Pengaruh Kepemimpinan Paternalistik Terhadap Komitmen PNS

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Pengaruh Kepemimpinan Paternalistik Terhadap Komitmen PNS
Bidang Unggulan: Good Governance
LAPORAN AKHIR HASIL
PENELITIAN HIBAH BERSAING INSTITUSI BATCH I
TAHUN ANGGARAN 2012
Judul
: Pengaruh Kepemimpinan Paternalistik terhadap
Komitmen PNS dalam Mewujudkan
Pemerintahan yang Kredibel dan Akuntabel
Ketua
:
Dodi Wirawan Irawanto, SE., M.Com., PhD.
NIDN. 0010127604
Anggota
:
1. Dr. Fatchur Rohman, SE., MSi.
NIDN. 0021016104
2.Nadiyah Hirfiyana Rosita, SE., MM.
NIDN. 0029098601
Dibiayai oleh Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi, Kementerian Pendidikan
dan Kebudayaan, Melalui DIPA Universitas Brawijaya nomor : 0636/02304.2.16/15/2012, tanggal 9 Desember 2011, dan berdasarkan SK Rektor
Universitas Brawijaya Nomor : 366/SK/2012 tanggal 13 Agustus 2012
Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian kepada Masyarakat
Universitas Brawijaya
2012
ABSTRAK
Untuk membuat sistem pemerintahan yang kredibel dan akuntabel, pemerintah harus
menetapkan sistem pemerintahan yang responsif dan memiliki orientasi ke pekerjaan
profesional dengan praktek model kepemimpinan yang baik juga. Irawanto (2008)
mengusulkan sebuah model kepemimpinan yang berakar pada budaya lokal yang jika
diterapkan dengan benar akan menyebabkan efektivitas organisasi, yang disebut model
kepemimpinan paternalistik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat apakah ada pengaruh
kepemimpinan paternalistik pada komitmen PNS dalam memberikan pemerintahan yang
kredibel dan akuntabel. Penelitian ini didasarkan pada metode penelitian survei. Populasi
penelitian ini adalah pegawai negeri sipil dengan pangkat kepala bagian minimal meliputi
pegawai negeri sipil yang bekerja di Pemerintah Kota dan Kabupaten, diwakili oleh tiga kota
besar di Jawa Timur, kota Malang, Batu dan Kabupaten. Dengan menyebarkan kuesioner
pada total 80 responden dan data dianalisa menggunakan PLS (PLS SMART) terbukti bahwa
kepemimpinan paternalistik memiliki dampak positif dan signifikan terhadap demografi PNS
di mana persepsi responden lebih tinggi dengan kebutuhan atasan mereka untuk menerapkan
kepemimpinan paternalistik sehingga berimplikasi pada tingginya komitmen mereka terhadap
organisasi meskipun dimediasi oleh demografi PNS. Disarankan kepada Pemerintah Kota
Malang, Batu dan Kabupaten Malang bahwa mereka untuk mensosialisasikana para pejabat
di lingkungan mereka untuk memperluas pemahaman akan gaya kepemimpinan dengan
model kepemimpinan paternalistik.
Kata kunci: Pemerintah, Kepeminpinan Paternalistik, Komitmen PNS, Kredibel,
Akuntabel
ABSTRACT
To create a system of government that credible and accountable, government must set a
system of governance that is responsive and have a oritentation to the professional work with
a good leadership model practices as well. Irawanto (2008) proposed a model of leadership
that is rooted in the local culture that if implemented properly will lead to organizational
effectiveness, which is called paternalistic leadership model. This study aims to see if there is
an influence of paternalistic leadership on civil commitment in delivering a credible
governance and accountable. This study is based on survey research methods. This study
population is a civil servant with the rank of section chief minimal covering civil servants
working in the City and Kabupaten Government, represented by three major cities in East
Java, the city of Malang, Batu and the District. By distributing questionnaires on total of 80
respondents and anaylsed the data using PLS (SMART PLS) it is proved that paternalistic
leadership has a positive and significant impact on PNS demographics where the higher the
respondent's perception to the need of their superiors to practice paternalistic leadership the
higher their commitment to the organizational as well although it is mediated by
demographics of PNS. It is recommended to the Government of Malang, Batu and Malang
regency that they should note that the officials in their environment to broaden the model of
paternalistic leadership.
Keywords: Government, Paternalistic Leadership, Civil Servants Commitment,
Credible, Accountable
RINGKASAN
Di dalam upaya menciptakan sistem pemerintahan yang kredibel dan akuntabel,
pemerintah telah menetapkan sistem tata kelola pemerintahan yang responsif dan
berorientasikan kepada professional kerja. Tata kelola pemerintahan yang kredibel dan
akuntabel idealnya tidak terlepas dari peran pemimpin di dalam mengarahkan segala sesuatu
yang terkait dengan penyelenggaraan sistem pemerintahan dengan mengacu kepada UU yang
berlaku serta sistem nilai/value ke-organisasian yang berlaku. Nilai individu di dalam
organisasi secara tidak langsung sangat dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan kepemimpinan yang
berlaku. Untuk konteks Indonesia, di dalam menjawab tantangan KKN yang semakin
merajalela, terutama di era otonomi daerah ini (Hamilton-Hart 2001) dibutuhkan sebuah
model kepemimpinan yang aplikatif di segala sektor kehidupan masyarakat, terutama di
pemerintahan.
Irawanto (2008) mengemukakan sebuah model kepemimpinan yang berakar pada
budaya lokal yang jika diterapkan dengan baik akan berujung pada keefektifitasan organisasi,
yakni model kepemimpinan Paternalistik. jika kepemimpinan Paternalistik memberikan
dampak positif terhadap aspek psikologis PNS dalam menjalankan tugasnya – apakah juga
memberikan jaminan terhadap tercapainya komitmen PNS dalam tata kelola yang kredibel
dan akuntabel. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk:
1. Melihat apakah ada pengaruh Kepemimpinan Paternalistik terhadap komitmen PNS di
dalam mewujudkan tata kelola pemerintahan yang kredibel dan akuntabel.
2. Melihat apakah ada pengaruh antara Persepsi Good Corporate Governance terhadap
Komitmen PNS di dalam mewujudkan tata kelola pemerintahan yang kredibel dan
akuntabel.
3. Melihat apakah faktor demografi PNS memegang peranan penting baik itu dalam
persepsi Kepemimpinan Paternalistik maupun Persepsi Good Corporate Governance
terhadap Komitmen PNS di dalam mewujudkan tata kelola pemerintahan yang
kredibel dan akuntabel.
Studi literatur kepemimpian secara komprehensif dapat disimpulkan bahwa
dominasi penelitian kepemimpinan masih menggunakan teori-teori yang berasal dari
Amerika, seperti kepemimpinan transformasional. Tentu anggapan ini tidak benar, karena
acapkali pemimpin mengalami kesulitan dalam beradaptasi dengan budaya-budaya para
bawahannya. Selain itu, di dunia penelitian sendiri, kepemimpinan transformasional juga
dianggap sebagai salah satu model kepemimpian sukses abad ini. konsep kepemimpinan
Paternalistik ada tiga elemen pembentuk kepemimpinan ini (Cheng, Chou et al. 2004), antara
lain : (1) Kepemimpinan otokratis; (2) Kepemimpinan kebajikan; dan (3) Kepemimpinan
moral. Studi terbaru mengenai kepemimpinan paternalistik di Indonesia (Irawanto, 2010 dan
Irawanto et al¸ 2012) membuktikan bahwa Kepemimpinan Paternalistik dapat di terima di
konteks Indonesia, terutama pada pegawan negeri sipil. Adapun kepemimpinan Paternalistik
veris Indonesia yang dikembangkan oleh Irawanto (2011) adalah model kepemimpinan
dengan dimensi yang agak berbeda dengan model yang sudah dikembangkan oleh peneliti
Taiwan, yakni: (1) Kepemimpinan Visibel, (2) Kepemimpinan Otoriter, (3) Kepemimpinan
Kebajikan, (4) Kepemimpinan Moral (tidak korupsi), (5) Kepemimpinan Moral (adil), (6)
Kepemimpinan Moral (keberanian) dan (7). Kepemimpinan Moral (murah hati).
Komitmen organisasi diartikan sebuah konsekuensi perilaku logis dari seorang
individu untuk memberikan perilaku menerima serta loyal terhadap organisasi di mana
mereka bekerja (Shore, Barksdale dan Shore T, 1995). Lebih lanjut Meyer dan Allen (1984)
mengemukakan bahwa komitmen seseorang terhadap organisasi merupakan suatu bentuk
investasi psikosoial individu dengan harapan imbalan kompensiasi serta karir, dimana di lain
sisi jika mereka meninggalkan organisasi akan berimplikasi kepada ongkos yang tinggi.
Meyer dan Allen mengajukan beberapa dimensi dari Komitmen Organisasi.
Hardjasoemantri (2003) Kunci utama memahami good governance, menurut
Masyarakat Transparansi Indonesia (MTI), adalah pemahaman atas prinsip-prinsip yang
mendasarinya. Bertolak dari prinsip-prinsip ini didapat tolok ukur kinerja suatu pemerintah.
Sanusi (2012) menjelaskan maksud dari good governance adalah mewujudkan
kepemerintahan yang baik. Sedangkan tujuan dari good governance adalah: (1)
meningkatnya disiplin dan etos kerja pegawai, (2) meningkatnya kualitas pelayanan publik,
(3) meningkatnya produktifitas, efisiensi, dan efektifitas operasional, (4) meningkatnya
akuntabilitas dan transparansi, (5) mencegah praktek korupsi, kolusi, dan nepotisme.
Penelitian ini didasarkan pada penelitian eksplanatori dengan metode survei. Populasi
penelitian ini adalah PNS dengan jabatan minimal Kepala seksi meliputi PNS yang bekerja di
Pemerintahan Kota dan Kabupater, yang diwakili oleh 3 kota besar di Jawa Timur, yakni
Kota Malang, Kota Batu dan Kabupaten Malang. Sedangkan metode penarikan sampel
dengan menggunakan metode accidental random sampling. Secara singkat variabel penelitian
adalah (1) Kepemimpinan Paternalistik (PLI) yang dikembangkanoleh Irawanto (2011)
dengan 7 sub variabel yakni kepemimpinan visibel, otoriter, kebajikan, dan 4 (empat) tipe
kepemimpinan moral. Sedangkan variabel ke dua (2) adalah Komitmen Organisasional yang
dikembangkan oleh Meyer dan Allen (1997) dengan yang terdiri dari 5 sub variabel yakni
komitmen afeksi, komitmen kontinyu, komitmen normatif, komitmen kewajiban, dan
komitmen moral. Selain itu untuk menilai persepsi PNS terhadap good goverenance yang
kredibel dan akuntabel digunakan instrumen penelitian yang dikembangkan di Indonesia
yakni oleh Trisnaningsih (2003) di Indonesian Institute of Corporate Governance yang
terdiri dari tujuh pertanyaan.
Hasil penelitian menunjukkan hubungan variabel Kepimimpinan Paternalistik (X1)
dengan Demografi PNS (Y1) menunjukkan nilai koefisien jalur sebesar 0,779 dengan nilai t
sebesar 15,904 Nilai tersebut lebih besar dari t tabel (1,960). Hasil ini berarti bahwa
Kepemimpinan Paternalistik memiliki hubungan yang positif dan signifikan terhadap
Demografi PNS dimana semakin tinggi persepsi responden akan perlunya atasan mereka
mempraktekan Kepemimpinan Paternalistik semakin tinggi pula Demografi PNS mereka.
Juga ditemukan hubungan variabel Demografi PNS (Y1) dengan Komitmen Organisasi (Y2)
menunjukkan nilai koefisien jalur sebesar 0,397 dengan nilai t sebesar 1,813 Nilai tersebut
mendekati dari t tabel (1,960). Hasil ini berarti bahwa Demografi PNS memiliki hubungan
yang positif dan signifikan terhadap Komitmen Organisasi dimana semakin tinggi faktor
Demografi PNS akan berimplikasi pada semakin tinggi pula Komitmen Organisasi mereka.
Disarankan kepada Pemerintah Kota Malang, Kota Batu dan Kabupaten Malang perlu
memperhatikan bahwa para pejabat di lingkungan mereka untuk membuka wawasan terhadap
model Kepemimpinan Paternalistik. Paling tidak dari penelitian ini dapat dilihat bahwa
pejabat eselon IV mempunyai preferensi yang tinggi terhadap pemimpin yang bisa
mengaplikasikan Kepemimpinan Paternalistik. Ini merupakan langkah yang positif
mengingat dengan aplikasi Kepemimpinan Paternalistk dapat meningkatkan komitmen PNS
terhadap organisasi. Secara bersama-sama juga mampu untuk menciptakan tata kelola
pemerintahan yang kredibel dan akuntabel.
SUMMARY
In the effort to create a credible system of governance and accountable the
government has to set a system of governance that is responsive and oriented to the
professionalism. Credible and accountable governance ideally not be separated from the role
of leadership in directing all things related to the implementation of the system of
government with reference to the applicable law and the system of values/ value that the
organization in the force. Individual values in organizations indirectly greatly influenced by
the prevailing environmental leadership. For the context of Indonesia, in the challenge of
corruption which is rampant, especially in the era of regional autonomy (Hamilton-Hart
2001) takes a leadership model applicable in all sectors of public life, especially in
government.
Irawanto (2008) proposed a model of leadership that is rooted in the local culture that
if implemented properly will lead to the organizational effectiveness, ie, paternalistic
leadership model. If paternalistic leadership have a positive impact on the psychological
aspects of civil servants in carrying out their duties - whether it also gives assurance to the
achievement of civil commitment in the governance of a credible and accountable. This study
aims to:
1. See if there is an influence paternalistic leadership on civil commitment in delivering
a credible governance and accountability
2. See if there is influence between perception Good Corporate Governance for civil
commitment in delivering a credible governance and accountability.
3. See if the demographic factors play an important role of civil servants both in the
perception of paternalistic leadership and the perception of good corporate
governance for civil commitment in delivering a credible governance and
accountability.
In a comprehensive leadership literature study it can be concluded that the dominance
of leadership studies still use theories from America, such as transformational leadership. Of
course this assumption is not true, because often leaders have difficulty in adapting to the
cultures of their subordinates. In addition, in the world of research itself, transformational
leadership is also regarded as one of this century successful models of leaderships. On the
other hand Paternalistic leadership concept, there are three elements forming this leadership
(Cheng, Chou et al., 2004), among others: (1) autocratic leadership, (2) benevolent leadership
and (3) moral leadership. Recent studies on paternalistic leadership in Indonesia (Irawanto,
2010 and Irawanto et al. ¸ 2012) proved that paternalistic leadership can be accepted in the
context of Indonesia, especially in civil servants (PNS). Indonesian Paternalistic leadership
model developed by Irawanto (2011) is a model of leadership with a slightly different
dimension to the model that has been developed by researchers in Taiwan, namely: (1)
Visible Leadership, (2) Authoritarian Leadership, (3) Benevolent Leadership, (4) Moral
Leadership (incorruptness), (5) Moral Leadership (magnanimity) (6) Moral Leadership
(courage) and (7). Moral Leadership (impartialness).
Organizational commitment is defined a logical consequence of the behavior of an
individual to provide loyalty behavioral to the organization in which they work (Shore,
Barksdale and Shore T, 1995). Furthermore, Meyer and Allen (1984) suggests that one's
commitment to the organization is a form of investment in the hope of reward individual
psicosocial compensation and career, where on the other side if they leave the organization
will have implications for the higher cost.
Hardjasoemantri (2003) stated that a key to understanding of good governance,
according to the Indonesian Transparency Society (MTI), is an understanding of the
underlying principles. Starting from these principles derived performance benchmarks of a
government. Sanusi (2012) describes the purpose of good governance is to achieve good
governance. While the goal of good governance are: (1) increased discipline and work ethic
of employees, (2) increasing the quality of public services, (3) increased productivity,
efficiency, and effectiveness of operations, (4) increasing accountability and transparency, (5)
prevent illegal corruption, collusion and nepotism.
This study is based on survey research with explanatory methods. This study
population is a civil servant with the rank of section chief minimal covering civil servants
working in the City and Regency Government, represented by three major cities in East Java,
the city of Malang, Batu and the Malang Regency. The sampling method is used the with
accidental method. In brief, the study variables were (1) paternalistic leadership (PLI), which
developed by Irawanto (2011) with 7 sub-variables that visible leadership, authoritarian,
benevolent, and 4 (four) types of moral leadership. While the others reserch variables were
Organizational Commitment was developed by Meyer and Allen (1997) with which consists
of five sub-variables namely affective commitment, continuous commitment, normative
commitment. In addition to assessi perceptions of civil servants to good goverenance that a
credible and accountable use of research instruments developed in Indonesia, namely by
Trisnaningsih (2003) at the Indonesian Institute of Corporate Governance, which consists of
eight questions.
The results showed paternalistic leadership variables (X1) have a postiive relationship
with PNS Demography (Y1) shows the path coefficient of 0.779 with a value of 15.904 t
value is greater than t table (1.960). This result means that paternalistic leadership has a
positive and significant impact on Demographics PNS where the higher the respondent's
perception of the need that theoir superiors practice paternalistic leadership although tis is
medited by Demographics PNS. Also it is that found a relationship PNS Demographic
variables (Y1) and Organizational Commitment (Y2) shows the path coefficient of 0.397
with a value of 1.813 t value is approached from the t table (1.960). This result means that the
Demographics PNS has a positive and significant impact on Organizational Commitment in
which the higher civil servants Demographic factors will have implications on the higher
commitment to their organization.
It is recommended to the Government of Malang, Batu and Malang regency that they
should note that the officials in their environment to broaden the model of paternalistic
leadership . At least from this study can be seen that the Echelon IV have a high preference
for leaders who can apply paternalistic leadership. This is a positive step considering the
application of Paternalistic Leadership of civil servants that can increase commitment to the
organization. Taken together also able to create a credible governance and accountability.
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