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view slides - Oakland University
HOW DO WE WRITE NOW?:
TRANSFORMING HOW WE TEACH VOICE
WITH SOCIAL MEDIA
Christina Moore, Department of Writing and Rhetoric
[email protected]
Rachel V. Smydra, Department of English
[email protected]
Oakland University
HOW DO YOU DEFINE VOICE?
OUR STUDY
Purpose:
• Determine how social media writing
influences academic writing.
• Examine whether we should teach writing
voice differently.
• Consider how to integrate social media
writing into class discussions and
assignments.
MASTERS OF AUTHENTIC VOICE?
Benjamin Franklin Frank McCourt Stephen King
Jeanette Walls Azar Nafisi Alexandra Fuller Samuel
Pepys Ralph Waldo Emerson Mark Twain Maya
Angelo Alice Walker Louise Erdrich Barbara
Kingsolver Raymond Carver Dave Eggers Paul
Auster Vladimir Nabokov Art Spiegleman Ernest
Hemingway George Orwell Joan Didion Mary Karr
Maxine Hong Kingston Tobias Wolfe William
Styron Gabrielle Hamilton Binyavanga Wainaina
James Wolcott Cheryl Strayed Julia Child
JimmyCarter Bill Bryson Tina Fey
TRADITIONAL ASPECTS OF VOICE
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Authentic quality versus disguised/created
Voice representational of writer
Authority asserted by voice
Singular authentic voice
Representational of a writer expressions of
ideas (blunt, optimistic, dry, sarcastic, etc..)
Builds a connection between reader and
writer
Equate voice with tone/style
REVOLUTION IN TEACHING OF WRITING
• The Way One Sounds…(T.S. Eliot);
combo of Tone/Style Techniques
• 1960s Self-Expression Movement
moved students to use a writing
process and develop their own voices.
• Free Writing to coax writers to express
themselves and to write honestly and
openly.
VOICE CONFLICTS
At odds are the absolutes surrounding voice.
Do we have a voice?
or
Are our voices malleable which means they
can change to fit different situations?
PETER ELBOW’S TAKE ON VOICE
PETER ELBOW’S TAKE ON VOICE
•
•
•
•
•
Audible Voice
Dramatic Voice
Distinctive/Recognizable Voice
Voice with Authority
Resonant Voice/Presence
HOW STUDENTS WRITE THEIR VOICE
OUR STUDY PARAMETERS
• 75 students, median age 20
• Survey questions on voice and social media
use
STUDENTS’ UNDERSTANDING OF VOICE
•
•
•
•
•
Content-based expression
Tone and Style
Singular Authentic Voice
Self-Representation
Representative of How One Sounds
Students Refer to Voice as…
Sound (hear)
Expression (feeling, opinion, thoughts)
Vocabulary
Unique
Audience (viewers, readers)
Tone (vulgar, professional, blunt)
Style (level of writing)
Multimodal
Percentages
3
25
3
1
11
16
4
1
VOICE OF SOCIAL MEDIA:
INDIVIDUAL OR
COLLECTIVE?
VOICE OF SOCIAL MEDIA:
INDIVIDUAL
OR COLLECTIVE?
Individual
Traditional ideas
of voice at the outset
Does the voice
of a writer
matter to you as
a reader?
Total
Yes
69
No
6
VOICE OF SOCIAL MEDIA:
INDIVIDUAL
OR COLLECTIVE?
Do you think
about the
presence of voice
in social media
the same way
you think about
voice when
reading or
writing a
traditional book
or article?
Total
Yes
27
No
39
Y&N
6
VOICE OF SOCIAL MEDIA:
INDIVIDUAL OR
COLLECTIVE?
“I think voice in social media is a
lot easier to pick up because
everyone's profile name and
picture are linked to everything
they post, which forces the reader
to hear the poster's voice in their
posts; however, I feel people on
social media (Twitter especially) all
sort of strive for a similar voice.
They post things to the public in
hopes that others will like it/them
a lot of the time, so the voice their
changes to be one they think the
public will most easily respond to.”
“No because lots of people are
telling the people writing social
media what to write and it is not
the voice of one specific person
but it is the voice of many.”
“No, voice in social media is
the product of many people,
where as when you read a
paper, it is usually composed
by one person's ideas, so it is
more personal.”
VOICE OF SOCIAL MEDIA:
INDIVIDUAL OR
COLLECTIVE?
Audience, from
hypothetical to
immediate and vast.
How Many Refer To…
TOTAL
Sound (hear)
3
Expression (feel, opinion, thoughts)
30
Vocabulary, Word choice
4
Unique
1
Audience (viewers, readers)
12
Tone (vulgar, professional, diction, conversational)
16
Style (level of writing)
5
Multimodal
1
CONFUSION:
INDIVIDUAL OR COLLECTIVE?
Individual,
at first
97%
Said they could
distinguish unique
individual voice
among their friends
on social media.
CONFUSION:
INDIVIDUAL OR COLLECTIVE?
Collective,
in action
Survey Question:
Write how you would share
this information on Facebook
and then Twitter:
Seeing a famous movie actor
at a place your frequent. (Fill
in these details as they best
apply to you.)
Seeing a famous movie actor at a
place your frequent. (Fill in these
details as they best apply to you.)
Went to Carl's Golfland today. Saw Nicholas Kronwall from the Red Wings!! We
chatted for a bit...No
BIG DEAL....he's a nice guy. Cannot believe I just
saw (famous movie actor) Just saw (famous movie actor) #unreal Guess who
I just saw today!? ;) Thank goodness I could keep my cool and just gaze
admiringly from afar. No spilled beverage to cry over when there's a stunning
actor in the vicinity! Just saw Halle Berry at kroger!!
OMG I JUST SAW
HALLE BERRY!!! :O“ OMG! You would never believe who I just saw
at the mall! OMG!!! I just saw that actress from the one movie.. I cannot
believe she was just here. You won't believe who I just saw at Oakland
University! Robert Downey Jr.! :D I wonder if Iron Man is going to save the
campus today?!?! Holy s***! Just saw Jennifer Aniston at Kroger!
@JAniston was at Kroger! #Unexpected“ Just saw a famous movie actor
at the mall today! Best day ever!! Just a regular day at Somerset Mall with
Edward Cullen... No
big deal. Edward Cullen at Somerset Mall= Life
Complete. #Twilight #TeamEdward #NBD omg just saw so
and so! my life is complete :D Just saw Channing Tatum at the movies! Just
saw Angelina Jolie at my school. :) OMG I just saw __ at __!!!! I cant believe
it!!! :0 :) OMG everyone I just saw Ryan Gosling! I got a picture of him and
everything! Day Made!!!! :) OMG!!!! I just saw Taylor Lautner at Tim
Hortons!!!! He said excuse me when walking out as I was walking in!!!! HE
TALKED TO ME!!!! I'm totally serious!!
PEDAGOGIES FOR TEACHING VOICE
ISSUES WITH PEDAGOGY
Since students better understand the
importance of voice now more than
ever, writing instructors have a great
opportunity to employ different
strategies rather than teaching
writers to mimic other writers’
voices.
NEW METHODS TO TEACH VOICE?
•
•
•
•
•
Avoid teaching voice
Use social media to emphasize rhetorical
situations that digital genres create
Emphasize the notion that writers have
more than one authentic voice that changes
Stress that voice should be flexible and move
away from the concept of one monolithic
academic voice to a voice that fits audience,
purpose, and platform
Allow student writers to conform or resist
ASSIGNMENTS OPTIONS
Use a variety of assignments that employ the
opportunity to create different voices for
different platforms.
•
•
•
•
•
Blog posts
Tweets
Forum Responses
Wikis - collaboration
Different voices: personal, persuasive,
dramatic, authoritative, etc...
BLOGGING EXERCISE
Memoir:
Brainstorm ideas for a short memoir. You
may have been a participant in the event or a
mere observer; the memory may be from
your childhood or something that happened
yesterday. Explore how you can shape and
share this idea, so that it will be cathartic for
both you and your reader.
FIRST SENTENCES
•
•
•
Back when I was sixteen, I decided to stop
talking. I don’t remember what exactly
happened that convinced me it was a good
idea.
I can't remember what my mother looks
like now, but what I do remember is her
smell, a simple and light melange of
strawberries and Apples.
She drove off in the middle of the night,
out into a massive rain storm nonetheless,
without even saying goodbye.
Everything is temporary is a phrase that gets me through the rougher days of my weeks.
Everything is temporary is a phrase that gets me through the rougher days of my weeks.
DIGITAL GENRES
CLASS ACTIVITY & DISCUSSION
1.
2.
3.
Identify text digital genre.
Rework text of one excerpt for three other
digital genres.
Discuss writing decisions in each genre.
WRT 150 Objectives
● Analyze and understand rhetorical
situations … in a variety of genre and
media.
● Develop strategies for interpreting,
evaluating and responding to visual,
electronic, written and verbal texts.
DIGITAL GENRES
CLASS ACTIVITY & DISCUSSION
1.
Identify text digital genre.
Last weekend I ran away from Bathurst
and spent the weekend being looked after
by the wonderful women who belong to
Wentworth Quilters. This group is HUGE
and every second year they hold an
exhibition to showcase their talents.
2. Rework text of one excerpt for
three other digital genres.
3. Discuss writing decisions in
each genre.
“Just in time for Banned Books
Week, here’s a story about a school
“Area Man Does His Best
district attempting to block the
Thinking On His ATV”
teaching of Capote’s In Cold Blood.”
Dear Colleagues:
Whaaat? When
am i ever silly?
You may already have it on your calendars, but I
wanted to remind you of a very important
academic and cultural development in the
campus life of Oakland University.
•Facebook post
1
•Facebook comment
•Tweet
•Email
•Blog
•Forum Comment
•Traditional Webpage
2
•Forum Post
3
“Area Man Does His Best
Thinking On His ATV”
4
Whaaat? When
am i ever silly?
Last weekend I ran away from Bathurst
and spent the weekend being looked after
by the wonderful women who belong to
Wentworth Quilters. This group is HUGE
and every second year they hold an
exhibition to showcase their talents.
“Just in time for Banned Books
Week, here’s a story about a school
district attempting to block the
teaching of Capote’s In Cold Blood.”
Dear Colleagues:
5
You may already have it on your calendars, but I
wanted to remind you of a very important
academic and cultural development in the
campus life of Oakland University.
2 •Facebook post
4 •Facebook comment
3 •Tweet
5 •Email
•Forum Comment
•Traditional Webpage
1 •Blog
•Forum Post
3
1
2
“Area Man Does His Best
Thinking On His ATV”
4
Whaaat? When
am i ever silly?
Last weekend I ran away from Bathurst
and spent the weekend being looked after
by the wonderful women who belong to
Wentworth Quilters. This group is HUGE
and every second year they hold an
exhibition to showcase their talents.
“Just in time for Banned Books
Week, here’s a story about a school
district attempting to block the
teaching of Capote’s In Cold Blood.”
Dear Colleagues:
5
You may already have it on your calendars, but I
wanted to remind you of a very important
academic and cultural development in the
campus life of Oakland University.
2 •Facebook post
4 •Facebook comment
3 •Tweet
5 •Email
1
•Forum Comment
•Traditional Webpage
1 •Blog
•Forum Post
2
3
4
5
DIGITAL GENRES
CLASS ACTIVITY & DISCUSSION
1.
Identify text digital genre.
2. Rework text of one excerpt for
three other digital genres.
3. Discuss writing decisions in
each genre.
DIGITAL GENRES
CLASS ACTIVITY & DISCUSSION
1. Identify text digital genre.
2. Rework text of one
excerpt for three other
digital genres.
3. Discuss writing decisions in
each genre.
DIGITAL GENRES
CLASS ACTIVITY & DISCUSSION
1. Identify text digital genre.
2. Rework text of one excerpt for
three other digital genres.
3. Discuss writing decisions
in each genre.
● Why do you (or others, if you don’t)
use Facebook, Twitter, or any of
these other digital media?
● How do you use these media well?
● What informs what you decide to
write?
● How do you decide how to write
what you write?
WRITING ON SOCIAL MEDIA
COMP 2 PRESENTATION ALTERNATIVE
New Media Interpretation
WRITING ON SOCIAL MEDIA
COMP 2 PRESENTATION ALTERNATIVE
New Media Interpretation
“Flip the Script”
FUTURE STUDY
AND
LIMITATIONS
● Evidence for improved mastery or
understanding of voice
● Analyze data further
● Continued exploration of aspects of voice in
writing
● What allows some writers to employ voice in
writing but proves to be challenging for others?
● Do we send students mixed messages as they
move through their curricula?
● How do we help voiceless students?
CONCLUSION
● Two writing acts make up the vast majority of
our students’ writing: papers and coordination
(Pigg et al., 2013).
● Consider opportunities to transfer academic
content to popular contexts.
● Offer students low-stakes writing opportunities.
● Continue to teach quality writing standards
●
REFERENCES
Advocacy Media: Global Online Awareness and Democratization of Information Plays Out on Social Media, while the
Warlord Joseph Kony is Tucked Away in the Jungles of Uganda. NewsRX LLC, 2012. Print.
Atkins, Janet. “Reading and Writing with Purpose: In and Out of School,” English Journal 101.2 (): 12-13. Web.
Bowden, Darsie. “Voice and Style.” Concepts in Composition: Theory and Practice in the Teaching of Writing, 2nd
ed. Ed., Irene L. Clark, New York: Routledge, 2012.
Bryer, Thomas A. "The Costs of Democratization: Social Media Adaptation Challenges within Government Agencies."
Administrative Theory & Praxis 33.3 (2011): 341-61. Print.
Ede, Lisa. Work in Progress: A Guide to Writing and Revising. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2004. Print.
Elbow, Peter. “Voice in Writing Again: Embracing Contraries,” College English 70.2 (Nov. 2007): 168-188. Web.
Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition: Communication from Ancient Times to the Information Age. Theresa
Enos Ed. Rutledge (2011) Web.
REFERENCES CON’T
Fitzsimons, Peter, and Michael A. Peters. "Digital Technologies in the Age of Youtube: Electronic Textualities, the
Virtual Revolution and the Democratization of Knowledge." Geopolitics, History, and International Relations
4.1 (2012): 11-27. Print.
Gabriel, Trip. “Speaking Up in Class, Silently Using Social Media.” The New York Times 12 (May 2011) Web.
García, Rodrigo Gómez, and Emiliano Treré. "The #YoSoy132 Movement and the Struggle for Media Democratization
in Mexico." Convergence 20.4 (2014): 496-510. Print.
Gazali, Effendi. "Learning by Clicking: An Experiment with Social Media Democracy in Indonesia." International
Communication Gazette 76.4-5 (2014): 425-39. Print.
Ivanic, Roz, and David Camps. “I Am How I Sound Voice as Self-Representation in L2 Writing.” Journal of Second
Language Writing, v10 n1-2 p3-33 Feb-May 2001.
Langlois, Ganaele. Meaning in the Age of Social Media. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. Print.
REFERENCES CON’T
Marwick, Alice E. and danah boyd. “I Tweet Honestly, I Tweet Passionately: Twitter Users, Context Collapse, and the
Imagined Audience,” New Media Society 13.1 (7 July 2010): 114-133. Web. doi: 10.1177/1461444810365313.
Ana Munteanu, et al. "The Democratization of Producer-User Relationships and the Media's Influence on Citizens'
Politics." Economics, Management and Financial Markets 6.2 (2011): 514. Print.
“Palestinian Conference Mulls Role of Internet, Social Media in Democratization.” BBC Monitoring International
Reports 2011. Print.
Pigg, Stacey, Grabill, Jeffrey T., Brunk-Chavez, Beth, Moore, Jessie L., Rosinski, Paula, & Curran, Paul G.
“Ubiquitous Writing, Technologies, and the Social Practice of Literacies of Coordination,” Written
Communication 31.91 (2013): 91-117. Web. doi:10.1177/0741088313514023.
Pullman, Matt. Persuasion: History, Theory, and Practice. Indianapolis, Indiana: Hackett Publishing, 2013. Print.
REFERENCES CON’T
Ratto, Matt, and Megan Boler. DIY Citizenship: Critical Making and Social Media. Cambridge Massachusetts: The
MIT Press, 2014. Print.
Roiphe, Katie. “The Language of Fakebook,” The New York Times (15 Aug. 2010): ST2. Web. http://www.nytimes.
com/2010/08/15/fashion/15Culture.html?_r=1
Smith, Zadie. “Speaking in Tongues,” Changing My Mind: Occasional Essays. Penguin: New York. 2009. Print.
Weinstein, Jack B. "The Democratization of Mass Actions in the Internet Age." Columbia Journal of Law and Social
Problems 45.4 (2012): 451. Print.

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