2 - index

Comments

Transcription

2 - index
The Essence of Basic Knowledge Textbook
Sciences Subject
(BS31001)
Upper Secondary Level
Non-Formal Education Basic Curriculum of B.E. 2551
(Revised Edition B.E. 2554)
Office of the Non-Formal and Informal Education
Office of the Permanent Secretary
Ministry of Education
Not for sale
This textbook is published with a national budget allocated for the purpose of
people’s lifelong learning.
Copyright owned by the Office of the Non-Formal and Informal Education,
Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education.
2
The Basic Knowledge Essence Text Book
Sciences (BS31001)
Upper Secondary Level
Revised Edition of B.E. 2554
Copyright owned by the Office of the Non-Formal and Informal Education, Office of the
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education
Academic Document No. 11/2554
3
Preface
The Ministry of Education has proclaimed the use of Non-Formal Basic Education Curriculum of
B.E. 2551 (A.D. 2008) on the 18th September, 2008 with an aim to replace the former principles and
practices of the Non-Formal Basic Education Curriculum of B.E 2544 (A.D.2001)which was developed in
accordance with the philosophical principle and basic belief pertaining to the conduct of the out-of-school
learning programs for adult target learners whose learning practices are to accumulate their knowledge
and learning experiences continuously.
In the 2001 fiscal year, the Ministry of Education had set a strategic plan for mobilizing the
educational policy in order to raise the capability and potentiality of the people in terms of their
competitiveness in job performances that enable them to earn an affluent living constantly, perform with
discipline, to have good morality and ethical behavior, and to be aware of self-performance and
responsibility as well as to assist others concerned. In order to respond to the above-mentioned policy of
the Ministry of Education, the Office of the Non-Formal and Informal Education (ONIE) decided to
reconsider the former Curriculum of B.E. 2551 in terms of its principles and aims, its standard and
expected outcomes as well as particular substances of 5 groups of the learning essences to make them
more compliant with and be responding to the new policies of the Ministry of Education. The
reconsideration had contributed to the revision of non-formal education text books by adding an
integration of more contents and essences of occupation, morality and virtue as well as integrating the
issues concerning readiness and preparation for Thailand to join with the ASEAN community. In terms of
development of the subject essences, the revision remains to keep the principle and procedures of the
former text in which the learners are to do self-study, conduct learning activities, undertake tests to
evaluate their own understanding, conduct group discussions to share knowledge and experiences among
groups’ members and to acquire additional knowledge from local wisdom and from other sources of
information.
The revision of this text book has received the generous support and collaboration from various
experts and resource people as well as other concerned personnel who kindly provided useful information
and data collection from various sources of knowledge to make the revision more meaningful. Their
helpful information has made the new contents more relevant and appropriate to the learning standard and
indicators of the expected outcomes of each subject essence. The Office of the Non-Formal and Informal
Education (ONIE) wishes to express its sincere appreciation for their considerate concern and helpful
4
cooperation. ONIE hopes that these new revised learning essences will be useful to the learners, the
teachers or facilitators as well as other concerned staff personnel at all levels. The ONIE will be pleased
to invite any advice and recommendations to be kindly provided for the improvement of future issues.
(Mr. Prasert Boonrueng)
Secretary-General
November 2011
5
CONTENTS
Page
Preface
Instruction on the Use of Textbook
Subject Structure (BS31001) Sciences
Chapter 1 Sciences skill and scientific processes
Chapter 2 Sciences project
Chapter 3 Cells
Chapter 4 Heredity and genetic biological diversity
Chapter 5 Biotechnology
Chapter 6 Natural resources and environment
Chapter 7 Element and its qualification and radioactive
Chapter 8 Chemical equation and chemical reaction
Chapter 9 Protein, carbohydrate and fat
Chapter 10 Petroleum and polymer
Chapter 11 Chemical substances and life and environment
Chapter 12 Force and energy for life, force and movement
Chapter 13 Astronomy for life and space technology
Chapter 14 Electrical occupation
9
38
51
70
93
107
145
165
184
203
239
260
280
309
Answers to the tests
Bibliography
341
349
6
Instruction on the Use of Textbook
The Basic Knowledge Essence of Sciences Textbook for upper secondary level (BS31001)
is designed for the use of non-formal education learners.
In using this textbook, the learners should proceed as follows:
1. Study the course structure and try to understand the main topics, the scope of the contents
and the expected learning outcomes.
2. Study the content details of each chapter carefully and do the activities as assigned. Then,
check your answers using the provided answer key. If your answers are wrong, review the lesson once
again to understand the content before proceeding onto the next topic.
3. Carry out the exercises indicated in the Activity of the Learners at the end of each chapter in
order to summarize the knowledge and understanding of the subject contents. In doing so, the learner may
check the results with his teacher or friends who took the same course and same level.
4. This textbook consists of 14 chapters as follows:
Chapter 1 Sciences skill and scientific processes
Chapter 2 Sciences project
Chapter 3 Cells
Chapter 4 Heredity and genetic biological diversity
Chapter 5 Biotechnology
Chapter 6 Natural resources and environment
Chapter 7 Element and its qualification and radioactive
Chapter 8 Chemical equation and chemical reaction
Chapter 9 Protein, carbohydrate and fat
Chapter 10 Petroleum and polymer
Chapter 11 Chemical substances and life and environment
Chapter 12 Force and energy for life, force and movement
Chapter 13 Astronomy for life and space technology
Chapter 14 Electrical occupation
7
Subject Structure (BS31001) Sciences
The significance of textbook essences
1. The processes of sciences and technology related to the aspect of nature and the significance of
sciences, the processes of sciences, scientific skills, attitude toward sciences and sciences project.
2. Life and environment related to cells, heredity and genetic biological diversity and natural
resources and environment.
3. Substances for life related to element and its qualification, radioactive, chemical equation and
chemical reaction, protein, carbohydrate and fat, petroleum and polymer, chemical substances and life
and environment.
4. Force and energy for life related to force and movement and sound energy.
5. Astronomy for life and space technology
Expected learning outcomes
1. Cappable to apply the knowledge on the processes of sciences, scientific method, scientific
process skills, and attitude toward sciences to the sciences project with useful outcome.
2. Capable to describe the cell division process, heredity and genetic biological diversity,
biological technology and the uses and the impact related to biological technology and environment.
3. Capable to describe the problem related to the uses of natural resources, environment problem
at the local level, the country and the world levels, the phenomenon of geology that impact human life and
environment. Planning for development of natural resources and environment and appropriate measures
by cooperating with community in preventing, and solving the problems regarding natural resources and
environment.
4. Capable to describe the structure and the arrangement of atoms, aspect of element according
to the periodic table, chemical equations and reaction found in everyday life, carbohydrate, fat and
protein, petroleum and polymer, chemical substances and life, the impact to life and environment caused
by the use of chemical substances.
5. Capable to describe the relationship between force and movement in gravitational field,
magnetic field and electrical field, the movement of several kinds of force and its application.
8
6. Capable to describe the property of sound, the use of sound and noise pollution, the useful and
adverse effects to lifes and environment on the use of radioactive substances.
7. Capable to carry out research and describe matters related to space technology and occurrences
on earth and space.
8. Capable to explain about designing, planning, try-out, testing and conducting proper way of
electric operations safely, analyze, compare the advantage and disadvantage of connecting electrical
circuit - series circuit, parallel circuit, hybrid circuit and applied circuit and be able to apply knowledge in
doing electrical occupation appropriately in terms of management and services leading to successful
science projects.
Subject structure
Chapter 1 Sciences skill and scientific processes
Chapter 2 Sciences project
Chapter 3 Cells
Chapter 4 Heredity and genetic biological diversity
Chapter 5 Biotechnology
Chapter 6 Natural resources and environment
Chapter 7 Element and its qualification and radioactive
Chapter 8 Chemical equation and chemical reaction
Chapter 9 Protein, carbohydrate and fat
Chapter 10 Petroleum and polymer
Chapter 11 Chemical substances and life and environment
Chapter 12 Force and energy for life, force and movement
Chapter 13 Astronomy for life and space technology
Chapter 14 Electrical occupation
9
Chapter 1
Sciences skill and scientific processes
Essential Part
Sciences is the subject related to learning the nature by human beings using various skills, survey
and inspection and experiment on the natural events. The results are then collected systematically and
transformed into theories. There are 13 scientific skills.
In obtaining the answer to any scientific matter, we need proper scientific skill as well as
systematic steps and process starting from beginning to the end. This is called scientific process consisting
of 5 steps.
Expected le
Topic Subject 1 : Describing the nature of sciences and sciences skill.
Topic 2 : Describing scientific process.
Topic t3 : Describing the use of scientific apparatus.
Contents
Topic 1 : Nature of sciences and sciences skill
Topic 2 : Scientific process
Topic 3 : Scientific apparatus
10
Topic 1 : Nature of sciences and sciences skill
Sciences is the subject related to learning the nature by human beings using various observation,
survey, inspection and experiment on the natural events. The results are then collected systematically and
transformed into theories. Therefore, sciences skill is used to obtain the results & solutions from the
related hypothesis set earlier.
Sciences skill consists of :
1. Observation, the method to obtain doubts & questions, data, analysis, etc., from the natural
events.
2. Setting hypothesis, the brainstorming process summarizing the probable results & solutions
to the questions and doubts.
3. Design the experiment method in order to study the specific variable by controlling other
variables that might affect the variable in question.
4. Carry out the experiment by manipulating the specific variables such as independent,
dependent and controlled variables.
5. Gathering data by recording the experiment results and outcome as the results of
manipulating the specified variables.
6. Interpret and summarize the experiment results and outcome.
Scientific process skill consists of 13 types as follow :
1. Basic skill
1.1 Observing skill
1.2 Measuring skill
1.3 Classifying or categorizing skill
1.4 Skill in using space / time relationship
1.5 Calculation and numbers using skill
1.6 Data management and communication skill
1.7 Data inferring skill
1.8 Predicting skill
11
2. High level and combination skill
2.1 Formulating hypothesis skill
2.2 Variables controlling skill
2.3 Data interpreting skill
2.4 Operationally defining skill
2.5 Experimenting skill
The detailed 13 types of scientific process skill can be summarized as follow :
Observing skill means the skill in using all 5 sensing nerves to take note of the matter,
such as using eyesight to observe the figure, ears to observe the sound, tounge to get the flavor, noses to
detect smell and body skin to detect the temperature or using hand to detect the hardness or softness of the
matter. The sensing nerves can be used either one at the time or by combination in order to determine the
data without imposing the observer’s thought on the matter.
Measuring skill means the skill in selecting the apparatus to measure the volume of the
matter with accurate and suitable figures and measuring units. The learners are to find out 4 items ” what
to measure, the reason involved, what are the apparatus and how to take the measurement.
Classifying or categorizing skill means the skill in classifying or categorizing objects
and matters which appeared and emerged from the scientific experiment by identifying the standards or
benchmarks. These may be the benchmark for similarlity, difference or relationship depending on the
learners’ choice. Furthermore, the learners should also subdivide the matters or objects within the same
category into different kind so that one object or matter should fall into only one kind at a time.
Skill in using space / time relationship means the skill in finding the relationship among
various dimensions related to location, shape, direction, distance, area, etc. For example, finding the
relationship between space and space is identifying the shape of an object by observing its shadow as the
result of light beam hitting the object from different angles.
Finding the relationship between time and time such as measuring the pendulum
swinging period compared to the heartbeat pulse.
Finding the relationship between space and time such as finding the position of a moving
object at different time period.
12
Calculation and numbers using skill means the skill in bringing managing the data
from observation and experiment, and transform tem into new data using adding, subtracting, multiplying,
dividing, taking the means and other mathematical metghod in order to help interpreting the data and
reaching the conclusion. In the sciences process, we always use numbering data such as thermometer
reading, volume and weight measuring by standard apparatus, etc.
Data management and communication skill means the skill to gather data from
observation and experiment and manage them as well as categorize them into a new set of data and
information such as ordering, frequency and type. The new set of data and information may be displayed
by a new format such as graph, table, chart, figure, cycle network, etc. Managing and displaying each set
of data is called data communication.
Data inferring skill means the skill to logically add the ideas and thoughts into the
obtained data and information using the knowledge and experience. The data and information may be
obtained from observation, measuring, etc. It is to be noted that various interpretations may be made from
one set of data and information.
Predicting skill means the skill to predict the results before carrying out the actual
experiment using the data and information obtained from observation, measuring as well as the
relationship between variables from former studies, or from repeated experience.
Formulating hypothesis skill means the skill to identify the results prior to experiment
using observation, knowledge and former experience. The identified results may not be taken as the real
principles, rules or theories. They are taken as the message showing the relationship between variables.
For example, if a fly bears eggs on a wet piece of meat or trash, worms could be the result.
Variables controlling skill means the skill to control other items beside independent
variables. Such items could cause errors in the experiment if not similarly controlled. Controlling such
items can avoid argument, false and unreliability.
Three types of variables are :
1. Independent or initial variable
2. Dependent variable
3. Controlled variable
Data interpreting skill means the skill to properly and logically interpret data and
information.
13
Sciences data and information are mainly in the form of tables, figures, graph, etc.
Using the data and information need proper interpretation which can lead to the correct and commonly
understandable.
Data interpretation is to provide description and property of the matters.
Reaching conclusion is to give the relationbship between the data and information. For
example, in boiling water, the low surrounding pressure can lead to faster boiling. But if the pressure is
high, the water would boil at higher temperature and slower.
Operationally defining skill means the skill to specify the proper meanings and words to
be used in the hypothesis for the experiment. They should be commonly and correctly interpreted and can
be easily observed and measured. For example, to give the meaning of ‚growth‛ needs a clear definition to
it such as measuring by growing height.
Experimenting skill means the skill to carry out the operation process for the experiment
using the observation, measurement, prediction, setting hypothesis, etc. in order to find the solution. This
also includes setting a hypothesis with the following steps:
1. Design the experiment method
2. Carry out the experiment
3. Record the experiment results
Using the scientific process to obtain knowledge or to solve problem regularly would help
building up creative scientific thought leading to new type of scientific products useful and improve
human lives.
There are 6 characteristics of the scientific minded persons.
1. Rationalist
1) A person that can accept and believe in reason and logic.
2) A person that will not believe in superstition, illogical prediction or sacred things.
3) A person that can search for the cause of problem or event, and find out the
relationship between the cause and result accordingly.
4) A person that has the interest in various events and eager to find out the
explanation on how and why such the event occurred.
2. Person with curiosity and inquisitiveness
1) A person that always try to seek new knowledge from new events.
2) A person that always realize the importance of seeking new information.
14
3) A person that likes to ask questions and seek knowledge by various methods.
3. Person with broaded mind
1) A person that can take and accept criticism and comments.
2) A person that is always acknowlede and accept new ideas.
3) A person that is willing to provide knowledge and idea to others.
4) A person that always realize the knowledge limitation currently found.
4. Person with honest and ใจเป็นกลาง
1) A person that is honest, อดทน, fair and ละเอียดรอบคอบ
2) A person with a stable mind and can cope with the proven results.
3) A person that is impartial and non bias when recording the experiment results.
5. Person with เพียรพยายาม
1) A person that can complete the assigned tasks.
2) A person that would not give up if the experiment has failed.
3) A person that has the strong attention to search for knowledge.
6. Person with ความละเอียดรอบคอบ
1) A person that have careful and good judgement before making decisions.
2) A person thst would not believe or accept things before reliable proof.
3) A person that would avoid making any decision or conclusion without a thorough
Analysis.
15
Topic 2 : Scientific process
To execute any activity, there should be specified steps and procedures from the beginning until
the end according to the required objectives.
Therefore, scientific process is the steps and procedures to execute the experiment using the
scientific skill. There are 5 steps for the process :
1. Address and specify the problem
2. Set up hypothesis
3. Carry out the experiment and gather data and information
4. Analyse the data and information
5. Identify conclusions
Step 1 : Address and specify the problem. This step involves specifying the subjects to be
studied or problems to be solved. Such problems are normally obtained from observation and questions
occurred from the real events. For example, the planted trees losing the leafs, how to get rid of worms in
the mango tree branch and how to breed fighting fish.
Example : identifying problem
Many forests are destroyed in an unbalanced environment, soil surface are eroded there are no
covering grasses. Therefore, the surface soils are eroded by falling rain and rain water flow. But if there
are grasses and herbicide, the rain water are absorb, and the rate of flowing water becomes less. In such
case, the study team is interested to find out whether the flow rate is depended upon the matter absorbing
the rain water. This is done by using the fiber cloth to test the flow rate. The experiment is then set up to
study the flow rate of rain water using the fiber cloth.
Step 2 : Set up hypothesis and specify variables which are done by predicting the solutions to any
problem logically. This is done by observation, studying related documents, discussing the problem with
the subject specialists, etc. The experiment variables are then specified comprising independent,
dependent and controlling variables.
Example : setting up hypothesis
Fiber cloth can reduce the speed of flow (reduce the water flow rate)
Variables :
Independent variable is the fiber cloth :
16
Dependent variable is the volume of flowing water
Controlling variable is the amount of pouring water
Step 3 : Experiment and gathering dsata. This step involves finding out the fact outcome in
compliance with the hypothesis set out earlier (Step 2), and gathering data and information systematically.
Example : Experiment design
Required material and apparatus : to provide 2 trays.
- sand to be placed into the 2 trays
- equal number of artificial tree branches to be set onto each sand tray
- fiber cloth to be laid on the sand of one tray
Step 4 : Analyse the data and test the hypothesis. This step involves gathering the data received
from the experiment (Step 3) and analyzing the relationship in order to compare the results with the
hypothesis set earlier (Step 2). If the results are not according to the hypothesis, then such hypothesis is
not correct. On the contrary, if it is according to the hypothesis, then the experiment and the hypothesis
are correct and can be used as reference. The hypothesis can become a theory.
Example : Experiment stage
Put equal amount of the sand into each tray, and make the surface slightly slanted.
Tray 1 : place the fiber cloth on the sand surface and stick the artificial tree branch on it.
Tray 2 : stick the artificial tree branch on the sand without the fiber cloth.
Simotaneously pour the water with equal amount from the shower head onto each tray.
And the experiment should be done more than 1 time to ensure the test reliability.
Test Result
Tray 1 (with the fiber cloth), the water slowly flows into the tray, the sand surface is not eroded
and the tree branch is not fallen down.
Tray 2 (without the fiber cloth), the water quickly flows into the tray taking the tree branch with
it, and the sand surface is eroded.
Step 5 : Concluding the experiment results. This step involves making summary and conclusion
of the experiment or the activity using mainly the analysis (Step 4).
17
Experiment Conclusion
From the above experiment, fiber cloth affects the wter flow by slowing down the flow and help
stabilizing the tree branch on the sand in the tray while the sand without the fiber cloth would be worn out
quickly and the water flow would erode the sand and rouin the tree branch as well.
Once all the above 5 steps are completed, the experiment conductor must make the report on the
study and the experiment for information.
Technology and the Use of Technology
Technology
Technology means knowledge and technical matter combined with know ” how and experience
which can be applied for the best usefulness satisfying the human need. It is developed by human beings
in order to assist them at work or help solving various problems. Technology can be equipment, tool,
machinery, material or untouchable things such as various system or process. Technology has for a long
time close relationship with human lives. It is the thing that human beings have used to solve the
fundamental problem in everyday life, such as planting, building homes, making clothing and producing
medicine. During earlier days, technology used by human being was basic and not complicated like today.
The increase in pupolation and the limited natural resources including multi-national relationship was the
main factor for using more technology.
Technology and Occupation
1. Technology and industrial development. Using technology for production help increase the
efficiency, save labour, save cost and preserve environment. Technology plays a big role for the industrial
development in Thailand. This includes computer, electronics & information tecnology, bio-technology ,
laser technology for communications, medical, energy and material technology such as plastic, grass,
construction material and metal.
2. Technology and agricultural development. Such technology is used for increasing the agricultural
products and improve the breed. The technology play a big role for the development. However, in
applaying the technology, we should study the surrounding environment such as the natural resources,
opportunity equality and economic and social competition in order to ensure that the technology can blend
with the national development and other sectors.
18
Technology in Everyday Life
There various aspects of the use of technology in our everyday life . This is because such kind of
technology has been widely developed. It includes electronic mail using the internet, searching knowledge
through internet, exchanging ideas and reading book through the internet, etc. Such technology has made
a fast progress leading to saving time for searching knowledge.
Technology has made a great impact on the society in various ways. It help improving the
economic development in many countries including in the world now. But in various production stages,
technology has resulted in unwanted products, or pollution. It can destroy the natural resources and
environment. Many technologies can affect the social values and culture. Many newly developed
technologies were questioned on their ethics.
Suitable Technology
Suitable technology means the technology which is suitable for the social and economic situation
including the need of the country. Some technologies are suitable for a certain country. This depends on
each individual country situation
1. The need for technology in Thailand. As we know, the majority of Thai population are
farmers. Income from agricultural products is more than others. And about 80% of the the population live
in the urban towns. Therefore, there is a need to use such technology, especially agricultural technology.
Most agricultural products exported overseas sre raw material, for example, coco seeds are export as the
raw material for making chocokolate. If a factory is to be set in Thailand for transforming the products,
then such technology will play a big role.
2. Suitable technology. Many educated people have given the interpretation of ‚suitable
technology‛, specially how suitable it is to the economy timing or whether the technology can be useful
for different kinds of works and activities. And whether suitable technology should be inlined with the
knowledge, experience, environment condition, culture and the economy.
Related technology includes :
1. Genetic engineering, recombinant DNA and molecular markers.
2. Cell and tissue culturing
3. The use of microorganism or the usefulness of microorganism enzyme
19
Agriculture Biotic Technology
Such technology includes the plant and animal biotic development including :
1. New crop improvement such as plant, vegetable and flower.
2. Micro propagation of crop in short period of time.
3. Breeding and upgrading if livestocks.
4. Biological pest control using microorganism and preserve the environment.
5. Improvement of food production process and upgrading the efficiency and consumer safety.
6. Search for utilization of new and unused natural resources.
Topic 3 : Scientific apparatus
Scientific apparatus is the tool to be used inside and outside the laboratory in order to determine
various scientific solutions.
Type of scientific apparatus
1. Apparatus for general uses such as beaker, test tube, pipate, burate, measuring tube, drop tube,
stirring glass stig, etc. These apparatus are made from the material that would not have any chemical
reaction. There are also various types of weighing instrument, microscope, alchohol lantern, etc. which
are used for different purposes.
2. Technician tools which are use inside and outside the laboratory such as vernia, serrate and
brush.
3. Consumable materials and chemical substances are regarded as scientific appatus that cannot
be reused such as filtering paper, litsmus paper and chemicals.
The use of scientific apparatus
1. Apparatus for general uses
Beaker
There are many sizes of beaker with different capacity. Normally the capacity volume is
indicated on the outside surface so that the user can roughly identify the contained liquid volume.
Beaker capacity can be from 5 milimeters up to many liters. The shape of the beaker can be tall, short or
conical shpe type. The pouring mouth of the beaker resembles a bird lip, called spout which is suitable
for pouring liquid. It is suitable to set the stirring stig at the spout. It also act as a hole for letting out the
steam or gas inside the beaker when closed by a watch glass.
20
Selecting the size of a beaker depends on the volume of the liquid to contain. Normally we
should leave a gap of about 1 ” 1.5 inches between the loquid level and the beaker’s mouth.
The usefulness of beakers
1. For heating up liquid soluable liquid of high volume.
2. For preparing various types of soluable liquid.
3. For settling the suspended solid in the liquid as well as for evaporating any liquid with a mild acidity.
Test tube
There are myny types and sizes of test tube. Some with and without pouring edge, ordinary and
heat resistant type, etc. In general, the size of a test tube is indicated by the length and the outside
diameter or by the volume as shown in the following table.
Lenth * Outside Diameter
(milimeter)
Capacity
(mililiter)
75 * 11
100 * 12
120 * 15
120 * 18
150 * 16
150 * 18
4
8
14
18
20
27
Most of the time test tubes are used for chemical reaction experiment between various soluable
substances. It can also be used for heating the liquid with small volume using a test tube holder to protect
our fingers.
21
Heat resistant test tubes are normally of bigger size and thicker than the ordinary ones. They are
used for direct burning by flame with a high temperature. They should not be used for chemical reaction
test just like the ordinary test tubes.
Pipette
Pipette is an apparatus for accurate volume measurement. There are many types of pipette. But
there are only 2 types in the laboratory ” transfer pipette and measuring pipette. The transfer pipettes are
used for measuring only one reading value, while the measuring pipettes are used to measure various
reading values.
For example, a transfer pipette of the 25 milliliter size can measure only that volume. But for measuring
pipette, there are for various measuring value ” ranging from 1 to 100 milliliters. As for accuracy, both
types have some reading errors depending on the size, for example :
10 milliliter transfer pipette has 0.2% error
20 milliliter transfer pipette has 0.1% error
50 milliliter transfer pipette has 0.1% error
Transfer pipette measures the volume of the liquid passing through it. After used, do not blow the
retained liquid from the pipette. The correct way is to let the liquid outlet end touch the receiving bow
side above the liquid level for 30 seconds. This type of pipette is easier to used compared to burette,
measuring pipette or graduated pipette (sometimes called Mohr pipette). The measuring pipette has the
liquid level / volume on the side, and can be used instead of the transfer pipette but with less accuracy, for
example :
10 milliliter measuring pipette has 0.3% error
30 milliliter measuring pipette has 0.1% error
Burette
Burette is an apparatus for measuring the volume measurement with an opening/closing tap
which can be used for controlling the liquid flow. The sizes of the buratte are ranging from 10 to 100
mililiter. The measuring accuracy of a buratte is quite good. But there are still some errors depending on
the size of the buratte, for example :
10 milliliter buratte has 0.4% error
25 milliliter buratte has 0.24% error
50 milliliter buratte has 0.2% error
100 milliliter buratte has 0.2% error
22
Balance
There are 2 types of balance, triple-beam and equal-arm.
Triple-Beam
The balance is an inexpensive mechanical type which is easy to use but not so sensitive. There
are 3 arms on the right, each of them has the weighing marks such as 0-1.0 gram, 0-10 gram and 0-100
gram. The arms is fitted with the sliding measurement weights. The arms are all connected to a common
indication neddle.
User nstruction for the triple-beam balance
1. Set the balance and the arms on a level surface, and adjust the indicator neddle to ‚0‛ mark.
2.
Place liquid containing bottle on the weighing plate, and move the measuring weights
back and forth until the indicator neddle points at ‚0‛. Then read the weights total value. This will be the
weight of the bottle with the contained liquid.
3.
If we need to get the required weight of the liquid, then the required weight should be
added to the weight of the containing bottle. The measuring weights with the combined value equal to the
calculated weight value should be placed on the arm.
4.
Pour the liquid into the bottle until the measuring needle points at ‚0‛, then the liquid
poured is the one with the required amount.
5.
Remove the bottle from the weighing plate, move the measuring weights to ‚0‛ mark
then clean up the balance
23
Equal-arm
The balance has 2 equal length arms opposite
to each other. The pivot point has a thin edge,
and the indicating neddle would point at ‚0‛
mark. To weigh a solid substance, place the
item on one of the tray. The weighing is now
unbalanced, we need to place suitable
weights on the other tray until it becomes
balanced with the indicating needle points at
‚0‛ mark.
User nstruction for the equal-arm balance
1.
Place the machine on a level surface and adjust it to a real level condition by adjusting
the screws under the machine without anything on the trays so that the indicating needle points at ‚0‛
mark.
2.
Place the liquid containing bottle on the left tray and the weighing weights on the right
tray using a suitable serrate.
3.
If the indicating needle moves to the left of the ‚0‛ mark, this means the bottle is lighter
than the weighing weights. And if the indicating needle moves to the right, then the bottle is heavier than
the weighing weights. Adjust the weight by lifting the control lock so that the arms are fixed, then either
adding of removing of the weights can be done. This will be checked by lowering the control lock to set
the arms free. The weighing weights and the rider piece should be handled until the arms are balanced,
and the weight of the bottle containg liquid can be determined.
4.
Slide the rider piece back and forth until the weight is balanced.
5.
Take record all the weights.
6.
Pour out the liquid from the bottle and weigh the bottle.
7.
The weight of the liquid can be determined by subtracting the gross weight by the bottle
weight.
8.
Clean up the trays remove the weights and set the indication needle to ‚0‛ by sliding the
slider properly.
24
2. Apparatus for technician use
Vernia
Vernia is a tool to measure the length of a object both inside and outside. A vernia caliper picture is as
shown :
Vernia parts
(1) Measuring slot (outside) use for measuring distance outside of an object
(2) Measuring slot (inside)
use for measuring distance inside of an object
(3) Depth stick
use for measuring depth
(4) Ruler scale
normal scale in milimeters
(5) Ruler scale
normal scale in inches
(6) Vernia scale
in militers and can be slided
(7) Vernia scale
in inches and can be slided
(8) Sliding botton & screw use for controlling the sliding motion
The uses of vernia
1. Checking the vernis
1.1 Use clean and dry cloth to clean the scale and other part before use.
1.2 Loosen the locking screw and test the sliding action back and forth to check the condition.
1.3 Check the gap between the outside measuring slot by moving both pieces to close the gap and
viewing the gap through the light. If no light can be seen then the vernia is in good condition. But if some
light can be seen then the vernis is not in good condition for uses.
2. Steps to use the vernia
2.1 Clean the surface of the object to be measured.
2.2 Select the suitable measuring mouth/stick, i.e., for outside, inside or the depth of the object
using the measuring slot (outside), measuring slot (inside) and depth stick respectively.
25
2.3 Slide the vernia until touching the object properly. Do not insert too much force when doing
so in order to avoid falt measurement or damage the tool.
2.4 When reading the measured figures, the eyesight should be perpendicular to the reading point.
3. After use
After completing the measurement, the vernia should be properly cleaned, bathe with oil and kept
in a safe place. If the vernia will not be used for a long time, vasiline should be used to avoid rusting.
Tong
There are various types of tong. The type for handling flask is called ‚flask tong‛. The type for handling beaker
is called ‚beaker tong‛, and the one for handling the coaded crucible is called ‚crucible tong‛. The crucible tong is
normally made of nickel or alloyed material to avoid rusting. But it should not be used for handling beaker because it
might be too slippery to use.
3. The use of consumable and chemical schintific apparatus
Filter paper is used for filtering the material with bigger particle from the containing liquid with
smaller particle.
Litmus paper is used to test the acidity and alkaline property of substances. Litsmus paper has 2
colours ” red or pink and blue or light blue. To use the paper, drop the liquid substance on to the paper. If
the liquid is acid (pH > 4.5), the paper colour will change from blue to red. On the contrary, if the liquid
is alkaline or base (pH > 8.3), the paper colour will change from red to blue. But for a neutral liquid (4.5
< pH < 8.3), the colour will not change.
Chemical substance is the composition of chemical elements. There are many chemical
substances used in the labaratoty.
Scientific Laboratoty
For any experiment, the learner should carry out the task in a suitable laboratory because there
are usually no outside effect such as wind and dust that might affect the experiment and cause errors.
Main features of the laboratory
1)
Laboratories should be the same size in order to similarly set up furniture and other items
inside with the same style. Changing or modifying including interchanging equipment between
laboratories can also be done easier than the ones with different sizes.
2) A laboratory with square floor shape makes it easy to manage, instruct and facilitate
thoroughly. A good laboratoly should not have many hidden areas and corners, and there should not be
pillars or posts inside the area.
26
3) For a rectangular shape laboratory, the longer side should not be too long or the room should
not be too narrow to see things from the demostration table. The room front area should not bee to far
from the back area. The proportion beween the width and the length of the room should not be greater
than 1 : 1.2.
4) floor area should not have any joint or at least should be kept minimum. The floor material
should be made from material that can resist chemicals, grease and oil. It should not be slippery when
wet. The floor colour should not too light because it will easily get dirty. But it should not be too dark that
might reduce the lighting.
Safety measures for the laboratory
1) Proper precautions should be adopted during experiments, and the learners should be attentive
at all times without teasing each other.
2) Identify the location as well as the use of safety appliancesand equipment such as medicin
cabinet, eye washing equipment and tap, fire extinguishers, fire alarm (if any) and emergency exit.
3) Study the experiment hand books and fully understand them before starting the test. If not
understood, the learners should ask for help from the instructors.
4) Follow the instruction strictly. And in case the learners need to perform the test beyond what
have been assigned, then duly approval should be made before starting such test.
5) It is not recommended to perform the test alone in the laboratory because if there is an
accident, no body can help.
6) Eating or drinking in the laboratory should not be allowed. No glass appliances from the
laboratory should be used for containing food or drinks.
7) Test table should be clean regularly, and only instruction books and recording equipment
should be allowed on the table. All other things such as bags should be kept in the place provided.
8) Study all instruction books for testing equipment before uses. If the equipment is an electrical
appliance, the learners’ hands should be dry completely. Pluging or unpluging the electrical appliance
should be done by holding onto the plug directly and not the electrical cable.
9) Special precaution must be taken when using heating lamp with gas. Pouring flammable liquid
near the flame and lamp. Do not look into the plate while heating on the stove. The outlet part of the test
tube should be pointed out to the area where ther are no persons when burning the substance. Shut down
the gas valve of the lamp immediately when finish using.
10) All chemical substance in the laboratory are dangerous, and are not allowed to touch, test or
smell unless properly instructed. No chemical substances are allowed to be taken out from the laboratory.
27
11) Check the details on the lebal every time before using. Pour out only sufficient quantity. Do
not pour back the liquid chemical into its container, and do not pour water into acid.
12) In performing any biological experiment, bacterial or virus free technique should be adopted
by washing hands by soap should be done before and after the test. Special technique should be used to
handle microorganisms. If the learners have the health problem related to immunity, they should inform
the instructor before starting the test.
13) In case there is an accident or unusual circumstances, the learners should immediately
inform the instructor and proper first aids should be performed.
14) After completing the test, all equipment should be cleaned and put back to the original store.
The test tables should be cleaned and the chairs placed back underneath the table. The learners should
wash their hands with soap before leaving the laboratory.
Cleaning out the contaminated area
Accident in the laboratory can often happened if proper precautions are not taken during the test.
But if the accident occurred, the contaminated chemicals should be cleaned properly. Each chemical
product has different property and harmfulness. Therefore, proper knowledge related to cleaning the
contaminated area should be acquired. The followings are the main instructions :
1) Solid substance is to be cleaned by using cleaning brush in order to gather the pieces into a
cardboard before destroying.
2) Acidic solution is to be cleaned by using a cleaning solution to dissolve the acid. Then
sodium hydrogen carbonate should be used to lessen the acidity before washing the part by water.
3) Base solution is to be cleaned by plain water and dried out because the base solution is
slippery when dripping on the floor. Such cleaning method should be done several times. If the floor is
still slippery, then sand should be poured onto the area and swept out properly.
4) Oily solution is to be cleaned by washing powder until the floor is not slippery. The
contaminated floor can also be clean up by pouring sand to absorb the oil and grease out.
5) Volatilisesubstance is to be cleaned by cloth until dry, and precautions should be adopted not
to touch or to inhale the substance.
6) Mercury substance is to be cleaned by a vacuum cleaner for the laboratory. In case the
mercury substance is infiltrated into the floor cracks, the area should be opened up and waxed. Or the area
can be cleaned up by sulpher powder making the mercury to sulphide powder which can be swept out
later.
28
Activity 1 Sciences Skill
Figure A
Figure B
The natural resources that have been rouined
The learners are to study the above figures and to make the conclusion on the differences using
the sciences skills as follows :
1. What are the differences shown in the figures.
2. Make a hypothesis on the causes of the natural differences and identify the
differences.
29
EXERCISE NO.1
Sciences skill and scientific processes
Select the best answer
1. The water bills in the past 3 months are unusually high. From the statement, what skill is related.
a. Take notice
b. Setting problem
c. Setting hypothesis
d. Designing the experiment
2. From the question no.1, if the learner found that the water pipe is leaked causing the unusually high
water bills. Then what scientific item to be used for finding the fact.
a. Take notice
b. Setting hypothesis
c. Designing the experiment
d. Make conclusion
3. What are the character of the scientist that will contribute to work success.
a. Like to take notes
b. Like to read
c. Like to make research
d. Endeavoring
4. Noi wears a black shirt while walking for 2 kilometers. Then she changed her shirt into a white colour
one while walking for the same distance. Her body temperatures for each walk are found to be different.
What is her problem ?
a. Which colour has higher heat absorbtion ?
b. Does colour have the effect to body temperature ?
c. Black colour is hotter than the white one.
d. Wearing a white shirt is cooler than the black one.
5. Kaew feeds 2 cats. The first one took milk, grill fish and rice. The second one took mackerel fish and
rice. Four weeks later, it was found that both cats gained equal weight increase. What is Keaw’s problem
before the experiment.
a. What kind of fish does cats like to take ?
b. Which fish the cats like to take ” mackerel or grill fish ?
30
c. Do type of food affect the growth ?
d. Mackerels increased the weight of each cat equally.
6. Toi’s cloth got dirty because of food. So she washed her cloth using detergent A. But it is not clean, so
she washed it again using detergent B and found that it is now clean. So before experiment, what should
be Toi’s question.
a. Does type of detergent affect the removal of dirt ?
b. Detergent A can clean the dirt better than detergent B.
c. Both detergent can clean out the dirt equally.
d. Detergent B can clean out the dirt better.
7. Pour 400 cc of water into an aluminium and a galvanized steel bows, and boil them. It was found that
the water in the aluminium bow boiled before that of galvanized steel bow. What should be the hypothesis
for this experiment ?
a. Equal amount of water can be boiled at the same time.
b. Boiling water in an aluminium bow, it will reach the boiling point faster than in the galvanized steel
bow.
c. Boiling water in the same kind of metal bow will make the water reach the boiling point at the
same time.
d. Boiling water in different kind of metal bow will make the water reach boiling point at
different time.
8. From the question whether ‚ the type of sound will affect the growth of a hen ‛, what should be the
hypothesis ?
a. Whether the music beat can affect
the growth of hens.
b. Hens that like to listen to music can growfaster than the ones that do not like to listen to
music.
c. Hens listening to Thai classical songs can grow better than listening to international songs.
d. Hens can similarly grow by listening to Thai classical or international songs.
9. Froam the question whether ‚ detergent affect the growth of water minosa ‛, what should be the
hypothesis ?
a. Pour detergent into water would speed up the water mimosa growth.
b. Plant will grow faster with detergent.
c. Detergent has the substance that speed up the water mimosa growth.
31
d. Without detergent, can water mimosa grow ?
10. Ning uses cotton to percolate water while Noi uses sponge gourd. What would be their common
hypothesis ?
a. Which substance percolate water better ?
b. Water is clear and clean by cotton and sponge gourd.
c. If we don’t use cotton of sponge gourd, the water will not be clear and clean.
d. Sponge gourd can percolate water better than cotton.
11. After leaving ice in a glass for a moment, there will be condensed water drops around the outside
surface of the glass. Which item is the result of observation and recording.
a. There are many large and small water drops on the glass surface.
b. Vapour in the air is condensed and becomes water drops on the glass surface.
c. The glass surface is leak and the water comes outside.
d. Water condensation is a similar process as the appearance of dew.
12. In the sciences process, which step leading to conclusion and further study ?
a. Setting up a hypothesis and designing the experiment.
b. Observation.
c. Data collection.
d. Determine the relationship of facts.
13. What is the main item for experiment design ?
a. Hypothesis
b. Data
c. Problem
d. Facts
14. When can a sciences hypothesis change a theory ?
a. Accpted by people.
b. It can widely explain things.
c. Proof to be true in every experiment.
d. When we have the tool to prove it.
15. Which of the following apparatus is the tool to measure the volume of a substance.
a. Injection tube
b. Measuring tube
c. equal-arm balance
d. Both a. and b.
32
16. In a scientific experiment, if the results are not according to the hypothesis, then what should be done.
a. New observation
b. Setting new questions
c. Design new experiment
d. Change the hypothesis
17. Which item indicate the correct steps for scientific process ?
a. Set hypothesis, data collection, test and make conclusion.
b. Set hypothesis, observation, identify problems, check the hypothesis, test and make conclusion.
c. Make observation, identify problems, test, set hypothesis, check hypothesis and make conclusion.
d. Make observation, identify problems, set hypothesis, check hypothesis, test and make conclusion.
18. When can a scientist make the conclusionwith confidence ?
a. Designing the experiment by controlling the variables carefully.
b. Good identification of problems and hypothesis.
c. Collect data from various sources and correctly compare them with the test results.
d. The test results are according to the existing theory.
19. In the scientific process, which stage is regard as the real progress ?
a. Identifying problems and stting up hypothesis.
b. Checking hypothesis.
c. Setting up hypothesis.
d. Identifying problems.
20. Which one is a good hypothesis ?
a. Can widely explain the problem.
b. Can cover various phenomina under similar environment.
c. Can solve the problems clearly.
d. Can explain various problems clearly.
21. ‚ An electro magnet can attract more iron nails if more batteries are used ‛. From this statement, which one
explains the variables correctly?
a. The independent variable is the number of battery.
b. The independent variable is the number of nails attracted.
c. The dependent variable is the number of battery.
d. The dependent variable is the type of battery.
33
22. ‚ Is it true the corn seeds sprout can grow at various speed depending on the amount of water they received ‛.
From this statement, which one explains the variables correctly?
a. The independent variable is the completeness of the corn seeds.
b. Dependent variable is the time taken for the seeds to sprout out.
c. The controlled variable is the water volume.
d. All are correct.
23. The learners are to rearrange the following steps for making hypothesis.
1. From the above study problem, identify the independent and dependent variables.
2. Setting the hypothesis by using the words ‚ If …then ‛.
3. Study the nature of the independent variables that affect the dependent the most with logical
reasons.
4. Indicate the independent variables that might affect the dependent ones.
a. Item 1, 2, 3 and 4
b. Item 1, 4, 3 and 2
c. Item 4, 2, 3 and 1
d. Item 4, 1, 3 and 2
24. Which one is the hypothesis ?
a. Popping sound occurs when opening the bottle.
b. The bubbles in the liquid is carbon dioxide.
c. The drinks in the refrigerator has sweet tase.
d. All above items are hypothesis.
25. What is a good operation definition ?
a. Clear
b. Can be measured
c. Canbe observed.
d. All correct
26. If the learners are to specify the operation definition related to the ‚ growth of chicken ‛, which of the
following items is to be considered ?
a. Checking the height increase.
b. Checking the weight increase.
c. Checking the length of the wings.
d. All are correct
34
27. Which of the following items is the meaning of ‚ experiment ‛
a. There are 3 steps for the experiment ” designing the experiment, testing and recording the
results.
b. The method to check the cause and importance of the problem to study.
c. The method to test the hypothesis whether it is correct.
d. a and c are correct.
28. If the learners are to check how different types of soil can retain different amount of water, what
should be the hypothesis ?
a. If the type of soil affects the retained water, clay should retain more water than sandy clay.
And the sandy clay should retain more water than sand.
b. Different types of soil should also have different capacity to retain water.
c. Soil with fine particles should retain more water than the coarse one.
d. All are correct.
Read the following data and answer question 29 and 30.
The result of experiment on dissolving solution A in Liquid B at various temperatures.
Liquid B temperature
Amount of solution A in liquid B
(Degree Celcious)
(g)
20
5
30
10
40
50
20
40
29. At 20 degree celcious, how much solution A dissolved in liquid B
a. 20 gram
b. 15 gram
c. 10 gram
d. 5 gram
35
30. From the given data, what would happend in dissolving solution A while increasing the temperature.
a. Dissolving amount is less.
b. Dissolving is more.
c. Temperature has no effect to dissolving.
d. Cannot make any conclusion because of insufficient data.
Sciences Skill Test
Instruction :
Matching the indicated skill with the passages below:
a. observation skill
b. measuring skill
c. calculation skill
d. differentiation skill
e. experiment skill
............1. Alisa is carrying out the sciences experiment
............2. Vilai checked the air temperature to be 40 degree celcious
............3. Horses have 4 legs, dogs have 4 legs, chickens have 2 legs, birds have 2 legs, elephants have
4 legs.
............4. Panida is pouring out chemical substance.
............5. Subin uses measuring tape to measure rattan ball.
............6. Aphijit divided the fruit into 2 groups ” soar taste and sweet taste.
............7. Wanipha watch a 3 dimentional sciences movie.
............8. Nanthaporn drops iodine solution on sticky rice.
............9. A cylindrical shape has about 4 inches high with a smooth surface
............10. Scientists divided plants into 2 categories ” monocotyledon and bicotyledon nplant.
36
Activity 1 Scientific Process
The learners are to design the problem solving from the following situation :
Material to be prepared are peanuts, plastic bow, tissue paper, water and black paper.
Identify problem........................................................................................................
Setting ypothesis........................................................................................................
Identify variables…………………………………………………………………………….
Independent or initial variable ....................................................................................
Dependent variable ....................................................................................................
Controlled variable......................................................................................................
Experiment
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
Analyse data and test the hypothesis
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
37
Make conclusions
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................................
38
Chapter 2
Sciences Project
Essential part
Sciences project is the activity related to sciences using the scientific process to carry out the
research. The activity has to be done solely by the learner, starting with planning the study and research,
collecting data, interpreting data, making conclusions and finally presenting the study results under
advices from suitable specialist.
Expected learning outcome
1. Capable to explain the choice of the subject, planning and present the usefulness of the
project.
2. Capable to make planning for the sciences project.
3. Capable to explain how to use the project results for various applications.
Contents
Topic 1 : Type of sciences project
Topic 2 : Steps for sciences project
Topic 3 : Sciences project presentation
39
Topic 1 : Type of sciences project
Sciences project is an activity related to sciences and technology which needs the scientific
process for the study and research. The learners would have to carry out the project starting with planning
the study and research, collecting data, interpreting data, making conclusions and finally presenting the
study results under advices from suitable specialist.
There are 4 types of sciences project as follow :
1. Survey project which involves mainly inspection and survey, and collection of data in order
to present them by various forms. Therefore, the main feature of such project will not involve
specifying independent variables for the study.
2. Experimental project which involves various activities related to study to find out the
solutions for any problem by experiment. The main items for such project are experiment
design and testing to find the solutions for the problem in question or to test the hypothesis.
Various independent variables would be managed in order to check the dependent variables.
Other variables which are not to be studied would be properly controlled.
3. Development or invention project involves the study related to the application of theories or
sciences principle in order to make tools or appliances for various uses. They may be new
products or improvement of the new products for better efficiency including building up
models for presentation.
4. Theory making project which involves the study related to proposing ideas, principles or
new theories using scientific ways in the form of formula, equations or explanation which are
new matters never been presented before. This can also be the new way to explain things.
The main items for such project are that the learners must have good scientific basic
knowledge as well as being keen to carry out such research in details in order to present the
explanation of the theory.
40
Activity 1 : Project
1 ) The learners are to condider the following names of the project, and fill in the type of the
project.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Dust-free board cleaner
Type of project ......................
Shoe polisher made from mangosteen shell Type of project ......................
Study on wetland forest
Type of project ......................
Pigion trial & error behavior
Type of project ......................
Nuclear area home
Type of project ......................
Water quality in the Chao Phraya River
Type of project ......................
Burglar alarm signal transmitter
Type of project .......................
Blue-green seaweed improves water in shrimp farms
Type of project .............................
9. The study on the conditional learning behavior of white mice
Type of project ..................................
10. The study on beetle life cycle
Type of project .....................
2 ) Describe the importance of scientific project.
..........................................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................................................................
.
41
Topic 2 : Scientific project process
Scientific project is the activity involving questions and curiousity. Therefore, the project
process should be as follow :
1. Survey and selection of subject to study
In selecting the subject for the project, careful consideration should be made on various
matters such as available data and information as well as advices, whether they are sufficient
for the project. It also involves knowledge and skill in using the various tools, adviser, time
and budget.
2. Study data before making decision
Studying the data related to the subject before making the decision would help the learners
to specify the particular scope of the study and research. This step would also help the
learners to gain knowledge sufficient enough to further study leading to designing the study,
test and plan the project properly.
3. Project planning
In every scientific project there should be detailed and careful planning and procedures. This
is to meet the objectives set out earlier. Matters to be jointly considered include problems,
cause of the problems, method to solve the problems practically, experiment design
specifying variables, tools, chemical substances, timing and experiment places.
4. Preparing project outline
The followings specify the project outline.
4.1 Project name, to be brief, precise and gives the direct meanings specifying what to
study.
4.2 Name of the person responsible for the project which can be one or a group of people.
4.3 Name of the project adviser, which may be an instructor or a specialist.
4.4 The source and the importance of the project describing the reasons for choosing the
subject as well as the idea, principle or theories involved.
4.5 Project objectives specifying the purposes of the activities which should be specific and
can be measured and evaluated.
4.6 Project hypothesis (if any) specifying the predicted results which could be right or
wrong. A good hypothesis should be reasonable and can be tested.
42
4.7 The required material and tool to be used should be clearly specified including their
sources.
4.8 Experiment procedures specifying detailed steps to be followed for the experiment.
4.9 Operating plan specifying timing for each activity in the procedure.
4.10 Expected outcome of the experiment specifying the results predicted earlier which may
be correct or incorrected.
4.11 References specifying the sources of the information or documents used for the study
and research.
5. Experiment operation
Experiment stage is one of the important steps for the project because it is the operation to be
taken as planned. However, in order to be successful the learners have to consider the
preparedness of the material, tools and others such as daily notebook, caution, orderly,
economy,safety during the operation, reliability, operation steps, etc. The operation also
involves recording the results, evaluation, analysis and making conclusion.
6. Project report
In making the project report, the learners have to clearly write the report with correct
technical terms, concise, clear and easy to understand. It should cover all important points
including name of the project, the responsible team, adviser, brief project overview,
objectives, hypothesis, procedures, results, conclusion, suggestion and gratitude passeges for
people or organization and the source of references.
7. Result presentation and display
After completing the sciences project, it is necessary that the outcome should be presented and displayed
which may be done by various means. It includes exhibition, technical conference, etc. Such presentation
should cover all important parts of the project.
43
Activity 2
1. The learners are to make the planning for one interested sciences project following the fsteps below :
1) Specify the interested matter which they wantto know and to solve the problem (1
matter)
Specify the reason why they are interested and why they want to know as well as to
solve the proble.
Specify the idea how to solve the problem.
Indicate the usefulness in solving the problem using the specified problems above.
2) Specify the project name.
3) Specify the reasons for taking the project (with objectives).
4) Specify the variables (independent, dependent and controlled variable)
5) Specify the prediction (hypothesis) to be proved.
2. From paragraph 1. Above, the learners are to give the brief project description as follow.
1) Name of project ( from 2) )........................................................
2) Source and importance of the project (from 1))............................
3) Project objectives( from 3) )....................................
4) Variables ( from 4) )...........................................
5) Hypothesis ( from 5) ).......................................
6) Material, tools and budget.
6.1 material and tools ....................................................
6.2 Budget ......................................................
7) Detailed procedure (how)
8) Operation plan (specify activities, date and place)
Activity
Date
Place
Remark
9) Expected results
(usefulness of the project)
10) Reference (the documents used as reference for the study and research under this
project)
44
3. Submit the brief project description to the adviser for consultation and approval.
4. Carry out the tasks according to the operating plan specified in the brief project description
and record the results.
1) Problems and solutions (if any).
2) The results of every test.
45
Topic 3 : Sciences project presentation
Project presentation is regard as one of the important parts of the project. It is the final
step of the sciences and technology project. It gives the outcome of the ideas, all activities put
into the task and the means to have other people to understand the results. It has been said that
planning the project design in order to present the results is equally important to the project itself.
No matter how good the project is, if the presentation is not good then the project cannot be
judged as a good project.
The result presentation may be in various different forms. It can be an exhibition which
can be both display and describe in words. It can also be only display without explanation.
However, the presentation should cover the main points as follow:
1. Name of the project, responsible persons and adviser.
2. Describe the incentives to carry out the project and the importance points.
3. Procedures to carry out the tasks covering the important steps.
4. Demonstration or presentation the results.
5. Observation results of the main data obtained from the project.
For the presentation, the followings are to be considered :
1. Presentation safety
2. Suitable display and presentation area
3. Written explanation highlighting the important items and interesting points only
using concise and clear wordings and easy to understand.
4. Get attention by using interesting display form. Use nice and bright colour and stress
on important items or use various different material for the display.
5. Use tables and figures to support the presentation by suitably placing them.
6. All information to display are to be true, correct spelling and show only the right
principles.
7. In case of displaying invention, it should be suitable to be placed in the location.
46
For the presentation that need to be explained or describe in words including answering
questions from the quests or project evaluation committee members, the followings are to be considered :
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Fully understand the subject to explain.
Use proper language and suitable for the audiences, clear and easy to understand.
To be direct and to the point without wasting time.
Try to avoid reading from paper, but should note down the main points and use it for
systematic presentation.
Do not memorize the subject because it would not be natural.
Look directly to the audiences during presentation.
Be prepared to answer questions related to the subject.
Answer the questions directly and no need to mention unnecessary matters.
If the explanation has failed, accept the failure without cover it up or to avoid it.
The presentation should be finished within the time allowed.
If possible, audio visual equipment such as slides display machine should be used.
All considerations on various items above regarding the display and presentation of the
results are similar to all other presentation. But it may be different in the small details. The most important
thing is to try to display the results by attracting the audiences using precise information, easy to
understand and correct.
For displaying information, playwood should be used as follow.
60 c.m.
60 c.m.
120 ซม.
ติดบานพับมีห่วงรับและขอสับทามุมฉากกับตัวแผงกลาง
47
For specifying the project brief, the followings should be considered.
1. The information should include project name, name of responsible persons, name of advisers,
brief description, incentives for the project, importance of the project, important procedures, results of the
test shown by tables, graphs or pictures, the use of project, conclusion, references, etc.
2. Provide suitable area, and not too tight or the information not too little.
3. Precise description, clear and easy to understand.
4. Use bright colour, stress on important points and attract attention.
5. The apparatus which is the invention type should be ready to use.
48
Activity 3
The learners are to use the information from Activity 2 and make the conclusions using
the following report form as follow :
1) Project name .................................................................................................
2) Responsible person ..............................................................................................
3) Project adviser .....................................................................................
4) Preface
5) Contents
6) Chapter 1 Introduction
-
Background information and importance of the project
-
Objectives
-
Study variables
-
Hypothesis
-
Useful results
7) Chapter 2 Documents related to the project
8) Chapter 3 Study and test procedures
-
Material and tools
-
Budget
-
Step for the test
-
Operation plan
9) Chapter 4 Results of the study and the test
-
Details of experiment results
10) Chapter 5 Conclusions and suggestions
-
Summary and conclusions
-
Suggestions
11) References
49
EXERCISE NO. 2
Sciences project
Select the correct answer by circle around only one answer.
1. What is sciences project ?
a. Draft skill in sciences
b. Small scale analysis in one of the sciences subject
c. Nature of sciences
2. How many type of sciences project ?
a. 4 types
b. 5 types
c. 6 types
3. Which sciences project is suitable for the students of upper secondary level ?
a. Survey project
b. Theory project
c. Experiment project
4. Which step is not need for survey sciences project
a. Identify problem
b. Make conclusions
c. Make hypothesis
5. What should be the problem identifying from the following items ? Pure water, sweet drink,
sodium chloride ” each amounting to 10 cubic centimeter, alcohol lamp, thermometer, beaker,
medium size test tube and injection tube.
a. All three items have equal weight.
b. All three items have different taste.
c. All three items have different boiling point.
50
6. From question 5, what is the independent variable ?
a. Heat from the alcohol lamp
b. Purity of the three liquids.
c. Size of the test tube.
7. What is the characteristics of an acceptable scientific experiment results ?
a. Clear conclusions.
b. All repeated test results are the same.
c. The advising instructor guarantee the results.
8. What is the indication that a sciences project is useful ?
a. Usefullness
b. Suggestions
c. Operation steps
9. What should be the starting matter for a sciencs project ?
a. Things that are popular at that time.
b. Strange and new things that never been studied before.
c. Useful things and close to our lives.
10. What is a completely correct sciences project ?
a. Using the skills on scientific process.
b. Using research from library.
c. Using interviews to get answers from specialists.
51
Chapter 3
Cells
Essential part
Human body, plants and animals are composed with all kinds of cells. Therefore, it is necessary
to study about cells for plants and animals as well as the biological process to retain balance, cure and
immunity including cell division.
Expected learning outcome
a. Capable to describe the cells, their composition, differences, process and biological balance of
the cells in the plants and animals.
b. Capable to describe how to keep the balance in plants, animals and human beings and how to
apply the knowled.
c. Capable to study, information search and describe the cells deviding process with bitosil and
biosil.
Contents
Topic 1 : Cells
Topic 2 : Cells division process
52
Topic 1 : Cells
Cell denotes the smallest unit of organic substances which has the duty as a module helping the
growing structure of lives.
Fundamental structure
In general, cells have different sizes and shapes according to their duty. But the fundamental and
inside structure of a cell is not so much different as follow :
1. Shell and outside surface has the duty to contain the internal parts for integrity and
retaining shape, consisting of:
1.1 Cell membrane sometimes called ‚plasma membrane‛ or ‚Cytoplasmic membrane‛.
It consists of about 60% protein and about 40% lipid. Most of the protein are Glycoprotein and
Mucoprotein. And most of the lipid are Phospholipid and Cholesterol. The protein and lipid are integrated
in a complex way with the lipid in the middle surrounded by the protein on both sides. There are 2 layers
of lipid with the nonpolar side stick together called ‚unit membrane‛.
Cell Wall
53
Duty of the cell wall
1. Cover the Protoplasm and other organics inside separating each cell.
2. Control the substances flow in and out off the cell acting as a semipermeable membrane
allowing only some substances to pass through with different speed.
1.2 Cell wall is the outside part of a cell found in animals, plants, weeds, bacteria and
fungi, etc. It makes the cell strong but it is lifeless. The cell wall for plants consists of Cellulose, Pegtin,
Lignin, Cutin and Suberlin, etc. The plant cells are connected by Plasmodesmata which is the
Cytoplasmic fiber used for transporting substances between each cell.
1.3 Cell coat is the substance produced by the cell itself which is strong, not soluble,
retaining shape and prevent losing liquid.
In animal cell, the cell coat is made of Glycoprotein which is a simple protein (when
disintegrated it would yield amino acid only) and carbohydrate. The cell coat is an important part that
makes the similar cells combined into tissues and organs. If the coat is destroyed, the cells would not be
able to recognize each other, could not coordinate and would malfunction such as cancer cell. Cancer cells
become disorder in many aspects. The most important aspect is that the coat of the cencer cell is
destroyed, and it cannot communicate to others resulting to non limited division of the cells without
control. This would be dangerous to life, and it uses a great amount of energy and substances leading to
dangerous to other cells.
In musroom and fungi, the cell coat consists of Chitin which is similar to that of shrimps
and insects. Chitin is one type of carbohydrate substances with N ” Acetyl Glucosamine bonded together
with B -1 , 4 Glycosidic bond.
The cell coat on diatom aquatic weed has silica in it making it shiny.
2. Protoplasm is part of the cell which is inside the shell. It is related to the cell growth. The
substance comprising of 4 similar and main elements, i.e. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen
amounting to 90% of the whole elements. Other elements include Copper, Zinc, Aluminium, Cobalt,
Manganese, Molidinum and Boron. All alements are combined together making substances necessary for
cells and life.
54
There are 2 parts of Protoplasm - Cytoplasm and nucleus.
2.1 Cytoplasm is part of the Protoplasm which is outside the nucleous comprising of :
2.1.1 Organell which is a living thing acting like an organ of the cell divided
into the types with and without a membrane.
Membrane bounded Organell includes :
1)
Mitochondria, first discovered by Kollicker. It has mainly a spherical,
cylindrical or oval shape. In general it has about 0.2-1 micron diameter and 5-7 micron long. Consisting
of 60-65% protein and 35-40% lipid. Mitochondria is the Organell with double unit membrane.The outer
membrane has about 60-70 angstorm thick. The inner membrane, called Cristae has about 60-80 angstorm
thick. Inside Mitochondria contains liquid with various substances called matrix. Beside various chemical
substances, it has important enzymes necessary to provide energy from respiration. This is found to relate
to the Krebs cycle in the matrix. And there is also the enzyme for electron transport system in the inner
membrane. There is also enzyme for synthesizing DNA and protein in the inner membrane.
The numbers of Mitochondria in each type of cell are not certain depending on
the type and function of the cell. Cells with high metabolism would have more, such as liver, kidney,
heart muscle and various glands. Cells with low metabolism such as skin and related parts would have
less Mitochondria. The Mitochondria can increase in numbers because it has its own DNA, and it can
synthesize the protein necessary for its work.
Mitochondria is the source of energy for the cells by respiration on the cell level
in the Krebs cycle at the matrix and transporting electron.
2) Endoplasmic reticulum : ER is an Oganell with a membrane consisting of
tubular structures connecting all parts of the cell. The tubes are connected to the cell membrane, nucleus
membrane and Galgibody. Indise the tubes there is the liquid called Hyaloplasm.
Endoplasmic reticulum is divided into 2 kinds
2.1) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum : SER is the type without Ribosome. The
main duty is to transport substances such as RNA, lipid protein, fatty substances and steroid hormone.
Beside, SER in liver cells helps getting rid of toxic substances.
2.2) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum : RER is the type with Ribosome attached to
the outside surface. The main duty is synthesizing the attached Ribosome protein and transport the
substances created from protein such as Lipid.
55
3) Golgibody, sometimes called Golgi complex, Golgi apparatus or Dictyosome, has a
bag shape or layers of tubes not certain in number. They are normally found in vertrebrate more than
invertrebrate animals. The main task is to collect the new cells before releasing them, mainly composed of
proteins which rearrangement themselves to suit the uses. Golgibody is related with acrosome which is
found at the head of sperms help penetrating the eggs during fertilization. It is also related to Nematocyst
of the Hydra.
4) Lysosome is an Organell with single membrane discovered by Christain de Duve. It
has an oval shape with about 0.15 ” 0.8 microns found in animal cells only, mostly in Phagocytic cells
such as white blood cells and the cells in Reticuloendothelial system such as in liver and spleen.
Lysosome is also found in damaged cells or the self-decay type such as in the tail of a tadpole. Lysosome
has various enzymes which can effectively dissolve substances in the cells. The main tasks are :
1. Break up particles and molecules of nutrient within the cells.
2. Break up or eliminate germ and bacteria including unknown element that penetrated into body
or cells. For example, the white bloods eleminate bacteria.
3. Eliminate the dead or old cells by releasing its enzyme through the membrane to break up such
cells.
4. Break up the structures of cells that being transformed as well as metamorphosis cells found in
the tail of a tadpole.
5) Vacuole is an Organell having a bag shape with a membrane containing substances
inside called Tonoplast. There are 3 types of vacuole as follow :
5.1) Sap Vacuole found in plant cells. Inside the cell contains liquid mainly water and
other solutions. In the young cells, the Sap Vacuole has a small-spheracle shape. But in an older cell, it
would grow bigger and almost taking the whole cell’s space pushing the nucleus and Phytoplasm to the
side.
5.2) Food Vacuole found in protozoa and ameba as well as in white blood and
Phagocytic cells. Food Vacuole is created from bringing in nutrition into cells using Phagocytosis which
would be digested by Lososome.
5.3) Contractile vacuole found in various fresh water protozoa such as ameba and
paramecium. Its task is to get rid of access water and wasted substances as well as to control the water
balance in the cell.
6) Plastid is an Organell found in the cells of plants and weeds exept the blue-green
weed. It is also found in protozoa such as Ulica and Walvox. There are 3 types as follow:
56
6.1) Leucoplast is the Plastid without colour found in leaf cells and nutrition collecting
tissue which absorb flours and protein.
6.2) Chromoplast is the Plastid with other colour exept green such as Carotene giving
red colour and XanthophyII giving yellow-brown colour. Chromoplasts are normally found in the ripe
fruits such as papaya, tomato and flower lobes.
6.3) Chloroplast is the Plastid with green colour mostly Chlorophyll. Inside the
Chlorophyll consists of liquid called Stroma and enzymes related to dark reaction photosynthesis with
DNA and RNA, Rhybosome and various other enzymes. Other part contains the complex membrane
called Intergrana. Both Grana and Intergrana are the place for Chlorophyll and other enzymes related to
light reaction photosynthesis. The important task of Chloroplast photosynthesis, and the red and blue
colour lights are most suitable foe the process.
Chloroplast
Nonmembrane bounded Organell
1) Ribosome is a tiny Organell found in living things in general. It consists of 2
chemical substances - Ribonucleic acid : RNA and Ribonucleoprotien. Ribosome can be found in
Phytoplasm or mixed with Endoplasmic Reticulum (found in Eukaryote cell only). The ones with
Endoplasmic Reticulum mostly found in gland’s cells producing various enzymes. Such plasma cells
mainly produce proteins to be used outside the cells.
57
2) Centriole has a shape of 2 cyliders perpendicular to each other only found in animal
cells and some Protists. The main task is to divide cells. Each Centriole consists of Microtubule with 9
sets of small tubes, each set has 3 subfibers, A, B and C. In the middle, there is no Microtubule. We call
such configuration as 9+0 Centriole with DNA and RNA belonging to itself, so it can produce the protein
for its own use.
3) Cytoplamic Inclusion means a non-living substances in the Cytoplasm such as
starch grain, protein or wasted elements from metabolism process such as Calcium Oxalate produced by
chemical reaction between Calcium and Oxalic Acid.
2.2 Nucleus
Nucleus was discovered by Robert Brown, a botanist from England in 1831. It has an opaque
surface, situated near the middle or either sides of the cell. In general a cell has only 1 nucleus. But a
Paramecium cell has 2 nucleus, while muscle and vessel cells producing latex in high class plants, fungi
fiber without dividing walls, etc., have many nucleus. The red blood cells for mammal and fully aged cell
tube of Folem have no nucleus. Nucleus is very important because it contains heredity, and it controls the
cell’s work by working with the Cytoplasm.
The chemical composition of the nucleus consists of
1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid or DNA is part of the Chromosome in the nucleus.
2. Ribonucleic Acid or RNA is part of the nucleolus found in the nucleus.
3. Protein, the important ones are Histone and Protamine which are the basic protein attached to
the DNA. While the enzyme protein mainly involves in the nucleic acid and enzyme synthesis and
metabolism. This occurres in the glycolysis process producing enery for the nucleus.
Nucleus structure
1. Nulear membrane comprises of 2 layers of thin membranes with many nuclear pores or
annulus. They are for transporting various substances between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Moreover,
the membranes are like the cell membrane, the outer one connected to the Andoplasmic Reticulum with
the Ribosome stucked to it for transporting substances between the cytoplasm and the nucleus.
2. Chromatin is a small part of the nucleus consisting of small fibers intertwined called
Chromatin network. It contains many kinds of proteins and DNA. In colour dying, the Chromatin will
retain different colours. The dark colour would stick to the ones without Gene called Heterochromatin.
The light colour would stick to the ones called Euchromatin which is the place for Gene. While the cells
58
are divided, the Chromosome will be shrunk and paired together called Chromatid. Living things have a
certain numbers of chromosome, 23 pairs (46 pieces) for human, 8 pairs (16 pieces) for fruit fly, 19 pairs
(16 pieces) for cat, 20 pairs (40 pieces) for pig, 9 pairs (18 pieces) for papaya, 22 pairs (44 pieces) for
caffee, etc. Chromosome controls cell’s activities including transferring of heredity data such as blood
group, eye colour, skin colour, height, and shape.
3. Nucleolus is part of the nucleus looking like an opaque particle discovered by Fontana in
1781. It is found only in the cell of Eucarioat. The cells in sperms, red bloods in fully grown up mammal
and in muscles would not have the Nucleolus. It composes of protein and RNA. The protein is
Phosphoprotein and not Histone protein. Highly active cells would have larger Nucleolus, while the less
active cells would have small ones. Nucleolus has the task to synthesize various RNA’s and to send them
through the nucleus membrane to become Ribosome. Therefore, Nucleolus is very important because the
Ribosome produces proteins.
59
Cell Structure
เซนทริโอล
ไมโทคอนเดรีย
แวคิวโอล ไซโทพลาซึม
ไลโซโซม
นิวคลีโอลัส
นิวเคลียส ไรโบโซม
เวสิเคิล
เอนโดพลาสมิกเรติคูลัม
แบบผิวขรุขระ
กอลจิแอปพาราตัส
เอนโดพลาสมิกเรติคูลัมแบบผิวเรียบ
ไซโทสเกลเลตอน
ภาพเซลล์โดยสัตว์ทวั่ ไป ประกอบด้วยออร์แกเนลล์ ต่าง ๆ
Animal Cell with Variuos Organell
60
Topic 2 : Cells Division Process
There are 2 steps for cell division
1. Karyokinesis divided into 2 types
1.1 Dividing by Mitosis
1.2 Dividing by Meiosis
2. Cytokinesis divided into 2 types
2.1 The type that the membrane contracts both sides towards the cell center called
Furrow type, found in animal cells.
2.2 The type that the cell build up a cell plate in the middle and expands both sides called
cell plate type, found in plant cells.
Division of cells by Metosis
Division of cells by Metosis method is for increasing the numbers of cells for the body of living
things or for reproduction of some mono and multiple cells plants.
 No reduction of chromosome set (2n to 2n or n to n)
 After completion, 2 new cells are produced with equal chromosomes which is the same
as the original one.
 It is found in the growing tissue at the plant tip, root tip and cambium of plants or the
tissue covering the bone marrow in animal, reproduction of sperms and the eggs of
plants.
 The division is done in 5 phases - interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and
telophase.
Cell Cycle
Cell cycle means the change and transformation of a cell by division which has 2 stages ”
interphase stage and division stage.
1. Interphase
This stage is the preparation stage in the cell cycle, which is subdivide into 3 sub stages.
61
 Stage G1 is before producing the DNA where the cells are fully grown up. In this stage
some substances are produced for making the DNA.
 Stage S is the stage for producing the DNA (DNA replication). The cells are fully grown,
and there are DNA synthesis producing another DNA or doubling up the Chromosomes. In this stage, the
Chromosomes still contact to the old ones at the Centromere or Kinetochore. This stage takes the longest
time.
 Stage G2 is the post DNA stage. The cells have fully grown ready to divide the
chromosomes and Cytoplasm.
2. M-phase
The M-phase is the phase when the nucleus and Cytoplasm are divided. The Chromosomes are
transformed in various stages before completely separated. There are 4 sub-stages, namely, prophase,
metaphase, anna phase and telo phase.
In some cells such as the tissue cells in grown up plant, bone marrow producing red blood and
skin cells that divide themselves continuously. Other kind of cells only divided themselves one time, and
will not undergo another cell cycle until aging and die. Some cells stop changing for a period of time, then
transform and divide themselves again through the cell cycle. This method is called Mytosys as shown in
the table below:
62
Table showing the stages of changes in dividing cell (Mitosis method)
Stage
Interphase
Main Change




Prophase




Metaphase




Anaphase




Telophase




Reproduce another set of Chromosomes (Duplication) and attached
together at the Centro mier (1 Chromosome has 2 Chromatic)
Maximum chemical change (metabolic stage)
Centro divided into 2 pieces
Take the longest time, Chromosomes have the greatest length
Chromatid shortened, can see shape clearly
Nucleus membrane and necleo disappeared
Centrio moves to sides and Mytotic created.
Spindle stick to Centro mier, there are 2 Centrios.
Chromosomes set in the middle of cell.
Suitable to count Chromosome and study the structure.
Centromier divided in half splitting the Chromatid.
Chromosomes shrunk to the minimum size, easy to move.
Chromatid split becoming free Chromosomes.
Chromosomes double up or from 2n to 4n (tetraploid)
Chromosome set themselves into letter V, J and I
Takes the shortest time.
Daughter Chromosomes move to the sides of cell.
Nucleus membrane and nucleolus appeared.
Cytoplasm divided. For animal cells, the cell membrane shrunk I n
the middle of cell. For plant cells, cell plate created attached to the
original wall.
Two new identical cells are created.
63
Division of cells by Meiosis
Division of cells by Meiosis is for reproduction of animals found in testes and ovary as well as
spore in some plant with pollen sac. It is also found in sporangium, cone or ovule. In such process, the
Chromosomes are reduced from 2n to n making the Chromosome sets remain steady in each species ” the
primary, secondary or third line offsprings.
There are 2 stages for such division.
1. Meiosis - I
Meiosis ” I or Reductional division involves separating homologous Chromosome by 5 substages as follow:
“ Interphase- I
“ Prophase - I
“ Metaphase - I
“ Anaphase - I
“ Telophase - I
2. Meiosis - II
Meiosis ” II or Equational division involves separating Chromatid by 5 sub-stages as follow:
“ Interphase - II
“ Prophase - II
“ Metaphase - II
“ Anaphase - II
“ Telophase - II
When completed, there will be 4 cells with an n Chromosome in each cell (Haploid), which is
half of the primary cell. The created cells are not necessary to be the same sizes.
Steps in the cell division by Meiosis - I
Interphase- I
“ There is a DNA synthesis by doubling the amount or creating another set of Chromosome at
Centromier. Therefore, 1 Chromosome consists of 2 Chromatid.
Prophase - I
“ Takes the longest time.
“ Most important for the evolution of living things because genetic changes will occur also.
64
“ Homologous Chromosome will be closely paired called Synapsis process. The paired
Homologous Chromosome combined this way is called Bivalent. Each Bivalent has 4 Chromatid called
Tetrad. In human there are 23 pairs of Michrosomes and therefore 23 Bivalents
“ Homologous Chromosomes that Synapsis together will leave each other near the middle part,
but the tips are still intertwine called Chiasma.
“ There will be some changes in the Chromatid components between the Homologous
Chromosome and the part that Chiasma occur called crossing over, there might be some changes of
Chromatid between Nonhomhlogous chromosome called translocation. Both cases lead to the genetic
variation resulting to the characteristic changes of the living things accordingly.
Metaphase - I
Bivalent will be lined up in the middle of the cell (Homologous Chromosome still be in pair).
Anaphase - I
“ The Mitotic Spindle will shrink and pull the Homologous Chromosome until separated.
“ The number of Chromosome set in each cell still remain 2n (2n into 2n)
Telophase - I
“ Chromosome will move to each axis of the cell. And in some cells, the nucleus membrane is
created surrounding the Chromosome and dividing the Cytoplasm into 2 cells. In some cells, there will
not be such dividing action, but there will be direct changes to the Chromosome into the Prophase II.
Meiosis - II
Interphase - II
“ It is the break time. This may take place depend on the type of cells.
“ No DNA synthesis or reproducing of Chromosome.
Prophase - II
“ Chromatid retracts more.
“ There are no Synapsis, Chiasma or crossing over.
Metaphase - II
“ Chromatid lines up in the middle of the cell.
Anaphase - II
“ The Chromatid separated leading to the increase of Chromosomes from n to 2n temporarily.
Telophase - II
“ The Cytoplasm are divided until 4 cells are created, each cell has the Chromosome as n.
65
“ In the new 4 cells, each 2 cells will have identical genes if there is no crossing over, or the genes in
each cell may be completely different if there is a crossing over.
Table showing stage of changes in cell dividing (Meiosis method)
Stage
Main Change
Interphase- I
Reproducing another Chromosome, each has 2 Chromatid.
Prophase - I
Homologous Chromosome pairs up by Synapsis process. Each Chromosome
group has 2 strips (bivalent). Each group has 4 Chromatids (tetrad) and crossing over
takes place.
Metaphase - I Homologous Chromosome pairs line up in the middle of the cell.
Anaphase - I
Homologous Chromosome separates to each side of cell.
Telophase - I
Two new nucleus are produced, each nucleus has the Chromosome as Haployd (n)
Interphase - II Temporary break time for cell. No reproduction of Chromosome.
Prophase - II Chromosome retracts to the minimum showing 2 Chromatids I n each
Chromosome.
Metaphase - II Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell.
Anaphase - II Chromatids from the same Chromosome separated to the side of the cell leading
to the increase of Chromosomes from n to 2n temporarily
Telophase - II Four new nucleus are created and dividing the Cypoplasm leading to 4 newly completed
cells. Each cell has the number of Chromosome as Haployd (n) or half of the original cell.
66
Comparison Table for Cell Division between Mitosis and Meiosis Method
Mitosis
Meiosis
1. In general, it is for diving the body cells of a 1. Ingeneral, it is for dividing cells of reproduction
single cell type living things for growth or for cells.
reproduction.
2. Starting from 1 cell dividing into 2 new cells. 2. Starting from 1 cell dividing 2 times leading to
4 new cells.
3. The 2 new cells can be divided by Mitosis
3. The 4 new cells cannot be divided by Meiosis,
method.
but may be divied by Mitosis method.
4. Can start from Cygote stage throughout the life. 4. Mainly divide when the sexual organ has fully
developed, or occur in the Cygote of weed and
fungi.
5. Number of Chromosome remains unchanged 5. Number of Chromosome reduced by half in the
(2n) because there are no separation of Meiosis stage because the separation of the
Homologous Chromosome.
Homologous Chromosome makes the new cell to
have half of the original Chromosome (n).
6. There are no Synapsis, Chiasma or crossing 6. There are Synapsis, Chiasma and often crossing
over
over.
7. The DNA and Chromosome in the new cells are 7. The genetic material and Chromosome in the
identical.
new cell may change and different if there is a
crossing over.
67
Exercise : Cells
Make the mark “ ” in front of one correct answer
1. Which part of the cell control the in and out flow of substances?
a. Cell wall
b. Cell membrane
c. Controling cell
d. Lisosome
2. Which organ is the place to collect the non-dissolve substances?
a. Vacuo
b.Chloroplast
c. Amailoplast
d. Eathioplast
3. Which structure of the plant cell that can retain the shape eventhough it carries over weight?
a. Cell wall
b. Cell membrane
c. Nucleus
d. Cytoplasm
4. Which part of the cell is equivalent to the cell’s brain?
a.Nucleus
b. Chloroplast
c. Centrio
d. Rhybosome
5. Which part of the cell only found in plant?
a. Cell wall
b. Cell membrane
c. Nucleus
d. Cytoplasm
6. Which cells organ has no membrane?
a. Mitocondria and Ribosome
b. Chloroplast and golgi apparatus
c. Cell wall and Ribosome
d. Vacuo and Microbodies
7. Which cell organ is related to cell membrane production?
a. Mitocondria
b. Rhybosome
c. Endoplasmic Recticulum
d. golgi apparatus
8. Which one is the meaning of cell division?
a. Dividing nucleus
b. Dividing Cytoplasm
c. Dividing nucleus and Cytoplasm
d. Dividing cell wall
9. Which one is different from others?
a. Chromosome
b. Cromatin
d. Chromatid
d.Chromonima
68
10. The stage that the Chromosome reduces the size until we see that 1 Chromosome contains :a. 2 Centromier
b. 2 Chromatid
c. 2 Centrio
d. 2 Kinitocor
11. If we check the cell division using a microscope, which one is the correct reason why we can tell that it
is an animal cell?
a. The Chromosomes stick together
b. The Centrios are separated
c. The nucleolus dissappeared
d. The nucleus membrane decomposed
12. An animal cell with 22 pairs of Chromosomes (44 strips). How many Chromatid should be seen when
its cell is dividing in the Metaphase of Mitosis?
a. 22 strips
b. 44 strips
c. 66 strips
d. 88 strips
13. In the cell division by Meitosis process, if there are no splitting of Cytoplasm, what should be the
result?
a. There will be no nucleus membrane b. There will be no DNA reproduction
c. Each cell will have many nucleus
d. Number of Chromosome will be doubled
14. During the cell division, at what stage the Chromosomes are found to be very thin and are the
longest?
a. Interphase
b. Prophase
c. Metaphase
d. Anaphase
15. (Cytokinesis) เริ่มเกิดขึ้นที่ระยะใด At what stage does the division of Cytoplasm (Cytokinesis)
occur?
a. Anaphase
b. Prophase
c. Telophase
d. Metaphase
16. Which is the best definition of reproduction?
a. Cell division by Meitosis method
b. Nucleus division by Meiosis method
c. Increase the living things by old method d. Increase the products with identical charater
17. Which organ do we find the cell division by Meiosis?
a. Ovary
b. Uterus
c. Womb
d. Uterus mouth
69
18. How important is the cell division by Meiosis method to the evolution of living things?
a. It is the original way of life for living things .
b. It is the way to reduce the number of Chromosomes.
c. It is the way to propagate the living things’ charactors.
d. It is the way make the living things stronger.
19. Which reproduction method leads to the changes of genetic condition the most?
a. Not depending on gender & sex because of Meiosis method.
b. Not depending on gender & sex because of Meiosis method with crossing over processes.
c. Depending on gender and sex because of Meitosis method.
d. Depending on gender and sex because of Meitosis method with crossing over processes.
20. Which one is the most correct?
a. Division of nucleus by Meitosis method with Homologous Chromosome pairing.
b. Division of nucleus by Meitosis method with the new Chromosomes are different from the
original ones.
c. Division of nucleus by Meitosis method for reproduction of living things without
gender & sex.
d. Division of nucleus by Meitosis method producing new and completely identical cells.
********************************
70
Chapter 4
Heredity and genetic biological diversity
Essential part
Expected learning outcome
Contents
Essential part
Living things always have a specific charactor depending on each species. Living things from the
same species are less different campared to the ones from different species. The differences are from the
genetic diversity. The same type of living things would have similar character. The differences in the
charactors leads to the genetic differences or biological diversity.
Expected learning outcome
1. Capable to explain about hereditary transfer process, heredity and genetic variation, mutation
and genetic diversity.
2. Capable to explain about heredity.
3. Capable to explain about biological diversity and classification of living things.
Contents
Topic 1 : Hereditary transfer
Topic 2 : Biology diversity
71
Topic 1 : Hereditary transfer
Hereditary characteristic
Each living thing has a distinct characteristic that makes it different from others such as skin
colour, hair type, eye colour, colour and odour of flower, fruit taste, bird sound, etc. Those character are
transferred from parents to children, or from generation to generation. Such things are called genetic
character. In order to find out which character is the genetic one, we need to investigate many generations
because some characters would not appear in the children level, but in grand chieldred.
Variuos characters in the living things are genetic characters, and can be transferred from one
generation to others through the reproduction cells. They are the center unit when there is the fertilization
between the mother’s egg and the father’s sperm.
One living thing would have certain characters which are different from others. Therefore, we use
such distinctive characters to classify the types of the living things.
Kitties get transfered the genetic
characterfrom parents.
Variety of fruits
Even the same type of living things would have different character. For example, men have
different shape, face look, maner, voice, etc. These characters differentiate one person to another. Even a
twin from a common egg would be almost identical, but when checked in details, they are not completely
identical. Some characters of a living things can be seen easily such as shape, complexion, flower clour
and odour , fruit taste, etc. But some characters are difficult to see without complex observation, such as
blood group and intelligence.
Changes of genetic variation
Genetic variation means the differences in charaters because of the differences in the gene, and
such variation can be transferred to the childrens and grand childrens. The children will receive the
genetic characters half from the father and half from the mother, such as the hair, eye colour and blood
group. The variation is subdivided into 2 types as follow:
72
1. Continuous variation is the genetic that cannot be differentiated clearly. It normally involves
quantity such as height, weight of body structure and complexion. The continuous variation gets the
influence from genetic together with environment.
Continuous variation
Disontinuous variation
2. Discontinuous variation
Discontinuous variation is the genetic that can be differentiated clearly, and is not influenced by the
environment. This type of genetic is called the quality characters influenced by genetic only, such as blood
group, hair, hand greater ability side, eyelid pattern, etc.
Activity related to genetic characters
1. The learners are to inspect her genetic characters and their family for at least 3 generations such as the grand
parents, parents and brother and sisters to find out the similarlity.
2. Indicate the similar charaters in the family members by writing them down in the table.
3. Present the information as well as explain the survey results regarding the genetic transfer in the family.
73
Table showing the survey results of genetic character in the family
เ
Similar
Similar
to
Characte Similar Similar
to
grand
Surveyed character r of the
to
to
grand
father
learner father mother
mother
(father
(father
side)
side)
1. hair type
2. tougue
3. ear appendix
4. eyelid
5. dimple
6. hair colour
Similar
to grand
father
(mother
side)
Similar
to grand
mother
(mother
side)
Similar
older or
younger
brother
Similar
to older
or
younger
sister
7. hand greater
ability side,
Note indicate  for the similar charater
 Which one of the family member that the learner has similar genetic character, and what is the conclusion.?
The study about hereditary transfer
Gregor Mendel, a priest from Austria who loved the nature and knew how to improve the plant
breeding, was interested in heredity. He breed the pea in order to study the hereditary transfer. There are a
variety of the outside appearances of the pea. But Mendel had selected only 7 distictive charaters such as
height (tall and short) and shell charater (smooth and rough). The original breeders that he used were the
pure breeds. He took various pea breeders to plant in the same place and fertilized them in the same
flower. When the pea yielded the sheaths, he then used them to reproduce the plant repeatedly for a few
times by selecting the ones closely to the breeders until the offsprings were similar to the breeders.
74
From breeding the peas with 7 different charaters, Mendel had the test results shown below
Character of the breeders
smooth seed X rough seed
yellow seed X green seed
full sheathXflat sheath
Character of the breeders
green sheathXyellow
sheath
Outcome character
1 generation
2nd generation
5,474 smooth seeds
all smooth seed
1,850 rough seeds
6,022 yellow seeds
all yellow seed
2,001 green seeds
st
all full sheath
229 flat sheaths
Outcome character
st
1 generation
2nd generation
all green sheath
flower produced at stem X
all flower produced at stem
flower produced at tip
Purple flower X white
all purple flowers
flower
tall stem X short stem
882 full sheaths
all tall stem
428 green sheaths
152 yellow sheaths
651 flower produced at stem
207 flower produced at tip
705 purple flowers
224 Purple flowers
787 tall stem
277 short stem
X means breeding
Mendel called the various characters appeared in the 1st generation such as round seed and tall
stem as the dominance, while the characters not appeared in the 1st generation but appeared in the 2nd
generation such as rough seed and short stem as recessive. In the 2nd generation, the proportion between
the dominance / recessive is 3:1.
75
If the letter TT represents tall stem and tt represents short stem, we can make the diagram of the
genes controlling the characters, and the result of hereditary transfer by fertilization between the tall and
short stem peas in the 1st generation as follow:
parent
Male
reproduction cell
Female
reproduction cell
1st
generation
The result of fertilization between the tall stem and short stem pea
In the 1 generation, when the gene T that controls the tall stem character which is the dominance
pairs up with the gene t that controls the short stem character which is the recessive, the appeared
character will be the one controlled by the dominance gene. We can see this in the 1st generation where
there is tall stem for every pea, and when the offspring of this 1st generation fertilized among themselves,
the results shall be as shown.
st
The result of fertilization between plants in the 1st generation
Later, many new biologists had carried out the tests on the pea and various other plants, and had
1st
generation
Male
reproduction cell
2nd
generation
Female
reproduction
cell
76
analysed the outcome statistically similar to what Mendel had done. Mendel’s achievements were then
recovered, and finally the biologists recognized Mendel as the father of genetics.
Activity related to hereditary transfer
1. Why did Mendel selected the pure breeds before fertilization?
พันธุกรรม
2. If after fertilization by pollen using Mendel method, and an insect comes to refertilize the same pollen, then
what would be the problem to the test. If the learner were Mendel, then how should he solve the problem?
3. From the Mendel’s experiment, what is the dominance and recessive characters of the pea?
4. From Mendel’s experiment, what is the proportion beween the dominance and recessive for the 2nd generation?
5. What is the reasons why the pea swith TT and Tt genes have tall stem?
6. Do the living things that look the same necessarily have similar genes?
7. In fertilizing black hair guinea pigs, 29 black and 9 white hair pigs are produced. What does this information tell
us?
8. If B represents the controlling genes for the black hair guinea pigs, and b for the white hair one. What should be
the genetic character coding for the guinea pig.
9. In fertilizing the round seed pea (RR) with the rough seed pea (rr), find out the genetic character of the 1st
generation.
Genes
Chromosome of living things
The important undamental unit of the living things are the cells consting of 3 parts ” nucleus,
cytoplasm and cell membrane. Inside the nucleus, the part that can be dyed is called chromosome. It is
found that the chromosomes are related to the hereditary transfer.
In general, each living things or species has distinctive number of chromosomes as shown in the folloing table :
Table showing number of chromosome in the body cells and reproduction cells in some living things
Number of chromosome
Living thing
In body cell (bar)
In reproducing cell (bar)
Fruit fly
8
4
pea
14
7
corn
20
10
rice
24
12
77
Shugar cain
80
40
Fighting fish
42
21
human
46
23
chimpanzee
48
24
chicken
78
39
cat
38
19
There are 46 bars in human cell chromosome, which are 23 pairs and divided into 2 kinds :
1. Autosome is the 22 pairs (pair no.1 ” 22) that are all similar both for male and female.
2. Sex Chromosome is the chromosome for the 23rd pair, which are different between male and female.
The female chromosome is an XX type, while the male chromosome is an XY type. The chromosome Y
is smaller than chromosome X.
Genes and DNA
Gene is part of the Chromosome. In one Chromosome, there is the gene that controls billions of characters.
Gene is the heredity unit that controls various characters from the parents through the reproduction cells to the childrens
and grand childrens. Genes are paired in the Chromosome each pair of which controls only one character for the
herefditary transfer such as skin colour , dimples and eyelid.
Within a gene, there is an important chemical substance called DNA which stands for
Deoxyribonucleic acid that is the hereditary substance found in all living things whether it is plant, animal
or bacteria which is a single cell animal. DNA is formed by molecular spline similar to a spiral stairway,
and normally formed in a pair.
78
Source ( DNA. On”line. 2009 )
Source (sex chromosome. On–line. 2008)
Gene is the heredity unit within a Chromosome in living things
In each living thing, the amount of DNA are not equal. But the same type of living thing the
DNA in the cells is equal, whether it is the muscle, heart and liver cells.
Abnormal Chromosomes and genes
Each living things has different characters as the result of hereditary transfer. But in some cases,
we found that some characters are not normal because of abnormal Chromosomes and genes.
Abnormal heredity on the Chromosome level, For example, a down’s syndrome patient has
abnormal 21st Chromosome pair ” 3 bars in this pair. This leading to abnormal body such as pointing up
eyes, tuft tonque, flatten nose stem, short and shubby fingers and slow brain development.
Abnormal heredity on the gene level, for example, thalassemia comes from the abnormal
genes that control the production of Hemoglobin. The patient is normally pale with yellow eyes, redish
skin, slow body growth and low immune system.
Down’s syndrome patient
Source ( trisomy21. On–line. 2008)
Thalassemia patient
Source (Thalassemia on-line 2551)
oonon)((.....................................................
...........................)
79
Colour blined is an abnormal charater on the gene level. Such patient would perceive some
colours different from what they actually are, such as green, red or blue colour.
The colour blineded patient mostly got such hereditary defect transferred from the parents or
ancestors. Normal person can get clolour blineded if the colour detecting cells in the eyes are badly
impacted. Therefore, the colour blineded persons are not fit to work as soldier, medical doctor, driver, etc.
Mutation
Mutation is the hereditary changes on the gene or michrosome level as the result of DNA
deviations and changes. This would also affect the pretein synthesis in the cells of living things. This is
also because some protein types are parts of the cell structure and some tissue, and some are the enzyme
controlling the metabolism. The changes of DNA might make the synthesized proteins deviated from the
normal condition which affects the body metabolism. It also can affect the normal functions of various
organs and make the character changed.
There are two types of mutation
1. Somatic Mutation : It is the mutation of the body cells which will not be transfered to the
offsprings.
2. Gemetic Mutation : It is the mutation of the reproduction cells which will be transferred to the
offsprings.
Causes of mutation The mutation might occur from 2 main causes as follow :
1. The mutation occurred by itself naturally. This type of mutation can be found in human,
animal and plant. It is normally found in a very small percentage, slowly and gradually. The changes and
mutation had resulted in the evolution of living things and creation of new breeds at various time line.
2. The mutation occurred because of the stimulation from radiation, sunlight and chemical
substances. Radiation breaks up the chromosomes and transform the genes. It is also found that X-Ray
radiation can make fruit flies genetically transformed more than 150 times the natural ones.
Normally, mutation would result in unwanted charaters and illnesses such as cancer or various
genetic diseases. But some other kinds of mutation are strange and novel that are desirable such as white
elephant, albino barking deer or deviated breeds of fruits. Such type of fruits include whithered seed
watermelon or banana and extra size apple.
80
Nowadays scientists use radiation to accelerate the mutation process by project such ray onto
parts of the plant. For example, Gamma ray is used to mutate the sourcxe roots of cape jasmine resulting
in new types of breed. The shape of some other flowers and plants are also affected by Gamma ray.
Grnetic variation by mutation leads to newer characters which are different from the original
ones. Such characters can be transferred to the newer generations creating various different hereditary
characters.
Activity related to searching information on mutation
The learners are to collect sample information related to mutation of living things, and to present
& discuss the results ubder the following issues:
• How are mutations created.
• What are the usefulness and harmfulness of mutations.
Subject 2 : Biology diversity
Our wold has so many biology diversities and they have always support the lives by means of air, clean water,
medicine, food, clothing, tools & apparatus, etc. The loss of species & breeds, environmental balance and heredity not only
reduces the richness of biology, but also makes the human to lose the chance to use the beautiful and clean environment, to
have good medicines as well as sufficient food.
Biology diversity is the way we have many different living things with different species and breeds in a certain
area.
Types of biology diversity
Biology diversity is divided into 3 types as follow :
1. Species diversity is the origin of the study related to the matter because in the past ecologists
had studied the characters of various groups of living things in many areas as well as their changes
through times.
2. Genetic diversity is related to various kinds of living things, and is essential for the evolution
mechanism. The characters of every living things are controlled by heredity and genes. The genes
themselves are related to the adaptibility of the living things as well as the capability to transfer to the
younger generations. This is because any living things have so many genes. And each one character has
81
more than one types of hereditary genes. That is why one type of living things has some different
characters.
3. Ecological diversity or landscape diversity is related to the location of the origin of the
living things. The geographical conditions of such location control such diversity.
Activity related to biology diversity
The learners are to survey and serach the interested information related to the subject in order to
present and discuss about the differences of the biology diversity found in the learners’ location including
the biology and ecology in the area. The diversity of one type of living thing in the learners’ location is to
be selected for such activity. The main questions to be discussed are :
• How is the ecology condition in the learners location?
• What type of living things found in the learners location ecological system? What is the largest
numbers of the plants and animal found ? What is the reason why they are the majority?
• Give an example of the biology diversity of one living thing found in the learners location, and
describe how interesting they are.
From the above survey results on the types of living things found locally reflects the vast varieties of the
living things, how can the learners tell which ones are the same or different types?
Classification of living things
Taxonomy is a subject in biology that is related to classification of living things.
The usefulness of Taxonomy
Since there are a large numbers of living things, each of which are different, it is not easy to study
their nature thoroughly. Therefore, classification of the living things is necessary and useful as follow:
1. Make it easier to study about the living things.
2. Easier to make use of the information.
3. Provide suitable skill in classifying things systematically.
Principle of classification
Classification of living things includes collecting them into a group which has an identical or
similar character, or grouping them according to the various different characters.
Presently, the study bases on the evidence and data reflecting the close evolution in various
aspects as the standard for the classification as follow :
82
1. Compare the internal and external structures and find out how they are similar or different. In
general, the apparent structures are used as the grouping standard. For example, grouping by having
appendages, segmented legs, single hair or branch hair like bird feather, skin scale, line or mustache,
backbone, etc.
If the structures originated from the same origin, eventhough they have different functions, they
can be classified as the same group. For example, human hand bones, whale flipper, bird wing, front legs
of quadruped leg animals. But if the structures originated by different origin, but have the same fuction,
they will be classified as different group, such as bird wings and insect wings.
Comparision of structures that have the same origin
source ( Homologous structures.On-line. 2008
) ……………………………………….. )
2. The growth pattern of embrio. All living things have similar various stages of growth
development, only different in each stage details. The more similar embrio growth pattern, the closer the
evolution stage are.
Example of growth pattern of some embrios
Human
Bird
Fish
Source (Embrio growth pattern on-line 2551)
83
3. Fossel. The study of fossels of living things anables us to know about the ancestors of the
living things today. Living things that share the same ancestor are categorized as in the same group. For
example, birds and reptiles are in the same group. This is because the results of the study about
Pteranodon (a flying reptile) and Archaeopteryx (an ancient bird having long jawbone, teeth, wings and
finger similar to that of reptiles) shows that birds have the evolution from the ancient reptiles.
Pteranodon
Source ( Pteranodon. On”line. 2008 )
Archaeopteryx
source (Archaeopteryx.On ”line. 2008 )
4. Organell. Under the principle that closely similar living things often have similar chemical
substances and organell in the cells. The organell to be considered are plastid and protein created by the
cells themselves.
84
Steps for classifying living things
Scientists had used various standards to classify the living things by starting with large levels to
smaller ones as follow:
Kingdom
Phylum for animals and Division for plants
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Setting ‚Phylum‛ in animal and ‚Division‛ in plants is the idea from the botanist world wide.
Activity related to classification of living
things
The learners are to make a research and give the example the classification of 3 living things from
larger level to smaller one, and note them down in the table below:
Level
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Type 1
....................................
Living thing
Type 2
....................................
Type 3
....................................
85
Names of living things
Names of living things are invented to call and specify the the correct ones. There are 2 types of
names as follow:
1. Common name
It is the name of a living thing used for calling in different region. For example, rose apple in the
Northern region and Lumpang called ‚ Barman‛ , in Lumpoon called ‚BarKluai‛, Cntral region call
‚Farang‛, Southern region called ‚Shompoo‛, Northeast region called ‚bug sida‛, etc. Therefore, using
the common name may cause confusion easily. There are usually various ways to specify the common
names. Specifying by the shape such as a certain kind of weed resemble the squirrel tail called ‚squirrel
tail weed‛, the sedges herb resembling a crocodile tail called ‚crocodile sedges‛, etc. Specifying by the
originally found location such as ‚Java water hyacine‛, ‚Indian rubber‛ and ‚Egyptain umbella plant‛.
Specifying by location such as ‚starfish‛ and ‚land slug‛. Specifying by the usessuch as ‚shellfish pearl‛.
2. Scientific name
It is the name of living things originated and called internationally generally known by scientist
world wide. Carolus Linius, a Swedist natural scientist initiated the method of specifying such kind of
scientific name for living things. He recommended that each name should consist of 2 parts, first part is
the genus and the last part is the species. We call such name as a binary name.
Principle of setting names
1. To be in Latin language (because the Latin is already a dead language and cannot be changed).
2. In writing the name, English language is to be used, and the first part is to start with capitalized
English alphabet while the second part can be the lower case English language, and 2 ways to write :

If write or type with italic alphabets, no need to underline them, such as Homo sapiens.

If write or type with ordinary alphabet, separately underline each word,
such as Homo sapiens
3. The names may be followed by the name of the discoverer, such as Passer montanus Linn.
4. The scientific names may be changed if more detailed are discovered later.
Specifying scientific names may also be done by considering various related matters of the
living things
86
1. Condition of the location found
A tropical green vegetable has a scitific name as “Ipomoca aquatic”. The name ‚aquatic‛ comes
from aquatic which means water.
2. Location found
Mango has the scientific name ‚Mangfera indica”. The name ‚indica‛ comes from the originated
location, which is India.
3. Prominent character
Red rose has the scientific name ‚Rosa rubra”. The name ‚rubra‛ means red.
4. Name of the discoverers or involved persons
Bauhinia has the scientific name ‚Bauhinia sanitwongsei‛. The second part of the name was used to
honor the person involve ” Mom Ratchawong Yai Snitwongsei.
Activity related to the name of living
1. The learners are search for10 scientific names of living things from various learning sources ” 5
are to be plants, and 5 are to be animals
2. Write down the information in the following table.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Name of living things
Scientific name
87
Living things diversity
The beginning of living things diversity in our world started billions of years ago. Up to now,
living things have gone through many stages and many kinds of evolution. Each type has its own way of
living. For example, some have simple way to live, and some are so complex. Some survive in water, and
some on land. Presently, the diversity has divided into 5 kingdoms of living things according to R.H.
whittaker as follow:
1. Kingdom Monera
The living things in this kingdom are the low classed types in the Procarioat group with no cell
membrane. They have very simple structure and are of single cell type. The living things under this
category are blue-green weed and bacteria with various shapes ” bar, spiral, sphere or interconnecting
long strings. Some bacteria can cause disease such as dysentery, titanic, leprosy, cholera, diphtheria,
whooping cough, etc. Such bacteria can be found in the root of pea called ‚Rhizobium sp.‛. It can draw
the Nitrogen fro the air to produce Nitrate which is an important food substance for plant. As for the bluegreen weeds known as ‚Sprirurina sp.‛ containing high protein are used as the supplementary food.
Living things in the Kingdom Monera
source ( Monera.On”line. 2008 )
2. Kingdom Protista
Living things in this kingdom are in the Eucarioat group with a
nucleus membrane. Most of them are single cell type. They are low
class living things with single or multiple cells with chloroplast used
for the photosynthesis such as fresh water and sea water weeds. Some
cannot be seen by eyes and only by microscope such as Amoeba,
Paramisium and Uglina. There are also Slime Mold which is found in a
wet and muddy area. Some in this kingdom causes disease such as Plasmodium sp can cause malaria
fever. Some can be used as animal feed, and some can be used as the material for making noodle such as
red weed
88
Living things in Kingdom Protista
Source (Protista.On” ine. 2008 )
3. Kingdom Fungi
Living things in this kingdom are mostly fungi. They are single or multiple cells types such as
yeast for maling bread, wisky, beer or whine. The multiple cells type include mushroom composing of
many compacted fibers having the cell membrane like a plant but without any chlorophyll. Mushroom can
be reproduced by spores. They grow by digesting organic substance and take the digested molecules into
their cells. Mushroom are the living thing that dissolve substances in the ecosystem.
Living things in the
Kingdom Fungi
source ( Fungi. On ” line. 2008 )
1.
Living things in the Kingdom Plant
source ( plant kingdom online 2551 )
4. Kingdom Plant
Living things in this kingdom are of multiple cells type combined into various tissues. The cells
can be changed according to the particular tasks, for example, roots,stems and leafs. Mostly leafs have the
Chloroplast for photosynthesis using the light energy. They are considered to be the create things in the
ecosystem. Plants are found both onland and in water. The low class plants do not have the food transfer
89
tubes, such as moss. High class plants have the tube such as rattan palm, grass, Maxican daisy, fern,
dicotyledon and monocotyledon plants.
5. Kingdom Animalia
Living things in this kingdom are the animal with tissues which consist of many cells, no cell
membrane. There are no chloroplast in the cell, and the animals need to survive by eating other living
things. Animals are the the consuming type in the ecosystem. The living things in this kingdom can give
response to stimulation. Some cannot move such as sponge, coral and sea fan.
Living things in the Kingdom Animalia are subdivided into 2 groups as follow:
Invertebrate animal such as sponge, sea fan, jelly fish, parasite worm, earth worm, shell, crab,
insect, squid and starfish
vertebrate animal such as fish, reptile, poultry and mammal.
Living things in Kingdom Animalia
source ( Kingdom Animalia on line 2551
)
90
Activity related to living things diversity
From the study 0n the living diversity, the learners are to write down the summary in the following table.
Living things classification table
Kingdom
Main Charater
Example
Importance
Monera
Protista
Fungi
Plant
Animalia
The value of living things diversity
The living things diversity has the values and is important to human as follow:
1. It is the source of 4 essential things
Forests are the location that contain a vast amount of living things diversity that is the human
food. From ancient times, human exploited the forests to get food and medicine such as plants, animal,
mushroom, etc. Human built home and made clothing from forest trees and some other type of trees.
Heating and other energy came from fire wood.
As the population had substantially increased and the technology had developed, the living things
diversity in the forest were destroyed. Human needed more homes. More deforestation occurred to satisfy
the human needs leading to small scale farming replacing the rich living things diversity.
2. The source of knowledges
Forests are the area for the living things diversity. They are the source of various genetic matters
related to the living things. Therefore, they are like natural classrooms, especially Biology. Moreover,
they are the source for further research and study related to living things in the forests. If the forests or the
91
nature are destroyed, the living things diversity would be destroyed also, and the source of knowledges
would be lost.
3. Location for relaxation
The living things diversity provides nice scenery which are different according to the temperature
of the location. In some areas where the temperature is suitable for living, there would be various plants,
wild animals, insects, butterflies, etc. that give good and relaxed feelings. The place can be developed to
be the conserved tourism location.
Living things diversity in Thailand and local area
There are about 5 million types of living things in our world. About 7% re in Thailand. But
Thailand population is only about 1% of the world total population. Therefore, comparing the above
pertentages, Thailand still have plenty of living things diversity.
There are a large veriaty of living things in Thailand because our geographical conditions support
the growth ad development of the living things such as the coastal area, river basin, hilly and
mounteneous area with high mountain of about 2,400 m above the mean sea level. Such areas are suitable
for wetland, swamp, mixed, vergin and pine forests.
In the past 30 years, Thailand has lost a vast amount of forests because of deforestation, over
population as well as uncontrollable forest concession. Other factors include road construction, industrial
type agriculture and new technologies that had damaged the forest quickly. Many of the destructions are
in the mounteneous forest as well as in the swamp areas. This leads to the distinction of animals such as
rhino, Sumatran rhinoceros, etc. And it is a great risks that many other animals will shortly be extincted
Such as bubalus, brow-antlered deer, Bengal tiger, mainland serow, forest elephant, tapia and many other
animals including insects.
Deforestation causes more critical and natural problems. Vast and healthy water resources started
to reduce. The rest of forest area cannot absorb the heavy rain causing flash flood and damage the
economy as well as home human and animal safety.
Therefore, problems related to living things diversity in Thailand are important and urgently
needed to be solved by stopping all ecological loss and conserve the rest of the forest. The damaged
forests are to be rehabilitated because the living things diversity is the basis for the sustainable social and
economical development.
92
Conservation of local living things diversity
The conservation can be done as follow:
1. Manage the ecology as close as possible to the natural condition by rehabilitate or improve the
damaged area.
2. Set up conservation centers to protect the living things outside the native land so they can be
temporary rest before going back to nature such as botanical garden and sea water animal growing center.
3. Promote suitable agricultural farming and use trees surround houses or farmland in order to
attract various animals to stay together leading to conservation of living things diversity.
Activity related to conservation of living things diversity
The learners are to investigate and collect data for discussion related to the important local living
things diversity on the following points:
• As Thailand is the area for many living things diversity, what are the usefulness that we received?
• How necessary it is to maintain the condition of the living things diversity?
93
Chapter 5
Biotechnology
Essential part
Biotechnology is the technology that in the past we have used the biology knowledge for
everyday life. For example, making bread, vinegar, fish source, yoghurt, etc., which are the local folk
wisdoms related to the biotechnology. This also includes producing antibiotic medicine as well as
improvement of various plant and animal breeds today.
Expected learning outcome
1. Capable to explain about biotechnology.
2. Capable to explain about the impact of biotechnology to lives and environment.
3. Capable to explain about the roles of folk wisdoms related to biotechnology.
Contents
Topic 1 : The meaning and importance of biotechnology
Topic 2 : Factors affecting the biotechnology
Topic 3 : Biotechnology for everyday life
Topic 4 : Folk wisdoms related to biotechnology
Topic 5 : The usefulness and impact of biotechnology
94
Topic 1 : The meaning and importance of biotechnology
Biotechnology
Biotechnology is the technology that uses the knowledge about living things and their products
useful for human. Or the technology that we take the living things or their components to be further
developed for the uses according to our requirements.
Importance of biotechnology
Nowadays, biotechnology has been used widely to solve the important problems facing our world
including agriculture, food, medical and pharmacy. They are:
1. Minimizing the use of chemical substances in agriculture to reduce the environmental
problems by producing new breeds that can resist the diseases and pests.
2. Increasing the plantation area by improve the new breeds that can stand the drought or
extremely high or low temperature.
3. Increasing the world’s agricultural production by improving the new breeds of plants and
animals that can better resist the diseases as well as give better products.
4. Producing the food with better nutrition and useful for consumers such as low fat food,
durable food or the food that can be kept longer not using chemical additives.
5. Researching and producing new medicines that can cure serious diseases that could not be
cured yet, such as the medicines to stop the spreading cancerous tissue instead of using chemical
treatment, producing the vaccines to protect the hepatitis virus attack or producing the vaccines to cure the
flue 2009.
95
Activity 5.1
The learners are to give the summary of biotechnology as understood, and write it down below.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
96
Topic 2 : Factors affecting the biotechnology
Currently, human beings have applied knowledge and experience related to living things for
benefit of mankind. They included simple technology such as fish source production and high technology
such as new types of protein production with special properties that cannot be found from nature. They
also included antibiotic and new industrial products. All of these made use of natural microorganism or
the pure breed ones.
Up to now, there have been constantly increase in the developments of food production,
substances for food production or components used in the food production. Such developments related
both to type and quality such as yeast for making bread, various enzymes such as Amiless Lactes, Gluco
Amiless, and sweet substance such as Aspatam, etc.
In the production of goods using biotechnology 2 factors are to be considered.
1. There should be the best biological catalyst specially for producing the required merchandises
and the process such as various enzymes, plants or animals selected for breed improvement.
2. There should be proper design of reactor and tools for controlling the physical quality during
production process such as temperature, acid ” base level, aeration, etc. , so that the process would be
suitable with the biological catalyst used.
97
Activity 5.2
The learners are to write down the answers to each question in the following form.
1. What are the factors for the biological catalysts for the merchandise production process?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
2. In the required merchandise production, how do we control the physical quality?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
98
Topic 3 : Biotechnology for everyday life
Appling the biotechnology to or everyday life means applying our knowledge about living things
and their products for the benefit of human well being. For example, since the earlier days we have
applied the knowledge for the followings:
Food production such as fish source, pickled fish, cabbage vegetable, fermented shrimp source,
vinegar, yoghurt, etc.
Production of new type of detergent with enzyme.
Production of fertilizer from wasted material such as vegetable, food, straw and animal
droppings.
Solving the environmental problem such as using microorganism to eliminate garbage or healing
polluted water.
Solving energy problem such as producing the waterless type alcohol (ethyl alcohol), and mix
them with benzene making gasohol for vehicles.
Increasing the food production value such as increasing the meet quantity of cow and pig and
improving the quality of oil in the plant giving oil (Canola).
Producing merchandises made from fatty material such as milk, butter, oil, medicine, etc.
Curing disease and health care using herbs.
The uses of biotechnology in Thailand
Thailand has various researches in the field of biotechnology for the benefit of our nation. Most
of them are related to the biotechnology for agriculture, such as:
1. Raising tissues for expansion and improvement of banana, orchid, bamboo, flower for
decoration and elephant grass.
2. Plant breeding, such as:
Improvement by breeding tomato, chili, and various beans to resist pests by genetic
modification technique.
Develop new plants such as paddy rice that can stand dry weather, salty and acidic land.
Develop new plants suitable for high land such as strawberry and potato.
Develop strawberry plantation for the North and North East regions.
Develop new and breeds that can withstand disease such as tomato and papaya.
99
3. Develop and improve animal breed.
Breeding daily cows giving high quality of milk by fertilization in test tube and embryo transplant.
Reducing the spreading diseases by developing faster diagnose technique such as checking
the liver parasite in cows, checking virus causing diseases in shrimps.
4. Producing organic fertilizer such as farmland manure, ferment fertilizer, transfix nitrogen
microorganism, and weed fertilizer.
5. Controlling diseases and insects by bio-organics.
Using microorganism to control diseases in tomato, ginger and strawberry farms.
Using some fungi to control the rotten roots in durian and other plants as well as control fiber
earthworms and knotted roots.
Using bacteria or its extract to control and get rid of insects such as using the bacteria to get rid
of mosquito and larva that causes encephalitis and malaria diseases.
Beside agriculture, Thailand has developed the biotechnology for other areas such as:
Developing DNA printing technology in order to check the contamination in jasmine rice and
tuna fish.
Research and development of medical knowledge, such as:
Checking and diagnose denque fever and alimentary canal disease.
Developing the method to search for the substance from plants and microorganics to
resist malaria and tuberculosis
Developing the method to nurture human and animal cells.
Improve the agricultural production quality, such as
Reducing the cholesterol content in chicken eggs.
Developing fruits with delayed ripe.
Develop food to help protecting diseases such as studying the substances in milk that help fast
growth.
Nowadays, biotechnology has been widely used leading to new hopes related to developing
various new living things with better efficiency and quality. Therefore, it plays an important role to
human life. It is important to follow the news about biotechnological progress including risks and impact
to human life and environment.
100
Activity 5.3
The learners are to make further research related to Biotechnology that can be used for the
everyday life in Thailand, write down the report and submit to the instructor.
101
Topic 4 : Folk wisdoms related to biotechnology
Biotechnology found to be the oldest folk wisdom of mankind is the fermentation technology. It
is done by taking the natural bacteria to preserve and transform food such as making fish source, pickled
fish, sour pork, fermented shrimp source, salted bean, soya source, bean paste, pickled vegetable, vinegar,
whisky, beer, bread, yoghurt, etc. Such fermented food might not have stable and standard quality and
difficult to improve the fermentation efficiency. It is also difficult to increase the quantity and risky to be
contaminated by various diseases or toxic micro organics.
Under current urban social and economic condition, we cannot rely only on the technology in the
homegrown level which is the biotechnology from folk wisdom. This leads to the development of
biotechnology required locally. In order to develop and improve the folk wisdom, we need to have the
certain developers to give advices to local people to gain knowledge and understanding the application of
technology. It is to be used for new inventions. The need to selecting and improving some technologies
especially to gain better result relating to the increase of work efficiency depends on knowledge and skill
from outside sources. Therefore, the folk wisdom need to rely also on the technology to increase the
production. This would be useful in food industry, medical industry, education, etc. Each local region
would have different folk wisdom biotechnology development depending on geographical location,
climate, living behavior, raw material, the uses, etc. However, the current education, research and
experiment have resulted in substantial progress in biotechnology.
Knowledge transfer, manufacturing technology and operational skill are essential for transferring
the folk wisdom related to biotechnology to younger generation. This would increase many branches of
knowledge for developing new technology in the future.
102
Activity 5.4
The learners are to work in groups (4-5 persons per group) to further research and to interview
people who know about folk wisdom biotechnology that can be used for everyday life in the community
or local area. Each group is to give example for 1 type of production and submit the report to the
instructor.
103
Topic 5 : The usefulness and impact of biotechnology
The usefulness of biotechnology
Today biotechnology has been used for the followings:
1. Agriculture
1.1 Animal breed improvement
Improving the animal breed by taking better foreign breeders which might not get used to local
weather to mix with local ones that can stand the Thai weather. In this way, the offspring would have a
good breed, can resist Thai diseases and weather with low cost.
1.2 Improvement of plants and new breed such as farming plant, vegetable and flowering tree.
1.3 Control the pests by biology method.
2. Industry
2.1 Implanting embryo to increase the quality and improve the quantity of milk cow and
meat cow for such production industry.
2.2 Artificial insemination for land and aquatic animals in order to increase the quantity and
improve the quality for the production industry related to frozen food and canned food.
2.3 Genetic Engineering is applied by taking the product from genes for industry such as
producing medicine, vaccine, solution to test illness, medicine to resist tumor, insulin hormone, and
others.
2.4 Producing the hormone to assist the animal growth by taking the genes that produce such
hormone to make cow and human grow faster, and inject it into the eggs of fertilized pigs. This process is
found to make the pigs grow faster.
2.5 Making new breed of animal for fast growing, better production with good immunity
such as the sheep giving more milk and can resist virus.
3. Medical
3.1 Using the genes to cure diseases such as the bone marrow that produces unusual
hemoglobin, curing child with low immunity or cancer patients.
3.2 Checking and diagnose the genes to check the thalassemia, anemia, retarded disease as
well as cancer.
3.3 The use of genetic code printing of living things such as checking and searching the
identity of persons involved as suspected persons, checking the heredity link between persons and
checking the animals that are related to economy.
104
4. Food
4.1 Increase the meat quantity both for land and aquatic animals. The land animals include
water buffalo, pig, etc. The aquatic animals include fresh water fish, salt water fish such as fish, shrimp,
shell, etc. The land animals are the most important source of protein.
4.2 Increase the food production from animal such as milk, duck egg and chicken egg.
4.3 Increase the goods which are transformed from animals such as butter, powdered milk
and yoghurt, so that we would have various foods.
5. Environment
5.1 The use of microorganism to preserve our environment by selecting and improving
suitable microorganism to have better efficiency in dissolving polluted materials.
5.2 Searching for the natural resources to be used to produce new resources properly.
6. Energy production
6.1 The power sources from biomass are various alcohol and acetone which are the by
products from transforming flour, sugar or cellulose by microorganism.
6.2 Bio gas is the gas produced as the result of the microorganism digesting the biomass
without using oxygen. It will produce a lot of methane gas (with no color, odors and flammable), carbon
dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen.
The impact of biotechnology to the genetic modification
The use of genetic modification technology in order to let the microorganism to produce
substances or other products. Some are for resisting insects, plant diseases and pests. Improving the plant
breed includes the genetic modified organism (GMO).
Most MGO plants are
maize and cotton that resist insects
Soybean that resist insecticide
Papaya and potato that resist disease
Though the biotechnology is useful for the development of plant and animal breeds in order to
yield high quantity and good quality with low cost, but there are no sufficient evident to confirm that the
GMO plant would not affect the environment and bio diversity.
There are various tests by planting GMO plant world wide as follow:
1. Farming plants resisting chemical substances that eliminate the pest ” to reduce the use
of vast amount of anti pest material.
2. Farming plants that can resist insecticide.
3. Farming plants that can resist virus such as papaya and other fruit.
105
Impact of Biotechnology
The development of biotechnology had raised the fear regarding human safety and ethic of the
technology affecting the public. The result of human controlling the system of other living things might
become a disaster to the environment and medical matters, or might bring about the following humanmade problems:
Production of bad diseases to be used for biological or chemical warfare.
Using the genetic substances from developing countries aiming at cost reduction.
Therefore, the correct and suitable use of biotechnology must make our living stable. But if used
without realizing the negative effect to safety and without good ethic to the public, then there would be
the great impact to us at the end.
The impact from GMO plant
It was found that the GMO plants have the following impact:
1. Impact to the genetic diversity
The GMO plants have the impact the some insects that assist the fertilization. And the
coccinellidae which is the insect raising in GMO potato yield only 1/3 of the normal eggs, their lives are
half shortened compared to the ones raising naturally.
2. Impact to the lives and environment
There has been some impact from GMO food to the consumer’s lives. A company producing
vitamin B2 food used genetic modification technique to produce and sold them in the USA. It was found
that nearly 5000 persons suffered with abnormal tendon illness with pain as well as nervous system
disease. Thirty seven persons died and almost 1500 persons permanently handicapped.
To gain more knowledge and understanding about biotechnology, the learners should follow up
the news related to the progress, the usefulness including the risks and the impact to the learners
themselves as well as to the environment so they can select the best way safely.
106
Activity 5.5
The learners are to make further research related to the current progress of Biotechnology, write
down the report and submit to the instructor.
107
Chapter 6
Natural resources and environment
Essential part
Natural resources and environment relates to our lives in many various ways. Therefore, we need
to study the impact to the environment on the local, country and global level, and finding the way to solve
the natural resources and environmental problem.
Expected learning outcome
1. Capable to explain about the changes of living things.
2. Capable to explain about the use of natural resources including environmental problems on
the local, country and global level.
3. Capable to describe the sources of problems related to planning and actual operation.
4. Capable to describe the way to protect, correct, watch over and preserve the natural
resources and environment.
5. Capable to explain the phenomenon has affected the geology of life and the environment
6. Capable to explain the phenomenon of global warming ,cause and effect on human life
Contents
Topic 1 The process of the substitution of the living things and the environment in community
Topic 2 The use of natural resources in the level of local ,country and world-class
Topic 3 The geologic phenomena that can affect the living thing and the environment
Topic 4 The problem and the impact of ecosystem and environment in the local ,the community and the
world
Topic 5 The method to resolve the problem of natural resources and environment in the
community
Topic 6 The plan to develop the natural resources and the environment.
Topic 7 Global warming , the cause and effect, the prevention and protection of the global
warming
108
Topic 1 The process of the succession of the living things and the environment in community
The succession of the living things in the ecosystem
The succession of the living things means the changes in the system of categories, or
community by time. To begin with, there is no creature of the living thing until the first group, which is a
group of organisms that are highly durable and have evolved to animate the last groups called a complete
community (climax stage). The substitution of the organisms can be divided into 2 types of is
1. Primary succession: The substitution will start in the area that the living thing has never
been lived in before which can be divided into 2 categories
1.1 The substitution in empty area on the land that has a 2 characteristics that are
The succession on the rock that is empty area. It starts from
Step 1 There will be single celled organisms such as green seaweed or lichen on a rock, then a
rock will start to erosion due to the moisture and living things on the rock. According to the erosion, there
are small particles of soil and sand and organic particulates with the accumulated remains of organisms
increase and then there will be plant in type of moss.
Step 2 When there is a collection of sandy soil and dead organisms and more humid. Plants
occur in later that are grass and annual crops, moss will be lost.
Step 3 There is a shrubbery and trees instead of. The trees will be humiliated at first that is grow
fast plants and like to stay under the sun. The small plants, that occur before was, will gradually disappear
as the sun was obscured by the trees that is taller than
Step 4 This is a complete step (climax stage) is a group of life community that is the perfect
growth and is a balance in the system that is to develop a large tree. There is a fertile forest condition.
The succession on the empty sand. First step, the plant is a type of vine that rooted in the
humid area, the next step; it will have a long trunk under the ground and can spread branches to far away.
And, the underground has a root; there are more organic objects that is more the ability of water-bearing,
and more nutrients. Finally, the brunch has occur and trees in the last step
1.2 The succession in water source such as water-well, desert which will start from
Step1 The area of the bottom pool or the marsh, that is sand. As a result, there is a little creature
that is floating in water, such as plankton, microalgae and embryo of some kind of insect
Step2 There was a cumulative organic at the bottom of the pool area and then they will start to
occur under the water plant that is type of algae and small animals that lived in the area of plants under
water, such as fish, shell and embryo of insects
109
Step3 On the ground floor that is the bottom of the pool, organic substances to pile up more
because of the death of algae. When the floor has more nutrition at the bottom of the pool, a plant will
occur that leaf of plants is above the water. For example, sedge, neyraudia, red grass, pandanus, and then
there will be a lion apple snail shrimp small green frogs worms intestinal worms, apple snail , fog and
small fog, shrimp, earthworm and have evolved to more kinds of animals that have a volume of oxygen, it
will be used more animals. The weak animal will die.
Step 4 The organic substances that accumulate at the bottom of the pool area will be increased while the
pool is shallow, in the dry season. At the shallow area, there is grass and animals living in the pool are type of
amphibious
Step 5 This is a perfect step. The pool will be shallow until it becomes a ground condition that is
a cause of the substitution. The plants and animals on land and evolution become a forest at last. The
instead of affecting the organisms in the system of the house will have to take a very long time in the
evolution of the of the living things in the ecosystem has along for every steps of the evolution in the
substitution.
2. The succession of the living thing in secondary succession (Secondary succession)
The succession of other types of animal in the same area as the area has been changed. For example, a
forest is cut down to blaze a plantation or forest fire area at the beginning of the succession will the other
groups, instead of the whole by nature and the man made that always start with the change of the society
instead of the organisms.
1. The characteristic of the succession as a follow
Existing environment changes. (condition change)
There is a suitable adjustment of the living thing that is from the other place (adaptation)
There is a good selection of natural selection (natural selection)
2. The form of the succession is available in 2 formats
Degradtive succession. In this process of succession, organic matter, remains of organisms
that are used by detritivore and microorganism
Autotrophic succession The new community is developed from the empty area.
3. The factor of the process of the succession has 3 factors as a follow
A. Facilitation: As a result from a change of the physical factors to appropriate with the new
type of the living thing.
110
B. Inhibition: As a result of the natural disturbance or the death of only same species.
C. Tolerance: Because the species that is new intruder can resist to low level of the resources
and it can be overcome the species that live before
4. The factors that cause the succession
The succession is occurring in the nature such as earthquake, volcano, land has become a
source of water, etc.
Topic2 The use of natural resources in the level of local, country and world
Natural resources means the thing is displayed by the nature or has happened in accordance with
the benefit for human and the nature in each other. (Thawe Songsak and Thudsanee Thongsawark ,
2523:4) If is not useful to human, it is natural resources (Kasame Junkaew,2525:4)The use of the term
"natural resources" and the word "environment" sometimes the user may be confused and do not know
that which word is to be use. So, it is considered that these two words are similar and different. In this
topic (Kasame Junkaew, 2525:7-8), who represent that
1. The similarity: This is consideration in terms of the same nature, the natural resources and
environment as it is, it is also a useful human beings. Human know how to use and how to think of
the natural resources. Human beings are living in natural resources and change all things that man
calls "environment". The similarity between natural resources and the environment that natural
resources are a part of the environment.
2. 2. The different: The natural resources are what happened in their own natural environment. It
contains a natural resources and man-made things that rely on natural resources. If there are no
natural resources, human cannot create anymore.
The types of the natural resource
The classification of natural resources can be divided into a number of different ways, but in the
following using the criteria of the implementation is divided into 4 categories as follows:
1. Inexhaustible natural resources: It is a natural resource that has occurred before human
beings. When human has occurred, this thing is the need for the existence of the human that are classified
as 2 types
1.1 Immutable: Such as solar energy, wind, dusts, air. Even timeless will be long, it still does not have to
change
111
1.2 Mutuable: The changes have occurred due to the use a wrong ways, such as the use of land for use by
the method is not valid. There is a change in the physical, and quality.
2. Renewable natural resources: As a natural resource, when it is complete lost, the substitution
can occur. The substitution can be made to be fast or slow, depending on the type of natural resources.
The natural resource is a type of replacement plants such as wild, forest, human, fertile of the soil, quality
of the water and a beautiful landscape
3. Recyclables natural resources: As a natural resources such as minerals that has been used, and
can be used to the processing that brings its original condition. And it is used again (อู่แก้ว ประกอบไวย
กิจ เวอร์,2525:208). For example, non-metal mineral such as iron, copper, aluminum, glass and etc.
4. Exhausting natural resources: As a natural resource that has been used, and then it will be out
of this world or can be caused by substitution, but it must take a long time. This type of natural resources
is petroleum, natural gas and coal
The importance and the impact of natural resources
Natural resources are important to the human beings in many ways that are as follows
1. The living of life: Natural resources are the source of 4 factors in the lives of human beings.
Human beings will have to rely on natural resources to meet the needs of food, clothing, residence
and medicine
The food: The first part of consumption is from natural resources such as taro, potato, fresh
water fish, salt water fish, etc.
The clothing: The start of invention of garment use natural resources as a material such as
cotton wool, linen, etc. ,that it is in the natural. When population increase, the number of the desired
clothing also increase. It is a necessary to increase plant or animal to make a clothing and finally, the
clothing becomes a garment industry.
The residences: the construction of housing in tribal group try to find the natural resource for
a main element in the housing construction. For example, on the edge of the desert and no natural
vegetation, the house may be built into the side of the cliff that is is a tunnel house. And, in rural
Thailand, the house is built with wood, bamboo or grass and the chedroof is made from nypa, plam or
grass.
The medicine: Since ancient times, the old man known as the herbal plant used in the
treatment of such as Thai people use kariyat treatment of flu asthma and zingiber cassumunar , turmeric
and honey as a skincare.
112
2. The settlement and occupation: Natural resources are the basis of human settlement and
occupation such as the bank of the river or the sea are abundant with plants and animals that will have
people to settlement and occupation of fishing agriculture, etc.
3. The economic development: Economic Development will need to use natural resources.
4. The progression of technology: The invention of the tools, equipment and machinery must
rely on natural resources
5. The natural balance: Natural resources are a factor in the natural balance.
The effects of human activities on the environment and natural resources:
1.The industrial activities: Industrial activities without regard to the environment and the use of
natural resources much more polluting to the environment such as the mining industry is causing a
problem on the ground, land collapse and water issues from the mine to the source of water pollution.
2. The agricultural activities: For example, the use of toxic to increase productivity has affected
in a danger to the environment and human health. Because of a toxic accumulation in the body of living
beings and the Environment causes long-term harm and the loss of economic because of the illness of the
people, and the worse of environmental quality.
3. The activities of the human consumption: This activities will be result in the use of natural
resources in mush quality without to concern the environment that is a cause of environmental problem.,
such as the amount of waste from the much of consumption, which is very difficult to get rid of because
the use of natural resources is unreasonable, the quantity of natural resources has decrease.
Topic 3 The geologic phenomena that can affect the life and environment Lalu
"lalu" as a Cambodia language means "pierced". It is a natural phenomenon in a wider area than
2,000 rai of land caused by rocket rain erosion or the collapse of the soil. According to soil is hard, the
state is still hard that is not collapse. When soil is eroded by the wind, it is a form of what looked like a
cliff, wall of the city, is a bar in sometime. So, lalu is beautiful, exotic and different on individual
imagination, In every year, lalu will continue change the shape depending on the wind and the rain can
décor the ground floor. And, in some areas, it is in the midst of the villagers farming area. The color of
lalu is golden brown different with the green of the rice which is very beautiful place and can’t see in the
Bangkok beauty until it has been named as a grain of Thailand. Lalu in the province of Sa Kaeo is similar
to " goat ghost town " of Phrae Province or "‚ Sao Din Na Noi " of Narn province and someone call New
goat ghost town. But here, there will be a lot more than of lalu that will have lalu is distributed in the area
113
, approximately 2,000 rai of land will be divided into different zones, each of zone which had a different
in beautiful character. The same thing of lalu, goat ghost town and Sao Din Na Noi is a natural
phenomena that arise from the changes of the crust from earth’s surface collapse. The part is stronger that
would have to be at the top. It acts a helmet that protect a gravel at the bottom with the wind and rain that
are artists decorate the layer of soil in millions time. Their shape will be exotic and different. Whether it is
a pagoda shape, castle walls, mushrooms or figure what it was genuine, that the people who will be
looking at the imagination
The picture of Lalu, Tapraya district, Sa Kaeo province
Plate Tectonics Theory
Scientists have been trying to learn and gather information to conclude this theory to explain
why the earthquake happened. In recent, theory of the movement of the earth crust that is Plate Tectonics
Theory. This Theory is developed from a theory that the Theory of Continental Drift of Alfred Lothar
Wegener,B.E.2423-2473,German scientist), which suggests that when B.E.2455. Later, Harry Hammond
Hess (B.E.2449-2512, American geology) has proposed the idea that this new development in the last
decade.
Plate Tectonics Theory explains phenomena that an earthquake caused by the movement of the
crust of the earth has a steps as follows: when the world apart from the sun is a hot gas group. Later, it
will cool and be a hot liquid, but the surface area is cool down faster than, it will be a settles before. The
middle of the world are still contains melting of heavy elements that is in geologic structure is divided
into 3 most of the world, called crust of the crust, the mantle and the core. The core is a solid and brittle
114
and got wrapped up in the top layer of the world to a level of approximately 5 km deep that called
Lithosphere. Under the floor is the top of the mantle is called Asthenosphere that is a melting rock called
magma. Magma is a soft and flexible. It is down to earth from the skin deep 100 - 350 km. Under the
asthenosphere, it is the part of mantle until the level of depth 2.900 km away from the earth will changes
to be a earth’s core which is divided into 2 sub-layer that are the outer core and the inner core. The inner
core is in the deepest area to the point that it is the center of the world at 6,370 km away from the earth.
The origin of earthquake is most limited only by the level of the crust of the earth that is not all of the
same plate. Because the hot liquid clash the earth’s crust, it will push out the cracks of the crust of the
earth that is a fragile concept and an earthquake happens and the volcano explosion. Earthquake
phenomena from the record, the crust of the earth can be divided into 15 plates
- Eurasian Plate
- Pacific Plate
- Australian Plate
- Philippines Plate
- North American Plate
- South American Plate
- Scotia Plate
- African Plate
- Antarctic Plate
- Nazca Plate
- Cocos Plate
- Caribbean Plate
- Indian Plate
- Juan de Fuca Plate
- Arabian Plate
The crust of the earth is not still stable but like moving objects on the conveyor belts. From the
survey of ocean in the past 2 decades 2490 has found that the ridge of the hill is middle of the ocean
around the world (Global Mid Ocean Ridge), which is longer than 50,000 km and width is more than 800
km. The study of the geology found that the stone ridge is a new Stone Age that is less than the rock, in
the next. It is the theory that the ridge hill of the middle of the ocean is a cracks in ocean center. This
115
cracks in the crust of the earth that has been pressure from magma in step of gradually pressure from the
cracks in the crust of the earth, causing the movement of the crust of the earth.
The movement of the crust of the earth causes an earthquake on the trail to the other. In
conclusion, the movement in the crust of the earth has 3 characteristics: (i) the area of the crust of the
earth apart from each other (Divergence Zone), (ii) the area of the crust of the earth clashing in each other,
(Convergence Zone) and (3.) The areas of the plate's crust moving across each other (or Transform
Fracture Zone).
Divergence Zone
For example, it is clear that the separation of the middle ridge on the Atlantic Ocean (Mid Atlantic
Ridge). This ridge is a part of the ridge is the middle of the ocean around the world starting from Arctic Ocean
down to the end result in Africa. North American Plate moves apart from Eurasian Plate and South American
Plate moves apart from African Plate. The speed of the movement is between 2 - 3 cm per year, examples of
the movement can be seen from the separation of the land area, the volcano, Krafla, north-east of the Iceland.
Earthquake has happened from this event will be a shallow and in the right direction along the axis of the
mobility. Earthquake caused by the split which will be not more than 8 Richter scale
Convergence Zone
When one of the curst is buried down under the one plate at the crust of the earth to dive down
the plate (Subduction Zone), there will be the volcano and deep ditch may occur. An earthquake may
occur at different depths that is from the deep earth to the deep down several hundred kilometers (may be
up to 700 km deep).On the movement, this will cause most severe earthquake about 9 Richter scale, for
example, an earthquake in Alaska in the United States arising from the Pacific plate with the North
America plate and Chile earthquake caused by the Nazca Plate crash and is sunk under the South America
plate.
Transform Fracture Zone
An earthquake that happened to be shallow (approximately 2 km in depth) is not more than 8.5
in accordance with Section photoelectric smoke detectors. An example of this type of an earthquake,
including the Pacific plate moving across the North America plate made an important fault that is the San
Andreas Fault, in California in the United States. At the type of this fault, the surface of the earth moves
through that is a flat-topped but it sink or lift up less than the movement in the two character before.
The earthquake may be caused by the movement of the crust of the earth in combination of 3
types, for example, an earthquake at state of Nevada, in the United States
116
The picture show structure of the earth
The picture of plate tectonics
What is the seismic waves?
As the crust of the earth put together in each other, the pressure of the liquid under the crust of
the earth will make edge joint occur the stress, compared to the waves of bend wood. The wood is bended
and accumulates the stress until the stress is much more broken point. After that, the wood is broken and
will be deducted from each other. Likewise, when the crust of the earth accumulates the stress till broken
point, the crust of the earth will be moving to a point, as well as between relative together with unleash
the power which carry out the changes of shape of crust’s shape and vibration in which it is an earthquake
wave. We were able to feel and the damage of general construction. The crust of the earth energy release
from a point to a point caused by the movement of the particle of soil. The particles of the soil as said, this
will be a similar waves, called seismic waves that has 2 types of
Type1 The wave that is caused by the compression is called the compressional wave or Primary
Wave (P-Wave). If we look at the particles of soil at any point when the crust of the earth was moving
compression, particles of soil are quickly compressed toward each other. The rapid compression of soil
117
particle cause the internal reactions against the contraction. This reaction force will be made to expand the
land quickly through the access point. The expansion of existing state particles will cause compression in
next particles to make a continuous chain reaction and spread out a radius at around. This wave will move
with the speed 1. 5 - 8 km/sec.
Type2 The wave is caused by the changing shape of particles to shear that is called Shear Wave
or Secondary Wave (S-Wave). As compression when the crust of the earth moving in addition to
compression, and the force is to change the shape of the soil particles. The change of the shape of soil
particles cause the reaction within the anti-change the shape, which is the movement in waves radiate out
around. This wave will move with the speed around 6 - 7 waves of compression.
By the nature, the waves will cause a vibration in the same direction as the wave moves. The
shear waves will make ground vibrations in the direction perpendicular to the direction of motion of the
waves although the speed of an earthquake wave is different about 10 times, but the ratio between the
speed of the compressional wave and the speed of the shed waves would is stable. Therefore, a geology
scientist can calculate the distance to an earthquake quakes by take the time of shed wave is coming
minus the time of compressional wave that is coming (time in seconds) multiplied by 8 power factor that
will be about the short in kilometer unit.
(S - P) x 8
S is the time arrives of shear wave motion
P is the time arrives of compressional wave
The seismic waves will move around the world. Therefore, if we have enough precise
instruments can measure earthquakes from anywhere on Earth. This principle has been applied in the
detection of atomic weapons trials stories. The technology currently available can detect the explosion of
the atomic weapons that cause vibration equivalent of 3.5 magnitude earthquake followed a well seal.
We take what measures the size of the earthquake.
The size of the earth do to measure with measuring seismic (Seismograph).The brief principles
of tools is the project adheres to the ground. When the Earth is moving, graph paper is stuck with the
project will follow the land, but the pendulum is moving sluggishly will no longer be based on the ground.
A pen bound to the pendulum, it is write a graph paper and at the same time, the paper will be rotated at
constant speed, the size of the graph shows the relationship of the Earth per unit time. Earthquake
measurement has 2 popular types that are a measure of the size (magnitude) and measuring intensity
(intensity), a scale of measurement is the power or the energy release in earthquakes. In the term of
violence measurement is a measure of the impact of the earthquake at some point towards the people,
118
structure of the building and the ground. There are several earthquakes measuring section. In this case, we
will mention only the most commonly used 3 sections: Richter magnitude scale, Moment magnitude scale
and Mercalli scale
A. Richter magnitude scale The standard scale to measure earthquakes that are most popular
at this time: coming to a well seal proposed by Charles f. Zurich (American scientist Scientists in the
earthquake) In a Zurich 2478 (1935), Zurich discovered that the measured value of the ultimate
catastrophe: measuring kinetic energy that occurs during earthquakes. A well recorded earthquake waves
from the earthquake many Research of a power course shows that the earthquake will cause the height of
waves (amplitude). When the distance from the point where the earthquake occurred. Zurich is a
mathematical relation between the energy and the wave height and modify with the distance from the
center of the earthquake.
ML = log A+D
ML = The size of the earthquake.
A = Wave height unit in millimeter
D = The variable factor modify the distance from the center of the earthquake depends on
where the earthquake.
B. Moment magnitude scale: To measure with a well-known method that is Richter scale is
widely used, but it doesn’t accurate method in term of science. When an earthquake measuring stations
has more found all over the world. The data showed that the method of a particular good is used in
Richter scale over the frequency and distance. In B.E. 2520, Hiroo Kanamori who is Japan geophysics has
proposed a method to measure the energy directly from the movement of the fault. The size measurement
of Kana Morioka called the moment magnitude Scale).
C. Mercalli scale: In addition to measuring the size of the earthquake. Sometimes, geologists use
severity scale (Intensity) to describe the different impact of earthquake intensity scale used: Mercalli
Intensity Scale, which is set up for the first time by Guiseppe Mercalli who is Italians Scientists at the
earthquake and volcano in B.E. 2445 (1902) and later updated by Harry Wood who is American
earthquake scientists and Frank Neumann, American scientists of the earthquake on B.E. 2474 (1931).
The Mercalli Intensity is held the stage of violence in accordance with roman numerals from I-XII.
119
Land slides
Landslides are a natural phenomenon of a type of corrosion that causes damage to the area's high
hills or mountains with a slope more. Due to lack of balance in the area are a cause of ground towards the
earth's gravity, and the result of geological element in it from low to high. Landslides frequently occur in
the case of mountain torrent and then mop up the water to saturation to cause erosion.
The type of landslides
The type of the movement characteristic is divided by 3 types as a follow:
1. The moving landslide is a landslide which moved slowly that is called ‚Creep‛ such as surficial
creep.
2. The landslide rapid movement is called Slide or Flow such as Surficial Slide
3. The landslides are a sudden fall, called the Rock Fall
It can also be divided according to the characteristics of the material in advance to drop down. Type 3:
o Landslides caused by the movement of the surface soil of the mountain
o Landslides caused by the movement of objects that are not frozen;
o Landslides caused by the movement of the stone layer.
Landslides in Thailand
Landslides in the Thailand, it often occurs after the torrential rain at mountain area which is the
water stream. The top area of the country especially in the north and northeast has a chance for landslide
because of tropical hurricanes move over during the July to August. While in the South, it was born in the
North-East during the monsoon season between the months of November and December
The factors that promote severity of landslides
1. Quantity of rain that falls on the mountain
2. Slope of the mountain.
3. Fertile of the forest
4. Geological characteristics of the mountains า
The series of landslides occurred
When torrent water is going into soil quickly, a land full of water adhesion between soil mass is
decreased. The water level beneath the surface is higher that will cause the resistance to flow of the soil to
decrease. When the water surface beneath the surface in the higher level will flow within the space of
ground that is down the slope of the ramp. When there is a change of slope, the water has occurred a that
120
is the first point where the earth has been postponed. When it happens, earth flow, then there will be
continuous up to the slope of the mountain.
The important factors are the cause of the landslides occurred
Characteristics of soil caused by decay and break down of rocks on the slopes at the mountain.
The slopes is more than about (more than 30 percentage)
The season change
Topic 4 The problem and the impact of the ecological and environmental conditions in local,
communities and countries all over the world.
In this current, the problem of ecological system in Thailand, which is one of the effects from
the growth of the city that is not a regulation and the other side caused by the economic development in
the past? The modern technique is used in the supply and use of resources in the process of production
and patterns of consumption that is not appropriate. The country's limited resources and the natural
environment is used and being destroyed that decline both of quantity and quality until deteriorated
conditions that is a difficult to refresh and also, it pollutes in many areas at the same time. Such a situation
will continue to be violence and urgent problems that need hurry to resolve and development. Due to the
increase of population in the urban areas will continue to steadily increase together with the
manufacturing process and the original inappropriate consumption that cannot be modified to
immediately resolve the problem for a short period of time. In addition, the very important factor is that if
you don't hurry to resolve the problem, the state of the fragile ecosystems in such a way that it is
especially from the causes of the spread of air pollution, water pollution, noise, chemical wastes and
various hazardous are becoming constraints on the development of sustainable cities in terms of
economy, social and physical health of the people affected. There are enough examples from a study of
environmental conditions in many growing cities that neglect to point out that lack of attention and care,
let the city's utilities shortages occurred or the lack of attention to maintain the system of water supply and
sanitation that is a essential to the livelihood of the population with hygienic conditions, creates enormous
damage to the economy. When a serious epidemic occurred such as the outbreak of cholera that occurred
in Latin American countries during A.E. 1991and also an example shows that the degradation of the urban
environment directly affects the health of a population that can be referenced. Until the Government of
many countries must be aware of the attention turned to the issues of environment, especially of the
121
environment in the city. Because of the loss event occurring in other cities have a chance to occur in cities
of every countries as well. In the millennia 21
Thailand (as well as many countries) are starting to focus on the development of new political
guidelines is sustainable development. The city's strategic policy is critical to the development of urban
areas because of the developments in this method will require coordination and support operations
consistent with each other in many fields and at the same time as a Holistic Approach. It is the process of
development that has been assisting the board vision and guidelines development correlation with both in
terms of population, resources, environment, and other natural and physical environment that is created
(Built Environment), arts &amp; cultural resources, knowledge and modern technology. In particular, the
importance of the use of natural resources in efficiency. The process of reconstruction should to be
support and development of renewable generation and with the conservation of proper environment,
strengthen the spirit and values of the city, with emphasis on the revival of art and maintain culture that is
unique to each local. And local opportunities are to participate in the development process to enhance
their potential to become immune to the pressure of any changes that are the result of the organized world
of trade and technology. This strategy is in order to be sustainable as follows:

The purpose is to promote the development of the city and the community, is the
base of sustainable development.
 Area of cities and communities will be the place to discover the link between
environmental (urban ecology) with people's health.
 A multilateral strategy of development that allows for the participation of the people.
According the discussion, the development of physical in the area directly affects the health of residents.
Therefore, in the framework of the development should take into consideration how carefully developed
and consistent because the environment that has been created in the town (Built-Environment). It is
composed of internal and external environment, which means an area outside the territory of the house,
other construction and operating location in the village, urban or rural areas. And the internal environment
of the house and other buildings where people are living that can harm a user because of the environment
that is created inappropriate with a normal function that will become a cause of germs or epidemic or the
causes of injury or even cause premature death overtime. Therefore, the environmental creation (BuiltEnvironment) need to take into consideration the impact that will have on the health of users, under
the principle that "man-made environment in the community, whether in the building, house,
community as a village and every size of the town should be a safe environment for living and
working that is the danger out of the environment. There must be a least of opportunity arose, that
122
is where it should not be the cause of the injury, fall sick or have any causes of premature death
and. The problem is that we will continue to meet this requirement? The conclusion is consistent with the
principles and political environment that is better suited to living in the city's style of address. The
environmental management and consistent performance to accommodate the expanding size of the base
area of the city where more economic growth is, as a result, the demand must be added to the local
resources of internal and external locals. Because, the increase of the consumption must be management
and conservation of limited natural resource especially for certain natural resources may not substitute,
and dealing with the waste that has been out of the city effectively. There are three important tasks related
to the environmental management of the cities are:
1. The main natural resource conservation, particularly water management so that everyone get
clean water to the consumer. And to the cultivation and care of water sources are protected in
the best way
2. Those of waste, garbage are from the activity of the city with an efficient handling
3. Don’t let being cumbersome or environmental costs as a liability of the person or business
(which is the origin of the pollution), with others.
Globalization and the change of ecological city
To reorganize the economy under the conditions of globalization in the past 2 decades have
been influencing the flow of impersonation investment plan ” production and consumption from abroad.
Removing that lack a correct understanding of this expansion and influence over the behavior of human in
the local community. Create a link to the culture in terms of production and consumption from the local
level to the global level, that this relationship is called Globalization. Under this process, it focus on the
improvement to make an important for the development environment. The idea of sustainable
development has influenced the rehabilitation of ecological cities in the terms of the resources and the
natural environment and also the social-political is just a secondary target. With so many changes because
of globalization, ecological of the city is deterioration. But at the same time, the administration and
management of the majority of local capability is inefficiency and has not been in accordance with the
new circumstance that is modified quickly. The result is a further development of the city's physical
problems, such as conflicts in land use ,urban public utilities such as shared thinking and not enough and
waste treatment is not effective. The effects are the problem of induction of degraded natural resources
and the environment, negative impact on ecological and sustainable development of the city and the rural
123
community in the future. The city's ecology, according to the meaning that understanding means the
relation between environment built and the user of the environment. We can divide this into 2
environmental groups „ environmental outdoor and group 2 is a unique environment about health
problems that will be discussed.
The danger and the origin of the problem of ecological city affect the population health.
We can be divided into a dangerous to human health caused by the environment. It is 2 parts
1) environment within the building
2) environment outside the building but in the village and in the city
1. The danger of human health because of the environment that may arise within the
building.
The home environment is inferior almost all will be found that is a danger to the health, as it is 3 types
1) Clean water for functional and sanitary system is not enough.
2) There is a high pollution within the building
3) The crowds are more than the standard of living. There are 3 main reasons that create a
risk to health.
3.1 There are germs that come with water that has a specified number of infants and children
more than 4 million people died because of the disease that is caused by a lack of clean water for
consumption and the condition of the system that is bad sanitation within the housing.
3.2 The air pollution within the building is usually caused by the effects of the burning fires of
the furnace is not completed within the performance and low quality of the system, or heater that is lack
of quality in their homes. The impact of air pollution on human health that occurs within housing will be
more serious or less serious depending on the ventilation of the building is not a good or very good. As
well as the amount of time lived under such conditions and types of fuel. In the case of fuels such as
natural wood, it was found that the combustion gas causes carbon monoxide, oxide of nitrogen, sulfur and
other 5 - 6 types of chemicals which all do harm respiratory system.
3.3 The design of the building, having regard to the danger to their health that will reduce the
damage. The crowds of living is often caused by an accident and injury or the severe infection of
respiratory diseases. Particularly in Pneumonia and Tuberculosis, will find that live in a manner that each
of them has a congested average housing area less than 1 square meters or another case of a live in a
cramped appearance such as live 2 - 3 persons per room 1 living room, will make the spread germs from
one person to the other is easy. In addition to the cause of HIV infection found that combination between
the crowds and the quality at a lower rate than the standard of housing increase the risk to accident within
124
their homes, as a result of the blistered or burned with fire and fire accident numbers from around the
world found that one-third of the deaths that have resulted from an accident that is formed living in your
home
2. The environments that are harmful to the community: For any village or community
environmental management does not always sufficiency result in the high risk of health arising from the
germs. Some of the waste has been vital when there is residual rubbish. Flood is formed the lack of a
drainage system, and the road is not to be used in all weather conditions is the cause of an accident and
within and around the community. Each year the death from an accident on the road with a number of up
to 885,000 cases including with a number of the wounded, in a higher than the other several times. Not
only these things but it also the danger to physical health will be caused by the location of the
communities that are on the geographical area in which the condition is not good to living in the location.
This location of the communities is often a slope, recurrent floods or a desert dry. There are tens of
millions of the poor population in the low-income which they are not an option to living so they have to
live in this area and there is a risk to health of their inevitable.
Topic 5 The method to resolve the problem of natural resources and environment in the community
Environmental problem in urban areas
1. Pollution
Exhaust gas
To resolve the air pollution in current focus on the black smoke and exhaust air from a car that
is the major cause. The standard configuration for black smoke from the exhaust pipe of the car using
diesel and carbon monoxide emissions from the exhaust of a car using gasoline for regulation that is not to
let the exhaust gas exceed the standards by a police department and the Department of Land Transport
authority to control
Resolve the issue, it would have to rely on the very serious cooperation from the people, will
have to be vigilant and to understand the problem and know about the exhaust air, as well as how to
prevent and solve the problem correctly. For example, the maintenance of the car each type engine, which
is in good condition that is not only to reduce exhaust air but will also help him to reduce fuel energy. For
industrial plants, it must be touched by the neighboring dwellings are not let the air out of the intensity of
toxic substance too high standards set by the Department of Industrial Works in addition to planting trees
to help with the exhaust filter. So it should be working together to plant and maintain trees in urban areas.
125
3.
The social problems
Slums
For the problem of slums often happens in the city than in rural areas. A main agency
responsible for the home is National Housing Authority and local organizations( such as in Bangkok, the
organizations is responsible that is Bangkok) by the improvement in both physical, social and economic
Such as the improvement of the public utilities such as pavement, flood way, electricity, municipal solid
waste management, improvement of environmental community, fire protection and the other project as
well as a professional training program, such as career training, mobile medical unit project and to
promote local people have been involved in the community problem. The Board of Directors community
has been set up community for act on behalf of the people living in the community coordinate with other
agencies involved in the development of communities and the leaders in the development of communities.
The National Housing Authority has operated in the area of security in the owners of land such as the
cooperation in the contract for the resident is in the community at the National Housing Authority to
improve and can live at least 5 years , the law enforcement involved intensive such as Parliament, Act of
improving slums. Not only to resolve the problem by the improvement in slums in the same land, but it
also has a project to provide a new residence the slums that meets the residence problem. For example, the
issue of the burden of housing, the migration, land expropriation and etc. It is evident that the problems in
slums, has a serious need to get the cooperation both in public and private sector.
The lack of green space and space to complimentary
A lack of space to relax in the metropolitan areas, Bangkok is most serious problems due to be
the center of the country in all aspects, such as administration, commercial International, and education.
To resolve the issue, the government has a policy to support the existing condition would be the most,
such as the sub-district, Bang Kacha that is cooperated by government and in some of the other nearby 5
Sub-district area is approximately 9,000 rai of land to protect the environment, as a green space, and to
increase the number of most areas. If there is a state policy to move away from the building, a place of
any state land, it will improve the area to be a green area, such as the area of Wat Ratchanatdaram temple,
the measure of his engagement demolish buildings, cinema Hall, Chalerm Thai to improve this area, as
the park is included. For the next project, such as the area the Meteorological Department of Thailand,
Sukumvit road, Bangkoko Reman prison, Maha Chai road around tobacco factory, the area around Phra
Sumen Fort, Phra Sumen road. These projects have to be moved to a public park, and then offer the area
to make people have a space to relax in the private sector, if you think about it, this area is an open space,
it can be as much as possible.
126
For the long-term issues, the state guidelines for managing green space and complimentary
throughout the country in the form of the organization to manage the green area and supports the project
and both the state and private sectors have an impact on the green space and complimentary area of the
community
Land sank and Flood
The problem of subsidence (Earth movements) is a big problem that must be solved immediately,
so people should cooperate with the government by using water from an artesian well, and cost-effective
as well as water from the artesian well in a strict compliance with ACT, Parliament of under water. There
is now a set of measures to solve the problem of land sank to internal area in the Bangkok, Bang ken
district , Phra Khanong district ,Bangkapi district, ,Phra Pradaeng district and Amphoe Means Samut
Prakan district by using water from the artesian well in the district to cancel in the crisis area and has
lowered the rate of using the artesian well in other areas, with the water from the artesian well. Defined in
the law, ACT, who will also make the water from the artesian well drilled or use water from the artesian
well or thermal water in artesian well will have to be permitted by the Department of Mineral Resources
as well as a Ministry of the first set the rates of fees for water from the artesian well.
The environmental problems in the countryside
1. The decadence of natural resources
When the decadence of natural resources mainly is caused by the act of human. To solve the
problem, but it is not sufficient to raise awareness to the people about the importance of natural resources,
and also to keep it permanently to only their children. If states are also required to perform
troubleshooting seriously in both sections of increase forest area of the forest and mangrove forest. By
supporting the private sector to participate and guidelines inhibit the intruder destroy these resources, such
as the technique, government provides technique to the people, the forest has regenerated to prevent
prawn farming to destroy Mangrove area, prevention of the pollution problems arising from chemicals
and water pollution from the industrial community that releases directly to the water source, not through
the first treatment as well as the need to provide a valid measure of absolute performance and to prevent
the intrusion of the destroyed natural resources
2. The toxic substances pollution of agriculture
In the operation to resolve the problem of pollution toxic Agricultural, government has operated
in many ways. Starting from the revision of laws, vulnerability is the same law that has affect many kinds
of toxic substances that are imported from foreign countries can be used freely, without any need to go
through the control by the government. Therefore, in the year B.E. 2533, government has announced a
127
revision of a toxic object is controlled by the new toxic waste that is request for registration before it can
be used and to the people directly involved in the use of toxic substances are training correctly, and the
dissemination of knowledge about the safety of the people and of the toxic substances in the form of the
media, such as television documentary in the hope that when people have knowledge and understanding
of the use of chemicals in accordance with the principles, it will help reduce the pollution will be caused
by toxic substances in agriculture.
Topic 6 The natural resources and environmental development plan
Natural resources mean that there is in the natural forest, which includes air, water, minerals,
hot energy wildlife, solar energy and other natural resources. Human beings use the natural resources to
lives since birth until death so the natural resources that is useful, and is of great importance to humanity
Environment means that there are things that are round about us and it is life, and no life. These
may be happened by natural and man-made environment. The environment caused by natural is
atmosphere, water, land, minerals, plants and animals and the Environment created by man are public
construction, such as the dam, road, water reservoirs, etc.
Natural resources and the environment are very important to the development and prosperity of
the country till to a better quality of life of the people. In the country has a rich of natural resources and
environment, it will be provide to the people in the country that has a better quality of life and well-being.
There is no doubt.
At present, Thailand has a problem with the decadence of natural resources and the environment
in several ways that need to be resolved such as forests are destroyed, water pollution in rivers, air
pollution that in some area is much more to be a dangers, etc. There is much more to the amendment of
this may be done by managing the natural resources and environment, in a hurry. By the principles in
managing the natural resources and the environment can be considered as the following
Exhaustible natural resources such as
Petroleum and natural gas is a natural resource which is not able to occur at the end, or if a new
brand, it takes a long time several million years but it is to be used in the day time. So, the management of
this type of natural resources must be focused on to use in efficiency and a cost-effective because it is not
possible to burn them in vain.
Ore is a horrible resource exhaustion and, if it is, and then it is difficult to make the management of a new
ore. The management of ore is reasonable using ore for a wise is dig up that is the most of benefits. What kind of
128
ore may be used, and then be re-used again, it was used not to leave waste and also need to explore new sources of
minerals.
Inexhaustible natural resources There is in nature of many kinds such as wild animals, forest,
land, water, soil and air.
Forest is an inexhaustible resource because if forest has been destroyed, it may be replaced with
forest. The management of the forest is to maintain good condition of the forest is a forest. If you cut
down trees, it is planted to replace the trees always cut from the forest. The use of the wood have to be
cost efficient and to find any other material that is used to reduce the use of wood in very much.
Wild animals are inexhaustible resource because they can increase the number of resources. The
management of wildlife is the wildlife protection, and to keep it all stay alive, an endangered species has
not been destroyed is hunting wild animals, killed too many of them to extinction
Water is an inexhaustible resource because it will bring back to new water in the form of rain
water. The principle of management is to control and maintain the natural water in the form of volume
and still good quality, or don’t let it dry or perishables. It would have to be used at all times.
Land is an inexhaustible resource but is easy degradation because it is raining and the wind can
destroy land on floor that rapidly passes away. People are one of the factor of the land degradation. The
main management of land such as the preservation of the quality of the soil to maintain the fertility and is
always on the ground floor, it is not toxic substances released into the soil, which would make land
degradation.
The air is a resource that is not ruled out and there are many on the crust of the earth. The
principle of air management is to maintain the quality of the air, it is pure enough to breathe, no toxic
gases are poisonous smoke particulates. This air makes the air pollution
The important method for management of natural resources and the environment are the legal
control of organization for the administration, planning and development environment, the settle of
standard quality of the environment, education, and environmental impact assessment and report for the
development of both public and private sectors, the public advertisement and environmental studies. All
of these ways, the laws is appropriate penalties will be a major way to help them to manage natural
resources and the environment have been successful such as ACT of Conservation and protection of wild
animals, ACT of National conserved forest, ACT of toxic object, ACT of minerals, ACT of The national
Factories ACT of Urban, ACT of Groundwater and ACT of the building control Act, etc. For the
organization to the management of the policy plan to manage the planning project is a way of managing
the natural resources and environment, in practice agencies
129
At present, there are agencies responsible for the environment, directly under the Ministry of Science
and Technology that are 3 as Office of the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy, Planning Pollution
Control Department and Department of Environmental Quality Promotion not only these organization but it
also has set up a local Office of the Natural Resources in the 4 region in North, South ,East and North East. Plan
to solve problems or develop natural resources and the environment in national economic and social development
plan is another way to make the management of natural resources and the environment, in accordance with
economic and social development of the country.
This plan has been carried out since the National Economic and Social Development Plan, vol. 4. The National
Economic and Social Development Plan, vol. 7 (B.E. 2536 (1993)-2539 (1996)) has prepared a plan to manage
the natural resources and environment over the map clearly by separating plan administration and management of
natural resources and environmental development plan for quality of life. The important way to manage natural
resources and the environment is the standard to define the country's pollution to global control and control of
origin so that the environmental quality standard that defines an example of environmental quality standards
which have been established, including the standard of black smoke and carbon dioxide (CO2) that is released
from the exhaust pipe of a car, the standard of bad air quality standards, released from the factory quality
standards, the standard of atmosphere air, the standard of the volume of cars, motorcycles and boats, the standard
of standards and methods of coastal water quality, the wastewater quality standards and drainage control
standards from some buildings, standard of drinking water quality and the standard-sized objects are poisonous in
food and cosmetics. The country has begun the National Economic and Social Development Plan since B.E.2504
(1961) but in early stage does not give priority to environmental issues. In the Plan, vol. 1 (2504 (1961)-2509
(1966)), the Plan, vol.2 (2510 (1967)-2514 (1971)) and the Plan, vol.3 (2514 (1971)-2519 (1976)) is focused on
improving the utilization of natural resources by the lack of appropriate management planning. Lack of
awareness of environmental impact until the end of the range of the 3 has appeared clear of problems of the
country's main resources of degraded. Especially for land, forests, water sources, especially including minerals i
has begun with the spread of pollution, water pollution, air and noise pollution and hazardous chemical waste. In
Thai, it has begun to focus on environmental issues since the Plan, vol.4.
The National Economic and Social Development Plan 4 (B.E.2520 – 2524)
To define of guidelines for rebuilding the resource has been destroyed, and the decadent
condition. Prescribed guidelines for environmental issues as well as a wide range of the development plan,
and has been important to our environmental problems seriously, and has created a national environment
policy and measure the development B.E. 2524, in accordance with Parliament, Act of the National
Environmental Quality promotion and B.E. 2518
130
The National Economic and Social Development Plan 5 (B.E.. 2525 – 2529)
To define guidelines for environmental management is more clearly by the policies and
measures to develop the national environment is created by a frame in the Guidelines is to set the standard
for the quality of the environment, the State Development big projects must be a environmental impact
analysis report, including the plan of environmental management such as the development of the Songkhla
lake area, the coastal environmental management plan in the east and the management of the
environmental development in the south.
The National Economic and Social Development Plan 6 (B.E.2530 – 2534)
It is a concept and adjust the direction of the development of natural resources and the
environment, including all types of resources such as forest resources, land resources, water resources,
fisheries, mineral resources and management plan pollution that are in the same plan. Under the plan to
develop natural resources and the environment has an importance of improving the management and
performance management, there is a system, and support for the use of technology to take advantage
effectively in natural resources, not to destroy environment, and does not cause pollution problem. Finally,
the most important is focused on to promote people, organization and people's organizations that is a plan
to manage and set an action plan in the area with a central together with the system, particularly in identify
to prepare the improvement plan of natural resources and the environment in provinces across the country.
The National Economic and Social Development Plan 7 (B.E.2535 – 2539)
The management of the natural resources and the environment is still operational continuity with
supported from the public and private organizations in the central and local to have a greater role in the
policy and management plan. The intensive operation is associate with the plan to manage natural
resources and the environment. To set up a system of information natural resources and the environment is
to be a single system to be used in the planning. The measures take the fiscal and financial is to help
management. The law is related with to accelerate the conservation of natural resources and to bring
modern technology is used in the control and resolution environmental issues
The National Economic and Social Development Plan 8 (B.E.2540 – 2544)
Rebuilding the conservation of forest is to be 25 percent of the country, and marking the
conservation forest area. The maintenance of mangrove forest maintains the balance of the environment
and biodiversity that would not be less than 1 million rai. The promotion of natural resource management
is to be in the form of the forest. The conservation community development environment and quality of
life of the community.
131
The National Economic and Social Development Plan 9 (B.E.2545 – 2549)
Develop and improve the balance of management between the benefit and the conservation
rehabilitation resources. The promotion is about take advantage of natural resources that is to be
sustainable benefits. The management of natural resources and environment is depends on the process of
all sectors in the society. Focus on performance for corporate governance control efficiency, transparency
and honestly.
The National Economic and Social Development Plan 10 (B.E.2550 – 2554)
The development of natural resources and the Environment is regard with the word of
"biodiversity". The career development will need to be taken into consideration and the importance of
"ecological". The community will be user and the conservation of natural resources and the environment
in fairly.
Topic 7 The act or the cooperation with the community to help prevent or development natural
resources and environmental issues
The guidelines for environmental conservation and development
The conservation means the use of Natural Resources Conservation means to know more wisely
for the most of public benefit and use it for a long time. There is a loss resources that will be required to
have a minimum and the distribution of resources in a thoroughly
The development means progression or improves transition to flourish way that makes result in
the development which will be required to have the planning must rely on knowledge and technology to
help, it will make the development, achieve objectives
The need for conservation and development environment
The natural resources and the environment that is found in general or local communities
throughout the country, the most important are: land, water, air, mineral and wildlife animals, are all
reasons for the benefit. This is the reason why we should accelerate conservation and development of
natural resources environment, because our country has been destroyed, that lack of balance
The guidelines for environmental conservation and development
3.1 A person all people should have a good awareness of the conservation and development
environment that is simple as a follow:
1. Must to be known as saving
2. Must be known security
3. Must be known the resource rebuilding, recovery and to know better adjustments.
132
4. Help promote the production and efficient use of resources
5. Must be known were the resources to reproduce.
6. Want to know other resources were used instead of expensive resources or are lost or reduced.
7. Need help finding a new resource exploration research to be used instead of rare natural resources.
8. Must not destroy natural resources
9. Must be willing to receive training and education to understand the problem and how the
conservation of natural resources
3.2 Community Because the people who are members of the community that they live in a
community property State, and will have an effect on the people in the community come with both a good
and bad thing. In conservation should cooperate together. As follows
1. The people in the community will be aware of the possibilities to participate in the
conservation and development of their community environment
2. The people in the community must have a knowledge and understanding of management
systems and can modification, adjustment and change the degraded environment.
3. Organization of the system of conservation and development in the community of their own
environment, co-operate with state and private sector.
3.3 Government
1. The government should have a policy and plan conservation and development environment
in both the short and long term as well as to the authority and the relevant government officials have
continued abiding.
2. As a good citizen of the community and the country. Thai people, everyone should carry
their valid according to legal regulations or rules about critical environment.
3. Government agencies, both at the local and regional have to be good leader and good model
for the preservation and development of the environment, including the need to support and cooperate
with the private sector and the general public
4. Government publicizes news that is information about the local laws and knowledge of
conservation and development environment for both direct and indirect
5. The responsible authorities in the locality and the region must hurry to remedy restoration of
degraded environments to return to the original condition and find a way to prevent such a situation
arising again.
133
Topic 8 Global warming conditions, Cause and effect, Prevention and resolution of the global
warming problem.
Global Warming or Climate Change is a big problem in the world today. Notice from the
world's high temperature that has continually increased and the main cause the problem is greenhouse
gases. The greenhouse phenomenon is important to the world, because the gas such as carbon dioxide or
methane is some heat in the catchment in the world for not to reflect back to the entire atmosphere.
Otherwise, the world will become moon that night is very cool ( a midday is very hot because there is no
atmosphere to filter the sun's energy) which make the world warmer, this is similar to the principle of the
greenhouse (plant-based), it is called the greenhouse effect, but an continuous increase of CO2 from
industrial plants, car or any action that is burning fossil fuels (such as coal, oil, natural gas or other
hydrocarbon compounds) has effected CO2 in current exceeding 300 ppm (300 in millions). For the first
time in 6 years, this increased carbon dioxide has been added to the heat storage to prevent our world
increasingly until the cause of global warming. The current global warming., within the 10 years since the
recorded B.E.2533 (1990) through the years, B.E. 2538 (1995) and B.E. 2540 (1997) although the
prediction of climate change is still many uncertainties but the critical debate changes the topic from the
question of ‚global warming is real?‛ to "the impact of global warming will result in serious and
continuing what has life on Earth?". The more we delay time to edit out. The impact occurred, it will be
even more deadly, and people who will be affected the most was their offspring
Cause
Global warming is a disaster that reached by that we all know the cause as well, that is the
human combustion fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas to produce energy.We know as well some
of the effects of global warming, such as melting of ice in polar, a higher sea level, a severe drought,
widespread outbreak of serious , flooding, the change of coral color and a sudden violent storm by those
most affected include the coastal countries, the country is developing, the island and South-East Asia
region
From the work of the Committee of international Government, regarding climate change,
scientific organization that has cooperated with the United Nations to observation of effect and have
found new evidence that exactly that global warming up during 50 years. Mainly as a result of human
actions that impact the Earth's temperature continues to rise in everywhere approximately 1.4-5.8 degrees
Celsius.
134
Climate change has not changed, little by little, but severe changes that occur frequently and increasingly
violent, for example, that apparently includes a severely drought-hit flood, windstorm, inundation,
thunderstorms, tornado, landslides and sudden violent storm. According to these dangerous situations,
they found that the risk of a living in the area and the risk of such an incident which has been affected
more than the other parts and also do not receive the attention and help as much as they should be. There
is also the expectation that the higher the temperature of the world is part of the reason for the number of
production for consumption that overall decline in which the starved more 60 - 350 million people
In Thailand and Philippines, there are various energy projects that incorporated and operation of
these projects that have affected the ecology. For example, a change of rain that don't fall in seasonal
rainfall quantity’s rain each of the ranges have changed, the invasion and destruction of the fertile forest,
the rise of the sea level and the temperature of the sea water, which significantly impacts the ecology
along the coast and the sea's temperature to rise, that will affect to change the color of the sea, so many
coral reefs have been destroyed and have an impact as well.
Thailand is an example of a country that has a coastal length of approximately 2490 kilometers
and is an important source for the country's economy in particular, aquaculture and fisheries and the
uncertainty of the process have affected the agriculture. The expectation of higher sea water at least 1 m
within a decade said that the beach and coastal areas in Thailand will be reduced. Seaside attractions,
including the tourism industry, in Pattaya and Rayong will be affected directly, and even Bangkok was
unable to avoid the effects of the sea level rise. The health issue is another matter that severely affected
from the climate change, because higher temperatures and humidity as a result in the increase of more
mosquitoes, which lead to the spreading of dengue fever blisters and maleria. Addition to water-related
diseases, for example as choler is a disease that is fast spreading in the region and expected to increase
rapidly and consistently. From the high of temperature and humidity, the poor are the group that has the
highest risk impact from this change together with the knowledge in the field of health care which are still
not enough. In currently preliminary signs of climate change going to be displayed clearly says so or not
to wait until the discovery of more information or knowledge to resolve the problem that at the time, it
may be too late then to be edited
135
The process of global warming conditions
In the normal state, the world is about 99.95% of the energy from the sun in the form of
radiation. The remaining energy is from geothermal that remains from the formation of Earth from space
dust in the space and disintegration of radioactive elements that exist in the world. From the primitive
time, the world is able to maintain a balance of power that has been excellent, with the reflection of heat
and radiation from the Earth until the net energy received per day is equal to zero. Make the world perfect
weather is suitable for various creatures. One mechanism that has made the world we keep the heat energy
is "the greenhouse phenomenon" (greenhouse effect) that serves to trap and reflect heat that back out into
space and come back into the world again. If there is no gas, this group will not be able to store energy,
and the temperature to fluctuate on a daily basis. This group of gas act like blankets, some obscure world
of cold. It's a situation during many of years ago. The world we have greenhouse gas accumulation in the
atmosphere since burning various fuels used in day-to-day activities, especially the burning fuel that dug
up from under the ground. The increase of greenhouse gas, the world can no longer radiate the heat away,
ever. As a result, the Earth's temperature increases steadily as the world we have blankets that thicker
walls.
What is the greenhouse effect?
Greenhouse effect is the phenomenon that the world temperature rise due to solar energy in the
infrared wavelength range, which is a reflection of the molecules absorb water vapor ,carbon dioxide
(CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the atmosphere. These molecules have a higher power
and transfer energy in each other that make the high temperature in the atmosphere.
The transformation of energy and the wavelength of the molecules in the atmosphere causes the molecule
to shaking motion constantly and come crashing into our skin. Make us feel hot. In the winter, there is a
cultivation based on temperature control of heat using the principal of solar thermal energy that shines
with floor to ceiling glass. But the heat inside the greenhouse could not reflect back out to make the
temperature rise is the cultivation of plants, it is the Earth's temperature, compare the phenomenon to rise
as greenhouse warming (greenhouse effect). Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas accumulates heat energy in the
atmosphere the most of the world and make the earth's temperature to rise the most in those other types of
greenhouse gases. CO 2, most caused by human actions such as burning fuel, cement production,
deforestation, wood burning.
Gases that cause the greenhouse phenomenon as a follow:
“ Carbon dioxide (CO2) is from burning.
136
“ Methane, which is mainly caused by the disintegration of the organic objects such as waste,
compostable waste and stools.
“ As CFC compounds is for cooling that found in various refrigeration is located together with
the freon and also found in the spray.
“ Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is a toxic gas that is caused by the engine burning coal and are used in
automobiles to increase machine power.
These gases, like CFC will react with ultraviolet and break down ion into many different types of
molecules that molecules will destroy molecules of a special kind of oxygen, or O3 on ozone atmosphere
that make ultraviolet and infrared illumination and passed down to the surface of the earth. At the same
time, these gases are not to go out from the atmosphere at the world because these rays are energy. Thus
they make global warming.
“ Hydrofluorocarbon ( HFCS)
“ Per fluorocarbon ( CFCS)
“ Sulfur hexafluoride ( SF6 )
Some of these gases must to be reduced emissions and human who can reduce these emissions
The table shows greenhouse gas and source
Greenhouse gas
Source
Global warming up (%)
Carbon dioxide gas(CO2)
1) From natural sources, such as respiration processes of
living organisms
2) From humans, such as fuel combustion form other
industry industrial, deforestation (reduction of CO2
absorption).
57
Methane (CH4)
1) From natural sources, such as from the digestion of the
creatures, burns caused by nature.
2) From humans, such as field of rice, flood source, from
burning the coal that is type of oil fuel and natural gas.
12
Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
1) From humans, such as industry use nitric acid in
production process, industrial plastics, nylon industry,
chemical industry, fuel combustion from scrap plants and
animals, fertilizers and burning forests.
2) From natural sources-in the balance
6
137
Greenhouse gas
Source
From various industries and equipment used in daily life,
such as foam, spray cans, refrigeration, air conditioning,
The gas is composed of
refrigerator, destructive; (These gases will include the gas
chlorofluorocarbon (CFCS)
chemistry well with ozone, that make ozone in the lower
atmosphere, or leak in the ozone layer).
Global warming up (%)
25
The effects of global warming conditions.
Although the average temperature of the earth has increased even is not much, but the impact
has continuous affected the world. Now the impact is already visible from all over the world, including
Thai country. The obvious example is the melting of ice around the world, both in glaciers water and ice
polar areas. In Greenland, it is the largest ice field in the world. The melting ice melt will add water in the
ocean together with the water's temperature to rise that will be an expansion of water. Therefore, the water
content in the oceans around the world multiply increases that cause sea level to rise. As a result in the
major cities along the ocean falls below sea level now. There is a forecast that if all the ice melts, it will
cause the sea level to rise 6-8 meters. The impact began to see another cyclone is rotating with a greater
frequency and severity. As we can see from the news that hurricane blows into United State with many
balls during 2-3 of years ago and each hurricane is also take the damage. The cause may be explained in
terms of energy. That is, when ocean temperatures rise, energy storm gets it much more as a result in
violent storm is more than ever. In addition, warming conditions also resulted in some area in a world
experiencing extreme drought, never had it before. Now, global warming is exacerbating again arising
because of the trees in the forest that used to absorb carbon dioxide gas acts were dying because of lack of
water. In addition, the gas will not absorb anymore CO2 emissions also from the process of digestion.
And there are also warning signs from other natural disasters, which, if we are to find that as a result of
this state of not less
The impact of ecology
Polar area most effected and caused a lot of changes, especially iceberg. Ice cube will melt
quickly that cause sea level to rise and polar flows into all over the world, causing flooding in all
continents and also marine animals is died due to ecological changes. Southern Europe will become the
terrain slope was drought in many areas. Floods will increase because the glaciers on the highest hilltop
covered with snow will dissolve. While higher temperatures od Asia caused in hot season has reduced
138
food product, flooding, sea level rise. Climate change could cause many storms to destroy public housing
households. Current, significant impact, whether it be under hurricane, Kok. But the food manufacturing
industry of North America gets benefit because of the warmer weather. At the same time, with Canada's
largest pasture and rice plains of United States capital will fall dead because the variance of the weather
will affect the animal. Researchers have speculated about the surface temperature of earth for another 100
years, or approximately a year after the elevated temperature 2643 is approximately 4.5 degrees Celsius
due to the projected carbon dioxide emissions up to 63 per cent and 27 per cent of methane gas of
greenhouse gas. For a Thailand, the temperature is high about 1 degree Celsius during past 40 years,
however, if the temperature is increased 2-4 degrees Celsius. The hurricane will change the direction that
has more violence and the number increased to 10 per cent ” 20 in the future. In addition, the summer
long time span, while winter is shorter
The impact of economic
The small island States of the Americas will be affected by higher sea levels erode the shore
will damage ecological. Coral reefs will be destroyed. Marine fish are experiencing problems due to
ecological changes. A major marine tourism business will lose tremendous revenue. In addition, there are
also opportunities in Asia, 66 per cent ” the 90 potential severe monsoon rains and include dry heat in a
long summer this year ” Thai country-2545 (2002) 2532 (1989) damage from storms, floods and drought
are more than economic loss amounting to 70000 million bath. A report, "Global Deserts Outlook" of
environmental projects, the United Nations world environment day on June 5 suggest that within the next
50 years. Desert ecology systems vary both in the economic and cultural biology. At present, marine
plants and animals in the sand is a valuable resource for the production of medicines and new cereals,
without wasting water and to have a new economic-trade, such as shrimp farming and fish ponds in the
desert state of Arizona and Negev Desert in Israel. However, there are also 12 deserts all around the world
that are facing a big problem, not subject to expansion, but is dry due to global warming. Glaciers, which
sends water nurtured a desert in South America are melting, ground water salinity and the effects that are
caused by humans. If there is no prevention before, ecology and wildlife in desert will be lost within 50
years and the future, population of 500 million people are living in the desert regions around the world
that are no longer valid because of the high temperature and the water is not salty or drinking until after.
139
The impact of health.
Global warming doesn't just make changes to ecosystems, but have detected something covert.
This phenomenon is accompanied by that global warming will create the right conditions should be which
let germs grow quickly
David Pimantal who is ecology University of Khonaen describe that global warming will cause the
appropriate environment for incubation of germs and pests as some types of human food.
The disease incubation well in tropical climates of the world can be more 20 years ahead, there will be
more infections in malaria, cholera and food poisoning. Scientists at the meeting, World Health
Organization, and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and hygiene education College
of tropical medicine of the British press that each year people around 160,000 died because they are
affected by global warming, ranging from malaria to the shortage of good hygiene and a number killed
may rise nearly twice as much in the next 17 years. The report of the Faculty of medicine of the world
indicate that children in developing countries are the most vulnerable groups, such as Latin America,
Africa and countries in Southeast Asia are faced with the spread of diarrhea and lack of hygiene, chronic
malaria within global warming, flood and drought
Protection
How to help prevent global warming conditions. As follows:
1. Reducing distances
2. Turn off air conditioner
3. Reduce the usage of electrical appliances
4. Reuse
5. To maintain the forest.
6. Reduce the use of oil.
1. Reduce the distance food transportation because pollution from transport is the most
important in increasing quantities of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. We try to consume the food that is
grown locally to reduce the energy used for transportation.
2. Turn off air conditioning in the hotel where we were staying and don't let employees take the
towels that is not dirty to laundry. Keep in mind that by not allowing power-saving hotels, but we are
helping the world in which we live.
140
3. To reduce appliance usage levels down even in a little ;like adding heat of air conditioning in
offices or housing to one degree, or turn off lights when not used, close the cover the pot with hot foods or
reduce the number of hours a day watching television or listening to the radio that may not reduce our
expenses, but will result in enormous to the world
4. Bring paper or other container to reuse things and trying to purchase the lifetime guarantee
that will reduce a lot of the power consumption on the world
5. Forest preserve, as much as possible and to reduce or abstain from buying things or different
furniture made from wood cut to remove from the forest to let these trees and forests act as the lungs of
the world
6. Reduce oil consumption from driving vehicles with adjusted behavior, such as driving habits
that is reduce the driving speed, examine the wind wheel, accelerator and gradually when the car to speed
up and try to walk as much as possible
To solve the global warming problem
We can stop global warming conditions? it is worried that we may not stop global warming
state that is going to happen in the future although we will stop producing greenhouse gases completely
from now. Because the world is a large machine compared with the tiny mechanism integrates.
Responding to the stimulation would take a long time to get back into homeostasis. And of course, a new
balance will happen that will differ significantly from the current state. But we can still mitigate the
consequences of the serious may happen in the future so that violence is decreasing at a level sufficient to
cope, and may be slow to slow down global warming phenomenon lasted for a long time. What we could
do now is to try to reduce greenhouse gas production and because we know that the gas came from the
power process. Energy conservation is one way to reduce the rate of global warming conditions.
How to solve the global warming problem are as follows
1. Change light bulb: Changing the light bulb from the bulb is fluoret one that help to reduce
the carbon dioxide has 150 pounds per year.
2. Less driving: If the distance that you can walk or ride a bike instead of driving a car because
driving a car is a mile distance, will release carbon dioxide 1 pound.
3. Recycle more: Reduce your waste at home as a half and will help reduce carbon dioxide up
to 2400 pounds per year.
4. Check pneumatic tires: Driving a car with low air supply can cause the oil up to 3% in
normal. Every gallon of gasoline saved normally reduces the carbon dioxide is 20 pounds.
141
5. Use less hot water: Water heating energy used in boiling is very high. To adjust the hot water
temperature and pressure to fewer that will reduce carbon dioxide 350 pounds per year or washing in cool
water to reduce carbon dioxide 500 pounds per year.
6. Avoid products with good packaging: Only just your own waste reduction 10% decreases
carbon dioxide be 1200 pounds per year.
7. Adjust the temperature of your room (for overseas): In winter temperature of the heater
adjust 2 degrees lower, and adjust the 2 degrees higher in the summer, 2 degrees will reduce carbon
dioxide 2000 pounds per year.
8. Planting trees: The planting of trees is just only one to absorb carbon dioxide, 1 ton, life of it.
9. Turn off unused appliances: Turn off TV, Audio, computer and consumer electronics. When
it does not use, we can reduce the carbon dioxide has thousands of pounds per year.
142
Exercise chapter 6
Topic: The natural resources and the environment.
1. How many types of the process succession? What they are?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
2. What is ‚Lalu‛?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
3. What is the seismic wave?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
4. Shall explain the principle of measuring seismic and earthquake of magnitude enough in brief?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
5. How many types of earthquake measurement? and What they are?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
143
6. To describe the landslide phenomenon
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
7. Landslides occur in the North and Northeast in the Thailand. Arising from any cause?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
8. What is the important factors are the cause of the landslides occurred?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
9. What is the greenhouse effect?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
10. What types of gases that cause the greenhouse phenomenon?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
144
11. Natural resource means?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
12. How many types of natural resource? What they are?
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................................
145
Chapter 7
Elements qualification of elements and radioactive elements
Subject matter
Theory ,structure and electronic arrangement, qualification of elements in chemical table
,usefulness of chemical table, quality of radioactive elements and radioactive. Benefits and effects from
radioactive.
Expected learning outcome
Be able to explain about the actual structure of the atom, table of element, equation and chemical
reaction being found in daily living
content
Topic 1. element
Topic 2. table of element
Topic 3. radioactive element
146
Topic 1 Element
The meaning of element
A chemical element is a pure chemical substance consisting of one type of atom. The history of
the discovery and use of the elements began with human that found 109 elements but naturally-occurring
89 elements such as Sodium (Na) Magnesium (Mg) Carbon (C) and Oxygen (O)
แผนผังการจัดธาตุ 20 ธาตุแรกออกเป็นหมวดหมู่
This table show some properties of the chemical elements arranged by atomic mass
Characterictic
States of
Chemical Atomic
d
Elements
at standard mp.(0C)
mental(g/cm3)
symbols, mass
temperature
nonmental
Hydrogen H
1.008 Gas-no colour -259
0.07* Non metal
Helium
He
4.003 Gas-no colour -272
0.15* Metal
Lithium Li
6.94
Silver solid
180
0.53
Metal
Beryllium Be
9.01
Silver solid
1280
1.45
Metal
Boron
B
10.81 Black solid
2030
2.34
Metalloid
Carbon
C
12.01 Black solid
3730
2.26
Non metal
Quickness of
oxidanttion
Fast
None
Fast
Moderate
Moderate
Slow
147
mp. = melting points d = densities * = densities are stated for liquid
According to the table that shows some properties of the chemical elements, the basic distinction
among the elements is tstate of mattersolidliquidgasSTP characterized by 3 groups
1. metal is the first group that is typically hard, opaque, high meilting point
goodelectrical and thermal conductivity.they can be hammered or pressed permanently out of shape
without breaking or cracking,excepts mercury, such as calcium iron aluminium.
2. non-metal is a good insulator of heat and electricity, brittle, lower meilting smd boiling points
and nonmetals tend to be highly volatile than metal.
3. metalloid is chimecal elements properties that are between in nonmetals and metals ; silison
and germanium have some properties that like metal that are hard, opaque, high meilting point, good
electrical and thermal conductivity but brittle as oxygen , sulphur, phosphorus.
Atomic model
In chemistry, atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter
is composed of discrete units called atoms. Althought, nobody have ever seen the true shape or structure
of atoms that why we only have the imagination for creating some figures or model to related with
experiment which we called as ‚ atomic model ‛ that is the theory of atomism. However, atomic model
can developed by new evidence or some recent experiment. Scientists use electronical microscope with
computer to capture picture they belive that is a atomic structure.
Atoms of gold is captured by electron microscop
148
idea of Daltonin in atomic theory
In B.E. 2346 (1803) , John Dalton was an English chemist
suggested the existence of atom for explain about before-after in oxidation
and also ratio atomic mass mixture to be compound elements ,so we can
conclude.
1. All matters are made from atom. Atoms are indivisible and
indestructible.
2. All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties
3. Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more differnts kind of atom.
Dalton’s theory can explain only in basic characteristic and some properties of atomic elements because
other chemist have found some evidence in later that is not correlated with Dalton theory. For example,
same kind of atom may be different because of its mass and atoms can be divide.
Atomic model of Dalton theory
Atomic model of Thomson’s theory
Sir Joseph John "J. J." Thomson (J.J Thomson) was
a British physicist.He was interested in phenomenon that
happening in cathode ray. In 189, he discovered the electron in
a series of experiments ,then he concludes properties of cathode
ray in many poiths
1.Cathode rays travel in straight lines from cathode plate to
anode. That is why, cathode rays cast shadow of any solid
object placed in their path. The path cathode rays travel is not affected by the position of the anode
2.athode rays consist of matter particles, and posses energy by the virtue of its mass and velocity.
Cathode rays set a paddle wheel into motion when it is placed in the path of these rays one the bladder of
the paddle wheel.
149
3.Cathode rays consist of negatively charged particles. When cathode rays are subjected to an electrical
field, these get deflected towards the positively charge plate(Anode)
Cathode ray tubes
cathode ray deflected form positive charge plate
As the cathode rays carry a charge of negative electricity, are deflected by an electrostatic force
as if they were negatively electrified, and are acted on by a magnetic force in just the way in which this
force would act on a negatively electrified body moving along the path of these rays.If the molecules of
the gas are dissociated and are split up which we shall for brevity call corpuscles; and if these corpuscles
are charged with electricity and projected from the cathode by the electric field, they would behave
exactly like the cathode rays, for example ZnS make path of the ray.Thomson had early indications that
the cathode rays could be deflected electrically and Thomson measured the mass to charge ratio of the
cathode rays by measuring how much they were deflected by a magnetic field and comparing this with the
electric deflection. He found that the mass to charge ratio is 1.76 x 10 8 C/g and charge ratio unit ‚e/m‛ is
constant because it not depends on the kind of mantal electric plates and kind of gas in cathode ray, so in
the cathode ray has the same negative electricity as we called ‚electron‛ . Thomson conclude that
‚ the subatomic particles is known as electrons and all electrons are same the property ‛
Discovery of protron
In B.E. 2409 (A.D. 1866), Eugen Goldstein was a German physicist. he discovered that tubes with a
perforated cathode also emit a glow at the cathode end. Electrons moving from the negatively-charged
cathode toward the positively-charged anode, there is another ray that travels in the opposite direction
Because these latter rays passed through the holes, Goldstein called them ‚canal ray‛ or ‚positive ray‛
1. Canal ray travel in straight line.
2. These rays get deflected by electric and magnetic field in direction opposite to cathode rays.This
shows that they are positively charged.
150
3. The properties of positive rays are characteristics of the gas in the tube. If hydrogen gas was filled
in the discharge tube the positive charge on the positive rays was called ‚ proton ‛.
4. The mass is more than the cathode rays. Canal ray is speed less than cathode rays that Thomson
consider Goldstein’s experiment and his experiment. Finally, he represent atomic madel that ‚The atom is a
circle shape matter that consists of a dense central nucleus surrounded by a cloud of negatively
charged electrons . The atomic nucleuscontains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically
neutral neutrons. An atom contains an equal of positive and negative electrons is electrically neutral.‛
Atomic model of J.J.Thomson
Sir Ernest Rutherford’s atomic model
In B.E.2453 (A.D.1910), Sir Ernest Rutherford analysis
about atomic theory of J.J. Thomson and he has suspected structure of
atom. He assume that
‚ if the atom is made up of a central charge urrounded by a
cloud of (presumably) orbiting electrons. he passage of a high
speed α (alpha) particle through an atom having a positive central
charge. All aipha particle be able to penetrate toward a central charge
of atom.‛
To proof his assumption, Rutherford devised an experiment where alpha particles were fired at a
very thin sheet of gold leaf that would need to be less (how much less could not be told) than 3.4 x
10−14 metres. The experimental results show that
1. For the most part, the alpha particles corresponded with this hypothesis and passed straight
through the gold foil.
2. a small of particles that deflected slightly from the straight path
3. an occasional irregularity particle even fired right back at the gold foil.
151
In according to the J.J. Thomson model of an atom, the alpha particles should have passed directly
through the gold foil for all instances. Rutherford overturned Thomson's model with his well-known gold
foil experiment in which he demonstrated that Thomson’s model can’t explain about his experimental
results
Rutherford’s atomic model
Bohr’s atomic model
According to Rutherford model. We found structure of particles in nucleus but he don’ explain how
elements or electron surround or stay within nucleus. To improvement to the Rutherford model, some
scientist collect experimental datas and find out the position of electron or electronc energy level by using
152
some properties of light and sound wave. Length and frequency of light and sound wave are important
things. Infrares spectrum (light wave) have a different frequency and leght which depends on kind of
wave.
Spherical clound of atomic model
Orbiting electrons speedly travel around a nucleus with unstable radian. the number of electrons
in the outer orbit determines the properties of an element. We said that ‚Spherical clound of electron‛.
The area in dense of electrons is more opportunity to find electrons than in light area.
The movement of electrons may be another shape because the orbits depends on size and electron
energy. By the way, summation of could electron comes from all level energies.
153
Electronical arrangement in atom
1. Electrons in atoms orbit the nucleus.These orbits are associated with definite energy levels. the
level(K level) is nearest the nucleus has the lowest energy.And electrons in upper level are more energy
and Each electrons is specificits energy levels. Electron energy in each energy level K < L < M < N < O
< P < Q or level 1< 2 < 3 <4 < 5 < 6 < 7
2. In each level, number of electrons are not more than 2n2 when: n = energy level number
level number K=1,L=2,M=3,N=4,O=5,P=6 และ Q=7
Example number e- in energy level at K are not more than 2n2 = 2 x 12 = 2x1 = 2
number e- in energy level at N are not more than 2n2 = 2 x 42 = 2x16 = 32
3. In each level has a subenergy level that is not more than 4 subenergy levels and subenergy
level are called ‚s , p , d , f ‛.
In each level, number of electrons are not more than
subenergy level at s has e- number not more than 2. subenergy level at p มี e- number not more than 6.
subenergy level at d มี e- number not more than10. subenergy level at f มี e- number not more than 14
We can write s2 p6 d10 f14
154
Arrangment of electron e- in subenergy level by following the arrow
Arrangment electron in atom
Example Arrangment electron of calciume (Ca) element
Ca has atom number = 20 have p = 20 and e- = 20 (see atomic number from Periodic table) we can
arrage electron e-
155
Electronical e- arragment of Ca = 2 , 8 , 8 , 2
From the diagram e- , Ca has e- at energy level in the outtest = 2
Number of electron in the outtest level is called Valence electron
,so Ca’s Valence electron =2
Periodic table of elements
156
Topic 2 Periodic table of elements
Periodic table of elements is the table that scientist collect and arrange the chemical elements
organized on the basis of their atomic numbers,electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.
Periodic table is convenient and useful for investigation in any parts of periodic table. The rows of the
table are called periods; the columns are called groups .
Periodic table of elements in currently
1. In the standard periodic table has 8 groups and 7 periods. from the leftmost column is the mental
to the rightmost column is non-mental and the elements are close the terrace(in the periodic) that
is metalloid.
2. Transition elements have 8 group but at column8 has 3 sub-element groups. To summary, transition
elements have 10 group 4 period and inner-tarsnsition element has 2 periods that is called Lanthanide
series.
3. From the inner-transition element, the second period is called Actinide series because this period is
next from 57La (Lanthanum) and 89Ac (Actinium) in order.
157
Arrangement of the chemical elements in Periodic table
The periodic table is a table of the chemical elements in which the elements are arranged by
order of atomic number. It easy to organized group of element. Elements have similar energy
level that organized in the same period. Elements have similar the number of electron in the
outtest energy level that organized in the same group .
Arrangement of the chemical elements in Periodic table
Categories of elements in Periodic table
metal Transition metal is a original metal. Metal is a solid material or element (except
mercury is a liquid) that is typically hard, opaque, shiny,high electrical conductivity,high
thermal conductivity and high boiling point and melting point(temperature between melting
point and boiling point is very different),such as sodium(Na) ,iron(Fe) ,calcium(Ca) ,mercury
(Hg) ,aluminium(Al) ,agnesium (Mg) ,zinc(Zn) and tin (Sn)

Non metal is a chemical elements that has three state. All properties of nonmetal are
opposite metal that is not lustrous (dull appearance), poor conductors of heat and
electricity, low boiling point and melting point ,such as carbon( C ), phosphorus(P),
sulphur(S), bromine(Br), oxygen(O 2), chlorine(Cl 2), fluorine(F 2)
158
Metalloid is a semiconductive element that it can conduct electricity in some condition.
Metalliod is classified around terrace area such as boron (B) silicon ( Si)
Radium compound is a elements that consists of proton and newtron inappropriately.
Upper 83 (element number) are the radium that every isotope are half ”life.
Properties of elements in periodic table
Properties of elements in each group
Group I A or alkaline metal
alkaline metal are litium, potassium, sodium, rubidium, cesium and francium. Their
properties are
- They are all soft and can be cut easily with a knife
- Highly reactive metals. They can be tarnished rapidly in air due to oxidation that why we
should stored alkaline metal under oil to prevent reaction with air.
- Oxide and hydroxide of alkaline metal dropped into water will produce heavy base
- The ionic radii is positive ner charge
- Low boiling point and melting point. To compare with other kind of metal, alkine metal has
less density. Valence electron = 1
Group II A or alkaline earth
Alkaline earth are beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, strontium, barium, radium.
Their properties are
- The alkaline earth metals react vigorously with oxidation but less than alkaline metal.
- Reaction with water produces base solution (alkaline hydroxides). The compound alkaline
earth metals are always found in natural.
- They are highiy reactive but less than alkaline metal.
159
- They have two electrons in their valence shell.
Group III
- The elements in group III are B Al Ga In Tl . Their prorperties is
- They have three electrons in their valence shell.
Group IV
- The elements in group IV are C Si Ge Sn Pb. Their properties is
- They have four electrons in their valence shell.
Gruop V
- The elements in group V are N P As Sb Bi. Their properties is
- They have five electrons in their valence shell.
Gruop VI
- The elements in group VI are O S Se Te Po. Their properties is
- They have six electrons in their valence shell.
Group VII or Halogen group
- The elements in Halogen group are fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, astatine
- The halogen group is nonmetal that is the highest in oxidation. (F is highest in oxidation)
- All of the halogens are toxic and bad smell.
- Their molecules have two atoms. (Cl 2 Br 2 I 2)
160
- Halogen ioin is negative net chargre (-1). (F - C - Br - I - At -)
Group VIII or Inert gas
- The elements in innert gas are helium, argon, neon, krypton, xenon and radon.
- Because inert gas have eight electrons in their valence shell,they undesirable reaction with
oxidation.
- Their form are no compound except Kr and Xe can creat compound bond.
Atomic size of element
Unit: Picometre
Atomic size of elements
The atomic size is considered by any factors or their properties that have affected to
size of the atomic. These factors are (ordering by its important)
1. State of energy level [How far away its outmost(valance) electrons are form the
nucles.]
161
2. The number of protons
3. The number of electrons
Ionic size of elements
The atom of elements becomes
aion.When atom changes to be ion,not only get
negative or positive charge but it also change the
size of atom. When an atoms loses an electron,it
becomes a positively charged. Atoms are smaller
than smaller than their parent atoms because
they have lost electrons. When an atom gains an
electron, it becomes a negatively charged ion.
Atoms are larger in size than their parent atoms
because they have one or more additional
electrons, but without an additional proton in the
nucleus to help moderate the size.
162
The important properties of elements in the same group
The properties are:
1. The elements have the same number of electrons in their outermost shell so,
they have similar properties. For example, Litium (Li; arrangement of
valence electron 2,1) and Sodium (Na; arrangement of valence electron
2,8,1). Li and Na have the same outermost valence electron shell that is 1
2. The elements in sub-elements group A(IA- VIII A) except transition
elements have valence electron similar with group number. For example,
elements in group I have valence electron is 1, elements in group II have
valence electron is 2.
3. Almost transition elements have valence electron is 2, except some elements
such as Cr Cu have valence electron is 1.
4. The elements in the same group have different energy level. Energy level in
lower level is more energy than upper level. For example, Li Na K Rb Cs are
the elements in group I .From the high level to low level, the energy level is
2 3 4 5 and 6 in order.
5. The elements in the same group are from high to low (period 1 to period 7)
that have number of electron or number of protron increasing 2,8,8,18,18,
32. For example, elements in group I
H(Z=1) Li(Z=3) Na(Z=11) K(Z=19) Rb(Z=37) Cs(Z=55) Fr(Z=87)
The important properties of elements in the same period
The properties are:
1. The elements of the same period don’t have the same number of valence electron;
2.
with each group across a period, the elements have one more proton and electron
(from left to right), so in the same period ; the elements have different properties but
except the transition elements that having valence electron is 2.The transition
elements are the similar properties in group and period.
The elements of the same period are same the energy level and period number. For
example, all of the elements in period 2 (Li to Ne) have the same energy level that
is 2 ; level K(n=1), level L(n=2)
Utility of periodic table
1. The elements are arranged in a series of rows (or periods) so that those with similar
properties appear in a column.
2. The periodic table shows the properties of elements in the same period.
3. The periodic table is used to predict unknown elements in the future.
4. The periodic table is the important thing for education
163
Exercise chapter 7
Topic : the elements and the periodic table
Explanation To mark the corss sign (X) on the corrret answer, only one answer.
1. According to element’s properties for classification,decide which is the correct ?
a. Metal is electrical conductivity in every state.
b. All nonmetal is not electrical conductivity.
c. Oxide of metal dropped in the water shows that their property is base.
d. Ionic energy of metal is increased by atomic number.
2. What are the characteristics of graphite and diamond ?
a. element in different type
b. Structure of carbon
c. Isotope of carbon
d. Compound carbonic substance
3. Which elements show the base property mostly ?
a. MgO
b. Al2O3
c. SO2
d. NO
4. In periodic table, the elements are arranged by…. ?
a. size of atom
b. Atomic mass
c. atomic number
d. Mass number
5. The inert gas in the same group, which elements mostly react with oxidation ?
a. He
b. Ne
c. Ar
d. Kr
6. Chemical formula of compound oxide’s element X is XO. The formula show that..?
a. X is the element in group 2
b. X is the element in group 6
c. X is the same group like O
d. X has valence electron
7. What is the same property of elements in the same group ?
a. number of electron
b. Number of proton
c. number of newtron
d. Number of valence electron
164
8. Why helium associates with oxygen, for the person have to work in deep sea.?
a. easy to find
b. Cheap price
c. less melting in blood
d. Easy to combine with oxgen
9. How many valence electron in inert?
a. 2
b. 8
c. 18
d. 2 หรือ 8
10. X is the element in group 6 period 3, how many atomic number of element X ?
a. 8
b. 9
c. 16
d. 24
165
Chapter 8
Chemical equation and chemical reaction
Essential part
The chemical reaction, factors leading to chemical reaction as well as the impact of chemical
reaction to environment.
Expected learning outcome
1. Capable to explain about the chemical equation, chemical reaction and chemical formula.
2. Capable to explain the factors affecting the chemical reaction.
3. Capable to explain the result of chemical reaction to lives and environment.
Contents
Topic 1 : Chemical equation
Topic 2 : Principle of the chemical equation
Topic 3 : The chemical reaction in living life
166
Topic 1 Chemical equation
Chemical equation shows substances to identify in the chemical reaction.
A chemical equation consists of the chemical formulas of the reactants (the starting
substances) and the chemical formula of the products (substances formed in the chemical
reaction).The two are separated by an arrow symbol ( , usually read as "yields"). the starting
substance is left on the symbol and the product is right on the symbol.
G
l
s
aq
represent
represent
represent
represent
Gas
liquid
solid
aqueous
In corrected balanced equation, the number is used to balance equation that means
amount of mole in the starting substance and the product. In generally, A chemical
equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction wherein the reactant are given
on the left-hand side and the product on the right-hand side. We use the chemical equation to
find that how quantity of the starting substance and the product.
Fundamental laws of chemical reactions and chemical equations are 3 point.
Law 1 : Law of Conservation of Mass
Said that ‚ In every chemical transformation, an equal quantity of element exists before and
after the reaction.‛ the quantity of each element does not change in a chemical reaction.
Law 2 : Law of Definite Proportions
said that ‚In a given chemical compound, the proportion by mass of the elements that
compose it are fixed ‛
Law 3 : Law of Multiple Proportions
said that ‚When two elements form a series of compounds, the masses of one that combine
with a fixed mass of the other are in the ratio of (small)integers to each other.
167
According to the law of conversation of mass ,each side of the chemical equation must
represent the same quantity of any particular element and the same charge n both sides of the
balanced equation. This is a balancing chemical equation. The methods of inspection are
1. Try to balance the same elements to have same quantity of atom in both side
2. In some reaction have group of atom. Using group of atom to balance equation.
3. a coefficient (in front chemical formula) can help to balance the equation and
must have the same number of each atom in both side. For example
2C2H2(g) + 5O2(g)
starting substance
AgNO3(aq) + HCl(aq)
starting substance
4CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
product
AgCl(s) + HNO3(aq)
product
Balancing chemical equation
Principle of Balancing chemical equation
1.To identify which is the starting substance or the product
2.Indentify the correct chemical formular in both starting substance and the product.
This chemical formular doesn’t change.
3.Balancing the equation by putting a coefficient in front of the chemical formula for
both sides of the arrows having the same number of each atom.
4.If the ion doesn’t separated in reaction ,have to calculate ion in the atomic group
equal 1 unit
Check it again.If the chemical equation is correct, it will has the same quantity of atom
in both side.
is the metal which highly reactive with acid when aluminium reaction with
sulphuric acid will create hydrogengas and aluminiumsulphate. Writing and balancing the chemical
reaction.
Method (1) Writing chemical formulars of starting substance and product :
Al + H2SO4 ----> H2(g) + Al2(SO4)3
(2) Balancing the atomic quantity of Al : 2Al + H2SO4 ----> H2(g) + Al2(SO4)3
Example
aluminium
168
(3) Balancing quantity of the ionic group of SO42- : 2Al + 3H2SO4 ----> H2(g) + Al2(SO4)3
(4) Balancing the atomic quantity of H : 2Al + 3H2SO4 ----> 3H2(g) + Al2(SO4)3
Topic 2 principle of the chemical equation
1.Have to writing the chemical formula of starting substance in each type.
2.Have to know the product is produced by the chemical reaction and can write the
chemical formula of product.
3.After writing the chemical equation, you have to balance the chemical equation in
everytime that is the same quantity of atom in both side by putting number in front of each
formular. For example
N2 + H2 ----> NH3
Incorrect because imbalanced equation
N2 + 3H2 ----> 2NH3 Correct because balanced equation
Attention every balanced equation have the quantity of atom, mole, atomic mole and
mass of the starting sunstance that equal with the product. For quantity of molecule, mole
molecule of the starting sunstance may equal or not equal with the product. (not equal in
general)
If you want to write perfectly the chemical equation, you should indicate the state in
each substance. The figure "s" represents the solid , "l" represents the liuid ,"g" represents the
gas and "aq" represents queous (substance reaction in water)
CaC2(s) + 2H2O(g) ----> Ca(OH)2(aq) + C2H2(g)
7.Writing chemical in sometime may show action of energy
reaction in absorb energy = 93 KJ
CH4(g) + 2O2 ----> CO2(g) + 2H2O(l) + 889.5 kJ reaction in release energy = 889.5KJ
2NH3(g) + 93(g) ----> N2(g) + 3H2(g)
To consider characteristic of atomic element in the starting substance or the product and the
change of chemical formulars from the starting substance to the product. The chemical
reaction is classified by 3 type.
169
1.Combination reaction
Those reaction in which two or more elements or compounds combine together to
form a single compound are called combination reaction .
Example 1 H2 combines O2 that get water (H2O)
2H2(g) + O2(g) ----> 2H2O(l)
Example 2 2Al(s) + 3Cl2(g) ----> 2AlCl3
2.Decomposition reaction
Decomposition reaction is the separation of a chemical compound into elements or
simpler compounds
Example 1 Decomposition by the electrolysis of water to gaseous hydrogen (H2 )and oxygen
(O2 )
2H2O(l) ----> 2H2(g) + O2(g)
Example 2 Carbonates will decompose when heated that will get calciumcarbonate(CaCO3),
calciumoxide (CaO) and carbondioxide (CO2)
heat
CaCO3(s) ----> CaO(s) + CO2(g)
3.Replacement reaction
Replacement reaction is the one element that is replaced by another in a compound.
Example Zn(s) + CuSO4 ----> ZnSO4 + Cu
4.Exchange reaction are many type.
Reaction two is the reaction which two atoms exchange places either in two different
molecules or in the same molecule.
Ba(CN)2(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) ----> BaCO3(s) + 2NaCN(aq)
Pb(NO3)2(aq) + 2KI (aq) ----> PbI2(s) + KNO3 (aq)
170
Neutralization Reaction is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react to
form a salt and water.
HCl(aq) +NaOH(aq) ----> NaCl (aq) + H2O(l)
Gas Forming Reaction is reaction that is similar to precipitation reaction with the
exception that instead of a precipitate forming, a gas is formed instead. This reaction alway
occurs between acid or base and other chemical.
Redox Reaction is the reaction which atoms have their oxidation state changed that
is, redox reactions involve the transfer (can loss or gain electron) of electrons between species.
Example Combusion of amyl alcohol (C5H11OH)
2C5H11OH(g) + 15O2(g)
10CO2(g) + 12H2O(g)
A. To find amount of mole of oxygen that is combused with 1 mole of amyl alcohol.
Method
A. 2C5H11OH(g) + 15O2(g)
10CO2(g) + 12H2O(g)
method 1 From the equation C5H11OH 2 mole ? O2 =15 mole
C5H11OH 1 mole ? O2 = (15 mol?1mol)/2mol 7.5 mole
method 2
mole of C5H11OH/(mol ของ O2) = 2/?(15 mol)
(1 mol)/(mol O2) = 2/15
Mol of O2
= 15/2 mol = 7.5 mol
B. To find amount of mole of carbondioxide that is formed by using amyl alcohol too much. This
reaction produces carbomdioxide 22 g.
2C5H11OH(g) + 15O2(g) ----> 10CO2(g) + 12H2O(g)
method 1. from the equation CO2 10 mol from O2 =15 mol
CO2 10 ?44 g from O2 =15? 22.4 dm3 STP
CO2 22 g from O2 = (15?22.4?22g)/(10?44g)= 16.8 dm3
Example Crystal of sadiumphosphate (Na3PO4 (H2O) weights 3.615 g is heated that lose the mass
2.055 g and get salt without water. Find x in the chemical equation. (atomic mass of H = 1,O = 16,Na =
23,P =31 )
Method Na3PO4.xH2 O(s) ?(?? )
Na3PO4(s) + xH2 O(g)
171
Molecular mass of Na3PO4.xH2O = (164 + 18x)
From the equation Na3PO4.xH2O 1 mol heat to get H2O = x mol
Na3PO4.xH2O (164 + 18x) g heat to get H2O = x ?18 g
Na3PO4.xH2O 3.615 g heat to get H2O = (18? g?3.615g)/(164+18x)g
Mass of H2O weight
= 65.07x/((164+18x))
X = 12.00
Example A mineral has ZnS 79.55% , weight 445 g reacts with oxygen.
2ZnS + 3O2
2ZnO + 2SO2
To find quantity of gas O2 to use and gas SO2 at STP
( O = 16, S = 32, Zn = 65.39)
Method
2ZnS + 3O2
2Zn(s) + 2SO2
mineral 100 g has ZnS = 79.5 g
mineral 100 g hac ZnS = 79.5 g ?445 g = 353.78 g
100 g
From the equation
ZnS 2 mol = O2 = 3 mol
ZnS 2 ? 97.39 g = O2 = 3 ?32 g
ZnS 353.78 g = O2 = (3?32g?353.78g)/(2?97.38g) = 174.38 g
mass of gas O2 = 174.38 g
From the equation
ZnS 2?97.39 g has SO2 = 2?22.4 dm3
ZnS 353.78 g has SO2 = (2?22.4dm3?353.78g)/(2?97.39g)
Mass of gas SO2 = 81.37 dm3 STP
Example The fermentation is a complex chemical reaction for wine production. The process of
fermwntation changes sugar to be ethanol and carbondioxide gas.
C6H12O6
2C2H5OH + 2CO2
To use sugar 500.4 g. To find the quantity of ethanol forms the reaction.
(Density of ethanol = 0.789 g/ml, atomic mass H = 1,C = 12, O = 16)
method
C6H12O6
2C2H5OH + 2CO2
from the equation C6H12O6 1 mol C2H5 OH = 2 mol
C6H12O6 180 g C2H5OH = 2?46 g
C16H12O6 500.4 g C2H5OH = (2?46g?50.4)/180g
172
Ethanol’s mass
Formula d
replace ; 0.789 g/ml
V
Quantity of ethanol
180 g
= 255.79 g
= M/V
= 255.76g/V
= 255.76g/(0.789g/ml) = 324.16 ml
= 324.16 ml
A chemical reaction
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set
of chemical substances to another (new chemical sunstance). The substance before reaction is
the reactant and the new substance is the product. Not only having the new substance but also
may be react with other sections ,such as change the energy.
Types of chemical reaction
The chemical reaction is classified 3 types.
1.combination is the reaction that two or more simple substances combine to form a more
complex substance.
2.decomposition is the reaction that is opposite of a combination reaction, where a more
complex substance breaks down into its more simple parts.These reactions are in the general
form.
3. replacement is the reaction that one element trades places with another element in a
compound.
173
Conditions of chemical reaction
the factors have affected the chemical reaction that happen highly or slowly.
1. Concentration of solutions . The speed chemical reaction of more concentrated solution is
more than the less concentrated solution.
2. Surface area. The solid is more surface area that easy to occur chemical reaction
3. Temperature. Certain chemical reactions occur readily at a higher temperature more than
at room temperature.
4. Catalyst. A catalyst is a substance that increases the rate of chemical reaction.
Topic 3 the chemical reaction in living life
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to get the new substance that is the product.
The product also has advantage and disadvantage. There are many chemical reaction occurrence
in normality such as, biochemical reactions , reactions in organic chemistry and industrial
chemistry. These are all about the chemical reaction,therefore the chemical reaction is important
in living life.
Example of the chemical reaction in living life
4.1 Acid rain is a popular term referring to the deposition of wet (rain) and dry
(acidifying particles and gases) acidic components ; like , carbon dioxide (CO2), sulpher
dioxide(SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Because carbon dioxide(CO2) and water(H2O) in the
air react together to form carbonic acid(H2CO3).
From the equation :
When acid rain stay with limestone in which acid rain react with calcium carbonate(CaCO3) to create
calcium hydrogen carbon solution(Ca(HCO3)2). From the equation
174
Acids in the rain react with the calcium compounds in the stones to create gypsum. When the
calcium hydrogen carbon solution is dried on cave palate that will be a stalactite and if the
solution is dried on the ground that will be a stalagmite.
Conclusion the acid rain reaction that creats stalactite and stalagmite
4.2 Dry cell
A common dry-cell battery is a galvanic cell. The outmost layer is wrapped by a paper
or metal sheet. In next layer (inner layer),the cell is made up of an outer zinc container, which
acts as the anode. The cathode is a central carbon rod, surrounded by a mixtureof ammonium
chloride,manganese (IV) oxide (MnO2) and paste which are electrochemical cells, that
contains a substance. A dry cell has the electrolyte immobilized as a paste, with only enough
moisture in it to allow current to flow that why the dry cell is easy to use.
4.3 Lead storage cell
The lead”acid batteries are the oldest type of rechargeable battery. Each(lead-acid
batteries) cell has electronical energy that is 2 volt. the amount of cells are a relatively
the power-to-weight ratio. The lead-acid battery is consist of lead plate that like a spong filled
in gap of gride and the one (gride) has lead dioxide (PbO2). The two grides are dropped in
the dilute sulfuric acid {H2SO4} serves as the electrolyte.
175
4.4 Electroplating
Electroplating is a process that uses metal coating surface or skin of the metal
objects.The conditions of the process of electroplating :
1. The part to be plated is the cathode (negative charge) of the circuit.
2. the anode is made of the metal to be plated on the part.
3. In electrolyte consists of the ions that permit the flow of electricity. (same type with
anode plate)
4. electrical current is the direct electrical current.
At anode plate (positive plate) metal Zn lose e- from the equation
Zn -------> Zn2+ + 2e---------(1)
At cathode plate (positive plate) metal Zn2- gain e- to be metal Zn that is coating the parrt
of nail(Fe).
Zn2+ + 2e- -------> Zn
---------(2)
4.5 Soap
The soap is a organic substance that is a salt formed the fats and oils (forms animal or
plants) reaction with base. The different properties of base are 2 type.
1.Liquid soap. The fatty acid from animals or plants reacts with potassium hydroxide
(KOH) as is called Dang-clee (ด่างคลี)
176
2.Flake soap . The fatty acid from animals or plants reacts with sodium hydroxide or
caustic soda. The chemical name is sodium stearate that chemical formular is C17H35CooNa
The soap production
The process of production is animal or plant fat reaction with base solution(potassium
hydroxide). The result is shown form the equation.
Fat + NaOH or KOH -------> Soap + Glycerol
Adding sodium colride (salt) in the process of production because soap and glycerol have to
be seperaterha that we call the sodium colride is ‚ Salting out ‛
The other ingredients. For get good guality of soap เพื่อให้สบู่มีคุณภาพดี ได้แก่
1.Sanitary booster, such as Washing soda , sodium silicate , sodium phosphate.
2.Antiesbactirals substance that always add in soap to increase efficiency anti-bacteria.
3.Scent ,such as perfume
4. Deodorant that is added together with antiesbactirals substance.
4.6 Powdered detergent
Powdered detergent usually has the number of acid-base is about 9.0-10.6 . The
main ingredients are
1.Phosphate make water that is appropriately base state in spongnification and
prevents bacteria that can invert to coherent the fabric.
2.Sodium silicate prevents metal, sediment or muddy move to fabric by making
water to be soft base.
3.Sodiumhydrosulfide like perporate that make the cloth is more cleaner.
4.sodium carboxy methyl cellulose(C.M.C.) prevents dirt from re-depositing on the
clothes and reduces the friction between fibers and the skin.
5.Perfume , colors , anti-bactieria and Surfactants
177
Topic 2 Radioactivity
Radioactivity is the process by emitting particles of ionizing radiation form some elements.
Radioactive element is a natural element emitting the radiation.
Henri Becquerel discovers the radioactive element ,while working with X-rays. The radioactive
element has unsimilar properties with X-rays. These properties are the density is less than X-rays, the
radiation is continuous, the ray is a natural phenomenon and some ray is electromagnetic wave,such as Xrays,ultraviolet radian,infarred radian and some particles such as the ray from electron.The ray fromed the
radioactive element has 3 types that are alpha,beta and gammar.
Type of radiation
1. Alpha ray (alpha, a) is identical to a helium nucleus (4He2) that have a net +2 charge, heavy
mass, low velocity, low penetration depth and highly ionizing form of particle radiation because of high
energy.
2. Beta ray (Beta, b) is 2 type that are electron 0e-1 (negative charge) and positron 0e+1 (positive
charge), high-speed like light.
3. Gammar ray (gamma, g) is refers to electromagnetic radiation of high frequency, high energy
per photon, high penetrating form of radiation and not deviate from magnetic field and electric field.
The process of
radioactivity
1. When the
nucleus in stable state
gains energy,the nucleus will move to upper energy level before comes back to the steady state. Before
nucleus backs to the steady state,it has emitted the energetic alpha particle or alpha ray.
2. The nucleus is stable but particular atom is imbalance. The nucleus will adapt by emitting
imbalance particle that is alpha or beta.
178
The propreties of radioactivity
1. Moving in directly line
2. Some types of ray deviate form the line when pass magnetic field and electric field such as a, b
3. High power of penetration.
4. When penetrate the substance,the nucleus loses energy by emitting particles of ionizing
radiation. These ion bring to occur other reaction,like as the spot dark in camera film.
Advantage and disadvantage of radioactivity
Advantage of radioactivity
1.Paleogeography : Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses (14C) to
determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years old. Carbon-14 is produced from
thermal neutrons absorbed by nitrogen atom. Next,C-14 react with oxygen and is taken up by plants via
photosynthesis,animals eat the plants and humans eat animals and plants. While a plant or animal is alive,
it is exchanging carbon with its surroundings. Once it dies,it ceases to acquire C-14,but C-14 contains will
continue to decay about 5730 year.
Have to know C-14 decays rate and the proportion of radiocarbon reduction.The
proportion of radiocarbon can be used to determine the age. For example, Animal fossils have
C-14 dacays rate that is a half of reduction. According to a half-life of C-14 that is 5730
year,the year of animal fossils is 5730 year.
179
2.Medicine : Radiation therapy is generally as part of cancer treatment. In some type of cancer
treatment, The gammer ray fromed cobolt-60 is emitted to kill maligants cells. For the patient
is initial maligants cells that can to be cured cancer. The cancer treatment also use Na-24
which is NaCl from to inject the blood for investigating the circular blood. The Na-24 will
decay and emit beta ray that we can use the beta ray to check and know asoconstriction or not.
3. Agriculture : the radioactive elements is used to inspect the time of mineral
circulation in plants by absorbing from root till spitting mineral at leaf or how much plants
obtain mineral.
4. Industry : In the metal industrys use the the radioactive elements to control the
metal production for balancing mass of metal sheet. They shoot a beta ray through a metal
sheet and check the guantity beta ray that passing metal sheet by radioactivemonitor. If the
mass is not similar with standard of metal sheets ,then the radioactivemonitor will send a
signal to make the mass similar (reduce or increase mass)with the standard.
In gas cylinder industrys and construct industrys, for process control; for measurement of
weldable metal , petroleum pipelines or gas pipe. The process is that a gammer ray penetrates
through weldable area that the film is behind the area. In the picture that shows metal
weldablity is good or not.
180
Disadvantage of radioactive elements
Due to emitting particles of ionizing radiation, the ray is dangerous for human. The
outcomes form the ray is 2 type are :
1. Genetic
The effect is human body on genetic mutation especially in cell reproduction.
2. The pain form the radianจากรังสี
The ailment is form some parts of body gain molecule of element that emitting the
ion that make the ailment.
The prevention
1. The least duration as possible as to stay with the radioactive elements
2 Try to stay away form the radioactive elements as possible as.
3. To use lead ,concret, water for prevent from the radius area.
The environtment effects
The radioactive pollution can directly or indirectly diffuse to the enivironment on land
,water and coast from human activities for example, the nuclear power production, using the
radioactive reaction for adgriculture,medicine,transporation and radioactive waste disposal
that are all about radioactive pollutions. These activities can lead the radioactive elements
filtering out in the air and unsuitable strorage also can create the pollution. When radioactive
pollution is in the atmosphere that can damage human body and environment by contaminated
food chain.
Regulation, reduction and elimination for the radioactive pollutions that are
prohibition for launch radioactive pollution into environment. The standard of pollution and
the quality guarantee of radioactive pollution is a important thing to support the measurement
and evaluation the quantity of radioactive pollution in the environment. (International Atomic
Energy Agency ,that is proficient in the radioactive elements, is the main sector to operation.
And also, nternational cooperation should supports the government to help resolve the
181
pollution problem in the area. The purpose of the cooperation is to protect environment and
help the human that is pain or torment from the radioactive elements.
182
Exercise in chapter 8
Subject : Equation and chemical rection
1. Which experiment make the metal to be erode.?
a. Cu ใน ZnSo4
b. Na ใน AgNO3
c. Ag ใน CuSO4
d. Mg ใน ZnSo4
2. In dry-cell battery, if the central carbon rod is changed from zinc (Zn) to br iron (Fe). What will
happen ?
a.No electrical current occur.
b.Dry-cell battery will be used in longer time.
c.Electrical potential difference is lower.
d.Electrical potential difference is higher.
3. Many method can prevent erodent metal, which one is except ?
a. colour coating or oil
b. Spearding or coating some surface of metal ; like zinc
c. Easy to connect with the metal obtains electron than iron.
d. Adding some solutions that prevent rust ; like a sodiumnitire
4.What is the correct principle of coating the metal by electrical current ?
a. The part is coated that have to be positive charge.
b. The metal is a coater that make metal to be negative charge.
c. Electriorite is the same ion with coated metal.
d. Coating the metal by the Electricity that use the indirect Electrical current.
5. Electroplating of zinc by silver, which experiment ?
a. Silver is an anode. Zinc is cathode. The solution Ag2+ is electriorite.
b. Zinc is anode. Silver is cathode. The solution Ag2+ is electriorite.
c. Zinc is anode. Silver is cathode. The solution Zn2+ is electriorite.
d. Silver is an anode. Zinc is cathode. The solution Zn2+ is electriorite
183
Exercise chapter 8
Topic : radioactive elements
1. What is the mean of radioactive elements ?
2. How many type and of radioactive elements and what are they radioactive elements ?
3. To explaination about advantages of radioactive elements at least 2 topic ?
184
Chapter 9
Protein Carbohydrate and Lipid
Subject matter
The living thing is consist of element and compound substance. The element is the
smallest matter of the living thing and the basic elements of the living thing are large
proportion that is carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The combination of three basic elemrnts
(carbon, hydrogen,oxygen) is a compound substance in cell. The compound substance in cell ,that
contains carbon and hydrogen proportion, is called Organic substance and the compound substance
does’t has carbon that is called Inorganic substance .
Organic substances always seen in everywhere have the origin from the living thing.
There is a large class of molecules ,such as the small size and easy structure , the large size
and long chain or curl shape chain. The molecules of livingthing are protein, carbohydreate
and lipid which is classified to be Biological molecule and have an important in every
procession of living thing ,like
Expected learning outcome
1. Be able to explain properties, type of origin and benefit of protein.
2. Be able to explain properties, type of origin and benefit of carbohydrate.
3. Be able to explain properties, type of origin and benefit of lipid.
Content
Topic 1 protein
Topic 2 carbohydrate
Topic 3 lipid
185
Topic 1 Protein
Protein is a compound substance consisting of carbon (C),hydrogen (H),oxygen (O) and
nitrogen(N) that are the major elements proportion and some proteins may have atom from the other
element such a sulphur (S),iron (Fe) or phosphorous(P). In general, plants cell and animal cell also have protein
about 50% of their dry weight.
Proteins are assembled from linked amino acids that are called polypeptide. A
polypeptide is a single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds
and protein molecules may consists of one or more chain of amino acids.
Properties of protein
1. Melting in the water : Not melting in the water. Some protein can be melted but a
little
2. Molecular size and moleculae mass : More size corrate with more mass.
3. Status : Solid
4. Combustion : Have scent while burning
5. Hydrolysis
6. To destroy the enivironment : When some types of protein obtain the heat , change
their pH balance or get some substance that can damage organic element, protein structure is
changed by having a sediment.
186
Structural proteins
Proteins are consist of amino acids group that are linked by peptide bond.
The general formular is
H
R
C
NH2
COOH
- NH2 is Amino group
- COOH is Carboxyl group
- R is Hydrocarbon or other amino group. The difference of amino is their type.
Peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond formed between two molecules. When
the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts with the amino group of the other molecule
The picture shows linked molecule of amino group
that from (structural amino. online. 2552)
- The compound substance is consist of 2 amino acids that is called Dipeptide.
- The compound substance is consist of 3 amino acids that is called Tripeptide.
- The compound substance is consist of more than 100 amino acids that is called
Protein.
Therefore, Protein is depend on the amounts of amino acids and the position of amino
acids in poly peptide chain.Amino acids only have 20 type,but the amount of amino acid and
unsimilar native state is the reason that why type of protein in human body is more than
600,000 type. Each protein has one or more poly peptide chain which is depend on type. For
example,
187
- Molecular insulin’cow is consists of 2 poly peptide chain.
- Molecular hemoglobin is consists of 4 poly peptide chain.
The structure of molecular insulin
The structure of molecular hemoglobin
from (โครงสร้างโมเลกุลของอินซูลิน. ออน-ไลน์. 2252)
from (โครงสร้างโมเลกุลของฮีโมโกลบิน. ออน-ไลน์. 2252)
Because the 20 type ofAminos acid link independently, each protein is different the amout and position of amino acid
and also has unsimilar property.
Type of protein
The differential measurement make several categories of protein
1) Biological categories are 3 type that are
1.1 Simple protein is a non-complex protein that only has amino acids and
not has any other substance.
-serum albumin is protein in blood (myosin).
-
legumin is protein in bean.
-
myosin is protein in muscle.
-
lactoglobulin is protein in wheat.
1.2 Compound protein is a complex protein that has amino acids and other
substance.
- phosphoprotein is protein also having phosphate.
-
lipoprotein is protein also having lipid ,such as yolk egg, cell membrane and
milk
- glucoprotein is protein also having carbohydrate is seen in saliva.
188
1.3 Derived Protein is a protein that is occured by the action of enzymes and
chemical agents between simple protein and compound protein.
- myosan is form myosin that is a simple protein in muscle.
2) Functional categories are 8 types that are
2.1 Struture protein is a protein that is a combination of human body.
Cellmembrance is consist of protein in lipid area.
Ribosome is the synthesizing protein comsist of protein 50% and RNA 50%.
Collagen is the bone and joint.
2.2 Transport protein is a protein that carry oxygen and carbondioxide.
hemoglobin is in red blood corpuscle that carry oxgen from lung to body
system.
transferrin is in serum that carry iron element.
2.3 Enzyme protein is a protein that stimulates the chrmical reaction in human
body.
catalase is a enzyme that stimulate decomposition of H2O2.
lipase is a enzyme of decomposition pf lipid.
2.4 Contractile protein is a protein that is in muscle cells, such as actin and
biosin.
2.5 Storage protein is a protein that storage the food.
ovalbumin in white egg
casein and lactoglobulin in milk
2.6 Toxin protein is a protein that has a toxic in bacteria,animal and plant such
as, snake venom is consist of enzyme digesting lipid.
2.7 Protective protein is a protein that is immunity of body system.
189
immunoglobulin is a glycoprotein that eliminate substance or bacteria in body.
2.8 Control protein is a protein that controls and regulate cell system in body
like,a hormone.
insulin is a hormone that controls glucose in metabolism system.
parathormone is a protein that controls level of calcium and potassium in body.
growth hormone is a protein that controls and stimulates the growth of tissue in
body.
3) Nutrient categories are 2 type that are
3.1 Complete protein is a source of protein that contains an adequate proportion
of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary for the dietary needs of humans or other
animals such as meat,egg and milk.
3.2 Incomplete protein is a source of protein that contains an inadequate
proportion of all nine of the essential amino acids necessary and less efficiency than complete
system for constructing and repairing human body such as protein from plants.
4) Structural categories are 2 type that are
4.1 Fibrous protein is a chain of proteins molecules. The poly peptide chain is
sticky, highly elastic and water-insoluble, for example fibrous protein in hair shaft, harry,
tendon,horn and silk.
4.2 Globular protein is a protein that has a poly peptide bong chain coling like a
globala and some part of peptide chain is twist or sheet, such as enzyme protein ,hemolglobin
and protein in muscle.
The important nutrition of protein for living things
1. Protein is a dietary source of energu. Protein 1 g. give energy about 4.1 kilocalories
that egual carbohydrate diet
2. Protein is a composition of cellmembrance and protoplasm.
3. The structure of skin ,hairs and harrys
190
4. Protein is indispensable for growth and maintenance of every kind of cell in our
body by replacement of dead cells.
5. Protein promotes physiological processes that boost the step of movement.
6. Proteins in the form of necessary substance.
Delivering oxygen and carbondioxide.
Promoting healthy metabolic.
Stimulatins chemical reaction in body system.
7. In situations when fat and carbohydrate food sources are not providing adequate
calories, proteins are degraded to generate the calories our body needs and some amino acids
can change to be another amino acid.
Topic 2 Carbohydrate
Carbohydrate is a organic substance that is necessary dietary source of energy and
carbon for human and living thing to be alive and boots other substances. Carbohydrate is
an organic compound comprising only carbon(C), hydrogen(H),and oxygen(O),usually with a
hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (H:O = 2:1).Because the amount and position of three
elements(C,H,O) is different, carbohydrate has many type ,as glucose
(C6H12O6),sucrose(C12H22O11) and flour(C6H10O5)n .
The plants are able to produce diet by photosynthesize. The process of the
photosynthesize use carbondioxide and water that are row materials to produce glucose and
other saccharides ;like flour , cellulose and other substances. Carbohygrate is usually from of
polysaccharides. Sugar and flour is one of the acquainted carbrohydrate.
Sugar is sweet test which is sometime called ‚Saccharides‛ . Saccharides have always
been seen in cellmembrance of plants and animals. Human and animal also have saccharides
that is sugar in stream blood,glycogen that storages glucose for using energy in liver
membrance and muscle. The two saccharides is substance that is dehydrate by cells to get
necessary energy for a life.
191
The properties of carbohydrate.
1. General formular is (CH2O)n
Exception
- Some of carbohydrate don’t have similar proportion , such as deoxyribose (C5H10O4)
- Some substances have a chemical formular (CH2O)n similar with carbrohydrate but
they are not carbohydrate. For example acetic , acid (C2H4O2) lactic acid (C3H6O3)
2. Carbohydrate is polyhydroxy
3. Carbohydrate is composed of starch and sugar. Sugar is a carbrohydrate that is
small molecule. Sugar’name is always called ‚ - ose ‚ for example ; glucose , motose but
starch is a carbrohydrate consisting of a large number of molecule ,like glycogen , cellulose.
4. Humans and animal can store carbohydrate in term of glycogen and stroe at liver
and muscle.
5. Enzyme in saliva can hydrolyze starch to be sugar.
Type of carbohydrate
Carbohydrate is classified to 3 major types that are .
Monosaccharide is a smallest unit of carbrohydrate. Simple monosaccharides have a
linear and unbranched carbon skeleton with one carbonyl functional group (3-7 atomic
carbon). The elemental formula is (CH2O)n ,where n ; that show the number of carbon atoms.
Carbrohydrate is widely known that having 6 atom, such as glucose, galactose and fructose.
The picture shows structure form.
glucose
galactose
fructose
the structural from of Monosaccharide
192
Monosaccharide that should to know are ;
Glucose is found in plants(vegetables and fruits). Glucose is the important sugar
because it is a sunstance that absorbed directly into the bloodstream during operation in body
system and is a major source of energy
Fructose (C6H12O6) is usually found in fruits , honey, placenta and semen. It is
sweeter than other types of sugar and easy water-soluble.
Galactose (C6H12O6) is not found in natural but is the result The hydrolysis of lactose
to glucose and galactose. Glucose and galactose are composed of glycolipid of brain tissue
and less sweet than glucose.
Ribose (C5H10O5) is composed of ribonucleic acid or RNA that is important for
protein synthesis and also is composition of high calorie diety; ATP(adenosine triphosphate)
Deoxyribose (C5H10O4 ) is composed of deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA that is
important composition in chromosome. Chromosome has a function that comtrols activities of
cells ; repository of genetic information.
Ribulose (C5H10O5) is important in the formation of CO2 photosynthesize in plants. It
receives CO2 during no light in photosynthesize.
2. Oligosaccharides is a saccharide polymer containing a small number(2-10 moleclue) of
monosaccharides that is linked by glycosidic. The chemical formular is C 12H22O11 and
oligosaccharides is mostly found in natural ,like a disaccharides.
Oligosaccharides mostly found in natural.
Sucose(C12H22O11) is
a member of oligosaccharides.The molecule is
a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides glucoseand fructose with the molecular
formula C12H22O11.. It is white ,crystalline powder with a sweet taste and water-soluble.
Sucose is always found in coconut water, ripen fruits, beatroot and especially in molasses. The
word was formed in sugar or crystalline sugar that is widely known.
193
The structural from of sucose
ที่มา (โครงสร้างโมเลกุลน้าตาลซูโครส. ออน-ไลน์. 2552
Lactose (C12H22O11) is a oligosaccharides sugar derived from galactose (1
moleclue) and glucose (1 moleclue) that is found in milk or urine of waman to be pregnant,but
not found in plants ,so lactose may be called milk sugar. Lactose is less water-soluble and less
sweet than suclose.
the structural from lactose
ที่มา (โครงสร้างโมเลกุลแลกโทส ออน-ไลน์. 2552)
Maltose(C12H22O11) is a oligosaccharides sugar derived from two units of glucose joined with
an α(1→4) bond. It is highly water-soluble , but less sweet (only 20% of glucose) ,usually
found in cereals such as malt and it is a is the disaccharide produced when enzym breaks
down starch and glycogen
the structural from of moltose
ที่มา (โครงสร้างน้าตาลมอสโทส ออน-ไลน์. 2552)
194
Cellobiose ( C12H22O11) is a oligosaccharides that is not found in natural because It can be
hydrolyzed to glucose enzymatically or with acid and it is less benefit for human
.
The structurl form of cellobiose
ที่มา (โครงสร้างของเซลโลไบโอส ออน-ไลน์. 2552)
3. Polysaccharides or big molecular sugar are long carbohydrate molecules (111,000 molecules )of monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds.
They range in structure from linear to highly branched. The difference of
Polysaccharides is depends on the amount of monosaccharide units.
Polysaccharides is widelu found that are ….
Starch is a member of polysaccharides that palnts can photosynthesize as a energy
store,such as seed, root, and fruit. Starch is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number
of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds and some parts have a branch.
The molecular structure of starch
195
Glycogen is a polysaccharide that serves as a form of energy storage in animals. In
humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and the muscles, and
functions as the secondary long-term energy storage. The important role is to make the stream
of blood to be balanced. Glycogen is a branched biopolymer consisting of linear chains of
glucose. Found in human body, if glucose is surplus in the body,the body will change glucose
to glycogen as be stored in liver cells and musclr cells.
Cellulose is a polysaccharide that is an important structural component of the
primary cell wall of green plants. Cellulose is the strong part in plants cells and consisting of a
linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand (about 1,200-1,500) glucose units but
their position of glucose is different form of starch. Because of many glucose units,cellulose is
not water-soluble for example, cow or buffalo can create cellulases to digest cellulose to
glucose.
Chitin is a polysaccharide that found in invertebrates.It is the main component of
the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of arthropods such as chitosan. Chitin is none watersoluble and not be digested by enzyme.
Heparin is a polysaccharide that found in lung ,liver, spleen and endothelium. It is
widely used as an injectable anticoagulant.
Lignin is a polysaccharide that most commonly derived from wood, and an integral
part of the secondary cell walls of plants.
Pectin is a polysaccharide that found in fruit as a jelly. Pectin is consist of linear
chains of galactose units and widly found in plants cell and fruit peel such as orange,lemon
amd parts of root and leaf’s green plant cells.
196
The important nutrition of carbohydrate for living things
1. Carbohydrate is the main source of energy for doing activities and warming human
body. Carbohydrate 1 g. is about 4.1 calories.
2. Carbohydrate can invert substance to be glycogen,secondary energy, that is stored
in liver cell and muscle cell and sometime is in term of lipid in each part of body.
3. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are component of a structure of cell.
4. Carbohydrate contrals metalbolism of lipid and protrein. In normally,
Carbrohydrate is the firs thing that is used to be an energy. If body doesn’t has enough energy,
body will use lipid as a energy. Finally, carbohydrate prevents decomposing lipid in the liver
because if decomposition of lipid in liver is not compelet, the ketone body will occur that is a
toxic for body and if liver not has enough lipid, protein will be used to be an energy instead of
being major substance to create enzyme, repair body cells and produce immunity for antibacterias.
5. Carbohydrate is a major role to produce some enzyme in the body such as to
synthesis DNA RNA and ATP that have to use sugar
6. Carbohydrate can stimulate operation of small intestine and prevent to be constipated like as
cellulose make body get more fiber.
Topic 3 Lipid
Lipid is a large organic substance that is related by their solubility in nonpolar organic
solvents (e.g. ether, chloroform, acetone & benzene) and general insolubility in water. It is
composed of carbon(C) ,hydrogen(H) and oxygen(O) but its ratio of elements is different
carbrohydrate(ratio among H : O = 2 : 1), oxygen is less than carbrohydrate and carbon amd
hydrogen depend on types of lipid.
Lipids may be broadly defined as Biological form in other substances; if lipid is
gyucolipid that is component with protein, may be called lipoprotein.
197
Characteristics of lipid
1.
Lipid and oil are insolubility in water but solubility in nonpolar organic solvents,
except hexane.
2. Density of lipid is less than water but more than ethanol.
3. Lipid and oil are easy to rancid smell (oil is easy to react with O 2 than lipid).
4. In case of same proportion of atomic carbon, Burning oil has more carbon than
burning lipid.
5. Lipid is a solid that is deform but oil is a liquid.
The structure of lipid
All of the types of lipid are same 2 major composition that are fatty acid and
glycerol.
1. Fatty acid has molecular formular
O
R
C
OH
R is hydrocarbon group that is composed of C and H that its proportion depends on
types of fatty acid. There is great typical variety among the lipids,each type has different
quantity of C and H in R. For example,
R in palmitic acid
has C 15 atom and H 31 atom
198
R in linoleic acid
has C 17 atom and H 31 atom
The structure of some amino acid
From (palmitic acid structure. On-line 2009)
Nutrition and health. Fatty acid is classified in 2 types that are
1. Essential fatty acid is a fatty acid that is good for health but human body
cannot synthesize fatty acids so Humans and other mammals have to get directly essential
fatty acid from food. Most vegetable oils are rich in linoleum acid such as soybean milk,
safflower oil , sunflower oil and corn oil except coconut and palm oil.
1. Saturated fatty acid Saturated fatty acids are long-chain carboxylic acids and
doesn’t receive atomic hydrogen. It is higher melting point than unsaturated fatty acid, is
usually found in animal fat, butter , animal oil and some plants oil like a coconut oil. From
medical experiment found that if we eat too much dietary fat that is is linked to an increased
risk of Ischemic heart disease and Coronary heart Disease.
The structure of fatty acid
Form (saturated fatty acid. On-line 2009)
2. unsaturated fatty acid is a fatty acid that is at least one double bond at some atomic
carbon within the fatty acid chain and can receive atomic hydrogen. It is low melting point,
easy to melting. The most of unsaturated fatty acid is oleic acid that is widely found in olive
oil and vegetable oil such as soy bean oil, corn oil.
199
The structure of unsaturated fatty
form (unsaturated fatty acid. On-line 2009)
2. Glycerol
Glycerol is a member form of alcohol . its structural is.
When each molecule of glycerol joint with each molecular fatty acid that produce 1
moleclue of water that is called ‚Dehydration‛ ; as 1 moleclue of glycerol react with 3
moleclues of fatty acid that creating 3 moleclur of water.
glycerol 1 molecule
fatty acid 3 molecule
lipid 1 molecule
water 3 molecule
Types of lipids
Classification by chemical character that are 3 types
1. Simple lipid is a two types of components that are fatty acid and alcohol. The
composition is between 1 moleclue of glycerol and 1-3 moleclues of fatty acid. There is many
types of simple lipid.
1.1 Fat or may be called glyceride is composed of glycerol and saturated fatty
acid (fatty acid ”glycerol 3:1).
200
1.2 Oil is mostly composed of unsaturated fatty acid (fatty acid ”glycerol 3:1).
1.3 Wax is composed of fatty acid with larger size and more weight of alcohol
than glycerol.
2. Compound lipid is composed of lipid and other substances
2.1 Phospholipid or Phosphoglyceride is a simple lipid that phosphate group is
a component by combination of fatty acid, glycerol and phosphate group. Structural of
phosphate is similar with lipid and oil,but different in 1 moleclue of phosphate group instead
of fatty acid.
The structure of Phospholipid
form (phospholipid. On-line 2009)
Phospholipid is major component of cellmembrane, nervous tissue ,plasma and
yolk egg.In cellmembrane, phospholipid is arrangement in form of two slide sheets
overlapping. The begin part of phosphate group is charge area, when this part dropped in
water, it will react with molecule of water that is called hydrophibic part. In the end of the part
,that is no charge area, is called hydrophobic part.
2.2 Glycolipid is a lipid that carbrohydrate is a composition ; as galactolipids
having a galactose, is founf in nervous tissue, nerve, liver, kidney and spleen.
2.3 Lipoprotein is a simple lipid that have protein or amino acid. It is a major
compose of cellmembrane and plasma that deliver lipid to every part in body.
The important nutrition of lipid for living things
1. Lipid is a dietary source of energy. Lipid 1 g. is 9.1 calories that is more than
carbrohydrate and protein( body requires about 40 g.)
201
2. Lipid has a neessary fatty acid that is linoleic
3. Lipid is a solvent and help to absorb vitamin A,D,E,K into the body.
4. Lipid is stored in body that attachs internal organ and prevents bumping.
5. Lipid ia a thermal insultation that prevents to lose from body by storage lipid
in layer under skin.
6. Lipid is a major components of cellmembrane and correlated with regulation of
body temperature.
7. Lipid metabolism synthesizes in cells. It controls steroid hormone such as
estrogen ,progestrogen is a woman hormone that controls metabolism ovary cells and uterus
cells.
Exercise: Investigation the nutrient
การตรวจสอบสารอาหาร
The student is divided into experiment groups. Answer the question in the end of experiments.
1. To add starch into 3 test medium tube in each tube is about 2 cubic centimeter.
Test tube 1 Dropping Iodine solution 1 drop. Notic and note the
result.
Test tube 2 Dropping benedict solution 5 drops and bring to boil about
2 minutes. Notic and note the result.
Test tube 3 Dropping copper sulfate solution 5 drops and
sodiumhydroxide 10 drops. Notic and note the result.
202
Bring starch is about a half of tablespoon no.1 to scrub papper 4-5 time after bring up paper to the
way that a light can penetrate. Notice paper is translucent or not ?
2. Record the result of experiment that is similar method in no.1 but use glucose ,milk,white edd and
plants oil. Notice and note result.
Food
The transformation in experiment
Benedict solution
Iodine solution
copper(II) sulfate solution
sodiumhydroxide
and Scrubing with a
white paper
Flour
Glucose
Milk
White egg
Plant oil
1. What is the food can change colour of Iodine’s solution and what colour of Iodine’s solution is ?
2. What is the food can change colour of Benedict’s solution and what is transformation after boling
benedict’s solution ?
3. What is the food can change colour of copper(II) sulfate solution and sodiumhydroxide and what
is transformation after experiment ?
4. What is the food scrubing with paper that make translucen paper ?
5. To test nutrient by chemicals, what is the chemicals that requires heat power ?
6. The results from this exercise, how many type of food ?
203
Chapter 10
Petroleum and polymer
Essential Part
Petroleum origin, petroleum source , petroleum refining process, benefits of petroleum
and the effects of using petroleum.
Polymer origin, polymer’s properties and polymer in daily life.
Origination of Plastic, rubber, synthetic rubber, fiber and synthetic fiber. The effects of
using Plastic, rubber, synthetic rubber, fiber and synthetic fiber.
Expected learning outcome
1. Be able to explain petroleum refining process, product and benefits of petroleum
and the effects of using petroleum product.
2. Be able to explain meaning, type, type of origin, polymer’s properties, polymer in
daily life ,the effect of using plastic, rubber, synthetic rubber, fiber and synthetic
fiber.
Content
Topic 1 Petroleum
Topic 2 Polymer
204
Topic 1 Petroleum
Petroleum is from root of 2 Latin that are Petra, its means rock, and Oleum, its mean oil, when
Petra and Oleum are combined that means oil forms rock.
Petroleum consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other liquid or gas organic compounds that
found in earth’s surface such as crude oil and natural gas.
Crude oil is form each source that may have different physical character such as condensed,
sticky, its colour is yellow green brown and black, density is about 0.79 ” 0.97 g/cm3. Crude oil is
consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons(alkane and Cycloalkane) of various molecular weights ,
some of N and S and other organic compounds.
Natural gas has a main composition that is hydrocarbons of molecular weight (1-5 atom) that
is about 95 % , nitrogen, carbon dioxide and some sulfide. Natural gas is a liquid called Condensate that is
component similar with natural gas , but quantity of atomic carbon is more. When Natural gas is found in
deep underground rock formations and high temperature, it is a gas. However, when natural gas is on the
surface’s earth that is less temperature than hydrocarbon, it is a liquid.
The quanity of elements’s composition of crude oil and natural gas
Quantity : percentage by mole
Type of pretoleum
C
H
S
Crude oil
82 ” 87
12 ” 15 0.1 ” 1.5
Natural gas
65 ” 80
1 ” 25 0.2
N
0.1 ” 1
1 ” 15
Origin of pretoluem
The origin of petroleum is from incompletely decayed plant and animal remains have become buried under thick layer of
rock during the past million years. Because of transformation of earth’s surface is under high pressure and together
with limited oxygen, decayed plant and animal remains sinks to the bottom and is incorporated in clay sediments
which ultimately become natural gas and oil of clay shale’s.
Petroleum is from different source that is different quantity of hydrocarbon, sulfur, nitrogen and
oxygen that are depend on types of the plank tonic plants and animals and the influence of the pressure of
sediment rock.
205
The source of petroleum storage.
Petroleum is in the layer of rock. The oil of clay shale’s can be squeezed out and into porous rock. In porous
rock the oil can travel until it reaches an impervious barrier such as a salt dome. This is called ‚ the
source of petroleum storage”.
The survey found petroleum resources
There are many methods to surver petroleum. The process that is
1. Geological survey : to make aerial photograph.
2. surfacial geological survey : to keep a examplr of rock, study a charactheristic rock, anlysize
the planktonic plants and animals. The result of research can help to predict opportunity to find structure
and type of rock that can store petroleum.
3. Geophysiccal survey : the measurement of earth’s magnetic field can know the
range,density, width of fossa and the depth of rock layers.
206
the measurement of earth’s gravitation can know the types of rock layers in each layer which
can help to identify range and shape of basin under ground.
the seismic wave survey can know position, size or shape and structure of rock.
4. Drilling petroleum survey : the drilling petroleum survey can know about how is easy or not
for the drilling petroleum and identify the stuff is in the rock that is crude oil or natural gas and the
guantity. The data of drilling petroleum bring to decide a possible in tern of economics. In the process of
the drilling petroleum to find crude oil and natural gas,if a hole has a high pressure,the petroleum can be
squeezed out; In another word,if a nole has a low pressure, have to increase the pressure by Compressed
gas,as natural gas,carbondioxide.
The survey found petroleum in Thailand
In B.E. 2464, firstly the survey petroleum found at Amphoe Muang Fang , Chiang Mai
province and natural gas was found that was enough for commercial at the gulf of Thailand in B.E. 2516
and found at Nampong,Khonken province.
The quantity of petroleum stock in Thailand.
 Crude oil 806 million barrels
 Natural gas 32 million standard cubic fee
 Liquid natural gas 688 million barrels
The largest source of crude oil stock in Thailand that is Nambundippet (น้ามันดิบเพชร) from
Sirikit,Amphoe Lan Krabue, Kamphaeng Phet province. The largest source of natural gas production is
called Langbokkod (แหล่งบงกช) at the gulf of Thailand in B.E. 2523.
The largest crude oil stock in the world at the gulf of Persia, the second is Central
America,North America and Russia. Petroluem found in Nigeria is the best quality of petroleum because
of least of sulphur.
The unit of petroluem measurement.
The unit used in petroluem measurement is ‚ barrel ‛
1 barrel has 42 gallon or 158.987 litre
The unit used in natural gas measurement is widely used cubic foot at 60 Fahrenheit (15.56
celcus) and density 30 inch mercury.
207
The oil refinery
The crude oil is a mixture of many types of hydrocarbon; as alkane, cycloalkanes, water and
other compound substance. The method of oil refinery is Fractional distillation. The process that is
1. Before refining the oil, oil and compound substance have to be separated from crude oil
until left only hydrocarbon.
2. Hydrocarbon substance is heated in tube at 320 ” 385OC. Heating is usually done most crude
oil go into the vapor phase.
3. Liquid and gas hydrocarbon compound is deliver into The fractional distillation column the
fractional distillation column(tower). Inside the column is consists of many layers of distillation plate and
is different temperature in each layer ; the hot temperature is at the top and the low temperature is at the
bottom. For light molecule mass and low temperature of hydrocarbon compound, the liquid in the vapor
risng up and condense at the top, in the other hand more molecule mass and higher temperature of
hydrocarbon compound will condense to be liquid at lower layer of distillation plate specific with range of
temperature inside the column. Some hydrocarbon substances are similarly properties that is condensed
vapor in the same plate. The range of temperature to keep the product is depend on the purpose for using
product.
208
Hydrocarbon compound is the heavy molecule mass such as fuel oil, lube oil and asphalt.
Because of high temperature, these are still liquid in a range of temperature and are separate at the bottom
of tower.
1.1 Fractional distillation
Fractional distillation is a basic method of refining oil that s the separation of a mixture into its
component parts, or fractions, such as in separating compounds by their boiling point. The different
condensation point is the result of different their point. The crude oil is delivered from tank to furnace
at temperature at which one or more fractions of the compound will vaporize. This vapor remove to
Fractionating tower which is a cylinder shape, its tall is about 30 meter and its diameter is about 2.5-8
meter. Inside the fractionating tower is separated a stage, as a room, in which two phases in horizon by a
plate which has a hole for vapor rising up to the top of fractionating tower. As the vapor rises through the
plate rises through the plate in the column, it cools and will condense to from a liquid. The plate collect
the various fraction in each layer. According to temperature of condensation, the Lighter fractions, as petrol
and paraffin, with the lowest boiling point will condense at the highest point in the column; Medium
fractions, as diesel gas oil and fuel oil, will condense at medium area in the column; Heavy factions, as
fuel oil and asphalt residue with higher boiling points will condense lower in the column and the heat
The process of Fractional distillation in petroleum industry
drains out at the base of the tower.
209
There is a disadvantage of fractional distillation method. Many type of oil is a little quantity in
each fraction. All of the oils is high value for economics.
1.2 The petroleum product
Crude oil or petroleum is consist of carbon, hydrogen and other elements. Type of petroleum is
depend on source of crude oil that is different component. Crude oil have to be operated by fractional
distillation for separating the oil’s type and transforming to the product, it can be utilized. The product’s
combination from fractional distillation is depend on the source of crude oils ,for example some industry
can refine a much of diesel or a much of benzyl.
The petroleum products are useful materials derived from crude oil (petroleum) as it is
processed in oil refineries. The product is called hydrocarbon compound that is a mixture of un similar
proportion of hydrogen and carbon. This proportion is atomic carbon 1-50 atoms, if carbon is about 1-4
atoms, it is a gas. When atomic carbon increase, it will be a liquid and is more sticky. Because of different
components of atomic carbon, the utility of product is different.
The product from refined petroleum, properties and utility
Product
Boiling point
State
(OC)
Petroluem gas
< 30
Gas
Light naphthal
Heavy naphthal
Gas oil
Diesel
Lube oil
Wax
30 ” 110
65 ” 170
170 ” 250
250 ” 340
> 350
> 500
Liquid
Liquid
Liquid
liquid
liquid
Solid
Fueal oil
> 500
Sticky
liquid
Amount
of carbon Utility
(C)
1”4
To produce chemicals, synthesized
material,fuel, cooking gas
5”7
Benzyl, solvent
6 ” 12
Benzyl, Heavy naphthal
10 ” 19 Gas oil,petroleum engine and lamp
14” 19
Diesel
19 ” 35 Lub oil,engine oil
> 35
To
produce
candle,cosmetic,medicine,wax,powdered
detergent
> 35
Fuel machine
210
Product
Boiling point
State
(OC)
Asphalt
> 500
1.3
Sticky
liquid
Amount
of carbon Utility
(C)
> 35
Asphalt is a sticky liquid. Heating the
asphalt for waterproof material.
The impact of using petroleum
When oil or petroleum distillates are burned that generates the air pollution by
launching exhaust from industry, electrical industry and automobiles industry. These toxic are Sulfur
dioxide(SO2), nitrogen oxide( NO), Carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon and dust.
The pollution is caused petroleum production and using petroleum product.
Cause of pollution
There are many terms of thr pollution. The important factor of pollution is 2 points.
1. Growth of population
2. Technology
According to 2 reasons, there are many impacts of pollution such as water pollution,air
pollution.
Water pollution
Cause: the 4 reasons for water pollution.
1. Suspension is a mixture containing solid particles that are sufficiently large
for sedimentation. Usually they must be larger than 1 micrometer (1000 nanometer).สารผสมไมโครเมตร
นาโนเมตร
2. Contagion or infection. Such as Leptospirosi, Food and mount disease
3. Quantity O2 in water. Oxygen in water is a important thing for animals and
plants living. The quantity of oxygen-soluble represent the quality of water . This means that if oxygen in
water is a little, the water is polluted. The living things can’t live in this water that why oxygen in the
waters so important.
211
-
4. The chemical substance in water. Such as iron, lead
The standard of waste water of Ministry of Industry
pH 5-9
- T = 40 ๐C
BOD = 20 -60 mg/l
Air pollution
Cause: the 4 reasons for water pollution.
1. Gas or vapor of organic substance. Such as volatile matter benzyl will damage
bone-barrow, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Anemia and the disease and central neurological diseases.
2. Heavy metals. The impacts of metals’s toxic of living thing is from the cell
system.
.Make celldead
Changesystemand operation
Thecauseofcancerdiecease
4.ThecauseofGeneticComplementDeficiency
5. Thedamagedchromosomeis a factor of genetic.
3. Dust. The minute dust is s major factor for health impact. When human is breathing,
the dust is deliver to central the system respiration especially older patient,cardiac and asthma.
4. Radioactical sunstance.
Many types of gas are the cause of air pollution such as CO CO2 SO2 NO NO2. . And
also double-bond hydrocarbon together with O2 in the air that will get a bad odour substance,as alkane,but
it has NO2 that will occur Peroxy acyl nitrate (PAN). PAN can irritate the skin.
212
Topic 2 Polymer
2.1 Meaning categories types and properties of polymer
Polymer is s a large molecule composed of many repeated (similar or unsimilar)subunits and is
linked by covalence bond.
Monomer is a sununit of polymer. From the picture
Types of polymer is classified by the standard.
1. The origin is 2 types that are
ก . Natural polymer occurs in naturally such as protein,starch,cellulose,glyclogen, nucleic acid
and
natural
rubber
(
Polyisoprene
Rubber
).
ข . Synthetic polymer is a polymer from Polymerization such as plastic,niron,dracon and lucite
2. The types of monomer components that are
ก . Homopolymer is a polymer that is consist of same type of monomer,as starch(all monomers
are guclose),Polyethylen - PVC (all monomers are ethylene)
ข Heteropolymer is a polymer that is consist of different type of monomer,as protein ( all
monomer are different amino acid) ,polrester and polyamide.
3. The physical properties of a polymer
ก. Chain length polymer is a polymer chains that are large molecules, or macromolecules, made
up of many monomers that are joined together. The polymer chain is closer than the other,it has more
density,high melting point, solid, and more stick such as PVC,polystyrene ,polyethylene.
213
ข.Branched polymer is a branching occurs by the replacement of a substituen by
another covalently bonded chain of that polymer and the branchs of polymer have lomg and short bonded
chain. Because of the branching, we can’t make polymer is closed.The branched polymer is low
density,meltimg point,elasticity.stickyness and easy to changed physical by heating ,as polyethylene is
low density.
ค. Croos -linking polymer is polymer that monomer is jointed by net shape. This polymer is
strong, brittle such as Bakelite, Melamine is used to produce pottery.
Remark somr polymer is occurred from inorganic substance,as Phosphatidyl and silicone.
The origin of polymer
Polymer is from the polymerization of monomer.
Polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical
reaction form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
214
Polymerization reaction
1. Addition polymerization reaction is a polymer which is formed by an addition reaction, where
many monomers(same types of monomer) bond together by rearrangement of the double-bonds (C jointed
C). This reaction produce only one type of polymer.
2. Condensation polymerization reaction is any kind of polymers formed through a condensation
reaction where monomer molecules, as more 1 funtion group ,join together small molecules.
The polymer properties
The property of a polymer requires several parameters which need to be specified. In unit of
nano- and micro- ,this property is used espeacially to explain the physical of polymer. At the moderate,
the property is used to explain the figure in space. At the wide,the behavior of polymer transports
property. This property relates to how rapidly molecules move through the polymer matrix. These are
very important in many applications of polymers for films and membranes.
215



Melting pointว. The term melting point, when applied to polymers, suggests not a solid-liquid
phase transition but a transition from a crystalline or semi-crystalline phase to a solid phase.
Among synthetic polymers, crystalline melting is only discussed with regards to thermoplastics ,
as thermosetting polymers will decompose at high temperatures rather than melt.
Mixing behavior. In general, polymeric mixtures are far less miscible than mixtures ofsmall
molecule materials. This effect results from the fact that the driving force for mixing is
usually entropy, not interaction energy. In other words, miscible materials usually form a solution
not because their interaction with each other is more favorable than their self-interaction, but
because of an increase in entropy and hence free energy associated with increasing the amount of
volume available to each component. This increase in entropy scales with the number of
particles (or moles) being mixed. Since polymeric molecules are much larger and hence generally
have much higher specific volumes than small molecules, the number of molecules involved in a
polymeric mixture is far smaller than the number in a small molecule mixture of equal volume.
The energetics of mixing, on the other hand, is comparable on a per volume basis for polymeric
and small molecule mixtures. This tends to increase the free energy of mixing for polymer
solutions and thus make solvation less favorable. Thus, concentrated solutions of polymers are far
rarer than those of small molecules. ลยปีะ The properties of the polymer are characterized by the
interaction between the solvent and the polymer. In a good solvent, the polymer appears swollen
and occupies a large volume. In a bad solvent or poor solvent, intramolecular forces dominate
and the chain contracts.In the theta solvent, or the state of the polymer solution where the value
of the second virial coefficient becomes 0 , the intermolecular polymer-solvent repulsion
balances exactly the intramolecular monomer-monomer attraction. Under the theta condition ,
the polymer behaves like an ideal random coil.
Polymer branching polymer chains play a large part in determining a polymer's properties.
Because polymer chains are so long, these interchain forces are amplified far beyond the
attractions between conventional molecules. These stronger forces typically result in higher
tensile strength and higher crystalline melting points. The length and short chain will reduce
inner-force of polymer because arrangement is bothered. The side chain is reduced form of
crystallinity because bothers the crystalline structure. Polymers with a degree of crystallinity
approaching will tend to be transparent. Polycarbonate chains can be crosslinked to form the
hardest, most impact-resistant thermosetting plastic, used in safetyglasses.]A good example of the
this effect relates with a physical range of polyethylene. Polyethylene is high-density,less
216

branching and strong that used in safetyglasses. Polyethylene is low-density,much of
branching,more elasticity that used in film. นThe branching index measures the effect of longchain branches on the size of a macromolecule in solution.Dendrimers are
repetitively branched molecules. A dendrimer is typically symmetric around the core, and often
adopts interaction force and crystallinity in between molecule.Dendronized polymers is
incompelet branching, but its property is similar dendrimers because the process of branching is
similar.
Inclusion of plastictizersรร์ Inclusion of plasticizers tends increase polymer flexibility.
Plasticizers are generally small molecules that are chemically similar to the polymer and create
gaps between polymer chains for greater mobility and reduced interchain interactions. A good
example of the action of plasticizers is related to polyvinylchlorides or PVCs. An uPVC, or
unplasticized polyvinylchloride, is used for things such as pipes. A pipe has no plasticizers in it.
Plasticized PVC is used in clothing for a flexible quality.ด์
2.2 Polymer in living life
2.2.1 Plastic
A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organicsolids. Plastic is
used unsteand of natural material. Some plastic is solid at cooling temperature and, or is a liquid bt
heating. There are many types pf plastic such as niron, synthetic rubber that used many matrials as
colth,film,vessel, boat or automobile components. สอินทรีย์ไนลอนมาฟิล์มชนะเรือนต์
Properties pf plastic

High stability in natural, hardly decompose, least amount of mole and light.

Resistance to heat and electricalticity.

Mostly of plastic is elasticity, to be melted when heating that is can change a figure.
Categories of plastic
Plastis is classified in 2 typre that are thermoplastic and thermosetting plastic
Thermoplastic or resin is the plastic that is most widely used.This is a polymer that becomes pliable
or moldable above a specific temperature, and returns to a solid state upon cooling. The polymer chains
associate through intermolecular forces, that is a least interaction between polymer chain.Properties of a
thermoplastic change drastically without an associated phase change such as Polyethylene, Polypropylene
217
and Polystyrene that have a special property; when plastic is melted, it has been used again to make
plastic model. The types of plastic of thermoplastic.
 Polyethylene: PE. This plastic is allowed oxygen passing but a little steam passing.It is a muddy
and resistance heat and mostly used in industry such as pipe,tank,pack, bottle and the base fot
putting the product.
 Polypropylene: PP This plastic allow a little of steam passing and is stronger than
polyethylene.It is usually resistant to fatty substance, high heat. It is used in thermal food
packaging, drinking straw and plastic.
 Polystyrene: PS This plastic is clear, hard,brittle ansd resisitant to acid and base. It is a rather
poor barrier to oxygen and water vapor. Polystyrene is used electrically and electronic material
and office equipment.
 SAN (styrene-acrylonitrile)
This plastic is optically transparent and is used to produce the material
,electric equipment, auto parts.
 ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) The property of this plastis is similar polystyrene but it
is more resistant-chemical,more sticky,transparent . It is used to produce bowl and tray.
 Polyvinylchloride: PVC It is a rather poor barrier to oxygen and water vapor but can prevent
lipid. It is transparent that is used to produce oil bottle, alcohol bottle such as vine beer ,plastic
packaging to wrap butter, laminated inner-layer of plastic pack.
 Nylon. This plastic is very stocky,excenllent heat-resistant. It is used to produce Laminate sheet
for food plastic packaging vacuum.
 Terylene: polyethylene terephthalate This plastic is very stivky, transparent, expensive price.
It is used to produce film layer to packing food.

Polycarbonate: PC. This plastic is tansparent,rigid,strong and impact-resistant,exellent heatresistant,acid-resistant but not base-resistant,has a mark, hard to handle. It is usually used to
produce cup,palte, baby bottle and bottle that can contain child food.
The physical of thermoplastic
218
Thermosetting plastic. This plastic is a special property that Thermoset materials are generally
stronger than thermoplastic and materials are also better suited to high-temperature applications up to the
decomposition temperature.However, they are more brittle. Since their shape is permanent, they tend not
to be recyclable as a source for newly made plastic but if tempyrature is high,it will decompose and be
burned to be black ashes.It is very strong molecular chains reaction due to this three dimensional
network of bonds (cross-linking).This implies that thermosets cannot be recycled that means cross linking
among polymer chains.Uncontrolled reheating of the material results in reaching the decomposition
temperature before the melting point is obtained. Therefore, a thermoset material cannot be melted. The
process for creating a shape of thermoplastic need a high temperature and the pressure power. There are
many types of thermoplastic that are.
Melamine formaldehyde. Melamine’s property is pressure-resistant about 7,000-135,00 pound: square
inch, compression-resisitant about 25,000-50,000 pound: square inch, crash against-resistant about 0.250.35, changed temperature and heat-resistant 140 celcuis and exellent chemical-resistant, hard to have
stain or spot.Typically used in tablewares (trays,bowls,paltes,spoons,etc.) and also have simple and
pattern on the tablewares. The bad thing of melamine is poor to barrier acetic acid that can make a spot or
dark,but it is not dangerous because of not reaction with plastic.

phenol-formaldehyde. This plastic is solvent-resistant in sodium solution and
oil ,but it may swell because of water or alcohol in this plastic that is used to produce bottle cap
or pot.

epoxy. This plastic is a wide range of applications, including metal coatings, use
in electronics/electrical omponents,high ension electrical insulators, fiber-reinforced
plastic materials,structural adhesives, used in rigid foam components and a component of colour
glass.

polyeste. This polymer has a ester group (-O“CO- ). In subunit of polymer is
wide range of applications such as plastic coating,bottle,fiber,file and rubber. Example polymer
of this type as polyethylene terephthalate , polyethylene terephthalate and some liquid crystal
polymer.
219

urethane. Its common name of urethane is Ethyl carbamate. The molecular formular is
Type of plastic
Category
of plastic
Polyethylene
thermoplastic
Polypropylene
thermoplastic
Polystyrene
thermoplastic
Polyvinylchloride
thermoplastic
Nylon
thermoplastic
Some properties
Example of applications
The figure Reamark
during
burning
Blue flame and No mark when Bag,wares ,photofilmt,toy,
yellow edge, scarthing by nail, plastic flower
bad scent like insoluble
in
parafin, not solution,floating in
turn off light water
by itself
Blue flame and No mark when Table,chair,rope,carpet,
yellow
scarthing by nail , table wares,auto car
edge,white unbroken
smoke, scent
as parafin
Yellow flame, Brittle, soluble in Foam,electrical
muvh soot, carbonthetrachoride, equipment,lens,sport
csent as a fuel floating in water equipment, cell phone
gas
gadget
Hard
to Flexible like a Wall
paper,chemical
falmable,
rubber. Floating in wares,shoe,flagstone.elactric
yellow flame, water
insulator, PVC pipe
greem edge,
white smoke
Blue flame and Sticky,flexible,
Clothing,lady
yellow edge, unbroken and sunk stocking,carpet,net
scent
as
flammable
animal hornเ
220
Polyureformaldehyde Thermosetplastic Hard
to Be cracked and sunk Plug, engineer material
falmable, soft
yellow
flame,bluegreen edge,
scet as a
amnonia
Eproxy
thermosetplastic Easy
to Insoluble in water Glue,colour and edible
flamable,
and hydrocarbon coatings
yellow flame, solution
drak smoke,
thermoplastic
Hard
to Flexible
Textile fibers
falmable
,yellow flame,
bad smell
Polyester
Thermosetplastic Hard
to Rigid or brittle, Chassis, Chassis ships
falmable
sticky
,yellow flame,
bad smell

polyurethane . Polymer is consist of urethane group (”NH“CO“O-) that is
prepared by reaction between ตdi-isocyanates and อล(diols) or triols in suitable. This polymer is
used to be a glue,waxing oil,plastic and rubber. Its short name is PU.
221
The physical of thermosetting plastic
Plastic recycle
is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastic and reprocessing the material into useful
products. Sometimes completely different in form of their original state. The used material in industrial
sector bring to reuse such as paper,glass,mirror,alumenium and plastic. The recycle is one of the method
to reduce the quantity of waste, environment pollution, using the energy and to prevent used natural
resource in the world.
222
Plastic in group 1 is PETE. Its symbols is 1.The plastic is
widely lucent,strong,sticky, good barrier for gas passing,
melting point at 250-260 celcius,density 1.38-1.39 and
typically used a wares such as drinking bottle,soy sauce
bottle, oil bottle.
Plastic in group 2 is HDPE.Its symbols is 2. This plastic is
high density,soft,flexible, not easy to brittle,melting point
at 130 celcius,the density 0.95-0.92, widely used sanitary
wares such as shampoo bottle, milk bottle,heat-plastic bag.
Plastic in group 3 is PVC.Its symbols is 3.This plastic is
typically rigid and soft. It can be applied in many ways, is
colourful,melting point at 75-90 celcius and is widely used,
as PVC pipe,rubber tube, food film-packing.
Plastic in group 4 is LDPE. Its symbols is 4. This is a low
density, softer than, HDPE,sticky, be spread , mostly
lucent,meltingpoint at 110 celcius,density 0.92-0.94 and
used food film-packing and film packing.
Plastic in group 5 is pp.Its symbols is 5. This plastic is
commonly low density,rigid,sticky, stability, heat and
chemical resistant, melting point at 160-170 celcius,density
0.90-0.91, widely used tablewares such as heat-lucent
pack,plate,bowl and some equipment.
Plastic in group 6 is PS.Its symbols is 6. This plastic is
rigid and brittle, used to make foam,melting point at 70-115
celcius , density 0.90-0.91 , widely used wares such as icecream box, foam bow.
Plastic in group 7 is the other plastic. In addition, group 6
found in varites of from
223
The process of recycle is 4 steps
1. Gathering
2. Classfication of their resin type
3. Production and developement
4. Applications in the process of production and development. Different type of waste plastic is in
different process of recycle ; bottle, clour of glass, types of plastic or paper. Most plastics are sorted
according to their resin type.
At the present, plastics are wastefully used from people. In each year, Thailand has more and
more of the quantity of waste plastic that is the environment pollution in the world. The research and
development try to create the plastic that can be composed in natural (Biodedradable) ,but some plastics
cann’t decompose by biological. In practical, the method for eliminated waste plastic is burn and bury the
waste that is the cause of environment problem. The best way for environment conservation is reduction
in terms of the guanity of using plastic and reuse somr types of platic by recycle production. The palastic
industry in USA(The Society of Plastics Industry ; SPI) indicate the recycling symbols within the plastic
product.
2.2.2 Rubber and natural rubber
Natural rubber is consists of suitablepolymers of the organic compound that is liquid,
lucent, like a milk, its property is colloid,small molecule and dissolution medium is water.วัรด์ ์
The origin of natural rubber
Rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from certain trees. This tree is called Para
rubber tree or Para rubber. The Para rubber tree is indigenous to around amazon-river ,Brazil and Peru. In
South America, Native American is Maya tribe, they know to apply para rubber before B.E 2000 by
droping their foot in latex for making a shoe and other types also apply para-rubber by making rainy
barrier, water bottle ฟand plastic ballาuntil Christopher Columbus is a explorer to reach the Americas in
B.E.2036-2039 and found the native population on Hiti island who is playing a para rubber ball. This
situation is surprise for the explorers and the ball is called gost-ball by the exlorers.
224
The latex froms para tree
Later, in B.E. 2279,the france scientist ,his name is Charles Merie de la Condamine), is credited with
introducing name of rubber , following native word of Mila tribe, that is ‚Caoutchouc‛. That means the
crying tree and a liquid; it is obscured, white and like a milk, that reach out from para tree when tree is
silted, is called ‚latex‛ . In B.E. 2369, Faraday reported that natural rubber is a mixture compound of
carbon and hydrogen. The empirical formular is C5H8 and The improved natural rubber’s property is due
to extensively in many applications and products.
Production of natural rubber
Today, South east asia is the main source of natural rubber, accounting for about 90% of output,
and the second is Central Africa. The strain of para tree in south east asia is Hevea brasiliensis. The latex ,is
from para tree, is called field latex. The field latex is small circle that spread in emulsion, white luquid and is a
colloid state. The field latex has a quantity of small rigid about 30-40 % , pH 6.5-7 , density about 0.975-0.980
gram per milliliter,viscous 12-15 centipoint. The combination of latex is divided to 2 parts
1. Concentrated latex 35%
2. Non concentrated latex 65%
2.1 water 55%
2.2 lutroid 10%
Field is harvested by the tapping will be liquid not over than 6 hours. The surfaces of the Latex
particles are charged from bacteria in the air by eating some nutrient such as protein glucose phopholipid.
The bacteria in latex will fastly grow,after decomposition has occured by launching
carbondioxide,methane that create a bad scent and rotten. Because of having acid,pH will decrease. The
225
quality of latex is decrease while latex is changing the figure,which creates forces of repulsion between
them that keep them from coagulating. Finally, the latex is separated to 2 parts that are concentrated latex
part and serum part. An anticoagulant is a substance that prevents coagulation (clotting) of latex to
remain a liquid state. For example of an anticoagulant is ammonia, Sodium sulfite and formaldehyde น
[1]
แอมโมเนียด์ด์
The pattern of rubber for apply is 2 pattern that are concentrated latex and dried latex. The water
in concentrated latex is spilted out for latex that is more comcentration by Centrifuge. The preparation of
dried latex is addition of acitic acid. The acitic acid help latex coagulant after that the layer of latex will
be apart between latex amd water. The water is spilted out by roller. The main method for dryness of latex
is Ribbed smoked latex and Crepe latex. Because the latex is from different source, we have to classify
the latex layer by purefied standard. พ
The pattern of natural rubber.
There is many kind of natural rubber depend on the physical
- Latexง
o field latexด
o concentrated latexน
 Air dried sheet rubberง : It is produced from natural rubber latex as ribbed sheets, by coagulation
with acids and sheeting, properly air dried and roasted without smoky , and visually graded.
 Ribbed smoked sheet rubber
พ
Crepe rubber
 Block rubber : Before B.E. 2508, the natural rubber is produced in terms of Air dried sheet rubber
ม Ribbed smoked sheet rubber and latex. These rubber is not identification about the standard of
rubber. Normally,the measurement is considered by eye-sight. In 2508, Rubber Research Institute
of Malaysia is the first institution to produce in terms of block rubber. The improvement and
development of standard of rubber is suitable for their applications. Block rubber is the first type
of rubber that is controled standard and quality identification.
 Constant Viscosity Rubbeที่ : This rubber is used for plastic product that its viscosity is controlled
by process of production such as plastic pipe industry, glue industry.
226

Skim rubber : Skim rubber is produced from reaction with skim latex by acid. Later, the rubber is
in the process of ribbed structure and smoked in smokehouses. The skim latex is field latex ,that
is not apply to be concentrated latex, that is adjusted by Centrifuge process. Centrifuge separate
latex plot, is ligther than water, form water. The latex plot is mostly comcentrated latex that have
dry rubber content about 60-63. The skim latex is residual from Centrifuge that still have a dry
contrnt rubber about 3-6.นด
The combination of natural latex and other polymers
The natural rubber is a rubber that is sighificant property of the sticking together, a good figure and lower
accumulated heat , etc. but it has some of the property as a negative, so the weakness that can be made by
selecting it from the good property the other synthetic rubber, such as the porperty of the durable rubber
to rub ,the attributes, (BR), the treasure of resistance to heat and ozone ,EPDM.
The mix of synthetic rubber is not a anode situation, like the natural rubber, the rubber compound will be
the same phase, such as BR, SBR, EPDM and NBR (low Acrylonitrile) which means that the property has
direct effect on the rubber compound, it is as follows: viscosity of rubber. The natural rubber it must be
crushing to reduce the lag in the beginning of the mix, as the synthetic rubber or similar which will make
the two mixed together.
The vulcanization reactionof rubber that is used in vulcanization have the same or different is not much
to prevent the separate phases of Mixed rubber while the rubber is being mixed.The connector is in the
case of rubber, rubber compound to a different power connector should be considered more of a spread of
chemicals in each type of rubber. Especially in,stimulator substance and receiver substance , because
these substances are likely to be spread over the well in the rubber, which is a connector. As a result,
thecompound substance has a lower property treasure as it should be if the distribution of the chemicals
are not as it should be.
227
Synthetic rubber. The synthetic latexs has been produced since 1940. The reason for production
in the past is that the natural latex is not enough for production of weapon and the problem in
transporation during world war two till. At the present, the development of synthetic latexs production is
suitable for their applications for example, the condition is oil-resistant,heat-resistant,cool-resistant. The
application of synthetic latexs is 2 types. ติ 2
 Commodity rubbers such as IR (Isoprene Rubber) BR (Butadiene Rubber)
 Specialty rubbers such as usability in the situation as high or low temperature, rubber touch oil
silicone, Acrylate rubber.
The production of synthetic rubber is operated byนpolymerization that is the reaction between
polymer ,as the synthetic rubber and monomer ,as reactan. พนร์รร์ ร์ ์
Type of Synthetic rubber
1. Butyl Rubber,(IIR) : Butyl rubber is produced by polymerization of about 98%
of isobutylenewith about 2% of isoprene. To conserve notable property of isobutylene, butyl Rubber has a
little quantity of isoprene (about 0.5-3 molepercentage) for measurement of vacalnised by sulphur.
Because of non double bond for reaction in isobutylene, butyl Rubber is slowly process of measurement by
vacalnised that cause the problem about imbalanced ripe with other rubber. butyl Rubber is molecule
weight about 300,000-500,000, the range of viscosity (ML1+4 100°C) at 40-70 and widely molecular
diffusion that is easy to transform butyl Rubber. Butyl rubber has excellent oxidation resistannce, ozone
resistannce,,vapor pressure resistannce ans electrical resistant. However, butyl rubber is good barrier for
gas passing that is typically used in inner tube of vechical rubber.
2. Butadiene Rubber (BR) or Buna Rubber : Butadiene Rubber is the product of นsolution
polymerization that can rearrang in terms of cis-1,4 tran-1,4 and vinyl-1,2 . The molecular weight is
aboutล250,000-300,000. Its notablr peoperty is flexibility at low tempurature , starch-resistance,
elasticity, low heat in the rubber and no electrode that can resist oil or non electrode-solvent. Butadiene
Rubber is widely applied for tyre, its property is sarcastic resistance, and inner layer of golf ball and foot ball,
its property is exellent spring.
3. Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR) or rubber SBR : The synthetic rubbers is derived
from styrene and butadiene by emulsion polymerization. It is called E-SBR and if the rubber is derived by
solution polymerization that calls L-SBR. The ratio of styrene and butadiene is rangr about 23-40%.
228
4. Silicone Rubber : This synthetic rubber is specific purpose and expensive price. Silicon
rubber is compose of containing silicon (Si) together with oxygen (O2) n and hydrocarbon group that is
different from other polymers. Silicon rubber is resistant to extreme environments and temperatures from
300°C but poor resistant to pulled power because of the large gap between molecule.
5. Chloroprene Rubber(CR) or Neoprene Rubber : The synthetic rubber is from a monomer of
chloroprene in suitable condition. The molecular CR is compeletly arrangement. Its property like a natural
rubber that resistant to heat, chemicals and oil. CR has a electrode because its components is atomic
chloroprene. The example of CR is seal rubber and Conveyor Belt.
2.2.3 Natural fiber and synthetic fiber
Fibers are one of the type of polmer that its molecular physical used as a yarn. They are
classified by theirs origin. s
Type of fiber
 Natural fiber. The fiber is widely known
Cellulose as lignin,jute,dietary fiber.
Protein fiber is from wood as wool, mohair
Silk fiber as silkworm silk
 Synthetic fiber is many types. The type is widely used
Cellulose Acetate is cellulose that cellulose reacts with concentrated acitic acid with sulfuric
acid that stimulates reaction. Cellulose is used to produce arnail 60 fiber and plastic sheets for
coatingcable,component of switchboard.
Nylon is a polymer known generically as aliphatic polyamides. There are many types of
niron such as nylon6,6 nylon6,10 nylon6 . The number is behind the name that show amount of
carbon in monomer of amine and carboxylic acid. Nylon is thermoplastic that is stronger that
addition polymer (peptide bond is strong), hard to flammation( nylon has abond C-H in
moleculas is less than the other type polymer. Nylon is tested by mixture of Sodalite (NaOH +
Ca(OH) or ammonium is a product when it is burned.
Dacron. The synthetic fiber is a type of polyester or may call Mylar. Mylar is used for rope
and film Orlon. The synthetic fiber is prepared by Polycrylonitrile
229
2.2.4 The effect of using polymer
In recently, polymer is used to many trems of application as motor vechicles,construction,
fureniture, equipment, toy also medical and trend to use more and more of polymer. The material,gadget
or equipment that is produced form polymer ,as fiber rubber or plastic. These polymer things hardly
decompose and release more pollution. All reactant (starting-substancea) of polymer is hydrocarbon
substance that reacts with oxygen and nitrogrnoxide which will produce Peroxyacetic Nitrate (PAN).
PAN is a toxic that can irritate the eye , against breath system and reduce hydrogen in atmosphere.
According to the problems, polymer is a many advantages but it is a cause of environmental pollution
;like as air pollution,water pollution and soil pollution.
1. For industrys for polymer production, the process of polymer production will release smoky
and carbondioxide that is toxic gas. In addition, hydrocarbon can make oxyaceticnitrate compound that
diffuse in the air. That’s why the atmosphere and temperature also change. Not only the air pollution the
,polymer production can occur the water pollution by release waste thing into the water such as plastic
industry release PCB-polychlorinated biphenyls that is cause of alopecia,scall,be tired and some
substance be melted in water that reduce oxgrn in the water. It is dangerous for living life in water.
2. Consumer use polymer product. As we know that polymer product is hard for decomposition
Because the quantity of polymer product is increase, the waste plastic is also increase. The waste plastic is
eliminated by pile up that will produce air pollution. The less area is useful and bad quality of soil that is
a soil pollution. Finally, the waste plastic may be a cause of over flood because waste plastic pile up at
the way of river flow.
The polymer product is made from plastic. After using plastic in some duration,the plastic will be a
plastic waste. Some plastic waste is reused in any pattern and some plastic waste is eliminate by any
method. Sanitary landfill closures is a method for elimination the waste that is a convenient way but it
damage the environtment. Because plastic is hard to decompose,it still sunk in soil. And if plastc is burned
,it will produce toxic and pollution. Therefor,the best way to resolve the waste plastic problem is a reuse
the plastic. There are many method for reusing the plastic.
1. Reusing palstic product
The used plastic product ; as we can make it clean to use plastic product in again but its quality
and the beauty or pattern will decline because we have to consider for the sanitary and safety.
2. New remanufactured products
230
The procedure of making used or unwanted products in into new remanufactured products
which is populas method. In the other hand, compare with the quantity of total waste palstis product, it’s
just only a few proportion of all. Remanufactured products has a limit because the product is not applied
in many time. The recycling process is relative with quality of the product. It means that the quality of
renew plastic is less than the new plastic.
3. Change a liquid to be a gas
The process of change plastic waste to be a liquid and gas that means hydrocarbon in gas or liquid
or mixture of hydrocarbon as a fuel. Moreover, hydrocarbon is changed to be a fundamental substance for
resin production by condensation. The process of change plastic waste to be a liquid that is called
Liquefaction. Liquefaction is pylorysis method by usig high temperature or nitrogen or inert gas. Not only
liquid but also carbon residue is the product of this process. Carbon residue is a solid and used to be a
fuel. Hydrocarbon and hydrogencoride gas is also used to a fuel that they are from the process of
liquefaction
4. Using plastic polymer as a fuel
Most of the plastic polymer is flammable. The substance is good for a fuel.
5.
Components of the materials
Plastic is combined with the other material for getting a new useful compound material such as
synthetic wood, synthetic marble but its quality is not high.
231
Activiety
Activiety1 Population and natural resource
Main idea
Growth of population is a cause of reduction of natural resource espeacially in forest
Expected learning outcome
1. Survey and discuss the environment change in local.
2. Search data and present amount of population in local.
Time for avtiviety about
2 hour
Instructional media
1. video or CD-ROM resource utilization such as oil usage
2. picture at local in present and past
3. population data and statistic of oil utilization in past and present
Activity course
1 .
1. Teacher introduce the lessen by the picture of Yaowarat Road in past and present time in
Bangkok. Students see this picture to consider the population and natural utilization problem
compare with in past and present time suh as How about people use oil ?
2. Students have to discuss how and what it is different ?, what is the cause ? . Consideration
together with data of oil utilization and population in Thailand.
3. Students watch the video topic ‚ natural resource utilization ‚ Discussion and answer the
question to conclude the increase of population has affected decrease of natural resource because people
desire to use natural resource ,such as oil as s fuel for travel or other activities etc.
Evaluation
Evaluation form discussion. Record the activity and answer the question
232
Recorded activity paper
Recorded activity paper
Name..........................................................................................Class..........................No.......................
Date..................... .Month........................................................ Year...........................
population and oil utilization
Yaowarat Road in yaer 2495
Yaowarat Road in present
From observation found
that..................................................................................................................................
กิจกรรมที่ 2 ขยะกับคุณภาพสิ่งแวดล้อม
................................................................................................................................................................................
แนวความคิดหลัก
................................................................................................................................................................................
ปัญหาขยะมูลฝอยเป็นปัญหาสิ่งแวดล้อมที่มนุษย์ทุกคนต้องช่วยกันดูแลรักษาสิ่งแวดล้อม
...............................................................................................................................................................................
ขยะมูลฝอยมีหลายประเภท ทั้งประเภทที่ย่อยสลายได้ตามธรรมชาติและย่อยสลายได้อยาก รีไซเคิลเป็น
................................................................................................................................................................................
การนาเอาวัสดุที่ใช้แล้วกลับไปเข้ากระบวนการผลิตใหม่ ได้วัสดุให ม่ที่สามารถนาไปใช้เป็นประโยชน์
................................................................................................................................................................................
ต่อไป
...............................................................................................................................................................................
ผลการเรียนรู้ที่คาดหวัง
................................................................................................................................................................................
1. สารวจและอภิปรายเกี่ยวกับสาเหตุที่ทาให้โรงเรียนมีปริมาณขยะมากหรือน้อย
................................................................................................................................................................................
2. วิเคราะห์ข้อมูลและอภิปรายเกี่ยวกับเวลาในการย่อยสลายแต่ละชนิด
3. ทากระดาษรีไซเคิลเพื่อลดปริมาณขยะในชุมชน
233
Time for activiety about
4 hours
Instructional media
1. used paper or newspaper
2. juice spinner
3. sieve
4. basin
5. food colours
6. tapioca flour
Activity course
1. Teacher has discussed with students about the waste in daily day bring to the waste in
community problem
2. Teacher take student to survey waste in community about 1 week and gather data of quantity
,type,etc.
3. Student show the data by chart.
4. Student analyze data about duration of waste decomposition. Discussion and answer the
question to conclude the main point that there are many types of waste in environment. Waste can
decompose and can’t decompose by itself.
5. Student have to be conscious the problem. Student produce recycle paper by learn the process of
production and create the pattern of paper by theirself.
234
Recorded activity paper
Recorded activity paper Recorded activity paper
paper 1
Name..........................................................................................Class..........................No......................
Date......................Month........................................................Year...........................
Survey the waste in community
Record the observation of waste in community
Observation area
Residential
Market
Temple
School
Public park
Etc.
The waste
235
Recorded activity paper
Recorded activity paper 2
Name..........................................................................................Class..........................No......................
Date.....................Month........................................................Year...........................
Recycle paper
Process
1. Tear the paper in small size and drop in water till paper is soft.
2. Pour the paper to basin that have food colur within.
3. Shake a sieve to make surface of paper is balance.
4. Take a sieve to expose to the sun.
5. Remove paper out of a sieve.
6. Paper is ready to apply.
material – tool
1. sieve
2. basin
3. food colour
4. ued paper
5. ....................
6. ....................
Attach recycle paper is here
236
Exercise chapter 10
Topic petroleum and polymer
section 1 Marh the cross x on the correct choice
1. What name is we call the method that is the separation of a mixture into fraction ?
2.
3.
4.
5.
a. Steam distillation
b. Fractional distillation
c. Catalytic cracking distillation
d. Polymerization
What is the product form refination of crude oil at high temperature.
a. Diesel
b. Wax
c. Fuel oil
d. Asphalt
What is the factor that influence the quantity of product by fractional distillation ?
a. The process of fractional distillation
b. Tempurature
c. The source of crude oil
d. Transporation
What is the product form Oil refinery ?
a. Fuel oil
b. Wax
c. Diesel
d. Petroluem gas
What is a cause of the impact of petroleum utilization ?
a. Population growth.
b. High tempurature
c. Expensice cost
d. a.-c. are correct
237
6. The BOD is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed of Ministry of Industry. What is the standard unit
of BOD ?
a. 10
mg/l
b. 50
mg/l
c. 100
mg/l
d. 500
mg/l
7. Which one is the natural polymer ?
a. Basket
b. Strach
c. Yarn
d. Nylon fabbric
8. What polymer has a property, density and melting point ?
a. Linear polymer
b. Branch polymer
c. Network polymer
d. all choices are correct.
9. Melamine is a component of boel or cup. Which is the physical form of melamine ?
a. Linear polymer
b. Branch polymer
c. Network polymer
d. all choices are correct.
10. What is type of plastic to produce photo film and plastic flower ?
a. Nylon
b. Epoxy
c. Polyester
d. Polyethylene
238
section 2 Answer the question
1.Explanation the origin and process of petroleum.
2. Geological survey to find the petroleum source,the data from survey can help to predict ….?
3.Geophysical survey to find the petroleum source,how the data from survey is useful ?
4. What is the important component for plastic production ? and Which reaction produce the
important components ?
5. How many types of the physical from of polymer? and explain the property in each type.
239
Chapter 11
Chemicals for the life and the environment
Subject matter
Daily life of a human being to survive, there is a happy, healthy body must complete
The change will come to obstacle the happiness of human beings is a chemical in the body so it is
important to have knowledge of the impact of the use of chemicals.
Expected learning outcome
1. Be able to explain the importance and the need to use chemicals.
2. Be able to explain how to use certain types of chemicals.
3. Be able to explain the impact of the use of chemicals.
Content
Topic 1 The importance of the substances of life and the environment
Topic 2 The need to use chemicals
Topic 3 The correct and safe use of chemicals
Topic 4 The impact of the use of chemicals
240
Topic 1 The importance of the substances of life and the environment
Environment
Environment is everything around the human life, and that there is no life as well as a concrete
(and can be held to be visible) and abstraction (for example, cultural traditions,belief), there is a strong
influence of factors related to the impact of these factors to help each other to be a part of the build or
destroy that it is not avoid. Environmental cycle is a circuit and the associated system-wide.
The environment is divided into 2 sections wide that are
 Environmental occur naturally as Mountain, Forest, land, resources such as water, air
 Environment as a human being created such as urban area,community arts and culture folklore
Human beings with the environment
Human relations are closely linked to the environment in the past issue of the balance of nature in
the house is not very significant, because the people who live in the era of the early years under the
influence of the changes in the natural environment, and it is to gradually so that nature can be adjusted in
the vision of the balance of their own, but now it appears that there have been serious problems with the
environment, in some parts of the world and the problem is that there are similar in all countries,
developed and developing.
 The problem of water pollution.
 The problem of natural resources and deterioration over the exhaustion quickly minerals such as
oil plants animals and the conservation of food, and to the study.
 The problem of the settlement of the community such as urban planning, and human community
is not valid, the use of wrong type of resource can be the problem and the rest of the rubbish
disposal.
Matter
matter is the something that it want to address, and mass can get a feel for or may be defined as
the things around human. It may be visible or invisible, such as air,ground,water.
Substance
The substances is a substance that we know its property or substances that will learn a specific
substance
241
Property of substance
Property of substance is the characteristics of the substances such as mass, color, smell and flavor
of electric ,water soluble , boiling point melting point , acid - bass
Substances of category is 2 that is identified
 Physical property
the physical properties are the property of the exterior or use simple tools to observe. It is not
related to chemical reactions, such as colour,smell, flavor, boiling point ,status, figure looks ,crystal
density, conductivity, solubility and melting point.
 Chemical property
Chemical property is associated with the structure within the substance is a property of the notice
when there is a chemical reaction, such as the acid- bass, rust in metl and the metal- nonmetal
Topic 2 The need to use chemicals
The substance in daily life
In everyday life we have to be concerned with many kinds of substances that are different
substances that can be used in everyday life. Chemical composition of each type has many propertys
which are used and many different. Therefore,we need to identify what type of substances for your
convenience in the study and the use
Category of substance in daily life
 Food Additives
Food additives are the substances that fill in the food to be eaten, they will go to add color and
flavor to the smell of the food as well as the vitamins and spices, add seasoning powder
 Sugar is sweet , fish sauce, salt are salty flavor
 Vinegar, lemon juice, sour tomato sauce is sour flavor
The example of food additives
Vinegar
Vinegar is a chemical used to make cooking meals that are sour
Pure vinegar is from the fermented grain or fruit are both types of refining and refining does not.
242
Artificial vinegar is from the acid vinegar mixed water to make diluted
Counterfeit vinegar is made from sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid that are diluted with water, it should
not be used as seasoning food eaten, because it would be harmful to the human body, the stomach is a
woundใ
Consideration to buy vinegar
To Learn the label Common Name ,trade mark registration, number food ,trade mark trade
manufacturers, wholesale distributors ,Net Amount of product. To notice the expiration date, there is no
precipitation and bottle cap bottle of vinegar is not erosion.
Seasoning powder
Seasoning powder is called in a chemical name that Monosodium Glutamate gourmet
(Monosodium glutamate) or minimize that MSG. It is a white crystalline sticks like the bones, is made
from cassava or molasses. In general,people believe that make delicious food and also has a counterfeit
MSG. MSG counterfeit sale in the market, will be a danger to their health, so should be carefully selected
The physical of seasoning powder
“ A white crystalline is quite clear, there is no flame.
“ It is not simply a hexagon Color bars at one side of the small figure like a bludgeon
“ It is not simply a hexagon Color bars of both sides, but the large neck bone shape in the middle.
MSG is dissolved in the water. It is also helps dissolve fat, is blended into the water has boiled
water tastes like meat. It can stimulate the nerve root end made to feel my tongue and throat and delicious.
 Cleaning chemical substance
Cleaning chemical substance is a feature in the flushes dirt used to maintain good condition of
your body. It also allows to use in cloth or fabric and the toilet is in good condition with the endurance.
The dangerous from using cleaning chemical substance
 From the use of substance,or the offense is not valid for any purpose such as detergent, rinse the
pork.
 From the touching,the skin of the air is a paroxysm of pain
experience to be irritated or burned to be offended.
 From eating, It is cause of pain on neck , in hot oral, in sound
box,digestive system, esophagus to froth at the mouth, Vomiting,
Diarrhea, stool take a blood and blood pressure down quickly.
243
Liver and kidney have been destroyed and death eventually.
 If you breathe white smoke concentrations of acid to cause gagging, the burning nose may be a
wound, to disintegrate in respiratory mucous membranes, snoring destroy the smell.
 If the chemical substance destroys conjunctiva. In the case,where the eyes are substances that
may have a high concentration of blind violence.
 Chemical cosmetics
Cosmetics means an object that is intended to apply rub,sprinkle, spray or any other way to act
with any part of the body to clean the beautiful or promote the beautiful throughout lotion or cream. But it
does not include a device body jewelry and ornaments, as well as an external object and the ingredients in
the cosmetics, particularly in the production
The danger of cosmetics
Cosmetics may be harmful to the user of a red rash inflammation as tablets, moles or less
irritation to the skin and mucous membrane, some cause diarrhea, severe inflammation or wound
corruption. Before you buy cosmetics, cosmetics should be selected through a review of the food and
Drug Administration (อย.) and test before use, or do not fit with their own cause allergic reactions or
infection?
 The use of medicine
Substances are used as medicine, substances or products means that there is a purpose in order to
use the possible physiological effects of changes in the body or cause a change of the movement of
pathology which cause disease. The purpose is the benefit for the person who get a drug.
The substances that are useful in a drug that should be used with a
large main 3 reasons:
1. Take advantage of the treatment to recover
2. Take advantage of the control the disease, or to alleviate
3. Take advantage of the prevention of disease
244
In addition, there are benefits in the diagnosis such as heightened pregnancy test by using the AIS
to be well-versed (Estrogens) and the operational test of the system to control the flow of hormones,
brain, and South erythematous, using multi-core, and futsal (Cortisol).
caution in the use
A drug is also advantage and disadvantage that this is a penalty. If you know how to use it, you
will be useful, but if you are using is not valid. It will become bad or harmful to the human body through
the use of advanced died. It must be used with care and use as much as necessary.
 Chemicals used in agriculture
Chemicals used in agriculture means that chemicals used to look forward to this opportunity to
increase the agricultural product or to get rid insect pests that are divided into 2 categories: Chemicals
used to increase productivity and the use of chemical pest that controls pests
 Chemicals used to increase productivity
Chemicals are used in the production that is any material. We put into the earth in any way by the
material elements are necessary for food crops that can be used to make vegetable. We call it "fertilizer".
 Chemicals used to chemical pest
The use of chemical pest control pests means any chemical or mixture of substances that prevent,
eliminate or destroy pests.
The dangerous of pesticide
 It is a danger to the user if the user lacks the careful or if you are using is not be how
 The environmental is imbalance because the chemical is free distribution or accumulation in the
air in the soil residues in water.
 Make your body work improperly, if you have the accumulated chemicals in the body and may
be too much to death.
245
Type of substances used in daily life.
Divided according to the capabilities of the acid - bass
A substance is acid
This type of chemical ,is sour, reacts with zinc ,metal, such as chemical reaction with limestone
and lime are examples of this type of vinegar, tamarind juice ,carbonated water washing-up liquid
substances. A substance’s property is acid that test with litmus paper ,it will change from blue to red.
A substance is base
This type of substance is tartly. When it is used for rubbing the palm rest to feel slippery hands
,react with animal fat or vegetable oil. The reaction will produce a substance that is a type of soap, an
example of this type of soap types such as lime, caustic soda ash, water baking powder .When you take
possession of a base test with litmus paper,it will change from red to blue.
A substance is medium
There are many this type of property and when it has been tested with litmus paper ,it will be no
change in the substance of this category such as saline water, syrup.
Indicator of aid-base
Indicator is a substance that is used to test the acid - base of organic solvents that is a property
which is mostly a light acid which has a color change when the acid - base of solvents or change settings
to pH (positive potential of the hydrogen ions) of NaOH solution. We use the change of the color settings
pH said formation of indicator. The indicator should be known is litmus paper, Phenol Nathalie solution
and universal indicator.(Indicator is produced from juice that is from red flowers and purple flowers such
as the butterfly pea flowers and tiny vermiform appendix, purple flowers and stray jasmines flower's
finger, red, etc. ).
Litmus paper
Change the Color litmus paper from blue to red,but does not change the red terminal property as
a acid.
Change Color litmus paper from red to blue, but blue does not change property feat as a base.
The two-color litmus paper is not a feature of a change. A substance is medium.
246
Phenol Miss Nathalie.
 Phenol Miss Nathalie Change the colour from to be purple, the solution is base.
 Phenol Miss Nathalie Miss Nathalie is clear, color is not a substance that may be acid or
medium.
Universal indicator
- pH is less than 7 the solution as a acid
pH is more than 7 the solution as a base
- pH is equal 7 the solution as a nutral
Caution in the acid solution
An acid is a substance that is toxic to humans and animals because of the corrosion of brass, so
that if you use abrasive acid in daily life, you must be used carefully, especially the packaging container
injects a brass, acid such as vinegar, lemon juice, tamarind juice should be used as a container. The
container should be used as a glass or ceramic tiles,it should not be used as a metal or plastic container.
The acid effect on the environment, when we use the solution for washing the floor or WC, and do not let
into the water source, in addition acid solution can destroy a limestone floors. Therefore, if you want to
use the acid solution, you must read instructions to understand before you use them.
Caution in the base solution
The property of base solution is a corrision. When base contact with the skin will make the skin
inflammation, a paroxysm of pain and peel , so you should be careful to touch the base.From the base
experience is by observing that any part of your body will feel like a silky , you should quickly clear out
with clean water and then rinse it out with vinegar and rinse it with clean water again.
How to find the pH substances in daily life.
The acid-bass solution make a litmus paper to change color. It is also possible to change the color
of the universal indicator ,and the color of the fluid is from different parts of the plant such as a flower,
etc. What used to be a check to identify the acid-base of solution or base solution that is called ‚ Indicator
‛. There is a formation of the acid-base that is used to identify how much value pH. The value pH is a
247
property which is equal to 7, if the value is lower than 7 pH,it will be more acid.If the value of the acid
pH is higher than 7,it will be more a base.
The example the results of the tests some solution by any indicator
Example of solution The results
Litmus paper
1. lemon juice
From red to blue
Water juice from Water juice from Water juice from
purple cabbage
butterfly
pea rose
flowers
Change from red blue
Change from red
2. Detergent & From red to blue
water.
Change from blue
blue
blue
3. vinegar
From red to blue
Change to be red
Change to be red
-
4 . dishwashing From red to blue
liquid
From blue to red
5. antacid
Change to be blue
Change to be blue
Change to be red
Change to be blue
Change to be blue
Change to be red
6. baking powder From red to blue
Change from blue
blue
blue
7. ashes- water
Change from blue
blue
blue
From red to blue
248
Colour of the universal indicator
red
red
red
red
pink
orange yellowเ
greenเ
0
1
2
3
4
5
7
6
Green- Blue
blueเ
8
9
Blue- purple purple purple purple
purple
10
11
12
13
14
medium
base
acid
pH1
pH3
pH6
pH8
pH10
pH13
The example pH of solution and colour of universal indicator pH 0-14
Topic 3 The correct and safe use of chemicals
When we use the substances. We need to learn and understand how to use substances, by
following the instruction.
1. Read the label to understand before you take advantage of the substance.
2. Use substance in properly by following the recommended
3. Use substances in quantities as necessary
4. After substance is depleted. Container must be disposed of properly.
Some types of substances that we use. It is a hazardous substance and a substance that would be
very good condition as long as it be. For example pesticide, when the farmers spray the product that will
have a pesticide residues on the product and the area which has an effect on the animals and the
environment.
Therefore, the use of substances, especially of toxic, it must know how to use it carefully for not
to cause danger to us and any negative effects on the environment around us.
249
Topic 4 The impact of the use of chemicals
The waste is harmful to the environment.
Leave is the rest of the consumption or degradation of things that human is not to be used as well
as the following, and then we called the " waste ". Some of wastes are not toxic much to human beings
and the environment like the paper, as well as leftovers from resident but some of them are harmful to the
lives of human beings and other animals as well as environment. The
waste need to be stored or disposed in properly, to be careful to go by
academic principles. Because waste may be harmful to human health
and the environment. Especially, when there is the contamination or
accumulated in the "food chain" that is a cause or result in the illness,
acute or chronic which will make disability, or death. We call this kind
of waste, "waste of the dangerous "and in somecase of waste,its nature
is a various types of danger.
The hazardous waste, there is a danger of any manner of one or more
characteristics as well as following.
1. Waste is a toxic substances or additives or a component such as toxic substances are
components of mercury, lead, cadmium, etc.
2. Waste is a free of flammable substances or components of flammable substances or flammable
substances which may cause a fire. If you keep it near the fire or when there are very high temperature.
3. Waste is base, which can be corrosive acid or alkali material, as well as tissues of human body
or animal.
4. When waste reacts with the other substances such as water will cause a toxic gas or smoke.
When waste get hot in limited are, may be a risk of explosion.
5. Waste is a type of radioactive substances or radioactive particulates.
6. When the waste is wet,it release dust that will release harmful substances mentioned
7. Waste have a germs contact among them
250
Cosmetic and medicine are expire
The impact of the harmful to the environment
The management of hazardous waste, are not careful or not properly which is a problem that has
affected human health and the environment, is 4 points
1. Make a risk factor for cancer. The touch of or related to a hazardous waste which contains
toxic substances may cause a cancer, especially when they have been a long time, such as the breath in the
air that has a toxic, dioxins gasoline benzene formaldehyde into or to eat food or water contaminated with
the toxic chemicals.
2. Make a risk factor for the disease. To get some chemicals or heavy metal into your body
may cause illness as a disease, it may be worthy of diseases such as the brain or the central nervous
system or a disease that is causing the failure of the body. The examples of diseases caused by the
management of hazardous waste is not correct, such as Minamata disease , which are the result of
mercury, and Itai Itai disease, which are the result of allergic disease, cadmium, and lead poisoning.
3. To make the impact on ecosystem. Heavy metal or chemical additives, which is in the
dangerous waste. Not only harmful to human beings, it is also harmful to other living beings, including
plants and animals that can to be illness or death as well. If they obtain large quantities is not enough to
cause symptoms, it may affect the structure of chromosomes that genetic change. In addition, the
accumulation of toxic substances in plants or animals, will pass through the food chain and at last may be
harmful to human who consumes plants and animals.
4. To cause damage to property and society. Such as fire damage,corrosion of the materials,the
decadence of environmental impact indirectly social problem.
251
The factory is on fire and hazardous substances are spread out.
How is hazardous substances harmful to human and the environment.?
The waste of harmful substances or additives substance may be harmful to human health and the
environment in many way.
1. By directly contact. If less concentrated acid or base spill to the skin,it cause a skin irritation,
but if there is a more intense of acid,it may cause skin burns or tissue has been destroyed until blistered
wound. In addition, the use of toxic without devices to protect such as masks and glove,may be the
substance absorbing into the skin and Eating these substances directly that is a very dangerous and will
occur a severe acute respiratory syndrome. So be careful not to touch the body or food waste container
should not be touch waste and don’t use the container has ever used to contain the toxic because it may
have a fraction of harmful substances and left some part of toxic food.
2. The accumulation in the food chain. By the accumulation in the food chain, plants and
animals will eat or take any hazardous substances that have accumulated in the soil or in food. The
substance is accumulated in different parts of the plant and animal. Due to hazardous substances break
down slowly,the body of the plant and animal have more a concentration of substance. When humans eati
plants or animals,they also get a hazardous substances that will be accumulated in the human body and
cause illness infinally.
3. The source of contaminated water used in the consumer goods and consumption. The
waste is buried by incorrect method that may cause a wastewater that will leak through the ground floor to
the groundwater source.Moreover, the waste is on the ground that may cause the rain brought with it a
flow of hazardous materials, contamination of the river canals. So, when we bring water soil or water that
is contaminated with a hazardous waste to consumption. We are able to get any hazardous substance.
4. By the particulates in the air. Some of the harmful substances will be volatile and release
any substanc or be blown away as a dust that is mixed in the air that we breathe. In addition, the burning
252
of hazardous waste without any regulation. It may cause harmful substances are mixed in the air in the
form of the dust or chemical.
5. Explosion or fire. There is a way out of the store flammable or flammable substances in
different places will have to be careful to measure highly flammable or explosive, especially if the storage
temperature is higher than the flash point of the waste. In addition, to bring the different types of
chemical reactions and mixed together,there may be severe enough to cause the explosion, and it was
dangerous to life and property.
When chemical products is fired that will become a waste. It is dangerous.
The health effects of chemicals
Chemical factors that affect the health of people. According to the study of Dr. Helen Marphy
Toxicology , who is professor from project Community IPM FAO from Indonesia found that the major
factors is a risk of human health.
1. Farmers use chemicals that the Organization WHO classified in the group 1a and 1B is the
more toxic (Extremely toxic) and the highest toxic (Very Highly toxic).This is the cause of the high risk
of illness for farmers who use toxic substances, particularly the two groups.
2. The combination of various chemical spray at once. This is a cause of the high-intensity
modified structure of chemicals. Medical treatment is not able to maintain patient illness because there is
no direct cure for patients with a high probability death.
3. the frequency of spraying pesticides.Which means the amount of time that farmers spray.When
spraying chemicals, it is more an opportunity to experience by number of times. The person who is
spraying the chemical will accumulate the toxic into the body.
4. Touching the body of the man who spraying chemical.The skin area is the widest in the body,
if the user does not have to prevent, or wet clothes,especially hands and legs that is a high risk. Because
chemical protection, and pesticides are made to destroy insects by penetration or absorbed into the skin of
253
insects as well as to insects to eat, and then its eyes.Therefore, the human skin is softer than insect skin
and easy to absorb into the sweat glands, in addition to breathe in through the nose spray directly. There
are a lot of vulnerable more than insect
5. Behavior in the chemical storage and container destroy is not valid. Make dangerous to live in,
especially the kids, and pets
Activity 1
Topic acid-base solution
Explanation 1. Students record the results of the sample selected solution that is 5 types in the experiments
2. Student summary the result of the experiment from sample solution that it is acid or basse
and what is the cause ?
3. Student answer the question from the pH of substance in daily life
Table record
pH value
The change of colour litmus
Red
Blue
Lemon juice
Vinegar
Ashes-water
Dentifrice solution
Wash toilet
Soap water
Water
Carbonated
beverage(non color)
To conclude the results of experiment from activity
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
Question
1. The each substances in daily life has values pH?
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
254
2. Which substance is base and acid ? and How are we know ?
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
3. Is there a way to test the acid-base of water source in the community? If you want to know
acid-base in water is much or not,how is student test ?
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
.
4. Students think that the study of this activity can be used in everyday life?
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
255
Activity 2
Topic The measurement Sodiummetabisulfite in MSG
Tool
1. Seasoning powder
2. water
3. glass
4. lime
5. Vinegar
6. Spoon
The pocess of operation
Preparation water lime mixed with acetic acid
Use lime is about a half tablespoon and Dissloved lime in vinegar about 7 table spoon
, Stirring about 2-3 minute and then. Leave dregs to the bottom and pour only water at top
that is ‚water lime mixed with acetic acid.‛
Prepration for experiment
1. Bring seasoning powder about 1 teaspoon and dissolve in water about a half of
glass
2. Putting " water lime mixed with acetic acid‛ about 1 teaspoon
(If the seasoning powder is a real,there is no dregs but if the seasoning powder
addition with Sodium Meta phosphate, there is a dregs.)
Record the results
Example of seasoning powder The change when water lime mixed with acetic
acid
seasoning powder 1
seasoning powder 2
256
Conclusion the result from experiment
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
Sodium Meta phosphate
Sodium Meta phosphate It is an octagon crystal bars long, like MSG, but there is a very
clear and simple. If you consume Sodium Meta phosphate , and then take the symptoms will be severe.
257
Exercises. 11
Topic Chemicals for the life and the environment
Explanation Student choose only one of the correct answer
1.
What is not related to chemicals used in everyday life.?
a. Fish sause
b. Teeth paste
c. Powdered detergent,
d. No correct choice
2. What is the tool to test of acid - bass using of chemicals ?
a. filter paper
b. Litmus paper
c. Iodine solution
d. Hydrochloric solution
3. We can use plants for detergent substance. Which is not detergent substance from plants?
a. Kaffir lime
b. lemon
c. Coconut
d. Wet tamarind
4. To survey material that is comsist of the chemicals used in everyday life. found that there is a quality
assurance. How can we know ?
a. Brand
b. Place of production
258
c. The component of goods or consumption.
d. Food and Drug Administration registration marks
5. Which is a yellow that is from a natural color ?
a. Yanang Leaf
b. Turmeric
c. Roselle
d. Butterfly Pea
6. Pod learns any of chemical substance. The concludtion and observation is recorded in the table.
Type
Solution
1
2
3
4
5
Lemon juice
Ashs-water
Soap water
Hydrocholic solution
Water
Litmus paper
Blue
Color change
No color change
No color change
Color change
No color change
Litmus paper
Red
No color change
Color change
Color change
No color change
No color change
From data in the table. Which choice is correct ?
a. Lemon juice ,ashs-water and soap water are chemical that is acid.
b. Ashs-water ,Soap water are chemical that is acid.
c. Lemon juice , Hydrocholic solution are chemical that is acid.
d. Lemon juice , Hydrocholic solution are chemical that is base.
259
7. What is the Thai Industrial Standards of Industry Organization ?
a.
c.
b.
d.
8. Which choice is the effect from chemical substance ?
a. Contaminated water soirce that used in consumer good and consumption.
b. The risk of cancer decieas.
c. The harmful for property and community
d. All choices are correct.
260
Chapter 12
Force and Motion
Topic 1 Force and Law of Motion
1. Definition of force
Force refers to any actions upon the object which results in changes such as acceleration,
deceleration, static or change in direction.
Force is a vector quantity (both magnitude and direction, Newton).
2. Linear motion is a motion in one direction such as a fruit falls down from a tree.
Motion is a change in object position and it is related to distance and displacement.
- Distance is the velocity of the entire path of motion, staring from the starting point to the
ending point. It is a scalar quantity.
- Displacement is the final distance from the starting point to the ending point with the length
equal to that from the starting point to the final ending point. It is a vector quantity.
Speed and Velocity
As a car is moving, we will see the speed moving. This means the car is moving with increasing
speed. If we consider the moving direction, we can see the car moving with increasing velocity also.
However, the velocity of the car is not moving with constant speed. It is moving from slow to fast or fast
to slow. So, it is common to tell in average speed.
Speed
or
=
V
Distance
Time
S
T
261
For linear motion, distance and displacement are equal. But the displacement must have
direction and it is a vector quantity. So, a displacement in a unit of time is velocity and its unit is m/s.
For the velocity of a moving car, the velocity will constantly change. So, it is common to tell a car’s
velocity in average velocity.
Velocity
=
Displacement
Time
Example.
A car is moving for 840 meters in 60 seconds. What are its average speed and
average velocity?
Solution. 1. Find speed
Speed (V) =
Distance (S)
Time
=
840
60
= 14 m/s
Speed
= 14 m/s
2. Find velocity
Velocity
Velocity
=
Displacement
Time
=
840
60
= 14 m/se
= 14 m/s
262
Acceleration is a change in velocity per a time unit or a change in time unit, meter per second
square (m/s2). However, speed has a change which means a change in its magnitude or direction or both.
So, it is common to say in average acceleration.
Average acceleration
=
change in velocity ” initial velocity
Time
When u = initial velocity (at t1)
v = final velocity (at t2)
SO,

a=
acceleration
 
 v u
a
t
In linear motion with constant velocity, the acceleration in a falling object has gravitational force
equal to 9.8 m/s2. Its acceleration has opposite direction to its initial one, it has negative value and called
deceleration.
Example. When a ball is vertically thrown with initial velocity of 4.9 m/s, how long does it take
to move to its maximum point?
Solution.
Given
Substitute
 
 v u
a
t
2 
9.8m / s , v  0m / s, u   4.9 m / s, t  ?
0   4.9 4.9

t
t
4.9 1
t

9.8 2
9.8 
So, it takes about ½ second.
Answer
Topic 2 The relationship between force and projectile motion in magnetic field
Field Force
Field force refers to any objects placed and causes reaction force. The magnitude of the force
depends on field size and object position. In this topic, we will discuss three field forces; projectile field
force, magnetic field force and electric field force.
263
Projectile field force means the area around the earth giving reaction force to the area. When an
object is vertically dropped to the earth surface, its velocity will constantly increase. This means constant
acceleration from gravitational force. Due to orange-like earth with uneven surface, the gravitational
force will be slightly changed at different fields. However, the average gravitational force is 9.8
newton/kilogram (N/Kg).
The gravitational force will continuously decrease when an object moves up. The moving of an
object solely considers gravitational force. An object usually moves with average gravitational force of
9.8 meter/second2 (m/s2). The gravitational force can be considered in two ways.
1.
When an object is freely thrown (free ball) with gravitational force of 9.8 m/s2. This means
an object’s velocity will increase at 9.8 m/s2
Given
u = initial velocity (m/s)
v = final velocity (m/s)
t = time changed (second)
v=0
maximum point
Formula: v = u+gt
u
t=0
Electric line force
1.
Positive charge
264
2.
Negative charge
3.
Two positive charges with same magnitudes
4.
Positive and negative charges with same magnitudes
5.
Positive charge in conductive field
Interaction of electric forces
Coulomb concludes that ‚force between two electric charges is directly proportional with the
product of two electric charges and it is inversely proportional with the square of the distance between
these two electric charges.‛ It can be written in the formula as
F = K.Q1.Q2
r2
265
When F
= The force between charges, Newton (N)
Q1 Q2
= Two charge magnitudes, Coulomb (C)
r
= The distance between two charges, Meter (M)
K
= Constant value = 9 x 102 Newton (Meter)2 ( Nm2 )
(Coulomb)2
c2
Conclusion
Same charges will cause repulsive forces
Different charges will cause attractive forces
Both charges have complementary force with same magnitudes but different forces.
1.
2.
3.
Reaction force in electric field
1. The direction of force from positive charge will move in the same direction as the electric
field force
2. The direction of force from negative charge will move in the opposite direction as the electric
field force
3. To make electron to proton move perpendicularly to the electric field, both particles’ moving
directions will divert from the original one in opposite direction as shown below
266
The result of the diverting of electrons in the electric field and cathode can produce oscilloscopes
and ultrasound device monitors.
Magnetic field is the area surrounding magnetic bars. The magnetic bars can attract any objects
which are made of metal, nickel and cobalt. Magnetic field consists of spread lines on the magnetic field,
called magnetic field lines.
The direction of the tangent line to the electric field is the direction of the electric field at the
specific point and it is specified as magnetic field line. It is a curve diverting away from the north pole of
the magnetic bar to the south pole.
The magnetic field line expression
The force from the magnetic bar is a curve from one pole to the other pole. It is called magnetic
field line. It can be seen by star dust or compass.
- In case of using stardust, it can occur by placing a star dust on the table with a hard paper on it.
Then the paper is cracked. Finally, it will appear in curve.
Each curve is called magnetic line.
The picture showing magnetic field.
267
Conclusion
1. The magnetic curve is a curve from one pole to the other.
2. The magnetic curve is highly dense at the magnetic pole.
3. The magnetic line of different poles will be complemented.
4. The magnetic line of the same poles will be diverted in different direction.
- In case of using compass, the magnetic bar will be placed on the paper and write on the paper
around the magnetic bar with black pencil to show the position of the bar and write N and S to show the
magnetic poles. Then the magnetic needles are moved to the end of the north pole of the compass. The
dots will be lined in curve from the north pole to the other pole to finally make a magnetic field line. After
repetition, the magnetic field will be out from the north pole to the south one.
The properties of electric field lines
1.
The magnetic field line is out from the north pole to the south pole.
2.
Each magnetic field line does not intersect each other.
3.
The magnetic field lines from different magnetic bars are complemented in the same pattern. The
magnetic field lines of the same poles are not complemented but they will be away in different
direction.
4.
The magnetic field line can travel through any nonmagnetic bars. However, if the bars are
magnetic ones, the magnetic will put some force on the object bar.
The motion of electric charges in magnetic field
1.
When the electric charges move in electric field, reaction force on electric charges will create the
diversion due to the reaction force of electric field. The electric charges will move in circular
motion which show that the direction of force is perpendicular to velocity and electric charges.
2.
When the electric field changes the direction, the diversion direction of electrons will also diverted
due to change in magnetic force.
Given X represents magnetic field with the in-direction perpendicular to the paper
268
· represents magnetic field with the out-direction perpendicular to the paper
e represents negative-charged electron
p represents positive-charged electron
3. . An area with many magnetic field has these following motions
Clockwise-circular motion
Counterclockwise-circular motion
Counterclockwise-circular motion
269
Clockwise-circular motion
Benefits of magnetic field
The knowledge on the diversion of electrode in magnetic field is valuable for television due to
three components:
1. Electron gun : cathode movement, produces electrons
2. Diversion glass : produces magnetic field to divert electron movement to clean the screen
with high velocity
3. LEC screen : coated with neon particles to let the electrons reflect on the surface and create
pictures. So, watching televisions too closely is dangerous for eyes due to rays.
Picture on Black-white television
The results on magnetic field on the movement of electric conductors
When the electric current moves on the electric conductors on the magnetic field, there will be a
change and the direction of the magnetic force depends on the direction of electric current and magnetic
field. This principle is used to invent electric motors and other electric appliances such as electric motors
that can be changed from electric energy to mechanic energy such as electric fans, dryers etc.
270
Linear motion, Displacement and Acceleration
Linear motion refers to a motion that does not change direction such as the movement of a fruit
falling from the movement of a train on a railway or a runner on a track etc. The quantities involved in
linear motion are as follows;
Motion is a change in position of an object to another.
Distance is the length of the entire path from the initial point to the end point.
Displacement is the distance ended from the initial point to the end point with the same length as
the length from the initial point to the end point.
Velocity is a displacement within a period of time, represented as

s
 
t

Average velocity is written as vav, representing the displacement in the measured time. It is
written as:

 av

s x 2  x1


t
t 2  t1
271
Example A car is moving with the velocity of 20 m/s to the north. How long does it take to travel for 50
meters?

 s
ν
t
Formula
Solution
Given
v = 20 m/s s = 500 m
t=?
500
t
500
t 
20
Substitute
20 
= 25
It takes 25 seconds to travel.
Example A bird is flying with the velocity of 45 m/s to the west for 5 seconds. How long does it fly in
total?

 s
ν
t
Solution
Given

v
= 45 m/s t = 15 s
substitute

s=

s
45 
5

s=
?
45 × 5
= 225
The bird will fly for 225 meters.
Speed is the distance that an object travels in a period of time, written as
V
s
t
Average speed is a change in direction within a period of time, written as Vav
Vav 
s x2  x1
=
t 2  t1
t
272
Example A swimmer is swimming with the average speed of o.5 m/s for 5 minutes. How far does he
swim?
v=
Solution
Given v = 0.5 m/s t = 5 minutes = 5 x 60 = 300 s
substitute
o.5 =
S = 0.5 x 300
= 150 m
He can swim for 150 m.
Acceleration is a change of an object in a unit of time. Written as a. It has three types as follows;
1. The change in magnitude of an object’s velocity
2. The change in direction of an object’s velocity
3. The change in both magnitude and direction
Average acceleration is the ratio between the change in velocity and the time, written as
Example Find the average acceleration of an airplane at the stopping point at time = 0 and leaves the
runway after 28 seconds passes by. The airplane has the velocity of 246 km/h.

a av
Solution
Given
=

v
t
2461000
= 70 m/s
60  60
t  t 2  t1  28  0  28 seconds
v  246  0  246Km / h 
Substitute
70

aav 
28
= 2.5 m/s2
Answer Average acceleration of the airplane is 2.5 m/s2.
273
Example A car is moving at the velocity of 90 km/h from a starting point by using 45 seconds. Find the
average acceleration of the car.

a av
Solution
Given
Substitute

v
t
=
v  v2  v1  90  0  90Km / h 
90 1000
 25m / s
60  60
90

aav 
25
18
=
5
= 3.6 m/s2
Answer Average acceleration of the car is 3.6 m/s2.
Vertical motion is a movement upon gravitational force. The object will fall at constant speed or
with constant acceleration and it is called gravitational acceleration, g (9.8 m/s2) and always has vertical
direction. This is a standard value. However, g = 10 m/s2 may be used in calculation.
Other motions
Projectile motion or curve motion
Projectile motion is a 2-D movement; that is it has both horizontal and vertical movements at the
same time. The pattern of the motion is parabolic. The horizontal speed is usually constant as it has no
force in the horizontal direction. The speed in vertical direction is changed due to the acceleration due to
gravitational force. The examples of projection motion in daily lives are throwing the cement of the
workers, throwing fruits of the vendors, playing basketball, playing tennis, putting the weights, throwing
objects etc.
vx
Vb
Vb is moving with the initial velocity of v with
From the diagram, it can be concluded that the object
vx
θ angle to the horizontal direction. We can write its horizontal and vertical velocities as follows;
Vb
274
Velocity in vertical direction
vy = v sinθ
Velocity in horizontal direction vx = v cosθ
To calculate in projectile motion, it is the same as calculating in linear motion. (Given) t = 0
vy = usinθ.
If any t, vy = u sinθ± gt
The velocity in horizontal direction will be constant as it does not have acceleration.
Sx =vxt
Example Placing a barrel on a 4-meter floor with the gun is 4 meters away from the target. After fired,
how high does it travel?
Solution Find time in horizontal direction
Sx =vxt
4 = 4×t
t = 1 second
The time taken is equal to the time that the object vertically falls on the floor is 1 second and the
gun barrel can travel for 4-h meters. (h is the height that the gun barrel is above the ground)
From
1 2
gt
2
1
1
6  h   9.8  1
2
1
6  h   9.8  1
2
sq 
6  4.9  h
h  1.1
meter
Answer The gun barrel is 1.1 meter above the ground.
The horizontal distance of projectile
Motion in horizontal direction
S x  u x t  u cost
275
y
X y  u sin
x
u x  u cos
Motion in vertical direction
Given the sign of upward direction is +
The sign of downward direction is ”
The vertical motion comes from
½ gt2
Sy = u sin
The maximum height when the horizontal velocity is 0;
U sin
= gt
Find the largest distance
From the picture, when it reaches the maximum height, the
horizontal velocity is 0. So, s
t1 is the time that an object reaches the maximum
height. It takes half of the total
276
From
Regarding to 1 and 2, then the equation should be
or
So, the maximum value of s is occurred when sin2  reaches maximum. The maximum is 1.
The maximum distance =
u2
g
The angle making the maximum distance is
sin 2  1sin 90
2  90
  45
The angle making the maximum distance is q  45
Example A kid is throwing a rock with the maximum distance of 40 meters. Find the time of the
maximum projectile g  10m / s 2 
Solution This kid must throw the rock at 45 degree.
The maximum distance
=
40
=
u2
10
u2
=
400
u2
g
277
u
From
=
20 m/s
s y  ucos t
40  20cos45 1
20 1 t
40 
2
40
t  2
20
 2 2 seconds
Answer t is the time the projectile motion completes. The time of the maximum projectile is
2√2From h = (u sin ) t - ½ gt2
= 20 x 1 x 2√2 - ½ x 10 x (√2)2
= 40 ” 10
= 30 meters
The maximum projectile is 30 meters.
Circular motion
For circular motion, the velocity will move towards center so its reaction force will be
perpendicular to the velocity and the direction of the force is moving to the center.
Assume that object m is moving in circular motion. The reaction force will
move towards that direction and it is called centripetal force.
In circular motion, the force needs to be proportional to the object to make it
move in circular motion with a specified radius and a specified acceleration.
Centripetal acceleration
Centripetal
force
When r is the radius
The motion a car on curve road
278
As the car is moving in curve direction, the centripetal force can make to car move in curve and
this force is called friction. The acceleration will move to the center and perpendicular to the speed of the
car. The acceleration occurs from the friction between wheels.
The inclined plan
To make the car move to the curve direction with increasing
speed, inclined planes can help the car in this situation which make to
force move to the center.
The motion of any objects has special property; that is the
object will move back and forth with one-round motion called period
(second) and the number of rounds used in the motion is frequency (round/second or hertz).
The relationship between f and t is
f = 1 or T = 1
T
F
The unit is round per second or hertz.
Simple Harmonic Motion
It is a motion that moves back and forth to the old loop without losing in energy. The
important point is that the acceleration has opposite direction to the displacement such as the ball at the
end of the spring, the pendulum or swing.
The time to move one round is called period (second).
The pendulum swing depends on the rope length and acceleration as the gravitational force
279
when t = period
L = rope length
g = the accerelation
Example A simple harmonic motion of a knot from A to B takes 0.5 seconds. What is its period?
From the picture, the knot is moving from A to B with the distance of ¼
of 1 round which takes 0.5 seconds.
In 1 round, it takes 0.5 x 4 (2 seconds). So, the
period is 2 seconds.
Answer.
280
Chapter 13
Space technology
Subject matter
Aerospace is a thing that is very far from human, but this is a important thing for the survival of
humanity. Human have to study aerospace by applying space technology.
Expected learning outcome
1. Be able to describe the meaning, the importance and the origin of space technology.
2. Be able to explain and identify the category of space technology.
3. Be able to explain the benefits of space technology.
4. Be able to describe space technology project at the present.
Content
Topic 1 The meaning, the importance and the origin of space technology.
Topic 2 The category of space technology.
Topic 3 The advantage of application of space technology.
Topic 4 The space technology project at the present.
281
Topic 1 The meaning, the importance and the origin of space technology
 The meaning of space technology
Space technology means that human take a knowledge by surveying the things that are outside
of our world and survey the earth to take advantage with the human together with virtue of knowledge
about science, space, astronomy and engineering. In another word, space technology means that the
technology is made up for exploring space with the purpose of each user such as the purpose of Apollo
project is to survey the moon, the purpose of Skylab is how to survival in the space for a long time by
research and experiment about natural resource, medical and physic and the purpose of Apollo-Soyuz is
for establishing and testing space-based rescue techniques, logistics involved in carrying out joint space
operations and refined spending about transpiration in space craft.
 The importance of space technology
Human have been trying to learn about the universe, and space by research projects explore. The
space exploration project in many countries have both direct and indirect benefits of technology. Hence,
technological advances in the space have a variety of benefits, such as communication, transportation,
meteorology, explore the population in the world and agricultural.
 The origin of space technology
In the past of the 14 - 15 century, a new era of the land survey, of course; exploration for a new
lands have to travel along the route that has never been a trip to go before such as a trip in the sea at that
time. The explorer must relys on stars in the directions and time because there is no map and the situation
in the ocean is very harmful for human when they have to live for a longtime. There is no freshwater
sources, is the storm of violence and is no food storage that only take from the earth. It should be noted
that the survey is a something that is difficult. In many ways, the exploration may require to exchange
with your lives, but the exploration is a spirit of humanity and we will not be able to come to this. If you
are not able to pass through the various challenges that we need to develop technology and knowledge.
The sea is not what is currently a very challenging, except the survey under the bottom of the
ocean and the excitement of a new challenge now comes from space exploration. When a telescope is
created for looking the objects in the sky,it begins for explore space projects. The Union of Soviet
Socialist Republics initially sent aircraft Sputnik 1 up to orbit around the world, in later, the U.S. has
also sent satellite up to space. It begins the competition in the space, with the organization. Naas is a
repudiated organization of the United States.The head office is located in Washington, D.C. and Nasa has
many projects for the space exploration.
282
To explore space that is not fun, there is a cruel nature which is not friendly to man. There is no such
thing protect human beings from space radiation and meteors. There is no air to breathe, no pressure to
push a liquid within the body and a gravity-less or not at all.
The gravity is a major factor in the body system for example, the growth of the bones in
the human Space Station and everything on a spaceship during its orbit around the world, the bodu will
have no weight (weight equal to 0), it is called weightlessness in zero gravity condition.Your body and
all the organs of the human evolution under gravity of the world when you are in a zero gravity condition,
you will have an impact organs such as heart working less because they do not have to exert much blood
pumped into the body,small muscles because it does not have to exert any pressure , the bone’s density is
more reduced because they do not have to use force to uphold the body so, astronauts need to exercise
regularly to keep all of the vital organs.However, space is the last land of the human challenge that will be
required to research and development to create technology to explore.The first living thing traveling to
space is a dog, its name is Laika, by Sputnik 2 and astronauts, is one of the world's first utility,is Yuri
Alekseyevich Gagarin up to space with Vostok-1by Soviet Socialist Republics.In USA, the first astronaut
orbiting around the world is John the Glen ,the first woman astronauts in the world, forms Soviet Socialist
Republics,is Valentina Tereshkova who travals with Vostok aircraft and A spaceship traveling to the
moon is of the United States,Neil Armstrong is the first one to walk on the moon to go on aircraft,Apollo
11. Astronauts must be trained to be accustomed to the movement under the acceleration because they
must be moving in under the acceleration of the aircraft to escape the gravity of the world that will pull
them down to the ground.
283
Topic 2 The category of space technology
Currently,space technology has been over developed when compared with the days prior. The
development of space technology will get a new knowledge. The organization that is most in the
development of the space technology,is NASA.This is the organization of the U.S.A.
NASA has a lot of projects to survey for the research and education about the stars and
astronomical observation.We take advantage of the space technology for communications,which made the
communication in today's fast development,for survey of natural resources that can show how about
world has changed?and for the weather forecast to be ready for any situations that may occur.We were
able to classify the category of space technology as following
2.1 Satellite
Satellite has been sent to orbit around the world with countless time. These benefits are as
follows:
2.1.1.1.1 Communucation satellite
There are many advantages of the communications satellite. Firstly,the communications satellite
is used for a communications within and between countries, Satellite of any country is always a high level
of approximately 36,000 km above the country. A satellite communications is satellite that hold the sky
and is probably the one in the sky of any country. This is a convenint way for receive the signals from the
satellites.At present, there are communication satellite between countries of the INTELSAT company
that send the INTELSAT Satellite up over the Indian Ocean,the one is over the Pacific Ocean and the one
is over the Atlantic Ocean. Human is able to communicate between countries worldwide all this time 24
hours. Several countries have satellite communications within their own country, for example
Country
Thailand
Indonesia
Hongkong
Canada
Austrial
USA
Japan
France
Satellite’name
Thaicom
Palapa
Asiasat
Anik
Aussat
Westar
Sakura
Yuri
284
THAICOM is a first communication satellite of Thailand,designed by the Hughes Aircraff. United States
sent communication satellite into space by space vehicle,‛ Ariane‛ that is space vehicle of European
Space Agency in French Guiana.Thaicom satellite stay up over longitude at 7 degrees north and
longitude at 78.5 degrees east. The benefits of Thaicom satellite is to allow communication across the
country in about a telephone call,broadcast television, fax, phone without require to rent Palapa
satellite,Indonesia. The Satellite ground station sends a signal to the satellite at Rattanatibet road, province
Nonthaburi.
Communucation satellite , act as a repeater , send signal to The Satellite ground station which
send and receive the signal.The transmitter use the frequency,microwave signal from The Satellite ground
station that will send.up signal or "Up Link" and the dish receiver on the satellite will be received video,
audio, and data and bring all datas to expand for the strength of the signal. After that, we'll send it back
down to the ground station
At present, Thailand has a national communications satellite that is THAICOM which is
operated by Shin Satellite Public Company Limited that have 3 communications satellite.
1. THAICOM 1A is sended to orbits when December17, 2536
2. THAICOM 2 is sended to orbits when October7, 2537
3. THAICOM 3 is sended to orbits when April 16, 2540
2.1.1.2 Meteorological satellite
 Meteorology satellite can send the photo information and signals to the ground, you can
monitor the characteristics of the cloud that cover the world's, formation and movement
of the storm, the measurement the level of clouds,the radiation, the temperature in
atmosphere ans on the ground. These data, which will be imported to analyze by
Meteorologis for weather reports and weather forecast.
 Meteorology satellite has been sent to their orbits in space for the first time when April 1
, 2503 with the name is TIROS 01 (Television and Infrared Observational Satel ite), in
the United States.
We can divide meteorology satellite according to the manner of its orbit around the world, Satellite can
be divided into 2 categories:
285
 Geostationary satellite
This type of satellite orbits around the world , as far as it takes 24 hours from the time . Their orbits will
be in central of the equator of the world and will go to their orbits in the same way, its orbit around the
world, with its own speed as each other.
Therefore, the situation of satellite will be associated with the same area in the world that is always covers
an area from North Pole to South pole and its orbit is high from the earth approximately 35,800 km
 Polar orbiting satellites
Meteorology satellite orbits around the world and its orbit will be this type of satellite near north pole
and South pole. The high from the earth is about 850 km and its orbit around the world with
approximately 102 minutes per 1 cycles. In one day, the satellite will orbit around the world about 14
times and moves through the equator in original time (Local time) through the same 2 times.Its orbit will
be moving from the north pole to the south pole 1 times, and its orbit moves from South pole to the North
Pole again 1 times to. This satellite will take a picture and sends a signal data to The satellite ground
station in real time , while it orbit through the area that will be covering the width 2,700 km
2.1.2 Natural Resources Satellite
Thailand has been involved with the satellite project of the NASA organization,in September
2514 and has established the ground station ,which is a first station that is able to receive signals from the
discover resources satellite almost all of its orbit now. As we live the world that has limited area and
limited resources. Some resources can be created and it was a replacement, but many resouces are not
able to be replaced.
According the growth of population in the world , there is a need to use resources in order to be
alive, therefore, we have to plan to use natural resources in efficiency and appropriately by using the
satellite for a survey. and a good performance by using satellite survey to help. To create a tool about
astronomy to help in astronomical observation that begins to develope for a longtime. Most of the
tool,that used by Hipparchus, Ptolemaic and Tycho Brahe who developes the tool inlater, used on the
scale divided into equation for measuring the direction of celestial objects blue such as Tycho Brahe
create the tool that is called sextant and quadrant. This is a tool that can be used to observe and find out
which star rating. The structure is consist of two long arms made by wood. It is used by stretching one
arm roate in each other, may be made at an angle, and the another arm is the equation for finding the star
rated fixed and roll away on the curves of the circle on the scale that be divided into a corner.The scale
will show a detail and correct solution. This tool is for measurement of the height of the edge of the star
286
from heaven or angular distance between two stars.
At present,there are several survey natural satellites resources.
 Spot : Centre National de Etudes Spatials ” CNES associate with EU country.
 Landsat : NASA is a owner. After NASA take it to EOSAT company in USA , that is a
private organization for commercial operation.
 MOS-I : National Space Development Agency of Japan
2.2 Spacecraft
A spacecraft is a vehicle that is used for exploring the moon and the planets. The project create a
spaceship, in the United States and Russia has created a spaceship to explore the moon and planets in the
solar system.
 Spacecraft means that aircraft go out of the world with a man , tools and equipment for
survey or it may not be a man, but only a scientific tools and equipment.
 Space mean that the space area is outside world or outside space stars, so it is a space
between the moon and earth.
Human beings have insporation and enthusiasm in the discover of new knowledge from the land
for a long time after man invent the rocket.This is a great inspiration to send a spaceship to go along with
a rocket for explore a large space. In current, the progress in the space technology has increased.We can
divide into categories of space exploration into two major types: space exploration is a spaccraft that has
no human control on aircraft and space exploration by a spaceship that has a human control. The
spacecraft has 2 type that are human spaceflight and robotic spacecraft .
 Robotic spacecraft : Most explore the moon, the sun ,planets and deep space between
planets. The project explore the moon that are:
1. Ranger project : Designed to aircraft crash into the moon
2. Luna project : assigned to aircraft to take a picture around the moon.
3. Surveyor project : designed to be gently park on the floor.
 Human spaceflight : USA is a ower. There is many projects that are
1. Mercury project. This project intend to sent human to orbit in space, for human go to space
at a time but the project has come to an end, and then go down.
287
2. Gemini : The purpose of this project is that two man lives in space as long as possible,
practice to joint with the other aircraft, impore that process of the aircraft downing to the floor, and
look for the impact of weightlessness, but this project has ceased.
3. Apollo : The purpose of this project is to take a man to explore the moon by 3
astronauts at a time. This is a project of the queue from Gemini and Mercury.The first astronaut group
has stopped at the moon that travek with Apollp -11. The Apollo project is succeed in its goal , only one
of the Apollo-13 accident while heading to the moon. Apollo-17 is the last spacecraft in this project.
4. Skylab : The purpose is to make men go up to the sky station for research and
experiments as long as. The project is a study of natural resources, medical ,physic and the impact on nongravity condition.
5.Apollo- Soyu : Tpurpose is to test the meeting system and connate aerospace. The project is
from the United States and Soviet.
2.3 Space Shuttle
 Space shuttle project
To send a spaceship to go to planets in the solar system requires knowledge of the orbits in the
gravity field.We must carefully plan a travel plant. Due to sending the aircraft orbit or landing on a planet
that is not the straightforward wayr from the rest of the world to the planet, but will need to rely on the
movement of their orbits around the sun. In some cases, we have to rely on the planet to change
trajectory,for going to the destination so that you can travel to a destination far away without the need to
fuel consumption of the engine
288
To understand the basics of centrifugal force to change trajectory,we will show a example of the
movement of aircraft.Space transportation system is a program that has been designed to be able to bring
some of the used parts to reuse, for the most cost-effective and efficient.It is consists of 3 parts that are
solid fuel rocket,externa fuel tanks (store liquid
hydrogen and liquid oxygen), and aerospace
transportation system. The aerosapace transportation
system has a total weight when leaveing for a base
about 2,041,200 kg. Solid fuel will be driven by a
missile from the base that bring a system into space
with the speed that much faster than escape velocity.
When it comes at some level, the fuel rocket , that is
both sides, separate out from the system, then the external fuel tanks will be separate from a spaceship and
the aerospace go to the orbit for the mission. In the picture
The performance of the functions for a variety of space transportation system. From the
experiments in Science (in weightless state), to send the satellite, space telescope ,to send man to Space
Station on a spaceship, and so on, it has been designed for people who have been carrying about 7 - 10
and people can operate a mission since a few hours or it may take up to 1 months.The major projects of
the United States is as follows:
1. Pioneer project
2. Mariner project
3. Viking project
4. Voyager project
5. Pioneer-Vinus project
6. Galileo project
At present, it is known as the Challenger project and Colombia project have losses and
serious when both aircraft explosion while in the sky.The space transportation system space of Challenger
is explosion on January 28 , 2529 during your trip into space is not just a few minutes away. Because of
leakage of gas at the high-temperature from fuel rocket on the right side of the aircraft, the hightemperature gas spread to the external fuel tanks containing liquid hydrogen combustion that occur
flammation and explosion.The explosion took the lives of 7 astronauts. The transport system NASA
Columbia explosion when February 1 , 2546 (17 years after the explosion of the Challenger aircraft).Nasa
engineer believe that it may be because the aircraft has a long life and may cause the heat-resistant
289
enclosure is damaged aircraft, explosion after pilot is trying to alight on world. But the two accidents in
the United States is not serious as far as bombing of a missile of the Soviet Union while still on the base
on October 24 , 2503 by the death of 165 people in the incident.These tragedies has occured even if it is
the loss of lives and property, the human beings,that is also not abandon the project space and also the
attempt to think and create new technologies to reduce the cost of security, and more. A major goal of the
space transportation station project in the future is to create permanent space station and other scientific
experiments.
2.4 Space station
The country pioneer the use of the space station operations, including the U.S. and Russia
 Skylab
The US has sent the Skylab aircraft for its orbits May 14 , 2516.The Skylab aircraft has
heavy body sticking 85 tons, a length 82.2 ft., a diameter 22 ft that equal with a large 3 bedroom in small
home, the level of Its orbit about 435 km above the earth and around the world takes 93 minutes
 Apollo
The United States and Russia have shared space project that is Apollo-Soyuz. This
mission's purpose is to test the capabilities and to get aerospace of the United States and Russian welding
together. In order to bring the trial that is developed together with a spaceship that human being used to
control ans also Space Station project of the two countries.
Russia has sent a spaceship that is Soyuz, from the base at Baikonur in Kazakhstan
Russia. On 15th July B.E. 2518 by Alexei A.Leonov as a captain and his pilot. 6 hours later, on the day
of 16 July B.E. 2518, U.S. sends a spaceship as Apollo by the missile, Saturn-1B from the Kennedy
Space Center base. ASM Thomas P.stamford as a commander , Vance D. Brand as a operator and
Donald K.Slaton as operator about the welding. The trial operations, engineering, and science, and an
interview with newspaper, TV that came back to the earth and Apollo release some aparts from each
other on the day of July 19, 2518. The aircraft, Soyuz return to the earth on July 21 while Apollo is
continute to carry out their orbits until 24 July B.E. 2518 was returned to the earth in the Pacific
 Mir space station
When you come from the era of Soyuz space station ,Russia and Skylab space station,the
United States, is pass through the age of the Mir space station,Russia.The purpose of the station was still
similar Soyuz, it is used as a place to learn about life in Outer Space in long-term as well as using
observed phenomena in outer space and used for scientific experiment together with activities both
290
military and civilian. Whereas, Russia is interested to pioneer in term of space station, it is the basis of
knowledge for the creation of colonial space.
Mir space station is a separated space station that is components of 7 main sections or
called 7 Module. The main module (Mir core module) is the core module that is connected with the other,
and to be sent in late.The total system of the Mir space station is weight of about 130 tons in the Core
module, with a width approximately 4.2 meters, length of around 13 meters that approximately equal to 1
Cooper of single story town-house and the 2-3 human can live for a longtime.

 International Space Station
ISS - International Space Station
The project was born from the cooperation between 16 countries led by the US, Japan, Russia, and
11 European countries and Brazil by using 44 flight in order to bring all parts of each piece of International
Space Station to put together a lab which contains the largest science in space as much as the human beings
ever.
291
The main part of each piece of the space station together that each piece to include a
large space station. Russiais a pioneer and has a most experience. In particular, the space station live in
Russia for a long time with this experience more than 30 years, and in particular to the Mir Space Station
project (Mir Space Station's).
International Space Station start to send first part from the end of the Year B.E. 2541 (A.E1998)
and is expected to be completed in the year B.E. 2549 (A.E2006). When it is done, there will be a length of
around 88 meters (290 ft), and the width wings about 109 meters (356 ft), which is big than football ground
in a little.There are nearly 473 tons, as well as by weight (approximately 1 million pounds) and officer are 7
persons is the station. It orbits around the world nearly 400 km away and take a time about 92 minutes, 24
seconds per 1 round.The 2 in 3 of each round is the light and the other around 1 in 3 is dark. The
International Space Station can support the scientific research and experimental trial operations can be
divided into the 6 majority. into the following
 The components of international space station
The International Space Station with main parts as follows:
Zarya Control Module: The first part of international space station
designed by the United States, but create and send up in space by
Russia is also known as "FGB: Function Cargo Block" It is a power
source at the beginning of the satation. It is a weight 19,323 kg,is the
length 12.6 meters, width 4.1 meters. When it is sent out to its orbit
around the world at high level of 386.2 km
when November 20 , 2541 (AE1998.)
byaircraft is the name "Zarya"means sunrise
This is the second part of international space
station designed and built by the United
States. It was sent to space when December 4
, 2541 (A.E.1998) by connecting to Zarya Module
292
The First Crew: The US has been sent up to the space on July 11 , 2543 (A.E.)
It is connected with the first 2 modules . Its property is a control systems, main
power systems and residential instead Zarya which would be left to be a gap
between the operating room and the residential area.Three of the astronauts
stay at the International Space Station. The first astronauts is American as a commandant,his name is Bill
Shepherd. The other 2 people, the one isRussian as astronauts that names Yuri Gidzenko and The
engineers is a Russian, his name is Sergei Krikalev.They depart on October 31 , 2543 (A.E2000.).The
main mission is to test the International Space Station within 4 months (Image by:NASA) The U.S.
DestinyLaboratory Module This is the first Scientific laboratories and the centeral laboratory was sent on
February 7 , 2544 (A.E2001.).Not only laboratory and it also connects, controlsand send the power to the
laboratory .This lab has a 8.5 meter,diameter is 4.3 metre and the main components that is alluminium.
Second Crew:
The second of astronauts are on the International Space Station. The first
Russian astronauts is a commander
who name is Yury Usachev.The other
2 people,American astronauts name is
James Voss and Flight Engineer who
name is Susan Helms. They depart ,when March 8 , 2544 (A.E 2001)
(Image by: NASA).
Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS): This is
a Robotic System. Robotic system is used for mobility, maintenance for
the parts that will be sent up in the future and also the part to repair satellite
or any other device . The mechanical arm satellite has a length up to 17
meters, supported by Canadian country is scheduled to be sent to April 19 , 2544 (A.E.2001).
293
Topic 3 the benefits of space technology
3.1 The phenomenonon earth
To take advantage of communication satellite
As communications satellite will act as the terrestrial broadcast signal to the ground station that send and
receive the signal. At present, Thailand has a national communications satellite that is Thaicom, operated
by Shin Satellite Public Company Limited which has been approved by the government to act as a
national satellite program. Shin crop.has signed a contract to build satellite "Thaicom 1A‛ and ‚Thaicom
2A" with the company Hughes Airkraft Limited (current company changed the name toThe Boeing
Company) in the United States and also has signed a contract with the Arian Space Limited company that
is the satellite delivery. The two satellite have a same of the features and theproperty. It is a satellite that
has the ability to spin around its that like a top and now, there are three satellite that are Thaicom 1A ,
Thaicom2A and Thaicom3A. These 3 communications satellite are a major role in the development of
communication networks in Thailand for technology advances to rival the other countries and also help
the use of telecommunications and TV broadcasting which continue to increase rapidly in Thailand.We
always call this communications satellite ,as Spinners.
His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej Royal give the first name of the National communications
satellite ‚THAICOM‛. THAICOM-1 is shooting up from the Area space base, Guruc suburbs, French
Guiana. On December 17, 1993 . The benefits of 3 THAICOM are communications satellite network that
are a role in the development of the country, that having a communication technology advances to rival
countries, and is also used to the telecommunications and broadcast Television of Thailand which has
expanded quickly.
o The benefits of 3 THAICOM are communications satellite network that are a role in the
development of the country, that having a communication technology advances to rival
countries
o To respond to the use of telecommunication and TV broadcasting in Thailand that have been
expanded quickly
 Taking advantage of space technology for meteorology
Meteorology Information Remote Sensing such as to check the direction and motion of the
clouds, temperature of clouds , the earth temperature, the sea surface Temperature and humidity of the
atmosphere in accordance with the height, make sure ozone , UV ray, snow and ice that cover world, etc.
The function of this machine is collection of the information , to sent the meteorological information
294
that is from the mobile station or stations automatically detected in both terrestrial and water, such as a
buoy ,boat and also Airplanes, and also used to spread news (Direct Broadcast), that is to send
meteorology information to member countries or the user of information.
o To take a picture of the world's atmosphere in daily life
o To get images of earth's atmosphere and to store and transfer data from terrestrial station
o To make a review of the world's air in daily life
 The benefits from exploration resources satellite
As the world we live in this limited area andlimited resource. Some resources can be created, and it was
a replacement, but many are not able to replace.Therefore, we have to plan to use natural resources
together with good performance by the satellite survey to help
The survey resource satellite show information that can be used to study in various disciplines to use
benefits in the country's development as follows:
1. The use of land. To learn how to change the used land in the condition, such as Agricultural
xxtension, mining, construction, road construction, the Department of communities.
Terminology of the Department of Lands is the main agency in this matter
2. The agriculture. To explore the grown area about the agriculture for economy such as rice
cultivation, rubber cultivation area, planted with sugar cane cultivation area, cassava
cultivation area, palm oil area, and explore the area with high humidity for use in crops in
the dry season.
3. The forest. To learn forest area throughout the country to set the priority level of the rivers
area for the use of land, the forestry and mining, exploration for producing a map of the
wetlands and regenerated forest plan
4. The fishery. Learn to explore the area of coastal aquaculture services
5. The hydrography. Learn more about sources of water in the sea water ,on land and
underground water to use exact predictions of local renewable source of water, the water
allocation ,the improvedwater sources,irrigation and the study of water quality, the spread
pattern and education for explore the area there will be a flood conditions
6. The geology. Study the geology map, structure in Thailand which is a fundamental part of
the overall development of the country, such as another source of water, the dam
production, to find miniral sources, to find natural gas
7. The oceanography . Learn about the direction of current flow , the quality of the sea,
the spread of debris hanging that is from the area of the mining, the spread of sediments
in important estuary area and to make a plan to study the coral reef
295
8. The environment Learn pollution problems for to plan environmental management
such as the growth of cities,water pollution problems, the wooded area that has a stream
water has been destroyed or is being encroached, to review the damage from a
poisonous environment
9. The map production. Bring the information to produce a topographic maps incorrectly
. It is acknowledged that the modern Map can be used to edit the map to show what
changes to the landscape
3.2 The phenomena in space
 Space Shuttle
The space shuttle is used as a vehicle for carrying things and human beings of the outer space
and to reduce the cost about takeing full advantage of the cosmos. It is designed for people who have more
than 7 people, in case of emergency may be added as a 10 person The operation has been a long time 7
days, with the use within 14 days. If its orbit space may be required for up to 1 months.
The first craft Project is Enterprise, then Columbia is divided into 7 visit, Challenger 10 visit
Discovery 6 visit , Atlantic 6 visit. The space shuttle can reuse project in the next flight. The space shuttle
of the United States up to the present, there are 6 boats
1. Enterprise As a preliminary test aircraft
2. Columbia
3. Discovery
4. Atlantis
5. Challenger While goin up into space, it is explosi on January 28 , 2529
6. Endeavour
 ISS - International Space Station
The benefits of International Space Station will support the operation of scientific
experiments and research. It is divided into 6 major operations, as follows
1. Life Sciences: A study of the development of living thing under
conditions without gravity that is the difference between a life in space stations ,
space and in the world. The knowledge has been prepared for the trip and living in
space in the future
296
2. Earth Sciences: Because the station orbits space can cover over 75% on the surface world
and is the part of human beings that we live, is about
95 %. We can learn atmosphere, the conditon and
thec hange of air-, Forest resources housing,
resources,water resource, sea, which have the
potential to affect humanity. The study will lead to a
plan that has an effect on the survival of human
beings on earth in long-term.
3. Space Sciences: It is the study of space, particularly in the
education and in every direction for the understanding of the
space
4. Microgravity Sciences:
It is a the experiments of theory in
physics for good condition without
gravity. The result of the experiments can show how different from
the earth. From the result, it can lead to discover new theories as the
basis of the shedding light on the secret of the space in the future,
whether it is on the basis of biological ,physics, mechanics of
material flow, HCL or reaction, etc.
5. Engineering Research andTechnology Development:
This is the research and development of Engineering and technology for use in the aerospace industry,
transportation, structural, mechanical, and energy . Using this International
Space Station is the place for the designing and creation. The purpose is
for your device, or by a target tools that design and build is more
effective. To gether with,the total cost of the action, and low maintenance
and can be used as a prototype in the future technology
297
6. Space product development:
As for research and development to find the technology for the
development of the quality of the manufacturing industry in the world.
All operations in the research will occur in all International Space Station
will be a trial in the state without gravity.This project is for education
about the difference and the impact of experimental results that how it is
different from in the world and the result will be in favorable to humanity
at an enormous in the future
Topic4 the importance of the space station project in present
Currently, space technology help humanity in any in terms of the research and experiment. It can
reduce annoyance foe the research. For example, Law 1 say that an object will maintain the mobility as
long as until they do not have a strong external interference. Law 1 of Newton say that there is no way to
do it on the world because gravity will make the movement that is projectile. If you try to be Law of
Newton's opinion, will have to go to trial in space. and there is also a physics experiment, many of the
other have to eliminate gravity such as the erystal was a trial, the trial of leading factions and the other.
And also the space telescope is not having to worry about the noise setting and the experiment for
Biosphere
 -Trying to learn to structure and the of the universe to lead to guidelines
The management of the format and the way that is should be the activities of the human for universe.
Scientists not only think and also not look far for only a day. If the citizen of the world is forced to flee
to other universe, of course when the sun has expired or has been out of the enormous meteorite collision.
-To develop the necessary technologies and appropriate to the format or our way of life
and to keep the race of mankind and even to develop weapons of war were included in this
section. Philosopher looke at war is not, of course, there are both pros and cons that Hitler may
have been honored in the future as the Star Wars project.
 -In medical and health care,some of medicine are now being used to conduct research in
spac (at the level of reaction).
A disease is linked to some of the space that is used to maintain the complimentary in
space in the future now that he has captured the tour list space.
-The study of universe orgin, beginning of the universe and the end of the universe, will
lead to a better understanding of the situation and the need of our own.
298
Explore Space Station project in the future
- The project, Sky lab goun and transport aircraft project of the United States and EU, Soyuz ,
try to create and produc some of the things that make it difficult or do not have on the earth
such as the production of light compounds but strong, pure vaccine, etc.
- To create for the things they need to come out in industrial plants in space ,that is not up to
try to aerospace and industrial plants in each. This may start wlth a small the factory. In
accordance with the project, the U.S.’s transpot aircraft will carry any part of the industrial
space that is to be in the storage room and brought up to a together in their orbits around the
world and will have a complete factory in space which has produced raw materials, storage
and accommodation for people who work in space, and the panel to the sun to produce
electricity for factories
- The idea to build industrial plants in space. The power plant in space, it is caused by
physicist of Princeton University, name is Gerrard K. O’Neil, after he had published the idea
of scientists from the University to the general public. There are in the United States, the
interest and cooperation in education to the structure of the city in the future space
- The design space station or a large space city , scientists will need to solve the problem of
living in the area in good condition without weight that is not under the influence of gravity
of the world, for example, if we are in a good condition for a short in weightwirelessness in a
limited area, it may not be effective for your body weight, but if you have to live in a wider
area, it is for a long time,you will have the problem about the mobility, and had lived.
- One group of scientist has proposed the idea of Space Station design that is a ring shape. The
Ring can be rotated themselves.that will be a strong centrifugal. This situation help people
can move on to the top of a ring by turned his head toward Space Station. Scientists have
proposed that if ring Space Station has a diameter of 2 kilometers, you will need to turn
around rate 1 times in 1 minutes 3.15 seconds. This large space station will need to have a
similar atmosphere as the world that will need air oxygen gas in the ratio is equal to the
earth's atmosphere and is located in nitrogen gas nitrogen ratio in the ratio of one half of the
world's atmosphere, so the pressure setting of the station will be a half space of the sea level
pressure setting.
299
The important and interesting space project
Datr/
year
Monthเ /
The important space event
31January 2501
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ” USSR, send Sputni-1 orbits around the
world for in the first time when January 4 , 2501 mission to finish.
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ” USSR, send Sputni-2 with a first dog
name is Laika, which is sent to the satellite in space 7 days. Sputni-2 out of orbits
in April 13 , 2501
United States of America, send Explorer-1 gives up to orbit with a trial of
scientific discoveries about the rays of the world
5 March 2501
The United States has failed to send Captain by Explorer- 2,spacecraft
17 March 2501
15 May2501
1 October 2501
Vanguard-1 satellite has been sent to the Ephemeris.
Sputni-3 satellite 3 has been sent to the Ephemeris.
The organization, NASA was founded, in United States of America.
11 October 2501
Pioneer-1 aircraft of the United States was sent to the level 70,700 miles
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ” USSR, send Lunar-1 aircraft to its orbit
around the sun
Pioneer--4 aircraft of the United States was sent to test the path to the moon before
it goes into its orbit around the sun
4 October 2500
3 November 2500
2 January 2502
3 March 2502
12 Apirl 2502
4 October 2502
12 April 2504
5 May 2504
14 December2505
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ” USSR send Lunar-2 , that is first
aircraft , touch the surface of a the moon
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics ” USSR send Luna-3 aircraft to its orbit
around the moon, and take a picture of that turned out from the rest of the world.
The information about 70 percent
Yuri Gagarin is a first astronauts of USSR is sent up to its orbit around the world
with Vostok 1 aircraft.
USA send Alan Shepard ,first astronauts with Mercury Feedom-7
Mariner -2 of the United States flying through Venus
300
Datr/ Monthเ /
The important space event
year
16 June 2506
Valentina Tereshkovais first woman pilot was sent to with Vostok-7 aircraft
14 Junly 2507
Mariner-4, aircraft of the United States take a picture Mars in close range
16 November 2507 Venu-3 of USSR is aircraft first touch the surface of Venus
3 February 2509 Lunar-9 of USSR is the first aircraft softly parking on the surface of the moon
2 June 2509
Surveyor-1, aircraft of USA is the first landed on the surface of the moon'
A tragedy, a military aircraft with Soyuz-1 of USSR is cause the death of
24 April 2510
Vladimir Comaloffor ,with the aircraft impact with the earth during travel back to
life because the system is not working.
21 December 2511 Apollo- 8 bring 3 astronauts who first its orbit around the moon.
USA send Neil Alden Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin to tread on the moon on
20 July 2512
the surface for the first time
301
Questions of activity
1. What is the benefits of satellite that human take advantage ?
2. Students think that Space Shuttle is necessary for human beings. Why?
3. What is the impact of space technology to the lives of human ? and How ?
Suggested activities
1. Student study the knowledge about the use of space technology, and then take the results of the
study, and discussion
2. Students are divided into groups of students to do activities that take advantage of the space
technology experiment when the process is finished, make a report and the trial and bring
information to discuss with each other.
3. Students study the outside places, such as science center for education, Rangsit or television
broadcasts that are near the school, etc. After that, students write a summary of the knowledge
that has been received from the field trips.
Summary questions
1. To explain the operation of a communication satellite in its orbit with a high-level and lowlevel include the example ?
2. Students think that we benefit from satellite photo of explore Natural Resources Conservation
of natural resources ?
3. How isTHAICOM that is benefits to Thailand?
4. The man sent a spaceship to the moon or planets. There will be beneficial to the human?
5. Students think that the creation of industrial space to human using to perform in space,there is
the possibility to be explained?
302
Test1
Name-surename...........................................................................No................Class...........Year...........
1. At present, Thailand has it's own national communications satellite that is ______________
_ This operation by a company _______________________________ and now, the amout of
national communications satellite are
What are satellite and individual satellite in any year is sent. ( 2point)
Ans 1. __________________________________________________( 1 point)
2. _________________________________________________ ( 1 point)
3. _________________________________________________ ( 1 point)
2. What type of meteorology satellite that its location relationship with the world in the same area.
(4point) Ans What type of satellite ?( 1point) _____________________________
Ans What satellite operate ? ( 1 point)_____________________________________ ___
Ans The location of thi satellite ? ( 1 point)__________________________________________
3. Information and photos of the world's atmospheric and broadcast information from the ground
station to make sure the air of the world official date. This data is come from what type of
satellite? Ans (1 point)
______________________________________________________________________________
4. Spot satellite is owned by Centre National de Etudes Spatials together with EU country. This
satellite is used to take advantage for ? Ans ( 1 point)
______________________________________________________________________________
5. The information of the use of land , the hydrographic, the fisheries and the agriculture which they
come from what type satellite ? Ans( 1 point)
_______________________________________________
6. Space craft mean ? ( 1 point)__________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
Space mean ? ( 1 point)_______________________________________________________
7. Space craft has _______type is ( 2 point)_________________________
303
8. Space transportation system is a program that has been designed to be able to bring some of the
parts used and reuse it again that is the most cost-effective and efficient. It id consist of
____main part is ( 2 point)___________________________________________________
9. The main puepose of space transportation system in the future that
is?___________________________________
( 2 point)__________________________________________________
Test 2
Name- Surename...........................................................................No................Class...........Year...........
1. What types of technology associated with the phenomenon on the world ? Include
example
Ans
_________________________________________________________________________________
2. 1. What types of technology associated with the phenomenon on the space?
Include example
Ans_____________________________________________________________________________
For,example___________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________
3. What is the projec face with a serious lost when two spacecraft is explosion while
going up to the air ?
______________________________________________ What is the cause of the space transportation
system bomb January 28 , 2529 when traveling into space is not just a few minutes walk away?
_____________________________________________________________________________________
4. What is the space transportation system ?
_____________________________________________
5. Space probe means ?__________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________________
304
Test 3
Name-Surename...........................................................................No................Class...........Year...........
For the students to see pictures, and then fill the number in the text box below in fron of the article
(8point)
7
1
5
4
2
8
6
3
1.…..….. Hard fire bucket separate out.
2.…....… Transport spacecraft into space orbits
3…..….. Reduce the level orbits to the atmosphere.
4…..….. External fire tank separate out.
5…..….. Transport Spacecraft operate space mission
6…..…... Transport Spacecraft return to the earth
7…....….Reuse the fuel missile
8…...…. Aerospace has been released from the base
305
Test 4
Name-Surename...........................................................................No................Class...........Year...........
1. The Apollo project is intended
for____________________________________________________
2. The Skylab projecy is intended
3. for________________________________________________
example_______________________________________________________________________
____
4. The Apollo-Soyuz is intended
Ans___________________________________________________________________________
The transportation spacecraft is intened ?
Ans
___________________________________________________________________________
5. THAICOM-1 is shooted from missile base,Arian space, Guru and what’s country ?
Ans___________________________________________________________________________
6. What’s type of all THAICOM ?
Ans__________________________________________________________________________
7. The formation and movement of the storm we were able to know what type from the satellites.?
Ans_________________________________________________________
8. Meteorological satellites have been sent to their orbits in space for the first time. When April 1 ,
2503 with the name that TIROS. What country is owner ?
Ans___________________________________________________________________________
9. Meteorology satellites of its orbit around the earth, its orbit around the world from the direction
of any particular points of the compass?
Ans___________________________________________________________________________
10. Spot satellites is owned by Institute of French National Space development with European
countries. What is the advantage of Spot satellites ?
Ans_________________________________________________________
306
Test 5
1. Which’s first countries that can build a spaceship to explore the moon, and planets in the solar
system ?
Ans_______________________________________________________________________
2. Which project that is designed to provide aircraft crash into the moon ?
Ans_______________________________________________________________________
3. Which project assigned aircraft to take pictures around the moon.?
Ans _______________________________________________________________________
Which project design to aircraft parking lot down gently on the floor. ?
Ans _______________________________________________________________________
4. The purpose of the Apollo project is to bring human to explore the moon by taking an astronaut 3
people at a time. The project is the sequeue of Mercury and Gemini. The astronaut on the moon
landing is the first stop on the trip to space that is the same group of Apollo- 11. The project is
called Apollo success in its goal, there is only one of the accident while heading to the moon.
What ‘s this spacecraft ?
Ans _________________________________________________________________________
5. How manytransport aircraft of the United States to the present ? _________that are ?
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
307
The process of measurement and evaluation science subject
1. Method
The test quiz before class and after classl
To perform a trial event (process group)
To practice explor activities (process group)
Sub-group discussions, and presentation
To revise the work
2. Measurement tools
The test quiz before class and after classl
A record paper from the observation of work performance.
A record paper from the observation of scientific skills
Record schedule from the assessment of scientific attitude
Optional activities to learn more
1. Students provide journals such as scientific journal, astronomy , etc.
There is an article about a spaceship, satellite and the progress of the space. Students read, discuss, and
then join together includind summary the point
2. Teacher provided slides or videos about satellite and Aerospace, a projection for the students to
see
3. Students choose a framework to do the following (select 1 of Article).
1) A framework study ‚ history of development of transport aircraft space
2) A research projects ‚ the life and work of astronauts‛
Media/source of learning
1. The test quiz before class and after classl
2. Slide show or Video related to lesson
3. Print media and web site, on the Internet.
308
4. Library
5. Science books, World book of Earth, Astronomy and Space Science courses, high school . 4”
6 class, Publisher :Vattanapanid
6. An action science book, World book of Earth, Astronomy and Space, , high school . 4”6 class ,
Publisher : Vattanapanid
309
Chapter 14
Electrician
Subject matter
To select the occupation as a electrician means that a interesting career and a good income. There
are several types of electrical engineer and the role of electrician is very different. Electrician who work in
the large construction , with a large variety of tools and skills that is different from an electrician working
in large industrial plants.However, all types of electric will be required to have a basic knowledge of
electricity that can be read-write type electrical circuits , can repair and modify electrical equipment. The
work of an electrician in current, most of electricians work with the contractors to work on the electricity
or work in alarge industrial. In addition, there is an electrician, not less work, who is an independent
contractor, and some of electrician work in the organization of the Government or business. This is a
work for their organization .Even though the work of an electrician will be available throughout the
country, but most of the work that will be available in the district or industrial district is being developed.
Expected learning outcome
Be able to explain,design,plan,experiment,testify and an action of an electric has been properly
and safely. Be able think,analyze, comparision between advantage and disadvantage of types of the
electrical circuit that are serial, parallel, mixed, applications and choose to use the knowledge and skills
appropriate to the professional electrician, and management services.
Content
1. Type of electricity
2. Electric equipment and supplies tools
3. The electrical circuit
4. Ohm's law
5. The electrical wiring
6. The use of electric appliancs.
7. The safety and accident from electrician
8. The administration and management of service
9. The scientific framework to career.
10.The electrical vocab
310
1. Types of electricity is divided to 2 type as a follow
1.1 Static electricity This is the power off that is stored within an object, which caused by the
abrasion of the 2 type object and rubbed sticks together, such as amber will transfer electron to wool sticks, as a
result; amber is completely removed and wool has a positive charge
1.2 Current electricity As a result of the flow of electric charge from a variety of sources,
electricity flows through the power supply to the electrical current which can be caused by pressure on the
heat , chemical reactions, light and electromagnetic power. Current is divided into 2, as follows:
1) Direct Current : DC
This is a current that has a flow of electric current and a constant direct current. The source of
this current as a well-known is battery replacement and flashlight battery power. To change current to be
a direct current (DC) must use the Adapter.
311
2) Alternating Current : AC It is a flow of electric current that has switched along the
time and the change of size at any time. The alternating current have been used to work at home, such
as lighting systems, the radio, television, lit fan, etc.
2. Electric equipment and supplies tools You need to know is as follows:
2.1 A screwdriver is divided into 2.
1) Flat-bladed screwdriver
2) Cross-recess screw driver
Size and thickness of the mouth of 2 types screwdriver are different sizes,because the size of the head of
the screw types to loosen or tighten the screw. In normal, the screw will turn to the right in a clockwise
direction, if you want to loosen the screws to rotate counter-clockwise to the left
312
One of the screwdriver type, screwdriver only in electric power, electrical screwdriver is a
screwdriver with a lamp in the use of the handle the test circuit
2.2 Knife The knife used with electrical operation is a pocket-knife or cutter. These knifes
is used to stripping insulation or cut to girdle (a tree) or electrical wire insulation.
How to use a knife properly in the stripped wire
1. To use a knife to girdle an external enclosure shell around.
2. To split the enclosure shell in between wire
3. Apart from each other.
2. 3 Forceps is a device that is used to cut ,press the electric wire. It can be divided as follows
1) Cable Cutter A side cutting pliers is used to cut twisted electric light and powerline is a small
2) Lineman's pliersor Forceps is used to pull, to hold and to cord small wire
3) Screw cutters
Forceps is used to cut ,press or cord the electric wire.
4) Needle-nose pliers Forceps is used to roll or spread the electric wire.
313
5) Terminal crimping pliers Forceps is used for stripping a electrical insulation,
electrical cables and soft twisted wire . The forceps stripping insulation that will be used to wire The
tripping pliers should take insulation such as insulated plastic that to prevent leakage current or electric
shock
2.4 Drill This device is used for the mounting holes and holding electrical equipment such
as electric light ,switch ,pad that are conneted by nott or screw that have to drill. Drill and gimlet can
make the hole . There are 3 types of drill that are
1) Brace
2) Drill
3) Electric drill
314
To select the use of drill and bit that should be used to select appropriate to the size of the device and the
size of the electric light, such as the penetration of wood drilling pad can be used as a wheel drill, or, if it
is a crank, drilling metal or concrete or cement floor that must be used, an electric drill.
2.5 Hammer This device is used in the work was nailed , to secure belt clip (clip), to attach
the wall or the work center for drilling metal ,concrete ,cement floor. The hammer will have a different
size and weight, but the weight will be 200 G .
Caustion
In order to use the hamme, The head of hammer is compressed into a wooden hammer
handle in tightenly and the head hammer will have to go through the hard surface by with a damp cloth.
3. Materials and equipment used in the electrical circuit.
3.1 Cable or wire As a device for sending electric power from one location to another by
electric current lead the power to electrical appliances. Cable is made from a substances that have the
qualifications to be the leading power (to let current flow through it).
1) High-tension cable is made form aluminum. Because aluminum is a low cost and lighter
than copper
2) Home Appiance Wire is made from copper-metal because copper is cheaper than metal.
A. Heat resistance wire.
Its shellas is an insulator as a heat-resistant such as iron wire
B. Double wire. Used to setting in building or house.
C. Soft double wire. Used with electrical appliances such as radio
and TV.
D. Single wire. Used to setting electrical Conduit
3.2 Fuse This is a device to prevent electrical current flowing through it, if current is too much
through, the fuse circuit breaker will automatically. Fuse is made from meta that is mixture of lead and
315
tin, and bismuth . Fuse is a metal that is low-melting point,hight of resistance and unstable shape , that is
vary according to the needs.
3.3 Switch It is a device to cut or electrical circuit in the power. It acts as a bridge by a serial
Switch into the electrical. Switch is available in 2 types of one-way and two-way switch
3.4 Switch It is a device for cutting or for electrical circuit. It is consist of base and lever that
is a metal pin which has a 2-Pin to hold the lever down. When lever is choped in the box, the electric
current from an electrical meter to flow into electrical circuits and when you lift lever to stop flow.
316
3.5 Starter It is a device in addition to the main switch or circuit breaker to keep warm before the lamp
wicks. Starter is divided into 2 categories:
Type1 Starter has no limit work time
Type 2 Starter has limit work time. Which is divided into 3 categories as follows:
1) The type is no reset
2) The type is reset in again
3) The type is automatically reset by stimulating with main switch or any other means by which is
designed with the purpose of the lamp
3.6 Ballast. It can increase the electric potential difference that is the high resistance to
alternating current ballast that are divided into 2 categories: 1. Electromagnetic ballast 2. Electronic
ballast
1) Electromagnetic Ballast
series with a tube
It is a ballast that steel around the barrel to work as a Reactor
The picture show electromagnetic Ballast
2) Electronic Ballast It is a ballast that use the electronic circuit for working. It is quite
expensive, but there are several advantages over magnetic ballast article that is to maximize performance
of the tubes, no a flashing light or a flash can be turned on the user , the long life of a tube for using and
do not need to update about (Power Factor P. F.) and also no noisy and light-weight.
317
The picture show electronic ballast
3.7 Electronic meter
We can also check the electronic current in wire by hanging magnetic bars nearby wire, and
then observe the deviation of the magnetic bars. This concept leads to the measure (meter) creation. The
deviation of needle on the scale will tell amount of electrical power is a measure of electric potential
difference.
Galvanometer It is a tool that checks for direct current by the principles of the magnetic that is a
most simply tool. By putting the compass near wire to tast that there is current flow through wire or not.
Galvanometer use the principle of a the results of the motor to show the deviation of needle.
Ammeter It is a tool used to measure electrical current that is made from the galvanometer. It is
designed to make a needle of deviation with scales. The measurement high values of electrical current
will must be added chun for high current that leads needle deviate full new scale.
Voltmeter It is a tool used to measure the Electric Potential difference between the 2 point that
is from the galvanometer, series a meter with the high resistance of a potential difference that can make
the compass deviating in Full scale. The measurement of the high potential difference have to us the
multi-platform suppliers
Multimeter This is the galvanometer meter connection with chun (Duameter) and the multiplayer (Dual voltmeter) used to measure electricity and Electric Potential difference meter. The Moving
318
iron meter is a meter is used to measure electrical current which causes the Magnetic Induction 2 steel
bars in a vacuum or pushed together that lead to the devaistion of needle.
4. The electrical circuit.
Electrical circuit is the path of ion mobile. The mobility will occur will be required to have a
power source connected to the wire, and one or two types of Electrical switches such as the resistance,
ammeter ,volt meter or electric light. Electric current is flowing out from a variety of sources around the
connected circuit
The circuit are connected together devices, and an electric circuit diagram
Scientists prefer to use the symbol as a representative electrical circuits, in order to be easy to
draw and understand in the shortest time by using symbols instead of electrical devices are shown as table
319
The electrica circuit has characteristics are as follows: 2.
1. The electrical circuit to a serial
The circuit is connected in series with the electrical power source from one device to another
device, directly. The electrical circuit is a single circuit. The disadvantage of a serial electrical equipment
is that, if a particular device would have to stop current flow in a circuit that is not able to use other
devices.
Summary of the main characteristics of the Serial resistance.
1. You can find resistance by the total resistance. The value of the total resistance is more than.
2. The amount of electrical current flowing through each resistor equal to the current in a circuit
3. The potential difference between both ends of the resistor would be the same as the result of
summation of Electric Potential difference between both ends of each resistor.
2. A parallel circuit.
For a parallel to the circuit split in each of the following types of devices connected to each other electric
circuit field. It has many characteristics of a circuit in totol circuit .The advantages of the plan as a
parallel electrical equipment is that, if a particular device that is damaged, it also became the current flow
through.
For connection two electric light by bulbs one of the two connectors to override one of the other tubes,
called a parallel to the current flow from a variety of sources that will be divided into the circuit to flow
into electrical equipment, with the different quantity because it is depend on the resistance of electrical
devices. If the electrical devices has a high resistance, it will be a low amount of current flow and If the
electrical devices has a low resistance, it will be a high amount of current flow and electrical equipment,
320
as well as individual, and would be the same as the current flowing out of the source. We use the
principles and the relationship of law’s ohm to compute the value of resistance, and the quantity of
electricity flowing in a circuit when the electric light in parallel
Summary of the main features of the parallel to the resistance
1. The total resistance of the circuit is less and less than the resistance. At the least one to the
parallel.
2. The total amount of electrical power circuit is equal to the summation of sub-circuit of
electricity
3. The potential difference between both ends of each resistor is equal value, and equal with the
value of the Electric Potential difference between both ends of the resistor parallel to each other.
5. Ohm's law
The current flowing in the electrical circuit that is caused by the power supply voltage to the
circuit and the quantity of electricity within a circuit will be limited by the internal power circuit
resistance. Therefore. the volume of electricity within a circuit, so it is dependent on voltage and
resistance of the circuit.This circuit is called Ohm's law says that the current flow in a circuit will be
variable matches the voltage and inversely proportional to resistance to alter by writing the relationship is
as follows:
Voltage
Resistance
=V
R
Current =
I
Example
To compute the value of the current size of the circuit voltage is 50 volts and the value of the
resistance of the circuit 5 ohm.
Method
From the equation
Replace
I=
I=V
R
50V
50
I = 10 ampere
321
The equipment
1. The direct current supply can adjust the settings 0.30 V
2. Multi-meter
3. Many type of the resistance 3.
4. The wire
Experiment
1. Take the resistance and direct current circuit to the adjust the settings as shown in picture
2. Adjust the power supply voltage value is about 5, and each time the adjustment , have to
measurement Circuit Current flows through. Record the result
3. Find the value
4. Bring up the value with to the graph between V with 1 as picture
5. Find the slope and compared with the value of no.3 , the resistor and operate the trial as well.
Article 1 - 4
Question
value
V
I
from the experiment as a following the ohm’s law , or not ? How ?
6. The electrical wiring.
To wire an electric can be divided into 2,that is wiring on the wall and concealed wring in
the walls.
6.1 Wiring on the wall
The wiring is going to see the cord that may be not nice to see if it is not simply. And the view is not more
simplyl and hard to decorate the room. The advantage of the wiring on the wall is less cost an embedded
in the walls , can be examined and repaired
Step1
Set the format of the position that you want to add a plug for a vertical position. The wiring
322
should be, in the same line of it. If have a wiring way over there, use the old of wiring way and point the
position that you want to.
Step 2
The new wiring line that should be drawn from the point to walk up on the ceiling, and then went
down to measure the position from edge, and then hit the wiring way to the wall by the cord yarn.
Step 3
Putting the nail cross the cord along the vertical line to the wall and the installation will be in the
new location with the folding seat belt over the head nails, to handle while punching
Step 4
Keep a distance of cable ties for about 10 - 15 cm. In a bend, or twist of the ceiling of the band,
belt driven, at the 1 - 2 cm in order to tie the cord, close to the wall is not to bend .
Step 5
Install the socket retention by penetrating new block by electrical gimlet and tight be electric
screw. If wooden wall should be affixed to a wooden musing on the wall before to the strong of wood.
Step 6
Route the power cord in the belt and belt driven power cord to connect the belt firmly inserted into the
wall socket that has been put into block
Step 7
Before shutdown the mains switch ,you check that there is no power to the plug in peripherals. By
using a screwdriver to check that there is no the power light on the handle of screwdriver, and then make
a loop through the cord into the wall outlet, and then switch on and try using a screwdriver Check the
power plug points.
6.2 The concealed wiring in the walls
The wiring, cord through the buried tube in building walls that make room is simple and easy for
decoration because you couldn't see the cord from the external . The conduit that must be made along with rend,
should not save or let it be stolen . With the embedded wiring to the wall, you don’t have to enter conduit
because if there was an accident because of the leakage current when resident touch the wall. The
disadvantages of this method are , a high-cost more than a wire on the wall for installation , complicated the
process of installation , to change and repair after the installation is complete that is difficult to operation and even
more expensive than a first.
323
The wiring method is often used to float building walls while wring of stick water will float on
the edge of the floor and the edge of the wall when it is damaged, it is not difficult to investigation and
repairmen. But , the modern homes are meticulously in the most beautiful, the wiring often use to set the
conduit that is buried inside the wall or ceiling to hide the clutter of wires and pipes. The wiring and water
pipe by this method, even if this method increases the beautiful and tidy to the house, but it also has the
disadvantage. If there was a problem electrical leak age or water pipe leakage which might have been
caused by the use of inferior quality materials, a wrong way of installation or the damage arising from the
use of inspection, it is a difficult to repair. You may get up to the stage to take a ceiling or wall to pull
down some areas to check and correct the problem which caused the damage to the Home , waste time
and high cost of the electrical system. How to avoid the above problem, one way to do that is to select a
floating wiring which may not have been much to see and it is suitable for small houses and buildings.
But, someone want a beautiful thing or owner a large house with a large number of wiring. The
concealed wiring is suitable for these problems. According to the problem, you may be more appropriate
to avoid or make less by choosing materials that are high quality materials , the correct a good size and
installation in correctly and having a plan.
Instructions for electrical circuits system design
The circuit system in your home should be separate to control any areas such as separate sections,
such as the floor, or in accordance with the categories of the use of electricity that makes it easy to repair
in the event of power failure. You should separate the system because if you need to put out the fire in the
house to repair , you would not have to put out the fire in kitchen with a fridge, freezer, food will be
provided free.
7. The use of electronic appliances in simply
The electric light
Installation of electric light as necessary and appropriate for the use.
Use of the electric light bulb, but very low power consumption and has a few years longer
than such as fluorescent lamps , compact lamp ,etc.
Clean la electric lamps in regularly
Interior building by using pastel colors to add reflections of light
Switch off all electronic lamps when you don’t want to use it
Fan
Select suitable size and pattern for use.
324
-
-
Adjust the level of the wind speed.
Open only when necessary.
Kept in good condition.
Television
You should select a size that is suitable for families, and in the room area.
you should select the single television programs or at the time, when there is and television
program that you want to watch
Remove the mains plug television every time when there is no one who watching
Hairdryer
Should be wiped dry before you use the hair dryer.
Should to comb the hair while you use the hair dryer.
Drying with hot air as far as necessary.
electric iron
Spraying water on clothing in only you want to use
Adjust the level of heat, suitable to the type of clothing
Start to press iron on some light layer colth, while the iron is still hot.
Clothing should be quite a lot of for perssing iron in each time the ironing
Remove the plug before you have finished the ironing board 2 - 3 minutes, it was still hot,
the rest enough
Coffee pot
Add the water, a reasonable quantity
Close the lid firmly before you boil
Switch off immediately when the water boils.
Electric rice cooker
Use a good size with the family
Unplug the power cord when the rice is cooked and there was no need to keep warm.
Refrigerator
Use a appropriate size with the family
Refrigerator stand away from heat sources.
Do not put hot food in the refrigerator immediately
Do not put too much food in the fridge.
325
-
-
Regularly defrost ice out once a week.
Regularly clean the heat sink.
Do not open the door, refrigerator, or leave them open.
The rubber edge of the refrigerator door have to be closed.
Heating
Select the appropriate size for the family
Do not heat up until it was born.
Should to close the valve to maintain the hot water in the shower.
Do not use the heating appliance in the summer.
Switch off water valve and immediately after use.
Air condition
The rooms have air conditioning should be used as a ceiling that has a heat insulating
properties
Select the size of the room, the right size.
Select Use the air-conditioning is a quality assurance and help save energy
Adjust temperature and the quantity of the wind, the feel of each season
regular maintenance and cleaning equipment and spare parts, are in good condition.
Keep the doors closed, always.
Using the fan cooling air as much as necessary.
Switch off the appliance before you don’t want to use an air-conditione for about 2 - 3
minutes
Washing machine
The the amount of clothing for washing the colth in each time ,should be reasonable with the
size.
Should to use sunlight instead of using the oven dry cloth.
Lern about and comply with the procedures in the manual
8. Safety and accident of being an electrician
1. Before perform anything with electric devices, measure the electric current weather
there is electric current in the device.
326
2. In working with any devices that are switched off already, the devices must be
connected to a ground connection all the time.
3. In setting up a ground connection, the end of the line should be set at the ground side
then set another side to the device.
4. If you are not sure if there is safety to touch any low pressure electric current
devices, you measure it first.
5. In touching electric devices directly, you must follow every steps carefully and strictly.
6. The tools that will be used with any electric devices, such as pliers, screw driver,
must be covered by electric insulators 2 times.
7. While you are working with electric devices, make sure that none of your body and
tools is in contact with any part of the device.
8. Use a key to prevent the unexpected turning on or off. Hang the sign to notice that to
switch on or off is not permitted. It must be even cover to the person who has the
right to unlock the key or take off the sign must be the same person always.
9. When you are going to work at the high height with electric devices, safety belt is
required if there is no a rope hang on the part of building.
10. In working with electricity, if it is possible, it should be some assistant with you.
8.1 Warning in working with electricity
- You found out that any part of the device is damaged, you must repair it immediately
- Make sure that the area surrounding the switch is cleaned.
- Constantly check inside the switchboard and make sure that there is no any electric conductor.
Besides, do not take any part of the switchboard out of the switchboard.
- In changing the fuse, you should use the specific type of fuse for that specification.
- Do not use the cover that can be lighted a fire.
- Each of the switch should has a description tag.
* used with direct current or alternating current
* electric potential difference
* electric current
* tools used only for switched devices
* name of the receiver
327
When you want to check or repair the device you must switch on for the electric current can flow
through the circuit and tag the switch to inform that it is in the repair process- Before you switch off the
circuit, you must be sure that everything is in the right position and before you operate the device, make
sure that there is no other piece that block the way.
- In sending on or off signal must be proceeded carefully
- Do not switch on or off while your hand is wet.
- In switching off the circuit, you must be sure that the signal is going right.
- To turn a bolt for attaching wire, make sure you do it very tight.
- Do not use any damaged devices. It might cause danger.
8.2 Things you should not do while working with electric devices
- Should not unplug by pulling the wire
- Should not use any damaged tools or devices
- Should not use an impaired plug
- Should not overload plug the electric current
- Should not plug with the incaple
- Should not fix the damaged devices by yourself in case you do not have that kind of knowledge
8.3 Safety involving the workers
Dressing
- An appropriate dressing in working involving in machine is a jump suit that has no any tear on
it because it might get into the machine that is turning around
- Button up every single buckle appropriately
- Should not wear any jewelry
- Wear safety shoes to protect you from tiny pieces of metal
- Wear eyeglasses to protect your eyes from any metal that might plash to your eyes such as Gem
cutting or flash from weld
- Should not wear hat in case you are working on electric machine
- Should not have long hair or you should wear a hat
- Wear an ear plug when working in a noisy environment
328
Helmet
Belt
Plastic gloves
Leather
gloves
String
Boot
9. The good management and the good service.
Good service means the intention and effort in the service to consumer to comply with level as
follows:
Step 1 Can provide services to the user is provided with a willing
o A friendly service.
o The disclosure for the information that means the information must be clear and give some detail
such a the procession for the service receiver.
o Notice to receive a Progress Report on the implementation of the process or the jobs available.
o Coordinating services to the recipients quickly and continuously
329
Step 2 To help solve the problem
o Fastly solve a problem or find a solution to resolve the service.
o The service has been received, satisfaction, and bring the concerns that is caused from the service
to develop the service.
Step 3 The service must be more than the expectation of receiver, or even in their best efforts.
o Take a long time for a special service to help solve the problem to the recipients.
o Present the service, the service will be able to benefit for recipients.
Step 4 Understand and meet the needs of the recipient.
o Try to understand in different way to provide the service to the real needs of the recipient
o Give a good suggestion in order to respond the need of consumer.
Step 5 A truly useful to the recipients.
o Thinking of the service receiver about the benefits in the long-term.
o A consultant who has helped in the decision of the trust services
o Understand about the different from the method or the steps that associate with the necessary,
problem, opportunity to benefit the recipient.
10. The scientific to career framework.
The professional career as an electrician that is an important thing for social technology in all
ages. The professional electrician must have expertise in highly creative works in addition to the
electrical installation and repair work and is also able to create a device for electrical appliances
household to comvinient in daily life of human beings. In addition to a career, it is an electric service and
also leads to the commercial. Knowledge work from a framework of electricity leads to the career
development of the invention, such as a variety of decorative lamps , the lamp to reading book, simply
alarm floods, etc.
Example1
The invention for decorated lamp
Tools
1.Switch on and off for the power
price is about 30 bath
2. Long fluorescent lamps.
price is about 79 bath
3. CD 61 plates
reuse
4. Wire 1.8 metre
price is about 30 bath
330
The method
A CD, who would have believed that the waste can be used to make a lamp with a stylish, who had no
more than a man's interest before. You try to make sure how to make beauty lamp but the cost is
approximately 139 Baht
Long fluorescent lamps
331
The lamp components will be removed to separate scripting to the lamp to acttach the outside of the
lamp box for
To set the positon for the lamp that will be in place?
Cut the thick wood size 3/8 inch is a circular plate 18 of the CD.
332
The plywood
Painted with hot glue, and then use the screws firmly compressed, leave it to dry for about 20
minutes glue
Use the drill hole in the middle, put the lamp to wooden box, the cord to be connected into the
power switch.
333
Put swith and power cord in accordance with the drilling.
Punch a hole in the center the CD, wide enough to replace the lamp.
This is a penetrating into the lamp holder.
334
Grab a CD, two of them had been paired together. It turned out the the gloss on both sides, and then use
hot glue, let it dry, and then drill 3 holes for the bolts to the antenna length legs 3 legs. As shown in the
first one and then put the secondary ring to cascade is a gap, the light spread out until the last floor to
use the CD 4 disc grease together. close to the lid on top
When replace the lamp, get the knot out and took out the lamp change
It is finished, and then when you turn on the lights will have images:
fromา http://www.yousaytoo.com/tensionnot/how-to-make-a-cool-cd-lamp/4877
335
Example2
The invention of alarm floods easily.
Matrial
1. Switch and wireless electric ring
is price about 100-150 bath
2. Foam scrap
reuse
3. Plastic bag
reuse
Method
1. Survey to buy wireles electric ring has sold nearly every partnership (price is about 100-500
bath) The ring can be press and hold, and then cried out, continued Sleep and then waking up (some
brand, be pressed at once,cry out at once)
2. Find devices are as follows: mini size basket , foam plate , Water-zip pouch, , adhesive tape
nd ห A brick or stone
3. The bell rang,and paint two-page sticky area, press the press out (no need to peel the paper
off), and then enter zip pouch is not to let the water flow into
4. To cut foam that is little more than the basket ball. To put zip pouch, that have the ring beind
in central area, on foam in the central area. To paint adhesive tape on foam
336
5. To place the foam in the area that tell that flood the floor, such as gate guard . To cover foam
by basket that is pressed my rocket.(approximately 100 meters from the main ring bell )
6. To plug in the main signal-bell in the house.
7. When the flood, foam will be floating to puch bell ring and the bottom of basket that is pressed
by rock or cry of alarm.
From http://www.oknation.net/blog/print.php?id=653105
337
11. Electrical vocabulary
An electrician will need to understand every word of the general definition of an electrician to
use in order to read the description of the materials and equipment of the performance company. The
reader must be familiar with the language used in an electrician with each word definitions, so it should
be read, understood, and should be a native turned these words when there is a need and also a detail
about the definition of these terms at the end of additional volumes of this book.
Energy : The ability to work
Horsepower : The unit of measurement of the motor and engine machinery. We will use
acronym HP or hp instead. In general, the hourse power is used to indicate the output electric motor.
Electricity : The movement of the electron through the electrical conductor
Conductor : The substances allow electrical current flowing through easily.
Conductance : The convenient for the flow of electrical current in a circuit through
Insulator : An object has the properties of resistance to electrical current flow. May be said that
the matter is a hinder the movement of electron
Magnetism : One of the properties that show the draw steel power.
Polarity : The display properties of ion came out, there will be a positive or negative
Electromagnet : The winding conductors show power or magnetic properties when there is
current flow through coil.
Primary : winding of The transformer is to be attached to the electrical load (burden of
electricity) will receive the energy with the power of electromagnetic induction from primary winding to
load, it is the power transformer.secondary : The winding of the transformer that is attached to the
electrical load (burden of electricity) will receive the energy with the power of electromagnetic induction
from primary winding to load, that is the power transformer.
Electric power : The rate of production or energy use electric on circle path in one unit.
watt : The measurement of electrical power. We study the uppercase acronym W instead. The
electrical has a figure that tell the electric power for example, each electrical light bulbs 1,000 watt,
toaster 1,000 watts
Kilowatt : The electrical power that is equal to 1,000 watts, we use the abbreviation KW because
in practice, the electrical load or burden is so much of a W AT units that make the call or save the
settings difficult and time consuming so we prefer to use kilowatt unit that is larger than this and there is
also a larger than kilowatts, mW (megawatt) which is equivalent to 1,000 kW or write a brief, 1 MW
338
Kilowatt – hour : The unit of measurement of electrical power at the time 1 hours, we use the
uppercase acronym KWH instead of normal. In normally,the power in house will be measured by the
measure of power (or that we called the meter) is measured in kilowatt-hours, or the so-called units
(Unit), and then for the price that we must pay equal to the number of units that we need to use multiplied
by electricity price per units
Alternating current : Electrical system has the direction of the electron has to switch at all
times. We use symbols instead with uppercase letters AC and are often used in home, building and
general factory.
Direct current : The electrical system has a elrectron runs to the same way at all times. And always
found that we widely use the battery charger, general flashlight, battery, car battery, etc. Use
uppercase letters DC is a symbol instead.
Circuit : The path to the electricity, and electricity flow through. Serial circuit or rating
circuit (series circuit): a circuit that has only one path from an electric power source through an
electric circuit to terminals of power supply, and this circuit may have switch fuse circuit - A circuit
breaker to series in order to prevent and control circuit
Parallelcircuit: The circuit has a passage of electrical current through the path, up to more
than 1 and there is a devices such as the lamp, socket to parallel. The advantages of the paralell
circuit device that, if equipment is not working or trouble.-The electrical circuits will not be a
parallel, in contrast with serial device on the circuit the other parallel still working.
The picture of parallel circuit
Open circuit :The situation is a lack of electrical circuit path, no circuit or no restting the circuit.
As a following,There is no current flow.
Short circuit : The circumstances is from a short-circuit current of the path of the cable, due to
the impressions of each other. There isn't any current leakage in each other.
339
Ampere : The units of measure the flow rate of the electricity through the conductor. We will
use uppercase acronym A or amp instead of normal and units ampere that is popular used to indicate the
max value of the current to work in the electrical outlet in safe, for example plug is15 ampere, fuse is 30
ampere.
Hertz : The frequency unit is round per second. The electron run in the direction , and then to
revert to the electrical supply, then there was a charge from the power supply to run out to retrace one's
steps in the direction of the direction of the electron 2 times ran against (in another word, since it was
their own run switch to switch), we call it 1 around that is the frequency of electrical system home that
we use the frequency 50 Hertz and Use symbols instead of HZ show
Ohm : The electrical resistance use symbols instead of with the omega ( ?) .The resistance try to
resist the flow of electrical current, resistance is both of the worker or interferes with the power to the
user's work, while using it as a control circuit or use insulation . For example, tape that used to trap the
cord from the wall and plastic socket prevent damage of the user. In addition,The use of resistance,
adjust the settings (rheostat) adjusts the brightness of a light, will prevent the users when they use the
small or very long power line cord or have corrosion in conductor. In accordance with the experience of
the conductor will be a cause of the added value of resistance to heat loss along with too much power to
the in-call.
Ohm’s law : The rules of the relationship between voltage, current and resistance in an
electric circuit, said that the current rule (I) is directly proportional to voltage (E) and is inversely
proportional to the value of resistance (R) . Formula I=E/R
Volt : The unit of measurement voltager or the pressure to cause a movement of the electron within the
electrical conductor. We use V, E or EMF(the abbreviation of voltage) instead of voltage. In usually, we
use Eand EMF that represent the electromotive force (is a one of the definition of volt) similar with
ampere, that is defined at electrical equipment, identify thre range of use of electromotive force as
working in safety such as motor 220 volt, The hairdryer 110 volt. We have to use the electrical equipment
associate with the electromotive force value.
Ammeter : A measure of the electrical one used to measure the electrical current that flows in a
circuit that we want to measure. We will normally use this tool to the serial circuit that we want to
measure the current, but there are tools that do not require special types of measurement circuit to rank in
the electrical circuit. We will discuss in subsequent chapters.
Ohm meter : A measure of the electrical power used to measure the resistance value , whe ohm
meter will be used , it is no need for any power from the power supply in the electrical circuit.
340
Volt meter : This is one of the electrical measurement tools used to measure voltage.
Multimeter : This is one of the electrical measurement tools to measure the voltage and current
values of resistance within this tool.
National Electric Code : It is a booklet that collect instructions and rules for electrical
installation,for the safety Even thoughม there will have plenty of content, but this booklet, it is not
intended for teaching or for people who have never been through the training. For thai people, we have
this booklet in many place such as the booklet of Metropolitian Electricity Authority,Ministry of Energy
that has a principle and regulation similar with NEC (National Electric Code) of other country
Circuit breaker : It is a protective device used in a limited current circuit. When the current
exceeds the limited value ,Circuit breaker will close,-CIRCUIT CURRENT flow into another circuit
until you press the button. In resently, circuit breaker is instead of switch-fuse because it can be
connected to the circuit to be new as soon as while the switch fuse must be replaced a new one and in a
electrical system 3-phase , if there was a lack of a single fuse , the power is remaining, only 2 phase that
may damage to burn up the motor phase 3.The main function of the circuit breaker is rely on the
principle of magnetic.When there is an electrical current flowing in a circuit, the magnetic field will pull
switches, circuit breaker and some circuit breaker, it also has integral overcurrent protection by virtue of
the current flow through the resistance, Bimetallic,( is metal that expansion in high temperature but
contraction in low temperature.).There will be more heat when the more current
flowingthrough,bimetallic will expand to pull the circuit breaker switch that we use the acronym of
bimetallic ,BC
Fuse : It is a protective device that limit the max level of current. When current surplus a limited
unit,fuse will be heat till melting, finally fuse is over. Fuse must be in series with the circuit
Transformer : This is the device used to change voltage higher or lower down to match the pressure of
the electrical equipment such as there a There are electric voltage 220 volts but washing machines is 110
volts. We have to use transformer to electric voltage from 220 to 110 volt that can apply with washing
machines. Moreover, we always use transformer with communication equipment within resident and
vocal system.
Phase : Type of electrical system such as 1phase 2line , 3phase 4line, Electrical Equipment 1 phase 2line
that is used in resident and the electricity system 3phase4line is widely used in large business and industry
341
Answer exercise chapter 1 : Topic Science process skills
1. B
2. B
3. D
4. C
6. A
7. B
8. C
9. A
11. A
12. A
13. A
14. C
16. D
17. D
18. C
19. B
21. A
22. B
23. B
24. C
26. D
27. D
28. D
29. D
5. C
10. D
15. D
20. C
25. D
30. B
Answer exercise : Topic Science skills
1. C
2. B
3. D
6. D
7. A
8. E
5. B
10. E
4. E
9. B,A
Answer exercise chapter 2 : Topic The science framework
1.B 2.A 3.C 4.C 5.C 6.B 7.B 8.A
9.C
10.A
Answer exercise chapter 7 Topic: Radio active
1.C 2.B 3.A 4.C 5.D 6.A 7.D 8.C 9.D 10.C
Answer exercise topic: Radio active
1. Radioactivity mean The radiation is spread out from their some type of elements deficiency anemia
iron
Radioactive element mean Elements is in the natural that can spread its radian.
2. Has 3 type
1. Alpha,( a)
2. Beta,( b)
3. Gamma,( g)
3. Benefits of iron deficiency anemia radioactivity
1. Paleogeography The C ” 14 calculate the age of antique. If you know the rate of
decomposition of C - 14 while there are still living, and you know the decomposition rate, while you
want to calculate anobject age, it can be done. For example, a carcass of Ancient animal life is the rate of
the C - 14 decomposition reduced to one half of the original while still alive because C - 14 years is half-
342
life that is 5730 year , it may be concluded that a carcass of ancient creatures that kind of life is
approximately 5730 years old
2. Medicine Cancer Treatment is used in some types of cancer by the Gamma radiation from cobalt - 60
to destroy cancer cells
3. Agriculture The agricultural uses radioactivity monitoring mineral circuration in the plant by starting
from the root absorption until of the transpiration leaf or use the study of minerals in plat.
4. Industry The metal industry in the manufacturing industry will take advantage of radioactivity in the
control of iron metal plate to be consistent throughout the thick plate
Answer exercise chapter 8 Topic chemical equation and chemical reaction
1. D
2. C
3. C
4. C
5. A
Answer exercise chapter 9 Topic pretolueam and polymer
Answer section 1
1. B
2. D
3. C
4. C
5. A
6. B
7. B
8. A
9. C
10. D
Answer section 2
1.
2.
Petroleum products from the solidity of the broken and the eagle from plants and
animal.that Mingle on the sediment in gravel, sand and mud under ground.
With time pass ,these sediments will be continue buried in the earth. Due to
the change of skin is packed with high pressure and high heat and a limited
amount of oxygen, it is a condition to be damaged,that will replace natural gas
and crude oil are inserted between layers of rock that have osteoporosis.
It can help to expected that you have the opportunity to guess. Structure and
type of stone that is favorable to the petroleum tank in the area. How much
more or less
343
3.
The measurement of the magnetic intensity of world will tell you to know of the
extent of the depth of the pan and the wide depth of rock.
- The measure of the gravity of the world that you will know of the kind of rock layer, which will
help you to determine the scope and shape of the pan under soil.
- Seismic wave will help to know position, characteristic and the structure of stone under soil .
4.
The product is from petroleum gas as a natural gas petroleum coal, minerals. In
addition, the product is made from vegetable oil and various parts of the plant
5.
Chain length polymer has high density, high melting point , solid ,sticky than
the other structure such as PVC , Polystyrene , Polyethylene
Branched polymer: There is a low density and melting point of the mixture ,low flexible structure
,change shape easily when the temperature increases.
Croos -linking polymer : The strength and easy-to-break got a sample of the Bakelite, malemin
used to make cups and dishes.
Answer exercise chapter 11 Topic hemicals for the life and the environment
1. D
2.B
3. C
4. D
5. B
6. C
7. B
8. D
Answer exercise chapter 13 Tipic Space technology
Answer test 1
Name-Surename.........................................................................No.................Class…….Year...........
1. At present, Thailand has it's own national communications satellite that is THAICOM. This
operation by a company Shin Satellite Public Company( Limited ) and now, the amout of national
communications satellite are
What are satellite and individual satellite in any year is sent. ( 2point)
Ans 1. THAICOM 1 is sended to its orbit 17 November 2536 ( 1point )
2. THAICOM 2 is sended to its orbit 7 October 2537 ( 1point )
3. THAICOM 3 is sended to its orbit 16 April 2540 ( 1 poiny)
344
2. What type of meteorology satellite that its location relationship with the world in the same
area.(4point) What type of satellite ?( 1point) Ans Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
This type of satellite orbits around the world, as far as it takes 24 hours equal with the time
when the earth rotated ( 1point) The orbits are located in central equator of the world and will go
to their orbits in the same way, its orbit around the world, with its own speed. So, the position of
satellite is associated with the satellite office on the earth. In the original coverage is from the
polar north to south poles of the earth and its orbit is high from the earth around 35,800 km
( 2 point)
 Information and photos of the world's atmospheric and broadcast information from the ground
station to make sure the air of the world official date. This data is come from what type of
satellite? Ans (1 point) Meteorogical satellite
 Spot satellite is owned by Centre National de Etudes Spatials together with EU country. This
satellite is used to take advantage for ? Ans ( 1 point) Observation satellite
 The information of the use of land , the hydrographic, the fisheries and the agriculture which they
come from what type satellite ? Ans( 1 point) Observation satellite
 Space craft mean ? ( 1 point) mean aircraft go out of the world with a man , tools and equipment
for survey or it may not be a man, but only a scientific tools and equipment
 Space mean ? Ans The outside world or outside space stars, so it is a space between the
moon and earth.
 Space craft has 2 type is Robotic spacecraft , Human spaceflight
 Space transportation system is a program that has been designed to be able to bring some of the
parts used and reuse it again that is the most cost-effective and efficient. Ans It id consist of
main 3 part is solid fuel rocket,externa fuel tanks(Store liquid hydrogen andoxygen) and
aerospace
 The main puepose of space transportation system in the future that is? Ans To create permanent
space stations and other scientific
345
Answer Test 2
1. What types of technology associated with the phenomenon on the world ? Ans
Meteorogical satellite Observation satellite Comunication satellite
2. What types of technology associated with the phenomenon on the space ?
Ans
1. Renjer project : Designed to aircraft crash into the moon
2. Lunar Orbiter : Assigned to aircraft to take a picture around the moon.
3. Surveyor : aircraft designed to be gentle on the floor, and parking.
4. Human spaceflight. USA is an owner
5. Mercury project : The purpose is to send human beings to their orbits in space for
human that can be in space
3. The Challenger and Columbia project serious losses when both aircraft explosion while in the
sky. The explosion of space transportation systems, when January 28 , 2529 during travel into
space is not just a few minutes away by reason of the fuel gas that is leaking.
4. Space transportation system : The purpose is to use as a vehicle for carrying things and human of
the outer space and to reduce the cost to go to the cosmos
5. Space probe : Aerospace vehicle that are used for exploraing the moon, and planets. The project
create a spaceship in the United States, and Russia that has created a spaceship to explore the
moon, and planets in the solar system.
346
Answer Test 3
For the students to see pictures, and then fill the number in the text box below in fron of the article
(8point)
F
D
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.C
11.
12.
B13.
14.
15.
16.
E
A
1.…D..….. Hard fire bucket separate out.
2.…...H.… Transport spacecraft into space orbits
3….F.….. Reduce the level orbits to the atmosphere.
4…..C….. External fire tank separate out.
5…..…E.. Transport Spacecraft operate space mission
6…..G…... Transport Spacecraft return to the earth
7…..A..….Reuse the fuel missile
8…...B…. Aerospace has been released from the base
H
G
347
Answer Test 4
Name-Surename...........................................................................No...............Class...........Year...........
The Apollo project is intended : ans Explore planets which planet ? Ans The moon
The Skylab projecy is intended :ans The research is to try to learn about space, the longest
natural resources such as medical physics
1. The Apollo-Soyuz is intended : ans To test the meeting system and aerospace
welding system
2. The transportation spacecraft is intened : ans The purpose is to use as a vehicle for
carrying things and human of the outer space and to reduce the cost to go to the
cosmos
3. THAICOM-1 is shooted from missile base,Arian space, Guru and what’s country:
:ans French Guiana, when December 17 , 2536
4. .What’s type of all THAICOM : ans communication satellite
5. The formation and movement of the storm we were able to know what type from the
satellites ? :ans Meteorogical satellite
6. Meteorological satellites have been sent to their orbits in space for the first time. When
April 1 , 2503 with the name that TIROS. What country is owner : ans
7. Meteorology satellites of its orbit around the earth, its orbit around the world from the
direction of any particular points of the compass
8. Spot satellites is owned by Institute of French National Space development with
European countries. What is the advantage of Spot satellites ? : ans conservation
satellite
348
Answer Exercise 5
1. Which’s first countries that can build a spaceship to explore the moon, and planets in the solar
system
Ans USA and USSR
2. Which project that is designed to provide aircraft crash into the moon Ans Renjer project
3. Which project assigned aircraft to take pictures around the moon Ans Lunar Orbiter project
4. Which project design to aircraft parking lot down gently on the floor ?
Ans Surveyer project
5. The purpose of the Apollo project is to bring human to explore the moon by taking an astronaut 3
people at a time. The project is the sequeue of Mercury and Gemini. The astronaut on the moon
landing is the first stop on the trip to space that is the same group of Apollo- 11. The project is
called Apollo success in its goal, there is only one of the accident while heading to the moon.
What ‘s this spacecraft ?
Ans Apollo-13
6. Transport aircraft of the United States in the present are 6
1. Enterprise As a preliminary test aircraft
2. Columbia
3. Discovery
4. Atlantis
5. Challenger bomb while into space January 28 , 2529
6. Endeavour
349
Bibliography
Self-Using the Chemicals [On-line]. Available form Searching on 28 August 2552 from
http://natres.psu.ac.th/.../510.../12.chemical%20safty%20uses.htm
Gene and Chromosome Transferation [On-line]. Available from URL
http://www.sahavicha.com/?name=knowledge&file= readknowledge&id=537 Reached on 17
June 2552
Cell Division. [On-line]. Available from URL(online) Available URL
http://student.nu.ac.th/phitsanu_edu/lesson/lesson_3.htm,
reached on 17 มิถุนายน 2552
Non-Formal Education,Department Science Studies in Secondary Mathayom. Bangkok : Tem
Printing, 2546.
Non-Formal Education,Department Science Studies in Secondary Mathayom. Bangkok : Tem
Printing, 2546.
Live Broadcast,Institute Non-Formal Education Department , Ministry of Education.
Live Broadcast Science Studies, Code SC 30 Secondary Mathayom. . Bangkok : Express
Transportation Organization of Thailand (TOT) 2547.
Denderous waste of Environment [On-line]. Available form searching on 28 August 2552
Foundation of Cell Structure [On-line]. Available from URL
http://www.geocities.com/p_ook_kung/cellstructure.htm
Amino Acid Structure [On-line]. Available form http://www.geocities.com/cartoon
532000/amino.html/. (Searched on : 13 August 2552).
Cellobiose Structure. [On-line]. Available form http://www.thuisexperimenteren.nl/science/
reageerbuisproeven/fehling/lactose_2.gif. (Searched on : 15 August 2552).
Monosaccharide Structure [On-line]. Available form
http://www.chemicalfromula.org/images/glucose.jpg. (Searched on : 15 August 2552).
Carbohydrate Structure. [On-line]. Available form
http://chemistry2.csudh.edu/rpendarvis/1feb23.gif. (Searched on : 15 August 2552).
Insulin Structure. [On-line]. Available form http://th.wikipedia.org/wiki/ (Searched on : 15 August 2552).
350
Hemoglobin Structure[On-line]. Available form http://images.google.co.th/imag. (Searched on : 15
August 2552).
Sucrose Structure. [On-line]. Available form
http://www.unisanet.unisa.edu.au/08365/timages/sucrose.jpg. (Searched on : 15 August 2552).
Lactose Structure. [On-line]. Available form http://www. 7Lactose_Haworth.svg.png.( Searched on :
15 August 2552).
Cell and Cell Devision [On-line]. Available from URL http://www.muic
hatyai.ac.th/redesign/download/cell_grade7.ppt#267, 11,Picture 11
Cell Structure and Duty [On-line]. Available from URL http://edtech.kku.ac.th/~s48221275012/4850501533/l2.html
Thalassemia. [On-line]. Available from URL: http://healtnet.md.chula.ac.th. . (Searched on : 5 January 2551).
Bongkoj Anantachotichai. Secondary Mathayom Science. Bangkok ฯ : Long File Edd.co.ltd, 2551.
Bancha Santawee and followers. Foundation book 1 Living things and processes Bangkok : Wattana
Panich , 2549.
Banyat Laiyphayak and followers . Science Department Seconday Mathayom. Bangkok : Bannagij
printing.Co.Ltd ,2546.
Pratum Phoygnam. Biological Studies manual. Lampang :
Lampang Science Studies Centre, 2551.
Pravit Chusin,Ass.Prof . and Suwat Niyomka,Ass.Prof. Theory and practice of Teaching Science
Knowledge base manual Book 1. Bangkok : General Book Centre.Co.Ltd, 2531.
Chemical impact for Health [On-line]. Available form Searching on 28 August 2552
from http://www.doae.go.th/report/sukda/pol/page01.html
fruits. [On-line]. Available from URL http://www.moac.infa.net/module/new. (Searched on :
5 January 2551).
Pornpan Larstaveesin. Industirial microbe Uesage . Bangkok : Kruspa commercial Centre , 2544.
Payouw Yindee and followers ะ. Foundation Biology Book Bangkok : Pattanakunaparp Vichakarn, 2546.
Pacharee Phiwatwarnakul. Biology book. Bangkok : Physics Centre, 2542.
Education, Ministry. Science Structure . Bangkok :Krusapha printing Ladprao, 2544.
Pachari Pipatwannakul. Additional Science Studies. Bangkok : Physics Centre, 2546.
Vinai Vittayalai . M.6 Book 2 035 . bamgkok : Physics Centr Ltd.Partnership, 2540.
Education ,Ministry. Chemistry Book 1 (S 432). Bangkok : Krusapha printing Ladprao, 2541.
351
Education ,Ministry Chemistry Book 2 (S 036). Bangkok : Krusapha printing Ladprao, 2542.
Promotion Science and Technology, Institute Science and Technology manual , Bangkok : Institute of
Promotion Science and Technology,
2531.
Protein Function. [On-line]. Available form: http://thapring.com/Pingpong-web/Biomolecules-web/Protein-04.html.
(Searched on : 13 August 2552).
Monosodium Glutamate. [On-line]. Available form Searched on 24 August 2552 from
http://ednet.kku.ac.th/sumcha/chem/pages/content-pb1_6
Daily Chemicals. [On-line]. Available form Searched on 25 August 2552 from
http:// ednet.kku.ac.th/sumcha/chem/pages/links.htm
Surasak Amonratranasak. Mathematics 2. Bangkok : Acadamic Support Centre
Suwatana Calnddee. Teaching Science Technology (Experience Versuib). 2534, Spread Documents.
Suntorn . chemistry Book 2 S 036 . Bangkok : Pattana Suksa Printing, 2545.
Sawai Fakkhao . Science Project. Bangkok : Aimpan, 2540.
educational supervisor, Department of Vocational Education. Science Project. 2544, Spread Documents.
Embryo Growing Evidence. [on-line]. Reached on : http://Sema.go.th.
(Searched on: 15 December 2550).
Resemblance Structure Evidence [On-line]. Available from URL http://ebook.nfe.go.th/
ebook/html. (Searched on: 15 December 2550).
Aram Kumsrup . Science Secondary Mathayom . Nonthaburi : Piyamitra Multimedia.Co.Ltd, 2546.
Kingdom Plantae. [On-line]. Available from URL http://images.goegle.co.th. (Searched on : 17 January
2550).
Kingdom Animalia. [On-line]. Available from URL http://images.goegle.co.th. (Searched on : 17 January
2550).
Archaeopteryx. [On-line]. Available from : http://www. clamisela.com/200/photo/cg4/ archaeopteryx.jpg.
(cited 2008 Dec 15).
DNA. [On-line]. Available from : http://www.allposters.com. (cited 2009 Jan 10).
Fungi. [On-line]. Available from : http://www.willams class.com/sixth science work.
(cited 2009 Jan 17).
Homologous structure. [On-line]. Available from : http://taggart.glg.edu/isb 200/HoMol.GIF.
(cited 2008 Dec 15).
Monera. [On-line]. Available from : http://web.kku.ac.th/tunproject/jan46/new/spirah.jpg.
352
(cited 2009 Jan 17).
phospholipid. [On-line]. Available from : http:// www.indiana.edu/~oso/Fat/FatImg/lecithin.jpg
(cited 2009 Aug 17).
Protista. [On-line]. Available from : http://www.vcharkarn.com./upbads/21/21202.jpg.
(cited 2009 Jan 17).
Pteranodon. [On-line]. Available from : http://www.upload.wikimedia.org/wiki/image. Pteranodon. (cited 2008
Dec 15).
saturated fatty acid. [On-line]. Available from : http:// bioweb.wku.edu/courses
/bioweb.wku.edu/courses/biol115/Wyatt/Biochem/Lipid/saturated_FA.gif.. (cited 2009 Aug 17).
Sex chromosome. [On-line]. Available from : http://www.geocities.com. (cited 2009 Jan 11).
Trisomy 21. [On-line]. Available from : http://www.csulb.edu/kmacd/361 6 on.
(cited 2009 Jan 11).