Resent Development and Study of Silicon Photomultiplier

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Resent Development and Study of Silicon Photomultiplier
SiPM Resent Development and
Applications
New Developments in Photodetectors
June 2005, Beaune
Valeri Saveliev
Obninsk State University, Russia
Single Photon Detection Performance
21 June 2005
Valeri Saveliev, Beaune 2005, Beaune, France
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MRS-APD, Si-PM, ... What is ?
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Good detection efficiency (~25% for green range of light)
Single photon performance (Intrinsic Gain ~106),
Proportional mode for the photon flux (large dynamic range),
Operation conditions:
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Low Operational Voltage ~50-60 V,
Room Temperature,
Non Sensitive to Magnetic Field,
Minimum Required Electronics,
Miniature size and possibility to combine in matrix.
Low cost ( in mass production conditions)
21 June 2005
Valeri Saveliev, Beaune 2005, Beaune, France
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MRS-APD, Si-PM, ... What is ?
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Silicon fine Micro Cells
Structure on common
substrate and with common
output
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Geiger Mode Operation of
micro cells.
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Integrated Quenching
Mechanism
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MRS-APD, Si-PM,... Where ?
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CPTA, Moscow: MRS APD with Geiger Mode Operation
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JINR, Dubna: Avalanche Micro Channel Photo Detector
(new - Micro Cell APD close to SiPM)
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Pulsar, Moscow: SiPM
All of them based on the Metal-Resistor-Semiconductor (MRS) Structures
Now, few of the Western Companies and Research Centers trying to
get this technology ...
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Structure of SiPM’s
“n on p”
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Cross of CPTA SiPM (MRS)
Cross of Pulsar SiPM
(LCWS2004, M.Danilov ITEP,Moscow )
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Structure of SiPM’s
“n on p”
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Cross of JINR “SiPM”
(NIMA 504, 2003, Z.Sadygov)
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SiPM Layout
CPTA SiPM
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General view 1x1 mm,
Common Electrode Layout,
Microcells with Quenching Mechanism,
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Pulsar SiPM
(LCWS2004, M.Danilov
ITEP,Moscow )
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SiPM Performance
Detection Efficiency – Product of few main contribution:
Quantum Efficiency of Microcell
For the light range 300-600 nm QE of Si
at the level 0.8, and optical absorption
coefficient gives the depletion thickness
is in order few µm
Geometrical Efficiency
the technology topology gives the
limitation of the sensitive area
Probability of Geiger Mode
probability that photoelectron will
triggered an avalanche process
The Depletion Area is ~5 µm: Low Resistive Si, Low Biase Voltage
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Valeri Saveliev, Beaune 2005, Beaune, France
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SiPM Performance
Detection Efficiency – Wavelength Dependent:
QE of Hamamatsu Photonic APD
Efficiency of Si-PM
is limited by technology
deadlayers on the top of
structure
Geometry
Thickness
of Dead
Layer
UV region of SiPM
IR region of SiPM
Thickness of
Sensitive Layer
is limited by the thickness
of depleted layer of SiPM
Absolute value scaling
is limited by geometry factor
The Si-PM has green light sensitivity
and total Detection Efficiency for green range of light is ~25%
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Valeri Saveliev, Beaune 2005, Beaune, France
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SiPM Performance
Dark Count Rate – Main Limitation for the size of Sensitive Area of SiPM
Dark Count Rate:
Probability that a bulk thermal electrons will trigger an avalanche
process (Voltage Dependent) - characterized by frequency,
Dark Count Rate Amplitude:
is amplitude of single photoelectron (Geiger Mode Signal)
Typical value of Dark Rate is 0.6 MHz for 1 mm2 of Si-PM (~1500 cells),
depleted layer 5 µm (CPTA)
Dark Count Rate is significant limitation for the Single Photon Detection Mode, For
the measurement of Photons Flux on the level more than ~ 4-5 photoelectrons this
factor is negligible, because the amplitudes of Dark Rate Signal is equivalent of
Single Photoelectron Signal
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Valeri Saveliev, Beaune 2005, Beaune, France
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SiPM Performance
Dark Count Rate
Q1phe
Q2phe
Q3phe
Dark Count Rate Frequency as
function of the treshold at different
Bias
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Correspondent Dark Current
Curve as function of Bias
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SiPM Performance
Dynamic Range – is defined by discret structure of SiPM
and correspond of Number of Cells ~1500 photoelectrons (CPTA)
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SiPM Performance
Resolution of Single Cell
P
Q
LED Signal
σ P = 0.84 ch
σ
σ Q = 1.34 ch
= 7.8%
A
A = AQ − AP = 14 ch
σ
A
≈ 7.8%
Q is One Single Cell Signal
Single Microcell of SiPM –size 20x30 microns
(SPAD with Integrated Quenchind Mechanizm)
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SiPM Performance
Intrinsic Resolution
Q1phe
P
AN = N × A1 phe
Q2phe
σ N = N σ σ1 phe= 7.8%
Q3phe
A
Q4phe
Q5phe
Q6phe
1 σ 1 phe
N A1 phe
Q is One Single Cell Signal
Full Size SiPM – 1440 cells ( 20x30 microns)
The Intrinsic Resolution of SiPM is very High (for 100 phe ~ few %)
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SiPM Performance
Time Responce
Dark rate signal
LED Signal
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LED Signal
Fast FE Electrnics ( Pisa University Development )
Practically no recharge tail for small LED signal
Recharge Tail for the relatively large LED signal
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SiPM in Strong Magnetic Field
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Test of SiPM in Strong Magnetic Field up to 4 Tesla
(Amplitude of SiPM signal in magnetic field with
different orientations)
(CALICE Meeting, DESY, 30.01.2004)
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SiPM Optical Crosstalk
During avalanche breakdown a
cells emits a photons. These
photons should not reach the
other cells of the SiPM because
this would result in the initiation
of breakdown in those cells –
Optical Crosstalk.
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Spectrum of Emited Photons during
the Avalanche process in Si for
a large current
Valeri Saveliev, Beaune 2005, Beaune, France
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SiPM Optical Crosstalk
Pulsar SiPM, Optical Cross Tallk
as a function of Gain
(CALICE Meeting, DESY,7.12.2004)
Without Special Technology, Optical Cross Tallk can be on the level
25-30 % at working point
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SiPM Optical Crosstalk
Cork University Study Result: In the prototypes, the trenches reduce
the probability that a crosstalk event occurs during the detection of an
incident photon from 50% to below 1%. Measurements of the cross talk
probability versus the distance between the pixels show an excellent
agreement with the model (Proc. SPIE,19-25.1.2002, J.Jackson)
CPTA Technology included technology for preventing Optical Crosstalk
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Main Efforts
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Large Size of SiPM
2x2 mm2, 3x3 mm2,... 10x10 mm2 ???
Main Limitation is Dark Count Rate !!!
Cooling
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Combine the SiPM in Matrix
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Main Efforts
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UV Enhansment of SiPM (Light with ~400 nm wavelength)
z Medical Application,
z Cherenkov Radiation Detection,...
JINR SiPM
CPTA SiPM
Spectrums of 22Na with LSO on the “p on n” SiPM
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Applications
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DESY International LInear Collider Group, in particularly Hadron
Calorimeter Activity – is leader in Application and testing of SiPM, few
groups from US, Fermilab, SLAC started, Japan few groups started test
of SiPM...
Pisa University is good progress in Understanding of SiPM for Medical
Application, MPI
Regina University (Canada) in connection to the Jef Lab, Calorimeter
Application
Cosmic Research Activity, MPI, Russia, AMS experimet
Cherenkov DEtectors (necessarz get good single photon detection
performance)
Exotic Applications, PSI, Liquid Xenon Calorimeter
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Future
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Combination of the Sensors
and FE Electronics in the
same technology Process.
(IEEE STQE, v10, Jul-Aug,
2004,C.Niclass)
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