S., 6454 S. Campbell Av.
Zucker, S., 231 S. La Salle
Zuckerman, M. W., 3654 Lexington
Christopher
Sawyer & Rubin
Cicero
Shinglman, Dr. J., 4930 W. 13th
Evanston
Rosenberg, H. M., 1804 Sheman Av.
Salzman, A. L., 2640 Lincolnwood Dr.
Galesburg
Gross, Joseph
Halper, D. C , Ferris & Cedar
Nirdlinger, S.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Geneseo
Waterman, Henry
Glencoe
North Shore Congregation
Harvey
Marks, I., 202 E. 154th
Highland Park
Mandel, Mrs. E., 130 Roger Williams
Av.
Hubbards Woods
Frankel, H. D., 1138 Scott Av.
Joliet
Emdin, Rabbi B., 512 N. Eastern Av.
Kewanee
LIBRARY MEMBER
Szold, A., 611 S. Tremont
La Salle
Hirsh, Dr. S., 164 Marquette
Moline
Dolkart, L., 614 10th
Grossman, N., Leclaire Hotel
Katz, Joseph L., 1106 19th Av.
Sklovsky, Max, 624 10th
Oak Park
Jacobi, H. S., 639 N. East Av.
Lome, Mrs. P., 528 Clarence Av.
Moment, H., 421 S. Grove Av.
Ottawa
Rothbardt, Mrs. G., 820 La Salle
Pana
LIBRARY MEMBER
Tanner, H., 200 E. Wash.
Peoria
LIBRARY MEMBER
Klein, H., 222 S. Adams
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Applebaum, Dr. A., 703 Lehman Bide.
Bloom, Mrs. H. T., 936 N. Glen Oak
Cohen, H., 501 W. Park PI.
Dorfman, Rabbi B. M., 927 Hamilton
Blvd.
Frankel, H., 704 7th
Frankel, H., 631 S. Adams
Friedman, D. S., 1518 N. Monroe
Horwitz, Dr. S., Central Nat'l Bk.
Bide.
Levitin Dr. E. Z., 200 Rebecca PI.
361
Szold, Jacob, 515 George
Ullman, C. A., 203 Bradley Av.
Wolfner, I. W., 143 High
Wolfner, Mrs. W. F., High and State
Woolner, A'dolph, Jr., 439 Moss Av.
Rochelle
LIBRARY MEMBER
Helb, Mrs. Pauline
Rockford
LIBRARY MEMBER
Seidler, Geo., 1708 Cumberland
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Goldman, J., 149 Morgan
Mayer, Sig., care of Hotel Mayer
Shanhouse, Chas., 1035 Haskell Av.
Udelowich, P., 1622 Harlem Blvd.
Rock Island
Gellerman, S., 109 16th
Maggid, S., 1500-29^
Morris, Harry, 841 24th
Steward, B. A., 1404 43d
Jackson, E. J.
Sesser
Springfield
Eckstein, M., 1826 S. 4th
Greenberg, D., 1150 N. 5th
Meyers, J. M., Meyers Bldg.
Myers, Louis M., 1115 S. 7th
Taylorville
Schreiber, Jonas
Urbana
Koller, Prof. A. H., 502 W. Penna.
Litman, Prof. Simon, 603 W. Green
University of Illinois Library
Sachar, A. I., 504 S. Mathews
Waukegan
Blumberg, J., 541 N. Gennessee
Gordon, F., 412 Douglas Av.
Jacobs, C , 311 Julian
Morrison, Chas., 226 Gillette Av.
Rubin, A. M., 238 Gillette Av.
Rubin, M. H., 318 Ridgeland Av.
Schwartz, S., 36 N. Sheridan Rd.
West Frankfort
Greenbaum, Dr. Fred'k.
Wilraetta
Schneider, B. B., 929 Linden Av.
Winnetka
LIBRARY MEMBER
Faroll, Mrs. B., 741 Prospect Av.
362
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
INDIANA
Attica
Levor, Mrs. Levi S., 401 E. Jackson
Huntington
Bronstein, P., 1060 N. Byron
Bedford
Jacobs, Abe S.
Crawfordsville
Pearlman, Co., The George
Indianapolis
Bamberger, R., Meyer-Kiser Bldg.
Borinstein, L. J., 4137 Meridan, N.
Brill, Henry, 112 S. Penn
Davis, Lawrence B., 860 B'way
Efroymson, G. A., 2036 N. Delaware
Efroymson, Meyer, 3627 N. Penna.
Feuerlicht, Rabbi M. M., 3034 Wash.
Bd.
Grossman, L. N., 811 S. Delaware
Indianapolis Hebrew Cong., 3560
Salem
Ind. State Library, 47 State House
Jewish Federation, 17 W. Morris
Kiser, Sol. S., 2128 W. Penn
Lewis, H., 4343 Winthrop Av.
Lyman, B., 2028 Central Av.
Mantel, Emil, 205 W. Washington
Medias, C , 721 N. Delaware
Pinkus, Miss C , 3271 Central Av.
Platt, H. I., 1122 Prospect
Rabb, Miss S., 1311 Union
Simon, M. N., 121 Penway
Wolf, Miss J., 3107 N. Meridian
Given,
Lewin,
Lewin,
Seifer,
East Chicago
Albert, 602 Chicago Av.
A. B., 702 Chicago Av.
Milton, 615 Chicago Av.
L. H., 4237 Magoun Av.
Ellwood
LIBRARY MEMBER
Wolf, T., 1121 S. Anderson
Evansville
Bernstein, D. S., 1511 S. 2d
Dannenberg, S. B., 2842 Division
Ehrich, Dr. Wm., Citizens' Bk. Bldg.
Fine, I. J., 1309 Powell Av.
Gumberts, F. A., 114 Main
Hamberg, A., 1412 E. Iowa
Hamburg, S. C , 1504 E. Virginia
Horn, Elias, 1601 Mulberry Ct.
Levy, Henry, 916 Powell Av.
Loeventhal, H., 529 Wash. Av.
Paul, B. N., 716 Wash. Av.
Ravdin, Dr. B. D., 108J/S Sunset Av.
Ravdin, Dr. M., 431 Ravenswood Dr.
Skirball, Rabbi J. H., Wash. Av.
Temple
Skora, I., 813 Wash. Av.
Weil, E., 1100 Powell Av.
Fort Wayne
Achduth Vesholom Cong.
Cohen, Chas., 135 W. Wash.
Hurwitz, Rev. M., 747 E. Wayne
Markowitz, Rabbi S. H., 1119 Fairfield
Av.
Gary
LIBRARY MEMBER
Koltinsky, M., 610 W. 8th Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Bloom, I., 945 B'way
Feder, William, 1112 B'way
Given. H., 650 Wash.
Kan, Dr. Alex. M., 3853 B'way
Lieberman, Morris, 2200 B'way
Milgram, Samuel H., 1336 B'way
Greencastle
Sudranski, Sol. L.
Hammond
Schlesinger, S. A., 104 Highland
Kokomo
Levi, J. S., 1215 W. Sycamore
Lafayette
Bamberger, Rabbi B. J., 916 North
Messing, A. L., 516 Columbia
Pearlman, Dr. S., Lafayette Life Bldg.
Stein, Max
Lyons
Michigan City
Moritz, M., 602 Spring
Mishawaka
Piser, Abr., 225 Smith
Muncie
Roberts, G. D., 613 W. Jackson
Richmond
LIBRARY MEMBER
Harsh, A., 100 S. 3d
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Fred, Saml., 710 Main
Saffer, M., 318 N. Fifth
Shelbyville
Goodman, A., Public Square
South Bend
Sandock, Dr. I., Associate Bldg.
Stern, Rabbi W. M., Box 754
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Summitsville
Lubin, Mrs. J. M., 1136 S.
Manfield, Mrs. B., 1230 S.
Plost, Mrs. P., 609 S. 5th
Stem, S. M., 919 S. 5th
Tatelman, Mrs. J., 1619 S.
Temple Israel Sab. School,
Warner, L.
Terre Haute
LIBRARY MEMBER
Blumberg, Ben., Star Bldg.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Levin, Morris L., 626 Walnut
Cedar Rapids
Braverman, M., 322 S. 3rd
Goldman, Harry, 115 S. 2nd
Schoen, C , 356 Forest Drive
Council Bluffs
Morganstern, I., 1002 5th Av.
Davenport
PATRON
Adler, E. P., 2104 Main
LIBRARY MEMBER
Betty Adler Waterman, Memorial
Library
Decorah
Bear, Ben.
Des Moines
LIBRARY MEMBER
Frankel, Mrs. B., 219 37th
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Adelman, J. D., 405 37th
Blank, A. H., 5206 Waterbury Rd.
Blotcky, S. H., 1336 W. 12th
Branson, A. A., 417 Walnut
Brody, D. I., 2832 High
Brody, Tos. A., 930 W. 29th
Brody, J. I., 5327 Shriver Av.
Cohen, M. H., Register & Tribune
Bldg.
Cohen, O., 607 Grand Av.
363
Center
8th
4th
909 S. 5th
IOWA
Davidson, J., 717 Franklin Av.
Frankel, Mrs. Belle G., 219 37th
Ginsberg, H., 508 56th
Kahn, M. O., 718 18th
Levitt, J., 922 W. 5th
Mannheimer, Rabbi E., 427 W. 51st
Marks, M., 5403 Waterbury Rd.
Marks, R., 213 W. 3d
Mendelson, M., 5200 Schriver Av.
Miller, Dr. S., 836 Penn. Av.
Oransky, L., 505 Walnut
Panor, S., 5400 Waterbury Rd.
Prusiner, B. W., 3103 University Av.
Sheuerman, H., 533 43rd
Silver, Marcus, 320 Walnut
Toubes, L., 1309 E. Grand Av.
Iowa City
Felsenthal, Miss E., Univ. of la. Lib'y
Sioux City
Baron, B., 1810 Pearl
Courshon, Dr. B., 3315 Jackson Blvd.
Davidson, Dave, 1709 Nebraska
Galinsky, A. L., 1524 Summit Av.
Kutcher, L. J., 1114 McDonald
Mt. Sinai Library, Ruth Marx, 610
16th
Waterloo
Kanofsky, J., 124 F.. !5th
ommercial
Krensky, H., 1429 Con
KANSAS
El Dorado
Abels, D.. P. O. Box 110
Bennett, L. L., P. O. Box 731
Hutchinson
Gottlieb, I., 212 A. East
Kansas City
Lustig, L., 26 N. James
Leavenworth
S. S. Liby, Temple-B'nai Jeshurum
Topeka
Galitzski, Mrs. S., 1185 College Av.
Wichita
Bronstein, Rabbi D., 207 S. Holyokf
Av.
Croney, S., 121 S. Main
Glickman, J., 920 Buffum
Kamen, S., 147 S. Erie
Semryck, B., 1041 N. St. Francis
Wallenstein, H., 832 N. Topeka Av.
KENTUCKY
Ashland
Jossclson, A., 2916 E. Bath Av.
Bowling1 Green
Nahm, Chas. S., 420 Main
Frankfort
Davis, I., 328 St. Clair
Henderson
Grusin, S. H., Powell & Letcher
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
364
Lexington
Ades, D., 249 E. Main
Bernstein, Mrs. J., 520 Sayre Av.
Levy, M. L., 720 Bullock PI.
Newburger, B., 113 State
Louisville
LIBRARY MEMBER
Lang, J., 1462 S. 2d
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Adath Israel Cong., 834 3d
Bazell, Rabbi L. N., 2nd and College
Av.
Blieden, I., 628 W. Market
Brith Sholom Relig. School, 1525 3rd
Cohen, J. A., 1908 S. 1st
Ehrman, Hilraar, 1230 S. 3d
Feitelson, P., 2824 W. Chestnut
Frank, L., 40 Reeser Ct.
Gittleman, Rabbi J. J., 1376 Ouerbacker Ct.
Goldberg, L. L., 1868 Alfresco PI.
Grossman, Louis, 1312 S. 2d
Horvitz, M., 606 Realty Bldg.
Isaacs, L., 2130 Maryland Av.
Isaacs, Minnie D., 1023J4 S. Brook
Levy, Sol., 209 E. Jefferson
Linker, Barnet, 110 W. Ormsby
Louisville Free Public Library
Mandel, M., 1225 2d
Meyer, Herman, 1525 3rd
Morris, C. W., M. E. Taylor Bldg.
Ortner, E. H., 1373 1st
Ratnm, A., 2331 Alta Av.
Rauch, Rabbi J., Temple Adath Israel
Rosenthal, L. A., 1211 S. 2d
Schulman, M. W., 1109 S. 1st
Seidenman, J. I., 641 W. Main
Selligman, Alfred, 2130 Edgeland Av.
Selligman, Jos., 1521 S. 4th
Shaffet, A. J., 303 E. Madison
Simon, J., 715 S. Preston
Simon, M., 411 E. Chestnut
Simons, L. L., 1317 Highland Av.
Simmons, M. L., 1427 S. 2d
Slote, O., 542 W. Market
Spiegel, C , 1630 S. First
Steinfeld, E., 119 W. Burnett
Strull, Chas., 2100 Murray Av.
Switow, M., 408 4th
Waldman, M., 110 W. Hill
Washer, B. T., 1335 2d
Y. M. H. A., 729 S. 2d
Newport
Jacobs, Herman, 807 Monmouth
Lobel, Rabbi A., 639 Maple Av.
Paducah
Marks, M., B'way
Richmond, Rabbi H.
Simon, Moses, 335J4 N. 7th
Temple Israel Cong., B'way
LOUISIANA
Alexandria
Bauer, Geo., Box 551
Ginsberg, G. J., 204 Com. Bldg.
Hochbaum, Mrs. W., 1807 White
Simon, A. E.
Straus, Dr. H. C , The Temple
Weil, S., 529 9th
Baton Rouge
Cohen, M., 1046 Convention
Mayer, B. S., 315 North
Peiser, Rabbi W., Cong. B'nai Israel
Rubenstein, I. M., Rosenfield D. G.
Co.
The Temple Library
Weil, J., 207 Dreks Av.
Frankel, J.
Crowley
Donaldsonville
Netter, Adolph
Lake Charles
I. O. B. B. Lodge, Box 796
Monroe
LIBRARY MEMBER
Meyer, Mrs. Sol., 128 Catalpa
ANNUAL MEMBER
Kaplan, Saml., 416 Grammont
Morgan City
Goldman, Mrs. J. J-., Box 267
New Iberia
Dreyfus, Leon, Main
New Orleans
LIFE MEMBER
D. G. Lodge, I. O. B. B., 212 Whitney C. B.
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Bonart, Sam, Paydras & Rampart
Julius Weis Home, 3516 Prytania
Simon, L. C , 500 Canal
Weil, H. B., 18 Audubon PI.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Barkoff, H., 5414 Magazine
Binstock, Rabbi L., 2107 Calhoun
Bratman, H., 1410 Broadway
Brener, P., 1633 Josephine
Cohen, J., 221 Chartres
Cohn, D. L., 800 Canal
Dresner, J. D., 211 Camp
Feldman, Wm., 2504 Chestnut
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Godchaux, Mrs. P. L., 1237 Jackson
Av.
Goldberg, Rabbi M. H., 1763 Jackson
Av.
Heller, Rev. Dr. Max, Bienville Hotel
Jewish Orph. Home, St. Charles &
Peters Av.
Kaiser, H. W., 524 Canal Bk. Bldg.
Leipziger, Rev. Dr. E. W., 7624 St.
Charles Av.
Lemann, M. M., Carondelet Bldg.
Mayer, Erhard, 1239 Montegut
Moss, W. I., 447 Audubon
N. Orleans Pub. Lib., 1001 St. Chas.
Av.
Pokorny, Mrs. Dave, 2113 St. Chas.
Av.
Robbins, Isidore, 2207 Baronne
Sabludowsky, J., 1137 S. Franklin
Schwartz, Ralph, Canal Bk. Bldg.
Shushan, G., 532 Canal
Singer, E., 4600 Freret
Stern, P., Interstate Electric Co.
T. Sinai Sisterhood, 3309 St. Chas. Av.
Wolbrette, H., 1907 B'way
Y. M. H. A., 1205 St. Charles Av.
Zemurray, Saml., Whitney Bldg.
Oil City
Lavine, H. S., P. O. Box 25
365
Shreveport
SUSTAINING MEMBER
Herold, S. L., 1st Nat'l. Bk. Bldg.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Abrams, S., 1449 Buna Vista
Abramson, Dr. L., 1130 Louisiana Av.
Bernstein, Ernest R., 1239 Park PI.
Blumberg, B., 935 E. College
Bodenheimer, Dr. J. M., Hutchinson
Bldg.
Brill, Rabbi Abr., 2120 Highland Av.
Freyer, A. B., P. O. Box 346
Frumer, I., 1535 Laurel
Gold, Louis, 721 Texas
Goldstein, E., 818 Unadilla
Goldstein, Nathan, 314 Stoner Av.
Horwitz, A., 1522 Anna
Murov, N., 864 Texas Av.
Ober, J., 4710 Line Av.
Phelps, E., 309 Edwards
Picard, Dr. M., Hutchinson Bldg.
Roos, A. W., 612 Commerce
Shreveport Memorial Library
Weisman, M., 554 Stoner Av.
Wiesel, Rabbi A. S., 408 Jordan
MAINE
Bernstein, Israel, 97 Exchange
Davis, Dr. John L., 62 Morning
Edelstone, W. W., 379 Deering Av.
Rosen, Maurice E., 178 Middle
Sacknoff, S. J., 90 Morning
Sulkowitch, M. A., 80 North
Bangor
Cahners, J. A., 217 Center
Cohen, Simon, 118 Main
Friedman, A. B., 74 Jefferson
Segal, M., Central & Hammond
Portland
Berman, J. H., 64 Eastern Promenade
MARYLAND
Baltimore
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Berny, Albert, 6 E. Esplanade Apt.
Dalsheimer, S., Esplanade Apts.
Fleischer, M:, 2401 Eutaw PI.
Goldenberg, M. H., Emersonian Apts.
Hanline, A. M., Marlborough Apt. 6 D
Hendler, L. M., 1710 Eutaw PI.
Hochschild M., Emersonian Apt.
Kohn, L. B., Howard & Lexington
Levy, Julius, 105 Ridgewood, Roland
Pk.
Levy, Wm., Paca & Lombard
Ottenheimer, B. M., Esplanade Apts.
Potts, I., 511 N. Kenwood Av.
Rosenthal, I. C , 4001 Barrington Rd.
Sonneborn, S. B., 2420 Eutaw PI.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Abrams, S., 4052 Park Heights Av.
Adath B'nei Israel
Applefeld, S. C , 2301 Tioga PI.
Applestein, B. S., 10 S. Patterson Pk.
Balto'. Hebrew College, 2102 Eutaw
PI.
Bamberger, Jacob, 3403 Morris Av.
Bank, S. M., 802 Chauncey Av.
Baum, E. M., Druid Manor Apts. C I
Beck, Benj., 345 St. Paul PI.
Berman, J., 1320 N. Charles
Bernstein, M. M., 21 W. Fayette
Beser, N., 303 Ridgely, Mt. Wash.
Hghts.
Billstein, N., Charles & 34th
Blivess, A., 3421 Reistertown Rd.
Blondheim, Prof. D. S., 808 Reservoir
Blumberg, A., 3826 Pk. Heights Av.
Blumberg, Alex., 2204 Linden Av.
Blumberg, H., 3100 Oakfield Av.
Blumberg, I, 1521 E. Pratt
366
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Brave, M., 3417 Guyim Oak Av.
Brenner, L. 1., 821 Chauncey Av.
Brenner, Sol. M., c/o M. S. Levy &
Sons
Bronstein, M. J., 12 N. Bethel
Brown, Benj., 328 S. Paca
Brown, J., 3633 Cottage Av.
Caplan, H. L., 2230 Mondawin Av.
Caplan, Michael, 215 N. Liberty
Caplan, Oscar, 620 E. Balto.
Castelle, Rev. George, 1911 Eutaw PI.
Chizuk Emunah Con., 734 W. North
Av.
Clark, Emile, 2349 Eutaw PI.
Clarke, H., 2345 Eutaw PI.
Cline, B., Temple Gardens
Coblenz, Rabbi A., 2029 Eutaw PI.
Cohen, A. M., 36 S. Paca
Cohen, Aaron, Belvidere & Pimlico Rd.
Cohen, B., 1709 Linden
Cohen, Mrs. B. M., 3415 Gwyms Falls
Pkway, Walbrook
Cohen, Bertha, 415 N. Charles
Cohen, Miss E. S., The Latrobe
Cohen, L. T., 4138 Norfolk Av.
Cohen, M. S., Seville Apts., Lake Dr.
Cordish, I., 720 E. Baltimore
Crockin, Emil, 29 Hopkins PI.
Danker, Dr. I., 244 Aisquith
Dashew, Jacob, 417 W. Baltimore
Davidson, I. W., 34 S. Etuaw
Dobres, M.' A., 2917 Norfolk Av.
Dornberg, L., New Amsterdam Bldg.
Eisenberg, A., 215 W. Lexington
Ellison, D., 3424 Auchentoroly Ter.
Engel, Jacob, Mt. Washington
Ephraim, R. L., 2228 Linden Av.
Epstein, Jacob, 2532 Eutaw PI.
Epstein, P., 1703 Ruxton Av.
Erkes, Charles, 734 W. North Av.
Esterson, S. I., 2807 Rockrose Av.
Fader, A., 210 E. Baltimore
Farbman, H., 1123 E. Balto.
Farbman, J., 2208 Wittier Av.
Fax, J., 131 Aisquith
Feikin, B., 124 N. Eutaw
Feldman, D., 2200 Mondawmin Av.
Feustman, B. H., 231 E. Redwood
Filtzer, Mrs. E. J., 2216 Park Av.
Fine, Louis, 4103 Liberty lights. Av.
Fisher, Mrs. S., 2518 Brookfield Av.
Flom, Carl J., 1828 E. Baltimore
Folick, I., 2442 Eutaw PI.
Folkoff, Saml. H., 2305 Madison Av.
Fox, Michael J., 4006 Springdale Av.
Fox, Morton, c/o Union Stock Yards
Fox, Wm. L., 2404 Liberty Hghts. Av.
Frank, Kli, North & 4th Avs., Mt.
Washington
Frank. Mrs. R., 1829 Eutaw PI.
Franklin, Dr. David, 122 W. Lee
Freedom, Dr. A. G., Edmondson &
14th
Friedenwald, Dr. Edgar B., 1616 Linden
Friedenwald, Dr. Harry, 1212 Eutaw
PI.
Friedenwald, Dr. J., 1013 N. Charles
Friedman, B., 21 W. Fayette
Fuld, Manes E., The Marlborough
Apts.
Gamse, Herman, 2811 Allendale Rd.
Gershenson, M., 3501 Walbrook Av.
Ginsberg, A., 16 Queen Anne Rd.
Goldbloom, L. S., 613 W. Balto.
Goldfoos, Max, 949 N. Gay
Goldheim, L. W., 601 Whitlock
Goldheim, Mrs. L. A., 2218 Callow
Av.
Goldsmith, J. S., 2335 Eutaw PI.
Gordon, Irving, 2022 Brookfield Av.
Gordon, P., 2236 Mondawmin Av.
Greenbaum, L. E., 1614 Eutaw PI.
Greenbaum, M. D., 1007 Fidelity
Bldg.
Greenberg, Isaac, 212 Dolphin
Greenberg, L., 3528 Reisterstrom Rd.
Gundersheimer, Mrs. M. E., 21 Talbot Rd., Windsor Hills
Gutman, L. K., 112-122 Eutaw
Guyes, M. I., South Rd., Mt. Wash.
Habelson, S., 544 Equitable Bldg.
Halle, Isaac, 1904 Eutaw PI.
Hamburger, Mrs. H. I., Esplanade
Apt. 6 E!
Hamburger, Dr. L. P., 1207 Eutaw
PiHamburger, Sydney J., 2213 Linden
Av.
Har Sinai Congregation
Hartogensis, B. H., Marlboro Apts.
Heb. Cong. Lib'y, 1914 Madison Av.
Hecht, Mrs. J. F., Greenspring &
Kenvak Rd., Mt. Wash.
Heifetz, Rabbi N., 22 N. B'way
Himmel, L., 909 Lake Dr.
Hirschhorn, S., 210 N. Calvert
Hochheimer, L., 438 Equitable Bldg.
Hollander, Dr. J. H., 1802 Eutaw PI.
Hollander, L., 2337 Linden Av.
Horwitz, E. H., 1631. Munsey Bldg.
Hurwitz, A., 900 E. Lombard
Hutzler, Albert D., 210 N. Howard
Hutzler, Mrs. D., 1801 Eutaw PI.
Ind. Order Brith Sholom, 1012 E.
Balto.
Israel, Rabbi E. L., Har Sinai Temple
Jacob, Mr. & Mrs. A. M., 3424
Holmes
Jacobs, J. H., 4006 Fernhill Av.
Jeffrey, L. D., 5200 Park Hghts. Av.
Kanter, Robt.. 308 Equitable Bldg.
Katz, Chas., 126 W. Fayette
Katz, Jos., 952 Brooks Lane
Katz, Meier, 2214 Linden Av.
Kaufman, D. J., 814 Whitelock
Kaufman, F. J., 3403 Morris Av.
Keiser, S. J., 4512 Penhurst Av.
Kellman, H. T., 12 Montgomery Rd.
Kessler, A., P. O. Box 339
Kohn, Benno, 200 N. Howard
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Kolker, Ben., 821 Lake Dr.
Kramer, L., 2206 Brookfield Av.
Kriegel, J., 1505 N. Bentalou
Krieger, Dr. E., 330 N. Charles
Lampe, D., Forest & Beulah Av.
Lauchheimer, S. H., I l l N. Charles
Lauer, Mrs. L., Esplanade Apt 3 A
Lauer, M., Marlborough Apt 3 A
Lazaron, M. S., 1914 Madison Av.
Lebawitch, L., 4012 Bateman Av.
Lebovitz, N., 813 Lake Dr.
Leibowitz, Wm. A., 916 Chauncey Av.
Leopold, Dr. E. I., 200 W. Lafayette
Av.
Levenson, M. A., 21 N. B'way
Levin, Ellis, 138 Aisquith
Levin, Harry O., 822 Brooks Lane
Levin, Mrs. L. H., 2104 Chelsea Ter.
Lipnick, T., 3416 Morris Av.
Lipnick, R., 654 W. Baltimore
Londow, J., 1736 N. Pulaski
Lutzky, Louis, 3422 Park Heights Av.
Maas & Kemper, Hopkins PI. & Redwood
Macks, Dr. Isaac M., 2352 Eutaw PI.
Makover, B., 3H2 Auchentoroly Ter.
Mandelberg, A. H., 3618 Springdale
Av.
Mansbach, Dr. I. T., 2306 Madison
Av.
Marcus, Abr., 3303 Fairview Av.
Meyer, I., 2905 Ulman Av.
Michaelson, N. J., 722 E. Balto.
Michelson, Dr. R. A., 2330 Eutaw
PI.
Miller, M., 3203 Hilton
Miller, Max, 2111 Bolton Av.
Miller, Mr., Esplanade Apts.
Mintz, Julius, 722 Elquitable Bldg.
Moses, D. J., 754 Pratt W.
Moses, Leslie Wm.. Emersonian Apt.
Muskin, Hyrnan, 3517 Springdale Av.
Naiman, M. H., 834 Brooks Lane
Newhouse, D. H., 506 S. Fremont
Notkin, M., 900 Whitelock
Nyburg, S. L., 2414 Linden Av.
Oheb Sholom Congr. Sunday School
Oliner, A., Lake Court Apts.
Oppenheimer, H., 9 Lawina Rd.
Oppenheimer, Wm., 3819 Clifton Av.
Palmbaum, G., 3612 Springdale Av.
Pels, Dr. I. R., 1010, St. Paul
Perlman, P. B., 1313 Fidelity Bldg.
Phoenix Club, 1505 Eutaw PI.
Polan, J. N., 2306 Tioga PI.
Pushkin. Dr. Benj., 1804 Eutaw PI.
Rand, Mrs. J., 2233 Eutaw PI.
Rayner, A. W-, 1525 Fidelity Bldg.
Reamer, M., 452 Aisquith
Robinson Maurice, 2216 Eutaw PI.
Robinson, Paul, 804 Chauncey Av.
Rogers, S., 925 Brooks Lane
Rombro. Mrs. M., 2524 Brookfield Av.
Rome, M. A., 2225 Linden Av.
Rosenau, Rev. Dr. W., Esplanade
Ants.
367
Rosenburg, L. S., The Marlborough
Rosenbloom, S., 3410 Auchentoroly
Ter.
Rosenfeld, M. W., Temple Garden
Apts.
Rothholz, S., 3304 Springdale Av.
Rubenstein, Rabbi C , Sheffield Apts.
Rudo, B. H., 3523 Holmes Av.
Sagner, L. J., 3820 Barrington Rd.
Sauber, N., 3003 Garrison Blvd.
Savage, Dr. M. M., 1720 Eutaw PI.
Saxon, Wm., 930 Chauncey Av.
Schapiro, D., 2302 Tioga PI.
Schapiro, H. L., 2305 Tioga PI.
Schimmel, I. W., 815 Lake Drive
Schloss, Meyer, 2446 Eutaw PI.
Schloss, Michael, 11 Carroll, Windsor
Hill
Schloss, M. M., 2217 E. Pratt
Schloss, N., 2410 Eutaw PI.
Schloss, Toney, 1933 E. Baltimore
Schuman, Rev. J., 3408 Morris Ave.
Schwab, Solomon A., Hotel Rennert
Seff, Robert, 231 Courtland
Seidel, Dr. H., 2404 Eutaw PL
Seidel, Dr. M., 2403 Callow Av.
Seidman, Alex., 5021 Wilson Av.
Selis, Leon E., 145 Jackson PI.
Shalowitz, Abr., 919 E. Balto.
Shalowitz, Hvman, 129 S. B'way
Shochet, A. S., 2104 E. Pratt
Shuham, M., 2911 Edmondson Av.
Siegel, Jos., 1730 N. Pulaski
Silberstein, Israel, 2401 Eutaw PI.
Silesky, B. M., 813 Loker Dr.
Silverman, S., Lake Ct. Apts.
Simon, Aaron J., I l l N. Charles
Singer, S. M., 2708 Reisterstown Rd.
Sinsky, Dr. H. L., 3510 Springdale
Av.
Siskind, A. H., 949 Brooke Lane
Small, P., 501 S. B'way
Sobelman, M., 4 W. Rogers Av.
Sobeloff, S., 1809 Eutaw PI.
Sohmer, J. B., 3806 Pk. Heights Av.
Sollod, Jos. A., 2142 W. North Av.
Sollod, Nathan, 631 S. B'way
Solomon, David, 311 W. 29th
Solorz, S., 3602 Fairview Ay.
Sondheim, W., c o Hochschild, Kohn
& Co.
Stein, M., Lake Drive
Steinberg, S., 701 W. Fayette
Straus, A., 1 S. Howard
Strause, Benj., Riviera Apt.
Strauss, M., Stuart & Ridgely Av.
Stulman, M., 2406 Liberty Hgts. Av.
Suls, Maxwell, 225 New Amsterdam
Bldg.
Sykes, A., Park Hghts. & Strathmore
Av.
Sykes, Philip L., 110 E. Lexington
Thalheimer, S., Riviera Apts.
Trupp, N., 1232 Greenmount Av.
Turin, A. L., 2707 Roslyn Av.
Van Leer, M., 2218 Brookfield Av.
Voloshen, J., 2435 Eutaw PI.
368
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Waranch, A. L., 736 Reservoir
Waxraan, M. E., 353 Equitable Bldg.
Weglein, D. E., 2400 Linden Av.
Weinberg, Abr. I., Balto. Bargain
House
Weisblatt, Rabbi M. M., 1143 E.
Balto.
Weiskopf H. J., 2421 Woodbrook Av.
Werntz, H. N., 2406 Roslyn Av.
Wiesenfeld, Mrs. H., Emersonian
Apts.
Wolman, Dr. S., 2444 Eutaw PI.
Wolpert, H. K., 2481 Shirley Av.
Wyman, J. H., Marlborough Apt.
Zetzer, J. S., SO Berwick Av., Hamilton
Bladensburg
Brown, Hyman
Rosenstock, J., Rose Haven
Weinberg, Leo, 22 W. 2d
Willner, Rev. Dr. W., 6 E. Patrick
Hagerstown
Dorfan.M. I., 25 Laurel
Kline, J. A., 1927 Virginia Av.
Havre-de-Grace
Davis, Jacob
Hecht, Emanuel
Hyattsville
Edlavitch, J. Moses
Laurel
Block, Harry A., Main
Owings Mills
Rosenfeld, M. W., Green Lea, Reis,
Rd.
Pikes ville
Cahn, F. B., "Knollwood"
Cone, Dr. S. M., Maple Lawn
Brunswick
Kaplon, Victor
Cambridge
Jacobson, I>. I., 34 Poplar
Cumberland
Baron, M., 535 Green
Hirsch, Isaac, 308 Wash.
Miller, Benj., 42 Polk
Sheffler, A. M., 28 George
Ruxton
Walter, Mrs. M. R., Brightside Av.
Frederick
Jacobson, Karl, 75 S. Market
Lowenstein, Mrs. David, F. Scott Key
Hotel
Salisbury
Benjamin, I. L., 223 Main
Stoltz, S., 247 Main
St. George
Levy, Paul S. P. O. Reisterstown
MASSACHUSETTS
Allston
Byer, S. J., 166 Warren
Silverman, R., 28 Quint Av.
Arlington
Simon, Jos., 11 Orvis Rd.
Boston
PATRON
Kirstein, L. E., 426 Washington
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Agoos, S., 207 South
Agoos, S. L., 145 South
Hirshberg, A. S., 373 Washington
Kaplan, J. J., 161 Devonshire
Scheinfeldt, S., 93 Broad
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Alberts, Mrs. I., 373 Washington
Alford, N., 41 Pinckney
Arkin, Dr. L., 366 Commonwealth Av.
Asso. Y. M. & Y. W. H. A., 47 Mt.
Vernon
Baer, D., 1721 Commonwealth Av.
Beal, Julius, 101 Tremont
Bearak, Joseph, 20 Pemberton Sq.
Berson, S., 121 Audubon Rd.
Brand, A. A., 294 Wash.
Brody, E. J. 129 Portland
Bureau of Jewish Educ, 24 Province
Cavior, Jos., 70 Beach
Charak, J., 65 Wareham
Cohen, A. K., 645 Beacon
Collins, A. M., 132 Lincoln
Cooper, H. D., 65 Chauncey
Cooper, L. C , 81 Bedford
Dana, Myer, 809 Pemberton Bldg.
Dana, Saml. L., 40 Court
Ehrenfried, Dr. A., 21 Bay State Rd.
Eisenberg, S. S., 46 Cornhill
Ellis, David A., 12 Keswick
Feins, Raphael, 68 Chauncey
Finkel, Hon. S. B., 184 Summer
Finkelstein, Dr. H., 366 Commonwealth
Finn, E. P., 1 Beacon
Flink, Dr. A. H. N., 210 Hanover
Frankel, M. B., 27 School
Freedman, Dr. L. M., 419 Boylston
Friedman, Dr. B , 35 Allen
Friedman, Lee M., 206 Bay State Rd.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Friedson, S. B. t 30 Leverett
Ginsburg, Paul M., 68 Chauncy
Ginzberg, A. A., 294 Washington
Glunts, J. D., 73 Water
Goldberg, L., 167 State House
Goldman, A. C , 164 South
Goldwasser, D., 373 Wash.
Grosberg, Mrs. D., 484 Washington
Guterman, H. N., 73 Tremont
Harris, Isaac, 6 Beacon
Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, 60
Scollay Sq.
Helpern, C. K., 24 Fuller
Helpern, M. E., 453 Wash.
Herman, Mrs. J. M., 424 Marlborough
Hill, Harold H., 286 State
Horsit, Mark M., 101 Milk
Kaplan, Simon, 31 Milk
Langenthal, J. M., 101 Milk
Lansky, L. H., 1950 Commonwealth
Av.
Lappen, S., 25 South
Leavitt, M. J., 972 Massachusetts Av.
Lebowich, Jacob, 27 School
Levenson, J. M., 1148-50 Old South
Bldg.
Levenson, Max L., Old South Bldg.
Levine, Dr. J. H., 366 Commonwealth
Av.
Levins, Dr. N. N., 30 Chambers
Levy, Ben. A., 73 Tremont
Levy, M. M., 200 Summer
Louis, P. H., 564 Wash.
Lurie, R. I., 24 School
Mancovitz, D., 43 Tremont
Marcus, B. W., 1950 Commonwealth
Av.
Markwett, L., 57 Kneeland
Medalia, Dr. Leon S., 78 Bay State
Rd.
Meyers, Dr. S., 93 Lexington
Miller, L., 1726 Commonwealth Av.
Mintz, Dr. Anna, 419 Boylston
Morrison, H. I., 502 Pemberton Bldg.
Morrison, Dr. H., 33 Schuyler
Navison, Jos., 60 State
Oshry Bros., 12 Spring
Public Library
Robinson, T., 99 Chauncey
Rombach, H. M., 1857 Commonwealth
Rosen, Dr. David W., 321 Hanover
Rubenowitz, Rev. H. H., 62 Elm Hill
Av.
Rubenstein, Philip, 60 State
Rubin, Samuel, 11 Edinboro
Rudnick, Carl, Scollay Bldg.
Rudnick, J., 40 Court
Rudnick, M., 18 Tremont
Saltz, Dr. S. M., 113 Chambers
Sawyer, M. J., 18 Tremont
Schooner, Jos. Y., 40 Court
Shocket, A., 31 Albany
Silverman, J. J., 43 Tremont
Shobodkin, M. H., 43 Tremont
Solomon, Mrs. J., 40 Broad
Stoneman, David, 24 Milk
Tobey, M., 40 Court
369
Victorson, H. S., 6 Beacon
Wasserman, J., 7 Alpha Rd.
Webb, S. L., 6 Beacon
Weinberg, Jos., I l l Milk
Werby, A. B., 88 Broad
Wiseman, J. L., 18 Tremont
Wolfson, Lewis W., 109 Kingston
Wyner, H., 18 Tremont
Wyzanski. Max E., 199 Washington
Brockton
Craft, D., 7 Palm Place
Green, Jos., 201 Center
Sugerman, Mrs. J., 91 Malvern Rd.
Y. M. & Y. W. H. A., 66 Green
Brookline
LIBRARY MEMBER
Norton, S. M., 202 St. Paul
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Abrams, Rabbi S. J., 12 Fuller
Andrews, J., 68 Parkman
Aronson, Mrs. H. I., 164 Coolidge
Brin, A., 81 Verndale
Cauman, M., 25 Crowninshield Rd.
Cibel, A. B., 201 St. Paul
Epstein, Rabbi L. M., 15 Stearns Rd.
Fox, I., 60 Wallingford Rd.
Golden, E. I., 162 Coolidge
Kasanof, D. M., 84 Fuller
Kirshen, M. S., 275 Dean Rd.
Levi Rabbi Harry 24 Verndale
Rosenbush, A. A., 135 Thorndike
Salter, A., 17 Gibbs
Shapiro, J. S., 162 Naples Rd.
Wolkwich, E., 10 Greenway Ct.
Cambridge
Cohen, Edward, 6 Longfellow Rd.
Isaacs, Dr. N.. 5 Walnut Av.
Mendelsohn, M. H., 2362 Man Av.
Wolk, Rabbi S., 7 Avon
Chelsea
Davidson, Dr. A., 155 Chestnut
Feingold, Dr. F., 52 Wash. Av.
Goldberg, Dr. E., 198 Chestnut
Gordon, G. E., 21 County Rd.
Gruzen, Geo., 12 Everett Av.
Low, F. J., 50 Nichols
Paulive, S. E., 322 Wash. Av.
Pollack, Dr. J., 52 Wash. Av.
Sauvetz, G., 291 Wash. Av.
Smith, Harry F. 208 Chestnut
Dorchester
Berger, Wolf, 4 Michigan Av.
Berman, S., 54 Bicknell
Brody, Israel, 478 Geneva Av.
Buruce, Miss Frances, 10 York
Byer, L. E., 16 Abbot
Cline, Dr. S., 85 Stratton
Ginsburg, L., 947 Blue Hill Av.
Goldman, A. K., 39 Esmond
Gordon, A. O., 205 Columbia Rd.
370
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
H. for Jewish Children, 160 Canterbury
Israili, Dr. P., 279 Normandy
Lourie, Myer L., 50 Bradshaw
Lubit, Jos. M., 810 Blue Hill Av.
Margolis, J., 92 Lyndhurst
Sachnin, S. E., 28 Michigan Av.
Sachs, A. S., 14 Glenarm
Satran, H., 22 Walcott
Stone, E. D., 93 Columbia Rd.
Wolfenson, Dr. L. B., 160 Canterbury
Fall River
Goldberg, Rabbi M., Franklin Bldg.
Jacobson, Miss Sarah, 61 Forest
Radovsky, D. R., 1316 Highland Av.
Radovsky, H. W., 130 S. Main
Smolensky, Miss Rae, 356 Whipple
Yamins, N., 1219 Highland Av.
Holyoke
LIFE MEMBER
Barowsky, J. H., 1552 Dwight
Lawrence
Eckstein, Rabbi M., 7 Royal
Levek, Dr. J. A., 32 Lawrence
Lowell
Siskind, Dr. A. L., 541 Haverhill
LIBRARY MEMBER
Harrison, Sol., H., 166 Central
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Baker, Sol., Sun Bldg.
Bernstein, Dr. B., 727 Westford
Silverblatt, Bennett, 803 Sun Bldg.
Lynn
Frankel, S., 10 Wilson Ter.
Herwitz, J., 61 Burrill Av.
Kaufman, J. S., 14-16 Central Av.
Linde, I., 36 Cherry
Werner, Rabbi O. W., 25 Prospect
Maiden
Boi-uchoff, Rabbi B., 211 Bryant
Hoberman, Dr. S., 115 Salem
Neipris, A. T., 18 Porter
Marshfield
Feinberg, B. M., Ocean
Mattapan
Priluk, J., 16 Goodale Rd.
Schnairsohn, M., 15 Verrell
Milton
Ullman, A., 78 Dyer Av.
New Bedford
LIBRARY MEMBER
Finger, S. B., 332 Hawthorn
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Barnet, S., 91 Rotch
Burnstein, Rabbi A., 65 S. 6th
Horwitz, J. A., 240 Rounds
Kaplan, S., 992 S. Water
Lider, H. A., 236 Mt. Pleasant
Mendelsohn, H., 139 Mt. Pleasant
Papkin, Rabbi H., 103 South
Rosenberg, S., 465 Purchase
Newton
Abrahams, L., 37 Stewart Rd.
Simon, H., 22 Holland
Newton Centre
Levine, E., 60 Cedar
Newtonville
Lewis, A. S., 123 Norwood Av.
Norwood
Hirsch, Mrs. E. H., 1096 Washington
Pittsfield
Eisner, M. L., 69 Commonwealth Av.
England, Simon, 186 Wendell Av.
Society Ansha Amonim
Quincy
Berman, J., 117 Quincy
Roslindale
Kostick, G., 632 South
Roxbury
Birnbaum, Rev. Dr. B. H., 190 Ruthven
Bolonsky, L. W., 94 Crawford
Boston Y. M. H. A., 108 Seaver
Brilliant, Frank, 40 Schuyler
Cohen, H. A., 17 Schuyler
Cohen, M. W., 27 Brookledge
Eisenberg, Dr. Moses J., 436 Warren
Ginsburg, Mrs. H., 19 Brookledge
Grossman, Rev. B. L., 94 Seaver
Hebrew Teachers College, 14 Crawford
Hurwich, L., 185 Ruthven
Levin, Mrs. C , 250 Seaver
Levin, Jos. A., 25 Brookledge
Library of Temple Mishkan Tefila
Lourie, D. A., 36 Schuyler
Mann, Gertrude C , 68 Waumbeck
Palais, Maurice, 139 Harold
Pinanski, Nathan, 15 State
Pokroisky, L., 10 Sunderland
Quint, Mrs. S., S9 Georgia
Simons, S., 2 Mascoma
Solomont. S., 98 Elm Hill Av.
Taylor, Frank, 2 Maple Ct.
Wagner, Mrs. Chas., 69 Waumbeck
Salem
LIBRARY MEMBER
Limon, M., 193 Lafayette
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
371
Levison, S., 1030 Worthington
Price, Rev. S., 67 Ft. Pleasant Av.
Quint, S. F., 118 Longhill
Slavin, A. H., 1634 Main
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Carman, K., 220 Lafayette
Goldstein, H. P., 193 Lafayette
Somerville
Hillson, H. M., 169 Highland Av.
Waltham
Bayard, H., P. O. Box 164
So. Boston
Frank, Major Jacob, Army Base
Schulman, Miss Dora, 606 S. B'way
Winthrop
Fleisher, S., 4 Woodside Pk.
Springfield
Abrams, S., 144 Franklin
Adaskin, H., 44 Summer Ave.
Cohen, Julius A., 387 Main
Ehrlich, Harry M., 1387 Main
Frank, B., 49 Hampden
Freedman, Rev. J., 68 Calhoun
Gelfman, Abr., 244 Sumner Av.
Ginsberg, Jacob, 264 Sumner Av.
Goldstein, N. E., 390 Sumner Av.
Henin, L. C , 274 Forest Park Av.
Katz, Benj. H., 118 Longhill
Kingsberg, J. D., 36 Sumner Terrace
Worcester
Baker, P., 20 Strathmore Rd.
Elias, Saul, 320 Highland
Feingold, Louis E., 51 Providence
Hillman, A. M., 390 Main
Horowitz, Mrs. J., 55 Cedar
Isenberg, David B., 340 Main
Poriss, Harry, 27 Fairfax Rd.
Rome, Miss Edythe, 14 Woodford
Rome, Nathan, 17 Hey wood
Seder, Jos. S., 318 Slater Bldg;.
Sharfman, S., 51 S. Lenox
Tunstal, Wm. B., 2 W. Hampton
Wolfe, R., 62 Arthur
MICHIGAN
Ahxneek
Glass, Mrs. Fruma
Albion
Wiener, N. H.
Ann Arbor
Finkelstein, Rabbi A. H., 615 E. University Av.
Sharfman, I. Leo, 1108 Baldwin Av.
Battle Creek
Blick, S., 16 Ann Av.
Bay City
Kessler, Sam, 115 3d
Levy, Mrs. S. J., 703 Green Av.
Detroit
L I F E MEMBER
Rosenberg, Louis J., 1450-53 Buhl Bldg.
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Brown, David A., 60 E. Boston Blvd.
Butzel, L. M., 138 Pallister Av.
Friedman, Wm., 726 Dime Bk. Bldg.
Kahn, Albert, 62 Rowena
Kass, Dr. J. B., 8592 Jos. Sampau Av.
Klein, A., 271 Eliot
Rosenzweig, S. D., 66 Connecticut Av.
School of Religion, Temple Beth El
Simons, D. W., 160 Pallister Av.
Srere, Abe, 13 37 Beaubien
Zilber, I., 1237 Broadway
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Aarons, Dr. J., 906 Charlevoix Bldg.
Alexander, M. M., 1997 Gladstone Av.
Ahnug, Mrs. S., 2004 Gladstone Av.
Ashinsky, Rabbi A. M., 2083 Gladstone
Bale, H. L., 430 Lafayette Bldg.
Baron, N., 1998 Lawrence Av.
Bennett, Dr. C. A., 1258 Wash. Blvd.
Berman, B., 1167 Edison Av.
Berman, Dr. H S., 10 Peterboro
Bernstein, Dr. E. J., 1212 Kresge Bldg.
Berris, Dr. J. M., 2490 W. Phila.
Bickoff, S., 3240 Rochester
Blumberg, M. H., 1485 Chicago Blvd.
Blumberg, O. R., 2455 Glyn Ct.
Blumenthal, D., 51 Pallister Av.
Blumenthal, W. R., 329 Majestic Bldg.
Borenstein, S., 9918 Cbenlnt Av.
Braun, Max M., 3344 Fullerton Av.
Brawer, L., 4011 Pasadena Av.
Broudo, Dr. P. H., 50 Elaine Av.
Buchhalter, Wm , 350 Hendrie Av.
Burrows. J., 1724 Burlingame Av.
Butzel, F. M., 1st Nat'l Bk. Bldg.
Butzel, H. M., Union Trust Bldg.
Caplan, A., 93 Hendrie Av.
Cohen, A. N., 3fi00 Russell
Cohen, N.. 6404 Chene
Cohn, I. I., 7421 Churchill Av.
Cong. Beth El, 8801 Woodward Av.
Cong. Shaarey Zedek, Willis Av. at
Brush
Cugell, S., Majestic Bldg.
Davidson, Mrs. L.. 1983 Edison Av.
Davidson, Ralph, 5010 Brush
Dreifus, Isaac, 815 Ford Bldg.
372
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Dreifus, M., 815 Ford Bldg.
Edwards, M., 1465 Calvert Av.
Ehrlich, Mrs. J. H., 5553 Second Blvd.
Ehrlich, Moe, 10417 W. Jefferson
Ellman, Hon. Jas. I., 2454 W. Euclid
Fellman, A., 2649 Webb Av.
Fenton, B. B., 2509 Longfellow Av.
Fink, Morris, L., 1708 Penobscot Bldg.
Finstenwald, Adolph, 67 Monroe
Fishbain, S. S., 3318 Sturtevant Av.
Fishman, M., 2252 Gladstone
Fixel, R. W., 1002 Buhl Bldg.
Fram, Rabbi L., 8805 Woodward Av.
Frank, Harry, 1230 First Nat'l Bank
Bldg.
Frank, Saml., 1230 First Nat'l Bank
Bldg.
Friedberg, T., 306 Erskine
Friedberg, M., 610 Virginia Pk.
Frohlich, E., 269 Edmund PI.
Garvett, M., 2643 Webb Av.
Gerson, Jos., 466 Kirby Av., W.
Gingold, M. B., 1st Nat'l Bk. Bldg.
Gittleman, A. B., 227 Winona Av.
Goldberg, J. E., Hotel Whittier
Goldman, A., 8226 Poe
Goldman, L., 1201 Edison Av.
Goldman, M., 2956 Calvert Av.
Goldman & Ullian, 1st Nat'l Bk. Bldg.
Goodman, H., 2294 Tuxedo
Gordon, Abe, 8511 La Salle Blvd.
Gordon, A. L., 2755 Blaine Av.
Gordon, H., 284 Frederick
Gordon, Louis, 101 E. Jefferson
Gordon, Saml., 692 Winder
Grabow, J., 7406 Kipling
Greenberg, J. R., 2497 Taylor Av.
Haas, A. J., 1440 Buhl Bldg.
Heineman, D. E., University Club.
Hersch, A. D., 645 Bethane Av., W.
Hirschfeld, J., 431 Griswold
Horwitz, Harris, 2236 Glynn Ct.
Hubar, D. I., 714-16 Penobscot Bldg.
Isaacs, B., 2305 W. Euclid
Jacob, Ben., 2903 Beaubien
Jacob, Ben. B., 1630 Buhl Bldg.
Jacob, Max, 2903 Beaubien
Jacob, Wm., 2903 Beaubien
Jacobs, Harry, 2075 Phila., W.
Jewish Centers Ass'n., 31 Melbourne
Av.
Kallet, Dr. H. I., 3352 Sturtevant Av.
Kaplan, Wolf, 654 W. Palmer Av.
Kasle, A., 1613 W. Phila.
Kavanau, S. L., 1999 Calvert
Keidan, H. B., The Whittier
Keidan, Jos. N., 2453 Gladstone Av.
Krell, Max, 1404 E. Jefferson Av.
Krolik, J. H., 1555 Chicago Blvd.
Kroll, E., 3779 Carter Av.
Lamport, M., 134 W. Jefferson
Lasky, J. B., 3025 Calvert Av.
Leemon, J. R.. 314 E. Hancok Av.
Levin, I., 404 E. Ferry Av.
Levin, M., 401 Congress Bldg.
Levin, S. M., 2508 Pingree Av.
Levin, S. R., 527 Penobscot Bldg.
Levine, N., 1821 1st Nat'l Bk. Bldg.
Levine, P., 1750 Collingswood Av.
Lichtig, Wm., 140 Glynn Ct.
Lieberman, B. D., 2284 Chicago Blvd.
Lieberman, M.r 5232 2d Blvd.
Lightstone, Louis, 1472 Virginia Pk.
Lipkin, Dr. E., 4853 Michigan Av.
Litvin, B., 161 Westminster
Loewenberg, J. S., 1485 Virginia Pk.
Luria, I., 15000 Linwood Av.
Marks, Herman, 107 Erskine
Marwil, R., 407 E. Fort
Meister, S. H., 1035 Majestic Bldg.
Meyers, H., 2910 Calvert Av.
Naftulin, M., 5404 Michigan Av.
Nathan, J., 1707 Atkinson Av.
Olender, T., 3791 Monterey
Okenhandler, Miss A., Temple Beth
El
Pelavin, Mrs. H. J., 1707 Atkinson Av.
Perin, H., 2017 Gladstone Av.
Prentis, M. L., General Motors Corp.
Robinson, C , 434 Willis Av.
Rosenberg, H., 4638 Mich. Av.
Rosenberg, Mrs. I., 2081 Virginia Pk.,
Apt. 211
Rosenshine, J., 4851 Michigan Av.
Saulson, S., 2491 W. Euclid Av.
Savage, L., 119 Virginia Pk.
Schooler, N., 2030 Hazelwood Av.
Sempliner, A. W., 1805 Dime Bk.
Bldg.
Shatzen, M., 2276 Gladstone Av.
Shilkrovsky, Dr. H., 330 Kenilworth
Av.
Simon, Judge Chas. C , 24 Connecticut
Av.
Singer, W. B., 956 Mich. Av.
Sivy, J., 3519 Cadillac Av.
Slatkin, H., 8344 La Salle Blvd.
Slavin, H., 629 E. Palmer Av.
Slomovitz, Phil., 1975 Pingree Av.
Smilansky, L., 873 Boston Blvd., W.
Smilay, H. H., 511 Arden Pk.
Smith, Dr. C. A., 2974 W. Grand
Blvd.
Smitt, Sam, 426 Fort, W.
Solomon, H. R., 2025 W. Euclid Av.
Sosensky, H., 649 E. Boston Blvd.
Steinberg, H., 3249 Sturtevant Av.
Steingold, M., 1535 Chicago Blvd.
Stern, Milford, 817 Penobscot Bldg.
Stoll, Louis, 1430 Buhl Bldg.
Subar, A., 1911 Taylor Av.
Trunsky, Peter, 1001 Adelaide
United Jewish Charities, 2326 Penobscot Bldg.
Weinberg, J. L., 7365 Hanover
Weinstein, Mrs. H. N., 2033 Atkinson
Av.
Weinberg, J. I., 7365 Hanover
Weisman, S. H., 5697 W. Fort
Wetsman, Mrs. S., 1496 Harding Av.
Whitehorn, Dr. D., 2677 Leslie
Zackheim, M. H., 3047 Calbert Av.
Zemon, D. S., Detroit Sav'g Bk. Bldg.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Flint
Flint Public Library
Lebster, Louis S., 922 Garland
Rosenthal, Mrs. M., 1624 Lyon
Rubenstein, P., 421 W. 7th Av.
Wiener, Benj. F., 301 S. Saginaw
Winegarden, H., 125 Water
Lansing
Simon, J. B., 606 Wash. Av., N.
Grand Rapids
Grombacher, L., 301 Crescent, N. E.
Bldg.
Houseman, H. L., 140-44 Monroe
Wolf, G. A., Gd. Rapids Tr. Co.
Mount Clemens
Muscovich, B., Albany Hotel
Highland Park
LIBRARY MEMBER
373
Manistique
Rosenthal, L., 223 Range
Rubin, Robert
Saginaw
Levinsohn, A. S., 1013 Holland Av.
Nover, M., 712 S. Jefferson
Philippe, A. D., 1026 N. Michigan Av.
Saginaw Lodge, No. 636, I. O. B. B.
Stark, J. H., 223 N. Porter
Weinman, Sidney S., 74 McLean Av.
Ypsilanti
ANNUAL MEMBER
LIBRARY MEMBER
Wolf, E. A., 51 McLean
Mich. State Normal College Library
Kalamazoo
Friedman, H., 2438 University
Margold, Dr. Chas. W., 1305 Grant
ANNUAL MEMBER
MINNESOTA
Chisholm
Goldenberg, S. W., 317 3rd Av., N.
Duluth
Benesovitz, H. B., 1223 E. 6th
Bergstein, A., 326 Central Av.
Clarfield, A. B., 1023 12th Ave., E.
Cohen, Dr. Wm. I., 422 E 3d
Covenant Lodge No. 569
Davis, H. W., Providence Bldg.
Freimuth, I., 1306 E. 2d
Garon, J., 426 13th Av. E.
Hirschfield, Dr. M. S., 830 E. 4th
Joseph, H. Y., 1124 E. Superior
Labovitz, F., 226-28 W. Superior
Meyers, Chas. P., 201 Lyceum Bldg.
Oreckovsky, C. D., 103 W. Oxford
Shapiro, H. A., 819 E. 2d
Silvian, M., 1928 E. Superior
Silvian, W., 1028 E. 2d
Wiener, Mrs. J. B., 1724 E. 5th
Zlatovski, Dr. M. L., 212 13th Av., E.
Grand Rapids
Lieberman, Mrs. B. L.
Hibbing
Hallock, C , 429 Sellers Av.
Minneapolis
Aaron, Meyer, 1812 3rd, S.
Abeles, Mrs. A. M., 2115 Aldrich Av.,
g
Altman, H. L., Plymouth Bldg.
Aronson, Rabbi D., 711 Elwood Av.,
N.
Barron, Dr. M., 2529 Thomas Av., S.
Berman, D., 1105 Washburn Av., N.
Berman, E., 644 Elwood Av., N.
Borushak, I. L., 315 Lumber Ex
change
Brin, A., 2566 Lake of Isles Blvd.
Cohen, Mrs. H., 1241 Upton Av., N.
Cohen, J. G., Essex Bldg.
Cohen, Dr. J. T., 642 6th Av.. N.
Cohen, Dr. N., 642 6th Av., N.
Cohen, Sam, 2606 Humboldt Av., S.
Cooper, C. B., 320 First Av., N.
Cutts, Dr. Geo., 1128 Vincent Av., N.
Dobrin, T. S., 4917 Oliver Av., S.
Fligelman, J., 2529 Thomas Av., S.
Friedman, W. F., 907 Andrus Bldg.
Ginsberg, A. S., Metropolitan Bank
Bldg.
Goldenberg, J. E., 1205 Thomas Av.,
N.
Goodman, J., 42 Wash. Av., S.
Gordon, Dr. Geo. J., 1717 Portland Av.
Gordon, N. Z., 612 1st Av., N.
Greenberg, Mrs. J. R., 1715 Morgan
Av., N.
Grodnick, Louis, 13 S. 4th
Gross, Mrs. A. M., 3135 S. Dupont
Av.
Gross, S., 86 S. 10th
Halpern, S., P. 500 Builders Ex. Bldg.
Kantrowitz, Mrs. J., 1925 Humboldt S.
Korengold, M., 1618 Oliver Av., N.
Kreiner, I., 72 Central Market
Leonard, G. B., 700 Andrus Bldg.
Levin, Rabbi S. I., 1419 8th Av., N.
N.
Levitt, Chas. L., 1612 W. 25th
Licht. B., 522 Nicollet Av.
374
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Licht, Benj., 1003 Sheridan Av., N.
Lifson, B., 1714 Thomas PI.
Lifson, M. K., 610 W. Franklin
Lippman, Dr. H. S., Phys. & Surg.
Bldg.
Melamed Bros., 1210 Hennepin Av.
Minda, l.abbi A. G., 1919 D-upont Av.,
Phillips, D., 4728 Harriet Av.
Public Library, 10th & Hennepin Av.
Rabitshek, I., 2124 Penn Av., S.
Rubin, S. N., 3712 Colfax Av., S.
Schanfeld, J. H., 527 2d Av., S.
Schulman, I., 1133 N. 6th
Schwartz, Rabbi Jesse, 3428 Emerson
Av., S.
Schwartz, L. F., 1319 Girard Av., W.
Siever, Paul, 3 S. 8th
Silberman, C , 117 N. 6th
T. Israel Rel. Sell.
Weil, J., 2109 Fremont Av., S.
Weinberg, B. L., 2501 12th Av., N.
Woolply, J. H., 3321 Emerson Av., S.
Zieve, Rimal, 1128 Sheridan Av., N.
Ziskin, Dr. T., 326 La Salle Bldg.
St. Paul
Aides, Dr. H., 1842 Feronia
Bar Kochba Club, 247 E. University
Bechhoefer, Judge C , 952 Summit Av.
Blehert, M. B., 1062 Linwood PI.
Calmenson, J. B., 717 Pioneer Bldg.
Cohen, S., 1147.Lincoln Av.
Firestone, A. L., 1992 Lincoln Av.
Firestone, M. P., 1866 Portland Av.
Fligelman, S., 2116 Fairmount Av.
Ginsberg, Dr. Wm., 1108 W. 7th
Gordon, Louis, 1293 Grand Av.
Grodinsky, Miss H., Wilder Charity
Bldg.
Harris, W., 1458 Lincoln Av.
Hertz, A. J., 1854 Portland Av.
Hoffman, Dr. M. H., 1945 Lincoln Av.
Levine, Dr. M. N., 2362 Pierce Av.
Levy, A. I., 1269 Lincoln Av.
Levy, E., 45 S. Lexington Av.
Locvinger, G., 702 Guardian Life Bldg.
Mackoff, M., 1571 Maryland
Margolis, Rabbi H. S., Holly & Avon
Myers, Dr. T., 976 Goodrich Av.
Orloff, I., 482 N. Roberts
Pritzker, L., 1121 Fairmount Av.
Rose, A. N., 701 Summit Av.
Rosen, M., 1709 Ashland Av.
Rothchild, Dr. H. L 826 Osceola Av.
Schwab, Max, 888 Lincoln Av.
Shedorsky, L. A., 208 E. 7th
Sidletsky, J., 572 Laurel Av.
Simon, D., 1534 Goodrich Av.
Stoffer, M. W., 1926 Marshall Av.
Supornick, J., 954 Ashland Av.
Temple Aaron Talmud Torah Libry.
Tiber, Dr. L. J., Hamm Bldg.
Weiller, Mrs. H., 1037 Fairmount Av.
South St. Paul
Blumenfeld, D., 213 N. Concord Av.
Winona
Shapero, Chas., 3rd and Wall
MISSISSIPPI
Laurel
Aberdeen
Bergman, Max
Matison, Dave A., 7 Av.
Wisenberg, S.
Lasky, M., P. O. Box 136
Anguilla
Meridian
Kline, Abe
Feibelman,
Mrs.
E., 1820 23rd Av.
Kline, Henry
Rothenberg, Mrs. M., 1004 22nd Av.
Greenville
Goldstein, Nathan, 607 Main
Natchez
Levitan, S., 207 N. Walnut
Solomon, M. L., 221 Washington Av.
Geisenberger, Ben. C , 912 Main
Memorial Library, 215 Linton Av.
Hattiesburg
Dreyfus, M., 606 Court
Vicksburg
Jackson
Kory, Rabbi S. L., Box 356
Landau, M. D., 1st Nat'l Bk. Bldg.
Dreyfus, I., 644 S. State
Rose, Mrs. A., 1414 Cherrv
Lehman, I., 730 Gillespie PI.
MISSOURI
Boonville
Zuzak, H. T.
Hannibal
Landau Bros., 1112 Hill
Joplin
Fleischacker, Wm., 631 Moffet
Kansas CityDaniels, P., 1104 Walnut
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
PATRON
Reefer, Miss Z., 638 W: 59th Ter.
LIBRARY MEMBER
B'nai Jehudah Cong., Linwood and
Flora Av.
Harzfeld, J. A., 604 Security Bldg.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Berkowitz, W. J., 19th & Campbell
Berkson, S., 1028 Main
Broud, H., 475 E. 55th
Cohen, Rabbi H. M., 3826 Paseo
Eisen, S. G., 3245 Benton Blvd.
Goldman, L. E., 410 Gloyd Bldg.
Louis, A. I., 1318 E. 27th
Mayer, Rabbi H. H., 3512 Kenwood
Av.
Nathan, R. D., 4339 Gilham Rd.
Public Library, 9th & Locust
Rieger, A., 1117 Walnut
Rubin, Heiman, 422 Lee Bldg.
Sadovsky, J., 1104 E. 15th
Stern, Sigruund, 1013 Baltimore Av.
Weinberger, Jack, 1012 Balto. Av.
Wolf, Dr. I. J., 3710 Tracey Av.
Y. M. H. A., 1600 Linwood Blvd.
Louisiana
Michael, Isidore, 118 S. 8th
Michael, M., 118 S. 8th.
Moberly
Bierman, Morris, 1201 W. Franklin
St. Joseph
Droher, Dr. I. H., 3022 Jule
Hassenbush, S., 514 N. 10th
Joseph Lodge, No. 73 I. O. B. B.
St. Louis
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Ebn Ezra Lodge, No. 47, I. O. B. B.
Lesem, Col. I. H., Buckingham Hotel
Nathan, E., 5037 Waterman Av.
Solomon, S., Care B. Nugent & Bro.
D. S. Co.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Bass, S. S., 502 Times Bldg.
Berger, H. I., 4715 McPherson Av.
Bierman, I., 934 N. Newstead
Bierman, S., 1008 N. 12th
Blumenau, S. S., 6453 San Bonita Av.
Blustein, C. H., 1248 S. Broadway
Bowman, S., 516 Chemical Bldg.
Brom, J. S., 1371A Clara Ave.
Carafiol, A., 1209 Wash.
Chackes, L., 905 Chemical Bldg.
Charak, David, 722 Eastgate Av.
Cohn, M. M., 615 N. 9th
Cong. Shaare Emeth, 3868 Lindell
Blvd.
375
Cooper, C. I 6645 Clemens Av.
Dubinsky, F., 5742 DeGiverville Av.
Engel, J., 764 Leland Av.
Exstein, Edw., 1123 Louisville Av.
Faier, Isadore, 5749 Easton Av.
Feigenbaum, J. M., 730 Eastgate
Ferer, S., 2000 N. Main
Fischlowitz, F., 5710 Waterman Av.
Friedman, M., 1800 Franklin
Gallant, C. L., 5386 Pershing Av.
Gillerman, Gus, 1629 N. Bway.
Gleick, H. A., Paul Brown Bldg.
Goldman Bros., 1104 Olive
Goldman, Wm. H., 5740 Kingsbury PI.
Goldstein, J., 5084 Cates Av.
Golland, Dr. M., 5455 Delmar Av.
Grand, J. H., 737 Limit
Greensfelder, B., 23 Southmoor Av.
Halpern, Rabbi A. E., 5348 Cabanne
Av.
Harris, G., Union & Enright
Harrison, Rev. Dr. L., 5515 Cabanne
Havis, W., Missouri Loan Co.
Hoffman, Dr. P., 3657 Delmar Blvd.
Jackman, P., 618 N. 9th
Kalish, R., 5934 Enright Av.
Lebendiger, Rabbi I., 4461 Olive
Levinson M. G., 1323 Cen. Nat. Bk.
Bldg.
Levis, Edgar S., 1115 Washington
Levy, Dr. Aaron, 5646 Waterman
Levy, M., 1280 Hamilton Av.
Lipsitz, Mrs. S., 5740 Waterman Av.
Littman, Mrs. M., 4904 McPherson
Av.
Loeb, Dr. H. W., 537 N. Grand Av.
Mayer, Emil, 5539 Waterman Av.
Michael, E., 4383 Westminster PI.
Milder, A. S., 1388 Goodfellow
Oppenheimer, H. L., 208 N. Broadway
Pearlstone, L., 1367 Arlington
Public Library, Olive, 13th & 14th
Resnikoff, H., 1439 Granville PI.
Rosen, Wm., 2232 S. Broadway
Rosentreter, Rev. A., 5801 Enright
Av.
Rothman, S., 1729 Franklin
Rovee, L., 1355 Clara Ave.
Rubenstein, T. H., 901 Lucas Av.
Sale, Judge M. N., 5632 Cabanne Av.
Sale, Dr. S., 5115 Westminster PI.
Salkey, J. S., 506 Olive
Sigoloff, M., 4027 Lafayette Av.
Silverman, J. E., 1209 Washington Av.
Simon, Wm., 5942 Clemens Av.
Singer, Dr. Jacob J., Metropolitan
Bldg.
Slonim, M. J., 5593 Waterman Av.
St. Louis Mercantile Library, 510
Locust
Straus, Louis, Buckingham Hotel
Strauss, D., 716 Syracuse Av.
Thurman, Rabbi S., United Heb. Temple
Ullman, P., c/o Stix, Baer & Fuller
United Hebrew Congr. Sunday School
Vetsburg, K. M., 1530 Telephone Bldg.
376
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Weintrub, M., 1335a Semple Av.
Witt, Rabbi L., 5575 Waterman Av.
Yawitz, F., 1809 Franklin Av.
Yawitz, Saml., N.E. cor. Whittier &
Sub.
Y. M. H. A., Union Blvd. at Enright
MONTANA
Billings
Friedwald, M., 2501 Montana Av.
Harron, L., Box 404
Butte
Cohen, J. S., e/o Simons D. G. Co.
Meyer, Wm., 110 Penn BIdg.
Helena
Winestein, N., 5 Washington PI.
NEBRASKA
Grand Island
LIBRARY MEMBER
Wolbach, S. N.
ANNUAL MEMBER
Kaufman, D., 1521 W. Koenig
Lincoln
Finkelstein, L., Sec. Mutual Bldg.
Friend, M., 1845 E
Gold, N., c/o Gold Dept. Store
Gradwohl, B., Sec. Mutual Bldg.
Hill, Dan, 9th & " T "
Mozer, C , 432 S. 11th
Sabbath School, 1126 " P "
Sandlovich, J., 1319 R
Starrells, Rabbi S. E., 2125 South
Omaha
PATRON
Temple Israel Sab. Sch., 2960 Harris
LIBRARY MEMBER
Wolf, H. A., Blackstone Hotel
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Auerbach, H. H., 4506 Pappleton Av.
Beber, S., Peters Trust Bldg.
Bloom, A. I., Brandeis Bldg.
Cohn, Rev. Fred'k, 5105 Webster
Freeman, D. A., 2869 Davenport
Goetz, J. S., 520 Bankers Reserve
Bldg.
Greenberg, Dr. A., Brandeis Theatre
Bldg.
Greenberg, D., 2418 Redick Av.
Grodinsky, W., 2629 Davenport
Holzman, W. L., Blackstone Hotel
Katleman, Carl C , 750 Omaha Nat'l
Bk. Bldg.
Kulakofsky, J. Harry, 811 S. 30th
Kulakofsky, L., 1608 Hainey
Lapidus, H. H., 2205 S. 32d
Leon, S. J., 300 Peters Trust Bldg.
Milder, Wm., 13th & Douglas
Monsky, Henry, Omaha Nat'l Bk.
Bldg.
Omaha County Talmud Torah
Omaha Public Library
Robinson, H., 3316 Lincoln Blvd.
Rosenthal, L., 4912 Dodge
Saxe, A., 3557 Jackson
Sher, Dr. Phillip, 118 S. 51st
Stalmaster, I. A., 4804 Dodge
White, J., 2763 Webster
Wohl, Dr. M. G., City Nat'l Bk. Bldg.
Wohlner, H., 5316 N. 16th
Yaffe, Nathan S., 118 S. 17th
Wayne
Jacques. R. N.. 108 Main
NEVADA
Elko
Sax, P., 632 2d
NEW HAMPSHIRE
Manchester
LIBRARY MEMBER
Chase, E. M., 90 Harrison
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Deitch, Dr. J., 967 Elm
Saidel, Leon, 605 Belmont
Nashua
Edelstein, M., 23 Factory
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
377
NEW JERSEY
Arlington
LIBRARY MEMBER
Jaffe, M., 734 Kearny Av.
ANNUAL MEMBER
Fine, Mrs. Ida, 552 Belgrove Dr.
Asbury Park
Banker, H., 141 Main
Berger, D., 612 Cookman Av.
Davidson, Rabbi M. D., 807 Bond
Klinghoffer, H., 650 Cookman Av. /
Atlantic City
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Kline, H. S., 15 S. Laclede PI.
Perskie, J. B., 5 N. Plaza PI.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Barbash, Dr. S.., 1902 Pacific Av.
Berman, M., 29 N. Bartram Av.
Bloom, M., Guarantee Trust Bldg.
Braunstein, S. M., 30 S. Plaza PI.
Cassman, H., Real Estate & Law Bldg.
Civin, L. J., 11 N. Maryland Av.
Community Synagogue School Library
Crane, Dr. B., 306 Pacific Av.
Davidowitz, Rabbi H. S., 115 Oriental
Aye.
Doriman, A. M., 38 N. Montgomery
Av.
Finkelstein, M., 177 S. Virginia Av.
Fisher, Rabbi H., 205 Seaside Av.
Fleisher, P., c/o The President
Friedman, S., 3939 Ventnor Av.
Friedman, Mrs. W m , 117 Dewey PI.
Glassman, S., 36 N. Newton Av.
Goldberger, W., 1320 Atlantic Av.
Gorson, M. M., Guarantee Trust Bldg.
Gorson, S. C , Guarantee Trust Bldg.
Gottlieb, H., 3907 Ventnor Av.
Green, S., 8 S. Windsor Av.
Greenburg, Max A., 933 Atlantic Av.
Grossman, J., Grossman's Hotel
Hillman, J., The Breakers
Hyman, I. I., 19 S. Connecticut Av.
Jewish Library, Community Center
Kaas, A., Hotel Breakers
Kramer, L. A., 4301 Ventnor Av.
Leaf, Hilda, 4303 Atlantic Av.
Lichtenstein, J., 5414 Ventnor Av.
Lowenthal, H., 937 Atlantic Av.
Mallin, L. M., Guarantee Trust Bldg.
Poland, Dr. J., 1904 Pacific Av.
Preis, A., 221 S. Vermont Av.
Preis, D., 225 S. Vermont Av.
Raschovsky. Dr. J.. 2618 Pacific Av.
Rubin, T. R., 15 N. St. Katherine PI.
Sagel, Mrs. A., 400 Oriental Av.
Sandier, Miss C , New Jersey & AtlanShapiro, Rabbi M., 105 Columbia PI.
Stern, L. E., Hotel Sterling
Stiefel, M., c/o President Hotel
Weinberg, Dr. C. B., Ritz-Carlton
Hotel
Wolf, M., 116 S. Rhode Island Av.
Bayonne
Berger, J. C , 93 W. 29th
Brodsky, H., 70 W. 32d
Goldberg, Carl, 437 Broadway
Kohn, Dr. Ben. H., 473 Broadway
Lazarus, L., 650 Av. C.
Marshak, Dr. M. I., 679 Av. C.
Moskowitz, E. W., 319 Av. C.
Nalitt, Dr. D. I., 28 W. 33d
Plotkin, Rabbi B., 880 Boulevard
Bloomfield
Olinger, Dr. N. A., 186 Franklin
Ralston, L.
Bradley Beach
Bridgeton
Schwarzman, D., 20 N. Laurel
Caldwell
Berkson, H., 11 Whitfield
Epstein, I., 2 Washburn PI.
Halpern, Dr. H., 8 Washburn PI.
Stave, L., Knollwood Ter.
Camden
LIBRARY MEMBER
Dale, H., Haddon Book Bindery
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Arnoff, Rabbi N., 1655 Park Blvd.
Cutler, Dr. R., 510 State
Feldman, J., 422 Kaighn Av.
Fine, Florence 520 Kaighn Av.
Frederick, H. E., 1500 Baird Av.
Fuhrman, Abe., 444 Broadway
Furer, Jacob L., 602 Wilson Bldg.
Greenberg, H., 599 Newton Av.
Greenberg, H., 499 Newton Av.
Heine, Saml., 910 Broadway
Hirshorn, H. R., 1149 Magnolia Av.
James, Hyman, 571 Pine
Liberman, L., 307 Market
Lichtenstein, H. S., 1450 Wildwood
Av.
Markowich, A. L., 1221 Haddon Av.
Markowich, H. W., 1277 Kenwood Av.
Markowitz, L., 80S Broadway
Naden, J., 773 Kaighn Av.
Naden, Mrs. M., 773 Kaighn Av.
Natal, Ben., 1491 Greenwood Av.
Obus, Mark, 1779 Park Blvd.
Ostroff, Wm., 1196 Haddon Av.
Palitz, S. L., 514 Federal
Polivnick, Miss C , 951 Ferry Av.
Reiter, Dr. O., B'way & Kaighn Av.
Rose, L. A., 307 Market
Rosen, S., 2597 Baird Blvd.
Rosenberg, J., 1532 Wildwood Av.
378
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Ruttenberg, Dr. Max, 210 State
Shindler, B., 2606 Baird Blvd.
Tomkins, Dr. S. S., 1000 Newton Av.
Troub, S., 1144 Empire Av.
Varbalow, J., Federal, bet. 2nd & 3rd
Weitzman, I., 1456 Haddon Av.
Chatham
Appleton, Louis
Collingswood
Poland, Mrs. J. E., 654 Haddon Av.
Dover
Kuhl, M., R. F. D. 1
East Newark
Kummel, Dr. M., 315 Central Av.
East Orange
Dimond, A. J., 144 Harrison
Mendler, L. J., 16 Halstead PI.
Eatontown
Philips, M., Peach Blossom Farm
Elizabeth
Finkel, J., 245 Lincoln Av.
Freedman, Jos., 655 Westfield Av.
Heller, Dr. J. B., 201 Broad
Jacobson, B., 247 3d
Julius Stein Memorial Library
Rosen, Dr. R., 808 Pennington
Stamler, Jno. J., 29 Broad
Stein, Dr. Emil, 607 Park Av.
Englewood
Schorer, N. De, 44 Engle
Glen Rock
Cohen, C , 40 Rock Rd.
Hackensack
Plager, Clem, 445 Prospect Av.
Rosenberg, C , 187 W. Anderson
Hoboken
Brand, I. H., 84 Washington
Lichtenstein, J., 604 River
Spitz, Rev. Leon, 1000 Hudson
Jersey City
LIBRARY MEMBER
Kreps, Mrs. E., 9 Gifford Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Alpert, Dr. E., 661 Jersey Av.
Alpert, H., 65 Wegman Pky.
Asher, Dr. Ben. S., 260 Bergen Av.
Eisenberg, I., 779 Montgomery
Florman, Mrs. D., 708 Newark Av.
Gerstein, L., 284 Harrison Av.
Goldstein, A. J., 176 Bergen Av.
Gross, Benj., 50 Glenwood Av.
Gross, I., 630 Bergen Av.
Gross, M., 2 Paulmier PI.
Harris, H. H., 63 Storms Av.
Heynian, I., 110 Glenwood Av.
Heyman, J., 50 Glenwood Av.
Jaffin, Dr. J. J., 20 Lexington Av.
James, P. H., 665 Newark Av.
Kleinhaus, H. I., 100 Newark Av.
Landau, J., 132 Essex
Levitan, A., 665 Newark Av.
Loeb, D. D., 110 Glenwood Av.
Lyons, E., 344 Van Nostrand Av.
Marcus, S.,.438 Summit Av.
Mendelsohn, Dr. L., 272 Montgomery
Miller, Dr. I. S., 100 Montgomery
Nemser, S., 427 Jersey Av.
Talmud Torah Ohab Sholom, 126 Rutgers Av.
Vogel, Andrew, 53 Duncan Av.
Weitz, E., 75 Montgomery
Y.M.H.A., Com. Centre, 438 Summit
Av.
Kearney
Goldstein, Dr. W. H., 281 Kearney Av.
Keyport
Prager, Isidore, 23 Main
Salz, A.
Long Branch
Heimlich, S. M., 339 B'way
Madison
Kemelhor, B., 43 Main
Manasquan
Paperth, E., Main
Margate City
Friedlander, I., 25 E. Drive
Merchantville
Tolchinsky, Miss S., 2 Church Rd.
Metuchen
Wernik, A. P., 412 Main
Millville
Sheffer, Harry, 318 E. Main
Montclair
Harris, Jacob, 11 Warren PI.
Rosenstein, C , 164 Bloomfield Av.
Morris Plains
Cohen, Abr., United Cigar Store
Morristown
Rothschild, B.
Mount Holly
Krupnick, H. M., 40 Main
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Newark
Bamberger, Louis, 135 Market
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Cohn, M., 24 Pomona Av.
Hollander, Ben. W., 143 East Kinney
Miller, S., Murray & Austin
Rich, Wm. S., 201 Springfield Av.
Stern, Jos., 43 Girard PI.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Adelman, M., 208 Renner Av.
Alenick, M. G., 24 Branford PI.
Aptcr & Son, P., 100 Morton
Atlass, A. C , 52 Hansbury Av.
Beck, Chas., 71 Seymour Av.
Bengelsdorf, Dr. A., 89 Spruce
Berla, Amzi, 217 Washington
Berla, Sol.. 232 Mulberry
Berlin, Harry, 207 Market
Bernstein, D. E., 786 Broad
Brotman, Dr. M. M., 90 Avon Av.
Buchler, Dr. H., 566 High
Cohen, L. S., 207 Market
Cohn, Jos. E., 25 Girard PI.
Cohn, S., 25 Milford Av.
Coleman, R. M., 145 Shephard Av.
Cone, Dr. Arthur S., 61 West
Cowen, Rev. M., 537 High
Danzis, Dr. M., 608 High
Drill, Max, 39 Bock Av.
Echikson, E., 838 S. 12th.
Eisner, M., 585 High
Elin, N., 52 Hedden Ter.
Erlich, Nathan, 84 Columbia Av.
Fast, Louis A., 59 Baldwin Av.
Federman, Dr. P. H., 220 Fairmount
Av.
Fenning, Herman H., 424 Parker
Fisch, Jos., 20 Arch
Fischel, Tacob, Cham'r of Commerce
Bldg. "
Flachs, Dr. A., 347 Lafayette
Fleischman, Dr. M., 252 Springfield
Av.
Foster, Rabbi S., 90 Treacy Av.
Fox, Mrs. M. A., 486 Clifton Av.
Friedman, L. L., 768 S. 10th
Friedman, R. W., 52 Girard PI.
Furst, Geo., 24 Johnson Av.
Gallop, M. M., 198 Pacific
Garfunkle, M. H., 797 S. 12th
Glueckfield, I. B., 1137 Bergen
Goldstein, G. L., 972 Broad
Gordon, Dr. H. L., 131 Johnson Av.
Greenbaum, Mrs. M. M., 377 Seymour
Av.
Greenberg, Dr. S., 46 Johnson Av.
Gross, Rudolph, 34 Leslie
Grubstein, Chas., New & Nuttman
Halperin, Dr. C. J., 641 High
Harris, A., 21 Johnson Av.
Hauptman, A., 31 Van Ness PI.
Henig, A., 795 S 13th
Herman, Sam, 7 Nelson PI.
Hoffman, Rabbi C. I., 624 High
379
Hollander, A., 24 Johnson Av.
Hollander, Michael, 143 East Kinney
Hollander, Sam M., Cham, of Com.
Bldg.
Hood, Louis, 402 Mt. Prospect Av.
Isserman, A., 171 Osborn Ter.
Jacobs, Rabbi H. L., 68 Hillside Av.
Jacobson, R. H., 26 Commerce
Jay, F., Lenox Hotel
Jay, Leopold, 972 Broad
Jedell, Helen, 34a Kearney
Kalisch, Saml., 612 Kinney Bldg.
Kanengieser, A. Sigmund, 88 Newton
Kaplan, Dr. Ben., 695 Clinton Av.
Kaplan, J. I., Federal Trust Bldg.
Kenarik, H., 438 Springfield Av.
Kessler, S. I.. 369 Parker
King, Nathaniel, 348 Clinton Av.
Kohn, Richard, 31 Clinton
Kohn, Sylvan H., 790 Broad
Konwitz, Rabbi J., 345 Belmont Av.
Koplowitz, L., 19 Parkview Ter.
Kraemer, Jos., 164 Market
Krasner, Nathan G., 800 Broad
Krieger, L., 1090 Broad
Krim, Rabbi A. I., 177 Spruce
Kristeller, L. P., 810 Broad
Krohn, A. L., 763 Broad
Kussy, Herman, 59 Treacy Av.
Kussy, Nathan, 790 Broad
Leber, Sam'l F., 786 Broad
Lesser, L., 9 Clinton
Levy, Chas., 37 Randolph PI.
Loebel, Chas., 174 Osborne Ter.
Lowenstein, E., 21 Hedden Ter.
Lowenstein, Isaac, 12 Baldwin Av.
Lubetkin, Jacob, 60 Park Place
Manhoff, Chas., 714 S. 10th
Manshel, C , 103 Vassar Av.
Marx, Meier, 49 Avon PI.
Miller, M., 79 Baldwin Av.
Muehlfelder, A., 65 Tracy Av.
Munson, W., 27 Clinton
Neiwirth, H. S., 128 Market
Newman, B., 69 Girard PI.
Newman, Jacob L., 810 Broad
Oheb Shalom Hebrew Sch., 45 Eliz.
Oslan, Carl, Federal Trust Bldg.
Parsonnet, Dr. Aaron, 93 Avon Av.
Plant Memorial School, 225 Prince
Polevski, Dr. J., 44 West
Poliakow, A., 777 High
Rachlin, A. H., 31 Clinton
Radin, Dr. H. R., 107 Clinton Av.
Ramo, Kibe, 81 S. 11th
Reich, Dr. J., 130 Court
Re. Sch. Tern. Jesh., Waverley & High
Resky, H. W., 207 Market
Rich, Leopold, 22 Ingraham PI.
Roessler, Saml., 9 Clinton
Rosensohn, H., 188 Market
Rosenthal, M., 532 Springfield Av.
Rouse, DT. M., 60 Branford PI.
Ruback, M. E., 60 Park PI.
Rutkin, M., 64 Millington Av.
Sandusky, I., 260 Meeker Av.
Schiffmann, Dr. S., 18 Schuyler Av.
380
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Schotland, Phil J., 9 Clinton
Schulsinger, Dr. S., 136 Fleming Av.
Schwarz, Dr. E., 561 High
Schlesinger, Louis, 31 Clinton Av.
Shalit, I., 108 Fleming Av.
Sichel, Moses, 69 Shanley Av.
Siegler, Jos., 8 Farley Av.
Silber, Charles, 790 Broad
Silberfeld, Rev. J., 32 Ingraham PI.
Skwirsky, Dr. Jos., 130 Watson Av.
Sokobin, Abraham, 75 13th Av.
Soman, Nathan, 31 2d Av.
Spellman, \V., 825 S. 10th
Spielman, M., 106 Lyons Av.
Spies, Ph., 917 Broad
Spitalnik, H., 266 Meeker Av.
Stayitsky, M. A., 889 Broad
Stein, Le Roy, 93 Spruce
Steiner, Herman, 60 Park PI.
Steiner, J., 790 Broad
Tepper, Jules E., 800 Broad
Unger, Henry, 207 Market
Unterman, W. M., 60 Park PI.
Van Poznak & Sons, S., Ordway Bldg.
Weinberg, B., 738 Broad
Weiss, Dr. L., 849 S. 11th
Woolf, B. H., 15 Hedden Ter.
Wortzel S. J., 9 Clinton
Yadkowsky, Dr. E., 637 High
New Brunswick
Lipman, J., Experiment Station
Strauss, J., 226 Seaman
Orange
Engel, Isidor, 239 Main
Green, Harry, 182 Heywood Av.
Lesser, S. B., 8 Sterling Dr.
Pinsky, Dr. John, 200 Main
Passaic
LIBRARY MEMBER,
Stein, H., 201 Lexington Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Feder, Dr. H. M., Main Av. & Jefferson
Ginsburg, M., 55 Spring
Kantrowitz, R. B., 120 Van Houten Av.
Kovin, Dr. A., 123 Lexington Av.
Lipton, Dr. L., 67 Passaie Av.
Mass, I. H., 250 Lafayette Ay.
Ranzenhofer, F. S., 244 Passaic Av.
Rosenberg, J., 161 Hamilton Av.
Shapiro, Dr. D., 104 Passaic Av.
Shnaiderman, J., 85 Hope Av.
Simon, Dr. A. L., 154 Columbia Av.
Slaff, Samuel, 110 High
Steiner, I., 118 Lexington Av.
Weinberger, H. H., Service Trust Co.
Bldg.
Y. M. & Y. W. H. A., 158 Jefferson
Zucker, Rabbi Max, Temple Emanuel
'Paterson
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Bloom, Ed., 550 Park Av.
Dimond, P., 284 E. 32d
Fabian, J., 150 Fair
Fabian, Simon H., 92 E. 37th
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Atkins, Ralph, 159 Park Av.
Bilder, D. H., 220 Hamilton Av.
Bluestein, A. I., 425 18th Av.
Bnai Jesh. Rel. Sch., Bwy. & Straight
Bornstein, M. E., 402 Madison Av.
Cohen, J., 273 Hamilton Av.
Cohn, Bertha S., 49 13th Av.
Cohn, David, 112 Ellison
Collier, A., 126 Market
Franklin, H., 479 E. 33rd
Glass, S. H., 411 E. 31st
Gold, G., 396 E. 41st
Jacobs, Saml., 195 Broadway
Joelson, Dr. M. S., 87 Fair
Kaufman, John, 777 14th Av.
Kitay, Mrs. H. B., 376 Broadway
Kitay, I. J., 315 Main
Levin, Morris F., 460 E. 31st
Lowenthal, B., 222 Hamilton Av.
Platt, Edw., 83 Fair
Platt, Jos., 409 E. 35th
Pollock, S., 247 18th Av.
Progress Club, 52 Church
Rappaport, P. J., 485 E. 29th
Rosenstein, F. L., 125 Ellison
Schoen, H. L., 277 E. 32d
Shulman, A. N., Romaine Bldg.
Simon, I., 470 Boulevard
Slater, A. H., 176 E..32d
Smith, D. G., 5 Colt
Spitz, Louis, 720 E. 25th
Steinberg, M., 737 14th Av.
Surnamer, DT. I., 345 Broadway
Urdang, L., 296 17th Av.
Yanoff, W., 281 19th Av.
Y. M. & Y. W. Assn., 152 Van Houten
'Pennsgrove
Livingstone. A., Broad & Main
Zebooker, M. A., Box 416
Perth Amboy
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Dobbs, David, 86 Jefferson
Wurtzel, Max, 142 Gordon
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Alpern, I., 147 Smith
Brenner, Rabbi, J. G., Packer House
Miller, Geo. J., 176 Smith
Miller, J., 87 Gordon
Silk, Dr. C. I., 189 Rector
Sosin, L. Y., 130 Smith
Stern, M. M., 175 Smith
Y. M. H. A., 318 Madison Av.
Plainfield
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Newcorn, Wm., Queen City Hotel
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Jacobs, J. H., 22 Gerand Av.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Kunzman, I., 636 W. Front
Kurtzman, C , 146 E. Front
Rosenbaum, H., 431 Park Av.
Rothberg, H., 928 W. Front
Samel, Leo, R. F. D. 3
Schwartz, J. J., 701 Sherman Av.
Tepper, A., 669 W. 7th
Tepper, M., 933 W. 7th
Yood, Dr. R., 401 Grant Av.
Princeton
Kaplan, L., 12 Madison
Railway
Engelman, B., 128 Main
Redbank
Kridel, Mrs. J., 190 E. Front
Riverside
381
Fishberg, J., 475 Hamilton Av.
Forman, P., 112 N. Montgomery
Garb, I., 314 N. Broad
Holtzburg, Rabbi A., 871 Bellvue Av.
Julian, Dr. W., 23 Atterbury Av.
Koplin, Dr. N. H., 507 S. Warren
Lavine, Dr. B. D., 630 N. Clinton Av.
Leopold, S., 137 E. State
Diebreich, Rabbi L. J., 640 W. State
Millner, F., 902 Bellevue Av.
Reich, W m , 305 Amer. Mechanics Bl.
Shipper, L. E., 9 Beechwood Av.
Y. M. H. A., 18 S. Stockton
Union City
Urevitz, Dr. Abr., 495 New York Av.
Union Hill
Rappaport, Dr. M., 82 Liberty Av.
Schreiber, M.
Ventnor
Rutherford
Danziger, S., 3 Ayer PI.
Steinberg, A., 7 N. Swarthmore Av.
Secaucus
Pollak, Dr. B. S.
Meyerhoff, M. L., 105 S. Buffalo
Somerville
Schwed, Chas., 41 N. Bridge
South Orange
PATRON
Fuld, Felix, 602 Centre
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Abelson, J. J., 257 Warwick Av.
Herzberg, M. J., 135 Mercer PI.
Klein, P., 139 Mercer PI.
Roth, J., 478 Centre
South River
Miller, E. I., 15 Ferry
Pansy, Dr. A. A., 12 Jackson
Rottenberg, H. A.
Summit
Mantel, J. R., 12 Maple
Trenton
Budson, Alex., 85 Jackson
Cohen, J., 312 S. Broad
Eisner, Leo, 700 S. Broad
LIBRARY MEMBER
ANNUAL MEMBER
Vineland
B'nai B'rlth Lodge, 401 Grate
Lipman, R. M., R. F. D. No. 6
Rosenthal, D., 919 Pear
Solomon, Rabbi H., 920 New Pear
Weehauken
Lieberman, W., 4 Grauert PI.
Saperstein, S., 120 Shippen
West Hoboken
Umansky, M., 212 Clinton Av.
West New York
Diska, Dr. L. A., 307 16th
Westwood
Goldberg, Dr. David
Lack, Philip, P. O. Box 191
Woodbridge
Leeds, H., 490 Rahway Av.
Woodbury
Polsky, H., 240 S. Broad
NEW YORK
Albany
LIFE
MEMBER
Rosendale, Hon. S. W., 57 State
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Hessberg, Saml., 57 State
Ilch, Julius, 78 State
Mann, Isaac, 493 Western Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Aronowitz, S. E., 536 Madison Av.
Aufsesser, B. M., 8 S. Pine Av.
382
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Aufsesser, M. F., 1002 Madison Av.
Bennett, E., 818 Myrtle Av.
Beth Emeth Religious School
Beth Emeth Sunday School Library
Bookheim, L. W., 133 S. Lake Av.
Fenster, P. W., 6 S. Pearl
Hessberg, Mrs. A., 352 State
Hirschfield, H. ( 30 Chestnut
Krouner, Jacob G., 78 State
Mandelbaum, Rabbi A. N., 288 Madison Av.
Mannesovitch, W. I., 50 Hudson Av.
Muhlfelder, David, 702 Madison Av.
Muhlfelder, J., 1002 Madison Av.
Naum, N., 78 State
Naumoff, M. S., 69 Euclid Av.
Phillips, H., 131 Madison Av.
Poskanzer, R. C , 78 State
Rackman, Mrs. D., 245 S. Pearl
Sonnenfeld, S. T., 680 Madison Av.
Sporborg, Mrs. H. J., Hotel Ten Eyck
Stark, H. B., 78 State
Stern, C. M., 121 S. Lake Av.
Yaras, Coplin, 752 Myrtle Av.
Amsterdam
Gray, Max, 70 Grove
Lurie, A. D., 195 Guy Park Av.
Arverne
Emanuel, B., Beach 69th
Gorman, B. I., 561 B 69th
Honor, Leo L., 417 B 69th
Maximon, S. B., 424 Beach 67th
Rosenberg, J., 747 B 72nd
Astoria
Brown, Miss F., 25-11 5th Av.
Binghamton
Bloom, Dr. M. S., 110 Oak
Public Library
Rosenthal, S. C , 119 Murray
Brighton Beach
Chale, M., 3057 Lakeland PI.
Brooklyn
LIFE MEMBERS
Rel. Sch. Cong. Beth. Elohim., Garfield & 8th
Straus, H. Grant, 422 Fulton
PATRONS
Blumberg, M., 691 Willoughby Av.
Linden, L. E., 2533 Cortelyou Rd.
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Bernstein, A. A., 1690 Ditmas Av.
Brightman, S. D., 1517 47th
Chanin, I. S., 734 Ocean Av.
Cohen, Louis, 1323 President
Cooper, Leon, 780 St. Marks Av.
Cott, L., 2149 62d
Duberstein, S. C , 26 Court
Edelman, M., 861 Fresh Pond Rd.
Friedman, J. P., 658 Montgomery
Gordon, Dr. M. B., 4803 14th Av.
Heller, Dr. J., 225 Eastern Pkway.
Jaffe, H., 1060 Union
Joachim, B., 531 Broadway
KaplowiU, P., 1645 E. 24th
Kaufman, M., 600 E. 21st
Malkenson, A. L., 870 E. 21st
Matz, I., 1522 Albemarle Rd.
Meadow, M., 2172 Coney Island Av.
Meislin, Mrs. Rose, 1413 St. Marks Av.
Michtom, M., 180 Winthrop
Neuwirth, L., 1325 Union
Posner, Dr. A., 151 Roebling
Rabbin, M. M., 665 Georgia Av.
Rosencrans, A., 240 Shore Blvd.
Rottenberg, S., 1377 President
Rubenstein, E. I., 819 Prospect PI.
Salant, J. S., 51 Clark
School, A., 345 Wyona
Schwartz, Dr. L. S., 849 Park PI.
Schwarzschild, M. M., 1359 51st
Shapiro, N. D., 50 Court
Steinberg, I., 577 Montgomery
Uchitelle, B., 1316A Ocean Pkway.
Waikof, 175 Eastern Pkway.
Wilner, Morris, 1657 50th
Winstian, S. C , 8657 23d Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Aaron, A., 26 Court
Aaronson, H. A., 649 Bedford Av.
Abelow, S. P., 1050 Park PI.
Abels, Rabbi M. J., 14th Ave. & 49th
Abrahams, E. L., 231 Ocean Av.
Abrahams, J., 976 E. 10th
Abrahamson, E. M., 1526 President
Abrahams, Mrs. S., 74 Sterling
Abrams, H., 404 Crown
Ackman Bros., 342 Nostrand Av.
Adlerstein, H., 7701 5th Av.
Affachiner, Miss R. G., 250 Ocean
Pkway.
Allen, I., 26 Court
Ancholowitz, W., 6723 10th Ave.
Apfelbaum, H., 1541 50th
Appelbaum, J., 44 Court
Ausubel, Dr. H., 1 De Kalb Av.
Axelrod, H. S., 2319 Av. " M "
Babbit, L. H., 602 Montgomery
Bacharach, C. G., 215 Montague
Bacharach, C. G., 585 E. 22d
Baker, S. A., 1114 E. 13th
Ball, Miss E!., 2735 Ocean Pkway.
Ball, Dr. G., 1280 Union
Barnett, B. A., 1117 E. 27th
Barnett, H. I., 1320 48th
Baron, Dr. E. H., 1694 E. 7th
Baskin, David, 1156 57th
Beck, D., 1036 President
Becker, M., 1378 E. 8th
Benjamin, A., 142 68th
Bennett, Helen, 76 Bay 26th
Bercow, H. B., 565 85th
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Berkowitz, Dr. B. B., 225 E. Pkway.
Bernhardt, Mrs. J., 250 Dover
Bernstein, A. N., Ralph Av. & Pacific
Bernstein, J. L., 397 E. 11th
Binkovitz, R., 441 Ocean Av.
Bloom, M., 570 Penn. Av.
Blumberg, Meyer, 805 Ocean Av.
Bonoff, L. A., 1525 E. 28th
Boochever, G., 272 E. 16th
Bookey, I., 18 Kenmore PI.
Bosniak, Rabbi J., 490 Ocean Pkway.
Breslauer, M., 2128 79th
Bresler, H. S., 62 Marlborough Rd.
Brickman.H., 1724 53d
Brightman, Jos., 1837 49th
Brinberg, A., 1666 53rd
Brooke, B. H., 862 Flatbush Av.
Brooke, J. J., 663 Argyle Rd.
Brooklyn Jewish Centre, 667 E. Parkway
Bruckheim, D., 1362 52d
Burack, Rabbi A. D., 565 Willoughby
Av.
Caplin, S., 825 E. 17th
Chavin, J., 713 E. Parkway
Chertoff, Rabbi P., 1315 51st
Cohen, A. S., 275 Bradford Ave.
Cohen, Dr. D. H., 6601 Bay Pkway.
Cohen, Gladys, 1279 52nd
Cohen, I., 313 E. 49th
Cohen, M., Lawrence, 208 Barrett
Cohen, Rev. S. R., 75 Prospect Pk.W.
Cohn, J. H., 27 Throop Av.
Cohn, Dr. M. A., 1457 Eastern Pkway.
Coler, Samuel G., 160 5th Av.
Collins, Dr. N. E., 695 Howard Av.
Commanday, Victor, 946 E. 12th
Com. Loan System, 87 Graham Av.
Cong. Ahavath Achim, 765-67 Putnam
Av.
Cutler, A., 596 Belmont Av.
Dargo, N., 742 Lafayette Av.
Davidson, Dr. B., 1457 Union
Davis, Dr. F., 8 Bay 35th
De Waltoff, Dr. D. B., 7714 Ridge
Blvd.
Diamond, M. M., 877 Lenox Rd.
Dinin, S., 1059 Newport
Dlugasch, M., 1378 Carroll
Doft, Max, 1460 55th
Doreson, L., 602 Bristol
Droshnicop, S., 788 E. Parkway
Dumay, Dr. Chas., 241 Penn
Dunn, M. V., 783 Sutter Av.
Dworkin, N., 1337 Carroll
Edelman, H., 313 Roebling
Eisenberg, Dr. A. D., 586 Leonard
Eisenberg, R., 4311 Snyder Av.
Ellenbogen, M., 531 Bedford Av.
Ellman, A., 1444 58th
Farber, Mrs. S. W., 44 Marlborough
Rd.
Feinsod, E., 131 E. 21st
Feinson, J., 1239 Carroll
Feit, Abr.. 50 Court
Feld, DT. H., 542 Willoughby Av.
Fine, Isidore, 881 Wash. Av.
383
Finkelstein, A. A., 1465 54th
Finkelstein, N. B., 552 Crown
Finkelstein, Dr. R., 576 E. Parkway
Fish, N., 47-49 Watkins
Fishelman, J., 165 74th
Fisher, I. H., 2228 Mansfield PI.
Fisher, J., 4621 Ft. Hamilton Parkway
Fleiss, H., 370 Tompkins Av.
Franks, H. S., 44 Midwood
Freedman, Isaac, 340 Pulaski
Friedland, S., 1754 48th
Friedman, A. E., 2277 83d
Friedman, Dr. J. H., 236 S. 2nd
Friedman, Rebecca, 515 Alabama Av.
Fruchtbaum, Dr. L. M., 370 S. 2d
Fuchs, Sig. H., 1221 Remson Av.
Furst, M., 215 Montague
Gabriel, B., 318 Brooklyn Av.
Gasner, Simon, 129 Powell
Gelfand, S., 16 Court
Gelles, I. D., 477 Miller Av.
Germain, L., 470 8th Av.
Getz., D. B., 26 Court
Gilbert, Mrs. G. I., 51 80th
Gingold, A. M., 3035 E. 2d
Ginsburg, H., 426 Crown
Gittelson, DT. M., 1921 Bergen
Gittelson, M., 45 Blake Av.
Gittleson, M., 2301 Av. G
Glickman, Ph. S., 1937 83d
Gluckman, J., 668 Flushing Av.
Goell, M. J., 705 Crown
Goffen, Dr. A. M.,' 518 Monroe
Goldberg, Israel, 840 46th
Goldberg, J. 437 Kingston Av.
Goldberg, L., 973 47th
Goldberg, L. P., 2111 Myra Ct.
Goldberg, S., 1679 Pitkin Av.
Goldfarb, Rabbi I., 360 Clinton
Goldfinger, Wm., 2000 84th
Goldman, L. A., 639 E. Parkway
Goldstein, Hyman, 2258 64th
Goldstein, J., 1359 48th
Goldstein, P., 701 Greene Av.
Goldstein, S., 16 Court
Golub, L., 260 Hewes
Goodman, A., 1237 48th
Goodman, I. H., 316 Montgomery
Goorland, Miss Evelyn, 843 Sutter Av.
Gordon, A., Jr., 1456 52d
Gottfried, P., 347 New York Av.
Gottheim, Sophie, 5506 11th Av.
Gottlieb, J. W., 44 Court
Grater, M. S., 132 Clymer
Grayer, H., 44 Court
Grayzel, Mrs. S. M., 825 Linden Blvd.
Grayzel, Rabbi S., 1413 St. Marks Av.
Green, H. L., 1552 55th
Green, J. J., 1352 47th
Green. S. E., 1220 54th
Greenberg, W., 1504 Av. J
Greene, I. F., 437 Crown
Greenstone, M. S., 21 Smith
Greenwald, Dr. H. M., 499 Ocean Av.
Greenwald, Mrs. R., 1751 E. 19th
Groden, Elias, 182 Pulaski
Groden, Morris, 693 Montgomery
384
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Gross, Rabbi L. D., 570 Pacific
Gumpert, J., 1623 Albemarle Rd.
Guzik, Leo, 1961 79th
Haber, Harry, 131 E. 21st
Haft, M. W., 1336 President
Halevi, M., 1783 Union
Halbfinger, C , 122 Liberty Av.
Halle, J., 1663 51st
Halperin, A., 26 Court
Hamburger, S. L., 1929 62d
Harbater, J., 4901 15th Av.
Harris, Max, 575 6th
Harrison, H. A., 1208 Carroll
Hartstein, J., 75 Linden
Huskel & Sons, Inc., S., 100 Harrison PI.
Haupt, George, 1202 Av. I
Heckelman, I., 1462 57th
Heller, Rabbi A. M., 335 E. 5th
Heller, M. G., 1580 E. 28th
Hendler, I., 1136 Park PI.
Herrick, A. J., 26 Court
Herzfeld, Max, 773 Willoughby Av.
Hinitch, D., 564 Empire Blvd.
Hitlin, Dr. A., 685 Willoughby Av.
Hoffman, Dr. M., 99 Marcy Av.
Horowitz, B., 225 E. Parkway
Horowitz, C , 1329 Ocean Pkway.
Horowitz, G., 71 Orange
Horowitz, I., 497 Penna. Ave.
Horowitz, Louis, 1470 E. 22d
Hurwitz, B. L., 473 80th
Israelite, Ina, 104 Arlington Av.
Ittleman, G. H., 26 Court
Jablons, J. M., 549 Empire Blvd.
Jacobs, H.. Cropsey & 20th
Jacobson, H. I., 1920 62d
Jacoby, A., 1514 56th
JafiFe, A. L., 1129 E. 22nd
Jaffe, B.,*2268 83d
Taffe, I., 1349 53d
Janowitch, J. H., 214 Stratford Rd.
Kahan, S., 1720 E. 19th
Kaplan, Miss L., 1620 Union
Karalunsky, B., 61 Meserole
Karash, S., 1569 President
Karp, I., 558 Bedford Av.
Kasnowitz, S., 1762 Union
Kaufman, Dr. B., 482 Stone Av.
Kaufman, Dr. M., 170 Leonard
Kayfetz, I., 406 Stone Av.
Kempler, J. M., 1744 President
Kempner, R., 1609 Union
Kestenbaum, L., 1124 43d
Kimmel, Dr. M., 495 Sutter Av.
Klein, D., 126 Myrtle Av.
Kleinman, M.. 675 Georgia Av.
Kohs, Dr. S. C , Eagle Bldg.
Klinger, S., 405 Sutter Av.
Kohn, L. A., 219 36th
Kohn, Louis, 7816 Ridge Blvd.
Kohn, Dr. L., 332 New York Av.
Komar, A., 1525 Newkirk Av.
Koplowitz, J., 1808 Pitkin Av.
Kornblith, Rev. R., 82 Bainbridge
Koven, Dr. B., 1129 E. Parkway
Koven, M. N., 215 Montague
Kraditor, A., 26 Court
Krimsky, Dr. J.. 263 E. Parkway
Krinsky, J., 699 Montgomery
Krinsky, J., 444 Crown
Kroll, Miss M., 1931 62nd
Kruger, H. B., 946 E. 18th
Krumbein, A., 1712 43d
Ladin, I., 68 Schenck Av.
Landesman, Rabbi A. F., 1663 President
Lane, J. M., 16 E. 10th
Largeman, Morris, 12 Graham Av.
Latner, M. H., 350 Fulton
Lazansky, Judge E., 133 8th Av.
Leavitt, Dr. E., 638 Stone Av.
Lebenkoff, Jennie, 143 E. 94th
Leeger, L. L., 1072 E. 18th
Lefkowitz, A. H., 1321 Lincoln PI.
Leitner, S., 1641 53rd
Lemler, S., 641 Crown
Leslie, Dr. R., 325 Ocean Av.
Levin, Dr. I. N., 556 Shepherd Av.
Levine, A., 634 Willoughby Av.
Levine, Harry, 596 Fifth Av.
Levine, M. H., 1707 President
Levine, Rabbi M., 1343 45th
Levinson, Rabbi S. J., 83 Marlborough Rd.
Levinthal, C , 576 E. Parkway
Levinthal, Rev. Dr. I. H., 576 E.
Parkway
Levitan, S. J., 8687 Bay Parkway
Levitt, Dr. J. M., 975 E. 14th
Levy, Dr. A. M., 114 Graham Av.
Levy Arthur, 768 Bushwick Av.
Levy, H. A., 115 Ocenn Av.
Levy, Dr. Max, 261 S. 9th
Levy, S., 408 St. Tohns PI.
Lewis, Aaron, 1482 Carroll
Liberman, J., 1777 E. 8th
Lieberman, Nathan, 190 Westminster
Rd.
Link, Martha B., 662 E. 21st
Lipkin, M., 1371 E. 21st
Lipper, A., 230 Stratford Rd.
Liss, C , 55 Williams Av.
Littenberg, M., 2016 E. 21st
Littinsky, Dr. J., 107 Bristol
Livingston, Wm., 591 Ocean Parkway
London, Dr. E., 961 E. Parkway
Londoner, C , 1474 E. 10th
Lvons, Rev. A., 88 Prospect Pk., W.
Machzikei Talmud Torah, 1315 43d
Mand, Dr. J. H., 502 39th
Mandel, L. M., 186 Joralemon
Mandel, S., 205 E. 95th
Marcus, Dr. L., 699 Howard Av.
Margolin, E., 264 Bradford
Markel, A. J., 110 Graham Av.
Marshal, R., 514 Williams Av.
Martinique, H., 7913 20th Av.
Mathews, J. B., 1018 Park PI.
Matthes, J., 576 E. 7th
Maxwell, Miss Pearl, 1685 President
May, Judge M., 441 Ocean Av.
Maze, J. M., 1046 E. 14th
Meller, John, 1208 E. Parkway
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Meltsner, O., 1639 44th
Merin, Miss F., 1429 Carroll
Mersel, Alex., 1658 52d
Michaels, A. M., 2105 E. 12th
Milberg, S., 1934 E. 19th
Miller, 'Rabbi J., 443 Linden Blvd.
Miller, M., 1542 President
Miller, Dr. N. C , 4611 14th Av.
Mintz, B.. 44 Court
• Mitchell, Miss I., 519 Willoughby Av.
Morell, I., 4711 14th Av.
Moritz, Comdr. Albert, 723 E. 18th
Mormar, J., 369 Crown
Moss, L. J., 319 St. Johns PI.
Nadler, Mrs. H., 1644 43rd
Nagourney, D., 283 Hewes
Nalven, M., 899 Bushwick Av.
Nash, A. F.', 217 Oceanview Av.
Neaderland, H., 452 Fulton
Nevin, H., 159 Remsen
Nevins, C. B., 998 Flatbush Av.
Newman, Rabbi J. J., 1767 E. 7th
Norek, A. W., 66 Court
Oxenhandler, B., 1214 42nd
Parmet, Miss Anna, 861 Saratoga Av.
Paymer, Rabbi J. H., 432 Sterling
Pearlman, D. W., 1721 47th
Penziner, C. H., 26 Court
Perhnan, A., 1525 50th
Perlman, L. E., 1676 51st
Perskin, I. H., 441 Ocean Av.
Peyser, Miss B. L. B., 178-80 Hooper
Peyser, »., 178-180 Hooper
Peyser, J. B., 2047 85th
Phillips, S. I., 2108 Av. P
Phillips, A. M., 399 Ocean Pkway.
Piesen, H. H., 160 Marlborough Rd.
Pines, David, 1522 President
Pines, Joseph, 260 Ocean Pkway.
Pines, Dr. L., 745 Franklin Av.
Pollock, Chas., 7510 20th Av.
Polonsky, J., 692 Howard Av.
Posner, H., 517 Georgia Av.
Posner, Dr. N. A., 136 S. 2nd
Prensky, Jos., 1446 Union
Price, A., 61 Whipple
Prokesch, Dr. S. Z., 901 Av. N.
Queen, Rae, 4623 15th Av.
Rabinowitz, Dr. H. M., 276 Buffalo Av.
Rand, J. H., 1456 55th
Reich, J., 1595 President
Reichler, Rabbi M., 84 Bay 25th
Reis, Miss D. C , 3403 14th Av.
Rel. Schl. of Temple Beth Emeth, 83
Marlborough Rd.
Resnikoff, L. A., 59 S. 10th
Richmond, S. L., 124 Livingston
Rieger, M., 1141 Park PI.
Rivkin, H., 1625 Pitkin Av.
Robbinovitz, Dr. S., 71-A Summer Av.
Robbins, H. G., 32 Court
Rokeach, Dr. A., 889 Park PI.
Rongy, P., 749 E. Pkway.
Rose, Jos. H., 363 Stone Av.
Rosen, D., 2313 83d
Rosen, E. S., 2313 83d
Rosen, S.. 155 Seigel
385
Rosenberg, Dr. H. D., 913 Glenmore
Av.
Rosenberg, J. M., 746 E. 5th
Rosenfeld, M., 505 Montgomery
Rosenberg, P. F., 310 Montgomery
Rosenblum, P., 519 Eastern Pkway.
Rosenfeld, H. T., 26 Court
Rosenfeld, M., 505 Montgomery
Rosenfeld, Dr. R., 516 Stone Av.
Rosenfeld, Dr. W., 351 Penna Av.
Rosenstein, H., Hotel St. George
Rosenthal, Rabbi M., 244 87th
Rosenzweig, A., 1530 Eastern Pkway.
Ross, Dr. M., 1821 St. Johns PI.
Rothschild, S. F., 422 Fulton
Rothstein, M., 1458 E. 15th
Rubin, S., 2548 Delamere PI.
Rubinstein, Harry, 106 Van Buren
Ruda, M., 4002 5th Av.
Rudovsky, J. I., 350 Stone Ave.
Sacks, I., 125 Av. J.
Sacks, Rabbi M. L., 260 Arlington Av.
Sakin, Dr. B. M., 1547 E. Pkway.
Salit, Jonah, 385 Barrett
Salwen, Dr. E., 455 Ocean Av.
Salwen, S. J., 1622 43d
Salzman, Miss F., 1263 44th
Salzman, M., 262 Fulton
Sambur, M., 550 Bushwick Av.
Sambur DT. S. J., 544 Monroe
Sameth, H., 144 Stockton
Samuels, Dr. S. S., 1165 Sterling PI.
Sandhaus, Mrs. R., 4620 18th Av.
Sargent, I., 128 Maple
Saslavsky, Rev. N. L., Av. R. and
16th
Satlow, I. D., 201 Watkins
Sarvitsky, Jennie, 2422 Av. I.
Scharfstein, Z., 2647 Kenmore PI.
Scher, Dr. M., 376 Keap
Schlesinger, Pauline, 1610 48th
Schneiderman, S., 71 7th Av.
Schoen, G. B., 854 E. 24th
Schoenholtz, S., 921 Montgomery
Schreiber, Dr. M., 105 Penna. Av.
Schwartz, Dr. A. S., 1268 46th
Schwartz, Mrs. D., 107 6th Av.
Schwartz, Dr. Jac. R., 1 De Kalb Av.
Schwartz, J. J., 464 Crown
Schwartz, J. L., 1208 Carroll
Schwartz, S. P., 5315 15th Av.
Schwartzman, C. H., 32 Court
Seiderman, S., 750 E. Parkway
Seidman, N., 884 E. Parkway
Seif, J. B., 1413 Lincoln PI.
Seigle, C. H., 956 E. 7th
Seldin, C , 168 E. 95th
Seleg, Miss Carol, 19 Bay 35th
Selip, Mrs. H. L., 255 E. Parkway
Shaffer, J. M., 530 Saratoga Av.
Shainholt, A., 705 Howard Av.
Shankroff, Dr. L., 1146 Dean
Shapiro, C , 1661 46th
Shapiro, Dr. L., 4701 15th Av.
Shorr, Dr. A., 456 Penna. Av.
Shur, Frances N., 486 Jerome
Siberman, Dr. M., 61 Lewis Av.
386
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Silverman, Dr. E. G., 4712 14th Av.
Silverman, J., 962 66th
Silverstein, L. B., 321 Dumont Av.
Simon, A. H., 493 E. 23d
Singer, H., 8701 23d Av.
Singer. M., 7134 5th Av.
Siris, Dr. I. E., 336 New York Av.
Snyder, M., 50 Court
Socolof, Miss L., 2306 Douglass
Solomon, L. L., 1414 W. 5th
Sonnenschein, N., 570 Bristol
Spevack, M., 191 Joralemon
Spivak, B., 132 Tehama
Stander, I. J., 1770 E. 17th
Starr, Dr. I. P., 1199 E. Pkway. .
Statsinger, M., 33 Stoddard PI.
Steinbrink, M., 215 Montague
Stoll, Dr. V., 1315 Bergen
Stoloff, Dr. B., 1137 E. Parkway
Storch, Max, 1403 Carroll
Storm, Miss Marcy, 484 Bedford Av.
Strully, Dr. J. M., 617 Av. K
Strum, Dr. J. Z., 415 E. 2nd
Stulman, Jos., 1326 Union
Suchar, A. J., 327 Snediker Av.
Sumberg, I., 1474 Carroll
Sweedler, N., 66 Court
Teitelbaum, Rabbi A., 1539 45th
Teitelbaum, Dr. H., 30 Throop Av.
Tepper, Dr. B., 1153 E. 19th
Topkins, Dr. E. M., 440 Croney
Tunick, S.. 7610 Colonial Rd.
Turberg, Ph., 1274 46th
Vladeck, Baruch Charney, 5117 Tilden Av.
Vogel, Miss Clara E., 103 Keap
Wars, Lou L., 1467 Sterling PI.
Wechsler, M., 154 Ocean Pkway.
Weilerstein, Rabbi B. R., 1669 President
Weinberg, Dr. H. M., 5218 12th Av.
Weinberg, M., 1324 Carroll
Weinstein, A. A.. 1475 Carroll
Weinstock, L., 421 Crown
Weitzman, Dr. I., 1543 71st
Wiener, George, 350 Stone Av.
Wilson, Dr. S. J., 208 New York Av.
Wolf, F. N., 1162 E. 14th
Wolodarsky, A., 255 E. Parkway
Wolodarsky, Dr. A. Z., 676 E. Pkway.
Wolpert, Miss J., 8661 20th Av.
Wolsk, I., 1414 51st
Yondorf, Meyer, 522 E. 8th
Young Israel Synagogue, 490 Bradford
Zabronsky, J. O., 4722 12th Av.
Zimmerman,' Ama, 236 Ellery
Ziony, Fannie, 389 E. 2d
Zorn, F., 2312 Av. T
Zvirin, N., 26 Court
Buffalo
Aaronson, M., 430 Huntington Av.
Bernstone, M., 430 Bramson Bldg.
Bladin, G., 420 Woodbridge Av.
Blumenthal, P. L., 176 Franklin
Brickman, Mrs. S., 182 Landon
Buffalo Public Library
Carrel, A., 31 Crestwood Av.
Cohen, Miss Annette, 46 Putnam
Cohen, Dr. R., 485 Main
Cohen, Sol., 60 Manchester PI.
Cohn, M. M., 108 Starin Av.
Cristall, S., 321 Brisbane Bldg-.
Darlich, S. B., 10 Colonial Av.
Dautch, S. Chas., 131 Richmond Av.
Dautch, I. W., 44 Ketchum PI.
Desbecker, L. E., Buffalo Club
Desmore, Mrs. J. C , 22 Woodette PI.
Diamond, D., 424 Prudential Bldg.
Dickman, I., 461 Humboldt Pkway.
Feldman, Miss S., 598 Woodlawn Av.
Fink, Rabbi J. L., 748 Auburn Av.
Fleischman, Mrs. B. K., 449 Richmond Av.
Fleischman, Simon, 190 Edward
Flybush, A., Mutual Life Bldg.
Gerstman, E. J., 37 Traymore Av.
Gilden, Dr. J. H., 266 E. Ferry
Goldfarb, Mrs. S., 2<40 William
Golding, L., 678 Potomac
Goldstein, Dr. H. N., 3 Butler Av.
Grossman, H. J., 544 Elmwood Av.
Grossman, S., 137 Dorchester Rd.
Gubenko, M., 577 Broadway
Harris, Hon. S. J., 179 Claremont Av.
Harriton, Harry, 16 Linden Pk.
Hiller, J., 31 Crestwood Av.
Hofeller, Theo., 33 Gates Circle
Holender, Sundel J., 789 Potomac Av.
Katz, Miss Bessie, 97 Broadway
Kauffman, Dr. Lesser, 584 W. Ferry
Keiser, August, 675 Delaware Av.
Lasser, Mrs. I., Sherwood Apts., B 11
Lazarus, Mrs. B., 91 Fordham Dr.
Levintan, M., 711 W. Delavan Av.
Liebeskind, S., 1035 Broadway
' Lischner, Miss P., York Manor Apts.
Maisel, L., 703 Filmore
Matt, Rabbi C. D., 626 Humboldt
Pkway.
Miller, L. H., 190 Cleveland Av.
Nathan, Mrs. H., 223 Depew Av.
Oppenheim, W. H., 245 Richmond Av.
Polokoff, C , Prudential Bldg.
Rayck, L. I., 15 Eureka PI.
Rivo, M., 47 Fordham Dr.
Rosen, Daniel, 291 Commonwealth Av.
Ruslander, D., Erie County Bk. Bldg.
Saperston, W. W., 130 Dorchester Rd.
Sapowitch, J. A., 40 Manchester PI.
Schaffer, B. N., 396 Lafayette Av.
Schwartz, E., Prudential Bldg.
Sernoffsky, Dr. I., 94 Russell Av.
Slohm, Miss E. B.. 1037 Elmwood Av.
Stulberg, J., 419 Richmond Av.
Sukernek, L., Jr., 100 Richmond Av.
Sunday Sch. Tem. Beth El, 151 Richmond Av.
Temple Beth David Library
Ulman, F., Mutual Life Bldg.
Wallens, Marcus, 327 E. Eagle
Weinstein, Miss S., 141 Crestwood Av.
Wile, H., Ellicott & Carroll
Williams, Miss C , 90 Hoyt
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Yellen, J. S., 237 Linwood Ave.
Yellen, M. M., Manufacturers &
Traders Bldg.
Young Women's Club of Temple Beth
David
Zackheim, J. B., 65 St. James PI.
Catskill
Margolius. Mrs. I. M., 352 Main
Cedarhurst, L. I.
Kohn, Mrs. M., Oceanpoint Av.
Westin, M. H., 1845 7th Av.
Coney Island
Reiss, Miss Leah, 6 Stern Walk
Rubin, I. H., 3712 Oceanic Av.
Corona
Perlo, Samuel, 108-21 Ditmars Av.
Cresrwo-od
LIBRARY MEMBER
Shiman, Abraham
ANNUAL MEMBER
Robison, L., 251 West Chester Av.
Croton on Hudson
LIBRARY MEMBER
Rosen, Joseph A., Box 39
Egsrertsville
Coplon, Joseph
Elmhurst
Kramer, V. A., 15 Dewey
Startz, Dr. I. S., 24 Gleane
Elmira
Goldstein, H., 106 Dewitt Av.
Hample, A. G., 705 Riverside Av.
Horwitz Bros., 211 Baldwin
Levy, Ben. F., 454 W. Water
Radin, H. I., 113 Grove
Steele Memorial Library
Elmsford
Morey, S. M., Hartsdale Rd.
Far Rockaway
LIBRARY MEMBER
Salit, M., 1152 New
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Baum, Dr. J., 2270 Mott Av.
Benjamin, A., 5 New Broadway
Bloch, H., 1449 Edgmont PI.
Daniger, S., 2535 Ocean Av.
Davidson, P. W., 36 Seneca
Denenholz, Mrs. J. H., Neilson Av.
387
Diamond, Mrs. A., 1216 Neilson Av.
Goldberg, A., 2233 Brookhaven Av.
King, Mrs. A., 1355 Chandler Av.
Levy, J., 820 Central Av.
Moskowitz, H. J., 1298 Central Av.
Rosenthal, S. M., 1131 Hollywood Av.
Salwen, N., 1108 Seneca
Steiner, S. J., 60 Gibson Place
Flushing
Finkenthal, J., 50 S. 18th
Haas, J., 207 Murray
Mendell, M. L., 3503 157th
Zeamans, Mrs. H. R., 1 Delaware
Forest Hills
Allmayer, E., 95 Livingston
Freeport
Colish, N. H., 51 Mount Av.
Mikol, M., 166 Penna. Av.
Glen Cove
Jospe, Theo., 49 School
Lindheim, Mrs. N. R.
Glens Falls
Metzner, H., 34 Union
Gloversville
Gloversville Jewish Com., Inc., Knox
Bldg.
Horwitz. W., 7 5th Av.
Karch, M., 77 Division
Moses, Joe, 52 1st Av.
Great Neck
Crystal, H. S., Ridge Drive, E.
Harrison
Kugel, Harry J.
Haverstraw
Adler, Henry, 115 Broadway
Herkimer
Schermer, Benj., 328 N. Wash.
Hudson
Kline, Samuel, 438 E. Allen
Huntington, I— I.
Hardt, Miss M., c/o Huntington
Hospital
Wilson, Miss Fannie, c/o Huntington
Hospital
Ithaca
Hurwitz, W. A., 610 E. Buffalo
Sainburg, Dr. P. C , 209 E. State
Jamaica
Felberbaum, N., 161-10 Jamaica Av.
Grossman, M., 30 Hedges PI.
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
388
Jamestown
Davis, S., 35 Barrett Av.
Minsker, E., 151 Foote Av.
Kew Gardens
LIBRARY MEMBER
Nalven, Jacob, 110 Onslow PI.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Levine, A., 118-35 Metropolitan Av.
Metzger, H. J., 57 Beverly Rd.
Shay, Mrs. S., 190 Richmond Hill Av.
Kingston
Stern, Dr. A. A., 20 Home
Larchmont
Burton, Theo. D., Cedar Av.
Davidson, P., 70 N. Chatsworth Av.
Stern, S. W., 310 Forest Av.
Lawrence
LIBRARY MEMBER
Gottesman, D. S.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Landman, Rev. I., Box 323
Markovvitz, Rabbi M., Fulton
Schnell, H., Bway. & Marguerite Av.
Liberty
Antonowsky, Dr. B. S., 210 N. Main
Rayevsky, Dr. Chas., 75 Chestnut
Rozofsky, L., 32 N. Main
Singer, Dr. E., 244 N. Main
Little Falls
Grieff, S., 93 Prospect
Long Beach
Goldberg, M. M., 140 W. Market
Sandberg, H. O., 169 E. Olive
Schwarz, Julius, 238 W. Penn
Long Island City
Cohen, I. E., 3935 45th
Davidson, L. S., Loose-Wiles Biscuit
Co.
Herzog, Dr. Ed. A., 223 Potter Av.
Horowitz, Bertha. 54 Welling
Kopelman, Dr. I. M., 337 Steinway
Av.
Rabinowitz, Dr. C , 520 Jamaica Av.
Steiner, G., 483 7th Av.
Manhattan Beach
Aronson, D., 51 Amherst
Baltuch, M., 60 Coleridge
Grossman, Rabbi J. B., 220 Amherst
Marder, Leo, 245 Amherst
Signer, Rabbi I., 47 Beaumont
Massena
Friedman, Wm., 154 Highland Av.
Middleton
Sturman, R., Times-Press
Monticello
Rosenthal, Dr. J. M., 205 Broadway
Rothenberg, Miss Sarah, 28 Prince
Mount Vernon
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Cowen, A. Y., 270 Prospect Av.
Feist, Leo., i7 Central Blvd.
Levine, A., 22 W. 1st
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Aronowitz, Fannie J., 118 S. 13th Av.
Breitbart, B., 4 Wallace Av.
Davis, J., 121 Wallace Av.
Durst, J., 136 Esplanade
Essrig, Dr. J., 144 Urban
Fell, A., 134 N. Fulton Av.
Finkelstein, C. 30 Greendale Av.
Friedman, H. S., 352 Franklin Ave.
Friedman, Mrs. J., 260 Rich Av.
Fromm, Mrs. J., 27 S. 7th Av.
Gevirtz, Abr., 470 E. Lincoln Av.
Gorfinkle, Rabbi J. I., 319 N. Fulton
Av.
Heymann, Mrs. M., 141 Wallace Av.
Horvitz, A., 206 Langdon Av.
Kadis, I., 296 E. Fifth
Kaliski, Mrs. H., 16 Magnolia Av.
Kitt, P., 72 S. 4th Av.
Lake, Mrs. H. H., 265 N. Fulton Av.
Lieberman, I., 146 Elm Av.
London, C. M., 210 Westchester Av.
Malsin, Mrs. L., 149 Esplanade
Mann, Leon, 32 Winfield Av.
Margolis, Rabbi E., 16 Glen Av.
Mottsman, H., 41 Winfield Av.
Oleet, I., 311 S. 3d Av.
Quitman, J., 105 Wallace Av.
Rosen, M., 147 Stevens Av.
Rothenberg, P., 186 Penna. Av.
Samuels, Mrs. I., 107 Villa
Schaffer, M., 106 Primrose Av.
Schechter, Miss L., 318 S. 3d Av.
Simon, M., 321 Nuber Av.
Smith, J., 282 Claremont Av.
Sussman, Dr. H., 36 Primrose Av.
Temple Sinai Library
Tracttenberg, J., 138 Elm Av.
Weill, Max, 280 Rich Av.
Workman, J. A., 156 Claremont Av.
Zimmerman, H. I., 109 Wallace Av.
Neponsit
Salpeter, Mrs. M., W. 339 B. 144th
New Brighton
Ancelevitz, S., 371 Oakland Av.
Attinson, Mollie, 144 Benziger
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Riykin, J., 200 Jersey
Spitzer, H. L., 163 Westervelt Av.
Strauss, F. A., 230 Hamilton Av.
Newburgh
Kempler, R. & A.. 86 S. Water
Stern, F., 193 Grand
New Rochelle
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Amdur, N. W., 120 Broadview Av.
Brecher, Leo., 110 Elk Av.
Cohen, I. B., 507 Main
Elbert, A., 554 Webster Av.
James, M., 29 Brockdale Av.
Worms, S., 120 Beaufort PI.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Grant, Adolph, 131 Lockwood Av.
Greenberg, Rabbi L., 9 Burling La.
Hendricks, Mrs. C , 59 Locust Av.
Heyman, Mrs. O., 26 Slocum
Potter, S. A., 70 Manor PI.
Rosett, Mrs. F. S., 35 Brookdale Av.
Sloman, M., 88 Broadview Av.
New York City
L I F E MEMBERS
Buttonweiser, J. L., 200 5th Av.
Elkus, Abram I., 165 Broadway
Fischel, Harry, 276 5th Av.
Goodhart, P. J., 21 W. 81st
Kempner, I. H., 522 5th Av.
Kohut, Rev. G. A., 220 W. 87th
Lamport, A. M., 44 Pine
Lamport, S. C , 1125 5th Av.
Marshall, Louis, 47 E. 72d
Mosessohn, D. N., 255 W. 84th
Schiff, Mrs. Jacob H., 965 5th Av.
Schiff, Mortimer L., 52 William
Sulzberger, C. L.. 305 West End Av.
Warburg, Felix M., 1109 5th Av.
Warburg, Mrs. F. M., 1109 5th Av.
Wiesen, Max, 500 7th Av.
SUSTAINING
MEMBERS
Fels, Mrs. J., 1 W. 81st
Ochs, A. S., 308 W. 75th
FRIENDS
Ittleson, H., 1050 Park Av.
Kamaiky, L., 185 E. Broadway
Schiff, Mrs. Jacob H., 965 5th Av.
Vogelstein, L., 270 Park Av.
PATRONS
Baerwald, P., 120 Broadway
Becher, M. M., 538 W. 143d
Erlanger, Hon. Abraham, 50 W. 54th
Goldman, Julius, 132 E. 70th
Greendlinger, L., 13 Astor PI.
D. & F. Guggenheim Found., 120 Bwy.
Guggenheim, Sol. R., 120 Broadway
Guinzburg, Mrs. V., 21 W. 89th
Katz, Eugene, 161 W. 54th
389
Lasker, E., 25 W. 45th
Lehman, Hon. Irving, 36 W. 44th
Marshall, J., 50 Central Pk., W.
Robbins, B. R., 17 E. 87th
Robertson, L. J., 41 Spruce
Robinson, A., 171 W. 71st
Sadacca, H., 546 Broadway
Sadowsky, R., Bway. at 37th
Unterberg, Israel, 90 Franklin
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Abraham, Dr. S., I l l W. 86th
Abrahamson, Mrs. R., 260 Riverside
Dr.
Arkush, R., 345 W. 88th
Atkins, I. S., Public Natl. Bk.
Berlin, Irving, 29 W. 46th
Billow, A., 400 Ft. Wash. Av.
Block, P., 247 Park Av.
Blumgart, L., 325 West End Av.
Bob, H. D., 40 Leonard
Bondy, E. L., 276 5th Av.
Brill, Dr. A. A., 15 W. 70th
Cohen, J. H., 498 7th Av.
Cohen, N., 2400 Valentine Av.
Cohen, Simon, 123 William
Curiel, H., 420 W. Broadway
Dazian, Henry, 144 W. 44th
Deiches, M., 44 Wall
Deutsch, J., 35 Montgomery
Dorfman, L., 1775 Broadway
Eckman, S., Jr., 207 W. 106th
Edu. Alliance, E. Bway. & Jefferson
Eisemann, E., 63 W. 38th
Enelow, Rev. Dr. H. G., 4 E. 76th
Erlanger, A. U, 214 W. 42d
Feiner, B. F., 52 William
Fischman, Wm., 205 W. 39th
Fox, Geo. I., 164 W. 25th
Frank, J. J., 173 Riverside Dr.
Frankel, F., 37 W. 37th
Frankel, M., 19 W. 44th
Frichman, S., 19 W. 44th
Friedkin, Israel, 77 Bowery
Friedman, E., 915 Broadway
Friedman, H. G., 202 Riverside Dr.
Friedman, J., Jr., 680 West End Av.
Gainsburg, I., 291 Broadway
Gans, I. I., 45 W. 18th
Gilbert, J. E., 970 Park Av.
Gladstone, A. I., 233 Broadway
Glass, M. L., 430 6th Av.
Glemby, Harry, 12 E. 22d
Gluckman, M., 2070 Grand Av.
Goldsmith, A., 36 W. 69th
Goldstein, Rabbi I., 233 W. 8rd
Goodfried, Dr. I. L., 898 West End
Av.
Goodfriend, Miss Carrie, 645 West
End Av.
Gottlieb, Albert S., 101 Park AT.
Green, C , 98 Lafayette
Greenwald, M., 1340 Rosedale Av.
Guggenheim, Simon, 120 Broadway
Guggenheim, Wm., 35 E. SOth
Hahn, A., 25 E. 86th
Halkin, Abr. S.. 140 5th Av.
390
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Harris, E. K., 17 John
Harris, M., 53 Hamilton Ter.
Heb. Orphan Asy., 1560 Amsterdam
Av.
Heb. Shel. & Im. Aid Soc., 425
Lafayette
Hendricks, H. S., 128 Broadway
Herbst, J. H., 276 Riverside Dr.
Herzog, S. A., 64 E. 86th
Hirschkorn, M., 98 Lafayette
Hirsh, H. 100 Broadway
Holstein, M. G., 165 Broadway
Horowitz, Dr. P., 57 W. 73rd
House, N. C , 17 W. 96th
Hurewitz, M., 332 Central Pk., W.
Ind. Ord. Free Sons of Isrl., 3109
Broadway
Jewish Inst. of Religion Liby., 40 W.
68th
Joseph, M. N., 36 W. 20th
Kahn, O. H., 54 William
Kastor, A., 14 W. 70th
Kohnstamm, E., 87 Park PI.
Kohnstamm, Tos., 320 Central Pk., W.
Koplik, C. M., 101 Park Row
Kramer, S., 285 Madison Av.
Lachman, S., 290 West End Av.
Lamport, Mrs. A. M., 590 West End
Lamport, S., 1 W. 93d
Leblang, J., 1482 Broadway
Lehman, A., 31 W. 56th
Levine, Miss Minnie, 915 Fox
Levy, W., 210 Riverside Dr.
Liebovitz, S., 607 West End Av.
Livingstone, D., 542 Fifth Av.
Louis, Harry J., 200 W. 57th
Lowe, M. A., 1375 Broadway
Lurie, I. J., 57 2d Av.
Marcus, B. K., 320 5th Av.
Margolis, B., 875 West End Av.
Mark, J., 51 Chambers
Markewich, S., 168 W. 86th
Marzbach, G., 44 Pine
Mayer, B., 41 E. 72d
Meyer, E., 14 Wall
Meyer, Max, 3090 7th Av.
Miller, Dr. J. A., 345 W. 84th
Miller, N. J., 120 Broadway
Monfried, M., 310 W. 86th
Morgenthau, H., 417 Park Av.
Morrisons, Inc., 1370 Broadway
Moskowitz, I., 778 First Av.
Munk, O., 575 Riverside Dr.
Mutterperl, S., 18 W. 18th
Nathan, Edgar, J., 140 W. 71st
Newburger. Joseph E., 10 W. 86th
Newman, E. L., 1932 Arthur Av.
Paley, A. B., 25 W. 43rd
Paskus, Martin, 2 Rector
Pearlman, P., 1616 Webster Av.
Platzek, M. Warley, 65 Central Pk., W.
Plonsky, E., 627 Broadway
Polak, I., 249 Pearl
Portugal, I., 140 6th Av.
Posner, Louis S., 115 Broadway
Kaisler, S., 173 Riverside Dr.
Rheinauer, D., 50 Morningside Av.
Rich, M. B., 66 Broadway
Robinson, Dr. M. R., 1125 Madison
Av.
Rocker, L. P., 25 Broad
Rosenberg, M. H., 501 W. 110th
Rosenberg, S., 1440 Broadway
Rosenblatt, A., 8725 Bay 27th
Rubin, J. H., 271 Central Pk., W.
Runshein, J., 17 E. 42d
Sack, S., 176 W. 87th
Samuels S., 45 W. 81st
Satenstein, L., 406 W. 31st
Saxe, Sig., I l l W. 78th
Schamus, J. B., 90 Riverside Dr.
Schilt, Mrs. L., 120 W. 70th
Schneiderman, H., 171 Madison Av.
Schweitzer, I. S., 500 West End Av.
Segal, M. S., 206 Lexington Ave.
Shiman, David, 234 W. 39th
Siegel, J., 205 W. 39th
Silberstein, Abr., 10 6th Av.
Simonds, L. B., 680 West End Av.
Slater, J. P., 66 Ft. Wash. Av.
Solomon, A., 865 West End Av.
Solomon, Rev. E. L., 1326 Madison Av.
Solomon, W. J., 150 W. 82d
Stein, B. M., 412 E. 125th
Stern, Leopold, 2 W. 46th
Stern, Meyer, 31 White
Straus, Hon. N. Jr., 13 W. 76th
Strauss, Mrs. M., 401 West End Av.
Strauss, Samuel, 885 Park Av.
Strauss, S., 3 E. 44th
Stroock, S. M., 141 Broadway
Sugarman, M. H., 345 Madison Av.
Sulzberger, M., 240 E. 72d
Tekulsky, S., 285 Madison Av.
Telsey, S. A., 80 Maiden Lane
Unger, Henry W., 1239 Madison Av.
Unterberg, D. W., 11 W. 86th
Wallach, M., 53 E. 80th
Walter, Mrs. W. I., Hotel St. Regis
Warburg, P. M., 17 E. 80th
Wasservogel, Hon. I., 40 E. 83d
Wiernik, P., 77 Bowery
Wilner, Max, 46 White
Wimpfheimer, Chas. A., 450 4th Av.
Winter, B., 250 Park Av.
Wise. E. E.. 550 Park Av.
Wolff, B., 21 E. 82d
Y. M. H. A., 148 E. 92d
Zieser, J. H., 50 E. 42d
Zinke, A. U., 120 Broadway
Zipser, Dr. J. E., 122 E. 82d
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Aaron, Miss C. L., 1274 Lafayette Av.
Abel, Dr. S., 1525 Madison Av.
Abelson, Dr. P., 385 Central Pk., W.
Aber, Dr. S. S., 119 W. 57th
Aberle, A. J., 1440 Broadway
Abert, B., 40 E. 83d
Abraham, N. 701 W. 177th
Abrahams, H., 856 Elsmere PI.
Abrahams, Dr. R., 277 West End Av.
Abrahams, S., 270 Madison Av.
Abramowitz, Dr. A. E., 114 5th Av.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Abrams, J. D., 2 Lafayette
Abramson, N. M., 180 Riverside Dr.
Abramson, S., 63 Park Row
Abramson, W., 1133 Broadway
Addelson, Dr. W. M., 672 Fort George
Av.
Adler, Dr. F., Soc. for Ethical Culture
Adler, Mary, 1693 Selwyn Av.
Adlerblum, D., 395 Ft. Wash. Av.
Adlerblum, I. S., 1 Madison Av.
Ahrend, D. H., 52 Duane
Ain, W., 335 Canal
Alexander, B., 1133 B'way
Alexander, J. J., 110 William
Allison, Miss M., 866 S. Blvd.
Alstat, Rabbi P. R., 309 E. 170th
Amer. Jewish Congress, 8 W. 40th
Aminsky, P., 15 Park Row
Amkraut, Rev. E., 598 Prospect Av.
Amster, N. L., 25 Broad
Anenberg, L., 302 B'dway
Antin, B., 850 E. 161st
Apfel, Chas., 522 5th Av.
Appleton, W., 1343 5th Av.
Arens, M., 261 B'way
Arnstein, A., 1050 Park Av.
Arnstein, Bros. & Co., 20 W. 47th
Aronin, M., 151 W. 26th
Aronson, P. N., 272 W. 90th
Aronstein, A., 80 Maiden Lane
Aronstein, Dr. Wm., 576 5th Av.
Ascher, Mrs. M., 225 Central Pk. W.
Asen, Dr. A., 423 Grand
Ash, Abr., 106 5th Av.
Ash, Mark, 79 Wall
Ashrey, H., 1805 University Av.
Asinof, M., 801 Broadway
Atlas, Harry, 329 Greenwich
Atlas, S. A., 730 Riverside Dr.
August, Master, B., 450 W. 147th
August, R., 544 W. 157th
Bach, J. J., 50 W. 77th
Bache, L., 220 B'way
Bacharach, EL, 239 Central Pk. W.
Baskt, Dr. Jos., 1107 Hoe Av.
Balagur, M., 612 W. 112th
Ballin, H., 1749 Gd. Concourse
Banish, Sarah, 116 Elliott PI.
Banner, E., 25 Broad
Barash, P. J., 108 W. 43d
Barash, T., 165 W. 91st
Barlaz, E., 1664 Hoe Av.
Barnett, I. M., 66 Gold
Barnett, S., 305 Riverside Dr.
Baroff, Abner A., 617 E. 181st
Baron, D., 251 W. 89th
Baron, Evelyn H., 1380 Fifth Av.
Baron de Hursh Fund, 233 B'way
Barondess, Jos., 1440 Broadway
Bakst, Dr. Jos., 1107 Roe Av.
Baumgart, I., 928 Broadway
Beckhardt, M., 2755 Bainbridge Av.
Beder, Dr. M. W., 1889 Madison Av.
Behrman, M. H., 110 5th Av.
Beier, A., 305 B'way
Beier, S. K., 261 Broadway
Belais, H., 145 W. 36th
391
rfen Ami, Jacob, 620 W. 116th
Bendheim, S., 233 Broadway
Benedek, M. H., 1133 B'way
Benjamin, M. Z., 905 West End Av.
Benjamin, Dr. S., 512 Broadway
Bennenson, R., 265 E. 197th
Bennett, A. M., Narragansett Hotel
Bennett, Jacob, Fisk Bldg.
Bereano, Dr. P., 1316 Fulton Av.
Berg, Max, 949 Broadway
Berger, Dr. I. S., 391 E. 149th
Berger, M. A., 57 E. 11th
Berger, S., 2701 Gd. Concourse
Bergman, Mrs. M., 228 W. 72d
Berkowitz, A., 2005 Clinton Av.
Berlin, Rabbi M., 31 Union Sq.
Berlinger, Dr. R., 244 Riverside Dr.
Berman, L. E., 189 Sherman Av.
Bernhard, G., 1574 Crotona Pk. E.
Bernhardt, Miss F., 418 E. 84th
Bernheim, M., 347 Fifth Av.
Bernheimer, Dr. C. S., 320 W. 89th
Bernstein, B., 755 West End Av.
Bernstein, B., 299 B'way
Bernstein, D., 54 Howard
Bernstein, Dr. I. I., 2021 Gd. Concourse
Bernstein, M., 14 Delancey
Bernstein, M., 1700 Crotona Pk., E.
Bernstein, P., 715 W. 175th
Bernstein, Sam'l, 219 W. 81st
Bernstein, Saul, 565 5th Av.
Bers, Jos. L., 10 Desbrosses
Behylson, Dr. A. E., 585 West End
Av.
Bijur, Hon. Nathan, 160 W. 75th
Bildersee, Miss A., 150 W. 95th
Bilgore, David, 261 Wash.
Binder, Abr. W., 385 Central Pk., W.
Binder, J. M., 245 Wordsworth Av.
Bing, Alexander M., 1155 Park Av.
Birkhahn, R. C . 420 Lexington Ave.
Birnbaum, M., 385 E. Mosholu Pkway.
Black, M. J., 353 4th Av.
Blauner, I., 272 W. 90th
Blechman, Simon, 502 B'way
Bloch, M. E., 783 Beck
Block Publishing Co., 31 W. 31st
Bloch, Simon, 49 E. 88th
Block, A. J., 1285 3d Av.
Block, A. S., 165-7 Henry
Block, G., 21 E. 40th
Block, Dr. I., 1845 Madison Av.
Block, J. L., 231 Bowery
Bloom, Abraham, 15 W. 37th
Bloom, H., 215 W. 98th
Bloom, Rev. I. M., 564 W. 160th
Bluhm, S., 824 West End Av.
Blumberg, L., 58 E. 113th
Blumberg, S., 1801 7th Av.
Blumberg, S., 345 W. 88th
Blumstock, M., 106 Ft. Wash. Av.
Blumenthal, M. B., 233 Broadway
Blumenthal, S., 305 W. 90th
Bob, Maurice H., 425 Broadway
Bock, Miss S., 2444 Wash. Ave.
Boemerwald, I. L.., 72 Madison Av.
392
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Bogart, Bernard, 92 St. Nicholas Av.
Bogart, John, 63 Park Row
Bogdonoff, M., 2777 Pond PI.
Borg, Sidney C , Hotel Chatham
Borgenicht, L., 1333 Broadway
Boskey, M., 36 W. 44th
Bossowick, I., 1440 Broadway
Boudin, J. B., 110 W. 40th
Boudin, L. B., 70 W. 40th
Boyarsky, I., 1701 Eastburn Av.
Brand, H., 404 E. 48th
Branower, Dr. Wm., 945 West End Av.
Braslau, A., 225 W. 86th
Braun, Dr. J., 266 West End Av.
Braunstein, B.. 46 W. 68th
Braus, Mrs. H. L., 545 W. 111th
Braverman, H. L., 386 E. 4th
Bregman, H., 285 Madison Av.
Brentano, Mrs. F. I., 225 5th Av.
Bresler, M. H., 507 Broadway
Bressler, D. M., 75 Maiden Lane
Bressler, Dr. J., 391 E. 8th
Bressler, M. L., 833 E. 167th
Bril, Rabbi I. L., 1615 University Av.
Brinn, S., 277 Broadway
Brodek, C. A., 354 West End Av.
Brodman Dr. H., 124 E. 39th
Brody, H. I., 1644 Montgomery Av.
Brower, Dr. J. L., 43 St. Marks PI.
Buchler, Rev. Dr. S., 1800 7th Av.
Buchsbaum, J., 116 W. 29th
Bullowa, Dr. A. M., 64 E. 80th
Burdick, A. A., 225 B'way
Bureau of Jewish Edit., 140 5th Av.
Bu. of Jewish Social Research, 114 5th
Av.
Burney. H. R., 2 Lafayette
Burstein, Rabbi Abr., 118 Post Av.
Butler, Max H., 9-11 W. 4th
Cahan, S., 605 W. 113th
Cahn, Arthur L., 43 Exchange PI.
Cahn, J. M., 212 W. 104th
Caiman, Dr. M. S., 600 W. 181st
Cantor, H. S., 2150 Crotona Parkway
Caplaw, S., 2 Lafayette
Cardoza, Hon. B. N., 16 W. 75th
Carlinger, J., Dyckman St. & River
Rd.
Carton, D., 218 W. 40th
Caspe, Dr. A., 2105 Walton Av.
Caspe, Dr. M., 73 W. 119th
Celler, E., 51 Chambers
Celniker, Dr. S. J., 128 Lewis
Chalif, L. H., 163 W. 57th
Chalmers, T. M., 2654 Marion Av.
Charnas, H., 49 W. 24th
Chertoff, N., 530 Broadway
Chertok, Dr. M. A., 200 5th Av.
Chipkin, I. S., 68 W. 117th
Chipkemitz, Pauline, 1060 Union Av.
Chorosh, Wm., Paramount Bldg.
Citron, Dr. G. B., 66 E. 111th
Civic, Maxwell, 120 Broadway
Clemons, Miss Tulia, 19 W. 69th
Clurman, Dr. S. M., 1475 Gd. Concourse
Coblens, R., 280 Broadway
Coden, S., 480 Amsterdam Av.
Cohen, A., 342 Madison Av.
Cohen, Abr., 255 W. 90th
Cohen, Dr. A. B., 347 5th Av.
Cohen, Boaz, 531 W. 123d
Cohen, Benj. D., 53 E. 112th
Cohen, B., 132 E. 87th
Cohen, Chas., 507 B'way
Cohen, G., 217 Broadway
Cohen, G. L., 353 W. 118th
Cohen, I., 136 E. 95th
Cohen, Isaac, 801 Riverside Dr.
Cohen, J. A., 260 Ft. Wash. Av.
Cohen, T., 277 Broadway
Cohen, J. X., 40 W. 68th
Cohen, Leo, 299 Broadway
Cohen, Max, 632 Faile
Cohen. Dr. Milton, 307 W. 79th
Cohen, Moses, 51 Chambers
Cohen, N., 295 Wadsworth Av.
Cohen, Miss R. A., 1708 Topping Av.
Cohen, Rabbi S. M., 531 W. 123d
Cohen, Samuel, 233 W. 25th
Cohen, S., 207 Clinton
Cohn, Dr. A. E., 315 Central Pk., W.
Cohn, Dr. I., 229 W. 97th
Cohn, Louis, 302 B'way
Cohn, M., 2 Rector
Coles, Jos. I., 233 B'way
Cong. Emanuel Rel. School, 4 E. 76th
Conheim, Hermann, 9 Burling Slip
Conning, Rev. J. S., 156 5th Av.
Cooper, I., 142 Morton PI.
Cooperman, S. B., 1461 1st Av.
Crausman, B., 2333 Grand Av.
Daniger, D. D., 303 5th Av.
Dannenbaum, M., 451 4th Av.
Danziger, Mrs. Max, 11 E. 79th
Dauber, J., 156 W. 34th
Davidson, A., Greystone Hotel
Davidson, A., 302 W. 86th
Davidson, B., 225 W. 34th
Davidson, G., 174 2d Av.
Davidson, I., 249 W. 112th
Davidson, Dr. I., 218 W. 112th
Davidson, Dr. Israel, 92 Morningside
Ay.
Davidson, M. P., 261 B'way
Davis, A. M., 152 W. 118th
Davis, Anna R., 1249 Findlay Av.
Davis, Miss Dorothy, 707 Cauldwell
Ay.
Davis, Morton I., 949 B'way
Davis, Moses, 13-19 University PI.
Davison, S., 815 W. 181st
DeHaas, J., 50 Morningside Dr.
Deitch, J., 2105 Ryer Av.
Deligtisch, Dr. E., 2 Thayer
Delman, J. D., 1476 B'way
Derow, Dr. David, 17 W. 9th
Deutsch, B. S.. 261 B'way
Diamond, Dr. B., 1488 Wash. Av.
Diamond, Henry, 11 Eldridge
Diamond, Dr. J. S., 16 E. 83rd
Dickheiser, S. J.. 137 W. 110th
Dickstein, Hon. S., 304 E. B'way
Dist. No. 1, I. O. B. B., 1819 B'way
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Dix, Henry A., 135 Madison Av.
Dorb, Abraham, 680 West End Av.
Dorfman, R., 51 Chambers
Doskof, Dr. S., 562 5th Av.
Down Town Tal. Torah, 394 E.
Houston
Drazin, Wm., 301 E. B'way
Dreyfus, Dr. W. E., Hotel Hargrave
Drosin, Dr. Louis, 1851 7th Av.
Drucker, M. A., 2084 Grand Av.
Druskin, Dr. Louis, 910 West End Av.
Dubovsky, Dr. B., 17 W. 87th
Dukas, Julius J., 2 W. 72d
Dworetsky, M., 26 Ferry
Eckert, Dr. M. M., 2021 Gd. Concourse
Edelman, S., 149 B'way
Edelstein, S. M., Grand Central Box
66
Edlin, W., 114 5th Av.
Edman, S., 537 B'way
Ehrlich, M. L., 3987 Carolin
Ehrlman, Mrs. I., 1274 5th Av.
Eiseman, Rev. A., 600 W. 111th
Eisen, J, M., 463 Seventh Av.
Eisler, S. H., 311 E. 4th
Eisner, Jerome, 366 B'way
Elion, Dr. R., 2295 Gd. Concourse
Elish, M. M., 29 Beekman
Ellenbogen. B. R., 638 W. 160th
Ellis, E. K., 1482 B'way
Elster, Dr. H. B., 175 Forsyth
Endel, Chas. W., 152 W. 42d
Engleman, Morris, 35 Nathan Davis
PI.
Englander, P., 41 E. 42d
Engler, I., 1635 Montgomery Av.
Entmacher, C , 31 1st
Epstein, A., 325 Central Pk., W.
Epstein, E., 461 Produce Exchange
Epstefn, Ed., 46 W. 95th
Epstein, H., 130 Post Av.
Epstein, Dr. H., 1456 Wash. Av.
Epstein, Hayman, 154 W. 14th
Epstein, Dr. H. J., 1738 Crotona Pk.,
E.
Epstein, I., 9 Park PI.
Epstein, M. B., 500 7th Av.
Epstein, M. W., 314 W. 100th
Epstein, N. B., 2100 Creston Av.
Epstein, S., 808 West End Av.
Erdmann, A. J., 7 E. 76th
Ernst, I. L., 151 W. 86th
Eron, Jos. E., 187 E. B'way
Eskolsky, M., 256 E. B'way
Faerber, L., 268 E. Houston
Falk, Dr. H. C , 129 W. 86th
Falk, Saml., 310 W. 94th
Farber, Dr. I., 1 E. 115th
Faust, Dr. I. S., 779 Prospect Av.
Feder, H., 520 W. 110th
Federman, L., 113 5 th Av.
Federman, M. J., 838 West End Av.
Feigon, L., 301 E. B'way
Feinberg, A. A., 655 W. 160th
Feinberg, Benj. G., 501 W. 178th
Feinberg, Sol., 1440 B'way
393
Feinstein, A. L., 1540 B'way
Feist, Max, 52 W. 38th
Feitelson, Dr. J., 55 Delancey
Feld, M., 1469 Jesup Av.
Feldman, J., 1810 Trafalgar PI.
Feldman, S., 1204 Lexington Av.
Feldman, Rev. S., 160 W. 98th
Feldman, S., 1474 Jesup Av.
Felsenthal, J., 404 E. 48th
Fensterstock, J., 545 West End Av.
Fierst, Harry P., 79 5th Av.
Fife Elias, 1615 University Av.
Fine, S., 610 W. 110th
Finelite, A., 150 Nassau
Fink, R., 280 B'way
Finkelstein, Rabbi L., 1700 Crotona
Pk. E.
Finkelstein, Dr. M., 758 Dawson
Finkelstein, N. B., 36 W. 44th
Finkelstein, P. A., 124 W. 79th
Finkelstone, E., 514 W. 110th
Finkelstone, M., 1105 Jerome Av.
Finn, J., 120 B'way
Fischer, Jos., 115 B'way
Fisher, I. H., 531 W. 123d
Fishman, Mrs. A., 239 E. 18th
Fishman, J., 77 Bowery
Flatow, F., 17 John
Flatow, Ida, 76 W. 113th
Flexner, Bernard, 40 Exchange PI.
Fluegelman, N., 525 West End Av.
Flusser, A. B., 635 W. 174th
Fohs, F. J., 1000 Park Av.
Fortgang, A., 191 Duane
Fox, Benj., 72 8th Av. •
Frackman, M., 51 Chambers
Fradis, H., 1002 Woolworth Bldg.
Frank, Louis, J.. 70 Jefferson
Frankel, Dr. Julius, 218 E. 15th
Frankel, Dr. Lee K., 1 Madison Av.
Frankfurt, B., 455 7th Av.
Franzblau, A. M., 4 E. 76th
Frauenthal, Dr. H. W., 160 W. 59th
Freedman, Mrs. B. L., 57 W. 55th
Freedman, D. M., Woolworth Bldg.
Freedman, Morris, 27 E. 95th
Freedman, R., 1382 Prospect Av.
Freiberger, D., 1261 B'way
Freiman, L., 1540 B'way
Frenkel, Emil, 8 E. 81st
Frey, Dr. D. I., 2065 Gd. Concourse
Friedenberg, D. S., 315 4th Av.
Friedenberg, S., 25 E. 86th
Friedland, Dr. E. J., 530 Willis Av.
Friedland, Dr. H., 2021 Gd. Concourse
Friedlander, E., 142 W. 44th
Friedlander, M., 5 W. 75th
Friedman, A. H., 301 E. B'way .
Friedman, A., 315 W. 106th
Friedman, C , 68 Lenox Av.
Friedman, Dr. E. D., 1192 Park Av.
Friedman, E. M., 11 Wall
Friedman, F. B., 2675 Valentine Av.
Friedman, I., 415 Central Pk. W.
Friedman, I., 250 W. 85th
Friedman, I. P., 256 Grand
Friedman, Jacob H., 132 Nassau
394
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Friedman, L. M., 216 W. 89th
Friedman, Dr. L. M., 324 E. 4th
Friedman M., 38 Ft. Wash. Av.
Friedman, M., 835 Walton Av.
Friedman, M., 155 Riverside Drive
Friedman, Saml. D., 628 B'way
Fromberg, H. G., 320 B'way
Frost, S., 41 W. 14th
Frutkin, S., Brokaw Bldg.
Fochs, Max, 233 B'way
Fuerst, W. F., 87 Nassau
Furgatch, S. H., 915 Prospect Av.
Furman, Edw. I., 600 W. 161st
Furman, Leo S., 740 West End Av.
Galef, Jos., 30 Seaman Av.
Gansberg, S., 37-39 Maiden Lane
Ganz, S. H., 150 Nassau
Garbat, Dr. A. L., 113 E. 81st
Garmesey, J. H., 51 Chambers
Garten, S., 2 Lafayette
Geiger, C , 45 W. 45th
Gciger, Mrs. D., 473 West End Av.
Geist, A. J., 124 E. 84th
Geller, H. J., 2153 Amsterdam Av.
Gellert, Dr. S., 170 E. 61st
Gerber, Dr. J., 346 E. 10th
Gettenberg, Dr. S., 2715 Gd. Concourse
Gilbert, A. S., 2855 Gd. Concourse
Gillenson C , 421 7th Av.
Gilman, Jacob, 116 Nassau
Gilston, J., 158 W. 73d
Gimbel, Mrs. I., 771 Madison Av.
Ginsberg, S., 621 B'way
Ginsburg, Max 119 Wooster
Ginzberg, Dr. L. 568 W. 149th
Gisnet, Morris, 1482 B'way
Gladstone. H., 34 W. 36th
Glauber, M., 2345 B'way
Glucksman, H. L., 425 Riverside Dr.
Glucksman, J., 729 7th Av.
Glushak, Dr. L., 317 W. 89th
Goetz, I., 15 Park Row
Gold. L., 270 Madison Av.
Goldberg, A., 123 William
Goldberg, B. Z., 901 E. 179th
Goldberg, H. M., 451 West End Av.
Goldberg, Dr. J., 87 Vermilyea Av.
Goldberg, Dr. M., 22 E. 89th
Goldberg, M. E., 1440 B'way
Goldberg, M., 555 Cauldwell Av.
Goldberg, M. M., 417 W. 120th
Goldberg, P., 339 W. 77th
Goldberg, W., 151 W. 40th
Goldberg, Dr. Wm. H., 251 W. 95th
Goldberger, L. J., 395 4th Av.
Golde, Louis, 270 West End Av.
Golde, Morris, 325 West End Av.
Goldenberg, I., 2305 Grand Av.
Goldfarb, D. E., 258 B'way
Goldfarb, L., 123 William
Goldfarb, P., 302 B'way
Golding, J. H., 290 W. 93rd
Golding, S., 23 Haven Av.
Goldman, Dr. A., 1801 Weeks Av.
Goldman, B., 79 5th Av.
Goldsmith, A., 375 West End Av.
Goldsmith, H. Ely, 545 West End Av.
Goldsmith, M., 353 W. 85th
Goldsmith, S. J., 151 Central Pk., W.
Goldsmith, S. M., 25 Spruce
Goldsmith, S., 114 Fifth Av.
Goldstein, Dr. B., 44 W. 114th
Goldstein, B., 2111 Grand Av.
Goldstein, B., 50 Union Square
Goldstein, C , 43 W. 23rd
Goldstein, C. J., 302 B'way
Goldstein, D. I., 302 B'way
Goldstein, E., 565 5th Av.
Goldstein, Rabbi H. S., 1925 7th Av.
Goldstein, J., 600 W. 161st
Goldstein, J. D., 565 5th Av.
Goldstein, J. J., 72 Madison
Goldstein, Max, 501 7th Av.
Goldstein, Dr. P. R., 352 4th Av.
Goldstein, R., 615 W. 173d
Goldstein, Dr. Wm., 2146 Hughes Av.
Goldstone, Miss Rose, 1391 Madison
Av.
Goldstone, Wm., 1925 Andrews Av.
Goldwasser, J. E., 345 4th Av.
Goldwater, Dr. A. L., 141 W. 121st
Goldwater, Dr. S. S., Mt. Sinai Hospital
Gomberg, P. M., 2550 Grand Av.
Goodfriend, Jacob, 542 5th Av.
Goodman, A. & Son, 640 E. 17th
Goodman, Dr. A., 220 E. 16th
Goodman, D. N., 636 W. 136th
Goodman, E., 19 E. 105th
Goodman, S. A., 473 West End Av.
Gordis, Robert 265 E. 181st
Gordon, Alfred, 17 John
Gordon, Bernard, Woolworth Bldg.
Gordon, G. S., 740 Riverside Dr.
Gordon, J. 271 Madison Av.
Gordon, Dr. N., 875 West End Av.
Gottheil, Dr. R., 220 W. 98th
Gotthelf, Beatrice, 26 Union Sq.
Gottlieb, J., 2126 Woolworth Bldg.
Gottlober, S., 319 W. 98th
Gottschall, S., 15 Claremont Av.
Graef, A., 265 W. 36th
Graff, Abr., 29 Canal
Granet, Dr. Adolph, 45 E. 85th
Greenbaum, D., 299 Broadway
Greenbaum, L. S., 7 Dey
Greenbaum, Hon. S., 285 Madison Av.
Greenberg, A., 187 Greene
Greenberg, D. H., 157 Delancey
Greenberg, Ethel, 1419 Nelson Av.
Greenberg, Harry, 286 Broome
Greenberg, H., 463 7th Av.
Greenberg, Louis E., 2136 Clinton Av.
Greenberg, M., 99 Nassau
Greenbereer, M., 1133 Broadway
Greene, I. M., 277 Broadway
Greenebaum, S., 492 Broome
Greenfield, H. G., 51 Chambers
Greenfield, N. C , 1372 Broadway
Greenhill, Jos., 160 Broadway
Greenstein, M., 206 W. 29th
Greenwald, I.. 50 E. 96th
Grollman, J. W., 1424 Walton Av.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Gronich, A., 305 Broadway
Gross, Leopold, 25 Beaver
Gross, Dr. S., 746 E. 5th
Grossman, C , 115 Broadway
Grossman, H. 603 Broadway
Grossman, Rabbi L. B., 770 Faile
Grossman, M. H., 115 Broadway
Grossman, W m , 115 Broadway
Grunauer, R., 49 St. Nicholas Ter.
Gubin, Dr. S., 306 W. 100th
Guelman, Dr. H., 245 E. 24th
Guggenheim, Murry, 120 Broadway
Gumzburg, Mrs. H. A., 115 W. 86th
Gutman, Louis, 1239 Madison Av.
Haas, S. A., 9 E. 48th
Haber, J., 122 Delancey
Hafer, H. E., 112 Riverside Dr.
Hahn, I., 25 E. 86th
Hamburger, H., 86 John
Hand, Sol. S., 223 W. 35th
Handshoe, S., 342 Madison Av.
Hano, A. R., Ansonia Hotel
Hano, Philip, 799 Broadway
Harris, Abraham, 18 E. 106th
Harris, C. A., 312 W. 93d
Harris, Jacob M., 924 W. End Av.
Harris, Rev. Dr. M. H., 418 Central
Pk., W.
Hayman, N., 15 Maiden Lane
Hebrew Teachers Union, 425 Lafayette
Hecht, Chas., 292 Madison Av.
Hecht, Meyer, 8 Jacob
Held, Adolph, 222 W. 83d
Helfat, J. N., 233 Broadway
Heller, A. A., 171 W. 71st
Heller, Saml., 358 5th Av.
Heller, Zachary, 507 Broadway
Hemley, Fred'k., 115 Broadway
Hendler, M., 604 Concord Av.
Herold, Jacob, 75 Leonard
Herring, P., 41 E. 42d
Hershfield, L., 704 Broadway
Herskowitz, H., 900 Riverside Dr.
Hertz, Emanuel, 149 Broadway
Herzog, Mrs. Jos., 808 West End Av.
Heyman, D. M., 815 Park Av.
Heymsfeld, N. A., 1477 Wash. Av.
Hill, Dr. I. J., 72 Rivington
Hill, M. C , 7th & East River
Hillquit, M., 19 W. 44th
Himmelstein, Dr. U., 10 E. 95th
Himwich, Dr. A. A., 1871 Madison
Av.
Hirsch, Dr. Al., 432 B. 140th
Hirsch, Dr D., 636 Greenwich
Hirsch, Dr. Sol., 574 E. 141st
Hirschstein P., 1009 Kelly
Hirsdansky S., 1700 Fulton Av.
Hirsch, S., 10 W. 47th
Hochberg, D., 30 Church
Hochman, M., 43 Essex
Hodes, H., 624 W. 176th
Hoexter, J., 257 4th Av.
Hofheimer, H., 61 Broadway
Hollander, M. L., 37 7th
Honig, E., 377 Edgecombe Av.
Horowitz, Dr. A. D., 440 E. 6th
395
Horowitz, A., 626 W. 165th
Horowitz, J. L., 440_E. 6th
iritz, Jos., 597 E. 170th
Horowitz,
Horowitz, J. L., 320 Grand
Horowitz, L., 369 E. 4th
Horowitz, M. M., 46 Ft. Wash. Av.
Horowitz, S. I., 369 E. 4th
Hoschander, Dr. J., 218 W. 112th
Houdini, Mrs. H., 67 Payson Av.
Housman, C. J., 11 Wall
Housman, M. C , 2075 Creston Av.
Huhner, Leon, 320 Central Pk., W.
Hymanson, Rev. Dr. M., 1335 Madison
Hyman, DT. A., 144 E. 36th
Hyman, Jos., 963 Stebbins Av.
Hyman, Jos. C , 92 Morningside Av.
Hyman, Mrs. L., 20 W. 84th
Hyman, Mrs. Saml. I., 174 W. 76th
Hymanson, Dr. A., 50 E. 96th
Illoway, Dr. H., 1113 Madison Av.
Imbrey, S. H., 473 West End Av.
Inselbuch, S., 1501 Broadway
Isaacs, J. I., 1368 Sheridan Av.
Isaacs, Lewis M., 475 5th Av.
Isaacs, Stanley M., 505 5th Av.
Isaacson. Jos. D., 40-46 W. 20th
Isaacson, R. I., 40-46 W. 20th
Ish Kishor, J., Order Sons of Zion
Jablow, A., 25 W. 44th
Jablow, J. M., 1384 Gd. Concourse
Jablow, M., 120 W. 42d
Jacobs, T. J., 430 W. 116th
Jacobs, M. L., 115 Broadway
acobs, Ralph J., 37 W. 70th
acobson, H. L., 165 Broadway
acobson, M. L.f 165 Broadway
acobson, Samuel J., 51 Chambers
acoby, Elias, 1806 Winik PI.
acoby, M., 1160 Park Av.
affe, Moses, 1170 Broadway
ais, J. D., 290 West End Av.
alien, John J., 320 Central Pk. W.
alkut, Benj., 395 4th Av.
anis, G. N., 3191 Rochambeau Av.
anko, Dr. N., 25 Marble Hill Av.
anowitz, Ruth, 2083 Daly Ay.
Janowsky, O. I., College of City of
N. Y.
Jarcho, Dr. J., 303 N. 106th
Tarcho, M., 215 E. 37th
Jarecky, Dr. H., 168 W. 86th
Jarett, H., 898 West End Av.
Jaslow, Lewis, 210 5th Av.
Jasper, Harry, 144 W. 27th
Terskey, Dr. Abram, 201 W. 117th
Jew, Agri. & Aid Soc, 301 E. 14th
Jewish Theological Sem., 531 W. 123d
Joffe, J., 141 Broadway
Toffe, S. A.. 521 W. 112th
Jonas, Ralph, 115 Broadway
Toseph, L., 865 West End Av.
jurist, Benj., 126 W. 32d
Jurist, Dr. D., 325 E. 80th
Tuster, Jos. A., 1170 Broadway
Kahn, Alex., 320 Broadway
Kahn, H., 1854 Loring PI.
Kahn, H., 830 W. 177th
396
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Kahn, 1. 66 Broadway
Kahn, Mrs. J. M., 200 W. 113th
Kahn, Dr. Max, 415 Ft. Wash. Av.
Kaiden, Dr. M. H., 115 W. 73d
Kalb, A. I., 31 W. Moshalu Pkway, N.
Kamerman, D., 1440 Broadway
Kantrowitz, Dr. B. A., 210 Riverside
Dr.
Kantrowitz, J., 791 Lexington Av.
Kaplan, E., 67 E. 77th
Kaplan, Frances, 4 E. 76th
Kaplan, G., 212 5th Av.
Kaplan, H., 1820 Trafalgar PI.
Kaplan, Dr. I. I., 55 E. 86th
Kaplan, M., 2478 Grand Av.
Kaplan, Rev. M. M., 1 W. 89th
Kaplan, Dr. P., 9 E. 96th
Kaplan, S., 106 W. 179th
Kaplan S. M., 40 E. 83d
Kapp, I., 624 Hudson
Karpf, M. J., 210 W. 91st
Kashner, M., 27 E. 10th
Kastor, Sigmund, 109 Duane
Katz, Miss Clara, 5 E. 106th
Katz Dr. David, 808 West End Av.
Kat: Ida., 1319 E. New YorkAv.
Katz Rabbi J., 945 E. 163d
Katz, MarceC 325 W. 112th
Kaufman, H. B., 915 Fox
Kaufman, H. M., 970 Park Av.
Kaufman, Win, 615 W. 143d
Kava, Dr. H. L., 640 W. 170th
Kehlman, L., 229 W. 28th
Kehlmann, H., 229 W. 28th
Kehlmann, M., 1061 Hall PI.
Kehlman, N. M., 23 W. 119th
Keibel, Erich, 116 Broad
Keilson & Waxelbaum, 132 W. 43rd
Kelson, Rabbi B., J. J., Hall, Columbia
Kern, R. M., 126 W. 46th
Kessler, M., 603 Academy
King. Sol., 1425 Wythe PI.
Kirsch, J., 838 West End Av.
Kirschstein, B., 113 W. 42nd
Kleban, L. E., 131 Riverside Dr.
Kleban, Mrs. R., 2701 Gd. Concourse
Kleban. S., 884 West End Av.
Kleiman, Sol.; 621 W. 188th
Klein, Dr. David, c/o Col. of C. of
N. Y.
Klein, H. H., 1349 Lexington Av.
Klein, Jacob, 272 W. 90th
Klein, J. J., 19 W. 44th
Klein, M., 261 Broadway
Klein, Rose, 1455 Fulton Av.
Klein. Dr. W., 2021 Gr. Concourse
Kleinberg. I., 801 West End Av.
Kleinfeld, P. M., 1133 Broadway
Kling, Dr. Jehiel, 924 E. 181st
Koch, H., 999 6th Av.
Koch. Jonas, 20 W. 47th
Koenig, Hon. Saml. S.. 27 Cedar
Koenigsberg. B., 400 E. Houston
Kohler, E. J., 29 W. 85th
Kohler, Max J., 2 W. 88th
Kohn, A. H., 1386 Prospect Av.
Kohn, Rabbi J., 215 W. 98th
Kohn, Sol., 270 Madison Av.
Kolodney, L. 15 Park Row
Komitor, I. I., 877 Brook Av.
Kommel, Alex., 800 West End Av.
Kommel, N. A., 20 E. 76th
Kopelman, B. E., 280 Broadway
Kopeloff, I., 6113 Spencer Av.
Kopal, Dr. J., 954 2d Av.
Korn, Chas., 285 Madison Av.
Korn, H., 924 West End Av.
Kornbluth, S., 1 Madison Av.
Kornfeld, A. E., 124 W. 7?th
Kornreich, H., 356 Greenwich
Kossin, Dr. L., 1181 Walton Av.
Kotler, Sam, 1938 Loring PI.
Kraft, S., 300 Riverside Dr.
Kraker, Sarah, 5 Union Sq.
Krakower, Dr. T. B., I l l W. 119th
Krakowski, Dr. M., 1665 Wash. Av.
Krass, Rev. Dr. N., 2370 Broadway
Kraushaar, Meyer, 51 Chambers
Kravit, A., 935 Kelly
Kresh, J. G., 2116 Morris Av.
Kresh, Robt., 30-34 W. 26th
Krinsky, H. J., 299 Broadway
Kronenberg, B., 302 Broadway
Krulewitch. Harry, 4115 Produce Ex.
Kugel, S. H., 80 Maiden Lane
Kuntz, H., 180 Broadway
Kupferberg, F., 596 Broadway
Kurz, M., 240 West End Av.
Kushner, S., 230 Clinton
Kutz, A., 320 5th Av.
Kwestel, H., 225 Broadway
Labiner, N., 268 E. Houston
Landa, Dr. M. G., 281 E. Broadway
Lande, L., 290 Broadway
Lande, M. B., 749 West End Av.
Landes, L., 676 Riverside Dr.
Landres, S., 3965 Sedgwick Av.
Landsberg, J., 326 Broadway
Landsman, S., 1380 Prospect Av.
Landy, J., 211 Ft. Wash. Av.
Lang, H., 319 E. 79th
Langsam, J., 321 Broadway
Lasdon, S. D., 435 Riverside Dr.
Lasky, S. D., 280 B'vvay.
Launer, DT. L., 309 E. 10th
Lazaroff, M.. 45 W. 110th
Le Bayer, M. J., 1920 University Av.
Leblang, Jos., 225 W. 86th
Lederman, M., 153 W. 72d
Leffel, I., 1542 Coney Island Av.
Lefkowitz, Mrs. D. E., 50 E. 96th
Lehr, I. A., 233 Broadway
Leichter, A., 90 Riverside Dr.
Leichtman, Max, 120 W. 42d
Leitman, A., 647 Broadwav
Lerman, Charles, 29 E. B'way
Lerner, Milton, 261 Broadway
Lesser, Henry, 2 Lafayette
Levenson, Jos., 243 Canal
Levenson, M., 568 B'way
Levi, A. J., 45 E. 85th
Levin, Harry, 15 Park Row
Levine, Aaron, 210 W. 179th
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Levine, B. A., 560 W. 165th
Levine Mrs. H., Public Nat'l Bank
Levine, Jos. M., 832 Manida
Levine Murray,
y, 300 Madison
Madiso Av.
Levine , P
P. M
M., 239 E
E. 115th
Levinsohn, Dr. H., 227 E. 10th
Levinson, A., 65 Ft. Wash. Av.
Levinson, Chas., Fairfield Hotel
Levinson, Dr. L. R., 1138 Vyse Av.
Levinson, M., 151 E. Broadway
Levinthal, Miss Tillie, 53 E. 97th
Levitas, G., 367 Ford
Levitt, C. H., 1440 Broadway
Levow, Benj., 1061 Tinton Av.
Levy, A., 22 Mt. Morris Pk., W.
Levy, A., 777 West End Av.
Levy, A. A., 25 W. 81st
Levy, A. M., 331 W. 84th
Levy, Aaron Wm., 225 Broadway
Levy, D., 515 West End Av.
Levy, David N., 1310 Grant Av.
Levy, E. B., 70 E. 45th
Levy, Eugene N., 345 Fourth Av.
Levy, F. H., 11 Broadway
Levy, Harold, 336 Ft. Wash. Av.
Levy, H., 797 E. 170th
Levy, H., 129 E. 80th
Levy, Isaac B., 317 W. 99th
Levy, I. H., 37 Wall
Levy, J., 473 West End Av.
Levy, J., 256 Broadway
Levy, Mrs. L. Napoleon, 101 E. 74th
Levy, Mrs. M., 600 W. 115th
Levy, M., 630 W. 141st
Levy, Meyer, 110 E. 42d
Levy, Sam'l, 295 5th Av.
Levy, S. L., 87 University PI.
Levy, S. N., 86-88 Franklin
Lewi, Isidor, N. Y. Herald Tribune
Lewine, F., 110 E. 78th
Lewine, H. S., 565 Fifth Av..
Lewinson, Benno, 2880 Broadway .
Lewis, C. M., 262 W. 83d
Lewis, D., 141 B'way
Lewis, S., Jr., 417 E. 85th
Lewisohn, Adolph, 881 5th Av.
LeWitter, Dr. Arnold, 1108 Times Bldg.
Lhowe, Harold R., 321 B'way.
Liberman, H. N., 2178 B'way.
Lichtblau, N., 63 Park Row
Lichtman, M., 611 Broadway
Lidz, Israel, 248 W. 36th
Lieberman, Dr. L., 123 W. 119th
Liebkoff, A., 2034 Creston Av.
Liebovitz, A., 75 Leonard
Liebovitz, E. J., 75 Leonard
Liebowitz, H. H., 75 Leonard
Lief, Dr. J. F., 527 5th Av.
Lift, Dr. J., 757 Beck
Lilienthal, G., 305 W. 72d
Lilienthal, S., 258 Wadsworth Av.
Linde, B., 501 7th Av.
Linfield, Dr. H. S.. 114 5th Av.
Linker, G., 1728 Morris Av.
Linker, John, 175 E. 79th
Linsky, Jack, 63 W. 19th
397
Lipman, H. J., 371 Ft. Washington
Av.
Lipman, H., 295 Ft. Washington Av.
Lipman, J., 128 Ft. Wash. Av.
Lipman, S., 359 Ft. Wash. Av.
Lippit, M., 512 B'way.
Lipshitz, I., 80 Lafayette
Lissberger. B., 330 Park Av.
Lissman, Rev. Dr. Ed., 417 Riverside
Drive
Littauer, L. N., 64 W. 87th
Liverman, H., 16 W. 40th
Loeb, J. F., 100 Broadway
Loewenstein, Dr. L. C , 180 Riverside
Login, Paul, 29 E. 21st
London, H., 310 W. 99th
London, Monte, 270 Madison Av.
Lookstein, Rabbi J. H., 25 E. 86th
Lorber, Dr. H., 135 E. 21st
Lorsch, Miss Fannie, 885 West End
Av.
Louchheim, W. C , 111 Broadway
Lowenfeld, I., 565 5th Av.
Lowenstein, S., ISO W. 79th
Lowinson, Oscar, 5 W. 91st
Lubell, A. D., 158 E. 179th
Lubell, A. P., 1851 7th Av.
Lubell, J. J., 562 Broadway
Lubell, Morris M., 502 Broadway
Lubell, S. L., 789 West End Av.
Lurie, H. I., 38 Park Row
Lurie, Mrs. M., 1186 Madison Av. •
Lustig, J. A., 1976 Vyse Av.
Lyons, D., 58 Beekman
Maccoby, Max, 10 Post Av.
Mack, Harry, 52 William
Mack, Hugo S., 7 Beekman
Mack, Hon. J. W., Woolworth Bldg.
Maler, Rabbi W. S., 64 W. 192nd
Manaccus, S., 325 Broadway
Mandel, Max, 272 W. 90th
Mandell, K., 33 Rector
Manheimer, J. S., 250 W. 75th
Manheimer, S. S., 304 E. Broadway
Mann, Sam'l., 1121 Forest Av.
Manner, Miss Jane, 60 W. 68th
Marcus, N., 208-10 Wooster
Marcus, S., 114 E. 90th
Margolies, Rabbi M. S., 25 E. 86th
Margolin, N. E., 923 Walton Av.
Margolis, A. I., 893 Crotona Pk., N.
Margolis, S., 1290 Lafayette Av.
Margolish, M. L., 627 B'way
Marion, Saml., 291 Broadway
Markel, Max, 1326 Madison Av.
Markowitz, B., 300 Water
Marks, B., c/o Gimbel Bros.
Marks, I., Hotel Majestic
Marmor, C. K., 3 O Giles Place
Marrow. I. L., 55 White
Marx, Dr. A., 100 Morningside Drive
Marx, M., 365 West End Av.
Maslansky, P., 601 W. 160th
Mason, Samuel, 309 W. 93d
Maximon, S. B., 40 W. 68th
Mayper, A. A., 1440 B'way
398
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Mehler, Aron, 54 Harrison
Meinhard, M. H., 215 4th Av.
Meirowitz, Dr. Phil., 1133 B'way
Meltsner, Chas. N., 126 5th Av.
Mendelsohn, Col. M. J., 15 Park Row
Mendelsohn, Sig., 314 W. 107th
Mendelsohn, J., 840 Mott Av.
Mendelson, Dr. H., 618 W. 164th
Mendes, Rev. Dr. H. P., 30 W. 70th
Mendoza, I., 15 Ann
Menken, M. M., 325 West End Av.
Mensch, Mrs. Pauline, 525 W. E. Av..
Meyer, H. D., 225 Central Pk., W.
Meyer, Louis, 220 B'way
Meyerowitz, A., 149 Broadway
Meyers & Sons, A., 24 W. 25th
Meyrich, Eli, 30 University PI.
Michaelson, Ben. S., 1 Madison Av.
Miller, Dr. D., 1767 Madison Av.
Miller, Dr. I., 1515 Boston Rd.
Miller, Dr. L., 122 Rivington
Miller, N., 250 W. 39th
Miller, Rabbi S., 1835-37 Univ. Av.
Mindlin, H., 130 William
Minsky, I., 200 Fifth Av.
Mintz, M. L., 1398 Gd. Concourse
Mintz, Mrs. S., 160 W. 95th
Mitchell, S., 210 W. 70th
Mittelman, Dr. J. H., 116 Columbia
Mittler, B. B., 11 W. 42nd
Moch, I., 600 W. 115th
Moisseiff, Leon S., 215 W. 101st
Moolton, Dr. R. J., 119 W. 57th
Morais, Rev. H. S., Hotel Cecil
Morgenstern, David, 26 W. 17th
Morgenstern, D. A., 2 Leaman Av.
Morrill, H., 1932 Loring PI.
Morris, G., 220 5th Av.
Morton, A. S., 1440 B'way
Moses, Abr., 584 Union Av.
Moseson, Rabbi C. E., 2046 Prospect
Moessohn, M., 29 E. 32d
Moshkovitz, Dr. Z., 344 E. 17th
Moshkowitz, Dr. H., 147 E. 38th
Moss, A., 108 W. 43d
Moss, Nathan, 80 Maiden Lane
Murzin, I., 42 Hester
Musken, W., 683 Broadway
Myerson, M., 771 Crotona Pk., N.
Nachimowsky, H. t 260 Audubon Av.
Nalven, L., 20 W. 22d
Nash, Dr. E. M., 45 5th Av.
Nash, J., 52 Lispenard
Nashly, L., 46 Ft. Washington Av.
Natapoff, S., 233 Broadway
Nathan, Mrs. F., 225 W. 86th
Necarsulmer, H., 120 Broadway
Neivert, Dr. H., 1426 Walton Av.
Nemirov, J., 1775 Broadway
Neuburger, Max, 8 E. 94th
Neulander, Rabbi A. H., 210 W. 107th
Neulander, Rabbi J., 1009 Prospect Av.
Neustadt, Mrs. S., 927 5th Ave.
Nevelson, B., 19 W. 44th
Newberger, S., 38 Park Row
Newburger, Alfred H., 100 Broadway
Newburger, S. M., 100 Broadway
Newman, A. L., 755 Park Av.
Newman, D., 366 Broadway
Newman, Dr. S. L., 253 E. Broadway
New York Public Library, 476 5th Av.
Noshpitz, I., 1471 Vyse Ave.
Notess, M., 50 E. 42d
Novak, A., 1187 Boston Rd.
November, N., 252 W. 85th
Novogradsky, S. 161 Clinton
Nusbaum, Myer, 342 Madison Av.
Oshlag, Dr. J., 1060 Madison Av.
Osserman, Simon E., 805 St. Nicholas
Av.
Paleg, Dr. B., 1136 Clay Av.
Paley, Louis J., 61 Broadway
Palitz, S., 320 W. 86th
Pantell, J. J., 857 Crotona Pk. W.
Paskus, Gasa, 201 W. 72d
Pasternack, M.t Municipal Bldg.
Payson, H., 220 4th Av.
Pell, L., 15S W. 44th
Pereles, M. Flat Iron Bldg.
Perkiss, M., 2600 Creston Av.
Perla, Dr. D., 3425 Knox PI.
Perla, Morris, 533 W. 112th
Perlberg, Dr. E., 272 W. 125th
Perlman, Max, 1440 Broadway
Perlman, Hon. N. D., 51 Chambers
Perlman, S., 1876 Marmion Av.
Perman, Samuel, 625 W. 164th
Peyser, G. B., 969 2d Av.
Pfeiffer, Alex., 220 W. 98th
Phillips, N., 50 E. 42d
Phillips, Capt. N. T 114 W. 74th
Pick M., 2178 Broadway
Pines, Miriam, 927 Av. St. John
Pinkus, M., 51 Chambers
Pinski, D., 1950 Andrews Av.
Podell, D. L., I l l Broadway
Podolsky, D., 38 Park Row
Pollack, J., 12 E. 22d
Pollak, Miss Gertrude, 53 Park PI.
Pollak, S. B., 63 Park Row
Pollock, B., 1 Madison Av.
Pollock, Henry W., 515 W. 110th St.
Pollock, M., 165 Broadway
Polstein, J., 1440 Broadway
Pompan M. A., 38 Park Av.
Pool, Rev. Dr. D. deSola, 99 Central
Pk. W.
Popkin, L., 103 Park Av.
Posner, R. A., 238 Ft. Washington AT.
Prager, Wm., 2 Rector
Prashker, L., 165 Broadway
Prashker, R., 1895 University Av.
Preiser, Theo. H., 150 W. 111th
Preiss, Elias, 250 W. 104th
Presman, B., 2608 Creston Av.
Pretzfeld, Mrs. E., 170 W. 74th
Price, Dr. G. M., 31 Union Sq.
Projector, Dr. H., 1340 Nelson Av.
Propp, Morris, 524 Broadway
Proskauer, J. M-, 27 Madison Av.
uat, Ephnm, 1680 Park Av.
uint, A., 36 E. 31st
B
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Rabinovitch, M. A., 1226 Evergreen
Ay.
Rabinowitz, Aaron, 1261 Broadway
Rabinowitz, L. M., 175 Wooster
Rabinowitz, M., 657 Bryant Av.
Rabinowitz, S., 149 Broadway
Radzyner, S., 1016 Bryant Av.
Rasch, Simon, 175 Riverside Dr.
Reader, Mrs. Fannie, 545 W. 164th
Redalieu, Dr. G., 571 E. 140th
Reich, Dr. H., 2075 Gd. Concourse
Reich, L. R., 36 W. 34th
Reicher, H. J., 1182 Broadway
Reichert, Rabbi I. F., 107 W. 183rd
Reichman, Rabbi S., 1738 Crotona Pk.
Reiser, H., 140 5th Av.
Reiskin, Mrs. D., 79 E. 7th
Reissman, Dr. Irving I., 231 E. 11th
Reit, H. J., 305 Broadway
Reit, L., 305 Broadway
Relig, Sch., Shaaray Tefila, 160 W. 82d
Relkin, Henry, 850 E. 161st
Remenyi, Wm. S., 790 Riverside Dr.
Rettenberg, J. K., 545 W. 164th
Retzker, Michael, 101 W. 106th
Reubens, R., 483 West End Av.
Rich, B., 255 W. 108th
Richards, B. G., 414 Madison Av.
Richman, h., 769 Dawson
Riegelman, H., 420 Lexington Av.
Rifkind, S. H., 1527 E. 172d
Riglander, J. W y 209 W. 14th
Ringer, Dr. A. I., 3 W. 73d
Rippe, M. L., 152 W. 42d
Ritter, Dr. I. L., 1050 Park Av.
Ritter, Louis, 1801 7th Av.
Robbins, Ben., H E . 26th
Robbins, Dr. S. N., 303 5th Av.
Robert, Sam'l, 906 Park Av.
Robins, J. H., 51 Chambers
Robinsohn, Dr. D., 1211 Madison Av.
Robison, I., 26 W. 22d
Rock, Wm., 25 Jefferson
Rodef Shalem Religious School
Rodgers, Dr. W. A., 161 W. 86th
Roeder, S. M., 174 E. 95th
Rogers, C. A., 152 W. 42d
Rogers, G. A., 67 Wall
Rogers, M. H., 1 Park Av.
Rogers, S. E., 850 10th Av.
Roggen, H., 365 West End Av.
Roggen, L. A., 1372 Broadway
Rogovin, A., 1250 College Av.
Rongy, Dr. A. J., 590 West End Av.
Rorenthal, Wm., 36 W. 57th
Rosalsky, Hon. Otto A., 225 W. 86th
Rosansky, J. H., 80 St. Nicholas Av.
Rose, E., 61 Broadway
Rose, L. S., 230 W. 105th
Rose, O. B., 56 Ft. Wash. Av.
Rose, Wm. R., 309 W. 81st
Roseman, I., 33 Orchard
Rosen, A. H., 128 Rivington
Rosen, A. W., 200 W. 90th
Rosen, Dr. B. J., 773 Dawson
399
Rosen, David J., 47 Ft. Washington
Av.
Rosen, Dr. I., 44 E. 51st
Rosen, Dr. S., 1662 Vyse Av.
Rosenbaum, I. I., 910 West End Av.
Rosenbaum, Dr. M., 61 W. 88th
Rosenbaum, S. G., 730 5th Av.
Rosenberg, A., 1333 Broadway
Rosenberg, Albert V., 115 W. 27th
Rosenberg, E., 38 Park Row
Rosenberg, H. D., 38 E. 30th
Rosenberg, H. L., 1526 55th
Rosenberg, J. N., 74 Broadway
Rosenberg, L., 780 West End Av.
Rosenberg, Louis, 800 Riverside Dr.
Rosenberg, L., 240 E. 19th
Rosenberg, L. C , 171 Madison Av.
Rosenberg, W., 302 E. 14th
Rosenberger, Carl, Belnord Apts.
Rosenblatt, L. C , 645 W. 35th
Rosenbloom, B. J., 601 W. 115th
Rosenbloom, Rabbi B. L., 769 Beck
Rosenblum, D., 36 W. 59th
Rosenfeld, Miss Jessie, 1 W. 81st
Rosenfield, A. B., 545 West End Av.
Rosenheck, I., 247 W. 34th
Rosenmeyer, B. J., 140 Wadsworth Av.
Rosenmood, David, 343 Canal
Rosensohn, S. J., 27 William
Rosenstein, M., 580 West End Av.
Rosensweig, C. S., 80 Maiden La.
Rosensweig, L., 219 E. 178th
Rosenthal, A., 139 W. 113th
Rosenthal, A., 152 W. 42d
Rosenthal, E. J., 32 Franklin
Rosenthal, N., 84 William
Rosenthal, H. H., 15 Park Row
Rosenthal, R., 620 W. 149th
Rosenthal, Stephen B., 132 W. 31st
Rosenzweig, Jos., 51 Chambers
Rosett, Louis J., 740 West End Av.
Rosoff, Dr. M. L., 529 Cortlandt Av.
Ross, A. L., 160 Broadway
Rosston, W. J., 527 W. 110th
Roth, Dr. Henry, 409 E. 140th
Roth, Dr. Herman, 471 E. 139th
Roth, H., 1482 Broadway
Roth, Louis, 1400 Broadway
Rothenberg, Morris, 5 Beekman
Rothenberg, P., 44 Worth
Rothenstein, M., 530 W. 186th
Rothkowitz, Mrs. A., 1274 5th Av.
Rothman, A., 58 W. 180th
Rothschild, Miss M., 815 W. 179th
Rothschild, W. N., 23 E. 81st
Rothstein, A. E., 41 E. 11th
Rothstein, Rabbi L. J., Park Central
Hotel
Rouse, Calmann, Est. of, 215 4th Av.
Rozoff, Dr. H., 430 W. 118th
Rubin, I. A., 34 Hubert
Rubin, Dr. I. C , 261 Central Pk., W.
Rubin, Miss Gertrude, 118 Post Av.
Rubin, Dr. M., 498 E. 140th
Rubins, Rabbi H. H., 444 Grand
Rubinsky, M., The Alamac Hotel
Rubinsky, S., 9 W. 3d
400
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Rubinstein, D. L., 141 Sth Av.
Rubinstein, Dr. J. L., 1900 Gd. Concourse
Ruocco, Mrs. L. A., 1239 Franklin Av.
Ruskay, Cecil B., 68 William
Ruttenberg, B., 286 Ft. Wash. Av.
Sabshin, Dr. Z. I., 1727 Ft. Wash. Av.
Sachs E., 395 4th Av.
Sachs, G. M., 19 W. 44th
Sachs, Louis, 42 Broadway
Sacks, Miss Eva, 5 E. 107th
Safren, J. & L., 54 2d Av.
Saks, I., 2 E. 55th, "St. Regis"
Saks, W. A., 32 W. 74th
Salamon, E., 312 E. 84th
Salant, M., 1666 3rd Av.
Salkin, A. L., 285 Madison Av.
Salomon, S. W.. 1701 University Av.
Salpeter, M., 302 Broadway
Saltman, H. B., 30 E. 42d
Salzberg, M., 57 Warren
Samich, Albert, 75 Leonard
Sampter, Morris, 322 W. 76th
Samuel, J., 131 E. 93rd
Samuels, A. S., 3504 Rochambeau Av.
Samuels, S. N., 1890 7th Ave.
Sanders, Leon, 280 Broadway
Sandier, Bernard H., 884 West End
Av.
Saphirstein, Frieda, 220 E. 5th
Sapiro, A. L., 84 William
Sapiro, B., 799 Broadway
Saque, M., 56 Worth
Saretsky, S., 125 E. 85th
Saruya, Abr. L., 225 E. 79th
Schaap, Michael, 12 5th Av.
Schaeffer, F., 51 Chambers
Schafer, A. S.. 120 Broadway
Schafran, B., 251 W. 89th
Schallek, M. L., 12 E. 86th
Scharps, D., 65 W. 54th
Schechter, A. J., 1313 Fulton Av.
Schechter, Dr. Frank, 350 Broadway
Scheiber. I. B., 51 Chambers
Scheinberg, J. R., 1431 Broadway
Scherer, C , 51 Chambers
Schickler, Jos. J., 91 Ft. Wash. Av.
Schiff, Jacob R., 320 Broadway
Schlachter, R., 396 Broadway
Schlansky, Dr. H. P., 83 Madison
Schleider, I., 167 Rivington
Schleimer, S., 305 Broadway
Schlesinger, M., 1440 Broadway
Schlossberg, J., 15 Union Sq.
Schmer. M., 291 Broadway
Schmidt, Dr. I., 1275 Webster Av.
Schneider, T. I., 885 West End Av.
Schneyer, Dr. L., 235 Brook Av.
Schnurer, H. I. T., 215 W. 92nd
Schoenbaum, DT. G. L., 850 Longwood
Av.
Schoenberg, M., 1410 Gd. Concourse
Schoenberg, N., 1440 Broadway
Schoenfeld, J., 1950 Andrews Av.
Schoenfeld, N., 13 E. 22d St.
Schotland, M., 498 West End Av.
Schott. 2. E. 86th
Schottenfels, Sara X., 601 W. 113th
Schulman, Rev. Sam'l, 27 W. 72d
Schumer, Dr. H., 770 Hewitt PI.
Schwartz, Chas., 123 E. 94th
Schwartz, E., 110 E. 42d
Schwartz, Dr. S., 1209 Westchester
Av.
Schwartz, S. P., 45 John
Schwartzberg, J., 228 Henry
Schwarzschild, S. M., 305 Canal
Seckel, Harry W., 604 W. 112th
Seelar, R., 250 W. 57th
Segal, H. R., 164 W. 79th
Segal, L. H., 11 W. 42d
Sejdman, Mrs. D. E., 41 W. 96th
Seidman, J. A., 271 Madison Av.
Seiner, David I., 137 W. 23d
Seiler, M., 2088 Mohegan Av.
Seinfel, S., 501 W. 110th
Selig, Miss Gertrude, 169 E. 60th
Selikowitz, S. D., 90 West
Semel, Bernard, 38-40 Green
Sena, Harry, 280 Broadway
Seril, A., 106 Grand
Seskin, Miss Sara, 109 W. 120th
Seutner, Richard, 255 West End Av.
Seventh Av. Temple Sisterhood, 515
W. 110th
Seville, f., 41 E. 29th
Shack, S. M., 291 Broadway
Shaftan, Dr. T., 1 E. 112th
Shagaloff, Rebecca, 1717 Bryant Av.
Shame, M. L., 225 Broadway
Shalita, Miss P., 490 E. 141st
Shapiro, A., 134 W. 37th
Shapiro, A. J., 1904 Crotona Av.
Shapiro, J., 160 Broadway
Shapiro, J., 261 Broadway
Sharlit, Dr. H., 1090 Nicholas Av.
Sharlot, I. J., Woolworth Bldg.
Shatanoff, Betty, 1619 Wash. Av.
Shatzky, Dr. J., 982 E. 178th
Sheiber, H., 57 2nd Av.
Sheiman, Dr. K., 1032 Fails
Sheitles, DT. D., 250 W. 85th
Sherman, A. C , 25 Broadway
Sherwin, I. N., 644 Riverside Dr.
Shinensky, Hyman, 70 E. Broadway
Shuchatowitz, Rabbi M., 255 Haven
Av.
Shulman, H. L., 463 7th Av.
Sidenberg, R., 157 W. 57th
Siegel, I., 217 Broadway
Siegelman, B., 5 Union Sq.
Siegelstein, B. E., 99 Nassau
Sigmund, S., 200 W. 112th
Silberman, E., 14 W. 4th
Silberstein, I. M., 600 W. 150th
Silberstein, J., 1405 Walton Av.
Silberstein, M., 565 5th Av.
Silbert, A., 241 W. 110th
Siletzky, Lottie, 1 E. 100th
Silverman, H., 6-8 W. 20th
Silverman, H., 276 5th Av.
Silverman, Ida, 593 E. 137th
Silverman, Rev. Dr. J., 55 E. 86th
Silverman, M. R., 45 Wooster
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Silverman, Nat., 498 7th Av.
Silverman, S., 260 Riverside Dr.
Silverstein, A. M., 14 W. 18th
Silverstein, J. B., 645 E. Tremont Av.
Simerman, Dr. P., 1397 Stebbins Av.
Simmons, M., 25 W. 43d
Simons, M., 328 Bible House
Simonson, A., 37 Riverside Dr.
Sindel, D., 120 Broadway
Singer, Dr. D. A., 85 W. 113th
Sinsheimer, J., 330 W. 102nd
Sirowich, Dr. W. I., 539 E. 6th
Sklamberg, T. L., 299 Broadway
Skoler, Molly, 57 E. 117th
Slobodin, H. L., 1465 Broadway
Slobodkin, Dr. S. H., 18 W. 23rd
Slonimsky, Dr. H., 40 W. 68th
Smith, D. T., 277 Broadway
Smolowitz, Elias A., 458 Broadway
Snow, M., 443 E. 138th
Sobel, H., 122 William
Sobel, Mrs. J., 215 W. 90th
Sobel, Jacob, 885 Montgomery
Sobel, Sam'l, 320 Broadway
Sobel, Samuel, 66 Ft. Wash. Av.
Soc. of Adv. of Judaism, 13-15 W.
86th
Sohn, Mr. and Mrs. H., 115 W. 71st
Sohon, B., 38-42 E. 32nd
Sohon, J., 462 7th Av.
Solis, Elvira, N., 441 West End Av.
Solomon, A., 1440 Broadway
Solomon, L. H., 200 5th Av.
Solomon, S. H., 1133 Broadway
Solomon, W., 104 W. 27th
Soltes, Dr. M., 352 4th Av.
Some, Max, 95 Nassau
Sonderling, Rabbi Dr. J., 720 Riverside Dr.
Sonderling, S. J., 16 William
Sondheim, P., 305 West End Av.
Sonneborn, Dr. F., 114 5th Av.
Sorkin, Rev. M., 51 E. 96th
Sosna, Miss Evelyn, 60 W. 38th
Sossnitz, Dr. I., 25 Mt. Hope PI.
Spachner, L., 260 W. 72nd
Spector, Jos., 37 Hamilton Terrace
Sperling, Miss Esther, 218 E. 11th
Spicehandler, Abe, 39 Union Sq.
Spiegel, E., 1046 College Av.
Spiegel, Max, 34 W. 17th
Spiegel, Mrs. S., 17 E. 89th
Spiegelberg, F., 25 E. 77th
Spiegelberg, I. N., 1017 Madison
Spiegelberg, W. I., Hotel Dorset,
30 W. 54th
Spielberg, Mrs. H., 404 Riverside Dr.
Spilky, Leon, 225 Broadway
Spinner, Dr. Jonas. 310 W. 82d
Spira Dr Jos., 1700 Crotona Pk., E.
Spiro, A. I., 375 West End Av.
Spiro, J. S., 51 Chambers
Spitz, L., 435 Ft. Wash. Av.
Spitzer, Oscar, 17 E. 89th
Spivacke, Dr. C. A., 272 W. 91st
Sprayregen, J., 1431 Broadway
Stackell, H., 849 Manida
Stamm, M., 460 Riverside Dr.
401
Stark, Dr. M. M., 156 W. 86th
Stavisky Bros., 222 4th Av
Steckler, D., 51 Chambers
Stein, Mrs. A. E., 19 W. 57th
Stein, Max Z., 9 Maiden Lane
Stein, Morton, 251 W. 89th
Stein, S. S., 154 Nassau
Stenam, Ed. S., cor. Williams and
Pine
Steinberg, Fanny E., 1055 Gd. Concourse
Steinberg, M., 100 W. 119th
Steinweg, A., 270 Riverside Dr
Stern, A., 52 E. 61st
Stern, A., 2355 Morris Av.
Stern, Miss Hannah, 664 W 179th
Stern, J. F., 93 Worth
Stern, Louis, 464 Riverside Dr
Stern, Rev. Dr. N., 201 W. 79th
Stern, S. W., 120 Broadway
Stern, Mrs. W. A., 251 W. 89th
Sternberg, S. H., 176 Rivington
Sternberger, M. M., Guaranty Trust
Co.
Stettiner, L., 838 West End Av
Stocker, D. R., 500 7th Av.
Stoll, H., 46 W. 96th
Stone, J., 340 W. 86th
Stone, N. H., 255 W. 88th
Strasbourger, Saml., 74 Broadway
Straus, J. I., 399 Park Av.
Straus, N., 119 5th Av.
Straus, Simon W., 565 5th Av
Strauss, Ben., 562 W. 113th
Strauss, Lewis, Jr., 52 William
Strauss, M., 60 W. 36th
Strauss, Dr. S., 115 W. 73d
Strisik, P. R., 301 E. 14th
Stroock, M. J., 88 Central P k , W.
Strumpf, B., 731 Union Av.
Stutson, S. D., 245 Madison Av.
Sufrin, O. J., 1328 Broadway
Sultan, A. 1.. 443 Broadway
Sumner, M. M., 301 E. Broadway
Sundelson, Mrs. R. W., 1873 Madison
Av.
Suskind, B., 35 W. 36th
Susman, Louis, 3208 3d Av.
Sverdick, A., 227 Haven Av.
Sverdik, S., 290 Broadway
Swick, Dr. D. A., 414 W. 145th
Szold, Henrietta, Hotel Alexandria
Tacobin, S., 1400 Broadway
Tamor, Win., 507 Broadway
Tananbaum, Dr. A., 127 Lisbon PI.
Tannenbaum, Dr. J., 350 W. 85th
Tarlowe, J. D . , 1 7 John
ewish Theo. Sem., 34
Teachers Insi
Stuyvesant
Teirstein, J., 1711 Morris Av.
Temple Ansche Chesed, 114th and 7th
Av.
Tepper, Dr. S., 985 Tiffany
The Training School for Jewish Social
Work, 210 W. 91st
Thurman, I. N., 2 Rector
Tishler, F. Wm.. 412 E. 125th
402
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Tischler. N., 531 W. 143rd
Tobias, Leon, 162 W. 165th
Tow, Isidor, 7 E. 44th
Trachman, Morris, 863 Beck
Trilling, D. W., 478 Central Pk., W.
Tropp, Dr. H., 219 Audubon Av.
Trosky, Chas., 653 Broadway
Tuchman, P., State Bank, 5th & 30th
Turk, Dr. B., 212 Av. B
Turk, R., 233 Broadway
Uhr, Dr. J. S., 45 Pinehurst Av.
tjnger, E. F., 27 Waverly PI.
United Heb. Com., 201 E. Broadway
Uptown Talmud T. Ass'n, 132 E.
111th
U. S. Grand Lodge, 266 Grand
Van Veen, A., 2 Pinehurst Ave.
Varon, Jeannette A., 150 Nassau
Voit, M. M., Salman Tower Bldg.
Vorhaus, Louis J., 115 Broadway
Voxman, W., 645 E. Fremont Av.
Wachman, J. M., 125 W. 76th
Wacht, H., 250 W. 94th
Wacht, S., 565 5th Av.
Wahrman, Dr. H. J., 105 E. 116th
Wald, Louis, 63 E. 104th
Waldman, H., 277 Broadway
Waldman, H., 2 Lafayette
Waldman, I., 1440 Broadway
Walverstein, J., 210 W. 101st
Walker, Miss Helen, 114 Seaman Av.
Wallerstein, Dr. L., 104 QH. Concourse
Wanefsky, M., 301 E. Broadway
Warshow, H. T., 42 Park Ave.
Warshow. R. I.. 112 E. 19th
Wartell, D., 1936 Hennessey PI.
Waterman, F., 525 W. 152d
Wax, Dr. B. M., 865 E. 172d
Weber, Harry, 300 W. 109th
Wechsler, Dr. I. S., 1112 Park Av.
Wechsler, S., 385 Ft. Washington Av.
Weckstein, I., 61 Park Row
Weidenbaum, R., 248 E. Houston
Weil, David L., 601 W. 115th
Weil, L., 772 St. Nicholas Av.
Weil, H. M., 161 W. 34th
Weinberg, A. O., Woolworth Bldg.
Weinberg, Jacob, 345 7th Av.
Weinberg, L., 838 West End Av.
Weinberg, N., 225 Broadway
Weinberger, A., 1591 Townsend Av.
Weinberger, Dr. B. W., 119 W. 57th
Weinberger, W. D., 110 W. 48th
Weiner, A., 81 Chrystie
Weinrib, E. C , 299 Broadway
Weinstein, D., 342 Madison Av.
Weinstein, S. J., 461 Produce Exch.
Weisbard, M. W., 570 7th Av.
Weisman, S. G., 963 Prospect Av.
Weiss, I. H., 475 5th Av.
Weiss, Dr. Saml., 16 E. 96th
Weiss, Wm., 1440 Broadway
Weit, Solon, 305 Broadway
Weitzner, Emil, 211 W. 106th
Wels, Isidnr, 233 Broadway
Weshner, M., 309 St. Ann's Av.
Wessel, Mrs. E., 250 W. 103d
Whitman, P. G., 110 Bleecker
Wiener, N., 500 7th Av.
Wiley, Louis, 417 Park Av.
Wilson, G. I., 729 7th Av.
Winchevsky, M., 555 W. 151st
Winer, H. L , 154 Nassau
Winer, S. J., 1760 Andrews Av.
Winkelman, L. L., 12 E. 86th
Winkler, Eli, 50 Broad
Winkler, Millicent, 700 Cauldwell Av.
Winter. I., 1668 Vyse Av.
Wise, Rev. Dr. J. B., 35 E. 62nd
Wise, Mrs. L. H., 77 Park Av.
Wise, Rev. Dr. S. S., 23 W. 90th
Wolbarst, Dr. A. L., 114 E. 61st
Wolf, A., 30 W. 70th
Wolf, Frank, 45 W. 18th
Wolf, I. D., 350 Ft. Washington Av.
Wolf, J. J., 666 West End Av.
Wolf, R., 115 Broadway
Wolf, Simson, 270 Madison Av.
Wolfe, Arthur, 225 W. 39th
Wolfe, M. H., 225 W. 39th
Wolfenstein, S. C , 32 Spruce
Wolff, Dr. Alex., 141 E. 34th
Wolff, Mrs. J. R., 33 W. 69th
Wolff, Leo, 210 W. 70th
Wolfson, Dr. A., 401 W. 59th
Wolinsky, Jacob, 387 Grand
Wollman, Henry, 20 Broad
Woolf, Mrs. M. L., 135 Central Pk.,
W.
Yankauer, A., 680 West End Av.
Yaroslawitz, S., 42 Delancey
Yoehelson, M. S., 320 Broadway
Y. M. H. A., 975 St. Nicholas Av.
Y. W. H. A., 31 W. 110th
Y. M. H. A. of the Bronx, 171st and
Fulton
Zabronsky & Zabronsky, 1501 B'dway
Zadek, Jacob, Hotel Ansonia
Zagor, H. I., 257 4th Av.
Zauzmer, Helen, 6 E. 118th
Ziff, W. M., 1400 Broadway
Zimmer, I., 119 W. 71st
Zingerman, Anne, 1338 Elder Av.
Zucker, S. A., 1006 Freeman
Zuckerman, Miss Rose, 889 Rogers PI.
Zuckerman, S., 110 W. 40th
Zukunft, The, 175 E. Broadway
SUBSCRIBER
Lewek, Rev. J. R., 1216 Wash. Av.
Niagara Falls
Silverberg Bros., 2118 Main
Norwich
Selkowitz, S., 27 N. Broad
Nyack
Neisner, J., 61 5th Av.
Ogdensburg
Dobisky, R. W., 404 Riverside Av.
Fisher, H. S., 207 Ford
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Frank, B., 115 Franklin
Frank, J., 117 Franklin
Newman, A., Ford
Olean
Davidson, Harry, 305 N. 1st
Marcus, H. W., 131 S. Union
Plattsburg
Goldman, S., 75 Montcalm Av.
Levy, Wm. M., 21 Wells
Scheier, H., 50 Margaret
Port Chester
Glock, Samuel, 40 Elmont Av.
Gordon, Miss Lucille, 524 N. Main
Granowitz, J., 6 Jane
Port Richmond
Enziger, Wm., 163 Richmond Av.
Gluckman, Mrs. A. B., 490 Richmond
Av.
Tacobson, I., 327 Herberton Av.
Levy, M., 137 Herberton Av.
Millner, Rabbi I. A., 246 Decker Av.
Susskind, Wm., 159 Charles Av.
Poughkeepsie
King, S., 150 Franklin
Mintzler, H., 101 S. Hamilton
Rodin, H., 215 Main
Rosen, Mrs. M. S,, 52 Academy
Rosenthal, R., 179 Mill
Sobel, Dr. Aaron, 23 N. Hamilton
Richmond Hill
Cahn, S., 8533 108th
Cohen, S., 10772 110th
Cohen, S., 8807 104th
Enoch, H., 94-21 134th
Stern, Rabbi M. A., 117-15 107th Av.
Rochester
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Bieber, I., 194 E. Main
Hart, A., 26 Homer
Jewish Y. M. Ass'n, 123 Ormond
Levinson, W., 54 Shepard
Michaels, J., c/o Michaels, Stern & Co.
Stein, S,. H., Stein-Bloch Co.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Adler, I., 25 Buckingham
Adler, S. L., 17 Argyle
Aiole, S., 190 Clinton Av.
Appelbaum, Dr. S. J., 188 Culver Rd.
Bender, Chas., 21 Harper
Berger, I. W., 63 State
Berger, S., 1594 Culver Rd.
Beth El, S. S., Park Av. and Meiga
Bloom, Miss Celia, 42 Av. A
B'nai Zion Hebrew Library, 192 Ormond
Cohen, M., 3 Granger PI.
403
Covner, S., 7 Gibbs
Cramer, B. A., East Av. & Chestnut
Cramer, M. E., 1042 Dewey Av.
Davidson, Dr. S. C , 40 Westchester
Av.
Firestone, Mrs. S., 293 Dartmouth
Fisher, L., 86 University Av.
Frankel, C , 207 Barrington
Frankel, L., 30 Vick Pk., A.
Goldman, Mrs. J. E., 145 Harvard
Goodman, Mrs. A., 1180 Park Av.
Greenhouse, S. H., 760 Harvard
Harris, H. Z., 121 Boardman
Joffe, I., 303 Terminal Bldg.
Jossem, Miss R., 5 Riverbank PI.
Kahn, Mrs. D., 573 Monroe Av.
Kahn, Mrs. N., 573 Monroe Av.
Kirstein, H. E., 89 Westminster Rd.
Klonick, H., 961 Harvard
Kolko, H., 182 Chatham
Kolko, Miss R., 246 Joseph Av.
Kominz, DT. I. S., 250 Canterbury Rd.
Leibowitz, Rabbi J., 107 Harris
Levin, Dr. H. B., 346 Hudson Av.
Levin, Dr. L., 763 Harvard
Lib. of Jewish Child. Home, 27 Gorham
Loeb, A., 325 Alexander
Marks, H. H., 13 Franklin Sq.
Marks, Louis, 42 Hinsdale
Miller, M., 31 Exchange
Miller, Wm., 571 University Av.
Minkin, Rabbi J. S., 222 S. Goodman
Natapow, N., 26 Av. "A"
Neiman, A., 13 Hyde Pk.
Pearlman, A. I., 930 Meigs
Posner, M., 552 Humboldt
Present, Philip, 2161 East Av.
Robfogel, J., 85 Huntingdon Pk.
Rockoff, M. A., 200 Joseph Av.
Rose, B., 376 Harvard
Roth, T., 289 Hazelwood Ter.
Rubenstein, N., 186 Canterbury Rd.
Sarachan, H. A., 46 Gorham
Schapiro, Dr. I. M., 129 Canterbury
Rd.
Sher, Noah, 59 Culver Rd.
Shulman, L., 79 Beverly
Silverstein, J. E., 1699 St. Paul
Smith, Benj., 72 Cuba PI.
Soble, Dr. E. B., 381 Andrews
Stern, Chas., 130 East Av.
Weinberg, Mrs. A. M., 245 Edgerton
Weinstein, Miss F., 21 Harper
Weinstein, S. H., 19 Harper
Wolf, Rabbi H. J., 117 Gibbs
Yalowich, Mrs. Chas., 6 Av. A, W.
Rockaway Beach
Amster, Isadore, 179 B 127th
Burger, E. H., 123-08 Blvd.
Fink, Max, 142-10 Newport Av.
Friedman, Dr. E. L., 92-13 Boulevard
Rabinowitz, I., 162 B 129th
Rockaway Park
School of Temple Beth El
404
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Rockville Centre
Lampert, J., 15 Wilson Lane
Rome
Franklin,.M., 219 W. Dominick
Solomon, M., 236 W. Dominick
Rye
Abrahams, Jos. L., 500 Nulton Rd.
Salamanca
Albert, S., 112 Main
Saranac Lake
Edelberg, S., 13 Broadway
Feustmann, Maurice M., 64 Main
Matthews, S. D., P. O. Box 349
Vidaver, H., 2 Bloomingdale
Saratoga Springs
Diamond, Rabbi J. J., Jewish Com.
Center
Scars dale
Trager, J. G., 26 Donellon Rd.
Schenectady
Bernstein. Dan, 222 State
Brady, Ben, 137 State
Coplon, H. G., 307 State
Feldman, E., 1301 State
Ferber, Abr., 434 State
Frankel, J. M., 423 State
Gold, H. J., 308 State
Grosberg, Jos.. 636 Hamilton
Lifset, A., 445 Hulett
Lifset, Theo., 1093 Maryland Av.
Lurie, J. B., 307 State
Marcus, G. A., 330 Summit Av.
Rosen, Rabbi J., 24 Hampton Av.
Schaffer, H., 19 De Camp Av.
Segel, H., 319 State
Shapiro, Dr. I., 414 Hulett
Scotia
Dushman, Dr. S., 21 Sunnyside Rd.
Sea Gate
LIBRARY MEMBER
Satz, L., Surf Av. & Beach, 42d
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Cong-Kneses Israel
Goldbaum, Rose, 3815 Maple Av.
Greenschpoon, Dr. J., 3915 Highland
Av.
Shapiro, S., 4731 Beach 47th
Valley City
Stern, Herman
Bruck, S.
Spring Valley
Stapleton
Kutcher, H., 147 Cebra Av.
Staten Island
Bernstein, E., 36 Richmond Ter.
Lakeview Home, Arrochar
Suffern
Greenstein, Sam'l, 115 Lafayette Av.
Sunnyside
Newman, Mrs. G. K., 3996 44th
Syracuse
PATRON
MEMBERS
Levy, Dr. I. H., 717 E. Genesee
Markson, I., 102 Scott Av.
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Grody, D., 2111 E. Genesee
Holstein, A. E., 106 Circle Rd.
Holstein, A. M., 748 Comstock Av.
Hurwitz, M., 307 Scottholm Blvd.
Rosenbloom, I., 806 E. Genesee
Sporberg, W. L., Sedgwick Dr.
Stolz, Benj., 718 E. Jefferson
Winkelstein, M., 214 Cambridge
Winkelstein, W., 919 Euclid Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Abrams, H., 708 Harrison
Belloff, I., 105 Canal
Belloff, L. A., 105 Canal
Bienenfeld, Rabbi J., 914 Ackerman
Av.
Boff, Arthur, 160 Fellows Av.
Burman, Dr. Aaron, 537 E. Genesee
Federman, J., 440 Allen
Friedman, Rabbi B., 735 Ackerman
Av.
Gerber, W., 860 Livingston Av.
Gilbert, Harry, 301 Scatholm Blvd.
Gilbert, M., 732 Irving Av.
Given, B. B., 423 Euclid Av.
Goldberg, N., 1104 Madison
Goldstein, E., 478 S. Salina
Harris, Dr. L., H., 533 Westmoreland
Av.
Holstein, Mrs. D. M., 581 S. Clinton
Jewish Communal Home, 222 Cedar
Kallet, Dr. A. H., 615 James
Leverton, Dr. R. L., 821 E. Genesee
Lisson, M., 214 W. Fayette
Livshin, Dr. N., 328 Gurney Bldg.
Markson, A. S., 229 N. Salina
Markson, N. W., 229 N. Salina
Miller, J. H., 1111 Madison
Putziger, S., 2208 E. Genesee
Roth, Philip, 759 Irving Av.
Rubenstein, A., 1226 S. McBride
Rubenstein, S. I., 901 Madison
Rubin, W., 505 Union Bldg.
Rudolph, Ben., 136 Fellows Av.
Rudolph, Max H., 1901 E. Genesee
Serling, H., 503 University Av.
Serling, J., 203 Comstock Av.
Shapiro, L., 954 Lancaster Av.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
405
Shapiro, S., 2100 E. Genesee
Shulman, Ralph, 128 Dorset Rd.
Shulman, S. L., 224 Union Bldg.
Silverman, Dr. A. C , 183 Renwick PI.
Solomon, S. D., 942 Euclid Av.
Steinhorn, I., 924 Ackerman Av.
Tauber, M., 610 E. Raynor Av.
Wechsler, Rev. M. L., 226 Euclid Av.
Weinstein, A., 1409 E. Fayette
Weinstein, M., 211 W. Washington
Weisberg, M., 508 S. Crouse Av.
Winkelstein, M., 324 Allen
Yalow, Rabbi S., 126 Renwick PI.
Myers, S., 178 Mechanic
Tanners ville
Jacobson, Inc., S,, Fairmount Hotel
Tarrytown
Berger, Sandor, 93 Wildey
Kugel, Morris, 45 Main
Lehman, E. H., Highland Manor
Liberman, S., 75 Prospect
Mark, Mrs. E. R., Gedney Farm Hotel
Troy
Berner, P., 2338 15th
Lazdon, Jacob E., 64 Washington
Troy Public Library
Tupper Lake
Grabenstein, M.
Utica
Abelson, Barney, 1541 Oneida
Abelson, L., 18 Faxton
Copland, D., 1512 Kemble
Goldstein, D. J., 1st N. B. Bldg.
Goodman, A. W., 1 Greenwood Ct.
Hoffman, Rabbi I. B., 125 Wall
Kowalsky, Dr. H. E., 223 Genesee
Krohn, L. E., 13 Parkside Ct.
Lewis, Judge H. M., 8 Sherman PI.
Lichtman, Max, 221 Genesee
Markson, S., 124 Thomas
Robbins, N., 2219 Genesee
Rosen, I., 108 Miller
Shapiro, Chief Rabbi A., 446 Whitesboro
Temple Beth El Lib'y, 1607 Genesee
Waxman, N., 135 Flower Av.
Watertown
Bennett, H. A., 1210 Madison Av.
Deren, L., 1023 Academy
Lebovsky, J., 231 Paddock
Altheimer, A. B., Box 251
Leibowitz, J. L., 71 Burton Av.
Rosenbaum, Wm., Broadway and
Wood La.
West New Brighton
Cantor, R., 387 Oakland Av.
White Lake
Oxenhandler, M., c/o Camp White
Lake
White Plains
LIBRARY MEMBER
Grinberg, P. I., Old Mamaroneck Rd.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Woodhaven
Brown, B. D., 8764 »4th
Woodmere
LIBRARY MEMBERS
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Crystal, S. O.
Freundlich I., 4 Pine
Pompan, D. M.
Schuster, J., 997 Allen Lane
Woodridge
Gordon, S. A.
Woodside
Goodman, M., 51-27 Foster Av.
Yonkers
Alderman, S., 214 New Main
Berger, Mrs. J. W., 109 Highland Av.
Blaustein, T., 199 N. Broadway
Bleich, M. A., 8 Palisade Av.
Blummer, S., 550 Van Cortland Pk.
Av.
Jutkowitz, J., 11 Overlook Terrace
Levy, M. J., Crestwood
Miller, Dr. S., Flagg Bldg.
Rosen, Dr. Harry, 237 Valentine La.
Rubin, M. J., 31 School
Steinmetz, Mrs. Dora, 31 Ravine Av.
Wolkowitz, Leon, 39 Hamilton Av.
NORTH CAROLINA
Charlotte
Asheville
Henry, Philip S., Zealandia
Adams, T. A., 214-16 Law Bldg.
Lichtenfels, G., 39 Courtland Av.
Cohen, Herman E.
Pollock, I. H., 218 Broadway
Glickman, Rabbi H. T., 5 E. 11th
Glickman, Rabbi T. H., 406 W. 8th
Sternberg, S.
Belhaven
Meyerowitz, J., Box 157
Gastonia
Blowing Rock
Karesh, A. S., Box 188
Cone, Mrs. Moses H.
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
406
Goldsboro
PATRON
MEMBERS
Weil, Mrs. H., 200 W. Chestnut
Weil, Mrs. Sol., 204 W. Chestnut
LIBRARY
MEMBER
New Bern
Lipman, Sam
Weil, Lionel
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Freund, Rabbi I. L., Oheb Sholom
Cong.
Shrago, A. M.
Weil, Leslie, 610 Park Av.
Greensboro
LIBRARY MEMBER
Sternberger, Mrs. E., 715 Summit Av.
Henderson
Hayes, Sam'l M.
Roth, Gus., Box 273
Devil's Lake
Glickson, Morris
Kinston
Nachamson, Mrs. E., 600 E. Gordon
Wilmington
Block, W., 14 S. 5th
Rypins, Rabbi F. I., 511 Orange
Wilson
Barker, M., 204 W. Vance
Oettinger, E. R., 219 W. Broad
Winston-Salem
Levin, Louis, 1270 W. 4th
NORTH DAKOTA
Ginsberg, C , 723 Oak
Panovitz, M.
Papermaster, I., 1015 Reeves Dr.
Papermaster, S., 216 Fenton Av.
Dickinson
Mackoff, H. A.
Fargo
Goldberg, Max, 615 13th, S.
Lashkowitz, Harry, 117 Broadway
Naftalin, D., 225 Front
Paper, S., 202 1st Av., S.
Stern, Sam
Wilk, H., 1225 9th, S.
Manden
Greengard, Nathan
Grand Forks
Bergman, S. J., 1421 Demers Av.
Minot
Baker, A., 616 Central Av., E.
SUBSCRIBER
Snyder, Rev. Dr. J. E., Box 502
OHIO
Latz, Rabbi C. B., 1127 13th, N. W.
Akron
Lavin, Harry, 1653 Woodland Av.,
Alexander, Rabbi D 944 Amelia Av.
N. W.
Bear, Max, 254 S. Main
Luntz, S., 1645 Cleveland Av., N. W.
Guren, S. B., 320 Wildwood
Margolies, M. E., 322 S. Market Av.
Holub, B. W., 17 Rhodes Av.
Nusbaum, H., 400 18th, N. W.
Klivans, S., 132 S. Main
Weintraub, C. S., Harter Bk. Bldg.
Loeb, Louis, 20 Twin Oaks Apt.
Mack, B., 276 Merriman Rd.
Chillicothe
Ostrov, L., 406 Woodland Av.
Schwartz, C. E., 319 Bowery
Segal, S. L., 18 W. Fifth
Schwartz, L, 10 Mayfield Apt.
Cincinnati
Tern. Israel Rel. Sch. Lib., 133 MerriL I F E MEMBERS
man
Freiberg, J. Walter, 3583 Alaska Av.
Bellaire
Hebrew Union College Lib'y, Clifton
Blum, Mrs. I., 3617 Belmont
Av.
Bellevue
Heinsheimer, E. L., 3584 Alaska Av.
Seasongood, M., 3661 Wash. Av.
Wolf, Jos. E., 250 W. Main
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Canton
Berman, Oscar, 3d & Plum
Brown, Dr. S., 705 Pearl Mkt. Bk.
Erlanger, W. B., Jr., 2210 Market
Bldg.
Av., N.
Fechheimer, S. M., 4050 Rose Hill Av.
Grossman, Mrs. D., 626 Walnut Av.,
Freiberg, Dr. A. H. 3S77 Alaska Av.
N. E.
'
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Freiberg, M. J., 3576 Alaska Av.
Freiberg, S., 2300 Upland PI.
Kuppin, M., 3573 Wilson Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Becker, Sam, 310 Sycamore
Beckman, N. H., Alms Hotel
Byach, Helen, 722 Aron Fields Lane
Bergstein, S., 1717 S. Crescent Av.
Berman, A., 315 E. Mitchell Av.
Berman, A., 5 W. 3rd
Bettman, A., 1st Nat'l
Bing, Ben M., 739 N. Crescent Av.
Block, L. Z., 820 Cleveland Av.
Blumenthal, R., Hebrew Union College
B'nai Jeshurun S. S. Library
Bogen, B. D., 40 Electric Bldg.
Brande, W., Hebrew Union College
Brav, S. R., Heb. Union College Dor.
Chernoff, H., Hebrew Union College
Cohen, Alfred M., 3557 Reading Rd.
Cohon, Prof. S. S., Hebrew Union Col.
Const. Grand Lodge I. O. B. B., Electric Bldg.
Cronbach, Dr. A., Heb. Union College
Danziger, M. M., 36 Landon Ct.
Dine, Harry N., 1355 Myrtle Av.
Doppelt, F., Hebrew Union College
Dunsky, M., 519 Prospect Av.
Dunsky, Sarah L., 854 Blair Av.
Egelson, Rabbi L. I., 2 Avon Apts.
Einstein, S., Avon Apts.
Emden, M. M., Hebrew Union College
Englander, Prof. H., 904 Lexington
Av.
Epstein, E. L., 632 N. 8th
Feinberg, A. H., Hebrew Union Col.
Feinberg, Rabbi L., 3562 Lee PI.
Fineberg, A. M., Hebrew Union Col.
Fogel, Dr. E. I., 3623 Reading Rd.
Folkman, J. D., Hebrew Union Col.
Friedman, A., 819 Lexington Av.
Gamoran, Dr. E.. Merchants Bldg.
Gitin, Joseph, Hebrew Union College
Godfried, E., 3971 Parker PI.
Goldberg, S., 1116 Main
Goldblatt. M., Hebrew Union College
Golden, I. R., 528 Race
Grad, Ben., 506 Prospect PI.
Graff, M. W., Hebrew Union College
Harris, E. E., Hebrew Union College
Heller, Rabbi J. G., 3557 Alaska Av,
Hirschfeld, Wm., 820 Mann PI.
Hoenig, S., 302 Rockdale Av., W.
Huttenbauer, E., 690 N. Crescent Av.
Hyman, Jacob, 861 Hutchins Av.
Idelson. A. Z., 607 Foulke
Isaac, Morris, Hotel Alms
Jaffa, P. W., Heb. Union College
Dormitory
Jaffee, P.. Hebrew Union College
Johnson. Hon. S. M., 3427 Burch Av.
Jonap, H., 415 Race
Joseph, Leopold, 674 N. Crescent,
Avon dale
Kahn, Lazard, 3975 Beechwood Av.
Kerman, J.. 3218 Burnet Av.
Kline, A., Hebrew Union College
407
Krohn, I. M., 1144 Edwards Rd.
Krohn, L., 2902 Gilbert Av., W. H.
Lauterbach, Ethel, Hebrew Union Col.
Lauterbach, Rev. Dr. J. Z., Heb. U.
College
Levenson, L., 629 Forest Av.
Levi, Rabbi C. S., Sinton Hotel
Levin, R., Hebrew Union College
Levine, A., 4100 Rose Hill Av.
Levitch, Jennie, 3635 Reading Rd.
Levy, H. M., 309 Traction Bldg.
Lovitch, Rabbi M., Rosehill Apt.,
Reading Rd.
Lurie, Jos., 307 Northern Av.
Lurie, Dr. L. A., 3932 Dickson Av.
Mack, A., 9 W. 4th
Mack, Jacob W., 984 Burton Av.
Mack, Ralph W., Norway Av.
Manischevitz Co., The B., 2100 W. 8th
Marcus, Dr. J. R., Heb. Union College
Marks, L. D., 3556 Alaska Av.
Marks, L. V., 4009 Beechwood Av.
Marks, Martin, 15 W. Pearl
Meiss, Harry, 960 Lenox PI.
Meiss, Leon, 3972 Rose Hill Av.
Meyer, Jos. L., 712 Cholsom Av.
Meyers, M., 1032 Valley Lane
Mielziner, B., 945 Burton Av.
Miller, C. I., Hebrew Union College
Miller, Dr. R. W., 836 Windham Av.
Moch, M. E., 3704 Reading Rd.
Morgenstern, J., 8 Burton Woods La.
Nelson, DT. A. W., 3584 Bogart Av.
Nussbaum, P. E., Hebrew U. College
Oettinger, M., 4200 Rose Hill Av.
Olan, Levi A., Hebrew Union College
Pepinsky, Robt., 204 Hearne Av.
Perez, H., 3514 Wash. Av.
Philipson, Rev. Dr. D. t 270 McGregor
Av.
Pollak, Mrs. E., 2648 Stanton Av.
Pritz, C. E., 3536 Biddle, Clifton
Pritz, S. E., 101 Union Trust Bldg.
Public Library
Rappaport, J. E., 1016 Schmidt Bldg.
Reichert, Rabbi V. E., 2667 Highland
Av.
Richmond, S., 1166 Harrison Av.
Rosenbaum, D. N., 837 Windham Av.
Rosenthal, C. H., 424 W. 4th
Rothenberg, Saml., 22 W. 7th
Ruskin, Moses, 4141 Rose Hill Av.
Sachs, W. I., 546 Camden Av.
Samuels, J., 707 N. Crescent Av.
Samuels, Julius R., 3970 Parker PI.
Samuels, M. E., 860 Blair Av.
Schottenfels, J., 3981 Rose Hill Av.
Schwarz, Rabbi J. D., 1579 Dixmont
Av.
Seasongood, P. L., 885 Clinton Springs
Av.
Segal, A., 727 Gholson AT.
Segal. H., c/o "The Post"
Seinsheimer, Mrs. H. A., 3560 Wash.
Av.
Senior, Edw., 2220 Frances Lane
Senior, Max, 3580 Washington Av.
408
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Shohl, Chas., 714 S. Crescent Av.
Silverblatt, N., 729 S. Crescent Av.
Simon, M., Hebrew Union College
Smoller, P., Hebrew Union College
Snyder, H. E., Hebrew Union College
Snyder, W., Hebrew Union College
Straus, Isaac S., 2323 Park Av.
Theol. & Rel. Lib. Ass'n.
The Jewish Community House, 415
Clinton
Trager, I. Newton, 209 E. 6th
Touff, H. E., 3569 Glenwood Av.
Trachtenberg, J., Heb. Union College
Trager, I. Newton, 209 E. 6th
United Jew. Social Agencies, 15th &
Plum
Weiland, F., 1006 Burton Av.
Weiland, L.. 3161 Harvey Av.
Weinstein, A. L., 1126 Coronado Av.
Weiss, Dr. H. B., 726 Ason Fields La.
Weitz, M., Hebrew Union College
Wirpel, A., 2312 Rohs
Wohl, S., 3209 Bishop
Zeligs, Rose, 670 Rockdale Av.
Zepin, Rabbi G., Merchants Bldg.
Cleveland
LIFE MEMBERS
Mahler, Mr. & Mrs. B., 711 Electric
Bldg.
Peskind, Dr. A., 2414 E. 55th
PATRONS
Klein, G. J., 2490 E. 22d
Maschke, M., 2489 Guilford Rd.
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Bukstein, Mrs. F., 2452 Edgehill Rd.
Haas, R. M., 3060 Scarborough Rd.
Halle, Mrs. M., 11402 Bellflower Rd.
Katz, S. H., 927 Thornhill Dr.
Lappin, M. L., 513 Huron Rd.
Mellen, J. H., 908 Ulmer Bldg.
Morganstern, M., 11301 Wade Pk. Av.
Rosenberg, Dr. E., 10907 Wade Pk.
Ulmer, J. M., 710 Ulmer Bldg.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Adams, S. A., 13514 Larchmere Blvd.
Amster, S., 3247 Cedarbrook Rd.
Auerbach, Mrs. H., 15107 Shore Acre
Dr.
Baker, E. M., Union Trust Bldg.
Ballenberg, F. A., 12100 Ohlman Av.
Becker, Eli, 10708 Grantwood Av.
Beckerman, H. A., Natl. City Bk. Bl.
Berick, M., 822 Leader Bldg.
Bernon, Judge M., Union Trust Bldg.
Bernstein, A. E., 1832 Wadena Av., E.
Bialosky Bros. & Co., 780 Kinsman
Bing, L. S., Jr., 2044 Abington Rd.
Bloch, Judge J. C , Williamson Bldg.
Blum, H., 1545 E. 23rd
B'nai Israel Rel. Sch., 1791 W. 57th
Botwin, N. M., Engineers Bldg.
Braun, O., 690 E. 99th
Braverman, S., Hotel Sovereign
Brilliant, N., 8206 Euclid Av.
Brown, R., 2096 Lemon Rd.
Bubis, Dr. J. L., 7016 Euclid Av.
Bureau of Jewish Edu., 813 Ulmer Bl.
Buxbaum, L., Hotel Olmsted
Cahen, A., 2864 E. Overbrook Rd.
Cahn, Mrs. L., 2099 Lamberton Rd.
Cleveland Heb. Sch. & Ins., 2491 E.
55th
Cooper, Dr. B. H., 10115 Superior Av.
Davis, J. E., 935 Eddy Rd.
Deutsch, A. S., 4613 Payne Av.
Eckstein, Rabbi E., 10114 S. Blvd.
Efros, M., 1661 Bel-Mar Rd.
Ehrman, G. B., 2509 Norfolk Rd.
Eisenberg, L., 1169 E. 79th
Elder, E. A., 3820 Lakeside Av.
Ellis, M., 10133 N. Blvd.
Engelman, N. D., 1418 Keith Bldg.
Epstein, Dr. J. W., 10604 Drexel Av.
Ettinger, H., 10002 Kempton Av.
Feigenbaum, I., 985 E. Blvd.
Feiss, P. L., 12600 Cedar Rd.
Friedland, Dr. L. A., 10217 St. Clair
Av.
Friedman, Max, 10842 Pasadena Av.
Fryer, J., 1383 East Blvd.
Galvin, Dr. M. B., 1417 E. 85th
Garber, A., 1101 Hippodrome Bldg.
Garber, Dr. M., 1098 E. 98th
Gittelsohn, Dr. R., 10111 Euclid Av.
Glick, Henry F., 11116 Ashbury Av.
Goldman, C. C , 2981 Lincoln Blvd.
Goldman, Rabbi S., 1357 East Blvd.
Goodman, M. P., State Bk. Bldg.
Gordon, B. D., 710 Ulmer Bldg.
Gross, A. F., 1087 E. 97th
Gross, J., 9917 South Blvd.
Grossman, L. J., 10519 Lake Shore
Blvd.
Grossman, M. J., 16950 S. Woodland
Rd.
Gutentog, S., 414 Ulmer Bldg.
Haber, M. W., 2692 Cochester Rd.
Haber, P. J., Leader News Bldg.
Hahn, Dr. A., 10212 Lake Shore Blvd.
Halle, S. P., c/o Halle Bros.
Hausman, A. I., Engineers Bldg.
Heimlich, Dr. D., 1560 E. 105th
Heller, Jacob, 1921 W. 25th
Hertz, D. R., 1755 E. 89th
Hirsch, Dr. S. F., 2727 W. Scarborough
Hollander, I., 3290 Euclid Heights
Blvd.
Horwitz, Saml., Union Trust Bldg.
Huebsch, Dr. D. A., 10221 Lake Sh.
Immerman, A., 10850 Pasadena Av.
Jacobs, Dr. P. A., 3912 Prospect Av.
Jewish Orphan Home, 5000 Woodland
Av.
Toseph, Emil, 1689 E. 115th
Kalish, A. A., 3608 Euclid Av.
Kanton, H. S., 1916 E. 93rd
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Kaplan, H. L., 1327 E. Boulevard
Kasner, B. J., 9212 Pierpont Av.
Katz, A. A., 1058 E. 99th
Katz, L. A., 2605 Lee Rd.
Kirtz, A., 506 Woodland Av.
Klein, A. M., 1935 Coventry Rd.
Klivans, A., 507-09 Euclid
Klopper, N., 413 St. Clair Av., W.
Koblitz, H. D., 328 Osborn Bldg.
Koch, I. M., 605 Guardian Bldg.
Kohn, D. S., 1357 E. Blvd.
Kohn, Herrman, 1600 E. 55th
Kohn, W. S., 105th & St. Clair Av.
Kollin, Abr., 740 Soc. for Sav. Bldg.
Kollin, H. L., 10627 Morrison Av.
Kollin, I. L., 10907 Pasadena Av.,
N. E.
Krause, A., 437 Leader Bldg.
Laronge, Jc-s., 10714 Drexel Av.
Lee, Dr. W. E., 9001 Broadway
Lefkovitz, C. A., 615 Ulmer Bldg.
Leibovitz, A., 1051 E. 98th
Lev, Abraham, 950 Parkwood Dr.
Lev, M., 10221 Westchester Av.
Levenberg, Dr. B., 1496 E. 107th
Lewin, M., 2295 S. Overbrook Rd.
Linsey, Dr. P. R., 215 Ellington
Loeser, N., 10214 Lake Shore Blvd.
Loewenthal, A. W., 10724 Morrison
Av.
Makoff, J., 2740 Euclid Blvd.
Mandel, Ida, 10937 Pasadena Av.
Markowitz, Miss M. B., 1610 E. 105th
Marks, S. H., 3329 E. 121st
Meyers, B., 10805 Greenlawn Av.
Milcoff, Dr. I., 10111 Euclid Av.
Milder, S., 11103 Asbury Av.
Miller, J. H., 10001 Pierpont Av.
Miller, M., 1822 Central
Miller, S., 1822 Central Av.
Miller, S. H., Guarantee Title Bldg.
Mintz, S., 1846 Euclid Av.
Moscowitz, L., 1756 W. 25th
Nebel, B., 482 E. 117th
Neshkes, J., 10937 Drexel Av.
Nowak, Rabbi Abr., 1562 Ivydale Rd.
Ozer, M. M., Commodore Apts.
Rocker, H. A., 717 Guardian Bldg.
Rocker, S., 1565 Glenmont Rd.
Rosen, M. A., 1721 Euclid Av.
Rosenbaum, L. C , 1092 E. 97th
Rosenthal, H., 2295 S. Overbrook Rd.
Rothenberg, J. A., 526 Williamson Bl.
Rothschild, I. J., 1618 Hillcrest Rd.
Scharfeld, M. B., 1610 E. 105th
Schnitzer, A., 168 E. 90th
Schwartz, B. H., 11902 Fairport Av.
Schwartz, E. E., 10920 Madison Av.
Selker, S., 10017 Somerset Av.
Shapiro, Aaron, 2711 Woodland Av.
Shier, R., 1418 B. F. Keith Bldg.
Siegel, M., 978 Parkwood Dr.
Silberman, G. L., 2462 Euclid Blvd.
Silbert, Judge S. H., 1454 Ansell Rd.
Silver, Rabbi A. H., The Temple
Simon, D. I., 1067 E. 98th
409
Simon, H., Guarantee Title Bldg
Simon, M., 1303 W. 6th
Sobel, L. S.. 2640 Euclid Blvd.
Soglovitz, Geo. L., 6311 Kinsman Rd.
Soltz, A. I., 2741 Euclid Blvd.
Soglovitz, Geo. L., 6311 Kinsman Rd.
Soltz, A. I., 2741 Euclid Blvd.
Spira, H., 2207 Ontario St..
Steiner, O. H., 1729 E. 22d
Steuer, A. L., 604 Ulmer Bldg.
Temple B'nai Jeshurun, 3130 Mayfield
Rd.
The Euclid Av. Tern S. S. Library
The Jewish Cen. Liby., 1117 E. 105th
The Temple Cong., E. 105th & Ansell
Ulmer, S., 2443 Edge Hill Rd.
Weil, E. S., 2583 Overbrook Rd.
Weinberg, J. L., 10009 Yale Av.
Weinraub, H., 3379 Euc. Hghts. Blvd.
Weinstein, A. K., Soc. for Sav. Bldg.
Weiss, A. L., 8906 Buckeye Rd.
Weitz, Sidney N., 95 Belmore Rd.
W. Side B'nai Israel Cong., 1791 W.
57th
Wiener, Miss Lillian, 896 Eddy Rd.
Wintner, A. S., 520 Soc. for Sav. Bl.
Witt, B., 3407 Lownesdale Rd.
Wolf, E. E., Engineers Bldg.
Wolfenstein, Dr. Leo, 1624 Compton
Rd.
Wolpaw, Jacob, 2777 Edgehill Rd.
Zinner, O. J., 2940 Kingsley Rd.
Zwick, Dr. I., 1935 St. Clair Av.
Columbus
LIFE MEMBER
Schonthal, Jos., 247 W. 8th Av.
FRIEND
Lazarus, Fred, High
LIBRARY MEMBER
Hersch, W. A., 950 E. Broad
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Abramson, Dr. B. W., 838 E. Livingston Av.
B'nai B'rith Hillel Foundation, 96 18th
Av.
Cohen, H. H., 63 E. Long
Columbus Public Library
Gluck, Mrs. F. R., 143 S. Cassingham
Rd.
Gumble, H., 781 Bryden Rd.
Kobacher, A. .T., 168 N. High
Kobacker, J. M., 168-178 N. High
Levenson, B. F., 1411 Bryden Rd.
Levinger, Rabbi L. J., 2257 Indianola
Av.
Lifland, Lee, 49 Latta Av.
Nassau, A. L., 1858 Franklin Av.
Polster, L. R., 314 S. Drexel Av.
Polster, T., 630 Gilbert
Rosenberg, Mrs. R., 105 Miami Av.
Schanfarber, E. J., 1424 Franklin Av.
Schiff, A., 32 W. Chestnut
Schiff, S., 32 W. Chestnut
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
410
Youngstown
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Goldsmith, I. G., 400 Tod Lane
Klivans, I., 36 Crandall Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Bernstein, B. H., 64 Illinois Av.
Bloch, L:, 31 Thornton Ave.
Bloch, Rev. S. J., 66 Halleck
Cohen, M., 704 W. Norwood Av.
Davidson, S. S., 1108 Wick Bldg.
Drabkin, S., 1323 Ohio
Dreyfus, M., 105 Wade Av.
Eidelman, J., 411 W. Lora Av.
Fish, D. I., Fish Dry Cleaning Co.
Fried, Louis, 180 New York Av.
Friedman, Jos., Stambaugh Bldg.
Goldberg, H. S. W., 363 Custer Av.
Goldblatt, Dr. L. T., The Woodbine
Ham, Max, 244 Norwood Av.
Hotimsky, L. I., 47 Robinson Rd.
Hyman, M., 21 Madison
Kamenetzky, L. I., 37 Robinson Rd.
Hyman, M., 21 Madison
Kamenetzky, A., 1715 Ohio Av.
Knight, L. j . , 805 Home Saving Bldg.
Kohn, Rabbi E., 836 5th Av.
Library of Cong. Anshe Emeth, Park
Ay. and Elm
Magid, J., 78 Ellenwood Av.
Ozersky, Mist L., 501 Realty Bldg.
Philo, Rabbi I. E., 1817 Selma Av.
Regenstreich, Louis, 262 Fulton
Reinwasser, S., 1241 Wick Av.
Rheuban, A. H., Mahoning Bk. Bldg.
Rodef Sholem Sab. Sch., Elm & Woodbine
Rudolph, A., 156 N. Denwick
Schneckniger, I., 17 E. Federal
Sherman, C , 60 Thornton Av.
Sosman, S., care of Moyer Mfg. Co.
Steiner, D., 1053 Marshall
Yarmy, S. J., 401 Terminal Bldg.
OKLAHOMA
Ardmore
Bodovitz, Jake A., 619 A. N. W.
Daube, Mrs. Saml.
Atoka
Zweigel, A.
Muskogee
Sondheimer, Saml.
Oklahoma City
Blatt, Rabbi Jos., 901 W. 24th
Engelsman, A. D., 1203 Colcard Bldg.
Hoffman, H. R., 22 N. Robinson
Kahn, B. M., 1321 N. Broadway
Lewinsohn, M. M., 817 W. 19th
May, B. H., Model Clothing Co.
Slesnick, I. R., 10 W. Main
Roff
James, John G.
Sapulpa
Katz, A. J.
Tulsa
Aaronson, A. E., 204 Tuloma Bldg.
Boorstein, Saml. A., Mayo Bldg.
Comer, A., I l l E. 14th
Dreyfus, H., c/o Dreyfus Bros.
Kahn, Max, Box 1461
Krohngold, Rabbi J. B., Temple Israel
Lewis, A. J., 305 Atco Bldg.
May, Max H., 2141 Norfolk Ter.
Singer, M., 1001 N. Ellwood
Solow, E., Box 434
Wilburton
Baer, Mrs. Ike
OREGON
Portland
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Selling, Ben., Hotel Benson
Simon, Hon. J., 429 Vista Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Abramson, Miss E., 490 Harrison
Berkowitz, Rabbi H. J., Temple Beth
Israel
B'nai Brith Bldg. Ass'n., 13th & Mill
Cohen, D. S., Chamber of Commerce
Davis, H. B., 735 Irving
Gevurtz, Louis, 3rd & Alder
Library Ass'n of Portland
Lib. Ass'n of Portland, 10th & Yamhill
Miller, Alex. E., 143 3rd
Neighborhood House, 2nd & Wood
Nelson, R. C, 800 Pacific Bldg.
Nudelman, E., 394 Washington
Parzen. Rabbi H., 403 W. Park
Reed College
Ricen, Dr. L., Medical Arts Bldg.
Shemanski, J., 405 Washington
Strauss, N., c/o Fleischner, Mayer &
Co.
Swett, Z., 551 E. 14th
Weinbaum, Edwin N., 908 E. 29th, N.
Weinstein, Alexander, Royal Bldg.
Weinstein, S. B., 687 Multnomah
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Wasserstrom, N., 433 N. High
Welber, W., 2414 Fair Av.
Wolman, B., 1123 Franklin Av.
Dayton
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Ach, F., 510 E. 3rd
Stern, M. C , 1315 E. Harvard Blvd.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Ettinger, T. D., 417 Kenwood Av.
Kusworm, Sidney G., Gibbons Hotel
Margolis, M. K., 601 Dayton Sav. &
Tr. Bldg.
Rothenberg, S., 316 Oxford Av.
Waulkan, S. J., 729 Salem Av.
Dennison
Sales, Alex., 301 N. 2nd
East Liverpool
Bendheim, G., 108 E. 6th
Davis, B. W., 1116 St. George
Erlanger, Wm. J., 319 W. 5th
Rubin, Leon, 336 W. 4th
Elyria
Altfeld, A., 324 4th
Hillsboro
Free, S. R.
Ironton
Brumberg, A. B.
Lima
Fishel, S. S., 813 W. Elm
Lockland
Leshner, N., Leshner Paper Stock Co.
Lorain
Mayer, L., 2858 Vine
Pitzele, Dr. Wm. A.
Mansfield
Bacharach, Dr. L. H., 9 4 ^ N. Main
Haupt, Joseph, 218 W. 3rd
Middleton
Schneider, Max, 3rd & Clinton
Norwalk
Preis, L. M., 204 W. Main
Piqua
Kastner, S., 257 Gordon
Louis, R., 321 Boone
Portsmouth
Atlas, Henry, 1401 Kinney's Lane
Atlas, Wm., 2111 Sunrise
Jacobs, P., 737 3rd .
Sandusky
Herman, H. L., 214 W. Market
Isaacs, Harry
Kaplan, Saml., 903 Central Av.
411
Springfield
Altschul, Mrs. L., 519 E. Cassilly
Ebner, Jos., 370 E. Cassilly
Jaffa, S. J., 226 B. Cassilly
Salzer, G. M., 215 Circle Dr.
Schadel, Mrs. J., 222 W. North
Steubenville
Brown, I., Sinclair Bldg.
Caplan, Rev. I., 219 S. 3rd
Esakovich, A. S., 118 S. 8th
Levinson, Ralph S., 4th
Struthers
Schwartz, M., State
Tiffin
Berson, M., 185 Sycamore
Toledo
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Kobacker, Mrs. J. I., 2311 Glenwood
Av.
Kobacker, Mrs. M., 324 Summit
Netzorg, L. Z., 2484 Scottwood Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Antin, Judge E., Spitzer Bldg.
Applebaum, J., 2441 Warren
Baer, K., 229 Erie
Basch, S. L., 2724 Collingwood
Calisch, Sol. H., 2206 Ashland Av.
Dreyfus, M., 312 Winthrop
Eppstein, J. O., 433 Rockingham
Fain, Ben., 644 Stratford PI.
Green, B. M., 2405 Putnam
Hirsch, H., 362 Rockingham
Jewish Federation, Southward & Linwood
Katz, Dr. P., 2203 Vermont Av.
Landman, Dr. Otto, Collingwood Av.
Temple
Levison, Harry, 2226 Putnam
Levitt, L., 2012 School PI.
Messer, H., 315 Sherman
Nathanson, I. R., 11 Rockingham Dr.
Saks, A., 2450 Franklin Av.
Sanger, Sig., 2614 Collingwood Av.
Schwartz, Rev. I., 2447 Portsmouth
Av.
Shaw, E. E., 1119 Oakwood Av.
Shomer Emoonim Sabbath School
Silverman, I., 2116 Glenwood Av.
Smith, Oscar J., 940 Spitzer Bldg.
Treuhoft, M. E., 2440 Warren
Wiener, H., 2730 Scottwood Av.
Zanville, H., 2479 Parkwood Av.
Zeckhauser, J. N., c/o Tiedtke's
Zimmerman, H., 325 Islington
Wilmington
Kaufman, Isidor
Wooster
Amster, N., Quinby Av.
412
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
PENNSYLVANIA
Allentown
Coleman, B., 31 South West
Hammer, Rabbi L., 534 Turner
Heinz, M., 27 N. Fulton
Hess Bros., 1244 Hamilton
Kline, Chas., 1230 Hamilton
Rockmaker, H., 32 S. 18th
Siegel, Morris J., 612 N. 11th
Sontag, Mrs. M., 225 S. Fulton
Wasserman, J., 633 Hamilton
Aliquippa.
Breyer, L., 242 Main
Altoona
Beerman, S., 1003 16th
Goldstein, A. D., 2808 Broad Av.
Gottdiener, E., 1212 15th
Leopold, B., 1123 11th Av.
Leopold, L. E., 204 Logan Av.
Rosefsky, S., 2122 7th
Rosen, Rev. H. L., 871 26th
Scheeline, I., 2005 Maple Av.
Scheinberg, Mrs. S., 307 Aldrich Av.
Sealfon, H., 3100 Broad Av.
Silverman Bros., 1512 11th Av.
Silverman, H. G., c/o Schwartz Bros.
Friedberg, S., 503 Merchant
Ambridge
We Are Sevens Club, 418 Merchant
Ardmore
Balaity, J. S., 18 E. Lancaster Av.
Rosoff, H. G., 24 E. Spring Av.
Bala
Rosenbaum, N., 118 Birch Av.
Barnes boro
Bloomsburg
Mayer, David, 38 W. 3rd
Braddock
Markowitz, B., 1017 Talbot Av.
Bradford
Carnegie Public Library
Harris, Mrs. N. E., 114 South Av.
Kreinson, L. J., 28 Bushnell
Siff, Samuel, 75 Congress
Simons, L. H., 86 Congress
Brown villa
Brown, S.( 628 Front
Butler
Berman, M. A., 170 Oak
Horwitz, Wm., 239 E. Cunningham
Cannonsburg
Levin, J. D., 201 E. Pike
Carlisle
Berg, Selma, 55 S. College
Carnegie
Green, P., 410 Anthony
York, Jacob T., 101 4th Av.
Lippman, P.
Centralia
Chester
Bloom, Saml., 212 W. 7th
Lessy, A. E., 605 E. 14th
Levy, M., 15 W. 3rd
Wolson, A. W., 337 W. 9th
LIBRARY MEMBER
Luxenberg, Louis
Beaver Falls
Literary Club of Beaver Valley, Council 6f Jewish Women
Markson, H., 1523 6th Av.
Solomon, Mrs. Max, 1202 8th Av.
Starr, M. S., 1316 6th Av.
Wasbutzky, L., 1110 7th Av.
Bellefonte
Cohen, Walter, 19 N. Spring
Landay, M. A., Brockerhoff Hotel
Berwick
Schain, J. M.
Bethlehem
Nathanson, A., 20th Cen. Silk Corp.
Neuman, H., 36 W. Broad
Stone, F., 85 W. Broad
Clearfield
Littman, Jos., 18 N. 2nd
Clifton Heights
Fastman, A.
Clymer
Levinson, H.
Coatesville
Apfelbaum, Louis, 116 E. Lincoln
Highway
Chertock, Meyer, 348 E. Lincoln
Highway
Goldberg, I., 589 Chestnut
Margolies, DT. M., 567 Chestnut
Trachtenberg, L., 117 Main
Weiss, B., 228 E. Main
Connellsville
Oppenheim, S. D., 409 E. Green
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Wolf, A., Kitz-Carlton Hotel
Wolf, M., Packard Bldg.
Y. M. and Y. W. H. A., Broad & Pine
ANNUAL
MEMBERS
Aaron Berman Liby, 63rd & Market
Aaron, M. N., 18th & Courtland
Aarons, G. P., 1909 N. Park Av.
Aaronson, A., 495 City Hall
Abraham, H., 6043 Christian
Abrahams, R. D., 1520 Spruce
Abrahams, S., Juniper & Vine
Abrahamson, Dr. P., 455 S. 48th
Abrams, E., City Centre Bldg.
Abrams, H. R., 5613 Wyndale Av.
Abrams, M. A., 1816 N. 28th
Abramson, H. P., 603 Porter
Abramson, Mrs. R., 627 E. Passyunk
Avenue
Acron, Dr. Jno., 421 S. 18th
Adams, H., 6247 Larchwood Av.
Adath Jeshurum Rel. School
Adler, A. J., 5500 N. 7th
Adler, Dr. Cyrus, 2041 N. Broad
Adler, Mrs. Cyrus, 2041 N. Broad
Adler, H. L., 406 Denckla Bldg.
Agrons, P., 314 Drexel Bldg.
Aiken, A., 2621 Girard Av.
Aisenstein, S., 5902 Walnut
Alberstadt, H., 5402 Spruce
Alexander, J., 195S N. 52nd
Alexander, 1., 3832 N. 17th
Alexander, Mrs. M. R., 1530 Locust
Alkus, Wm., 1531 Nedro Av.
Allman, H. D., Ritz-Carlton Hotel
Allman, J. P., 1522 Chestnut
Alsher, L., 1727 N. Franklin
Althouse, H., 5278 Parlcside Av.
Altman, Dr. J., 1932 N. 32nd
Altshuler, B. S., 606 Franklin Tr. Bl.
Amram, D. W., 918 Packard Bldg.
Amster, M., 44 W. Haines
Apothaker, H., 5348 Lebanon Av.
Appel S. T., 420 S. 5th
Apt., A., 1624 South
Armon, S. F., 4640 Locust
Arnold, Corinne B., 19th & Walnut
Arnold, Mrs. M. K., The "Lenox,"
Aron, Max, 710 Lincoln Bldg.
Aronovitz, H., 38 W. Chelten Av.
Arronson, H., 4923 Parkside Av.
Ash, Ben, 409 W. Hortter
Ash, Lewis E., 831 Cherry
Atchick, I., 1736 Orthodox
Atlas, D., 6752 N. 13th
Auerbach, Dr. I., 703 N. 5th
Auerbach, J., 54th & Montgomery Av.
Auslander, J., 1238 Pt. Breeze Av.
Austin. J., 894 N. 6th
Axe B., 1315 Cherry
Bacharach, S., Hotel Majestic
Bachman, F. H., 212 S. 15th
Bachove. Miss G., Broad & Sp. Garden
Baird, P., 826 Arch
Baker A. E., 707 N. 10th
Balder, C. M., 121 N. Broad
Bait, J., 1701 Grange
413
Banks, S., 6155 Woodland Av.
Barash, M., 5351 Chestnut
Bard, L. J., 4035 Lancaster Av.
Barenbaum, L., 519 N. 4th
Barenkopf, B., 2833 Kensington Av.
Barlow, Dr. A., 5927 Cobbs Creek
Parkway
Barmach, A., 611 S. 2nd
Barnett, H., 6604 Chew
Barol, H., 1025 Wingohocking
Barol, M. H., 1806 S. 58th
Baron, J., 1501 W. Allegheny Av.
Baruch, A. I., 4537 N. Mervine
Bascove, E. H., 824 Preston
Baskin, Jos., 742 N. 20th
Bass, C. P., 1211 Chestnut
Bass, Harry, 5649 Gainor Rd.
Bauer, Jacob, 1817 W. Venango
Baum, N., Lenox Apts.
Baylison, J. C , 2124 Walnut
Baylson, I., 5030 Kingsessing Av.
Baylson, J. J., 6313 N. 13th
Beck, Miss Victoria, 1000 N. 45th
Becker, A. A., 3029 N. 22nd
Becker, D., 4032 Parkside Av.
Becker, S. J., 1106 Franklin Tr. Bldg.
Behrend, Dr. M., 1738 Pine
Behrend, Max, 6672 Lincoln Dr.
Beildeck, A. A., 3539 N. 19th
Belber, A. S., 1520 Spruce
Belber, H. S., 1641 Hancock
Belber, Dr. M. Y., 11th & Spruce
Beliekowsky, S., 5503 Pentridge
Bell, N. B., 1217 Belmont Av.
Bellmore, J. B., 3229 Page
Belmont, Leo, 2103 Green, Apt. D
Bendiner, Mrs. H., 469 Abbotsford
Rd. Gtn.
Benjamin, C , 325 N. American
Benson, A., 3038 N. 25th
Berg, Abram, Sta. E., Pt. Richmond
Berg, D., 1715 Jefferson
Berg, N., 141 Apsley
Berger, D., 5226 Gainor Rd.
Berger, H., 5th & Pine
Berger, J. A., 1901 Walnut
Berkman, A., 1020 W. Upsal
Berkowitz, A., 2034 S. 6th
Berkowitz, Abr. L., 315 Poplar
Berkowitz, Mrs. F., 726 Westview
Berkowitz H., 215 S. Broad
Berman, Aaron, 6019 Market
Berman, L., 4614 Pine
Bernard, H. S., 924 Pine
Bernheim, Dr. A., 1208 Spruce
Bernheim, B. F., 6529 N. 13th
Bernstein, B., 3822 Pennsgrove
Bernstein, C , Lafayette Bldg.
Bernstein, H., 3923 Pennsgrove
Bernstein, T., 5311 Baltimore Av.
Bernstein, L., 825 Arch
Bernstein, Dr. M., 1437 Broad
Beth-El Cong., 58th & Walnut
Bethiachmy, Dr. D., 2348 N. Broad
Bettelheim, F., 1731 Marlton Av.
Biben, J. H., 5326 Lebanon Av.
414
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Carry
Smith, D. F., 310 E. South
Zalzneck, Lillian E., 308 W. Wash.
Cynwyd
Libros, E., 416 State Rd.
Darby
Caine, I. E., 504 Main
Goss, H., 510 Main
Greenwald, J., 1130 Main
Kaplon, D., 878 Main
Mayerson, H., 871 Main
Philips, B., 1118 Main
Donora
Hirsch, Harry, 675 McKean Av.
Hirsch, R., 517 Prospect Av.
Miller, Mose, 228 10th
Dormont
Schacter, Miss Clare, 1548 McFarland
Rd.
East Brady
Miller, Samuel
Easton
Krohn, H., 503 Lafayette
Krohn, I., 6 S. 7th
Mayer, H., 41 S. 10th
Mayer, Jacob, 115 N. 14th
Ralph, L. M., 137 N. 7th
Sherer, S., 203 Northampton
Elkins Park
LIFE
MEMBER
Cutts, A. B., 1014 State
Gale, I., 144 W. 5th
Levin, A. K., 225 W. 18th
Levin, J. L., 629 Dowing Ct.
Levy, M. D., 434 W. 10th
Ostrow, Mrs. S., 437 W. 7th
Pinsky Memorial Library
Rubin, H. H., 317 E. 23d
Schaffner, t. 325 W. 9th
Schaffner, M., 239 W. 21st
Shapiro, H., 351 W. 10th
Silin, Isaac J., 952 W. 8th
Simon, Isidor, 316 10th
Zacks, H., 358 W. 9th
Zacks, H., 15th and Raspberry
Zacks, J. H., 1222 W. 10th
Etna
Caplan, Harry, 8 Freeport
Farrell
May, Patrick, Box 670
LIBRARY
MEMBER
Polangin, Wm., 917 Broadway
Gallitzin
Pollock, Mrs. L. G., 510 Main
Greensburg
Friedlander, H. M., Depot
Friedlander, Miss I. H., 208 Seminary Avenue
Kahanowitz, I., 112 Washington
Ratner, B., 22 Otterman
Shapiro, J., 816 W. Otterman
Ziskind, Jos., 4th & Penna. Av.
Teller, Est. of Mrs. Benj. F.
Wolf, Louis
PATRON
LIBRARY MEMBER
Solis-Cohen, J., Jr., 709 Rambler Rd.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Bamberger, A. J., Ashbourne Rd.
Cherry, Gee.
Labe, Mrs. Jacob, 709 Rambler Rd.
Magill, Sam'l N.
Newburger F. L., 534 Elkins Av.
Stern, B., 7914 Whitewood Rd.
Elwood City
Feldman, Nathan, 522 Weyne Av.
Erie
LIBRARY
MEMBER
Sobel, Isador, 931 W. 9th
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Ansche, Chesed Congr., 523 W. 9th
B'nai B'rith Home for Children
Cohen, M., 16 Kenilworth Apt.
Currick, Rabbi M. C , 523 W; 9th
Greenville
Goldsmith, Miss Betty, 25 Louisa Av.
Hanover
Blumenthal, I., 144J4 North
Harrisburff
LIBRARY
MEMBER
Caplan, P. B., 2965 N. 2nd
ANNUAL
MEMBERS
Bookstabor, Dr. P. D., 208 N. 3d
Claster, Henry C , 2001 N. 3d
Claster, Jos., 801 N. 2d
Freedman, Abe., 1103 Montgomery
Goldman, Dr. L. C , 200 Caplan Bldg.
Goldsmith, Jos., 6}4 N. Market Sq.
Hirschler, A., 803 N. 6th
Michlovitz, S. Paxton, St. P. R. R.
Rosenbere, R., 1835 Whitehall
Sachs, Miss Mary, 208-210 N. 3d
Silberman, Jos., 2109 N. 3d
Hazleton
Dessun, Dr. L. A., 145 N. Laurel
Friedlander, M., 210 Markle Bk. Bl.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Honig, J. L., 809 W. Diamond
Markman, H. K., 432 W. 1st
Homestead
Friedlander, B., 218 E. 11th
Jeannette
Ratner, C. I., 414 Clay Av
Johnstown
LIBRARY MEMBER
Elsasser, N. A., 521 Tioga
ANNUAL
MEMBERS
Callet, Albert, 134 Clinton
Glosser, David, 505 Luzerne
Kaaplander, Rabbi M. H., 54 Erie
Nathan, Mrs. M., 344 Tioga, Westmont
Sacks, H. R., 320 Wood
Schwartz, Max, 516 Main
Silverstone, M. B., 543 Vine
Slutzker, A. M., 112 Market
Spbol, L., 607 U. S. Nafl Bk. Bldg.
Zion, A. M., 631 Homer
Kane
Elson, T., 133 Fraley
Kittanning
Kaplan, M., 135 S. Jefferson
Lancaster
Golden, Isaac, 722 E. King
Jacobs, J., 19 W. Chestnut
Lancaster Lodge No. 228 I. O. B. B.
Lurio, B., 626 N. Duke
Rosenthal, Rev. I., 445 N. Duke
Shaarai Shomayim Congr. Lib'y
Shear, Dr. L. M., Manor & Dorwart
Stein, Dr. B. D., 230 N. Duke
Lansdowne
Saturen, P., 285 Coverly Rd.
Latrobe
Lowenstein, Fred., 202 Depot
Lebanon
Gruman, Dr. H., 40 N. 8th
Leetsdale
Gross, Max, 460 Wash.
Lehig'hton
Cohen, Wm., 159 N. First
Rauscher, Emanuel, Box 218
Weiss, Wm., 143 N. 1st
Lewistown
Siegel, H. L., 23 N. Grand
Lock No. 4
Malakoff, Mrs. O. H., Wash. Co, 3d
Zone
415
Lock Haven
Claster, M. L., 46 W. Bald Eagle
Raff, Mrs. L. L., 48 W. Main
McAdoo
Chenetz, J., 22 N. Tamaqua
McKeesport
Auslander, Dr. I. L., 618 Market
Flaster, H., 1412 Wilson
Friedman, Henry, 531 Shaw Av.
Kaplan, F. R. S., 1500 Carnegie Av.
Levy, H. R., 510 Walnut
Mendlowitz, Dr. P., 141 Fifth Av.
Pollak, Rath A., 211 Third
Ruben, Jos. H., Ruben Bldg.
Sunstein, Dr. Noah, 607 Shaw Av.
McKees Rocks
Ryave, S., 321 Chartiers Av.
Mahanoy City
Shanfield, S., 135 W. Centre
East Mauch Chunk
Weiss, S., Jr.
Mechanicsburg
Jacobson, A. S., Est of, 14 W. Main
Media
Pleet, D. H.
Melrose Park
LIBRARY MEMBER
Hirsh, H. B., 1213 Stratford Av.
ANNUAL
MEMBER
Bernstein, R. M., 1100 Mlrose Av.
Merion Station
Benoliel, S. D.
Schwartz, Anthony
Mifflintown
Schott, Mrs. Freda
Mount Airy
Nusbaum, E., 143 W. Sharpnack
Nusbaum, Mrs. J., 7135 Cresheim Rd.
Mount Carmel
Grossman, Louis, 30-32 S. Oak
New Brighton
Saul, Ellis I., 601 6th
New Castle
Cosel, Mrs. J., 35 N. Mercer
Feuchtwanger, Mrs. M., 331 Laurel
Blvd.
Kaplan, Dr. E., 223 N. Mercer
New Cumberland
Smarr. Jos. B., 12th & Bridge
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
416
New Kensington
Goldberger, Rabbi H. R., 1132 Victoria Av.
Newport
Lipsitt, Henry
Steinberg, M. S., Perry County
Norristown
Bloch, S. E., 524 Haws Av.
Oil City
Kinsbursky, Mrs. E. M., 16 Graff
Lewis, Sam, 311 Seneca
Rosenthal, S., The Oil City Blizzard
Stahl, H. L., 41 E. Bissell Av.
Olyphant
Raker, Dave K.
Raker, Louis, Miles Av.
Overbrook
Rovine, Alex L., 6413 Woodcrest Av.
Petrolia, Butler Co.
Breth, Dr. F., Daugherty Refining Co.
Philadelphia
LIFE
MEMBERS
Bloch, S. L., Broad & Wallace
Eshner, Dr. A. A., 1019 Spruce
Schechtman, M., 2459 N. 33d
Silberman, Mrs. S., Ritz-Carlton Hotel
Snellenburg, N., 12 & Market
SUBSCRIBER FOR L I F E
Peirce, Harold, 222 Drexel Bldg.
SUSTAINING MEMBER
Wolf, Albert, 330-48 N. 12th
FRIENDS
Fels, M., 4323 Spruce
Gerstley, Wm., Finance Bldg.
PATRONS
Bernheimer, L. G., 233 W. Harvey
Bernstein, R. M., Bailey Bldg.
Eichholz, A., 360 Bullitt Bldg.
Fels, S. S., 39th & Walnut
Fleisher, Edwin A., 2220 Green
Friedmann, L., 4845 Pulaski Av.
Gerstley, L., 701 Finance Bldg.
Gerstley. S. L., 250 S. 17th
Golder, Ben, 2011 N. 33d
Miller, Simon, 1520 Spruce
Sickles, L., 3220 Diamond
Sulzberger, J. E., 6508 Lincoln Dr.
Wolf, Ben, 250 S. 17th
Wolf, Clarence, 1521 N. 16th
Wolf, Edwin, 1517 N. 16th
LIBRARY
MEMBERS
Bauer, A., Wash. Sq. Bldg.
Bauer, G., 1817 Venango
Bedner, H. I., 2612 N. 9th
Berger, D., 615 Real Est. Tr. Bldg.
Berkowitz, L. L., 1739 Berks
Bernstein, B., 613 E. Allegheny Av.
Bloom, J., 2216 Georges Lane
Blumenthal, Hart, Rittenhouse Plaza
Apts.
Brodney. J. N., Ontario & Richmond
Cohen, S. J., 2227 M. 54th
Edelman, I. J., 6230 Pine
Fernberger, Henry, 543 Real Est. Tr.
Bldg.
Fleisher, A. W., 1424 S. Penn Sq.
Fleisher, Arthur A., 2301 Green
Fleisher, Mrs. M., 2223 Green
Freeman, A. C , 134 Walnut
Gimbel, Mrs. E. A., 1830 S. Rittenhouse Square
Goldman, N. I. S., 1505 Nedro Av.
Goldstein, L., 703 W. Girard Av.
Goldstein, Wm., 1415 Locust
Greenwald, Mrs. R. R., 404 S. 42d
Grodinsky, Julius
Gutman, B., 1326 Vine
Hagedorn, J. H., 1520 Spruce
Herzherg, M. H., 127 S. 13th
Kauflman, M., 3906 N. 16th
Keneseth Isr. Cong., Broad ab. Columbia
Klein, Rabbi M. D., 1808 N. Broad
Kohn, H. E., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Korn, M., 4539 N. 12th
Kun, Judge J. L., Bankers Trust BI.
Laver, H., 5427 Woodcrest Av.
Levinthal, L. E., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Lichtenstein, A., 5204 Overbrook Av.
Lit, J. D., 8th & Market
Lit, Samuel D., 204 W. Rittenhouse
Square
Marvis, J. H., 4946 Pine
Mercantile Club. 1422 N. Broad
Miller, A. B., 404 S. 42d
Miller, Chas., c/o Driad Mills, 10th
and Allegheny Av.
Pitkow, H. M., 611 Market
Publicker, H., 5122 Wynnfield Av.
Raken, S. C , 1912 Erie Av.
Rubel, L., Gir"b«-1 Brns.
Saloman, I., 5123 Woodbine Av.
Samuel, J. Bunford, 1609 Spruce
Schamberg, Dr. J. F.. 1402 Spruce
Schenck, Julius, '827 S. 58th
Schlesineer, Abe., 1846 N. 16th
Selzer, P., 1549 Champlost Av.
Silver-man, D. L., S. W. Cor. 6th &
South
Simons, Dr. B. R.. 942 Market
Snellburg, T. N., Market & 12th
Sobelman, B. H., 5709 N. 6th
Steinhach, Mrs. L. W.. 1511 Oxford
Steinberg. Mrs. P., Wash. Sq. Bldg.
SterHnR. Dr. A.. 1531 N 6th
Sterling. P., 2176 E. York
Stern, Judge Horace, 1524 N. 16th
Strauss, B., Allegheny & Hancock
Talimer, Mrs. B. M. O., Warwick
Hotel
Waxman. Abe., 5628 Florence Av.
Weber, David, 53d and Gainor Rd.
Weisbrodt, S. H., 229 S. 60th
Weyl, T. S., 140 N. 6th
Weyl, M. N., 6506 Lincoln Dr.
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Biberman, J. M., 321 Carpenter Lane
Biberman, Jos., 607 W. Upsal
Biederman, L., 869 N. 5th
Biernbaum, M. H., Stephen Girard Bl.
Bilder, F. D., 3126 N. Darien
Billikopf, J., 235 S. 15th
Binder, Dr. I., 708 Pine
Binnick, H., 267 S. 2nd
Biser, M., 2848 W. Lehigh Av.
Black, E., 401 N. 3rd
Blank, J., 6165 Catharine
Blatstein, E. M., 5742 Rodman
Blatt, F., 4101 Lancaster Av.
Blauner, H., 833 Market
Bleicher, Helen S., 226 S. 15th
Bless Bindery Co., 704 Chestnut
Blieden, G. L., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Blieden, Dr. M. S., 1310 S. 5th
Bloch, Mrs. M. L., 47th & Pine
Block, H. M., 122 Market
Bloom, Albert, 5604 Chew
Bloom, Louis, 5704 N. 12th
Bloom, N., 5729 N. 17th
Bloom, S. S., S. W. cor. 48th & Brown
Bloomberg, L. M., 5925 Ellsworth
Blum, A., 2729 Germantown Av.
Blum, H., Kensington Av. & Venango
Blum, Isidor, 3133 Dakota
Blumberg, Dr. L., 750 S. 2nd
Blumberg, Dr. N., 1922 Spruce
31umenfeld, J., 824 W. Somerset
Blumenthal, A., 1115 Walnut
Blumenthal, A. I., 3017 Fontain
Blumenthal, D., 4700 N. 5th
Blumenthal, J., 3024 W. Gordon
Bodek, W., 53 N. 3rd
Bogosrofsky, S., 505 S. 5th
Boguslaw, Dr. D., 213 Green Lane
Bonn, H., 502 Walnut
Borenstein, M., 6041 Market
Borowsky, A. G., 403 Morris Bldg.
Brahm, C , 1242 Marlyn Rd.
Brait, S., 930 Market
Braker, L., 6113 Carpenter
Bram, Dr. Israel, 1633 Spruce
Brandt, Mrs. J. H., 4461 Fkford. Av.
Braslarsky, H., 53rd & Wynnefield
Braslawsky, H., 905 N. Marshall
Braude, H. W., 4900 Pine
Braun, I., 736 W. Moyamensing Av.
Brav, Dr. A., 917 Spruce
Brav, Victor, 1514 Lindley Av.
Brazin, H., 1949 N. 32nd
Bredt, S. D., 1539 Wood
Brenner, H. N., 524 Pine
Brenner, M., 5025 Walnut
Breskman, R., 1312 Wingohocking
Bresler, M., 3224 W. Oxford
Brick, H. A., 1618 Conlyn
Brick, I. O., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Bricklin, F. A., 2738 W. Girard Av.
Brill, A..F., 16th & Market
Brill, L., 5823 Gtn. Av.
Brod, Harry, 6030 Wash. Av.
Brody, Mrs. Louis, 6201 Cobbs Creek
Bromberg, S., 730 S. American
417
Bronstein, M. H., 5942 Pine
Brooks, B., 11th & Diamond
Brown, F., 725 W. Wyoming Av.
Brown, M., 1314 Vine
Brownstein, E., 4728 N. 8th
Brunswick, E., 3421 N. 19th
Brylawski, Mrs. E., 626 W. Cliveden
Bucks, W., 2251 N. Park Av.
Budman, J., 2022 Columbia Av.
Burd, A. M., 112-20 N. 12th
Burd, L. A., 1009 W. Cliveden Av.
Burman, H. A., 1053 N. 67th
Burstein, H., 6225 Carpenter
Burt, Mrs. H., 5924 Market
Busch, Hyman, 4214 Otter
Bushman, M., 910 Columbia Av.
Cahan, L. H., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Camitta, S., 4729 Walnut
Cantor, H. L., 1727 W. 68th Av.
Caplan, Jos., 1530 Locust
Carlin, S., 6722 N. 18th
Carmosin, T., 1229 W. Tioga
Carson, A., 281 S. 5th
Cassett, L. N., 213 S. Broad
Chabrow, D. P., 5434 Gainor Rd.
Chabrow, F., 4927 Parkside Av.
Chabrow, H., 6223 Washington Av.
Chaiken, Dr. J. B., 1330 N. Franklin
Chaiken, M., 5917 Chancellor
Chaiken, S. A., 1800 Market
Charen, M., 6031 Carpenter
Charny, N., 1913 N. 32nd
Chartock, Dr. S., 713 Pine
Cherashore, D. B., 4232 Viola
Cherry, B. C , 55 N. 3rd
Cherry, D., 5913 Warrington Av.
Cherry, I., 243 S. Front
Chissler, L., 1643 N. Hancock
Chomsky, W., Dropsie College
Clavner, B.. 909 Walnut
Clearfield, J. S., Jefferson Bldg.
Clyman, Dr. J. H.. 1324 Gtn. Av.
Coane, S., 1013 Filbert
Cohan, I., 170 City Hall
Cohan, L. B., 4602 N. 10th
Cohan, M., 3866 Poplar
Cohan, P. E.. 205 S. 9th
Cohan, W. H., Bulletin Bldg.
Cohen, Dr. A. T., 1630 Spruce
Cohen, Albert B., 5725 Cedar Av.
Cohen, A., 538 South
Cohen, Charity Solis. 1537 N. 8th
Cohen, C. S., 3819 Lancaster Av.
Cohen, D. H. Solis, 1715 N. 18th
Cohen, E. J.. 2311 Brown
Cohen, Dr. F. I.. 523 N. 6th
Cohen, H., 30R Chestnut
Cohen, Mrs. H., 321 S. 51st
Cohen, Harry, 309 Real Estate Tr.
Cohen, H., 2237 N. 51st
Cohen, Dr. H. E.. Tioga Tr. Bldg.
Cohen, H. H., 1637 Wyoming Av.
Cohen, J. J., 6607 N. Gratz
Cohen & Lipschutz, 611 E. Passyunk
Av.
Cohen, L., 706 Pine
418
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Cohen, M., 431 E. Rockland
Cohen, Max, 5406 Woodcrest Av.
Cohen, Rabbi M. J., 1117 Duncannon
Av.
Cohen, Dr. Meyer S., 1833 Pine
Cohen, P., 442 Winton
Cohen, R., 332 Reed
Cohen, Dr. S. Solis, 135 S. 17th
Cohn, B. R., 3846 N. 17th
Cohn, Clarence, 68th Av. & 13th
Cohn, L. I., 239 S. 2nd
Cohn, S., 6204 Carpenter
Comly, J. V., 27 S. 2nd
Cooke, S., 6531 Guyer Av.
Cooper, J. A., 4767 N. Hutchinson
Cooper, S., 4900 N. 8th
Cooperberg, S., Fruit Trade Bldg.
Cooperman, M., 6187 Ridge Av.
Coopersmith, Mrs. G., 1653 N. Marshall
Ccoperstein, W., 4902 N. 8th
Coplan, L. j . , 4288 Frankford Av.
Coplin, S. H., 5647 Beaumont Av.
Cornblatt, M., 920 N. Franklin
Cornfeld, Dr. M.. 1336 S. 4th
Coyne, M. A., Widener Bldg:.
Cramer, J., 4276 Parkside Av.
Creskoff, A. J., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Crowell, J. B., 1927 N. 60th
Crown, Mrs. Bessie, 1815 N. 33rd
Crown, M.. Jr., 1506 Callowhill
Dalsimer, H., 1204 Market
Dalsimer, L., "Warwick," 17th &
Locust
Dannenbaum, E. M., Alleg'y & Bd'not
Daroff, S.. 11th & Arch
Davidoff. H. A., 1030 Chestnut
Davis, B., 5507 Pine
Davis, H. L., 1504 N. Mervine
De Ford, Dr. F. A., 5629 N. 16th
Delfiner, S., 801-7 Arch
Dembitz, Arthur, 1631 N. 32d
Demchick, I., 4631 N. Warnock
Derezin, C , 1968 N. Stanley
Dewolf, Mrs. H. I., 2201 N. Uber
Diamond, Dr. H. N., 2136 S. 5th
Dilsheimer, F., 3021 Diamond
Dintenfass, B., 1034 W. Upsal
Dintenfass, Dr. Henry, 1305 Spruce
Dostrow, Dr. V. G., 143 E. Roosevelt
Blvd.
Dreifus, M., 1529 Diamond
Drob, Rev. M., 2253 N. 33rd
Drob, M., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Drueker, A. B., 1937 Market
Dubin, M., Mt. Sinai Hospital
Dubois, M. N., 5330 N. 12th
Dubrow, I., 618 South
Dubrow, S., 740 South
Durst, M., 826 Arch
Edelstein, J.. 1023 Wingohocking
Ehrlich, J. C , 6216 Addison
Eidlow, M., 5518 Chester Av.
Eiferman, S., 5901 Addison
Einhorn, E. J., Morris Bldg.
Einson, H., Fruit Trade Bldg.
Eiseman, F. F., 1323 N. E. Blvd.
Eisman, C. K., 5658 Lebanon Av.
Eisner, M., 323 South
Elichman, J. S., 5418 Woodcrest Av.
Eliel, Mrs. L. S., "Warwick," 17th &
Locust
Ellendman, J., 816 W. Wyoming Av.
Ellis, A. M., 2227 N. 33d
Ellis, John, 126 N. Delaware Av.
Ellis, K., 2401 N. 54th
Ellis, M., 5328 Gainor Rd.
Elmaleh, Rev. L. H., 2322 N. Broad
Engel, M., 1908 Walnut
Engelsberg, A., 4201 Ridge Av.
Englander, E. L., 1630 N. Franklin
Englander, H., 4622 Walnut
Englander, J. B., 125 S. 63d
Englander, S., Packard Bldg.
Epstein, Dr. A., 4027 Girard Av.
Epstein, J., 6012 N. 11th
Epstein, O., 5943 Pine
Epstine, L. C , 4230 Lancaster Av.
Ernst, I., 628 Jackson
Eskin, B., 25 S. 8th
Ettelson, Jos., 913 S. 60th
Evans, M. J., 49th & Market
Evans, S. H., 1324 Walnut
Farkas, Dr. G. F., 1012 N. 5th
Fastman^ J. I., 5633 Gainor Rd.
Faust, Ed., 1227 N. 6th
Fayer, J. A., 6012 Market
Fazar, L., 5350 Arlington
Feigenbaum, B., 1207 Wyoming Av.
Fein, Nettie L., 3023 Euclid Av.
Feinberg, C. S., 248 N. Delaware Av.
Feinberg, F., 1216 Ridge Av.
Feiner, Edward, 928 Arch
Feingold, A. S., 4654 N. Warnock
Feingold, M., 5347 Lebanon Av.
Feinstein, Dr. A., 4818 N. 11th
Feinstein, M., 2433 S. 5th
Feinstein, M., 15th & Locust
Feinstine. M., 3226 N. Marston
Feives, N. B., 4814 N. Broad
Feld, M. J., 4th & Cumberland
Feldman, Dr. D., 4101 W. Girard Av.
Feldman, David N. 617 S. 63rd
Feldman, H., 5433 Gainor Rd.
Feldman, Jos., Franklin Tr. Bldg.
Feldman, T. G., 427 Lafayette Bldg.
Feldman, L. M., 4527 N. 5th
Feldman, M., 1533 N. 21st
Feldman, S., 912 Commonwealth Bldg.
Fellman, A. L.. 718 Chelten Av.
Felt, A. M.. 1832 Spruce
Ferguson, H. B., 332 S. 45th
Fernberger, H. W., 1825 N. 17th
Fernberger, S. W., 3212 Midvale Av.
Feustman, M., 4408 Walnut
Filler, Pit, 730 W. Girard Av.
Fineman, Dr. H. E., 1324 S. 5th
Fineman, S. S., 618 Penna. Bldg.
Fineshriber, Rev. Dr. W. H., 1916
Rittenhouse Sq.
Finestone, L. J., 404 Green
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Fingles, Dr. A. A., 647 N. 22d
Fink, D., 1027 Columbia Av.
Finkelstein, A., 400 Chestnut
Fischer, J. J., 920 Widener Bldg.
Fischer, P., 212 S. Front
Fischman, H., 10th & Allegheny Av.
Fisher, A. H., 426 Market
Fisher, I. Irwin, 5253 N. Sydenham
Fisher, J., 4th & Morris
Fisher, Dr. R., 1719 N. 52d
Flaram, Mrs. R., 2232 Ridge Av.
Flamra, S. A., 2520 N. Broad
Fleisher, Mrs. A., 2030 Spring Garden
Fleisher, H., 2550 E. Allegheny Av.
Fleisher, Louis, 2045 Green
Fleisher, M. T., 1520 Locust
Fleisher, W., 1504 N. 17th
Fleisher, W. A., City Line & Lakeside
Fogel, F., City Centre Bldg.
Folkman, H. J., 124 S. 60th
Folkman, S., 5647 Sansom
Folz, S., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Forstein, Sol. B., 971 N. 10th
Fow, L., 2440 N. 33rd
Fox, Chas. E., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Fox, T. L., 1844 N. Natrona
Fox-Weis Co., 102 S. 13th
Frank, C. I., 601 N. 6th
Frank, E., 2342 N. Front
Frank, L. M., 4516 N. Warnock
Frank, M., 1735 W. Montgomery Av.
Frankel, B. L., 6800 Lawnton Av.
Frankel, L., 717 Walnut
Frechie, H. E., 3861 N. 18th
Fredman, Rabbi S., 6046 Wash. Av.
Freed, W. F., 718 S. 3rd
Freedman, I., 1524 W. Nedro Av.
Freedman, Jos., 324 S. 5th
Freedman, L., 517 Wolf
Freedman, N., 5936 Cobbs Creek Pky.
Free Library, Logan Square
Freeman, P., 301 W. Fishers Av.
Freiberg, S. N., 5667 Lebanon Av.
Freids, Dr. R., 6201 Spruce
Freifelder, B., 113 Drexel Bldg.
Freudenheim, A., 223 S. 2nd
Freund, H., Lorraine Hotel
Frey, N. L., 1512 Widener PI.
Fridlaender, Mrs. D., 4260 Chestnut
Friede, M., 278 S. 52nd
Friedman, B., 6029 Oxford
Friedman, H., 1920 W. Erie Av.
Friedman, J., 2929 Ridge Av.
Friedman, S. G., 404 Sansom
Frier, H. E., 3858 N. Smedley
Frizond, S., 107 S. 11th
Fuchs, C , 5410 Wyndale Av.
Fuerstenberg, Mrs. F. Muhr, 2315 N.
Broad
Furth, Emanuel, 1218 Chestnut
Galanter, M., 4333 Main
Gamson, H., 1023 Filbert
Gans, Mrs. S. J., 3247 N. 15th
Gansky, L. M., 1652 N. 8th
Garber, H., 512 South
Gavron, J. L., 2111 N. 9th
Geisler, O., 3409 Walnut
419
Gekoski, L., 5741 Virginian Rd.
Gelles, J., 7 N. 40th
Gelman, P., 2559 N. 32nd
Gerber, M 505 Market
Gershenfeld, H., 9th & Lombard
Gershenfeld, Dr. L., 281 S. 63rd
Gershenfeld, L. R., 6248 Sansom
Gerson, F. N., 3413 Race
Gerstley, Mrs. H., Majestic Hotel
Gerstley, Isaac, 701 Finance Bldg.
Getson, B., 1703 N. Franklin
Gettlin, A. A., 5630 N. 5th
Getzow, Dr. J. A., 251 Pine
Getzow, S., 401 South
Gevov, E., 244 W. Girard Av.
Gevurtz, S., 329 S. 6th
Gilbert, M., S233 Market
Gimbel, Mrs. B., 250 S. 17th
Gimbel, Chas., 250 S. 17th
Ginns, Dr. R. S., 30 Carpenter Lane
Ginsberg, L., 5631 Lebanon Av.
Ginsburg, L. S., Packard Bldg.
Ginsburg, Dr. M., 1441 S. Broad
Ginsburg, Dr. S. A., 1901 S. Broad
Ginsburg, S. R., Broad and Locust
Ginsburg, Wm., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Ginsburg, W. B., 7036 N. Broad
Gittelman, M. H., 1728 Chestnut
Glasgold, S. S., 806 Green
Glass, H. E., 1802 Market
Glass, S. P., 1500 N. 12th
Glass, S. S., 5445 Diamond
Glassman, A., 2615 W. Girard Av.
Glazer, W. A., 5th and Commerce
Glick, S. J., 7th and Spring Garden
Gobler, A. H., 5917 N. Leithgow
Gold, A. H., 5917 N. Leithgow
Gold, L. T., 1609 Vine
Gold, Dr. M. H.. 3301 N. 17th
Gold, R., 3919 N. 5th
Goldbaum, Dr. Jacob S., 4234 Spruce
Goldberg, A., 3680 Frankford Av.
Goldberg, A. S., 1505 Whart6n
Goldberg, J., 1624 Diamond
Goldberg, J., 817 S. 60th
Golden, Dr. L. M., 5201 Chester Av.
Golden Dr. M. H., 1830 Pine
Goldenberg, A. B., 813 Public Ledger
Bldg.
Goldenberg, J. B., 4955 Pine
" " • ' , E.,1705
" "Chestnut
" Goldensky,
Goldfarb, J., 822 S. 5th
Goldfield, Dr. J. E., 5731 Chester Av.
Goldich, H., 4858 N. Broad
Goldin, A. J., 1415 Penn Bldg.
Golding, Dr. E. J., 1722 N. 8th
Goldman, C, 1702 Walnut
Goldman, T. J., 542 N. 6th
Goldman, M. D., 1701 Locust
Goldner, E., 1627 N. 33rd
Goldsmith, C, 1737 Montgomery Av.
Goldsmith, E. M., 18th and Courtland
Goldsmith, H. N., 2336 N. Broad
Goldsmith, Katherine, 1311 Columbia
Av.
Goldsmith, L., 6664 Lincoln Dr.
Goldsmith, N., 1464 N. 52nd
420
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Goldstein, C. S., 2351 Park Av.
Goldstein, D., 4601 N. Camac
Goldstein, D., 5742 N. 17th
Goldstein, E., 745 Spring Garden
Goldstein, H., 618 Cherry
Goldstein, L., 5854 Market
Goldstein, P., 4606 Frankford Av.
Goldstein, P., 429 W. Girard Av.
Goldstein, R., 4148 Leidy Av.
Goldstein, Mrs. R., 559 E. Godfrey Av.
Goldstein, S., 1828 S. 5th
Goldwasser, H., 1534 Ruan
Gomborow, J. H., 638 Marlyn Rd.
Goodfriend, Harry, 2420 S. 21st
Goodfriend, H. P., Commercial Tr.
Bldg.
Goodfriend, L., 215 S. Broad
Goodman, Ben, 1019 Spring Garden
Goodman, Isaac, 13th and Callowhill
Goodman, N., 327 Market
Gordesky, P., 4046 Parkside Av.
Cording, H. B., 715 Sansom
Gordon, Dr. B. L., 6026 Carpenter
Gordon, Max E., 5922 Walnut
Gordon, N., 1201 N. 41st
Gorson, G., 250 N. Broad
Gottlieb, I., 130 S. 17th
Gottlieb, N. J., 728 Arch
Gottlieb, Mrs. Rose, 727 South
Goward, Geo., 1616 N. Marshall
Grabosky, S., 3rd and Brown
Gradess, Dr. M., 2932 N. 6th
Grand Uph. Furn Co., 837 N. 3rd
Granoff, H., 4650 N. 10th
Grass, Jacob, 1301 N. 54th
Gratz College, Broad and York
Green, Dr. A. M., 708 Snyder Av.
Green, A. M., 35 S. 3rd
Green, Jacob, 3858 Poplar
Green, J., 958 N. Randolph
Green, Dr. Max, 2007 S. 4th
Green, Sam I., 2139 S. 8th
Green, S. A., 1330 Pt. Breeze Av.
Greenbarg, Ben., 207 Filbert
Greenbaum, Mrs. M., The Coronado
Greenberg, E. P., 1118 N. 65th
Greenberg, I., 1309 Race
Greenberg, J., 829 N. 3rd
Greenberg, J., 1347 S. 5th
Greenberg, J. J., 1421 Chestnut
Greenberg, L. S., 439 N. 8th
Greenberg, S., 218 Vine
Greenberg, Rabbi S., 5635 Wyndale
Av.
Greenblatt, I., 8 N. 3rd
Greenblatt, L., 3110 Montgomery Av.
Greene, H., 1441 N. 20th
Greenebaum, A., 58th and Market
Greenebaum, S., 58th and Market
Greenfield, A. M., 310 W. Johnson
Greenhouse, M. E., 1507 N. 16th
Greenstein, I., 2551 N. 33rd
Greenstein, L. A., Real Est. Tr. Bldg.
Greenstone, Dr. J. H., 1926 N. 13th
Greenwald, Mrs. Rae, 5636 Gainor Rd.
Greenwood, Dr. N. S., 6216 Carpenter
Gribbel, J., 1513 Race
Groskin, H., Land Title Bldg.
Gross, Harry, 331 S. 5th
Gross, H., 1235 South
Gross, Joseph, 706 Bulletin Bldg.
Gross, Morris. 1100 Chelten Av,
Gross, N., 730 S. 5th
Gross, S., 5911 Latona Av.
Grossman, Miss Bertha, 5758 Larchwood Av.
Grossman, Chas. S., 703 W. Girard Av.
Grossman, I., 1411 Pt. Breeze Av.
Grossman, I., 400 Drexel Bldg.
Grossman, J., 1731 N. 42nd
Grossman, L. S., Lindley Ct.
Grossman, Martin, 6249 Walton Av.
Grossman, S. C , 923 Widener Bldg.
Grunfeld, C , 1210 W. 52nd
Gubler & Co., 118 S. 4th
Gudis, M., 1029 Race
Gurbarg, S. J., 3326 W. Cumberland
Gusdorff, A., 615 Market
Guth, H. A., 2016 N. 8th
Gutman, J. C., 811-13 Arch
Haber, Morris, 6611 Lincoln Drive
Hafler, M., 6137 Ellsworth
Hahn, F. E., 1511 Oxford
Hahn, Henry, 3340 N. 16th
Haimovitz. R., 2922 Ridge Av.
Halpern, B. M., 520 S. Front
Halpern, S. P., P. O. Box 191
Halpert, N., 714 Samson
Halprin, L., 2442 N. 54tb
Hamberg, L., 319 Green
Hammerschlag, Mrs. P., 4826 N.
Broad
Hande, W. R., 1715 Chestnut
Handelman, Abr., 4279 Viola
Hanick, Samuel J., 6243 Pine
Hano, P., 5353 Montgomery Av.
Hano, H., 1901 Walnut
Harnick, S., 2605 W. 33rd
Harris, Mrs. G., 706 Wynnewood Rd.
Harris, M., 1713 George's Lane
Hartmann, C , 5447 Montgomery Av.
Har Zion Library, 54th bel. Wynnefield Av.
Hassler, I., 212 Otis Bldg.
Heb. Sun. Sch. Soc, 10th & Carpenter
Heb. Sun. Sch. Soc, 1529 N. 7th
Hechtmann, Dr. J. A., 2961 Kensington Av.
Heft, Jos., 18 N. 61st
Heideberger, G., 1720 N. 2nd
Heimlich, L., 4225 Ridge Av.
Heineberg, Dr. Alfred, 1923 Spruce
Heiser, S., 5635 Chester Av.
Helfand, David, 318 S. 2nd
Heller, A., 327 N. 2nd
Hellyer, Rev. H. L., 1505 Race
Henkin, M. A., 2216 Frankford Av.
Henly, Elkan, 16th and Reed
Herbach, Jos., 1819 Newkirk
Herbach, Louis, 2134 N. 18th
Herbst, H. E., 28 S. 11th
Herman, L., 4294 Parkside Av.
Herman, M., 1321 Blavis
Herman, M. E., 5750 N. 5th
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Herson, M., 500 N. 6th
Herzberg, G., 1531 N. 8th
Herzberg, Max, Commonwealth Bldg.
Herzstein, H., 1726 Roslyn
Hess, Mrs. L. E., 1520 Spruce
Hillerson, David, 700 Sansom
Hillerson, Dr. M. S., 422 Green
Hirsch, L. A., 919 Walnut
Hirsch, W.,. 510 S. 46th
Hirschbein, F. L., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Hirschberg, H., 3724 N. 19th
Hirschwald, R. M., N. American Bldg.
Hirsh, Mrs. Gabriel, The Warwick
Hirsch, R., 2716 N. Hope
Hirshenhorn & Sons, S., 137 N. 3rd
Hochman, P., 3051 Frankford Av.
Hoffman, A., 812 Arch
Hoffman, B., 5719 Florence Av.
Hoffman, J. B., 531 W. Roosevelt Blvd.
Hoffman, J., 1622 S. 4th
Hoffman, P., 6214 Woodland Av.
Hoffman, S., 6153 Locust
Hoffman, W., 8438 Eastwick Av.
Honickman, S. H., 5368 Morse
Hooz, J., 2332 Columbia Av.
Horney, I. N., 4307 Main
Horowitz, B., 2806 Kensington Av.
Horowitz, Frank, 148 N. 7th
Horowitz, I., 5831 Chestnut
Horvitz, H., 3611 Market
Horvitz, S., 4077 Lancaster Av.
Horwitz, M., 12th and City Line
Hurewitz, M., 6th and Girard Av.
Hurshman, A. E., Lincoln Bldg.
Husik, Dr. Isaac, 2100 Walnut
Huskey, H., 1642 N. 6th
Hyman, A., 5745 N. Camae
Hyman, Mrs. C , 1220 S. 58th
Hyman, L., 6201 Reedland Av.
Illoway, B. A., 215 S. Broad
Ingber, D. A., 1307 Market
Ingber, I. W., 1006 Rockland
Isaacman, Jos. I., 7th and Wash. Av.
Isaacs, J. L., 1736 Pine
Isaacs, Phil., 4901 Walnut
Isen, N. D., 2002 N. 8th
Iskin, C. S., 5429 Baltimore Av.
Israeli, S. M., 5243 Chester Av.
Jackson, J., 2931 Kensington Av.
Jacob, A., 600 N. Broad
acobs, E. A.. 3941 Walnut
acobs, M., 5228 Jefferson
acobs, M., 5424 Euclid Av.
acobs, S. M., Broad & South
acobson, P. D., 335 W. Girard Av.
acobson, S. M., 114 S. 2nd
affe, Louis, 4112 Parkside Av.
affe, S., 6237 Washington Ave.
aspan, Jos., 226 S. 2d
astrow, Miss A. M., 2100 Walnut
eitles, Sam'l, 19th & Walnut
ewish Students' House, 3613 Locust
ewish World, The, 223 S. 5th
ordan, L. R., 329 S. 56th
oseph, H. L., 1331 Vine
Joseph, S. K., 6017 Market
Josephs, M., 718 Chestnut
421
Josephs, R., 330 N. 5th
Judovich, Mrs. J., 3300 Baring
Jurikson, J., 68 N. 3rd
Karr, Julius, 39 N. 3rd
Kagle, I., 6109 Pine
Kahn, Dr. B. L., 2125 S. 4th
Kahn, E., 1235 N. Frazier
Kaif, S., 807 Chestnut
Kaliheim, E. A., 5623 N. 16th
Kalikman, M., 6016 Carpenter
Kandell, Geo., Bullitt Bldg.
Kane, Benj., 24 S. 2nd
Kane, M., 15th & South
Kaplan, Abr., 2123 S. Front
Kaplan, B. A., 711 Pine
Kaplan, Louis L., Royal Palm Ct.
Kardon, M., 220 Pine
Karmel, S. H., 821 Arch
Karsevar, S. J., 5853 Germantown Av.
Kasmenn, M. C , 3903 Wyalusing Av.
Kass, S., 1838 Market
Katz, S., 1418 W. Dauphin
Katz, Simon, 431 Walnut
Kauffman, H., 423 S. 15th
Kauffman, H. M., 507 S. 4th
Kaufman, Dr. A. S., 1923 Spruce
Kaufman, E. M., 617 W. Hortter
Kaufman, H., 2019 S. 5th
Kaufman, Dr. I., 3508 N. 23rd
Kaufman, M. A., Allegheny & Hancock
Kaufman, M. M., 5010 N. Hutchinson
Kaufman, Dr. N., 4400 N. 8th
Kaufman, S., 305 Walnut
Kaufman, Wm., 1233 Arch
Kellner, B., 4807 Chester Av.
Kempler, Adolph, 804 Passyunk Av.
Kempler, David M., 804 Passyunk Av.
Kendis, S. J., 4724 N. Mascher
Kerstine, H. E., 6635 McCollum
Kesnich, M. E., Ridge Av. & Oxford
Kine, Dr. I., 533 S. Melville
Kirschbaum, Mrs. A., Majestic Hotel
Klebanoff, R., 507 Lincoln Bldg.
Klebanoff, D., 6122 Columbia
Klein, Eugene, 44 N. 50th
Klein, I., 113 Callowhill
Klein, S., Trenton Av. & Tioga
Klein, S., 319 Poplar
Kline, E., 5th & Ellsworth
Kline, Morris, 836 S. Alden
Klingsberg, L. M., 403 S. 62nd
Koch, Dr. I. M., 1530 Locust
Koester, Mrs. Simon, 2261 N. 21st
Koff, Isadore, 6029 Carpenter
Koffler, J., 4014 Aspen
Kofsky, H. M., 250 E. N. E. Blvd.
Kohn, Mrs. A. M., 1841 N. 17th
Kohn, Dr. Bernard, 1516 N. 15th
Kohn, Geo., 440 S. 48th
Kohn, Isidore, 1517 N. 16th
Kohn, Israel, 1512 S. 5th
Kohn, Jos., 5416 Woodcrest Av.
Kohn, J. C , 406 E. Roosevelt Blvd.
Kohn, Louis, 1238 Vine
Kohn, R. S., 5034 N. Camac
Kohn, Rabbi S. J., 880 Wynnewood Rd.
422
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Kolander, M. W., 915 Packard Bldg.
Kolber, P., 1907 N. American Bldg.
Kolodner, A., 726 Sansom
Kolsky, H., 417 S. 46th
Koppelman, I., 3000 Richmond
Kopperman, Win., 727 Rockland
Korn, Henry, 528 Ritner
Kornberg, A., 4824 Woodland Av.
Kornfeld, M., 520 Walnut
Kossoy, A., 5657 Diamond
Kovsky, B., 234 S. 10th
Kraftsow, M., Belber Bldg.
Krakovitz, A., 5360 Lebanon Av.
Krakovitz, S., 4th & Morris
Kramer, S., 3001 N. 22nd
Krasnov, S., 3106 W. Clifford
Krassen, S., Bankers Tr. Bldg.
Krassenstein, Mary G., 4535 York Rd.
Kratzok, S. E., 5427 Wynnefield Av.
Kraupa, E., 1417 E. Columbia Av.
Kraus, G. J., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Kraus, Meyer, 3452 N. 23rd
Kraus, S. C , 512 S. 5th
Kraus, S. L., N. American Bldg.
Krause, P. C , 930 W. Girard Av.
Kravitz, L. E., 607 Dickinson
Kravitz, S., 1328 Chestnut
Krawitz, E., 123 N. 13th
Kremer, DT. D. N., 5904 Spruce
Krieger, Mrs. S., 1709 Diamond
Krischer, Morris, 6203 Webster
Kruger, J., S. E. Cor. 10th & Vine
Kruger, S., 1821 Orthodox
Kun, D. L., 2942 Columbia Ave.
Kurtz, Rob't, 1840 N. 32nd
Kushin, N., 314 S. Broad
Kushner, A., 629 W. Montgomery Av.
Kushner, B., 1240 N. 52nd
Kutikoff, Dr. J., 403 Ritner
Labkow, D., 3803 Haverford Av.
Lacov, M. J., 1015 Market
Ladenheim, W. R., 1402 Equitable
Bldg.
Ladenson, H., 614 Brown
Lafair, I. C , 3207 W. Montgomery Av.
Lam, A. M., 4613 N. 13th
Landau, H., 5253 Arlington
Lande, M., 4748 N. Franklin
Lande, S., 1704 Columbia Av.
Landes, David S., 728 N. 2nd
Landow, M. S., 1201 Vine
Landy, A. T., 905 Walnut
Lang, A., 6109 Ridge Av.
Lang, C. H., 218 W. Walnut Lane
Lang, L. S., 4944 N. 10th
Langa, M. M., 4944 N. Warnock
Langfield, Wm. R., 1512 N. 17th
Langman, Joseph, 515 S. 63rd
Lanken, S., 4109 Lancaster Av.
Lapin, M., 1345 South
Laster, Miss F., 1722 N. 52nd
Lax, A., 121 W. Wentz
Leaderman, A., 909 South
Leberman, Jos. W., 2229 N. 12th
Leblang, Isaac, 1611 W. Erie Av.
Lederer, Mrs. E., Hotel Pennsylvania
Lederer, S., 606 N. American
Lefco, A., 902 Arch
Leibros, E. M., Spruce Hotel
Leinweber, Harry, 6306 N. Park Av.
Leipsiger, N. S., 12th & Market
Lenetz, R., 2431 S. 4th
Leof, Dr. Wm. V., 322 S. 16th
Leopold, Mrs. I., 2025 Spruce
Lerman, J. J., City Centre Bldg.
Lesse, S., 732 Chestnut
Lessig, A., 356 N. 2nd
Lessy, M., 2129 N. 33rd
Levenson, B., 2319 Margaret
Leventhal, M. B., 107 S. 2nd
Levi, I. D., 1600 Walnut
Levi, Julius C , N. American Bldg.
Levick, M. E., 5847 Christian
Levick, S. E., 6208 Ellsworth
Levin, Aaron, 409 Olney Ave.
Levin, A., 5634 Lebanon Av.
Levin, A., 5605 N. Camac
Levin, Don, 233 S. 9th
Levin, N., 1429 N. 7th
Levin, S., 424 E. Rockland
Levinson, H. D., 806 Bailey Bldg.
Levinson, W., 10 S. 2nd
Levinthal, Rev. B. L., 4036 Parkside
Av.
Levis, A. L., 507 S. 6th
Levitsky, Jos., 1737 N. 32nd
Levitt, Dr. M. L., 1303 Roosevelt Blvd.
Levy, Dr. A., 906 N. Franklin
Levy, Rabbi A. J., 324 E. Roosevelt
Rd.
Levy, A. B., 251 W. Hansberry
Levy, A. S., Bankers Tr. Bldg.
Levy, Chas. S., 5652 Diamond
Levy, Ferd., 4348 N. Carlisle
Levy, Dr. Frank »., 1859 N. 8th
Levy, G. W., West End Tr. Bldg.
Levy, H. M,. 220 South
Levy, Howard S., 1429 N. 21st
Levy, I. K., Real Estate Tr. Bldg.
Levy, J., 313 N. 8th
Levy, Dr. Jacob, 1920 S. 5th
Levy, L. F., Wayne Av. & Berkley
Levy, Louis, 2406 S. 9th
Levy, Martin O., 1014 Rockland
Levy, M., 1102 Walnut
Levy, M., 25 S. 8th
Levy, N., 4918 N. 10th
Levy, Percy, Bankers Tr. Bldg.
Levy, Raphael, 2265 N. Park Av.
Levin, M. S., 1524 Chestnut
Lewine, Mrs. Rose, 1819 N. 33rd
Lewis, M., 3001 Page
Lewis, Judge Wm. M., 1914 N. 32nd
Lichten, Harold, 243 School Lane
Lictenstein, M., 1001 Chestnut
Liebeman, Chas., 5653 Lebanon Av.
Lieberman, A. H., 5136 Wayne Av.
Lieberman & Sons, A., 313 Arch
Lieberman, H., 5331 W. Columbia Av.
Lieberman, S., 5540 Chester Av.
Liebman, H. C , 5633 Warrington Av.
Liedman, L., 1603 N. 17th
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Liepoff, S., 1728 Memorial Av.
Lifter, Mrs. J. J., 6312 N. 13th
Lindauer, Dr. E., 6451 N. Broad
Lipitz, J., 5377 Montgomery Av.
Lipkin, Wm., Franklin Tr. Bldg.
Lipschitz, A. B., 1020 N. 45th
Lipshutz, Chas., 6635 McCallum
Lipschitz, Rabbi M., 332 N. 3rd
Lipschutz, B., 4347 Main
Lipschutz, C , 5430 Morse
Lipshutz, A. P., 1804 Market
Lipson, A., 4031 E. Roosevelt Blvd.
Lisan, F., 6216 Woodland Av.
Lisberger, L., Hotel Majestic
Lischin, A. L., 718 W. Rockland
Lissner, M., Gimbel Bros.
Litow, L., 219 Callowhill
Litivin, A., 114 S. 13th
Liveright, Mrs. S., Hotel Majestic
Lodge, I., 67 N. 2nd
Loeb, Adolph, 301-7 N. 3rd
Loeb, Arthur, 1701 Locust
Loeb, David J., 4220 Pine
Loeb, H. A., 431 Chestnut
Loeb, Horace, 1512 Walnut
Loeb, Leo, 1631 Walnut
Loeb, Dr. Ludwig, 1421 N. 15th
Loeb, Max, 1901 Walnut
Loeb, Oscar, 6704 N. 12th
Loeb, Simon, 17th & Locust
Loewenberg, Dr. S. A., 1905 Spruce
Loewenberg, Rabbi Wm., 6738 N. 17th
Loewenstein, Sidney, Land Title Bldg.
Loigman, H., 1701 S. 5th
Lonker, M., 407 Bainbridge
Lorch. A., 4516 N. Broad
Louchheim, J. A., 11th & Wood
Lowenburg, Dr. H., 325 S. 17th
Lowengrund, E., Land Title Bldg.
Lowenthal, A., 6227 Christian
Lubarskv, J., 19th & Carpenter
Luber, Mrs. D., 2639 Germantown Av.
Luks, Mrs. H. M., 4959 N. 2nd
Luree, Frances, 5841 Rodman
Lush, S. B., 6904 N. Broad
Lyons, L. E., 1521 Nedro Av.
Machlin, I., 2155 Ridge Av.
Madalie, L., 510 N. 11th
Magaziner, L., 603 Chestnut
Magen, B., 626 S. 2nd
Maeil, Myer, 20 N. 6th
Mallof. Ida, 225 E. Sheldon
Mandel, David, Jr., N. American Bldg.
Mandel. J., 232 Market
Mann, Dr. Bernard, 1536 N. 8th
Mann, David L., Front & Berks
Marcus, D., 5602 Gainor Rd.
Marcus, B., 4119 Westminster Av.
Marcus, E., 5352 Locust
Marcus, M., 1138 N. 2nd
Marder, H. M., 1721 N. 31st
Margolin, M. L., 430 S. 47th
Margolis, J.. 726 N. 2nd
Margolis, M., 2641 N. 5th
Margolis, Dr. M., DTOpsie College
Marguiles, M. J., 121 N. Dewey
Margulis, A., 246 S. 15th
423
Marion, H., 956 N. 5th
Marker, Wm. B., 205 S. 15th
Markmann, M., 4509 McKinley
Markmann, M. J., 6511 N. 11th
Markowich, Jack, 4834 N. 8th
Markowjtz, B. J., 1323 S. 5th
Markowitz Bros., 321 Market
Markowitz, M., 623 W. Upsal
Marks, Mrs. Abram, S. E. Cor. Broad
& Dauphin
Marks, A. S., 35th & Powelton Av.
Marman, Mrs. J., 4416 Lancaster Av.
Marx, S. J., 4910 Pulaski Av.
Masel, B. A., 305 E. Walnut Lane
Masel, Isaac, 1108 Spruce
Masover, S., 875 N. 9th
Matrick, H., 12th & Pine
Matusow, Harry, 3236 W. Norris
Maxmin, H. J., 6218 Wash. Av.
Mayer, Alfred, 1851 N. 17th
Mayer, C. O., Bankers Trust Bldg.
Mayer, G. H., 728 Sansom
Mayor, Dr. Chas. A., 2223 S. Broad
Mazer, Dr. Chas., 1829 Pine
Mazer, Esther W., 6001 Kingsessing
Medo'ff, H., 5158 Parkside Av.
Medvene, B., 5024 N. Camac
Meiberg, M., 103 W. Girard Av.
Meisach, S., 6301 N. 12th
Mellman, M., 324 E. Girard Ave.
Melnicoff, Dr. J., 408 W. Girard Av.
Meltsic, K., 43rd & Locust
Meltzer, A., 233 Church
Meltzer, A. L., 4800 Pine
Meltzer, S., 2254 Bryn Mawr Av.
Menaker, Dr. L., 631 Vine
Merz, Leon, 220 S. 16\h
Mesirov, H. S., Packard Bldg.
Mesirov, Isaac, 1304 Arch
Messenger, J., 5651 Catherine
Meyers, M. D., Shubert Bldg.
Michaelson, I., 1707 Widcner PI.
Michel, H., 5253 Berks
Mickelson, S., 455 N. 6th
Mickve Israel Congr. Sch., Broad &
York
Milgrim, A., 1013 Market
Miller, A. E., 16th & Reed
Miller, Benj. F., 6229 Carpenter
Miller Community Center, 33rd &
Diamond
Miller, I., 270 S. 58th
Miller, J. IC, 4529 Larchwood Av.
:Miller, Mrs. Jennie H., 1837 N. 33rd
Miller, Morris L., 5201 Overbrook Av.
Miller, Dr. S. S., 612 N. 12th
Millman, S., 5126 Market
Milner, L., 4400 Chestnut
Minderman. J., 5205 W. Berks
Mitnick, M. H., Commerc. Tr. Bldg.
Mitosky, D., Jasper & Westmoreland
Mitosky, Jos., 110 S. 4th
Monbeit, Albert D., 5105 N. 15th
Mordell, A., Commercial Tr. Bldg.
Morgenstern, E., 307 Pine
424
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Moroff, B., 5847. Market
Morse, L. J., 908 Arch
Mosco, Dr. S. F., 1733 N. Franklin
Moses, Dr. Albert, 7th & Market
Mosko, H. B., 702 McClellan
Moskowitz, H., 213 S. Broad
Moskowitz, I., 150S N. Franklin
Moskowitz, S. L., 329 Berkley
Moss. Jos., Commonwealth Bldg.
Muchnick, H. B., 3014 Fontain
Muchnick, M. J., 5321 N. 15th
Murnick, Mrs. S. E., 5949 Nassau Rd.
Murphy, F. T., 635 W. Olney Av.
Murphy, J., 1712 N. 2nd
Myers, J., 4911 York Rd.
Myers, M., 1618 Lindley Av.
Myers, P. M., 904 69th Av.
Nagler, M., 6365 Sherman
Nalibotsky, H., 5437 Woodcrest Av.
Nalibotsky, J., 2258 Georges Lane
Nathan, G., 4 Manheim
Nathan, Rev. M., 3417 Ridge Av.
Needleman, J. T., 3202 Diamond
Neff, H., 9th & Race
Neiman, A. B., 617 Ledger Bldg.
Nelson, B., 5648 Florence Av.
Nemcof, Chas., 21 S. 3rd
Nemirow, M. A., 419 N. Amer. Bldg.
Nemser, C , Broad & Pine
Netter, R., 7220 Woodland Av.
Netzky, S., 6224 Webster
Neufeld, H., 1518 South
Neutnan, Rev. Dr. A. A., 3213
Diamond
Newhouse, Florence, 4418 Spruce
Niden, H. L., 2707 Germantown Av.
Nitzky, J., 519 N. 5th
Nogelberg, S., i2721 W. Girard Av.
Nusbaum, Harry, 1835 W. Tioga
Nusbaum, Lee, 141 W. Sharpnack
Nusbaum, Louis, 153 W. Sharpnack
Nusbaum, S., 151 W. Sharpnack
Obermayer, L. J., 509 Westview Av.
Odell, S.. 1042 S. 54th
Ogens, Mrs. J. M., 6106 Carpenter
Oliver, Dr. B. O., 1528 Morris
Olkes, Mrs. Y., 632 Fairmount Av.
Orsher, and Auerbach Drs., 702 Snyder Av.
Oshiver, H. J., 806 Chestnut
Ostrum, Dr. H. W., 2407 N. 30th
Ottenberg, J. II., 1002 66th Av.
Oxman, J., 6000 Oxford
Ozlek, C , 1020 N. 45th
Paley, J., 3rd & Spruce
Paley, W. S., 614 E. Sedgwick
Parris, L., 220 S. 16th
Pasternack, J. A., 811 N. 63rd
Paul I., 2nd & Poplar
Pechner, Mrs. B., 1127 Wingohocking
Perilstein, H., 515 S. 6th
Perilstein, N., 4119 Leidy Av.
Perlberg, N., 731 Arch
Perlmutter, H. I., 507 Lombard
Perlstein, Harry, 11th & Arch
Peterzell, A., 1211 Chestnut
Petrosky, H., 418 S. 62nd
Pfaelzer, F. A., 1522 N. 17th
Phillips, David, Lincoln Bldg.
Phillips, E. A., 139 N. 12th
Pichney, Dr. H., 3108 Ridge Av.
Pincus, A. A., 6038 Christian
Pincus, N., 6449 N. Broad
Pinkus, I. M., 3203 W. Susq. Av.
Pinkus, M., Garden Ct. Apt.
Pintzow, Edith, 2462 N. 29th
Plass, Wm., 2103 N. 18th
Pockrass, B., Drexel Bldg.
Podolnick, L.. 320 South
Pogach, H. L., 301 Morris Bldg.
Pogost, Dr. S. B., 945 N. 40th
Polish, E. N., 710 Lincoln Bldg.
Pomerantz, A., 624 W. Cliveden Av.
Pomerantz, A., 1931 South
Pood, I., 3rd & Lombard
Popovsky Z., 2038 N. 6th
Portner, Wm., 5403 Woodcrest Av.
Portno, H., 118 S. 17th
Posel, L., 209 Morris
Potash, S., 7 S. 8th
Poulin, M., 2108 S. 7th
Powell, Dr. L., N. E. Cor. 4th &
Snyder Av.
Prager, Jos. 5913 Walnut
Pransky, David L., 5739 Rodman
Presser, J., 357 Winton
Price, S. J., 6028 Wash. Av.
Promisloff, H., 2348 N. 10th
Publicker, P., Delaware & Tasker
Raab, M., 1519 Lindley Av.
Rabinovich, Bessie, 4926 Pine
Rabinovitch, L. G., 2911 Oxford
Rabinoyitz, J., 2912 Germantown AT.
Rachmil, Mrs. E., 6014 Catharine
Racier, R. S., 52nd & Arch
Racusin, M., 413 South
Raditz, L., 150 N. 20th
Raimisher, I., 427 Hoffman
Raiziss, Dr. Geo. W., Pine Manor
Apts.
Raker, D. M., 4815 N. Warnock
Rappaport, Benj., 1534 Columbia Av.
Rathblatt, N., 1824 68th Av.
Ratiner, S., 413 S. 62nd
Reese, I., 928 Pine
Refsen, A., 5402 Diamond
Regenbogen, N., 2206 N. Front
Reibstein, Benj., 425 S. 6th
Reich, Prof. Dr. N., P. O. Box 337
Reinhart, J., 521 S. Melville
Reinheimer, A., 3856 N. 19th
Reinish, J. C , 725 Arch
Retnish, H. I., 4920 N. Hutchinson
Rheingold, S., 709 Chestnut
Rhodes, Mrs. Leopold, 5831 Addison
Richard, S. S., 1901 Walnut
Richman, O., 5450 Montgomery Av.
Richman, Dr. M., 1641 N. 33rd
Richman, Pauline K., 526 W: Berks
Richter, M., N. W. Cor. 9th & Filbert
Rieder, Dr. Joseph, 128 Market
Riesman, Dr. David, 1520 Spruce
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Riff, Jos., City Centre Bldg.
Rifkin, M., 340 S. 5th
Rigberg, E., 5400 Montgomery Av.
Ritch, M., 2015 N. 33rd
Rittenberg, Dr. B. B., 5400 Arlington
Av.
Rivkind, Jacob, 5342 Gainor Rd.
Robins, E. A., 4815 N. 13th
Robinson, D. R., 4012 W. Girard Av.
Rodin, S. S., 11th & Spruce
Root, M. J., Lafayette Bldg.
Rose, A. M., 5938 Pine
Rose, J. E., Wash. Sq. Bldg.
Rose, M. D., 4916 N. 11th
Roseman, Geo., 1607 Ruscomb
Roseman, S., 1944 N. 6th
Rosen, Ben., 330 S. 9th
Rosen, E. L., 428 W. Roosevelt Blvd.
Rosen, L., 5836 Hazel Av.
Rosen, Dr. M., 4164 N. 7th
Rosen, M., 127 Dock
Rosenbach, Dr. A. S., 1320 Walnut
Rosenbach, N. P., 5008 Pine
Rosenbach, Philip H., 1320 Walnut
Rosenbaum, H., 4844 Pulaski Av.
Rosenbaum, M., 605 S. 3rd
Rosenbaum, O., 4842 N. Warnock
Rosenberg, Dr. D., 4169 Lancaster Av.
Rosenberg, Mrs. M., 2009 N. Broad
Rosenberger, H., 228 S. Melville Av.
Rosenblatt, C , 984 N. 2nd
Rosenbloom, A. N., 11th & Girard Av.
Rosenblum, Adolph, 506 Pine
Rosenblum, D., 6217 Pine
Rosenblum, Jacob, 1930 E. Moyamensing Av.
Rosenheimer, R., 4045 N. 12th
Rosenstein, A. A., 1201 Chestnut
Rosenstein, Miss Hettie, 2227 N. 13th
Rosenthal, B., 1308 N. 3rd
Rosenthal, L. S., 43rd & Spruce
Rosenthal, M. A., 5706 Thomas Av.
Rosenthal, M. M., 2023 Walnut
Rosenthal, P., 528 Locust
Rosin, Sig. M., Penna. Bldg.
Rosnov, S. B., 719 Sansom
Ross, H. t 2618 Germantown Av.
Ross, S., 413 Lincoln Bldg.
Rosskam, Wm. B., 2300 N. Broad
Roth, A. M., 906 Fox Bldg.
Rothenberg, D., 226 N. 16th
Rothkugel, M., 5124 Walton Av.
Rothman, A. L., 3244 N. 26th
Rothman, I., 1208 N. Broad
Rothschild, I. B., 215 S. Broad
Rothschild, S., Majestic Hotel
Rover, M., Broad & Erie Av.
Rovno, Dr. Philip, 423 Pine
Rubenstone, Dr. A. I., 1204 Spruce
Ruberg, Lewis, 4617 Newhall
Ruberg, Dr. M., 2243 N. Front
Ruberg, Morris, 5429 De Lancey
Rubin, H. L., 1006 Marlyn Rd.
Rubin, Isaac, 147 N. 10th
Rubin, J., 257 S. 5th
Rubin, Jos. H., 1617 Walnut
425
Rubin, L., 1105 Wingohocking ;
Rubin, M., 6107 Ridge Av.
Rubin, Dr. N. L., 4th & Girard Av.
Rubin, Roy, 721 Johnston
Rubinsohn, B. L., 1829 N. 17th
Rubinson, A., 401-17 Bainbridge
Ruby, S. R., 1627 Champlost Av.
Rudman, E., City Centre Bldg.
Rudnick, S., 6225 Ellsworth
Rudofker & Son. S., 429 N. 13th
Russ, Leo A., 1327 Wingohocking
Rutberg, F. L., 1524 Widener PI.
Sack, L., 5017 N. 9th
Sacks, Harry, 1228 Cherry
Sacks, P., 1947 N. 52nd
Saftlas, Joseph, 5461 Berks
Saftlas, S., 2209 N. Natrona
Sagorsky, I. S., 820 Chestnut
Salas, Mrs. F., 5454 N. 5th
Saler, I., 146 N. 10th
Salesky, H., 434 Market
Salidor, I., 146 N. 10th
Salkin, L., 2364 N. Lambert
Saltz, C , 6539 Elmwood Av.
Salus, Herbert W., 614 S. 11th
Salus, J., 1215 Dauphin
Salus, J. W., N. E. Cor. 12th & Arch
Salvin, W., 1436 Nedro Av.
Salzman, Dr. J. A., 210 Fairmount Av,
Samson, M., 501 S. 12th
Samuel, S., 1721 Creighton
Sand, Louis, 5336 Arlington
Sanders, J. A., 336 N. 2nd
Sandman, M., 49th & Woodland Av.
Sansom, S. D., Jasper & Orleans
Satinsky. Sol, 1813 N. 33rd
Savage, H. W., 5411 Berks
Savett, M. S-, 1831 Georges Lane
Savitz, T., 4154 Lancaster Av.
Savitz, Dr. Samuel A., 2031 Pine
Savrin, A., 8th & Master
Sax, Percival M.. 6429 Drexel Rd.
Schachman, Dr. M., 6200 Christian
Schaffer, M., 1134 Pine
Schambelan, M., 5436 Woodcrest Av.
Schamberg, Jesse J., 1949 Locust
Schechter, A., 553 Citv Hall
Schechter, Dr. Isaac, 505 Pine
Scherr, M., 119 Vine
Schimmel, Samuel, 616 W. Westview
Av.
Schindler, H. L., 5238 Arlington
Schlank, J. L., 6533 N. Bouvier
Schlein, B., 1405 W. York
Schlesinger, L. T., 121 N. Broad
Sehlesinger, S. D., 5918 N. 19th
Schmerling, A., 854 N. 7th
Schmidt, I. B., 1313 Roosevelt Blvd.
Schmukler, H. L., 449 Krans Av.
Schneyer, Dr. B., 6614 Woodland Av.
Schneyer, Louis A., 1304 Arch
Schneyer, M. L., 608 Chestnut
Schoenfeld, Morris, 5837 Chestnut
Schoenfeld, S., 51 N. 3rd
Schorr, G. J., 1203 Packard Bldg.
426
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Schorr, Henry W., 1118 Real Est. Tr.
Bldg.
Schreibman, L. F., 5344 Lebanon Av.
Schreider, L. I., 733 S. 2nd
Schulman, M., 68th & Woodland Av.
Schultz, D., 757 Passyunk Av.
Schultz, J. D., 422 W. Cayuga
Schwab, J. S., 808 W. Broad
Schwab, Max B., 2112 N. 19th
Schwab, N., 2334 N. Broad
Schwartz, Dr. B., 1020 Snyder Av.
Schwartz, H. N., Land Title Bldg.
Schwartz, Dr. I., 71st & Elmwood Av.
Schwartz, I. H., Bulletin Bldg.
Schwartz, I., 1832 Sp r u c e
Schwartz, Joseph, 1911 N. 7th
Schwartz, J., 15 N. 61st
Schwartz, L., 1113 Wingohocking
Schwartz, L. J., 56 N. 6th
Schwartz, Dr. M., 218 Ritner
Schwartz, S. G., North American Bldg.
Schwarzman, I. C , 226 N. 63rd
Secon, M., 134 S. 60th
Seder, M. B., Swarthmore Apt.
Seeger, D., 4384 Main
Segal, B. F., 3902 Germantown Av.
Segal, I., 1614 N. 20th
Segal, K., 2404 N. 54th
Segal, L. L., The Gladstone
Segal, S., 143 S. 13th
Segal, S., 312 S. 3rd
Segal, S. J., 5000 Germantown Av.
Segall, S., 713 Sansom
Segall, S., 5227 Warrington Av.
Seideman, M., 1011 N. Upsal
Seidenberg, H. M., Bulletin Bldg.
Seidenberg. S., 1408 S. 5th
Seidman, B., 124 S. 18th
Seidman, ].. 5855 Warrington Av.
Seidman, M. E., 1618 S. 4th
Seitchik, J., 6035 Carpenter
Selig, B., 6501 N. 13th
Selig, E. K., Broad and Carpenter
Selig, Emil, Majestic Hotel
Selig, Sol., 6501 N. 11th
Seligman, M. B., 5422 Euclid Av.
Seltzer, Dr. B. P., 935 Spruce
Seltzer, M., 6137 Ridge Av.
Seltzer, Dr. N., 1129 S. 61st
Senn, M., 4628 Woodland Av.
Serber, David, N. American Bldg.
Schachter, S., 104 E. Roosevelt Blvd.
Shaham, DT. S., 9th and Snyder Av.
Shain, H., 6310 Woodland Av.
Shander, B., 5305 Berks
Shapiro, B. L., 6433 N. Broad
Shapiro, H., 1535 N. 33rd
Shapiro, J., 2926 Oxford
Shapiro, M., 530 Westview
Shapiro, Morris, 410 Commerce
Shapiro, M. M., 1108 S. 47th
Shapiro, Sadie, 2327 Ridge Av.
Shapiro, S. S., 1412 N. 4th
Sharf, A., 740 Ledger Bldg.
Sharff, J. C , 2561 N. 11th
Shatkin, S., 2444 S. Philip
Sheerr, Philip L., Orchard and Vandike
Shenker, Morris, 1824 South
Shenkin, Dr. J., 424 Pine
Sher, M. B., 1208 N. Broad
Sher, Robert, 46 S. 2nd
Sherr, H., 6228 Osage Av.
Shiffren, R., 4733 N. 9th
Shlictman, Miss D., 5233 Market
Shlifer, L. L., 322 N. Broad
Shmookler, Dr. H. B., 2201 N. 51st
Shubin, I.. 177 E. Roosevelt Blvd.
Shubin, M. B., 1323 Widener Bldg.
Shulik, W m , 2452 N. Myrtlewood
Shuman, D., 1501 Germantown Av.
Shuman, S., 5239 Berks
Shuster, Dr. B. H., 436 Spruce
Shuster, Miss L. P., 726 Arch
Shwyger, M., 5639 Chester Av.
Sickles, A., Majestic Hotel
Sickles, Edw., 900 Chestnut
Sickles, Sol., 1218 Walnut
Siegel, J., 6216 Ellsworth
Siegel, M., 2127 N. Franklin
Sigmund, B. J., 3847 N. 17th
Silberman, M., 323 N. 3rd
Silberstein, L., 601 South
Silver, B., Wash. Sq. Bldg.
Silver, J. S., 5907 Trinity PI.
Silver, M., 60 W. Chelten Av.
Silver, M. N., 6024 Chestnut
Silverberg, B. S., 116 S. Alden
Silverman, Chas., N. W. Cor. 6th and
South
Silverman, Frieda, 2626 S. Hutchinson
Silverman, H., 1805 Ranstead
Silverman, I. H., Land Title Bldg.
Silverstein, S., 5637 Christian
Simon, Mrs. A., 332 W. Hortter
Simon, E. D., 1021 Melrose Av.
Singer, Dr. Benj., N. E. Cor. 20th and
Chestnut
Singer, I., 1934 N. 13th
Singer, J., 1218 Chestnut
Singer, J. M., 325 South
Singman & Simon, 124 N. 7th
Sionsky, Mrs. J., 1031 N. Front
Sirody, M., Bankers Tr. Bldg.
Skaroff, S. C , 1040 S. 53rd
Sklar, G., 1829 Pine
Sklar, Dr. W., 1007 S. 3rd
Sklaroff & Sons, S., 714 S. 2nd
Skversky, Mrs. F. B., 918 Porter
Slobodin, M., 709 Bulletin Bldg.
Slonimsky, N. N., Franklin Trust Bldg.
Slotnick, J., 628 Ritner
Slotsky, H., 11th and Wingohocking
Smiler, T. W., 412 Brown
Smith, I. A., 52nd and Westminster
Av.
Smith, M. J., 329 Pine
Smolen, F., 4737 N. 9th
Smolens, M., 6157 Columbia Av.
Smolent, H., 2123 N. 63rd
Snyder, I. M., 5710 Chestnut
Snyder, William, 1535 N. 6th
Snyderman, Dr. H. S., 1920 N. 7th
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Sobel, T., 929 Chestnut
Sobel, M. D., 5930 Windsor Av.
Soble, Abr., 3958 Ogden
Soboroff, M., 1921 N. 8th
Solis-Cohen, Dr. I., 219 S. 9th
Sollott, H., 1812 Widener PI.
Solms, A. M., Bourse Bldg.
Solomon, C , 4941 N. Hutchinson
Solot, S., 2114 N. 31st
Sonstein, A., 528 S. 4th
Sork, B., 719 N. American Bldg.
Sorkin, H., 16th and Chew
Sosenko, A., 1812 Chestnut
Soslovitz, H. S., 1024 Ridge Av.
Sostman, S. E., 1310 Wingohocking
Spangler, B., 708 S. 60th
Spector, A., 5528 Addison
Spector, B., Fruit Trade Bldg.
Spector & Goldensky, City Centre Bldg.
Speiser, M. J., 521 Tasker
Sperling, W., 34 S. 3rd
Spitz, P., 3129 N. 29th
Spitzer, M., 6314 Woodland Av.
Stalberg, M. J., 418 Roxborough Av.
Stark, R., 1634 Nedro Av.
Starr, M., 6225 Christian
Stein, Dr. D., S. E. Cor. 54th and
Lebanon
Stein, I., 16th and Race
Stein, M. G., 1409 Morris Bldg.
Stein, S. J., 3242 N. 17th
Stein, W. M., 4418 Walnut
Steinberg, A., Marshall and Fairmount
Av.
Steinberg, I., 535 Market
Steinberg, Mrs. L., 1206 Columbia Av.
Steinberg, M. R., 2861 Kensington Av.
Steinberg, S. H., 3210 Clifford
Steinberg, Wm., 5844 Chestnut
Steiner, Dr. S., 943 N. 5th
Steinman, D., 1714 68th Av.
Steinsnyder, B., 4818 Larchwood Av.
Sterling, A., 2429 N. 56th
Stern, I., & Sons, 415 Chestnut
Stern, I. L., 503 Pine
Stern, Lafayette, 36th and Powelton
Av.
Stern, Louis, 135 S. 17th
Stern, M., 2839 N. 26th
Stern, Mrs. M. H., 1609 Diamond
Stern, M. W., 3204 N. 5th
Stern, Sam'l, 253 S. 15th
Stern, S. J., 251 Ashdale
Stem, Sidney M., 34th and Powelton
Av.
Stern, W., 1814 N. 7th
Sternthal, W. H., 269 N. 12th
Steuer, B., 4938 N. 8th
Stiefel, M., 1318 Vine
Stock, M., 1005 Flanders Rd.
Stone, Irvin L., 2221 N. Park Av.
Stone, N. E., 412 S. 13th
Strauss, J., 716-18 S. 11th
Streitfeld, S., 5614 Berks
Strouse, Mrs, A., St. James Annex
Strouse, H., Real Est. Trust Bldg.
Strouse, N. B., 1628 Diamond
427
Stuccatur, B. M., 6376 Germantown
Av.
Stuck, F., 5130 N. 10th
Suckle, D., 5014 "C"
Sugarman, H. G., 1700 Walnut
Sulkowitch, L., 2541 N. 32nd
Sulman, Dr. S. A., 104 S, 52nd
Sundheim, H. G., St. James Hotel
Sundheim, Jos. H., 224 W. Walnut La.
Sunstein, Leon C , 213 S. Broad
Superior Dress Co., 434 Market
Sutland, Dr. F. V., 2247 S. 9th
Sutow, J., 1029 Race
Swaab, S. M., 1629 Diamond
Swiren, Rabbi D. B., 5925 Larchwood
Av.
Switt, Herman, 5920 Walnut
Sykes, C. R., 1715 Chestnut
Tahl, H. J., 508 Bulletin Bldg.
Taine, Dr. Louis N., 601 Parrish
Taplinger, S., 5736 N. Camac
Tarshish, R., 5816 N. Camac
Taylor, H. M., 4018 Lancaster Av.
Taylor, M., 5802 Chestnut
Teacher, B., 3818 Folsom
Teitelbaum, I. S., 6010 Spruce
Teller, Dr. Wm. H., 1713 Green
Tiefenbrun, Mrs. R. L., 2145 N. 32nd
Tierkel, David, 332 S. 5th
Tilles, M., 5643 Chester Av.
Tilles, S. R., 5639 Beaumont Av.
Titleman, A., 1335 Washington Av.
Toll, William, 2521 N. 33rd
Tonk, L. J., 5426 Montgomery Av.
Trachtenburg, H. S., 4142 Poplar
Trager, Jacob, 46 N. 8th
Trassoff, Dr. A., 5907 Walnut
Trichon. M., 2550 N. 33rd
Tunis, P., 2514 E. Allegheny Av.
Uditsky, Harry, Wi'ssa. and Cliveden
Uditzky, M. M., 1939 Girard Ave.
Velenchik, H. L., 5434 Montgomery
Av.
Verbit, Harry, 1302 Arch
Verstein. S. P., 4201 Frankford Av.
Victor, L., 5829 Market
Vill, H., 5031 Market
Vlachez, M., 933 Arch
Vogelson, S. I., 49th and Pine
Volk, M., 530 S. 52nd
Waber, Louis, 5928 Pine
Wachs, A., I l l Pine
Wachstein, Miss M. A., 515 Dickinson
Wafer, W. A., 1245 Ridge Av.
Wagman, Reba M., 4212 Chestnut
Wahrhaftig, M. W., 746 S. Alden
Waldman, L., 3rd and Spring Garden
Waldman, S., 209 N. 3rd
Wallach, B., 5257 Arlington
Wallen, L., 126 S. 8th
Wallerstein, David, Land Title Bldg.
Wallner, A., 2739 Germantown Av.
Walters, A., 629 Chestnut
Waltman, A., 4083 Lancaster Av.
Wasserman, B. J., Hotel Majestic
Wasserman, Chas., Allegheny & Front
428
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Wasserman, Mrs. Jos., Wissa. and
Hortter
Wasserman, M., 4221 Parrish
Wax, C , 325 Jackson
Wax, Morris, 4114 Parkside Av.
Waxman, A., 115 S. 58th
Waxman, F., 35 S. 13th
Waxman, J-., 221 Callowhill
Waxman, S. S., 2401 N. Broad
Weaver, A. S., 2168 N. Franklin
Weber, A. F., 119 S. 18th
Weber, H. B., 1325 Lindley Av.
Weber, Herman, 3852 Girard Av.
Weiman, H. I., 1032 Filbert
Weinbaum, J., 1211 Chestnut
Weinberg, Chas., 4048 Girard Av.
Weinberg, Maurice G., 915 Wyoming
Av.
Weiner, A., 321 N. 8th
Weiner, D. M., 4809 N. Warnock
Weiner, F., 1530 Locust
Weiner. G., 1118 Walnut
Weiner, P., 1824 S. 5th
Weiner, W., 232 N. 13th
Weinrott, Leo., Equitable Bldg.
Weinstein,
H., /ti
724 S.
wemsiein, n.,
o. IBroad
18 Ruscomb
Weinstein, Jacob, 1718
ikers Trust Bldg.
Weinstein, J. I.. Banke:
Weinstein, Dr. M. A., 615 Pine
Weinstein, M., 326 S.' 5th
Weinstein, M., 2631 S. 9th
Weinstraub, B., 4757 N. 12th
Weinstraub, Leo I., 333 S. 5th
Weintraub, M., 5427 N. 12th
Weiser, David, 744 Passyunk Av.
Weisfeld, H., 4718 N. 8th
Weisman, M. R.( 313 E. Louden
Weiss, Chas. J., 1620 Lindley Av.
Weiss, J., 1920 Columbia Av.
Weiss, S., Bankers Tr. Bldg.
Weiss, S., 1412 Lindley Av.
Weissman, S. S., 15th and Susquehanna Av.
Wenger, M., 1229 Walnut
Wernick, A., 275 S. 63d
Werrin, M., 1104 N. 41st
Wertheimer, Rev. W., 972 N. Marshall
Wexler, I., 5026 N. Hutchinson
Whetstone, M. K., Stock Exchange
White, C. H., 4831 Woodland Av.
White, Morris, 309 Arch
Whitehill, Clayton, 1509 N. 17th
Widerman, H. W., 309 South
Widron, A., 4201 N. 8th
Wiener, M. C , 1036 Pine
Wilensky, H. H., 5853 Hoffman Av.
Wilf, E., 23 N. 60th
Wilf, L., 5246 Berks
Wilf, L., 519 South
Wingrade, S., 12 N. 4th
Winigrad, S., 421 S. 40th
Winkelman, Philip, 2340 N. Front
Winokur, Rev. A., 5858 Christian
Winthrop, M.. 4209 Haverford Av.
Wintrob, J. M., 2209 W. Venango
Wirtshafter, E., 2736 Kensington Av.
Wiseman, H. S., 6738 Dicks Av.
Witlin, W. G., 1200 Walnut
Woldorf, Ida, 527 W. Oxford
Wolf, A., 5241 Warrington Av.
Wolf, Benj. H., 1509 South
Wolf, David, 15 Bank
Wolf, E., 5238 Warnock
Wolfe, M. B., 3943 Pennsgrove
Wolff, E., 4171 Leidy Av.
Wolfson, Dr. T., 602 Spruce
Wolgin, I., 4746 N. 12th
Woloz, I 4615 N. 5th
Wolsey, Rabbi L., Rodeph Sholom
Cong.
Woolman, M. H., N. American Bldg.
Wurzel, M. L., 420 S. 47th
Yampell, M. B., 4645 N. Hurley
Yarish, P., 5430 Arlington
Yaskin, Dr. Jos. C , 1719 N. 52d
Yellin, S., 222 N. 11th
Yocum, H. C , 8724 Germantown Av.
Yurden, H., 4202 Parkside Av.
Zabotinsky, DT. A. S., 523 N. 6th
Zacharies, G. J., 5821 Catherine
Zacher, S., 253 N. 2nd
Zausmer, I., 2537 N. 33d
Zcehtzel, S., 1105 South
Zeitlin, Prof. S., Dropsie College
Zeitz, Sam'l., 4744 N. 10th
Zemble, A. S., 830 Snyder Av.
Zimmerman, Dr. M. L., 1610 Spruce
Zinman, F., 601 N. 2nd
Zinman, H. D., 601 N. 2nd
Zinman, J. M., 301 Walnut
Zinman, S., 323 W. Durham Rd.
Zinn, E., 831 Cherry
Zinn, J., 121 N. 8th
Zinn, Martin, 1141 S. 60th
SUBSCRIBER
Fleischhauer, H. J., 68 N. 4th
Guest, G. C , 4400 Market
Pittsburgh
LIFE MEMBERS
Frank, Mr. & Mrs. I. W., 5601 Irwin
Av.
Lehman, A. C., Blaw-Knox Co.
Lehman, L., 914 Penna. Av.
Neiman. B., 5405 Northumberland Av.
Raub, Mr. & Mrs. E., 5837 Bartlett
Rauh, Marcus, 5621 Northumberland
Av.
Rothschild. M., c/o Rosenbaum Co.
Weil, A. Leo., 5931 Howe
PATRON
Kaufmann, E. J., 5th & Smithfield
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Aronson, H. M., Aronson Bldg.
Broido, J., 6554 Bartlett
Busis, D., 804 N. Negley Av.
Cohen, W. S., 5516 Northumberland
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Dreyfuss, Barney, 5547 Bartlett
Falk, Leon, 1218 Farmers Bk. Bldg.
Frank, E. J., 1336 Inverness Av.
Fuss, S. L., 601 Berger Bldg.
Giffen, I. L., 5519 Black
Goff, M., 1200 Farragut
Gunsberg, Rev. M., 605 Lockhart
Klee, Wm. B., 5307 Northumberland
Lewis, A., 5714 Woodmont
Mars, A. L., 1206 Cojwell
Mayer, Dr. E. E., Jenkins Arcade
Bldg.
Neaman, H. I.. 7612 Bennett
Rodef Sholom Cong., 4905 Fifth Av.
Rosenbaum, W., 6323 Darlington Rd.
Rosenbloora, Mrs. S., 1036 Beechwood
Blvd.
Sashs, C. H., 5541 Hays
Saniel, S., 432 Diamond
Sedler, B., 5424 Albemarle
Stadtfeld, Jos., Union Trust Bide.
Winters, J. M., c/o Rosenbaum Co.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Aaron, Marcus, 5564 Aylesboro Av.
Abrams, Israel A., 909 Adelaide
Adelman, L. F., 1623 Denniston, E. E.
Adler, J., 6370 Burchfield Av.
Adler, Mrs. L. H., Mt. Oliver P. O.
Adler, L. J., 5846 Bartlett
Alpern, Lewis M., 433 Union Trust
Bldg.
Amshel, Louis, 1661 Beechwood Blvd.
Applestein, B., 2707 Penn Av.
Applestein, H. J., 508 Jones Law Bldg.
Arnfeld, M., 415 Winebiddle Av.
Aronson, I. L., 2000 Wendover
Aronson, J. H., Aronson Bldg.
Aronson, L. R., Box 59, Carson Sta.
Avner, M. L., 5847 Beacon
Azen, M., 1023 Fifth Av.
Bachrach, M. D., 2328 Tilbury
Baiter, R., 5421 Albemarle
Barkon, Louis, 3011 Centre Av.
Bart, L., 804 Heths Av., E. E.
Bezell, Dr. D. L., 5880 Darlington Rd.
Benswanger, R., c/o Rosenbaum Co.
Berkman, S., 5801 Bartlett
Berkowitz, Dr. A. B., 10 E. North Av.
Bernstein, I. A., 5501 Beverly PI.
Bernstein, Dr. L. B., 5704 Darlington
Rd.
Blank, C. C , 72-74 Roberts
Blatt, J. T., 2208 Wightman
Bloom, Rev. J., 5525 Avondale PI.
Blum, H.. 824 Collins Av.
Braunstein, E. L., 200 Smithfield
Braunstein, M.. 1108 Winterton, E. E.
Broide, A. J., 5920 Beacon
Buckstein, S., 5840 Phillips Av.
Caplan, Abe.. 5851 Douglas
Caplan, Dr. Louis, 328 Fnck Bldg.
Caplan, M. L., 5525 Margaretta
Carnegie Library of Schenley Pk.
Chaitken, Maurice. Bakewell Bldg.
Cohen, T., Court House
Cohen, J. H., 5615 Bartlett
429
Cohn, Mrs. W. H., 5867 Hobart
Davis, A., 221 S. Rebecca
Davis, Mrs. Barnet, 318 Aiken Av.
Deemer, N., 5522 Wilkins Av.
DeRoy, A. J., 5731 Bartlett
Edelstein, H., 2034 Beaver Av.
Edlis, Adolph. 1106 De Victor P.
Fechheimer, C. J., 5420 Plainfield
Feinberg, L., 8 Leslie, Ingram
Feinblatt, J., 209 Anderson
Feldstein, B. H., 1122 Mellon
Felser. A. M., 200 Dinwiddie
Finkelhor, R. K., 5721 Northumberland
Foster, L. B., 5533 Aylesboro Av.
Frank, J. H., 344 5th Av.
Frankel, Chas. W., 415 Bakewell Bldg.
Friedman, M., 1400 Inverness Av.
Friedman, Rabbi S. B., 6360 Phillips
Av.
Click, D., 1540 Shady Av.
Glick, Peter, 1204 Park Bldg.
Gluck, S., 5619 Hobart
Goldbloom, A., 644 Grant
Goldbloom, H., 5846 Darlington Rd.
Goldenson, Rev. SI H., 5th and Morewood
Goldinger, A., 5619 Penn Av.
Goldstein, Dr. S., 733 Broughton
Goodman, J., 6373 Aldersan
Gordon, A. T., 359 S. Atlantic Av.
Gorenstein, I., 122 E. Ohio, N. S.
Greenberger, j . , Jones Law Bldg.
Greenberger, L., 5933 Hobart
Greenburg, I. S., 257 McKee PI.
Gresser, S. M., 2342 Centre Av.
Grodner, P. H., 5539 Black
Haas, L., 823 N. Euclid Av.
Hahn, S., 5524 Walnut
Hailperin, Rabbi H., 218 Craft Av.
Half, Morris, 6410 Bartlett
Half, Rudolph, 5537 Darlington Rd.
Hanauer, A. M., 5632 Aylesboro Av.
Harris, H. M., 3439 Butler
Hartan, B., 5858 Phillips Av.
Heb. Inst. of Pittsburgh, Wylie Av.
and Green
Heller, M. E., 613 N. St. Clair
Henly, J., 5502 Raleigh
Hepwer, Jacob M., 5652 Melvin
Hermanovich, J., 92 Bradford Av.,
Crafton
Heymann, Ph. S., 205 S. Pacific Av.
Hirschfield, B., 5899 Bartlett
Horvitz, B., 5514 Darlington Rd.
Jackson. Dr. D. F., 8112 Jenkins
Arcade
Jackson, Dr. J. M., 1543 Denniston
Av.
Tay, Joseph, William Penn Hotel
Kahn, Mrs. F., 1214 Loraine N. S.
Kahn, J., 5174 Liberty Av.
Kamens, Dr. A. F., 3526 Beechwood
Blvd.
Kann, B., 5528 Baywood
Kann, M., Arrott Bldg.
Kann, S., 5517 Beacon
Kaufman, A. H., 902 Union Tr. Bldg.
430
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Kaufman, Mrs. Isaac, Schenley Apts.
Kingsbacher, M., 5625 Madboro Rd.
Kletz, A. R., 5847 Nicholson
Kolodney, Wm., c/o Y. M. & Y. W.
Kuntz, Mrs. P., 924 Vickroy
Landay, M. N., 2006 Beechwood Blvd.
Lando, Morris, 907 Penn Av.
Lando, Wm., 331 4th Av.
Lencher, D. M., 915 Penn Av.
Lesher, M. B., 1454 Shady Av.
Levin, I. H., 425 Hastings
Levin, J., 3436 Ward
Levin, L. S., 1356 Denniston Av.
Levy, Mrs. J. L., 5745 Beacon
Lichter, Rabbi B. A., 5436 Jackson
Lieberman, S., 501 Wilmot
Lieberman, S. B., 2317 Sherbrook
Luskin, Max, 1434 N. St. Clair
Lutsky, M. M., 1550 Centre Av.
Mackay, M. A., 1606 Beechwood Blvd.
Madeabach, F., 1718 Broadway Av.
Mallin, S., 729 E. Ohio
Marcus, J. H., 5662 Phillips Av.
Marick, Dr. S. W., 1608 Center Av.
Melnick, I. A., 507 Jones Law Bldg.
Mervis, M., 5930 Beacon
Miller, I. F., 908 N. St. Clair
Morrison, L.. 908 Fifth Av.
Nathanson, J. B., 5537 Beeler
Neaman, A. H., 435 Wabash Bldg.
Neaman, Morris, 308 Roberts
Newman, S., 1440 Barnsdale
Nolan, M. H., 1400 N. Negley
Obernauer, Harold, 1841 Centre Av.
Olbum, A., 2302 Eldridge
Oppenheim, G. H., 929 5th Av.
Oseroff, A., 906 Forbes
Osgood, Sam., 1135 Mellon
Palley, J. L., 1115 Fayette
Passamaneck, H., 315 Bellefield
Pearlman, B., 5742 Darlington Rd.
Pearlstein, Chas., 5680 Melvin
Perlstein, Max, 2309 Sherbrook, W.
Perrin, S., 5737 Beacon
Pittsburgh Lodge No. 44, I. O. B. B.
Price, J., 5513 Bryant
Raphael, Benj., 6360 Alderson
Rathbart, J., Diamond Bk. Bldg.
Reich, Jos. H., 5510 Darlington Rd.
Ress, A. M., 1012 5th Av.
Rice, N., 5919 Phillips Av.
Robins, O., 2321 Sherbrook
Rose, Rabbi G., 2110 Murray Av.
Rosen, Dr. S. J., 1208 Fifth Ave.
Rosenberg, Mrs. A. H., 1129 Mellon
Rosenberg, M. A., 1626 Locust
Rosenthal, M., 5866 Solway, S. H.
Ruben, Mrs. Maurice, 333 42nd
Ruslander, M., 1622 Beeohwood Blvd.
Sachs, H., 2550 Beechwood Blvd.
Sachs, I.. 1522 Centre Av.
Saville, A., 907 Highview, E. E.
Schein, Saul, 725 N. St. Clair
Scheinman, I. L., 306 N. Negley Av.
Schwlberg, A., 632 Penn Av.
Seder, A., care of Frank & Seder
Seegman, Dr. S., 5833 Hobart
Shapiro, I. L., 6029 Stanton Av.
Shaw, Dr. H. A., 2223 Carson
Sidenberg, H., Federal Reserve Bldg.
Silverburg, H., 5854 Ellsworth Av.
Simon, Dr. D. L., 202 Jenkins Bldg.
Snitzer, Dr. H. M., 202 Jenkins
Arcade
Solomon, Rev. John, 5 Reed
Spann, Max J., 5731 Hobart
Spear, Nathaniel, 915 Penn Av.
Spitz Chas. L., 5514 Woodmont
Steinberg, B. C, 718 Hastings
Swiss, I. A., 5511 Stanton Av.
Teplitz, A. C., 910 Berger Bldg.
Thorpe, Dr. H. E., 6400 Forward Av.
Tolochko, M. L., 910 Berger Bldg.
Weil, Henry E., 401 Winton
Wein, A., 7110 Monticello
Weiner, M.. 412 Lincoln Av.
Weisberg, J., 1623 Centre Av.
Wesoky, S., 5823 Callowhill
White, Chas., 5711 Pocusset
Wilkoff, D. L., 5606 Fair Oaks
Wolff, I., c/o Kaufman's Dept. Store
Wolk, W., 5874 Hobart
Y. M. & Y. W. H. A., Bellefield, 5th
& Forbes
Zeidman, S., 6662 Northumberland
Zeligsohn, j . \>., 179 43d
Zugsmith, Mrs. E.( 5632 Woodmont
Pittston
Fleischer, Cecilia, 51 Church
Levin, H. H., 54-56 N. Main
Levin, I. A., 157 N. Main
Rubinstein, Dr. Harry, 53 N. Main
Portage
Wittan, Dave
Pottstown
LIBRARY
MEMBERS
Pollock, M., 853 South
Printz, A., 636 High
Singer, L., 353 King
ANNUAL
MEMBERS
Berger, B., 330 Jefferson Av.
Estreicher, J., 516 Walnut
Feuerman, S., 323 High
Hoffman, P., 236 High
Lipkin, S., 215 High
Magitson, H., 619 N. Evans
Miller, Isaac, 308 Rosedale Dr.
Potts ville
Breit, A., care of Grace Fashion
Shop
Deull, J. E., 2080 W. Market
Holstein, L., 1311 W. Market
Marks, L. H., 1907 Mahantonga
Prince, S., 1919 W. Norwegian
Weis, Wm. I., 2166 Mahantonga
Weiss, S. S., 1705 Manhantonga
Weiss, S., 1921 W. Norwegian
Y. M. H. A., 104 N. Center
Zimmerman, J., 2164 Mahantonga
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Punxsutawney
Rosenthal, A. G., 206 Dinsmore Av.
Quakertown
Ktein, A., 116 E. Broad
Reading
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Levin, P., 24 N. 6th
Luria, Max, Colonial Bldg.
ANNUAL
MEMBERS
Bender, E., 220 N. 5th
Claster, J., 307 Carsonia Av.
Epstein, Jonas, 1228 Eckert Av.
Goldstein, A., 1622 N. 11th
Greenberg, N. N., 1543 Perkiomen Av.
Grotta, David, 232 Chymer
Kotzen, S. J., 515 N. 8th
Liever, H., 1712 Mineral Spring Rd.
Lurio, S. R., 1104 Perkiomen Av.
Regner, Rabbi S. L., 40 N. 11th
Schwartz, M., 1526 Hill Rd.
Sondheim, DT. S. J., 119 S. 5th
Weiss, E., 216 N. 4th
Wolfson, S., 418 Carsonia Av.
Yampol, Rabbi S. B., 317 N. 6th
Zable, B. D., 424 Penn
Sayre
Weiss, Harry, 315 S. Elmer Av.
Scottdale
Morris, C , 617 Mulberry
Scranton
LIBRARY
MEMBERS
Oppenheim, I. E., 1121 Myrtle
Rice, Alfred, 805 Taylor Av.
Samter, S., 701 N. Webster Av.
ANNUAL
MEMBERS
Allen, Israel, 326 Penn Av.
Arzt, Rabbi Max, 1010 Monroe Av.
Beck, Jules, 905 Olive
Cantor, Dr. A. S., 540 Wyoming Av.
Cohen, A., 1321 Mulberry
Cohen, A. B., 121 Mulberry
Cohen, Harry A., 2138 Washington
Avenue
Feuer, I., 839 Madison Av.
Finklestein, M. J., 1022 Poplar
Gerson, I., 309 Lack Av.
Goldsmith, Mrs. R. M., 827 Clay Av.
Goodman, M. L., 910 Clay Av..
Halpert, Dr. H., 602 N. Washington
Heller, Rabbi B., Madison Av. Temple
Horn, Rev. Wm. S., 1411 Pine
Jewish Federation, 440 Wyoming Av.
Joseph, L., 1116 Grandview
Kaplan, H., 914 Pine
Kaplan, Max, 914 Pine
Krotosky, I., 801 N. Webster Av.
Landau, David, 839 Taylor Av.
431
Milkman, Dr. L. A., Union Bk Bldg.
Miller, M., 1009 Gibson
Needle, H., 823 Connell Bldg.
Newman, A., 907 Clay Av.
Oettinger, L., 645 N. Webster Av.
Oldstein, Dr. H. J., 431 Lack Av.
Rabinovitch, D., 126 Orange
Rosenberg, A. S., 619 N. Wash. Av.
Siegel, H. M., 414 Connell Bldg.
Silverberg, M., 2140 N. Wash. Av.
Sommers, M., 623 Adams Av.
Tannenbaum, J. A., 531 Linden
Temko, J. M., 924 Monroe Av.
Weil, H. J., c/o Elks Club
Weinberg, Samuel, 306 Penn Av.
Weiss, E., 313 Lack Av.
Y. M. H. A., 440 Wyoming Av.
Sharon
Rosenblum, A. M., 133 Hazen PI.
Sheffield
Pinsler, Leo, Center
Shenandoah
Levit, Max
Segal, M. M., 30 W. Center
Siskin, Rabbi H., 35 S. Jardin
South Bethlehem
Hartman, J., 511 Pecker Av.
Sell, Anton, 730 Seneca
Stonehurst
LIBRARY
MEMBER
Maimed, A. T., 25 Overhill Rd.
Stroudsburg
Congregation Sons of Israel
Wolf, L , 774 Bryant
Sunbury
Markley, M. H., 211 N. 2d
Uniontown
Friedman, S.
Rosenbaum, Jos.
Rosenberg, E. H., 410 E. Main
Upper Darby
Lichtenberg, Lt. Col. C , 300 Strathmore Rd.
Black, C. L., 146 Heather Rd.
Forstadt, J., 136 Heather Rd.
Malen, J. B., 33 W. State Rd.
Warren
Ball, Dr. M. V., 316 Hazel
Glassman, E. I., 3d Av. & Hickory
Stein, E. L., 209 Liberty
Washington
Goldfarb, Rev. J., 34 N. Franklin
Hanan, R., 137 S. Main
432
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
West Chester
LIBRARY
MEMBER
Benson, Samuel T., 109 W. Gay
ANNUAL
MEMBER
Weiss, Morris, 508 S. Walnut
Wilkes-Barre
LIBRARY
MEMBER
Salzman, Rev. M., 94 W. Ross
Shapiro, Henry, 524 S. Franklin
Silverblatt, J., 86 Academy
Smulyan, M., 169 Charles
Temple Israel Liby., 239 S. River
Tischler, Dr. M., 132 S. Franklin
Tomberg, I., 205-07 S. Washington
Weissman, C. H., 2 Terrace
Weitzenkorn, J. K., S. Main
Israel, R., 395 S. Franklin
ANNUAL
Wilkinsburg
MEMBERS
Arnow, I. N., 41 S. Wash.
Bravman, B., 307 S. River
Bravman, J., 80 W. Ross
Brabman, P., 261 Academy
Casper, Louis, 310 S. River
Casper, Max, 61 Carey Av.
Cohen, B., 86 Riverside Dr.
Coons, Jos, D., 275 S. River
Coons, Jos. S., 77 W. Ross
Davidson, Rabbi I., 300 E. South
Feinberg, H., 372 S. Franklin
Freedman, M., 451 S. River
Freeman, H. L., 21 S. Franklin
Gnessin, Miss M., 239 S. River
Groh, Isador, P. O. Box 88
Hirschowitz H. R., 33 W. South
Kaufman, Dr. I., 123 S. Franklin
Levitsky, Rabbi L. M., 95 W. Ross
Levy, A., 290 Academy
Levy, Felix, T., 421 S. Franklin
Long, Dr. Chas., 33 S. Washington
Long, Millard F., 281 S. Franklin
Poppy, L., 554 S. Franklin
LIBRARY
MEMBER
Biderman, L., 1342 Franklin Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Adler, S. P., 500 Todd
Darb, Miss M., 1342 Franklin Av.
Harstein, Mrs. S., 1282 Franklin Av.
Williamsport
LIBRARY
MEMBER
Brozman, J. L., 349 Pine
ANNUAL
MEMBERS
Mantinband, Rabbi C , 425 Center
Pechter, H. B., Park Hotel
Sinclair, H., 710 Park Av.
York
Biederman, S., 130 S. Newberry
Field, I., 174 S. Pine
Simmons, A., 819 S. Duke
Zweifler, D., 837 Linden Av.
RHODE ISLAND
East Greenwich
Halsband, John L.
Silverman, H., Main
Pawtucket
Pansy, J., 22 Blodgett Av.
Providence
LIFE
MEMBER
Misch, Mrs. C , 400 Westminster
ANNUAL
MEMBERS
Abel, B., 129 Prairie Av.
Alper, Benj. L., 120 Alney
Bellin, H. D., 938 Hospital Tr. Bldg.
Berger, Dr. L., 76 Dorrance
Bliss, M. W., 46 Montague
Conn, J., 214 Friendship
Einstein, Mrs. M., 121 Moore
Engle, J., 1 Fountain
Garfinkle, I., 24 Wheatan
Gartner, Mrs. M., 214 Lenox Av.
Goldman, Rabbi I. M., 227 Waterman
Goldowsky, B. M., 64 Baker
Hassenfeld, Mrs. H.. 23 Elmway
Hassenfeld, Mrs. M. L., 343 Elmgrove Av.
Joslin, Philip C , 148 Prospect
Kane, Mrs. E., 94 Taylor
Levin, B., 15 Elmway
Magid, S. M., 102 Halsey
Markensohn, F., 142 Lenox Av.
Orenstein, S. H., 106 Davis
Paris, P. B., 31 Saunter
Priest, S., 232 Norwood Av.
Rabinowitz, Wm., 64 12th
Robinson, J. A., 74 Charles
Sab. Sch Cong, of Israel & David,
162 Irving Av.
Schussheim, Rabbi M., 249 Gallatin
Silverman, A., 210 Blackstone Blvd.
Smith, Jos., 32 Westminster
Temkin, N., 154 Prospect
Temple Beth El Sab. School
Woonsocket
LIBRARY MEMBER
Darman, A. I., 309 Prospect
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
433
SOUTH CAROLINA
Aiken
Darlington
Polier, M. S., 1020 Greenville
Lutniansky, M. S., 109 Park Av.
Bennettsville
Florence
Strauss, L.
LIBRARY MEMBER
Bishopville
Levinson, H.
Cohen, A. A., 112 E. Evans
Sindler, Mrs. F., Box 103
Greenville
Charleston
Endel, Mrs. H., Lindel Av.
Hepler, J., 601 King
Hornick, M. J., St. Johns Hotel
St. Mathews
Loeb, Mrs. L., 53 Gibbes
Marks, R., Murray Blvd. at Tradd
LIBRARY MEMBER
Raisin, Rev. J. S., 207 Broad
Pearlstine, Shep
Rittenberg, Sara., 187 Rutledge Av.
Solomons, Mrs. E. M., F. Marion
Sumter
Hotel
Wilensky, H. L., 88 Ashley Av.
Kirschner, D., 37 N. Main
Timmonsville
Schafer, Mrs. Pauline
Columbia
Citron, M., 1421 Elmwood Av.
SOUTH DAKOTA
Mitchell
Sioux Falls
Hess, Rabbi J., 133 Summit Av.
Papermaster, G., 417 W. 12th
Stern, Dr. M. A.
Mizel, P. E., 316 W. 6th
TENNESSEE
Bristol
Hecht, H., P. O. Box 416
Chattanooga
Adler, H. C , 415 W. 5th
Levine, J. L., 1022 Volunteer Bldg.
Ochs, M. B., Elizabeth Apts.
Rabin, J., 311 E. 9th
Shillman, Rabbi S. R., Mizpah Cong.
Silverman, M. H., 620 W. 6th
Winer, H. A., 618 W. 9th
Wise, Harry, c/o Wise Creamery Co.
Cleveland
Ard, N., 309 Inman
Covington
Padower, S. B., c/o Excelsior Cleaners
Jackson
Rosenbloom, J. L., 370 Highland Av.
Johnson City
Cantor, M. E., 301 E. Eighth Av.
Gump, L. D,, 112 Watanaga Av.
Silver, Wm., 112 W. Unaka Av.
Knoxville
Gourse, Geo., Gay
Rosenthal, D. A., Box 252
University of Tennessee
Winick, B. R., 201 E. Vine Av.
Memphis
LIBRARY MEMBER
Goltman, Dr. M., 995 Madison Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Blumenthal, H.. 1252 Peabody Av.
Ettelson, Rev. H. W., Parkview Apt.
Hotel
Gates, Elias, 257 S. Pauline
Hottendorf, J., 279 Lewis
Isenberg, S., 126 N. Court
Marx, Mrs. M., 1556 Poplar Av.
Morris, H., Manhattan Bank
Peres, H., 307 Wagner PI.
Pinstein, T., 177 Beale Av.
Nashville
Cohen, R., Aberdeen Apts.
Ellis, M. W., 202 6th Av., S.
Fensterwald, J., c/o Burk & Co.
Garfinkle, E., 705 Demumbreun
434
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Ghertner, S., 1702 Ashwood Av.
Goldberg, A. L., Jr., 129-141 5th Av.
o.
Loventhal, Lee J., 216 Union
Mark, Rabbi J., Vine St. Temple
May, Jack, 3749 Whitland Av.
Meyer, A. H., 2212 Patterson
Salzman, H., Park View Apt.
Simon, Jos., 2002 Terrace PI.
Spitz, Dr. H., 1406 Beechwood Av.
Weinstein, I., 610 Church
Y. M. H. A., Polk & Union
TEXAS
Amarillo
Abramson, B., Box 349
Beaumont
Aronson, B., Orleans
Bluum, B., 1122 Hazel Av.
Greenberg, Dr. P. B., 1310 Broadway
Levy, Leon R., 201 Main
Sharfstein, J., 2350 Calder Av.
Big Spring
De Vries, H., 700 Gregg
Dallas
LIBRARY MEMBER
Hexter, Victor, 622-3 Linz Bldg.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Barish, Jos, 2028 Cadiz
Bromberg, H. L., 2621 S. Blvd.
Bromberg, Mrs. I. G., 2617 S. Blvd.
Dreyfus, G<, c/o Dreyfus & Son
Gutman, Mrs. H. J., Melrose Court
Hexter, J. K., 420 Linz Bldg.
Kahn, L. S., 9Q0 Elm
Kleinman, Louis, 2830 S. Ervay
Kramer, A. L., 4934 Gaston Av.
Lefkowitz, Rabbi D., 2415 S. Blvd.
Neuman, Dr. A., 325 Wilson Bldg.
Novin, Louis, 3015 Park Row
Rosenthal, H., 2831 Forest Av.
Siegel, L., 319 N. Willomet
Sigel, Harry, 2606 S. Blvd.
Smith, A. J.. 2719 S. Ervay
Tonkon, I. E., c/o Sanger Bros., Inc.
Yonack, Jacob, 2803 S. Blvd.
El Paso
Arenson, C , 1017 California
Farber, Ben., 114 E. Overland
Fischbein, L., 206 N. Oregon
Given, Charles, 215 El Paso
Goodman, J., 1300 N. El Paso
Krupp, Hayman, 501 Los Angeles
Rosenfield, L. A., 802 Cinn.
Rosing, Wm., Rural Route No. 2
Roth, Rabbi j . M., 1216 Los Angeles
Schwartz, Maurice, Poplar Dry Goods
Co.
Shay, I. H., 1129 E. California
Talpis, T. H., 1108 Cincinnati
Talpis, Ralph T., 630 Prospect Av.
Weinstein Reuben, 617 Cinn.
Yaffe, A., 409 S. El Paso
Zielonka, Rabbi M., Temple Mt.
Sinai
Fort Sam Houston
Horowitz, Col. Nathan
Fort Worth
Cong, Ahavath-Sholom, 109 W.
Weath'd
Council of Jewish Women, 2548
Greene Av.
Gernsbacher, H., 601 Throckmorton
Gilbert, L. G., 308 S. Adams
Merfeld. Rev. H. A., 1122 Penna. Av.
Simon, U. M., 322 S. Adams
Galveston
Cohen, Rabbi H., 1920 Broadway
Cohen, Robt. I., 1704 31st
Cong. M'nai Israel, 1405 23d
Corneliussen, Ivar, 2113 Av. H.
Framer, I., 2924 Av. K
Kay, S. S., 1706 Av., "G"
Mendel, A. B., 722 Av. T
Moskowitz, G. I.. 1504 14th
Paskowitz, M., 3312 L
Swiff, J., 2606 Av. K
Weinstein, M., 2920 Av. R
Zinn, W. N., 2808 O'A
Gonzales
Stahl, Jacob, P. O. Box 327
Greenville
Glassman, Sam., Box 403
Houston
Barnstow. Rev. Dr. H., 1919 Richmond Rd.
Blechman, Rabbi N., 1614 McGowan
Av.
Cohn, Moses D., 502 Drew Av.
Finkelstein, M. B., 1412 Chenevert
Freeman, H. W., 528 Bankers Mort.
Bldg.
Fruhman, M., c/o Levy Bros. Co.
Geller, Rev. J., 1814 Franklin Av.
Harris, L. L., c/o Harris Hahlo Co.
Hirsch, Maurice, 1617 Rusk Av.
Houston Public Library
Klein, A., 208 Emerson
Levy, A. M., 309 Avondale
Maas, Saml. J., 3820 Labranch
Nathan, M. H., 2406 Hamilton
Radoff, H. V., 84 Stanley
Schechter, Rabbi A. I., 1220 Chartres
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Schnitzer, Max, Magnolia Paper Co.
Weil, Sol. B., 1818 Texas Av.
Werlin, J. B., 418 Louisiana
Westheimer, M., 4018 Voakum Blvd.
Litwin, Mrs. B., 220 Idaho
Mazer, S. S., 401 E. Ashbey
Norman, P., 919 Delaware
Oppenhemer, Jesse D., 309 Madison
Sadovsky, B., 911 W. Huisache
Sikora, J., 428 W. Houston
Vexler, A., 639 W. Elmira
Washer, N. M., 1403 Main Av.
Wiederman, S., 1010 W. Commerce
Lockhart
Weinbaum, A.
Marshall
Meyers, E. A.
Weis, N., 1505 N. Franklin
Sherman
Exstein, Ike, 804 S. Travis
Port Arthur
Jacobs, J., P. O. Box 1173
Daily, S.
435
Eldridge, S.
Rosenberg
San Antonio
Baer, L. A., 127 W. Evergreen
Carnegie Library
Cristol, Louis, 301 Alama Plaza
Eidelberg, A., I l l Delaware
Eldridge, S. C , 845 Erie Av.
Frisch, Rabbi E., 1016 San Pedro Av.
Guttman, T., 112 W. Houston
Kaliski, Dr. S. K., 355 E. Craig PI.
Karin, N., 1014 Denver Blvd.
Lee, L. N., 511 E. Euclid Av.
Texarkana
Tyler
Lipstate, P. H. .
Wodel, B., Mary Av.
Wunch, David, P. O. Box 142
Waco
Greenberg, Dr. A., 1509 N. 5th
Macht, W.
Wichita Falls
Pink, L., 2412 10th
Schwab, Rev. S. J., Temple Israel
Temple Israel Liby., 11th & Burnette
UTAH
Ogden
Kaplan, S. J., 2425 Washington Av.
Kreiner, J., 2018 Wash Av.
Salt Lake City
Alexander, Daniel, Deseret Bank Bldg.
Finkelstein, H., 74 S. Wolcott Av.
Public Library
Rosenblatt, N., 840 S. 4th, W.
VERMONT
Rutland
Wolk, H. H., 54 S. Main
VIRGINIA
Berryville
Scheuer, Louis
Front Royal
Scheuer, M. L.
Harrisonburg
Spiro, Morris, 345 E. Wolf
Lexington
Lyons, L. M.
Sachs, E., 12 N. Main
Lynchburg
Berman, H., 914 Main
Newport News
Rosenbaum, A., 2608 Wash. Av.
Norfolk
Berlin, Dr. L., Medical Arts Bldg.
Block, N., 222 Arlington PI.
Cohen, Simon, 812 Westover Av.
Crockin, H., 1101 Langly Rd.
Friedman, Dr. L., Medical Arts Bldg.
Glasser, M. A., 11th & Liberty
Haskell, J., 720 Graydon Pk.
Kaplan, L., 26 Commerce
Naiman, Dr. B. L., Dickson Bldg.
Spigel, B., No. 4 Wellington Apts.
Stam, S., 1 Seminole Apt.
Steinbach, Rabbi A. A., 621 Princess
Anne Rd.
Petersburg
LIBRARY MEMBER
Rosenstock, L. A., 305 S, Jefferson
436
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Gellman, Aaron, 316 W. Sycamore
Sollod, H., 22 Center Hill
Portsmouth
Crockin, M. M., 215 High
Richmond
LIBRARY MEMBER
Goldin, H., 1339 N. 17th
Hutzler, A. B., 1032 Mutual Bldg.
Hutzler, H. S., 1107 E. Main
Karp, Dr. L., 2001 W. Grace
Levy, H., Brook & Marshall
Sherman, A., 2505 Kensington Av.
Strauss, M. J., P. O. Box 1297
Ullman, E., 211 E. Grace
Roanoke
Goldstein, J., 719 Marshall Av., S. W.
Straus, A. L., 712 N. Blvd.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Beth Ahabah Remembrance Library
Binswanger, H. S., 2220 Monument
Av.
Brown, A., 106 S. Addison
Calisch, Rev. E. N.,' 1643 Monument
Av.
Friedman, F., 2828 Monument Av.
Friedman, H., 1112 Oakwood Av.
Rosslyn
Himmelfarb, Paul
Staunton
Shultz, Albert
University
University of Va. Library
WASHINGTON
Centralia
Shanedling, Jacob
Seattle
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Eckstein, N., 1000 14th Av., N.
Lang, J. C , Nat'l Grocery Co.
Lindenberger, R., 1104 21st Av., N.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Asia, S. B., 512 Denny Bldg.
Block, Saml., 1509 2d Av.
Cooper, I., 1104 Minor Av. & Spring
Glesin, N., 105 Wash.
Grunbaum, O. S., 1513 6th Av.
Kreielsheimer Bros., Artie Club
Lindenberger, B., 1137 22d Av., N.
Prottas, L. M., 512 21st, N.
Rickles, P. A., 2803 E. Marion
Robbins, A., 1234 22d N.
Rogers, S., 128 Aloha
Seattle Public Library
Shafer, J., 809 35th Av.
Shemanski, A., 1332 2d Av.
Stern, L. M., 930 16th Av., N.
Weinstein, Benj., 923 23rd, N.
Wingrad, Rabbi S., 1715 Wash.
Tacoma
Feist, Theo., 705 N. G.
WEST VIRGINIA
Bluefield
Cohen, I., 126 Lakeside Av.
Charleston
Goldman, Mrs. M. B., 2020 Kanawha
Gordon, H., 1614 Virginia
Loeb, Leo, Charleston Nat'l Bk. Bldg.
Polan, H., 1715 Virginia
Sclove, L. I., Bk. of Commerce Bldg.
Webb, J. Box 742
Clarksburg
Friedlander, M.
Elkins
Goldberg, Mrs. George
GnlHen, Dr. Wm. W.
Fairmont
LIBRARY MEMBER
Gnnriman, Simon, Box 491
Huntington
Biern, Samuel, 1214 8th
Cohen, Joseph, 1224 5th Av.
Feinstein, Rabbi A., 727 9th Av.
Gore, Sam., 1010 3d Av.
Samson, S., 301 W. 11th Av.
Keyser
Kaplon, Miss E., 127 N. Main
Kimball
Forman, Abe, Main
Logan
Eiland, R. R.
Rosen, Jack
Martinsburg
Katz, George, Bowerleigh Apts.
Montgomery
Margolis, Mrs. M. A., 321 2d Av.
Meyer, Aaron
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
Morgantown
Cohen, I.
Slaven, M. S., 41 Prairie Av.
North Fork
Shear, Nathan
437
Romney
Weston
Kaplan, B., 161 Main Av.
Wheeling
Barach, H. H., 1100 Main
Farer, I., Beech Glenn
Goldinger, T., 1039 Main
Levine, H. S., 113 Wash. Av., Chantal
Ct.
Moss, J. E., 28th & Chaplin
Reichblum, A., 90 14th
Rosenbloom, B. L., Univ. Club
Shulman, C. E., 43 Zane
Sonneborn, M., 14th & Market
LIBRARY MEMBER
Catzen, A., Box 335
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Brook, B.
Seligman, H., Box 365
Totz, H.
Princeton
Borinsky, B., 207 Mercer
WISCONSIN
Beloit
Kapitanoff, Sam., 721 Oak
Green Bay
Abrahams. B., 1411 Cedar
Sauber, W m , 116 N. Roosevelt
Kenosha
Dean, O., 5533 6th Av.
Pious, Louis, 689 Exchange
Rappaport, Rev. J., 516 60th
Rosenblum, J. D., 856 Greenwood Av.
Madison
Chechik, A., 1937 Univ. Av.
Ellman, Miss F., 16 N. Hancock
Feldman, J., 29 N. Charter
Goldberg, M., 317 E. Wilson
Kay, Dr. H. M., University Club
Kneller, S., 203 King
Landman, Rabbi S., 1829 Van Hise
Av.
Levitan, S., 10 E. Gorham
Mack, Mrs. H., 2117 Regent
Perlman, Dr. J., 1805 Rowley Av.
Perlman. Prof. S., 1805 Rowley Av.
Picus, M., 824 Mound
Schein, Judge S., 23 S, Mills
Simon, E., 1111 Lincoln
Simon, J., 445 W. Gilman
Sinaiko, S., 30 N. Murry
Sinaiko. Mrs. S., 1521 W. Wash. Av.
Stein, S., 819 Mound
Sweet, B. F., 1501 Chandler
Sweet, I., 1321 Wilkanson
Manitowoc
Balkansky, D., 733 N. 9th
Milwaukee
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Freschl, Edw., 41 4th
Men's Club, Cong. Beth Israel
Nickall, B. E., 107 Wisconsin
Stone, N., Boston Store
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Barnett, I., 200 Muskego Av.
Baron, Rabbi J. L., 501 Kenwood
Blvd.
Birnbaum, A., 743 3d
Brachman, O., 1396 Downer Av.
Cohen, I., 729 Hi-Mount Blvd.
Coplin, Chas., 310 29th
Friend, Charles, 6185 Plankinton Bldg.
Fromkin, M., 623 2d
Glass, B. Z., 626 Walnut
Gymal Doled Club, 133 Second
Heller, Rudolph, 329 Wells
Hirschberg, Rev. S., 546 Kenwood
Blvd.
Horwitz, Hayim, 630 51st
Kleinman, Rabbi Ph., 1006 Slst
Koenig, B., 415 M. & M. Bldg.
Krasno, J. E., 351 E. Water
Lekachman, H., 638 Bartlett Av.
Litow, Chas., 731 Hi Mount Blvd.
Manhoff, Miss Sarah H., 114 Grand
Av.
Mayer, J., 2701 McKinley Blvd.
Miller, Morris, 467 Webster PI.
Morse, B., 545 Stowell Av.
Nathan, Harry, 200 Muskego
Padway, J. A., 814-16 Brumder Bldg.
Rel. School Temple Emanuel-El, 501
Kenwood Blvd.
Rotter, L. H., 1038 Grand Blvd.
Saltzstein, A. L., 609 Lake Dr.
Schlomovitz, Dr. B. H., 901 Straus
Bldg.
Schwartz, H. D., 957 44th
Stern, Morris, 1009 Hackett Av.
Sure, Dr. J. H., 423 Kenwood Blvd.
Temple Beth El Library
Ullman, Leo, 444 Wyoming PI.
Wiener, Dr. A. R., 623 Galena
Wolfsohn, Leo A., 302 15th
Wollheim, H. S., 1st Nat'l Bk. Bldg.
438
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Minocqua
Ehrenreich, Rev. B. C.
S. Milwaukee
Arne, L., 1023 Milwaukee Av.
Racine
Goodman, J., 1810 Wisconsin
Silver. N. S., 17th & Holborn
Red Granite
Robock, Sam
Sheboygan
Ochs, J. L., Box 376
Superior
Siegel, A., 1905 John Av.
Siegel, Mrs. E., 1610 Hughett Av.
Waukesha
Levine, Dr. B. S., U. S. V. H. 37
AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND
Auckland, New Zealand
Nathan, David L.
Malvern, Melbourne
Jona, Dr. Leon, 104 Wattletree Rd.
Brisbane, Queensland
Blumberg, D., Inkerman
Hertzberg, Abraham
Hertzberg, Marcus, Charlotte
Levine, B., Bo\yer Ter., New Farm
Roubin, S., Oriel Rd. Ascot
Melbourne, Victoria
Barnet, N., 117 Alma Rd., St. Kilda
Brandt, H. A., 34 Queen
Brodie, Rabbi I., 340 St. Kilda Rd.
Groenewoud, A., 31 Norwood Rd.
Mestel, Rabbi S., 94 Simpson E.
Rothberg, S., Pasadena, High, Kew.
Schalit, Dr. M. A., 139 Wellington
Footscray, Victoria
Benjamin, Arthur, c/o Footscray
Tannery
Benjamin, L., 12 Bunbury
Boas, I. H., care of Footscray
Tannery
Hawthorn
Jona, Dr. J., 124 Glenferrie Rd.
South Brisbane, Queensland
Eshensky, I., Church Av.
Sydney, New So. Wales
Blaski, A., Box 1051 G. P. O.
BELGIUM
Antwerp
Behr, A., 17 rue de la petite Ourse
Schulsinger, J., 236 Rue de l'Extension
BRITISH WEST INDIES
Kingston, Jamaica
Delgado, A., 19 Kingston Gds.
Meyers & Son, F. L., "May Ville" N.
Myers, Horace V., 188 Harbour
de Pinto, C. S.. 10 Port Royal
de Souza, S. M. A., 32 Church
CANADA
Calgary, Alberta
Shumiatcher, A. I., C.P.R. Law Dept.
Halifax, N. S.
Simon, J., 103 Upper Water
Chipman, Alberta
Olyan, Harry
Fort William, Ontario
Tritt, S., 405 Victoria Av.
Hamilton, Ontario
Franklin. A., 174 Catherine, E.
Levy, M., 129 King, E.
Shacofsky, Meyer I., 260 Aberdeen Av.
Silverman, Morris, 130 Ontario Av.
Glace Bay
Begum, M., Commercial
Hotter, Sask.
HoPfer, I., Via Tribune
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
London, Ontario
Goldstick, I., 318 Oxford
Montreal, Quebec
L I F E MEMBERS
Cohen, Lyon, 25 Rosemont Av.
Jacobs, S. W., 83 Craig, W.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Abel, J., 1610 St. Lawrence Blvd.
Abramowitz, Rev. Dr. H., 507 Argyle
Av.
Albert M., 628 Victoria Av.
Alexander, A. J., 198 McGill
Berger, Rabbi J., 102 Grey Av.
Blaustein, S., P. O. Box 104, Station
B.
Brown, M. A., 1179 Bleury
Caiserman, H. M., 2081 C, St. Urbain
Av.
Cheifetz, L., 4319 St. Dominique
Cohen, A., 4899 Sherbrooke, VV.
Cohen, A. S., Powers Bldg.
Cohen, A. Z., 36 Prince
Cohen, Harry, 260 St. James
Crown, Myer, Box 321, Station B
Darwin, R. A., 20 Glencoe Av.
Fed. of Young Judea, 226 Sherbrooke,
W.
Fitch, L., Power Bldg.
Garber, M., 120 St. James
Gittleson, A. L., 4260 Dorchester, \V.
Glickman, M. J., 242 St. Catherine, W.
Glickman, P., 207 St. Catherine, W.
Goldstein, Mrs. G., 670 Sherbrooke, E.
Greenspon, Dr. E. A., Medical Arts
Bldg.
Haltrecht, S. B., 48 St. Louis Sq.
Hart, A. J., 30 St. John
Hellig, L. E., 50 Drummond Apts.
Jassby, A. H., 427 Wood Av.
Kahn, Maurice, 292 St. Catherine, \V.
Kahn, S., 4555 Sherbrooke, W.
Kaplansky, A. L., 312 Addington
Kellert, Sol., 85 St. Catherine, W.
Levin, Leon, 1179 Bleury
Levinson, Jos., 2S2 St. Catherine, W.
Levinson, Solomon, 282 St. Catherine,
W.
Levy, William, 1435-43 Bleury
Meyer, Miss B., McGill University
Monteflore Club, 399 Guy
Neuman, J. N., 204 Cote, Antoine Rd.
Rose, T. F., 43 Dorchester, W.
Rosenbaum, Dr. J., 1396 St. Catherine, W.
Rozovsky, L., 1064 Clarke
Rubin, 453 Strathcona Av.
Sanders, G., 170 Laurier
Sessenwein, H., 230 McGill
Shalinsky, D., 361 St. Catherine, \V.
Share, S., 310 Marlon Av.
Solomon, Dr. A. S., 121 Bishop
Sommer, A., 50 Westmount Av.
Sperber, M. M., 120 St. James
Steine, M. B., 86 Grey Nun's
439
Stern, Rabbi H. J., 4128 Sherbrooke,
W.
Stewart, J., 813 St. Paul, W.
The. Eagle Pub. Co., 1207 St. Lawrence Blvd.
Vineberg, H., 1202 St. Lawrence Blvd.
Weinfield, Henry, 120 St. James
Weinstein, H., 1120 Lajoie Av.
Wiseman, S., 953 S. Urbain
Workman, M., 585 Sherbrooke, W
V. M. H. A., 697 St. Urbain
Ottawa, Ontario
Abelson, J., 188 Sparks
Berger, S., 74 Sparks
Caplan, C , 201 Friel
Epstein, L., 181 Bank
Franklin, J. M., 420 Lewis
Freedman, J., 43-45 George
Freiman, A. J., 69 Rideau
Goldfield, B., 360 Friel
Marks, J. J., 416 Somerset
Rosenes, H., 172 Cartier
Outremont
Poyaner, Mrs. M., 718 Hartland Av.
Regina, Sask.
Ellman, M. C , McCallum Hill Bldg.
Kabaker, I., 1940 Quebec
Regina judaean Lib'y, 2030 St. John
Rosenberg, L., 2632 Victoria Av.
Saskatoon, Sask.
Rose, M. A., 334 2nd Av., N.
Satanovsky, J., Suite 7, Boston Apts.
Vogel, Aaron, 410 Av. D, So.
Wolochow, D., c/o Univ. of Saskatchewan
Sydney, Whitney Pier
Gallay, A. J., 752 Victoria Rd.
Timmons, Ontario
Halperin, L., Box 1270
Toronto, Ontario
LIFE
MEMBERS
Granatstein. T. S., 138 Madison Av.
Kates, Dr. M., 16 Edgar Av.
LIBRARY
MEMBERS
Cohen, M. G., 93 Madison Av.
Scheuer, E., 131 Yonge
ANNUAL
MEMBERS
Arkush, S. F., 20 Oriole Rd.
Bochner, E. L., 67 Breadalbane
Brown, B., 600 Bay
Cohen, Abr., 126 Hilton
Cohen, A., 165 Lowther Av.
Cohen, J. L.. 310 Excelsior Life Bldg.
Cohen, C , 58 Cheritas Av.
Draimin, Mrs. C , 80 Howland Av.
440
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
Gelber, L., 133 Lowther Av.
Gelber, M., 221 Richmond, W.
Goldstick, Ed., 356 Delaware Av.
Goldstick, M., 3S8a Delaware Av%
Goodman, H. M., \60'A Arlington Av.
Goodman, M., 124 Spedina Av.
Gordon, T. M., 403 Dundas, W.
Gotfrid, S. S., 401 Manning Av.
Greenberg, Mrs. H. C , 43 Northcliffe
Blvd.
Herlick, C. M., 72 Queen, W.
Holy Blossom Libr'y, 115 Bond
Isserman, Rabbi F. M., 115 Bond
Kamman, M. J., 6 Braemore Gds.
Kronick, S., 49 Bathurst
Lavine, Dr. J. J., 11 Fyndall Av.
Mehr, H., 13 Balsam Rd.
Messinger, Mrs. H., 32 Ulster
Phillips, H., 26 Lauder Av.
Pollack, Dr. M. A., 297 Rushton Rd.
Pullan, H., 6 Maud
Rosenberg, H. S., 2a Sylvan Av.
Rotenberg, H., 122 Federal Bldg.
Rotenberg, L., Jr., 99 Kendal Av.
Schwartz, L. M., 33 Monroe Pk. Av.
Simon, L., 20 South Dr.
Singer, J., 517 Palmerston Blvd.
Solway, Dr. L. J., 410 Dundas, W.
Taube, H. N., 324 Huron
Till, M. S., 24 Spadina Av.
Toronto Heb. Journal, 253 Queen, W.
Vise, B., 20 Victoria
Weinrob, A., 70 Lombard
Willinsky, Dr. A. I., 316 Bloor, W.
Yolles, L. S., 66 Roxborough Dr.
Zeidman, M., 165 Elizabeth
Vancouver, B. C.
Brotman, M. H., 4637 Marguerite Av.
Westmont
Cohen, Joseph, 418 Mt. Stephen Av.
Goldenberg, H. C , 417 Mt. Stephen
Av.
Jacobs, E. W., 4185 Sherbrooke
Levin, A., 478 Strathcona Av.
Levy, P., 606 Victoria Av.
Robinson, B., 510 Grosvenor Av.
Winnipeg, Manitoba
Brotman, E. A., 306 Confed. Life
Bldg.
Cantor, A. E., 656 Main
Cohen, A., 424 Grain Exchange
Cohen, M., 167 Machray Av.
Finkelstein, M. J., 137 Westgate
Frank, Rabbi S., The Fort Garry Hotel
Haid, M., 669 Bannatyne Av.
Kay, H., 96 Canora
Miller, B., 816 Main
Morosnick, L. D., 422 Wardlaw Av.
Savitz, Rabbi D. S., Royal Bk. Bldg.
Shinbane, A. M., 8 Ellesmere Apts.
Stein, J. I., 248 Garfield
Steinkopf, Max, Canada Bldg.
Sternberg, J. N., 300 Grain Exchange
Weidman Bros., 244 Jarvis Av.
CENTRAL AMERICA
COSTA RICA
Limon
Wendorf, G. C , Box 477
CHINA
Foochow
Sokobin, S., American Consulate
CUBA
Canaguey
Weil, Wm. D., French Consul
Havana
Schechter, M., 58 Muralla
DENMARK
Copenhagen
Simonsen, Prof. D., Skindergade 28
EGYPT
Alexandria
Dwek, Raphael, Box 71
Goldrei, I. A., Box 502
Nadler, Marco, B. P. 13-15
Cairo
Alexander, A., 2 Chareh El Kadi El
Fade
Curiel, E. M., c/o Messers. Mosseri
& Co.
Mosser, J., P. O. Box 988
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
441
ENGLAND
Bangor, No. Wales
Wartski, Isidore, Derwen Deg.
Hove
Asher, Mrs. S. N., 30 Westbourne
Villas
Hove Brighton
Barovitch. M., Vallance L., Vallance
Gds.
Cohen, A. A., 30 New Church Rd.
Rosenbloom, A., 34 Pembroke Crescent
Birmingham
Cohen, B., 558 Stratford Rd.
Wand, Dr. S., 40 Bristol Rd.
Wolfson, H., 557 Stratford Rd.
Bradford
Bergson, Harry, 29 Oak Lane
Brodie, Dr. A., Allerton
Ludman, A., 8 Oak Mount
Hull
Barnett, S., 109 Park Grove
Goldstein, H., 31 Westbourne Av.
Brighton
Sawyer, J., 3 Cavendish PI.
Lancashire
Hawkins, H. L., 85 Peel Rd., Bootle
Cambridge
LIFE
Israel Abrahams
Christ College
MEMBER
Memorial
Libr'y,
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Goldstein, S., St. John's College
Super, A. S., Emanuel College.
Cheltenham
Lipson, D. L., Corinth House
Dartford Kent
Harris, H. (M. B.), Joyce Green
Hospital
Edgbaston Birmingham
Bernstein, A., 127 Pershore Rd.
Cohen, Rev. Dr. A., 2 HighBeld Rd.
Cohen, Isaac, 158 Bristol Rd.
Dalton, G., 7 Speedwell Rd.
Davis, A. B., 270 Pershore Rd.
Drapkin, L. H., 97 Belgrave Rd.
Dresden, E., 159 Pershore Rd.
Glass, Dr. L., 218 Pershore Rd.
Goodman, R., 130 Bristol Rd.
Hamberger, A., 232 Pershore Rd.
Marks, Hyman, Oakmount, Westbourne Rd.
Rainbow, M. L., 241 Hagley Rd.
Solomons, Rev. S. I., 7 Speedwell Rd.
Winroope, S., 306 Edward Rd.
Winston, T., 23 Carpenter Rd.
Leeds
Brodetsky, Prof. S., 62 Headingly
Lane, Westgate
Frais, A., Esq., Bentcliffe St. Lane,
Roundhay
Freedman, H., Esq., 4 Hamilton Av.
Friedman, A., Esq., 54 Harehills Av.
Goodman, L., Esq., 171 Hyde Pk. Rd.
Gottliffe, L., Esq., 55 Cowper
Harrison, B., Esq., 81 Harehills Av.
Heaps, N., Esq., 1 Oak Rd., Chapeltown Rd.
Hurwitz, S., Esq., 46 Sholebroke Av.
Lightman, V., Esq., The Towers,
Roundhay
Morris, H., Esq., 185 Chapeltown Rd.
Newton, D., Esq., Greystones, N. Park
Rd.
Sandelson, D., Esq., Chislehurst St.
Lane, Roundhay
Silman, M., Esq., 167 Chapeltown Rd.
Stross, M., Esq., Roland House, Wetherby Rd.
Yewdall, A., Ashbourne, Chapteltown
Rd.
Liverpool
Benas, B. B., 43 Castle
Ettinger, P., Soho, Islington
Lewis, S., 45 Prescot St.
London
LIFE
MEMBERS
Harrowgate Yorks
Burton, M., 64 Kent Rd.
Cope, L., Esq., Duchy Rd.
Hipps, P., Esq., 50 Kent Rd.
Kahan, Rev. E., 142 Valley Dr.
Adler, E. N., 20 Porchester Sq.
Baer, Mrs. S., 262 Finchley Rd.,
iM. W. 3
Baron, B., Arcadia Works, City Rd.
Baron, E., Arcadia Works, City Rd.
Baron, L. B., Arcadia Works, City Rd.
Rubinstein, B., Broad St. House
Herne Bay
Hochbaum, F., Kent Coast College
Japhet, M., 60 London Wall, E. C. 2
Herts
Salaman, Dr. R. N., Homestall, Barley
Schiff, O., 155 Sloane, S. W.
FRIEND
PATRON
442
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
LIBRARY MEMBERS
Epstein, M., 80 Cranwich, Stamford,
N. 16
Gold, A., 196 Whitechapel Rd., E. 1
Montefiore, C. G., Al Portman Sq.,
W. I.
Stepney Public Libraries, Bancroft
Rd., Mile End Rd.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Aaron, D. H., 63 Threadneedle,
E. C. 2
Abraham, M., 26 Staverton, Brond'yi
N. W.
Abrahams, P., 59 New Rd., E. C.
Abromowitz, M., 290 Queens Rd.,
Upton
Adler, H. N., 5 Abercorn PI., N. W. 8
Adler, Rev. M., 38 Hallam, Porfd.
PI. \V.
Asher, S. G., 30 Berkeley Sq., W.
Baker, F., 40 Heber Rd.
Baker, Mrs. P., 229 Willesden La.,
N. W.
Barling, N., la Stirling Mansions,
Canfield Gds.
Barling, S., 22 Mansen, E. 1
Barnett, P., 39 Fitichley Rd., St.
John's Wood
Bentwich, H., Fountain Ct. Temple
Bernstein, W., Angelo Porter Ct., G. L.
Block, I., 66 The Ridgeway, G. G.,
N. W.
Bloch, S. D., 16 W. Heath Av.
Gold. G.
Blooman, S., 18 Heath Dr.. N. W. 3
Bodner, B., 4 Davis Av., Hunten, E. 1
Bowman, L. G., Esq., Jews Free
School
Briscoe, Mrs. Ida, 33 Hook Rd.,
Surbiton
Brom, Rev. M., 17 Lawford Rd.,
Camdentown
Brudno, Dr. H., 241 New Cross, S. E.
14
Buchler, Dr., Tewish College, Queen
Sq. Ho.
Cardozo, D. A. Jessurun, 40 Ashworth
Mansions, Elgin Av., W. 9
Cohen, B., 30 Hilldrop Crescent, Camdentown
Cohen, Rabbi H., 66 Fountayne. N. 16
Cohen, I., 31 Thistlewaite, Clapton,
E. 5
Cohen, I., 27 Pattison Rd., Childs Hill
Cowen, Jos., 1 Berners & Oxford, W.
Dainow, S. H., 2 Inglewood Mansions
Daltroflf. E. M., S3 Anson Rd.,
N. W. 2
Davis, M., 8 Ladbroke Terrace
De Mesquita, Rev. X>. Bueno, 4 Ashworth
Dimson, Mrs. Z., 1 Kelross Rd.,
Highbury
Eban, Dr. I., 12 Kennington Pk. Rd.
Elkes, J. H., 182 Oxford, Putney,
S. W. 15
Epstein, M., Broad St. Ho.
Epstein, Miss R., 80 Cranwich Rd.
Feitelson, D., 11 Antrim Mansions,
B. Pk.
Fersht, B. A., 20 Gt. St. Helens
Frumkin, E., 8 Beaulieu Villas, Seven
Sisters Rd., N. 4
Gertler, H., 14 Spital Sq., Bishop.,
E. 1
Ginsburg, Miss O., 36 Lemon, E. 1
Goiten, E. D., 23 Bloomfield, M. V.,
W. 9
Goldberg, P., 12 Langbourne Av.,
Highgate
Goldman, F., 77 Comberwell Rd.,
S C I
Goldstine, A., 230 Whitechapel Rd.,
E. 1.
Goldston, Rev. N., 2 Pepys Rd., New
Cross, S. E. 19
Goldwater, Mrs. H., 120 Walm Lane,
Ckwd.
Gollop, Rabbi M., 7 Westbourne, B.,
W. 2
Greenberg, L. J., 8 Aylestone Av.
Greenwood, S. H., 36 Grosvenor, H.,
N. 5
Gross, Mrs. S., 42 Gloucester Rd., N. 4
Hagin, L., 98 Gt. Tower
Harris, Arnold, 1 Goswell Rd., E. C. 1
Hertz, Rev. Dr. J. H., 48 Hamilton,
N. W.
Hirsch, J. M., 81 Goldhurst Ter.
Hpstd.
Hoddes, J., 19 Antrim Mansions,
N. W.
Hyams, A. H., 73 Gore Rd., E. 9
Irwell, Mrs. H., Gliucester PI.
Jackson, E. L., 34 High Holborn
Jacobs, B., 11 Cleveland Sq., S. C. 4
Jacobs, H., 123 Inverness Ter., W. 2
Jacobs, J., 69 Brondesbury, N. W. 6
Jewish War Mem., 20 Great St. Helens
Jews Hosp. & Orph. Asy., West Norwood
Joseph, H., 125 High Holborn, W. C. 1
Kahan, Dr. L., Durham Row, Step.,
E. 1
Kessler, L., 8 Parcival Rd., N. W. 6
Korn, M. F., 101 Canfield Gds.,
N. W. 6
Lazarus, E. V., 65 Cazenove, Stanf'd
Hill
Lazarus, G., 94 Highbury New Rd.,
N.
Leibowitz, D. I., 30 Heathland, Stoke
N.
Lindsay, Dr. S. E., 443 N. C. Rd.,
S. E. 14
Livingstone, Rev. I., 15 Golders,
N. W. 11
Marchant, M., 4 Heneage La., Bevis
M.
Marks, J. M., 14 Woodchurch Rd..
N. W. 6
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
443
Marks, Simon, 35 Frognal Hampstead
Mattuck, Rabbi I., 28 St. John's
Wood, N. W. 8
Menken, Mrs. R. H., 14 Chatsworth
Rd., Brondesbury, N. W.
Meyers, M., 67 Cazenove Rd., N. 16
Millward, I. L., 37 Brondesbury,
N. W. 6
Morris, S., 92 High Rd., Chiswick,
S. W. 13
Myers, B., 67 Exeter Rd., N. W. 2
Myers, DT. I., 13 New Rd., E. 1
Myers, M., 55 Buckley Rd., N. W. 6
Naftalin, R., 43 Clapham Rd.
Ogez, C , 24 Queen Eliz. Walk, S. N.,
N. 16
Perlzweig, Rev. M., 28 St. John's
Wood Rd., N. W. 3
Philipp, O., 33 Ferncroft Av., H.,
N. W. 3
Pines, Dr. N., 41 Philpot, E. 1
Rathbone, J., Green Bank, The Avenue
Retkinsky, W., 23 Stamford Hill
Rich, J. M., 23 Finsbury Sq., E. C. 2
Rosen, Miss O. N., 59 Brondesbury
Rd.
Ross, D., 6 Sherriff Rd., W. Hpstd.
Sacks, Dr. S., 13 New Rd., E. C.
Samuel, W. S., 17 Carlton Hill
Samunov, I., Sinclair Rd., W. 14
Schauffer, Mrs. M. L., 9 Lodigges Rd.
Schen, L., 98 Great Tower St., E. C. 3
Schryver, Mrs. E., 32 Bolton Gds.
Simon, Leon, 55 St. Pauls Av.
Smith, S., 38 Kings Rd., Sloane Sq.
Snowman, H., 71 Brondesbury,
N. W. 6
Snowman, S., 8 Manstone Rd., Cricklewood
Soloman, J. A., 4 New Rd., E. 1
Solomons, M. A., 14 Cliffords Inn,
E. C. 4
Sonabend, J., 80 Bow Rd., E. 5
Spanjer, S., 58 St. Kildas Rd., N. 16
Swager, S., 43 King Edwards Rd.,
E. 9
Swaythinjr, The Dowager Lady, 28
Kensington Ct.
Tuck, Esq., Gustave, 33 U. Hamilton,
N. W.
Weizmann, Dr., 77 Great Russell
Woolf, S. J., 38 Wentworth Rd.,
N. W. 1
Yale, Dr. S., 35 Hampstead Rd.,
N. W. 4
Zeitlin, Dr. I., 157 Jubilee
Manchester
Adler, B., 41 Smedley
Adler, N. T., 44 Bignor, Hghtn.
Alman, L., 171 Gt. Xhicie
Bernstein, S., 1 Nightingale
Btesh, E. M., 14 Broadway, With-
Yorkshire
Jerome, L., 1 Redburn Av., Shipley
Cansino" I., Bedford Lodge. Br. Pk.
Caplan, N., 63 Stocks, Cneetham
Chadwick, Dr. W., 148 Oldham Rd.
Wolverhampton
Caplan, Dr. H., 77 Waterloo Rd,
Cohen, Rev. M. M., 64 Heywood,
Cheetham
Davis, N., 73 Claude Rd., Chortonville
Dr. Moses Gaster Lodge, I. O. B. B.
Finestone, A., 9 Wellington E., Hr.
Br.
Goldberg, I. W., 10a Lever
Jaffe, S., 18 Bignor, Cheetham
Lampell, S., 22 Devonshire, Hr. Br.
Letter, L., 4 Parkfield Rd., Didsbury
Locker, L., 75 Port, Piccadilly
Mendoza, Rev. J. P., 6 Queens Rd.
Mordell, Prof. L. J., University
Morgenstern, J., 117 Gt. Dude
Pereira-Rodrigues, Rev. B., 227 Cheetham Hill Rd.
Quas-Cohen, Mrs. P., Raynor Croft,
Bowdon
Samuels, I., 142 Bellott, Hghtn.
Shalyt, Wm., 21 Candos Rd., S.
Shammah, A. J., 6 Hall
Sieve, M., 484 Bury New Rd., Kersal
Slutzkin, N., 3a Queen
Sortman, M., 11 Derby, Cheetham
Sunlight, J., 4 St. Ann's Sq.
Susman, Dr. W. B., 5 Addison Ter.,
Viet. Pk.
Webber, Geo., Sunnyside, Leicester,
Br'n
Middlesborough
Epstein, Rabbi L, 3 Ayresome
Middlesex
Phillips, Dr. L., 28 Sheepcote Rd.
New Castle-upon-Tyne
Drukker, Rev. E., 21 Lyndhurst Av.
Newton, I., "Lyndore," The Grove
New Chichester, Sussex
Cohen, C. W-, Nyton, Aldingbourne
Newport Monmouthshire
Harris, Lionel L., 11 Fields Rd.
Phillips, H. D., Napoli Stow Pk., Av.
Northampton
Doffman, Mrs. S., 43 St. Matthews
Par.
Richmond, Surrey
Howitt, A., The Castle
Taylor, J. H., 21 Church Rd.
Southport, Lanes
Claff, S. A., 24b Alexandra. Rd.
444
AMERICAN JEWISH YEAR BOOK
FRANCE
Paris
Jewish Colonization Ass'n, 2 rue
Pasquier
- E- A -
Meller
6S R u e
d e Ia
Victoire
GERMANY
Bavaria
Loeb, Herrn Jas., Landhaus "Hochried"
Berlin
Hirsch, Siefried, Hagenstrasse 8,
Grunewald
Charlottenburg 2
Lehmann, Dr. J. ( Fasanenstr. 6
HUNGARY
Budapest
Landes-Rabbinerschule, VIII Robk Szilard-utca 26
INDIA
Bombay
ANNUAL
T J u v T ,,P^RjNi.
r- •
OJ
Judah, E. J., 31 Wodehouse Rd., Fort
MEMBER
Moses, M. A., Tarmahomed Bldg.
IRELAND
Dublin
Elyan, L., 16 Leinster Sq., Rathmines
Levin, J., 42 Harcourt
Tomkin, H., 19 Longwood. Av., S.
Cir. Rd.
ITALY
Firenze
Palermo
Glass, Dr. C , care of Casa Editrice
.T ,
_ T .
.
_
,
Israel
Nathan, E. I., American Consul
MEXICO
Sonora
Leff, Dr. M. I., Apartado 38, Nacozari
PALESTINE
Haifa
Barnard, A. L., care of Dairy Balfouria
Kligler, I. J., Hebrew University
Rosenblatt, B. A., Box 1, Hador
Hacarmel
Jaffa
Blumberg, J. A., c/o Post Office
Jerusalem
Agronsky, G., P. O. Box 625
Goldwater, A., Box 238
Hyamson, A. M., Dept. of Labour,
Box 437
Kronenberg, Mrs., Rehoboth, Palestine
Landau, Miss A., Evelina de Roth.
Sch.
Sacher, Miss IL, Box 393
Seligman, M., Salameb Bldg.
Viteles, Harry, P. O. Box 238
Wilhelem, H. D., Mea Shearim
Rehoboth
Sampter, Miss Jessie E,
PORTO RICO
Matz, Julius, Fortuna
JEWISH PUBLICATION SOCIETY
445
PORTUGAL
104 Avenida Duque de Louie—lo
Levy, Abraham Abner, 17 Rua Castitho
Lisbon
Amzalak, Prof. Moses, Bensabat,
SCOTLAND
Edinburgh
Beinashowitz, Dr. J., University Union
Glasgow
Bloch, M., 138 Renfield
Cina, L., 67 Robertson Lane
Mellick, J., 23 Apsley PI.
Morris, Dr. N., Glasgow University
Ross, B., 6 Harrison Dr.
Samuels, J. M., 12 Beaumont Gate
Sieve, I., 8 St. Andrews Dr., Pollokshields
UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA
Aliwal North
Becker, D. N. ( P. O. Box 19
Becker, H., P. O. Box 48
Becker, M., P. O. Box 9
Cohen, H. M., Queens Ter.
Frankel, A., Imperial Hotel
Gerber, Rev. B., Barkly
Levy, Fanny, Queens Ter.
Marcow, A., Box 9
Sanders, B., P. O. Box 9
Sief, W., Somerset
Benoni, Transvaal
LIFE
MEMBER
Benoni Dorshei Zion Ass'n.
LIBRARY MEMBER
Kirschner, N., 105 Ampthill Av.
ANNUAL MEMBERS
Benoni Jewish Cultural & Social
Society
Frankel, L., 1-2 Benoni Arcade
Goodman, I., c/o Rand Daily Mail
Harris, M. H., 193 Elston Av.
Jacobs, M., US Woburn Av.
Levy, A. J., P. O. Box 342
London, G., P. O. Box 252
Segal, B., c/o Messers. Ackerman, Ltd.
Smith, M., Bright & Mayor Av.
Toker, M., P. O. Box 247
Bethlehem
Jacobson, Rae, P. O. Box 51
Pincoos, S., Box 150
Regensberg, E., Box 116
Righthouse, M., Box 96
!
Bloemfontein, O. F. S.
Bloch, Mrs. G., 4 Milner Rd.
Bradlow, H., P. O. Box 78, Maitland/
Pencharz, M., P. O. Box 755
Schwartz, A., P. O. Box 236
Bulawayo, Rhodesia
Blumberg, D. A., Box 409
Cape Town
Alexander, M., Sav. Bk. Bldg., 117 St.
George
Bashew, H., P. O. Box 343
Bashew, M., P. O. Box 343
Bender, Rev. A. P., Synagogue House
Benischowitz, M. I., 8 Parliament
Friedlander, Miss A., 38 Brownlow
Rd.
Grodner, L., Hilton Rd. & Montrose
Av.
Herbstein, Mrs. B., Tel Hai, Marmion
Rd.
Jackson, A. M., P. O. Box 341
Policansky, Mrs. L., "Shalom" Av. Le
Snear, Sea Point
Schermann, I., P. O. Box 2227
Schwartz, I., 84 St. George's
Zion, C , Box 1830
Zion, E., Box 1830
Cape Province
Guinsberg, Miss H. L., So. Sea View
Hilton Rd., Muizenberg
Levin, Fannie, P. O. Box 29, Somerset
East
Levenson, Mrs. M., Masonic Hotel,
Barkley E.
Muizenberg Kalk Bay Young Israel
Society
Queenstown Sons of Zion, 22 Livingston Rd., Queenstown
Schneider, B. P. O., Kenegha E. L.
Zneimer, I., E. Buftelspaagts Station
Clocolan, O. F. S.
Kornblum, A., P. O. Box 3
Durban
Bernstein, N., 198 Musgrave Rd.
Brookstone, M., 75 Vance Rd.
Freedman, A., Box 1218
Marcuson, M., Victoria Hotel
Mashal, Dr. B., 249 Avondale Rd.
Moss-Morris, H., P. O. Box 879
East London
Franklin, M., 114 Oxford
446
AMERICAN JEWISH YEARBOOK
Humansdorp
Markmann, A., P. O. Box 6
Schultz, Miss Esther, Royal Hotel
Jeppes
Lubner, M., 336-7 Marshall
Johannesburg, Transvaal
LIBRARY MEMBER
Beinashowitz, E., 6 Webb, Yeoville
ANNUAL
MEMBERS
Alexander, B., Box 2590
Belcher, Lewis L., 31 Sauer
Braude, M., Box 5084
Broadlow & Co., A. R., 83 Market
Cassel, P., P. O. Box 3511
Cranko, J., 46 Sauers Bldgs.
Edenburg, S., Box 5472
Elkin, B., Rock Ridge Rd.
Falkow, E., P. O. Box 7132
Hillman, M., Holland House, Park
town
Karnovsky, H. L., P. 0 . Box 5933
Kuper, I., 10 Elm, Houghton Estate
Lenson, I., Geranium
Lipworth, A., Box 5084
Lipworth, Dr. M. Eloff
Lipworth, W., Box 7132
London, S., Box 6009
Lurie, M., P. O. Box 3612
Massey, J., Box 4710
Miller, A. J . , 26 Lilly Av.
Pencharz, B., P. O. Box 1147
Schneier, S., P. O. Box 6009
Shaffer, D., 46 Sauers Bldgs.
Shapiro, J., 24 Regent, Yeoville
Sive, Abr., P. O. Box 5933
Sund, M., Box 5962
Kimberly
Goldstein, J., 19 Milner
King Williams Town
Cohen, M. B., 4 Wellington
Lindley, O. F. S.
Lange, S.
No. Port Elizabeth
Marcow, L. D., New Brighton
Pietersburg, Transvaal
Pietersburg Zoutpansberg Zionist
Society
Port Elizabeth
Port Elizabeth Judean Club, Main
Elion, S. J., P. O. Box 408
Toffa, H., 4 Cambridge Rd.
Mirkin, L., P. O. Box 9
Schumacker, J., Box 408
Solomons, W., 119 Princes
Weinronk, B., 12 Newington Rd.
Weinronk, Simon, 16 Dickens
Pretoria
Hirsch, Rabbi W., 211 Struben
Rajak, H., P. O. Box 1235
Saks, J. L., 210 Church
Rouxville, O. F. S.
Cohen, M.
Rubin, J., P. O. Box 30
Valsch River O. F. S.
Mankowitz, J.
Vereeniging Trans.
Feldman, Dr. S.
Vryheid, Natal
Slevanski, M. H.
Warmbaths
Isaacson, M. I., Box 27
SPAIN
Province Hurcia
Gibraltar, B. C.
Levy, M. I., 64 Irish Town, TurnSmilig, S., Casas Neuvas de Lorca
hills La.
VIRGIN ISLANDS, U. S. A.
St. Thomas
Trepuk, Max E., Villa Edlitham
WALES
Jerevitch, Rev. H., 79 Hamilton
Cardiff
losephson, A., 15 Beauchamp
Burstein, N. S., 135 Albany Rd. Roath
Kibel, Rev. S., 122 Cathedral Rd.
Pk.
Ovitz, J., 121 Cathedral Rd.
Cohen, G., 61 Marlborough Rd.
Phillips, T., 46 Claude Rd.
Reuben, E., 9 Glossop Ter.
Cohen, I. C , 48 Penylan Rd.
Samuel, S., 200 Albany Rd., Penylan
Cohen, M. J., 45 Colchester Av.
Shepherd, I., 12 Richmond Rd.
Diamond, A., 189 Bute Rd.
Shepherd, M., 99 Kimberly Rd.
Hauser, A., 37 Park PI.
Simmons, Rev. M. A., 70 Column Rd.
Tarmer, B., 50 Tydraw Rd.

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