Navigators - An interactive ITS Handbook for Planning Large Events

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Navigators - An interactive ITS Handbook for Planning Large Events
Navigators
Index
Purpose
Description
Relevance for Large Scale Events
Options
Technologies
Impacts
Integration potential
Implementation
Best Cases and Examples
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Purpose
The aim of a navigation system is to aids in navigation. Navigation systems may be entirely on board a
vehicle or vessel, or they may be located elsewhere and communicate via radio or other signals with a
vehicle, such as a car, trucks, a bicycle, walking, or vessels, or they may use a combination of these
methods.
Navigation systems may be capable of:
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containing maps, which may be displayed in human readable format via text or in a graphical
format,
determining a vehicle or vessel's location via sensors, maps, or information from external sources,
providing suggested directions to a human in charge of a vehicle or vessel via text or speech,
providing information on traffic conditions and suggesting alternative directions,
providing information on weather and other information.
Several solution for private and business company are available in the market.
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Description
The main components of a navigation system are the following:
-
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the GPS network, based on several satellites, to provide the position with the required accuracy
the GPS navigation devices, several solution are available in the market:
o automotive navigator, fixed or portable
o handheld/phone GPS navigator, a phone with GPS capabilities
o truck navigator, integrated with specific services provided by the relevant supplier
o PC navigator
The TMC national service provider, provided by national company (public and /or private),able to
provide real time information on traffic and weather;
The supplierOCC service for traffic on GPRS and other specific services (such as real time or
historical data on GPRS / leased lines for other systems).
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Here is the architecture of the overall system.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and
time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed
line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The solution is based on US GPS system, as detailed below, but
other solutions have been developed (such as GLONASS) and others are under development in Europe
(GALILEO).
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A GPS navigation device is any device that receives Global Positioning System (GPS) signals for the purpose
of determining the device's current location on Earth. It can read signals from up to 12 satellites (but needs
a minimum of 3) which are used to calculate a vehicle's surface position to within 10 to 30 metres (or 1 to 5
metres if differential GPS is used). GPS devices provide latitude and longitude information, and some may
also calculate altitude. The device is usually equipped with a large touch screen to provide information on
maps and built-in speakers. Solution can be connected with GPRS to get real time data and use
About maps, formats are almost uniformly proprietary; there is no industry standard for satellite navigation
maps, although some companies are currently trying to address this with SDAL and NDS PSF standards. The
map data vendors such as TomTom (ex Tele Atlas) and Navteq create the base map in a standard format
GDF, but each electronics manufacturer compiles it in an optimized, usually proprietary format. Maps can
be updated when the device is connected to a PC.
The last generation of GPS navigation device (on car navigators, mobile phones, Ipad, etc) are able to
provide not only precise driving directions, but can also receive and display real time information on traffic
congestion and suggest alternate. These may use either TMC, which delivers coded traffic information using
radio RDS, or by GPRS/3G data transmission via mobile phones.
National company (public or private) in every state can provide (for free) real time data using TMC
specifically designed to provide traffic information. External TMC unit as accessory can be connected to an
automotive navigator system or to a mobile phone through Bluetooth.
The supplier of navigators, can provide (usually not for free) additional service using GPRS network on their
specific navigator product (built-in car navigator, mobile phones, using sw application on android or on ipad
for instance, or other portable car navigator), with real time data, such as traffic information, weather,
traffic incident, speed camera, free parking, public transport lines, in case of a jam, information on hotel,
POI, etc. Another possibly is to provide real traffic time data or statistical traffic data to other business
company (B2B), using usually intranet connections.
Car navigators, designed for use in automobiles, typically uses a GPS navigation device to acquire position
data to locate the user on a road in the unit's map database. Using the road database, the unit can give
directions to other locations along roads also in its database. Dead reckoning using distance data from
sensors attached to the drivetrain, a gyroscope and an accelerometer can be used for greater reliability.
Main features are:
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solution built-in the car or mobile
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GPS receiver integrated
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GPRS capabilities can be integrated
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Large screen with different sizes, which vary from
3.5 inches to 7 inches
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Built-in Speaker, which means the function of GPS
voice guidance
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Embedded maps, with roads, and other information such as restaurants, fuelling stations, tourist
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attractions, etc
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display on the map of the position and other related information
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show interactive street maps (of certain regions, EU, World) that may also show points of interest,
route information and step-by-step routing directions, often in spoken form with a feature called
"text to speech".
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Integrated with TMC service. Integrated with the supplier services using GPRS
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Multifunctional: it can be used for many other purposes such as listening to his or her favorite
songs, watching films, view beautiful pictures and even reading books. A GPS navigation can
provide a car entertainment resource as it often supports file formats, for example, MP3, MP4, and
so on.
The mobile car receivers, are intended primarily for use in a
car, but have a small rechargeable internal battery that can
power them for an hour or two away from the car. Special
purpose devices for use in a car may be permanently installed
and depend entirely on the automotive electrical system.
The same features are available on mobile phones/PDA (such as mobile phones for Android OS and IPAD /
I-phone), real time data are provided using GPRS capabilities. GPS navigation applications for mobile
phones include on-line (e.g. Waze, Google Maps Navigation) and off-line
(e.g.
iGo
for
Android,
Maverick)
navigation applications. Google Maps
Navigation, which is included with
Android, means most smartphone users
only need their phone to have a personal navigation assistant.Bicycle
information can also be provided.
Many Android smartphones have an additional GPS feature, called EPO (Extended Prediction Orbit). The
phone downloads a file to help it locate GPS satellites more quickly and reduce the Time To First Fix.
Truck navigators are specifically designed for use in tracks, with large
screen up to 10 inches. These navigator, in addition to specific functions of
car navigator, can be integrated with specific services provide by the
supplier, such as AVL service solution, for a better management of the
overall fleet.
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Other dedicated devices have various degrees of mobility. Hand-held, outdoor, or sport receivers have
replaceable batteries that can run them for several hours, making them suitable for hiking, bicycle touring
and other activities far from an electric power source. Their screens are small, and some do not show
colour, in part to save power. Cases are rugged and some are water resistant.
Various software companies have made available GPS navigation
software
programs
for
in-vehicle
use
on
laptop
computers.Benefits of GPS on a laptop include larger map
overview, ability to use the keyboard to control GPS functions,
and some GPS software for laptops offers advanced trip-planning
features not available on other platforms.GPS receiver can be
provided with WAAS/EGNOS support to improve the accuracy of
the position.
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Relevance for Large Scale Events
The availability of navigators combined with TMC services (or other equivalent services) allow to provide
statistical or real time traffic information to the local administration for managing better the impact related
to the traffic due to the large events, as recently happened for FIFA Soccer world Cup in 2010 and the
London Olympic Games 2012.
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Options
The basic configuration of navigation system is as stand-alone device, connected to GPS, but can be
connected to the others services, such as:
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With GPRS capability, to get Traffic,weather, otherinformation, or to provide FCD data
With TMC receiver, through FM radio frequencies, to get traffic information.
Depending on the destination, can be:
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A Built-in car solution,
A mobile solution for car / track
A mobile phone / smartphone
A PDA
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Technologies
The following are the most common technologies used to permit navigation systems:
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
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The Global Positioning System (GPS), several solution are available in the market
Traffic Message Channel (TMC) is a technology for delivering traffic and travel information to
drivers.
GPRS/UMTS network, for TMC information and GPS data
The US Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based satellite
navigation system running 24 satellites, maintained by the United
States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS
receiver. GPS provides location and time information in all weather
conditions ( anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an
unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites). The system
provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users
around the world. It became fully operational in 1994. The system can
be disabled for military reasons in times of war or conflict or military practise.
GPS accuracy can range indicatively from 1 - to 30 meters, and is affected by a number of factors, including
satellite positions, noise in the radio signal, atmospheric conditions, and natural barriers to the signal. Noise
can create an error between 1 to 10 meters and results from static or interference from something near
the receiver or something on the same frequency. Objects such a mountains or buildings between the
satellite and the receiver can also produce error, sometimes up to 30 meters. The most accurate
determination of position occurs when the satellite and receiver have a clear view of each other and no
other objects interfere. Integrating external information into the calculation process can materially improve
accuracy.Examples of augmentation systems include the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS),
European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), Differential GPS, Inertial Navigation Systems
(INS) and Assisted GPS.
In addition to GPS, other systems are in use or under development:
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GLONASS – Russia's global navigation system. Fully operational worldwide.
Galileo – a global system being developed by the European Union and other partner countries,
planned to be operational by 2014 (and fully deployed by 2019)
Beidou – People's Republic of China's regional system, currently limited to Asia and the West
Pacific]
COMPASS – People's Republic of China's global system, planned to be operational by 2020
IRNSS – India's regional navigation system, planned to be operational by 2012, covering India and
Northern Indian Ocean
QZSS – Japanese regional system covering Asia and Oceania
Galileo in going to be introduced in order to provide a high-precision positioning system upon which
European nations can rely, independently from others GPS systems. On October 2011 two operational
satellites were launched to validate the system. Overall configuration is based on 30 30-satellites (27
operational and three active spares) and is expected by 2019.
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Basic navigation services will be free of charge. Galileo is
intended to provide horizontal and vertical position
measurements within 1 meter precision, and better
positioning services at high latitudes than other
positioning systems. As a further feature, Galileo
willprovide a unique global search and rescue (SAR)
function. Satellites will be equipped with a transponder
which will relay distress signals from the user's
transmitter to the Rescue Co-ordination Centre, which
will then initiate the rescue operation. At the same time,
the system will provide a signal to the users, informing them that their situation has been detected and
that help is on the way. This latter feature is new and is considered a major upgrade compared to the
existing GPS and GLONASS navigation systems, which do not provide feedback to the user. The use of basic
(low-precision) Galileo services will be free and open to everyone. The high-precision capabilities will be
available for paying commercial users and for military use.
TMC - Traffic Message Channel is a technology for delivering traffic and travel information on enabled
devices. Traffic information typically can be provided by police, traffic control centres, camera systems,
traffic speed detectors, floating car data, winter driving reports, roadwork reports and others.
Information is transmitted on FM radio frequencies, through the RDS channel and uses the TMC protocol
which defines the codification rules. It can also be transmitted on GPRS, DAB or satellite radio.
Every traffic news is sent as an independent message. Messages are composed of an event code, a
localization code and some more information, such as the expiry date. Messages are coded in Alert C and
can be cripted, following the specifications defined in the TMC protocol.
The receiving system decodes the messages to show the traffic news on the map, using the TMC protocol
and the localization tables, available in the maps by all major providers. When data is integrated directly
into a navigation system, traffic information can be used in the system's route calculation and the driver
can have the option to take alternative routes to avoid traffic incidents. Radio Data System, or RDS, is a
communications protocol standard for embedding small amounts of digital information in conventional FM
radio broadcasts.
An RDS-TMC receiver is in effect a special FM radio tuner that can decode TMC data. Satellite TMC
receivers utilize a dedicated data channel that is broadcast as part of the much larger broadcast digital
audio channels. TMC decoding is carried out by matching event and location codes against look-up tables of
phrases and locations that can be translated into audio or displayed on a Sat nav device. The look-up tables
must be implemented in a service-specific database mapped to geographic routes and intersections. As
with the navigation systems themselves, periodic upgrades are needed as the road system changes. These
steps provide opportunities for vendors to generate revenue from users who cannot use the system unless
they have the latest lookup tables.
Some navigation solution have the TMC receiver built-in and depending on the country, the service is
available in Eclipse, Garmin, iPhone (Navigon), Navman, Navway, Mio, Pioneer, TomTom and Uniden
navigation systems, and in Volvo, BMW and Ford Falcon navigation systems, among many others.There are
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also TMC adapters, which extends mobile navigation systems with integrated GPS receiver (as mobile
phones/PDAs with GPS) with TMC functionality. They can include a Bluetooth or non-Bluetooth (mainly,
USB) connection.
Services, both public and commercial, are now operational in many countries worldwide. Here are some
examples.
In Germany both a public and a commercial service are available. The public service is an open, free service
that can be received by the public radio stations.The other service TMCpro is a pay service provided by
Navteq Services GmbH owned by Navteq.
A public RDS-TMC service free of charge is available in Italy from 1 July 1998 by RAI.
CCISS (National Traffic Information Centre) is providing the service. It is broadcasted
on Rai Radio 1 FM; this service covers Italy.Another TMC service is provided by the
commercial radio station RTL 102.5 in cooperation with InfoBlu. This service is
available as Premium Service so you have to use a software enabled receiver and
covers 90% of the population of Italy, and is still increasing. The satellite navigator
must be enabled to receive the TMC signal and need an agreement between the
navigation system manufacturer and Infoblu.
In South Africa, with the aim to be ready for the FIFA Soccer World Cup in 2010, Garmin was first to offer
the service in South Africa, with Navigon coming on board shortly thereafter.
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Impacts
Reduced trip time and travel cost:
Auto Navigation may be the best solution for finding out the right route when you want to go to a new
place in any part of any place that you are not familiar with. If you get lost and even couldn't reach your
final destination according to the original plan because you are unfamiliar with the route, it will make your
travel imperfect with higher travel time. However, if you have installed a car navigation system in your
vehicle before, things could be different, and the unpleasant experience that was mentioned above could
be prevented.
Drivers can either get directions to a specific address, view a map of an area or find the location of
restaurants, gas stations or hotels in a faster way. Some navigation systems have advanced features that
can help drivers save time and gas, find the shortest route, avoid traffic or find detours during road work
and construction. GPS navigation systems can either be pre-installed into an automobile or purchased
separately and mounted onto a car dashboard.
Reduced travel cost and CO2:
Some car can suggest as alternatives the most effective route based on cost or CO2 emission, with a
reduction on travel cost and CO2.
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Reduced insurance cost:
Another great way to get discounts that many people are unaware of is to install a fixed car navigator with
GPS tracking device in the vehicle. Aside from helping the driver with easy directions to your destination,
this system will also keep track of how “safe” a driver you are. These devices can keep track of whether or
not you speed or how often you do so, how often you employ hard braking or heavy acceleration and how
often you drive. While this will not benefit you if you tend to be an unsafe driver, this is great for the
experienced and careful driver or for the individual who wants to understand what kind of mistakes he is
making while driving.
Insurance companies love GPS tracking devices for a wide variety of different reasons. First of all, it allows
them to know who their drivers are and to separate them according to the risk they present. Furthermore,
having a GPS allows insurance companies to more easily find your vehicle in the event that it is stolen. This
is because GPS devices feature special tracking coordinates that can alert trackers as to where your vehicle
is located at any given time. When all of these features and benefits are combined, it can result in an
extraordinarily cheap auto insurance plan for you. Of course, you’ll need to take measures to be sure that
you and any other drivers who uses the car do so safely and carefully at all times.
If you are a cautious driver, having a GPS system is like having a stamp of approval that proves this, and you
will end up having much lower insurance rates than the safe driver who does not have a GPS tracking
device installed.
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Integration potential
The potential of an navigation system is greatly enhanced when it is integrated with otherITS services are
summarised below:

Integration with other ITS system, such as RTPI solution for Infomobility based on real time data (at
city or higher level), or UTC system, to best calculate the green times especially in adaptive systems
where traffic information are required to be collected, or for a traffic management Centre, where
traffic information is a key issue, providing FCD data or traffic information directly; Floating Car
Data (FCD) is a facility to gather traffic information and is best described as a facility that is sending
data from your car (using mobile phones, car navigator, etc) to a central point while you are driving
the car. Therefore every navigation device connected to GPRS is potentially a floating car that can
be used as mobile sensors in a vehicle to record speed-related parameters and to report this data
(FCD) together with the vehicle’s position to a control centre. At this centre, data from all vehicles
are collected, analysed and processed into traffic information. Thanks to this features, supplier of
navigation system are now able to provide real time traffic information based on FCD data
collected by millions of vehicles.
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
In case of navigator for logistic operators, every on board equipment can be integrated with an AVL
fleet management system to allows several functions:
o display of the real-time location and traffic conditions around each of your vehicles on a
graphical map, 24/7 on a PC or smartphone (usually using web services);
o Availability of a comprehensive set of ready-made reports gives full visibility over the fleet's
performance, such as speed reporting to run a speed profile comparison to compare
multiple drivers' behaviour together;
o setup remotely the destination of the drivers: with standard text messaging you can send
tasks with navigation coordinates from your pc direct to drivers out on the road. All they
have to do is tap 'accept' on their navigator and follow the navigation instructions. And
when they need support, the office is just a tap on the screen away. Simple and quick,
reducing mistakes and making things clearer, for everyone.
o Setup KPI and relevant thresholds, in order to signal the operator when KPIs fall below
expectations so you can respond to problems straight away
o Monitor all vehicles and their drivers, collecting information on speed, working hours,
mileage and idling time. Monitor total driving hours. Driving hours by trip. How long a
driver has been traveling between stops. How long drivers are stopping for. This assists
greatly in managing the number of hours drivers are working each week or month. Also
helps manage driver fatigue and ensure that drivers are taking sufficient breaks for general
safety.
o Increase security, with quickly locate lost or stolen vehicles (or trailers). Set parameters for
unauthorised vehicle use and instantly receive alerts via email or text message.
o Improve efficiency and cut spend on fuel, considering that fuel is one area where you can
make big efficiency savings, and cost control reports help you do just that, through spot
speeding, idling, harsh braking and steering, and encourage a more fuel-efficient driving
style.
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Implementation
For the implementation of a navigation system will be necessary to define the architecture of the system,
including the functions to be carried out by the peripheral devices and the Control Centre, as well as the
definition of agreements for TMC.
The implementation of FCD data analysis allows the supplier to implemented additional VAS for traffic
information to the same users and to other users such as municipalities, regions, traffic management
centre, etc.
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Examples
The real time navigation and traffic information system implemented for ROME, Italy
Rome, Italy is among the most congested cities in Europe, with a congestion level of 34%, meaning that on
average travel times in the region are 34% longer than they would be under uncongested conditions.
In order to improve the traffic flow, a traffic information system has been implemented, providing location
and traffic information in the Lazio region of Italy, which includes the Rome metropolitan district.
Highly granular and accurate traffic information are
made available thanks to the data provided by Tomtom
company using the information available from their
navigation system (real time data are collected on
every road by car and mobile users), enhancing
therefore the sources already used by Italian local
authorities. The fusion of this data with existing
sources will produce significant congestion reduction,
through the development of a powerful traffic
forecasting tool.
The traffic forecast data are next available for drivers
via both an internet site and a cell phone application managed by the ACI (Automobile Club d’Italia), within
the Luce Verde service, provided by Regione Lazio.
Drivers therefore will benefit from a more comprehensive and accurate view of what is going to happen on
the road networks, enabling them to choose the best possible route to their destination and avoid the
congestions.
The solution implemented delivers speed information for all roads, so that traffic flow on the entire road
network can be visualized and evaluated to assess true travel times for the region. When the real-time
information is combined with historical traffic data, the system is able to both pinpoint congestion and help
identify alternative, faster routes.
Solution has been implemented by TomTom in partnership with Italian traffic management and systems
integrators, Duel.
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For more information please contact Tom Tom Italy, Via Messina 38/C – Milan | +39 (2) 34874126 office.
The China madeSatellite Navigation System To Support Olympic Games
China had primarily constructed the experimental satellite navigation
web by May 2003, via launching three Beidou satellites into space. In
February and April 2007, another two satellites were separately sent into
orbit. The cluster of five Beidou satellites are comprised of the main
infrastructure of the Chinese satellite navigation network
The new system has been used in guiding traffic and monitoring sports
venues during the Beijing Olympics in summer 2008. And will help
alleviate traffic problems during the Olympics by providing detailed .
positioning information to individual drivers.
The home-grown navigation system, coded as Beidou in the Chinese pronunciation for the compass, can
not only pinpoint precise locations of moving vehicles, but also tell drivers real-time traffic on routes to
their destinations.
The Beidou system is compatible to the prevailing global positioning system (GPS), which was developed by
the U.S. military and is now in pervasive civilian use worldwide.
Besides the specific employment for the Beijing Olympics, the Beidou system would also benefit wider
applications from transportation, fishery, mining, to wildfire surveillance, Ran said.
EGNOS: satellite navigation could make Olympic Games safer: case study during the Greek Olimpic games
A future step up in security for the Olympic Games and other such events could come with help from space
thanks to technologies being developed by the European Space Agency.
On-going trials in Athens and its surroundings of projects using the European Geostationary Navigation
Overlay Service (EGNOS) satellite navigation system are showing how this can be used to improve the
safety of such big events.
Several simulations tested EGNOS in different environments typical of the Games currently under
preparation. EGNOS is the first step for Europe in satellite navigation before Galileo. The project, called
INStANT Olympic, was launched and financed by the 5th framework programme of the European Union and
is technically coordinated by the Galileo Joint Undertaking.
This project, involving several Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) with Italian society Next and the
Greek company Algosystems, is an infomobility service for safety critical applications based on integrated
global satellite navigation terminals. The aim is to satisfy the needs of a case study like the 2004 Olympics in
Greece.
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The first experiment on-going in Athens is the management of a security
company. The guards on duty are equipped with a personal digital assistant
(PDA) which allows them if needed, to send alarms to their headquarters.
There, immediate decisions can be taken to implement the appropriate
actions. Knowing the exact position of staff on duty and being able to
receive real time information on the evolving situation, with images and
sounds, the man in charge in the control room can adapt his response
accordingly.
For example, knowing the positions of all the specially equipped patrol cars makes it possible to choose the
nearest vehicle to be sent on location for support, cutting the delays in intervention.
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