Cheese Guide 031512 - PERFORMANCE Foodservice

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Cheese Guide 031512 - PERFORMANCE Foodservice
2012
SPECIAL EDITION
A Cheese Buyers’ Guide
A publication of
800-275-9500
•
www.per formancefoodser vice.com/afi
BelGioioso Cheese Tray
(Auribella®, Fontina, American Grana®,
Creamy Gorg®, Sharp Provolone)
867317…..5/2 lb avg.
See your Sales Rep to Special Order for the Holidays
58259 .......Deluxe Fruit Salad - pineapple,oranges,cantaloupe,honeydew,grapes .....1/8 lb
71882 .......Deluxe Fruit Salad - pineapple,oranges,cantaloupe,honeydew,grapes .....1/24 lb
Mascarpone Tub - TFF
Asiago Quarter Wheel
Crumbly Gorgonzola Half Wheel
883689 .....Fruit Salad Al Fresco - NO PRESERVATIVES, pineapple,oranges,
34391…..4/5 lb
885456…..2/6 lb
926596…..1/10 lb avg
cantaloupe, honeydew,grapes .................................................................1/14 lb
227832 .....Fruit Salad 1/4” Diced - pineapple,oranges,cantaloupe,honeydew..........1/8 lb
297943 .....Mango/Pineapple 1/4” Diced ................................................................1/8 lb
412380 .....Grapefruit Segments ...............................................................................1/8 lb
933286 .....Golden Pineapple Sections .....................................................................1/8 lb
948957 .....Orange Segments ...................................................................................1/8 lb
974844 .....Honeydew Chunks...................................................................................1/8 lb
974908 .....Cantalope Chunks ..................................................................................1/8 lb
850646.....Sliced Red Apples ...................................................................................36/2 oz
For samples contact SANDY CHAPMAN of Invision Brokers at 973-714-1443
Fresh Mozzarella Pre-Sliced Log
875678…..8/1 lb
Parmesan Cheese Wheel
962520…..2/6 lb
W
elcome to our annual Cheese Guide. The purpose of this Cheese Guide is to help you better
understand the differences in cheeses and provide you with a full listing of all the different
cheeses stocked by AFI. Detailed descriptions and applications of some of your favorite cheeses
are presented along with the different factors that categorize cheeses such as aging, texture, methods of
production, types of milk and regions of origin.
We hope the basic information contained in this guide will help you to be more equipped in making cheese
a successful part of your menu.
Michelle Kelly
Dairy Category Manager
Performance Foodservice - AFI
How to
C
heese is a fresh or ripened
product made from coagulated milk. Cheese can be differentiated both by the type of
milk - raw, skimmed or pasteurized, and
by animal - cow, goat, sheep, buffalo,
horse or camel. For all of them however,
there are four major stages in the basic
process:
• Curdling or coagulation of the milk
• Shaping of the curds (de-molding
and draining)
• Salting, washing and seeding
• Maturing
Curdling or coagulation of the milk
pared for soft cheeses, a medium-sized
curd for rmer cheeses and a small curd
for hard cheeses. The curds are cut up
into lumps. The curd mass is constantly
stirred to prevent it from agglomerating
again. The duration of this cutting up
(de-curding) period also varies according to the cheese. For many cheeses,
a medium- sized curd is prepared rst.
It gives off more whey when it is stirred
and warmed. There are several methods for removing the curds from the
vat for draining. A draining-board in
long grooves is used and the entire vat
poured onto it for goat’s cheeses. Ladles
may also be used to transfer the curds
directly into moulds containing holes
through which the whey can run off. With
pressed cheeses, strong cloth which allows the whey to lter through the holes
and retains the curds is used.
on repeated occasions after it has been
removed from the mould. Washed-rind
cheeses are brushed or washed with salt
at regular intervals during their maturation, preventing the formation of mould
and keeping the rind soft. Cheeses may
be washed in spirits (wine or bear).
Cheeses can be seeded with fungus
to produce the soft white down of their
“bloomy” rind, or the blue-green veining
of “blue” cheeses.
Maturing
Salting, washing and seeding
The rst step in cheese making is to
coagulate the milk solids into a curd. It
can be done either by acid coagulation
or rennet coagulation. Acid coagulation
is caused by adding an acid substance
(lemon juice, vinegar) or by adding a
bacterial culture that turns the lactose
into lactic acid. Renneting consists in
adding the rennet to the heated milk.
Coagulation, which cannot take place
under 10 C, is activated at temperatures
between 20 and 40 C. The coagulation
period depends on the type of cheese
and varies from 30 minutes to 36 hours.
Shaping of the curds
The curds are broken down in a vat to
separate the curds from the whey. As
larger cheese curds contain more water
than small ones, a large curd is pre-
Salt plays a substantial role in cheesemaking. Salting serves a number of functions; it speeds up the drying process,
heightens the cheese’s avor, helps the
rind to form and slows down the proliferation of micro-organisms. Each type
of cheese has a specied salt content.
The most common method is an immersion in a brine bath. Depending on the
cheese, the brine will contain between
250 and 350g salt per liter. Dry-salting
is done by rubbing the cheese with salt
4
The environment in which the majority of
cheeses are ripened is usually a ripening
cellar or a special storage room. Cheesemakers are often putting their cheeses
in drying-rooms to speed up the maturation. The ripening cellar may be humid
and warm, or relatively cool. The climate
of the cellar is determined by the ambient temperature and relative humidity,
as well as by the natural movement of
air in the space. The temperature can
range from 32 to 77 F, but the majority
of cheeses are ripened at between 46
and 60 F. During the maturation period
there is a constant exchange between
ripening gases, such as carbon dioxide
and ammonia, from the cheese and
oxygen in the air, which is essential for
the growth of both aerobic surface ora
and interior ora.
Cheeses According
to Hardness and Rind
Soft white cheeses
Bloomy-rind cheeses
Blue-mold cheeses
These cheeses are the simplest type.
They are neither fermented nor matured.
Their high moisture content, coupled
with the high humidity, attracts and encourages the growth of the classic white
penicillium mold. This type of cheese is
creamy and smooth. They are based on
cow’s milk, skimmed or unskimmed, and
sometimes enriched with cream.
These cheeses are neither pressed nor
cooked. They are salted and seeded with
penicillium candidum that gives them
their bloom (the white down that takes
on a golden aspect as it ages.) (Brie and
Camembert)
Blue mold is a strain of penicillium that
is added to the milk before the rennet is added either in liquid or powder
form. Most blue cheeses are normally
wrapped in foil to prevent them from
drying out. They are neither pressed nor
cooked. They are usually made from
cow’s milk.
Pressed, uncooked cheeses
Pressed, cooked cheeses
Washed-rind cheeses
The pressed uncooked family offers a
variety of textures, from the very creamy
(Morbier), to more supple (Doux de Montagne), to rm (Manchego). Some have
rinds while others don’t. Even the colors
and avors vary from mild (Cheddar), to
full-avored (Etorki). Created by taking
the curds and pressing them into molds,
they are then carefully aged anywhere
from ve weeks to six months, although
some can mature as long as three years.
This family will please almost everyone
due to its versatility.
Often large in size and taste, pressed
cooked cheeses are created by heating
the curds (cooked), and then placing
and pressing them in molds. The cheese
is then soaked in brine. As fermentation
proceeds, depending on the temperature and specic enzymes, the cheese
will have many holes (Emmental) or very
few holes (Gruyère).
The rinds in this family are washed and
brushed in brine during the ripening
process. The brine, depending on the
cheese type and region, may include
wine, beer, eau de vie, etc. The brushing
allows the salt to penetrate the cheese
and keeps the paste soft. This treatment smoothes the rind and gives it a
coloring that ranges from straw yellow to
dark, brick red. The washed-rind family
includes many of Europe’s strongest avored and most aromatic cheeses, such
as French Munster, German Limburger,
and Italian Taleggio.
Natural-rind cheeses
Processed cheeses
This cheese is mainly goat’s and
sheep’s cheese. When young, they have
a slightly wrinkled, cream-colored rind.
In time they dry out, the wrinkles become more pronounced and the character and avor increases, along with the
growth of bluish grey mold. Their taste is
fresh, almost fruity, with undertones of
goat. To mature, these cheeses must be
kept dry. (Stilton, Parmigiano Reggiano
and Montogomery Cheddar.
Is the result of melting one or more
pressed, cooked or uncooked cheeses,
and adding milk, cream, butter and
sometimes avoring agents. One or
several ripened cheeses are heated and
mixed, then pasteurized at high temperature (130-140 C) after other dairy
products, such as liquid or powdered
milk, cream, butter, casein, whey, and
seasoning, have been added.
Cheese Classied by Texture and Types
The texture of cheese can run from extremely hard and granular (Parmesan Reggiano) to runny (aged Brie).
Categorizing cheeses by rmness is a common but inexact practice. The lines between “soft”, “semi-soft”, “semi-hard”,
and “hard” are arbitrary, and many types of cheese are made in softer or rmer variations.
The factor that controls cheese hardness is moisture content, which depends on the pressure
with which it is packed into molds, and aging time.
5
Factors in CATEGORIZATION
of Cheeses
Length of aging • Methods of making • Kind of milk
• Texture • Fat content • Country/Region of origin
Soft/Fresh Cheeses
Blue Cheeses
Is a category of cheeses with high moisture content that are typically direct set
with the addition of lactic acid cultures.
Cheeses in this category include Cottage
Cheese, Cream Cheese, Feta, Mascarpone, and Neufchatel, Ricotta and
Queso Blanco. These cheeses must be
consumed quickly; they are not made
to age.
Blue vein cheese is identied by the thin
lines of blue that thread through the otherwise cream colored cheese. When you
eat blue vein cheese you will notice that
the cheese has a strong, pungent scent
and that it tastes tangy. Most types of
blue vein cheese are a soft cheese that
can be easily spread on a cracker or
slice of toast, but there are some that
have a crumbling texture.
Blue and Gorgonzola, two well-loved
Blue-veined cheeses, are known for their
crumbly texture and distinct avor. Sweet
and nutty accompaniments such as fruit,
almonds, and spices help balance the
saltiness of these cheeses.
Soft-Ripened Cheeses
Soft-ripened cheeses are uncooked,
unpressed cheese, which, as a result,
are creamy or even runny when fully
ripe. They ripen from the outside in, and
have been allowed to mature to various
degrees. Some soft-ripened cheeses
ripen (or age) inside of a uffy white rind
and become softer and creamier as they
age. The rind is edible and is produced
by spraying the surface of the cheese
with Penicillium candidum. Soft-ripened
cheeses are snowy-white and delicious
at room temperature or served warm out
of the oven. These cheeses, including
Brie and Camembert, have an earthy,
creamy avor that pairs well with fruits
like melon and berries as well as sundried tomatoes.
Semi-Soft Cheeses
Soft, yet sliceable, these cheeses are
pressed and may be cooked or uncooked. The texture has a slightly harder texture than the soft category. These
cheeses contain a high percentage of
moisture, ranging between 62% and
67%. Semi-soft cheeses are a smorgasbord of avor – ranging from mild and
buttery to earthy and pungent. Some
favorites are Fontina, Havarti, Muenster
and Monterey Jack.
Semi-Hard Cheeses
A classication of cheese based upon
body. The descriptions semi-hard and
hard refer mainly to moisture content,
not to texture. The cheeses in this category actually include a broad range of
textures, from semi-rm to very rm and
from cheeses that are only weeks old
to those aged up to several months or
more. Because these cheeses contain
less moisture than the soft and softripened types, they hold their shape
much better. The difference between
semi-hard and semi-soft cheese is one
of moisture: Semi-soft cheese contains
more than 45% water, while semi-hard
cheeses contain 30% to 45%.
Hard Cheeses
Hard cheese is known as rm cheese.
They have a dry, granular paste and are
the hardest of all cheeses, solid and
heavy. Hard cheeses typically are aged
more than two years, during which the
water and moisture evaporate to make
the paste hard (to be classied as a hard
6
cheese, the water content must be less
than 40%). Hard paste cheeses vary tremendously: They can be pungent, sharp,
aromatic or piquant; cooked, semicooked or uncooked; and range in color
from stark white to deep yellow, orange
or brown. cheese aging
The cheeses are covered with a very
hard rind, which solidies as they age.
Examples include Asiago, Manchego,
and Parmesan.
Pasteurized Process
& Cold Pack Cheeses
These cheeses are creamy, smooth
cheese product made with natural
cheese combined with other ingredients, usually more milk and/or milk
solids, and water, plus stabilizers for
longer shelf life. The combination is then
heated and mixed into a homogeneous
blend with the end result a cheese that
melts and ows. This melting property
is due to the emulsifying salts (phosphates or citrates), which bind minerals
in the natural cheese to interact with
the fat and water. Natural cheeses,
when melted, often show a separation
from the natural oils and proteins and
produce a lumpy appearance. In some
cases processed cheeses contain added
colorings and preservatives. Products
labeled cheese “spreads” or cheese
“foods” contain added liquid for a softer,
more spreadable mixture. According
to U.S. Government standards, only 51
percent of the nal weight needs to be
cheese. Processed cheeses keep well
but lack the distinctive avor and texture
of natural cheeses.
AFI #
BRAND
ITEM
PACK/SIZE
SOFT/FRESH CHEESES.......................................................
29131 ....... Antonio ..................... CHEESE IMPASTADA TFF............................. 1/10 lb
929148 ..... Antonio ..................... CHEESE MOZZ BALL CRYVC TFF .................. 12/1 lb
27184 ....... Antonio ..................... CHEESE CURD FRSH TFF ............................ 2/22.5 lb
897216 ..... Antonio ..................... CHEESE MOZZ LOAF ................................... 2/3 lb
52893 ....... Antonio ..................... CHEESE MOZZ MEDALLION IN WATER ......... 2/3 lb
898138 ..... Antonio ..................... CHEESE RICOTTA WHL MILK TFF ................. 2/3 lb
895423 ..... Antonio ..................... CHEESE MOZZ SHEETS TFF ......................... 3/2 lb
929616 ..... Antonio ..................... CHEESE MOZZ LOAF FIRM FRSH TFF ........... 4/5 lb
33338 ....... Antonio ..................... CHEESE RICOTTA PART SKIM MILK ............. 6/3 lb
29126 ....... Antonio ..................... CHEESE RICOTTA WHL MILK TFF ................. 6/3 lb
277642 .....Assoluti Fresh ..........CHEESE MOZZ BOCCONCINI 1.6 OZ ..........2/3 lb
277653 .....Assoluti Fresh ..........CHEESE MOZZ CILIEGINE 3 OZ .................2/3 lb
277660 .....Assoluti Fresh ..........CHEESE MOZZ OVOLINE 4 OZ....................2/3 lb
277662 .....Assoluti Fresh ..........CHEESE MOZZ PEARLINI 20 OZ.................2/3 lb
277647 .....Assoluti Fresh ..........CHEESE RICOTTA WHL MILK .....................2/3 lb
277661 .....Assoluti Fresh ..........CHEESE MOZZ LOG 1 LB IN WATER............2/4 lb
277646 .....Assoluti Fresh ..........CHEESE MOZZ 16 OZ ...............................2/6 lb
277648 .....Assoluti Fresh ..........CHEESE RICOTTA WHL MILK .....................6/3 lb
232973.....Assoluti ...................CHEESE RICOTTA W/M ............................6/3 lb
34391 ....... BelGioioso Cheese .... CHEESE MASCARPONE TUB TFF ................. 4/5 lb
875678 ..... BelGioioso Cheese .... CHEESE MOZZ SL 16 CT FRSH LOG ............. 8/1 lb
294374 ..... Breakstones .............. CHEESE COTTAGE PINEAPPLE DBL.............. 12/3.9 oz
294372 ..... Breakstones .............. CHEESE COTTAGE STRWBRY DBL................ 12/3.9 oz
925397 ..... Friendship ................. CHEESE COTTAGE W/PINEAPPLE ................ 12/8 oz
942554 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE FETA IN BRINE TFF ......................... 1/9 lb
915028 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE FETA CRUMBLE TFF ....................... 2/5 lb
257107 ..... Lupara ...................... CHEESE MOZZ DI BUFFALO IMP FZ ............. 12/7 oz
266183 ..... Marmaris .................. CHEESE FETA ............................................. 1/18 lb
267035 ..... Marmaris .................. CHEESE FETA DOME ................................... 1/27 lb
268196 ..... Marmaris .................. CHEESE FETA DOM CVP .............................. 1/4 lb
266370 ..... Marmaris .................. CHEESE FETA DOM ..................................... 1/8 lb
266186 ..... Marmaris .................. CHEESE FETA CRUMBLE ............................. 2/5 lb
266184 ..... Marmaris .................. CHEESE FETA ............................................. 2/8 lb
268195 ..... Marmaris .................. CHEESE FETA CVP ...................................... 8/4 lb
887281 ..... Organic Valley ........... CHEESE CREAM SPREAD ORGANIC ............ 100/1 oz
979007 ..... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM ......................................... 1/30 lb
2312 ......... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM NEUFCHATEL LF TFF .......... 1/30 lb
80243 ....... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM ORGNL ............................. 1/50 lb
27148 ....... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM CHIVE & ONION CUP ......... 100/1 oz
753 ........... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM CUP GARDEN VEG TFF ....... 100/1 oz
44850 ....... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM CUP TFF ............................ 100/1 oz
52155 ....... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM SPREAD SQUEEZE ............ 100/1 oz
29077 ....... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM LITE CUP TFF ..................... 100/3/4oz
944081 ..... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM BAR .................................. 36/8 oz
55749 ....... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM LOAF................................. 6/3 lb
2297 ......... Philadelphia .............. CHEESE CREAM NEUFCHATEL LIGHT ........... 6/3 lb
924828 ..... Pollio ........................ CHEESE CURD WHL MILK SPLIT .................. 2/21 lb
896704 ..... Raskas ...................... CHEESE CREAM TFF ................................... 1/3 lb
880676 ..... Raskas ...................... CHEESE CREAM GARDEN VEG TFF .............. 100/.75 oz
857664 ..... Raskas ...................... CREAM CHEESE SPREAD CUP TFF .............. 100/1 oz
232124 .....Roma .......................CHEESE MASCARPONE ............................6/1 lb
53761 ....... Sorrento .................... CHEESE MASCARPONE BULK ..................... 1/5 lb
75374 ....... Sorrento .................... CHEESE MASCARPONE BULK ..................... 4/5 lb
988821 ..... Sorrento .................... CHEESE RICOTTA ........................................ 4/5 lb
229618 ..... T&L Salads ................ CHEESE CREAM LIGHT IN TUB .................... 1/5 lb
237868 ..... T&L Salads ................ SPREAD CHEESE CREAM PLN ..................... 1/5 lb
8
AFI #
BRAND
ITEM
PACK/SIZE
SOFT/FRESH CHEESES
237844 ..... T&L Salads ................ SPREAD CHEESE CREAM W/LOX ................ 1/5 lb
237866 ..... T&L Salads ................ SPREAD CHEESE CREAM W/ONION GRN .... 1/5 lb
237864 ..... T&L Salads ................ SPREAD CHEESE CREAM W/VEG ................ 1/5 lb
237867 ..... T&L Salads ................ SPREAD CHEESE CREAM W/WALNUT ......... 1/5 lb
944095 ..... Temp-Tee ................... CHEESE CREAM SM ................................... 12/8 oz
44217 ....... Vermont Butter & Chs CREME FRAICHE ........................................ 2/4.75 lb
995483 ....West Creek ..............CHEESE CREAM ......................................1/3 lb
999959.....West Creek ..............CHEESE CREAM ......................................1/30 lb
999958.....West Creek ..............CHEESE CREAM ......................................10/3 lb
SOFT RIPED CHEESES ..........................................................
948156 ..... Boursin ..................... CHEESE BOURSIN ...................................... 12/5 oz
972257 ..... Eiffel Tower ................ CHEESE BRIE CANADIAN TFF ...................... 1/1 kg
228501 ..... Eiffel Tower ................ CHEESE FRNCH BRIE WHEEL ...................... 1/1 kg
990033 ..... Joan Of Arc ................ CHEESE BRIE WHEEL 60% FRNCH .............. 2/2.2lb
905517 ..... Montchevre ............... CHEESE GOAT LOG PLN .............................. 12/10.5 oz
230793 ..... Montchevre ............... CHEESE GOAT CRUMBLE ............................ 2/2 lb
905724 ..... Montchevre ............... CHEESE GOAT LOG PLN .............................. 2/2 lb
907924 ..... Montchevre ............... CHEESE GOAT PLN TUB............................... 2/4 lb
292310 ..... Montchevre ............... CHEESE GOAT MEDALLION 1 OZ ................. 64/1 oz
27049 ....... Packer....................... CHEESE ST ANDRE ..................................... 1/4.5 lb avg
234358 ..... President................... CHEESE BRIE FRNCH TIN ............................ 12/4 oz
866680 ..... President................... CHEESE BRIE PLN 60 %.............................. 2/3 kg
SEMI-SOFT CHEESES ............................................................
284946 ..... Atalanta .................... CHEESE BOX VAR GRMT IMP ...................... 1/11 lb
29011 ....... Biery ......................... CHEESE MONT_JCK SLCD 3/4 OZ TFF ........ 2/5 lb
28971 ....... Biery ......................... CHEESE PEPPER JCK HOT SLCD .................. 2/5 lb
944815 ..... Biery ......................... CHEESE MUENSTER SLCD .......................... 5/2 lb
259012 ..... Cabot Creamery ........ CHEESE PEPPERJACK LOAF TFF .................. 2/5 lb
885443..... Danamark ................. CHEESE HAVARTI W/DILL ........................... 1/9 lb
922448 ..... Danish ...................... CHEESE FONTINA ....................................... 1/15 lb
74374........ Great Lakes ............... CHEESE MONT_JCK W/PEPPER TFF ............ 1/10 lb avg
79984 ....... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE MONT_JCK BLOCK ........................ 1/40 lb
929324 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE HAVARTI TFF.................................. 1/9 lb
923928 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE MUENSTER LOAF TFF..................... 2/6 lb avg
53962 ....... Land O Lakes ............. CHEESE MONT_JCK SLCD .75 OZ ............... 8/1.5 lb
866391 ..... Mccadam .................. CHEESE MUENSTER LOAF .......................... 2/6 lb avg
255198 ..... Northland.................. CHEESE MUENSTER SHRED ....................... 4/5 lb
270917 ..... Northland.................. CHEESE PEPPERJACK FTHR SHRED ............ 4/5 lb
948139 ..... Packer....................... CHEESE JARLSBERG WHEEL ....................... 1/20 lb
156571 ..... Packer....................... CHEESE FARMER LOAF ............................... 9/3 lb
949447 ..... Safre ......................... CHEESE PORT SALUT TFF ............................ 1/4.5lb
953604 ..... Schreiber .................. CHEESE MONT_JCK CUBED 3/4” ............... 2/5 lb
158817 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE MONT_JCK PRINT .......................1/10 lb avg
157186 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE MONT_JCK BLOCK ......................1/42 lb avg
158812 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE MONT_JCK FTHR SHRED TFF ........4/5 lb
BLUE VEINED CHEESES ......................................................
926596 ..... BelGioioso Cheese .... CHEESE GORGONZOLA WHEEL ................... 1/10 lb avg
242673 ..... Green Isle .................. CHEESE BLUE DANISH WHEEL .................... 1/6 lb avg
997869 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE BLUE CRUMBLE DOM TFF.............. 1/5 lb
957308 ..... Ilchester .................... CHEESE SAGE DERBY WHEEL TFF ............... 1/6.5 lb
30826 ....... Maytag ...................... CHEESE BLUE WHEEL ................................. 1/4.6 lb
247544 ..... Mosaic ...................... CHEESE BLUE CRUMBLES TFF .................... 4/5 lb
263721 .....Roma .......................CHEESE BLUE CRUMBLES........................1/5 lb
9
Fresh
Mozzarella
& Ricotta
277642 ........Bocconcini Mozzarella Cheese - 1.6 oz ........................... 2/3 lb
277653 ........Ciliengine Mozzarella Cheese - 3 oz ............................... 2/3 lb
277646 ........Mozzarella Cheese - 16 oz.............................................. 2/6 lb
277661 ........Mozzarella Log in water - 1 lb ......................................... 2/4 lb
277660 ........Ovoline Mozzarella Cheese - 4 oz ................................... 2/3 lb
277662 ........Pearlini Mozzarella Cheese - .2 oz .................................. 2/3 lb
277649 ........Ricotta Cheese - part skim ............................................. 6/3 lb
277647 ........Ricotta Cheese - whole milk ........................................... 2/3 lb
277648 ........Ricotta Cheese - whole milk ........................................... 6/3 lb
10
AFI #
BRAND
ITEM
PACK/SIZE
BLUE VEINED CHEESES
263722.....Roma .......................CHEESE GORGONZOLA CRUMBLE.............1/5 lb
263725.....Roma .......................CHEESE BLUE CRUMBLES........................4/5 lb
977783 ..... Saga ......................... CHEESE BLUE TFF ...................................... 2/2.75 lb
983633 ..... Stella ........................ CHEESE BLUE WHEEL ................................. 1/7 lb avg
377 ........... Stella ........................ CHEESE GORGONZOLA DOM TFF ................ 1/7.5 lb avg
SEMI-HARD CHEESES ..........................................................
896030 ..... Dutch Mill ................. CHEESE GOUDA SMKD ............................... 1/6 lb
942255 ..... The Laughing Cow...... CHEESE GOUDA MINI ................................. 72/.75 oz
918393 ..... Maybud ..................... CHEESE GOUDA BABY RND TFF .................. 12/7 oz
862192 ..... Mill Dance ................. CHEESE GOUDA RED WAX .......................... 1/10 lb
PROVOLONE CHEESES ........................................................
242288 ..... Auricchi ..................... CHEESE PROV SALAMI AGED DOM ............. 1/15 lb avg
677 ........... Biery ......................... CHEESE PROV SLCD 3/4 OZ ....................... 2/5 lb
991133 ..... County Line ............... CHEESE PROV LOAF CRYVC ........................ 1/12 lb
984734 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE PROV TFF ...................................... 1/10 lb avg
211705 .....Rafnato .................CHEESE PROV LOAF .................................1/12 lb avg
197506 .....Rafnato .................CHEESE PROV LOAF .................................3/12 lb avg
232215 .....Roma .......................CHEESE PROV STICK SUPER DLX ..............2/12 lb avg
964509..... Sorrento .................... CHEESE PROV LOAF ................................... 1/12 lb avg
MOZZARELLA CHEESES ......................................................
294206.....Bacio .......................CHEESE BLND PREM SHRED 50/50..........6/5 lb
294205.....Bacio .......................CHEESE P/S PREM SHRED.......................6/5 lb
287633 .....Bacio .......................CHEESE PREM P/S BLOCK .......................8/6 lb avg
287632 .....Bacio .......................CHEESE PREM WM BLOCK .......................8/6 lb avg
294204 ....Bacio .......................CHEESE WM PREM SHRED .......................6/5 lb
253802 ..... County Line ............... CHEESE MOZZ SHRED FTHR WM................. 1/5 lb
264774 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE MOZZ WM LOAF ............................ 1/6 lb avg
885968 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE MOZZ WM LOAF ............................ 8/6 lb
883498 ..... Kraft ......................... CHEESE MOZZ & CHED TWIST UM .............. 48/.75 oz
883612 ..... Kraft ......................... CHEESE MOZZ STRING PART SKIM ............. 48/1 oz
79047.......Luigi ........................CHEESE MOZZ BLND FTHR SHRED ............6/5 lb
270135 .....Luigi ........................CHEESE MOZZ P/S ..................................8/6 lb avg
238619 .....Luigi ........................CHEESE MOZZ WM LOAF ..........................1/6 lb avg
243384.....Luigi ........................CHEESE MOZZ WM LOAF ..........................8/6 lb avg
932073 ..... Organic Valley ........... CHEESE STRING STRINGLES ORGANIC ....... 96/1 oz
27103 ....... Packer....................... CHEESE MOZZ SMKD ................................. 1/6 lb
232981.....Piancone .................CHEESE MOZZ LMPS FTHR SHRED ............6/5 lb
232989.....Piancone .................CHEESE MOZZ WM FTHR SHRED...............6/5 lb
74067 ....... Pollio ........................ CHEESE MOZZ SMKD LOAF......................... 2/6 lb
881651 ..... Polly-O ...................... CHEESE MOZZ LOAF WM SP BLUE .............. 8/7.5 lb
886832 ..... Polly-O ...................... CHEESE MOZZ WHL MILK ........................... 12/16 oz
298569 ..... Polly-O ...................... CHEESE STRING LMPS 1 OZ ....................... 12/12 oz
197500 .....Rafnato .................CHEESE MOZZ FTHR SHRED LMPS ............6/5 lb
197498 .....Rafnato .................CHEESE MOZZ LOAF LMPS .......................8/6 lb avg
197499 .....Rafnato .................CHEESE MOZZ LOAF WHL MILK TFF ...........8/6 lb avg
197501 .....Rafnato .................CHEESE MOZZ WM FTHR SHRED...............6/5 lb
249312 .....Roma .......................CHEESE MOZZ PREMIATO WM RIBBON .....5/11 lb avg
232144 .....Roma .......................CHEESE MOZZ W/M CLASSICO ................10/6 lb avg
243103 ..... Sargento ................... CHEESE MOZZ SLCD LMPS ......................... 360/.66 oz
989133 ..... Sorrento .................... CHEESE MOZZ SHRED WHL MILK................ 6/5 lb
916459 ..... Sorrento .................... CHEESE MOZZ WHL MILK LOAF ................... 8/5 lb avg
243113 ..... Ultimo ....................... CHEESE PIZZA 5 BLND FTHR SHRED ........... 4/5 lb
11
Natural Cheese
199428 ................Mild Cheddar Cheese - feather shredded ..............1/5 lb
158811 ................Mild Shredded Cheddar Cheese ...........................4/5 lb
158814 ................Monterey Jack Cheese - fancy shredded ...............4/5 lb
158813 ................Cheddar & Jack Cheese - shredded ......................4/5 lb
158820 ................Sliced Yellow Cheddar - .75 oz..............................6/1.5 lb
158816 ................Mild Yellow Cheddar Cheese ................................1/10 lb avg
158818 ................Sharp Yellow Cheddar Cheese ..............................1/10 lb avg
157185 ................Mild Cheddar Block .............................................1/42 lb avg
12
AFI #
BRAND
ITEM
PACK/SIZE
CHEDDAR CHEESES ...............................................................
897386 ..... Alpine Lace ............... CHEESE CHED COLORED R/F DELI ............. 2/5 lb avg
29001 ....... Biery ......................... CHEESE CHED SLCD 3/4 OZ....................... 2/5 lb
909266 ..... Cabot Creamery ........ CHEESE CHED SHARP PRINT WHI ............... 1/10 lb
242555 ..... Chllsfarm .................. CHEESE CHED W/PORTER .......................... 2/2 KG
235402 ..... Corazo ...................... CHEESE CHED FTHR SHRED ....................... 4/5 lb
235408 ..... Corazo ...................... CHEESE CHED JCK FTHR SHRED R/F .......... 4/5 lb
130329 ..... Green Bay Cheese ..... CHEESE CHED PRINT WHI SHARP TFF ......... 1/10 lb
953220 ..... Green Bay Cheese ..... CHEESE CHED SHARP PRINT ...................... 1/10 lb
75851 ....... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE CHED SHRED TFF .......................... 1/5 lb
885465 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE CHED SLCD MED .75 OZ................ 6/24 oz
53726 ....... Kraft ......................... CHEESE CHED SHARP SHRED..................... 4/5 lb
38189 ....... Land O Lakes ............. CHEESE CHED SHARP PRINT TFF ................ 1/10 lb
53955 ....... Land O Lakes ............. CHEESE CHED MILD SLCD INTERLEAF ........ 8/1.5 lb
881136 ..... Mccadam .................. CHEESE CHED MILD ................................... 1/10 lb
930624 ..... Mullins ...................... CHEESE CHED WHI MILD BLOCK................. 1/40#AV
274241...... Northland.................. CHEESE CHED MONT_JCK SWISS FTHR ...... 2/15 lb
887279 ..... Organic Valley ........... CHEESE COLBY JCK STRING ORGANIC ........ 96/1 oz
79063.......Roma .......................CHEESE CHED SHRED IMIT ......................4/5 lb
262069.....Roma .......................CHEESE SALAD BAR FTHR SHRED .............4/5 lb
144426 ..... Schreiber .................. CHEESE MILD CHED 3/4” CUBE ................. 2/5 lb
18439 ....... Schreiber .................. CHEESE CUBE MIXED 3/4” ........................ 3/5 lb
247501 ..... Schreiber .................. CHEESE CHED MILD 64 SL .5 OZ ................ 8/2 lb
953212 ..... Sunshine Farms ......... CHEESE CHED MILD MIDGET BLK WAX........ 2/5.5 lb
158816 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE CHED MILD YLW PRINT ................1/10 lb avg
158818 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE CHED SHARP PRINT YLW .............1/10 lb avg
157185 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE CHED MILD BLOCK .....................1/42 lb avg
199428.....West Creek ..............CHEESE CHED MILD FTHR SHRED .............1/5 lb
158811 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE CHED MILD YLW FTHR .................4/5 lb
158814 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE CHED MONT_JCK FCY SHRED ......4/5 lb
158813 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE CHED MONT_JCK FTHR SHRED ....4/5 lb
158820.....West Creek ..............CHEESE CHED MILD YLW SL .75 OZ...........6/1.5 lb
SWISS CHEESES .....
27112 ....... Alpine Lace ............... CHEESE SWISS LOAF R/F TFF ..................... 1/12 lb
47240 ....... Alpine Lace ............... CHEESE SWISS LOAF R/F LS TFF ................ 1/14 lb avg
898302 ..... Atalanta .................... CHEESE GRUYERE CUT ............................... 1/7 lb avg
944772 ..... Biery ......................... CHEESE SWISS HIGH CUT ........................... 1/14 lb
28979 ....... Biery ......................... CHEESE SWISS SLCD 3/4 OZ ..................... 2/5 lb
994824 ..... County Line ............... CHEESE SWISS SANDWICH CUT ................. 1/7 lb
958508 ..... Finlandia ................... CHEESE SWISS LOAF.................................. 1/6 lb avg
264689..... Finlandia ................... CHEESE SWISS LOAF HIGH CUT .................. 2/12 lb avg
958511 ..... Finlandia ................... CHEESE SWISS LOAF.................................. 4/6 lb avg
968784 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE SWISS LS TFF ................................ 1/12 lb
923929 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE SWISS 4X4 CUT TFF....................... 1/8 lb
278585 ..... Le Superb .................. CHEESE GRUYERE NAT SWISS .................... 2/6 lb avg
884830 ..... Land O Lakes ............. CHEESE SWISS SL 32 NAT .......................... 12/1.5 lb
857402 ..... Martel ....................... CHEESE SWISS DOM 4X4 ........................... 1/6 lb avg
261798 ..... Martel ....................... CHEESE SWISS DOM 4X4 ........................... 4/6 lb avg
236977 ..... Packer....................... CHEESE GRUYERE BLND SHRED THICK ....... 4/5 lb
953592 ..... Schreiber .................. CHEESE SWISS CUBED 3/4” ...................... 2/5 lb
158819 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE SWISS LOAF GRD A .....................2/8 lb avg
158724.....West Creek ..............CHEESE SWISS AMER 160 SL ...................4/5 lb
158822.....West Creek ..............CHEESE SWISS SL 0.75 OZ .......................6/1.5 lb
13
Processed Cheese
158890 .............. White American Cheese slices 160 ct..............................1/5 lb
158719 .............. White American Cheese Slices 120 ct .............................4/5 lb
158721 .............. White American Cheese 160 slices .................................4/5 lb
158718 .............. Yellow American Cheese Slices 120 ct ............................4/5 lb
158720 .............. Yellow American Cheese Slices 160 ct ............................4/5 lb
158728 .............. Yellow American Cheese slices 184 ct .............................4/5 lb
158716 .............. Yellow American Cheese Loaf Processed .........................6/5 lb
14
AFI #
BRAND
ITEM
PACK/SIZE
HARD CHEESES ........
242542 ..... Agriform .................... CHEESE GRANA PADANO QRTRS ................ 1/20 lb avg
259021 ..... Ambriola ................... CHEESE PECORINO ROMANO WHEEL ......... 1/50 lb avg
239023.....Assoluti ...................CHEESE PECORINO ROMANO GRATED.......1/5 lb
239022.....Assoluti ...................CHEESE PECORINO ROMANO GRATED.......4/5 lb
962520 ..... BelGioioso Cheese .... CHEESE PARMESAN WHEEL ....................... 1/24 lb
885456 ..... BelGioioso Cheese .... CHEESE ASIAGO MILD QRTR WHEEL ........... 2/6 lb
949553 ..... Colonna .................... CHEESE PECORINO ROMANO SHRED ......... 1/5 lb
265054 ..... Don Juan ................... CHEESE MANCHEGO WHEEL SPAIN ............ 2/7 lb avg
292313 ..... Montealb .................. CHEESE MANCHEGO SPANISH RND............ 1/7 lb avg
278633 ..... Montealb .................. CHEESE MANCHEGO SPANISH RND............ 2/7 lb avg
26958 ....... Packer....................... CHEESE PARMESAN REGGIANITTO ............. 1/1 each
941318 .....Rafnato .................CHEESE PARMESAN SHRED .....................1/5 lb
874101 .....Rafnato .................CHEESE PARMESAN GRATED TUB .............4/5 lb
874103 .....Rafnato .................CHEESE PARMESAN SHRED .....................4/5 lb
240542.....Roma .......................CHEESE PARMESAN GRATED TUB .............1/5 lb
239031 .....Roma .......................CHEESE ASIAGO SHRED ...........................2/5 lb
232186 .......Roma..............................CHEESE PARMESAN GRATED PACKET ................200/3.5 grams
239030.....Roma .......................CHEESE PARMESAN GRATED ....................4/5 lb
912134 ..... Sargento ................... CHEESE PARMESAN SHAVED RIBBON ........ 6/2 lb
988034 ..... Stella ........................ CHEESE ASIAGO AGED WHEEL BLK ............. 1/11 lb
903661 ..... Zerto ......................... CHEESE PECORINO ROMANO 1/4 CUT ....... 1/12 lb
886046 ..... Zerto ......................... CHEESE PARMIGIANO REGGIANO ............... 1/19 lb
252381 ..... Zerto ......................... CHEESE ROMANO PECORINO WHEEL ......... 1/60 lb avg
972233 ..... Zerto ......................... CHEESE PARMESAN SHRED ....................... 4/5 lb
PROCESSED CHEESES ........................................................
916259 ..... Great Lakes ............... CHEESE AMER YLW 120 SL TFF................... 1/5 lb
271822 ..... Hilldale ..................... CHEESE AMER LOAF PROC YLW .................. 6/5 lb
997680 ..... Kraft ......................... CHEESE AMER SNG YLW ............................. 12/16 oz
2125 ......... Kraft ......................... CHEESE AMER YLW SLCD 120 CT ............... 4/5 lb
875448 ..... Land O Lakes ............. CHEESE AMER WHI 160 PROC PULL ........... 6/5 lb
46163 ....... Land O Lakes ............. CHEESE AMER YLW 120 SL......................... 6/5 lb
446135 ..... Land O Lakes ............. CHEESE AMER YLW 160 SL PROC ............... 6/5 lb
975164 ..... Land O Lakes ............. CHEESE GLDN VELVET ................................ 6/5 lb
2251 ......... Pocahontas ............... CHEESE SPREAD SHARP ............................ 2/10 lb
868706 ..... Schreiber .................. CHEESE AMER PROC 160 ........................... 4/5 lb
69552 ....... Velveeta .................... CHEESE LOAF SPREAD TFF ......................... 6/5 lb
158890.....West Creek ..............CHEESE AMER WHI 160 SL.......................1/5 lb
158719 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE AMER WHI 120 SL.......................4/5 lb
158721 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE AMER WHI 160 SL.......................4/5 lb
158718 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE AMER YLW 120 SL TFF .................4/5 lb
158720.....West Creek ..............CHEESE AMER YLW 160 SL.......................4/5 lb
158728.....West Creek ..............CHEESE AMER YLW 184 SL ......................4/5 lb
158716 .....West Creek ..............CHEESE AMER YLW LOAF PROC ................6/5 lb
279498 ..... Whitehall Specialtie .. CHEESE AMER PSTRZD 120 SL YLW............ 4/5 lb
283614 ..... Whitehall Specialtie .. CHEESE AMER WHI 120 CT......................... 4/5 lb
15
Fresh
Mozzarella
& Ricotta
27184 ........ Fresh Curd ................................................. 2/22.5 lb
29131 ........ Impastada ................................................ 1/10 lb
33338 ........ Ricotta Cheese Part Skim ........................... 6/3 lb
52893 ........ Mozzarella Cheese Medallions in Water ...... 2/3 lb
895423 ...... Mozzarella Cheese Sheets .......................... 3/2 lb
897216 ...... Mozzarella Loaf .......................................... 2/3 lb
929148 ...... Mozzarella Cheese Ball Cryovac ................. 12/1 lb
929616 ...... Mozzarella Loaf Firm Fresh ......................... 4/5 lb
16
Some of the
Romano Cheese: is a traditional Italian
cheese, named after the city of Rome,
which has been manufacturing it since
before the birth of Christ. The cheese
has a rich creamy yellow color, a slightly
granular texture, and a sharp, tangy,
salty avor, and is usually grated over
other dishes, although it can be eaten
plain. The technique used to make
Romano cheese involves rummaging
the curd, meaning that the curds of the
cheese are drained and pierced before
being salted and brined, yielding a
unique hard cheese which is popular all
over the world. Romano is usually only
aged about 8 months.
There are several different types of
Romano cheese. True Pecorino Romano
cheese is made from sheep’s milk, and
has a protected origin designation from
the Italian government, meaning that
only certain cheeses can be labeled
as Pecorino Romano. To be considered
a Pecorino, a cheese must be made
between October and July in a certain
part of Italy, and with milk from specic
sheep. In addition, the cheese must be
round, and meet minimum weight requirements. These stringent protections
ensure that the heritage of Pecorino
Romano will be protected, and that consumers know what they are getting when
they purchase a Pecorino cheese.
Parmesan Cheese: is a hard cheese originally from Italy, but widely used and produced all over the world. Within Europe,
Parmesan cheese is a protected cheese,
meaning that only cheeses made in a
certain way in a certain area of Italy can
be labeled as Parmesan cheese. Outside
of Europe, many generic cheeses use
the Parmesan label. The distinctively
salty, slightly granular cheese has many
uses in Italian cuisine such as a topping
for pastas and pizzas, and as a crucial
ingredient in some sauces.
Parmesan is referred to by its Italian
name: Parmigiano-Reggiano, a reference
to the regions in which the cheese is
produced. To bear the Parmigiano label,
Parmesan cheese must be made from
cow’s milk between May and November in Modena, Parma, Reggio Emilia,
or parts of Bologna and Mantova. The
cheese is traditionally made by mixing
whole morning milk with skimmed milk
from the previous evening. The milk is
heated and mixed with rennet to form
curds, which are pressed in a cheese
mold. True Parmesan cheese is molded
with a stencil, indicating where and
when it was made. The cheese is soaked
in a brine bath and then aged for a minimum of two years before being graded
for sale. Parmesan by law must be aged
a minimum of 10 months.
protein can be harvested if the whey is
rst allowed to become more acidic by
additional fermentation (by letting it sit
for 12–24 hours at room temperature).
Then the acidied whey is heated to
near boiling. The combination of low pH
and high temperature causes additional
protein to precipitate out, forming a ne
curd. Once cooled, the curd is separated
by passing though a ne cloth.
Cheese makers discovered that when
the protein-rich substance is heated,
whey protein particles fuse and create a
curd. This curd, after drainage, is ricotta.
Because ricotta is made from whey,
rather than milk, it is a whey cheese, not
technically a “cheese”.
Mozzarella Cheese: dates back to the 16th
century, is a fresh pasta lata cheese.
Originally eaten as a soft fresh cheese;
later it was made with lower moisture to
give it longer shelf life. Pasta Filata refers to the process where the curds are
dipped in hot water and then stretched
and kneaded into parallel strands. This
allows mozzarella to melt and gives it a
wonderful stretch.
Due to its high moisture content, it is traditionally served the day it is made, but
can be kept in brine for up to a week,
or longer when sold in vacuum-sealed
packages. Low-moisture mozzarella can
keep refrigerated for up to a month,
though some pre-shredded low-moisture
mozzarella is sold with a shelf life of up
to 6 months. Mozzarella of several kinds
are also used for most types of pizza,
lasagna, or served with sliced tomatoes
and basil.
Ricotta Cheese: Ricotta is produced from
whey, the liquid separated out from the
curds when cheese is made. Most of the
milk protein is removed when cheese is
made, but some protein remains in the
whey, mostly albumin. This remaining
17
Ricotta is a fresh cheese grainy and
creamy white in appearance, slightly
sweet in taste, and contains around 13%
fat. In this form, it is somewhat similar in
texture to some cottage cheese variants,
though considerably lighter.
Feta Cheese: is a Greek Cheese. It is
made with a combination of goat and
sheep milk. It is white and usually
shaped into squares. It can be soft to
semi-rm cheese. The avor of feta can
be salty and tangy or also range from
mild to sharp depending on its aging process. It can be used as a table cheese,
as well as in salads, pastries is a brined
curd cheese traditionally made in
Greece. A sheep’s milk cheese, varying
amounts of goat’s milk may be added,
as long as goat milk makes up less than
30% of the total mixture. Since 2005,
feta has been a protected designation
of origin product in the European Union.
Although traditional feta cheese should
only include sheep and goat’s milk, it is
quite common that cheese sold as ‘feta’
includes cow’s milk, or even is composed exclusively of cow’s milk.
Feta has been made the same way for
thousands of years. Milk is curdled by
lactic fermentation and the curds and
whey are then reheated. The curds are
then drained, turned, lightly pressed and
salted.
Feta dries out rapidly when removed
from the brine. Feta cheese is white,
usually formed into square cakes. Feta is
an aged cheese, commonly produced in
blocks, and has a slightly grainy texture.
It is used as a table cheese, as well as in
salads, pastries and in baking, notably in
the popular phyllo-based dishes spanakopita and tyropita and combined with
olive oil and vegetables.
Feta is also an important ingredient of
Greek salad. Feta, like most cheeses,
can also be served cooked; it is sometimes grilled as part of a sandwich or as
a salty alternative to other cheeses in a
variety of dishes.
Cottage Cheese: is a cheese curd product
with a mild avor. It is drained, but not
pressed so some whey remains and
the individual curds remain loose. The
curd is usually washed to remove acidity
giving sweet curd cheese. It is not aged
or colored. Different styles of cottage
cheese are made from milks with different fat levels and in small curd or large
curd preparations.
The curd size is the size of the “chunks”
in the cottage cheese. The two major
types of cottage cheese are small curd,
high-acid cheese made without rennet,
and popular large curd, low-acid cheese
made with rennet. Rennet is an enzyme
that speeds curdling and keeps the curd
that forms from breaking up; adding it
shortens the cheese making process,
resulting in a lower acid and larger curd
cheese, and reduces the amount of curd
poured off with leftover liquid (the whey).
Cottage cheese can be eaten by itself,
with fruit, with fruit puree, on toast, in
green salad, and used as an ingredient
in recipes such as lasagna, jello salad
and various desserts..
Cream Cheese: (also called soft cheese) is
a sweet, soft, mild-tasting, white cheese,
dened by the US Department of Agriculture as containing at least 33% milk fat
(as marketed) with a moisture content of
not more than 55%, and a ph range of
4.4 to 4.9. Cream cheese is an American
invention developed in 1872 in New York
State. A cheese distributor soon commissioned the enterprising dairyman to produce the cream cheese in volume under
the trade name “Philadelphia Brand®.”
The company was eventually bought out
by Kraft Foods in 1928, and still remains
the most widely recognized brand of
cream cheese in the United States.
Cream cheese is typically used in
snacks of various types (for example,
as a spread on bread, bagels, crackers, various types of raw vegetables,
etc.), and can be used in cheesecake
and salads. It can also be used to make
cheese sauces. It can be a base to some
spreads, such as yogurt-cream cheese
topping for graham crackers.
Cream cheese is categorized as a fresh
cheese since it is not aged. As a result, it
has a short shelf life, once opened. The
avor is mild, fresh-tasting, and sweet,
yet has a pleasing slight tang. At room
temperature, cream cheese spreads
easily and has a smooth and creamy
texture. It is sold in foil-wrapped blocks
or in a soft-spread form which has air
whipped in to make it spreadable right
from the refrigerator. Many avored
versions are also now available, including those with herbs, fruits, and even
salmon blended in.
Brie: originated in France in the 8th
century. It is a soft cow’s cheese which
is pale in color with a slight grayish tinge
under crusty white mould; very soft
18
and savory with a hint of ammonia. The
whitish moldy rind is typically eaten, the
avor quality of which depends largely
upon the ingredients used and its fabrication environment.
Brie may be produced from whole or
semi-skimmed milk. The curd is obtained by adding rennet to raw milk and
heating it to a maximum temperature of
37 °C (98.6 °F). The cheese is then cast
into molds. The 20 cm mould is lled
with several thin layers of cheese and
drained for approximately 18 hours. The
cheese is then taken out of the molds,
salted, inoculated with cheese mould
(Penicillium Candidum) and aged in a
cellar for at least four to ve weeks.
There are now many varieties of Brie
made all over the world, including plain
Brie, herbed varieties, double and triple
Brie and versions of Brie made with
other types of milk. Brie is usually served
with fruits such as melons, grapes, berries and sun-dried tomatoes.
Goats’ cheese
Goat Cheese: has been made for thousands of years, and was probably one of
the earliest made dairy products. Goat
cheese is made by allowing raw milk to
naturally curdle, and then draining and
pressing the curds. Other techniques
use an acid (such as vinegar or lemon
juice) or rennet to coagulate the milk.
Soft goat cheeses are made in kitchens
all over the world, with cooks hanging
bundles of cheesecloth lled with curds
up in the warm kitchen for several days
to drain and cure. If the cheese is to be
aged, it is often brined so that it will form
a rind, and then stored in a cool cheese
cave for several months to cure.
France produces a great number of
goat’s milk cheeses. Goat cheese, sometimes called chevre, is a cheese product
made from the milk of goats.
Goat cheese comes in a wide variety of
forms, although the most common is a
soft, easily spread cheese. Goat cheese
can also be made in hard aged varieties
as well as semi rm cheeses like feta.
Goat cheese tends to be leaner and for
that reason, many dieters use on their
salads or melting it on cooked dishes.
Goat cheese softens when exposed
to heat, although it does not melt in
the same way that many cow cheeses
do. Firmer goat cheeses with rinds are
sometimes baked in the oven to form
a gooey warm cheese which is ideal for
spreading on bread with roasted garlic,
or alone.
Havarti: is a creamy semi-rm Danish
cheese, named after a farm in Denmark
in the twentieth century. Havarti is a
slightly exible cheese with a creamy,
buttery avor. The color is usually
creamy to pale yellow. It is a washed rind
cheese with innumerable irregular holes
throughout. Fairly avorful at 3 months,
it becomes stronger and more avorful
with age. In addition to being sold plain
in blocks, Havarti is often avored with
dill, caraway, cumin or other spices. Havarti is often offered with fruit and crackers, and pairs well with many wines.
Havarti is often used in place of stronger
cheeses like Gouda and Emmentaler,
when the taste of a cheese is desired
without a strong avor. Havarti often appears on sandwiches, in fondue, and on
salads. The cheese comes in low fat versions as well as an enriched full cream
type, which tends to melt in the mouth.
Enriched Havarti can sometimes be
intensely cloying, with the heavy creamy
texture, and should be used sparingly
or in a strong dish which is capable of
handling the heavy avor.
Munster Cheese: Traditionally was made
in Alsace, France, and should not be
confused with more mild versions
made in other parts of the world. A true
Munster has a creamy yellow to orange
center with a dark red rind, and can be
noted by the assertive avor and scent,
although young Munster is milder. Adapted to American tastes, many dairies in
the United States have made a much
milder version of the cheese. When
properly aged, it can develop a strong
avor with a pungent aroma. Munster is
aged for a minimum of two months, at
which point it will be soft, creamy, and
relatively avorless. If allowed to age
longer, the cheese will develop more distinctive bacteria, and this aged Munster
is preferred by many cheese consumers.
This cheese is commonly served as an
appetizer. Because it melts well, it is
also often used in dishes such as grilled
cheese sandwiches, tuna quesadillas
and cheeseburgers.
Monterey Jack Cheese: was originated
along the central California coast, and
has since spread throughout the United
States. It is one of the few cheeses
which can rightfully be called “American,” since it was developed in the
United States.
Monterey Jack is a semi-hard cheese
made from cow’s milk and has a higher
moisture than other cheeses and melts
very well, making it ideal for cooking.
This is a mild white cheese with a pleasant tanginess. Most of the softer types
generally found in American markets are
aged for only one month, while another
variety of Monterey Jack is aged for up
to six months. There are a number of
variations on the classic Monterey Jack
cheese. Some producers add herbs or
hot peppers to make herbed Jack or
pepper Jack cheeses. Monterey Jack
is also sometimes blended with Colby,
another mild American cheese, to make
Colby Jack. This cheese is used in pizza,
casseroles and sandwiches. Pepper
jack is used for nachos.
The characteristic avor of blue cheeses
tends to be sharp and a bit salty. The
smell of this cheese is widely considered
to be pungent. This is due to the types
of bacteria encouraged to grow on the
cheese. Due to this strong smell and avor, blue cheeses are often considered
an acquired taste. They can be eaten
by themselves or can be crumbled or
melted over foods. Blue cheese is used
in dips, sauces, spreads and dressing
for vegetables and fruit.
Blue Cheese: is a descendant of Roquefort Cheese which originated in France
in the 14th century in the caves of
Combalou. Its general classication of
cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, or goat’s milk
cheeses that have had penicillium cultures added so that the nal product is
spotted or veined throughout with blue,
blue-gray or blue-green mold, and carries a distinct smell. Some blue cheeses
are injected with spores before the curds
form and others have spores mixed
in with the curds after they form. Blue
cheeses are typically aged in a temperature-controlled environment.
Gouda: is a kind of yellow soft cheese
made from cow’s milk. The cheese
is named after the city of Gouda in
the Netherlands. The name Gouda is
not protected, Gouda is made all over
the world. There are two varieties of
Gouda for export: Young Gouda, which
is between one and six months old usually sold with a yellow or red coating of
parafn wax. Gouda that’s aged is usually sold with a black coating. It is more
brittle, and has a stronger scent.
Gouda cheese is from whole milk that
is cultured and heated until the curd
is separate from the whey. Some of
the whey is then drained, and water is
added. This is called “washing the curd”,
and creates a sweeter cheese, as the
washing removes some of the lactic
acid. About ten percent of the mixture
is curd which is pressed into circular
moulds for several hours. These moulds
are the essential reason behind its traditional, characteristic shape. The cheese
is then soaked in a brine solution which
gives the cheese and its rind a distinctive taste. The cheese is then dried for
a couple of days before being coated to
prevent it from drying out, and then it is
aged. Gouda can be aged as little as one
month to over 3 years before it is ready
to be eaten. As it ages it develops a caramel sweetness and sometimes has a
slight crunchiness from salt-like calcium
lactate that forms in older cheeses.
Gouda is served with fruits, such as
peaches, melons, cherries and pears.
Smoked Gouda is used on grilled sandwiches, sliced turkey and chicken.
In the Europe Union many blue cheeses
such as Roquefort, Gorgonzola and
Stilton are like wine, in that they carry a
protected designation of origin, meaning
they can bear the name only if they have
been made in a particular region in a
certain country.
Provolone: is an Italian cheese that
originated in Southern Italy and is
now produced all over the world. It is
produced in different forms: shaped like
large salami up to 30 cm in diameter
and 90 cm long; in a watermelon shape;
in a truncated bottle shape; or also in a
19
large pear shape with the characteristic
round knob for hanging. The average
weight is 5 kg.
Provolone is a semi-hard cheese from
cow’s milk with taste varying greatly
from the aging process. There are two
main types of provolone cheese; dolce
and piccante. Dolce provolone is a mild
version that is aged for two months,
while piccante provolone is aged for
up to one year and has a more intense
avor.
Provolone, like mozzarella, is a plastic
curd cheese; the curd is mixed with
heated whey and kneaded to a smooth,
semisoft consistency, often molded into
fanciful shapes. The brown, oily rind of
provolone is wrapped in cords, which
impress grooves in the rind, and hung
to ripen. They are often seen on display
in Italian food shops. The creamy yellow
interior of provolone is smooth and pliable. Provolone is an all-purpose cheese
used for cooking, dessert purposes and
even grating.
Cheddar Cheese: is a semi-hard cow’s
milk cheese which can vary in taste from
mild to extra sharp. The cheese is one
of the most well known cheeses in the
world, and many countries produce regional versions of cheddar cheese. The
origins of cheddar cheese are ancient.
The cheese was rst made in Cheddar, a
village in southwest England, and historical records indicate that the cheese has
been made since at least the 1100s.
Cheddar cheese is naturally a creamy to
pale white, although orange cheese has
become much more common. Cheddar
cheese also has a wide range of avors,
depending on how it is made and how
long it is aged. Young cheddar cheese
tends to be milder, while longer aged
cheese has a sharper, complex avor. At
a minimum, cheddar cheese is aged for
around three months, but aging can take
as much as 30 months.
CHEDDAR CHEESES
Several things set cheddar cheese
aside from other cheese. The rst is the
bacteria that the cheese is fermented
with. The second is the manufacturing
process. Cheddar cheese undergoes
a process called “cheddaring” while it
is processed to yield a distinct level of
moisture and unique texture.
Cheddaring is when blocks of curds are
piled on top of each other to expel moisture. The curds are then put through a
mill and ground into small pieces then
poured into molds and pressed. This
gives cheese a dense, often crumbly
texture. This is the unique step in making cheddar.
Cheddar cheese is used in ingredients,
such as cream soup bases, or over
steamed vegetables & potatoes or over
baked dishes.
Swiss Cheese: is a generic name in North
America for several related varieties
of cheese which resemble the Swiss
Emmental. Some types of Swiss cheese
have a distinctive appearance, as the
blocks of the cheese are riddled with
holes known as “eyes”. Swiss cheese
has a piquant, but not very sharp, taste.
American Swiss Cheese: The large
corporations use bulk operations to
make Swiss-type cheese available at a
reasonable price. These cheeses are
generally labeled simply by the generic
“Swiss cheese” term and are made from
pasteurized cow’s milk. This cheese is
available sliced and shredded, in regular
and low-fat varieties. Due to mass production for quick distribution, it is aged
only about 4 months, and generally has
a much milder avor than the real thing.
It melts easily and is widely-used in
sandwiches.
Emmental: this cheese takes its name
from the Emme Valley where it originated circa 1293. It is considered Switzerland’s oldest and most prestigious
cheese. This pale yellow cheese is made
from part-skim, unpasteurized cow’s
milk and has a mild, slightly nutty, buttery, almost fruity avor. The holes range
from small to large olive-size. USA versions use pasteurized milk or follow US
law and age the unpasteurized cheese
at least 60 days. It is made in giant (up
20
to 220-pounds) wheels and can be easily identied by its hometown stamped
on the rind. This rm cheese melts
easily, making it good for sauces, and it
goes equally well with fruits and nuts.
Gruyere: Since the 11th century, cheesemakers in the Alpine area between
Switzerland and France have produced
Gruyere. The curds are larger, scalded
at higher temps and pressed longer
and harder than Swiss curds. It’s aged
anywhere from 10 to 12 months, giving it a brownish-gold rind. The center
is pale yellow and the holes are much
smaller and more evenly spaced than
those of Emmental. Gruyere also melts
easily, making it great for gratins, and
goes well with meats and vegetables. It
also shines as an appetizer or dessert
cheese.
American Cheese: is a processed cheese.
It is orange, yellow, or white in color
and mild in avor, with a medium-rm
consistency, and melts easily. American
cheese was originally only white, but is
usually now modied to orange. It has
been made from a blend of cheeses,
most often Colby and cheddar. Today’s
American cheese is generally no longer
made from a blend of all-natural cheeses, but instead is manufactured from a
set of ingredients [such as milk, whey,
milk fat, milk protein, concentrate, whey
protein concentrate, and salt. When
some of these or other substitutes are
used, it does not meet the legal denition of cheese in many jurisdictions, and
must be labeled as “cheese analogue”,
“Cheese Product”, processed cheese, or
similar.
Processed cheese has several technical
advantages over unprocessed cheese,
including extended shelf -life, resistance
to separation when cooked, and uniformity of product. Its production has
signicant economic advantages over
traditional cheese making processes,
most often through the ability to incorporate any of a wide variety of less expensive ingredients.
American cheese was rst popular
because it melted smoothly and didn’t
separate when heated, as cheddar
tends to do. It’s great on grilled cheese
sandwiches, cheeseburgers and for use
in dips and spreads.
GLOSSARY
Acid: A descriptive term for cheese with
a pleasant tang and sourish avor due
to a concentration of acid. By contrast, a
cheese with a sharp or biting, sour taste
indicates an excessive concentration of
acid which is a defect.
Acrid: A term used to characterize
cheese that is sharp, bitter or irritating in
taste or smell.
Afne: (1) The French word meaning to
nish or rene. A washed-rind cheese,
for example, may be afne au marc de
borgogne, meaning the rind has been
washed with marc, a white brandy made
from grape pomace during curing. (2)
The process of curing cheeses. (3) One
who nishes or cures cheese would be
an afneur.
Afneur: One who cares for the aging of
cheeses.
Aftertaste: The last avor sensation
perceived after tasting a cheese. Pronounced aftertastes usually detract from
the pleasure of a cheese.
Aged: Generally describes a cheese that
has been cured longer than six months.
Aged cheeses are characterized as having more pronounced and fuller, sometimes sharper avors than medium-aged
or current-aged cheeses.
Aging: Often referred to as curing or
ripening, aging is the process of holding
cheeses in carefully controlled environments to allow the development of
microorganisms that usually accentuate
the basic cheese avors. See Curing and
Ripening.
American: A descriptive term used to
identify the group of American-type
cheeses which includes Cheddar, Colby,
granular or stirred-curd, and washed or
soaked-curd cheeses. Monterey Jack is
also included in this group.
Ammoniated or Ammoniacal: A term
describing cheese that either smells or
tastes of ammonia as a result of being
overripe or mishandled (i.e., held at
uctuating temperatures). This condition
may afict the rinds of cheese varieties
with white mold (bloomy) rinds, such as
Brie, Camembert and Chèvres. A hint of
ammonia is not objectionable, but heavy
ammoniation is.
Annatto: A natural vegetable dye used to
give many cheese varieties, especially
the Cheddars, a yellow-orange hue. Annatto is odorless, tasteless and is not a
preservative.
Appearance: A term referring to all visual
assessments of cheese, from its wrapping, rind, color and texture, to how it
looks when handled, broken or cut.
Aroma: A general term for the odor or
scent of cheese. Cheese may lack aroma
or display aromas, which range from
faint to pronounced, depending upon
the cheese variety. Aroma is closely
allied to avor, although cheese with a
distinct odor may exhibit a mild avor
while cheese lacking odor may present
a strong avor. Aromas may also specify
particular tastes or scents, such as
fruity, earthy, oily and nutty. The cheese
rind may have a different odor than its
interior. The aroma of any cheese is
most distinctive when the cheese is rst
cut into.
Aromatic: A descriptive term for cheeses
with distinct, pronounced aromas.
Artisan: A term describing cheese made
in small batches, often with milk from a
limited number of farms. Having unique
texture or taste proles developed in
small sealed production or by specialized producers.
Assertive: A term indicating the presence
of a pronounced taste or aroma.
Astringent: A term descriptive of a harsh
taste with a puckery, almost medicinal
quality.
Baby: A smaller quantity of cheese
formed into a mini-wheel or cylinder-like
shape.
Ball/Round: A style that ranges from a
very small sphere, as with Fresh Mozzarella (the size of a cherry), to larger
than a softball for a Gouda or Edam
cheese ball, and a Boccini or Bocci ball
for Provolone.
Barny or Barnyardy: A descriptive term
referring to strong farm-related aromas.
Sometimes also called cowy. This characterization does not always indicate a
negative quality.
21
Barrel: A natural style of Cheddar cheese
specically produced for the manufacture of Pasteurized Process cheeses
meant to be further processed (i.e.,
natural variety shredded cheese and a
range of processed cheeses).
Basic Ingredient: A term usually referring
to the milk source from which a cheese
is made, such as cow’s milk, ewe’s
milk or goat’s milk. Rennet, cultures,
enzymes and salt are also considered
basic ingredients of cheese.
Basket: A nontraditional form some cheesemakers use in style presentation of
their cheese. Basket Muenster cheese
is an example that is readily available in
Wisconsin.
Beestings: The rst milk a cow gives after
calving. Very high in protein, beestings
is used in Spain for the production of
Armada, a strong, semi-rm cheese.
Bitter: An unpleasant, biting avor — usually an aftertaste. A bitter aftertaste is
sometimes associated with variations
in manufacturing and curing or aging
procedures. It is more prevalent in cured
cheeses that have a high-moisture content. Bitterness is often confused with
astringency. True bitterness is a sensation that is typied by the aftertaste of
grapefruit peel.
Bleu: The French word for blue that is
used in reference to the Blue-veined
cheese varieties. Blue molds are typically Penicillium roqueforti or Penicillium
glaucum. Famous varieties include Bleu,
Gorgonzola and Stilton.®
Block: The most common style of cheese
produced for wholesale distribution. Descriptive of the size and shape of cheese
before it is cut for distribution and sale.
It is recognized as one of the major
styles of natural cheese and is aged in
20-, 40-, 60- or 640-pound blocks.
Bloomy Rind: A descriptive term for an
edible cheese rind (crust) that is covered with a harmless, avor-producing
growth of white Penicillium mold. The
bloomy rind is formed by spraying the
cheese surface with spores of Penicillium candidum mold before curing.
Occasionally, brown, pink or red specks
are interspersed through the white mold
GLOSSARY
as it ages or cures. Bloomy-rind cheeses,
such as Brie, Camembert and some
Chèvres, are classied as soft-ripened.
Blue-veined: A characteristic of cheese
varieties that develop blue or green
streaks of harmless, avor-producing
mold throughout the interior. Generally,
veining gives cheese an assertive and
piquant avor.
Bocci/Boccini: A ball-shaped style, typical of Provolone cheese. Bocci weighs
approximately 5 pounds. Boccini is a
smaller version of Bocci, typically weighing about 2 pounds.
Bocconcini: A term describing a traditional-size Fresh Mozzarella ball, weighing
1-3/4 ounces. Bocconcini translates
from Italian to English meaning little
mouthfuls.
Body: Represents the physical attributes
of cheese when touched, handled, cut or
eaten. The body may feel rubbery, rm,
elastic, soft, resilient, yielding, supple,
oily, etc. When rolled between the ngers
or cut, it may appear waxy or crumbly.
Its mouthfeel may be grainy or creamy. A
cheese also may be felt to determine its
condition of ripeness.
Braided: A nontraditional style in the
Pasta Filata cheese family. Cheesemakers will take strands of this type
of cheese and braid them for a special
appearance.
Brine: A salt-and-water solution in which
some cheese varieties are washed or
dipped during the cheesemaking process. Certain cheeses, such as Feta, are
packed or stored in brine.
Brining: A step in the manufacture of
some cheese varieties where the whole
cheese is oated briey in a brine solution. Brining is common in the production of Mozzarella, Provolone, Swiss,
Parmesan and Romano cheeses.
Broken Down: Refers to a change in the
texture of cheese. For example, cheese
may change from a rm, smooth or
coarse, curdy or rubbery texture to a
waxy (similar to cold butter), mealy or
pasty texture.
Brushed: During the curing process,
washed-rind cheese varieties are
brushed with liquids such as brine, beer,
wine or brandy to maintain a moist rind
and impart distinctive, earthy avors.
Parmesan and other hard cheeses may
be brushed or rubbed with a vegetable
oil.
ple, a 5-pound loaf of Muenster may be
slightly over or under 5 pounds.
bST/Bovine Somatotropin (Also see rBGH):
A naturally occurring protein hormone
from the pituitary gland of cattle that
affects the amount of milk produced by
dairy cows.
Chalky (Mouthfeel): A dry, grainy sensation usually caused by insoluble proteins. Sometimes described as powdery.
Generally not a desirable characteristic.
Bulk Cheese: Cheese in its original manufactured form, such as a 40-pound block
of Cheddar.
Butterfat: See Fat Content and Milkfat
Content.
Butterfat (Fat, Milkfat): The amount of
butterfat/fat in any cheese. Fat content is determined by analyzing the fat
in the dry matter of cheese. The fat is
expressed as a percentage of the entire
dry matter. In reference to cheese fat,
milkfat and butterfat are synonymous.
See Dry Matter.
Buttermilk: The liquid which remains after churning butter from cultured cream.
The liquid remaining after churning
sweet cream is sweet cream buttermilk.
Also a cultured skim milk.
Buttery: A descriptive term for cheese
with a high fat content, such as the
double and triple creams, or cheese
with a sweet avor and creamy texture
reminiscent of butter.
Caciocavallo: Years ago, Provolone was
transported via horseback to market.
The common style for this cheese was
Caciocavallo. This cheese style is long,
slender and cylinder in shape, with a
notch around the cylinder’s top to accommodate a rope used to tie around
the body of the cheese.
Casein: The principal protein in milk. During the cheesemaking process, casein
solidies, curdles or coagulates into
cheese through the action of rennet.
Catch Weights: The variable weights of
individual pieces of cheese. For exam-
22
Chalky (Color): A desirable attribute referring to the true white color or smooth,
ne-grained texture of older Chèvres and
young Brie. However, a chalky appearance on the surface is undesirable in
many cheese varieties, such as Cheddar.
Cheddar & Colby A term used to classify
cheeses that share characteristics exemplied by Cheddar that may include the
process of manufacture, consistency,
texture, odor or avor. Colby is a Cheddar-type cheese.
Cheddaring: The process used in making
Cheddar whereby piles of small curds,
which have been separated from the
whey, are knit together and cut into
slabs. The slabs are then repeatedly
turned over and stacked to help drain
additional whey and aid in the development of the proper acidity (pH) and body
of the cheese. These slabs are then cut
or milled into curds and placed in the
cheese forms and pressed.
Cheese Monger: An American term for a
knowledgeable cheese sales person.
Chemical: A descriptive term for a cheese
aroma or avor taint which usually
indicates improper manufacturing or
contamination with foreign materials.
Chèvres: The plural form of the French
word for goat, originally used to classify
all goat cheeses produced in France, but
now commonly refers to all soft fresh
goat cheeses, regardless of their country
of origin.
Chunk/Bar: The rectangular conguration is the most common shape of retail
cheese cuts. Exact weight cheese is
often referred to as a bar of cheese (8 or
16 ounces). Random weight producers
describe smaller retail cuts as chunks.
Ciliegini: A term describing the small,
traditional size of Fresh Mozzarella,
weighing only one-third of an ounce.
GLOSSARY
Ciliegini translates from Italian to English
meaning little cherries.
Clean: (1) A descriptive term for cheese
that is free of unpleasant aromas and
off avors. (2) A lack of lingering aftertaste when eating cheese (i.e., a clean
nish).
Close: A descriptive term for cheese with
a smooth, tight texture, such as Cheddar. A close texture contains few, if any,
mechanical holes. A cheese with small
holes, like Colby, is characterized as
open. See Open.
Coagulation (Curdling): A step in cheese
manufacture when milk’s protein, casein, is clotted by the action of rennet or
acids.
Code Date: A date stamped on a package
of cheese that is used to determine the
age and quality of the product. It may be
a pull date, pack date or sell-by date.
Colby: A Wisconsin original created in
Colby, Wisconsin. See Cheddar & Colby.
Cold Pack (Club Cheese): A blend made
from different batches of cheeses the
same variety, or two or more varieties
of mild and sharp natural cheese that
have been ground (comminuted). Unlike
processed cheese, Cold Pack is not
heat-treated nor cooked at the time of
packaging.
Cold Performance: Addresses how the
cheese responds to mechanical manipulation, such as cubing, shredding and
grating. (Shredding produces short, thin
strips of cheese. Grating shatters hard
cheese into small granules.)
Color: The color of the rind and the
interior of any cheese is an indication of
its variety, condition and quality. In all
cases, the color should be characteristic
of the cheese type. Cheese colors naturally range from snow-white to deep yellow. Orange cheeses, such as Cheddar,
are colored with annatto — a tasteless,
odorless natural vegetable dye — during
manufacturing.
Comminuted: Breaking down or grinding
cheese into small particles through a
mechanical, cutting action. Cheese that
has been comminuted is used in the
manufacture of Cold Pack cheese.
Consistency: The degree of hardness
or softness of cheese. Classications
of cheese by consistency include soft,
semi-soft, semi-rm, rm and hard.
Cooked: (1) Nearly all milk is heated or
warmed to some degree during cheesemaking; however, the term cooked is
reserved for those varieties whose curd
is heated in order to regulate moisture
content and degree of hardness. Parmesan curds, for example, are cooked at a
higher temperature than Cheddar curds.
(2) As a tasting term, cooked refers to a
avor aroma associated with the use of
over-pasteurized milk.
Cowy (Barny): A descriptive term referring
to strong farm-related aromas. Sometimes also called cowy. This characterization does not always indicate a
negative quality.
Creams, Single, Double or Triple: A classication of cheese derived from the butterfat content on a dry matter basis. Single
Creams contain at least 50% butterfat
in the cheese solids (dry matter); Double
Creams contain at least 60% butterfat;
and Triple Creams contain 72% or more
butterfat. See Milkfat Content and Milkfat in the Dry Matter (FDM).
Creamy: (1) A descriptive term for cheese
texture or taste. Creamy texture is soft,
spreadable and, in some cases, runny.
Creamy avors are characterized as rich
and are associated with cream-enriched
cheeses, such as double or triple
creams. (2) May also refer to color.
Crock: A style term referencing the early
days of Cold Pack cheese when it often
was packaged in a glazed clay crock. Today, you may still nd Cold Pack cheese
packaged in such a container.
acid, bacterial or mold spores, enzymes
or other micro-organisms and natural
chemicals. Starter cultures speed and
control the process of curdling milk
during cheesemaking in part by converting lactose to lactic acid. They also
lend unique avor characteristics to the
cheese.
Cup: While the crock was Cold Pack’s
original package of choice, today you will
nd most products delivered to market
in an 8- to 16-ounce plastic cup. Several
crumbled products are taken to market
in plastic cups as well.
Curd: Curdled milk from which cheese is
made.
Curdling: See Coagulation.
Curdling (Coagulation): A step in cheese
manufacture when milk’s protein, casein, is clotted by the action of rennet or
acids.
Curing: The method, conditions and
treatment from manufacturing to market, such as temperature, humidity and
sanitation, that assist in giving the nal
cheese product the distinction of its
variety. Sometimes used synonymously
with aging and ripening. See Aging and
Ripening.
Current (Young) Generally semi-rm, rm
or hard cheese varieties that have been
cured for two weeks up to 30 days. Such
cheeses usually have mild avors.
Cylinder/Log: Several types of cheeses
are formed into this common style — a
round face approximately 3 inches in
diameter and 12 to 14 inches in length.
Daisy: A cheese style, traditionally a
22-pound wheel of Cheddar, coated with
wax and cheesecloth.
Crumbles: Some cheeses are impossible
to shred or grate but will break apart into
small sprinkle size portions. Crumbles
is a style for cheeses, such as Feta and
Blue, to use on salads, pizzas, etc.
Defect: Any less-than-ideal quality factor in a cheese, often due to improper
manufacture, handling or contamination. Defects can refer to packaging,
nish, surface, texture or taste.
Cubed: A cheese cube is a very small cut
(six relatively equal sides) of cheese to
induce consumption from a tray of product while socializing.
Degree of Hardness: Categorizing cheese
by the degree of hardness is the most
universal method used. Federal Standards of Identity dictate the tolerances
of moisture and milkfat that can be contained in cheese. Since the amount of
moisture and fat in cheese signicantly
Culture (Starter): A culture that normally
consists of varying percentages of lactic
23
GLOSSARY
controls the properties of the cheese,
using degrees of hardness stands on a
legal denition.
Deli or Mini Horn: Basically the same style
as a cylinder of cheese. Most often you
will nd this style in Cheddar, Colby,
Colby-Jack and Pepper Jack varieties.
Diced: Very small cubes. Mozzarella is
diced as an additional style for foodservice operators. It is easier to portion
control diced cheese versus shredded
cheese.
Direct-set: A cheese in which lactic acid
culture instead of rennet is used to
direct-set or coagulate the milk.
Disk: A cheese set in a disk style, such
as Brie or Camembert. This style allows
for quick aging of the cheese, from the
outer edges to the inner core.
Double Cream: The French term for
cheese containing at least 60 percent
butterfat in the cheese solids (dry matter).
Dry Matter: All the components of cheese
(solids) excluding moisture (water). Dry
matter includes proteins, milkfat, milk
sugars and minerals.
Dutch-Type: A classication of cheese
varieties that share similar characteristics, such as in methods of manufacture,
consistency, texture, smell or taste, with
cheeses produced in the Netherlands.
Edam and Gouda are considered Dutchtype cheeses. Tilsit may appear under
this classication, although it is not
produced predominantly in Holland.
Earthy: A descriptive term for cheese
varieties with rustic, hearty avors and
aromas. Cheese avor compounds in
this category share qualities with those
present in freshly plowed earth or forest
litter. Goat, sheep and monastery type
cheeses may be characterized as earthy
and exhibit assertive avor and aroma.
Emmentaler: The eyed cheese made in
the Emme Valley, Switzerland, sometimes referred to as Swiss cheese.
Emulsier: A substance or mixture used
in the production of processed cheese to
create its smooth body and texture. It is
composed of the salts of common food
acids.
Eye: A void or hole within cheese caused
by the formation of trapped gas as a
result of fermentation during the curing
process. The presence of eyes is typical
of Swiss-type cheeses and can range
from pin size to pea size or larger.
Family (Group): A term for cheese varieties that share similar characteristics.
Farmstead: A term describing cheese
made on the farm from the milk of that
farm.
Fat Content: The amount of butterfat/fat
in any cheese. Fat content is determined
by analyzing the fat in the dry matter of
cheese. The fat is expressed as a percentage of the entire dry matter. In reference to cheese fat, milkfat and butterfat
are synonymous. See Dry Matter.
Federal Standards of Identity: Describe the
major varieties of cheese and identify
the procedures by which they are manufactured, the ingredients they may contain and their moisture and milkfat. For
types of cheese not dened by a generic
name under these standards, provisions
are made for them to be identied by
their degree of hardness.
Feed: A descriptive term for cheese that
exhibits an odor or taste that is directly
related to the particular feed consumed
by a cow or other animal before milking.
The aroma or avor may be unpleasant if
the feed was turnips, or intriguing if the
feed was apples or mountain clover.
Ferme (Fermier): The French term for
farm-produced cheeses.
Fermented: An aroma reminiscent of
alcohol fermentations.
Filled: A descriptive term for cheese from
which all butterfat has been removed
and in its place a vegetable oil has been
used as a substitute. Filled cheese also
is referred to as imitation.
Finish: (1) The process of nishing, rening or curing cheese to desired ripeness.
Soft-ripened cheeses are sprayed on
the surface with a harmless white mold
(Penicillium candidum) whose growth
helps ripen the cheese. Depending upon
cheese variety, other nishing methods
include washing the rinds of cheeses
and the daily turning of cheeses. Tem24
perature and humidity are tightly controlled during the nishing process. (2)
Refers to the way a cheese is packaged,
such as a hard, natural rind, a bandage
of cheesecloth and wax or vacuum packaging. (3) The aftertaste of cheese may
be described as having a clean nish,
bitter nish, sour nish, earthy nish and
so forth.
Firm (Hard): A classication of cheese
varieties exhibiting a relatively inelastic
and unyielding texture like Asiago, Cotija
and Parmesan. Federal Standards of
Identity state that rm cheeses have
a maximum moisture content of 34
percent and a minimum milkfat content
of 50 percent.
Fishy: A descriptive term referring to the
unpleasant avor of overripe, high-moisture cheese varieties. Often associated
with ammoniacal avors.
Flaky: A descriptive term for cheese that
breaks into akes when cut. A aky
quality is typical of Parmesan, Romano,
Asiago and Cheddar when aged over 10
to 12 months.
Flat: (1) A descriptive term for tasteless
cheese that normally yields a distinct
avor. Cheese with reduced levels of
sodium and salt is often referred to as
at. (2) A style of Cheddar weighing from
35 to 37 pounds that has been coated
with wax and cheesecloth.
Flavor: A general term for the taste
cheese presents as it is eaten. Flavor
is detected in the mouth and also by
the nose. Flavors, in order of ascending aggressiveness, are described as
faint (eeting), mild (light or bland),
pronounced (distinct) or strong (intense).
Flavors may also be described by the
tastes they resemble, such as nutty,
salty, buttery, fruity and peppery. Flavor
is categorized by initial tastes as well as
by aftertastes.
Fondu: The French word for Process
cheese. This term should not be confused with Fondue, a Swiss dish often
made with cheese.
Fondue: A Swiss dish often made with
cheese.
Force Ripening: A method of speeding the
ripening of a cheese by using a warmer
GLOSSARY
environment than normal to naturally
ripen the cheese. The cheese may be
force ripened at room temperature or in
a cooler set at a higher than normal temperature. Ripening may also be accelerated by modifying the enzymes. These
cheeses are used primarily in processed
cheese and as a food ingredient.
Foreign Flavor: See Chemical.
Foreign Flavor (Chemical): A descriptive
term for a cheese aroma or avor taint
which usually indicates improper manufacturing or contamination with foreign
materials.
Formaggio: The Italian word for cheese.
Fresh: A term typically used to classify
cheese varieties that have not been
cured, such as Mascarpone, Cottage
cheese, Cream cheese or Ricotta.
Cheeses that have been cured for very
short periods, such as Feta, may also be
classied as fresh.
Fresh Mozzarella: A soft Mozzarella with
a high-moisture content, meant to be
eaten soon after it is produced. In Italy,
balls (Bocconcini) of Fresh Mozzarella
are stored in water and usually consumed the same day they are made.
Due to high-moisture content, Fresh
Mozzarella has a very short shelf life.
Fromage: The French word for cheese.
Fromager: A French word to describe
a person with in-depth knowledge of
cheese. Sometimes spelled Fromagier.
Fruity: A descriptive term for the sweet,
fragrant aroma or avor characteristic of
certain semi-soft cheeses, such as Pouy
De Montagne or American Muenster,
and some hard mountain cheese varieties. Baby Swiss and some Cheddars also
present a fruity quality.
Gamey: A descriptive term for cheeses
with strong avors and penetrating
aromas.
Gassy: A descriptive term for cheeses in
packaging that becomes bloated. This
may be a result of an increase in holding temperature or altitude, or it may
indicate microbial production of carbon
dioxide.
Gem: A style of Cheddar weighing approximately 3 pounds.
moisture content of 34% and a minimum milkfat content of 50%.
Giganti: A very large style of Provolone,
typically weighing 200 to 600 pounds
and measuring up to approximately 7
feet in length.
Hard-grating: A descriptive term for
cheeses, such as Parmesan, Romano
and Asiago, that are well-aged, easily
grated and primarily used in cooking.
Federal Standards of Identity dictate
that hard-grating cheeses contain a maximum moisture content of 34 percent
and a minimum milkfat of 32 percent.
Goat: A classication of cheese made
from goat’s milk.
Goaty: Distinctive avor of cheeses made
from goat’s milk.
Gouda and Edam: A category of cheeses
referred to as sweet curd cheese.
Grainy: (1) A descriptive term for gritty
texture which is desirable in certain
hard-grating cheeses, though not to
the point of mealiness. Parmesan and
Romano exhibit a granular or grainy texture. (2) A avor term that may be used
to describe the grain-like (wheat) avors
that occur as the result of ripening.
Grana: The Italian term for hard-grating
cheese referring to a cheese’s hard
granular texture. Parmesan, Romano,
Asiago, Parmigiano-Reggiano, Grana
Padano and Sapsago are among the
grana-type cheese varieties.
Grassy: A descriptive term for cheese
with a weedy taste that is related to the
type of feed a cow has consumed prior
to milking, such as silage, bitterweed,
leeks or onions. See Feed.
Grated: With hard cheeses, such as Parmesan, Romano and Asiago, fracturing
the cheese into tiny particles is a common style choice. This allows the user to
sprinkle the cheese on top of a dish like
seasoning.
Half Moon: A split version of a Longhornstyle cheese.
Half Wheel/Split: A 10- or 20-pound
wheel is often too much product for one
outlet to handle at once, so many manufacturers split wheels either down the
center of the wheel vertically or in some
cases horizontally.
Hard: See Firm.
Hard (Firm): A classication of cheese
varieties exhibiting a relatively inelastic
and unyielding texture like Cheddar and
Swiss. Federal Standards of Identity
state that rm cheeses have a maximum
25
Hot Performance: Covers the quality of the
response of cheese to the application
of heat. The behavior of cheese when
heated depends primarily on the form
of the prepared cheese, the hardness
of the cheese and the temperature and
length of cooking time.
Imitation Pasteurized Process Cheese
Spread: A cheese that possesses all
the properties of pasteurized process
cheese spread except the butterfat
content is signicantly lower than federal
standards allow for labeling as a cheese
spread.
Individual Portion Pack: Individual packs
are great for airlines, consumers to take
on picnics or pack into a to-go meal.
Just a few years ago, you could only nd
Cream cheese in this size. Many natural
cheese products are now taking advantage of this convenience pack.
Intense: A descriptive term for cheese
with strong, concentrated aromas and
avors.
Kaas: The Dutch word for cheese.
Käse: The German word for cheese.
Lactic: (1) A general description applied
to cheese exhibiting a clean, wholesome,
milky and slightly acidic avor or aroma.
(2) The type of organisms included in
starter cultures for cheesemaking.
Lactose: Natural sugar found in most
milks.
Lactose Intolerance: A human condition in
which the digestive system is not able to
properly break down the natural sugar
found in milk and dairy products. Common symptoms tend to be excessive gas
and/or diarrhea.
GLOSSARY
Lipase: (1) An enzyme found in raw milk,
also produced by microorganisms that
split fat molecules into fatty acids. (2)
Lipase avor is a term also used to describe rancidity, especially where these
avors are desired in cheeses. See
Rancid.
used to describe Cheddars.
Mouthfeel: See Texture.
Midget: A style of cheese, usually Cheddar, weighing approximately 12 pounds.
Loaf: This rectangular-shaped style is the
standard 5- to 9-pound cut with a 4- by
4-inch face, ideal for deli slicing and consumers or chefs to use in their sandwich
creations.
Milkfat Content: The fat content of cheese
expressed as a percentage of the total
cheese weight. Milkfat content depends
upon the richness of milk used in cheesemaking and how much moisture is
lost during ripening. Synonymous with
butterfat.
Mouthfeel (Texture): A general term for
the “fabric” or “feel” of cheese when
touched, tasted or cut. Characteristics of
cheese texture may be smooth, grainy,
open or closed, creamy, aky, dense,
crumbly and so forth, depending upon
the specic variety.
Log: See Cylinder/Log.
Longhorn: A style of cheese, usually Colby
or Colby-Jack, weighing approximately
12 to 13 pounds, cylindrical with a
6-inch diameter, about 13 inches long.
Make Procedure: The recipe and procedural steps to make cheese.
Make Time: The period of time required to
turn raw milk into nished cheese, ready
to go to a curing room.
Mammoth: A style of cheese, usually
Cheddar, weighing between 75 and
2,000 pounds.
Mandarini: A Provolone style that weighs
approximately 20 to 25 pounds and
resembles the shape of an egg. Ropes
are tied around the cheese for hanging
for proper aging.
Marc: The white brandy or eau de vie
made from grape pomace. Marc may be
used as a solution for curing washedrind cheese.
Matieres Grasses: The French term for
milkfat in dry matter.
Mechanical Holes: Small, irregular openings in the body of cheese caused by
manufacturing methods, not by gas
fermentation. Colby, Brick, Muenster and
Monterey Jack are varieties with natural,
mechanical openings. See Open.
Mechanical Manipulation: The various
methods of handling cheese during
preparation (i.e., shredding, grating,
slicing with a knife, slicing on an electric
slicer, crumbling, etc.).
Medium-aged (Mellow): Generally semirm, rm or hard cheeses that have
been cured for three to six months.
Medium-aged cheeses are usually mellow and smooth textured. Frequently
Mild (Young): A descriptive term for light,
unpronounced avors. Mild also refers to
young, briey-aged Cheddars.
Milkfat in the Dry Matter (FDM): The fat
content of cheese expressed as a
percentage of the total solids of cheese.
Most cheeses are in the range of 45
to 55 percent milkfat in the dry matter
because the dry matter stays constant in
a unit of cheese while moisture content
in that cheese may vary.
Mini Horn: See Deli or Mini Horn.
Moisture Content: See Fat Content.
Moisture Content (Fat Content): The
amount of butterfat/fat in any cheese.
Fat content is determined by analyzing
the fat in the dry matter of cheese. The
fat is expressed as a percentage of the
entire dry matter. In reference to cheese
fat, milkfat and butterfat are synonymous. See Dry Matter.
Mold: (1) A condition created by the
growth of various fungi during ripening,
contributing to the individual character
of cheese. Surface molds ripen from
the rind inward. Internal molds, such
as those used for Blue-veined cheeses,
ripen throughout the cheese. A moldy
character can be clean and attractive, or
unpleasantly musty or ammoniated. (2)
Refers to the fungus itself. (3) A hoop or
container in which cheese is shaped.
Monastery-type: A term used to classify
cheeses that originated and are still
produced in the monasteries of France,
such as Port du Salut. Monastery-type
also refers to other cheese varieties with
similar attributes and may also include a
variety of washed-rind cheeses.
Mottled: A defect in cheese appearance
characterized by an irregular, splotchy
color on the rind or interior.
26
Mushroomy: A descriptive term for
ripened cheese, such as Brie, with an
aroma and avor similar to the clean,
pleasant fragrance of mushrooms.
The avor is produced by the surface
mold that is related to commercial
mushrooms. A mushroom aroma may
be detected in other soft or semi-soft
varieties. This aroma is also referred to
as mildly earthy.
Natural: (1) A general classication for
cheese that is made directly from milk.
Whether the milk is pasteurized or
unpasteurized has no bearing on the
designation as natural. (2) Refers to the
cheesemaking process whereby cheese
is made directly from milk by coagulating
or curdling the milk, stirring and heating
the curd, draining the whey and collecting or pressing the curd.
Natural Rind: A rind that develops
naturally on the cheese exterior through
drying while ripening without the aid of
ripening agents or washing. Most semihard or hard cheeses have natural rinds
that may be thin like that of bandaged
Cheddar or thick like that of Parmesan,
Pecorino Romano and wheel Swiss (Emmentaler).
Naturally Bandaged: Cheddar cheeses
wrapped in cheesecloth and dipped
in wax. Prior to vapor-barrier lm, this
method provided the only way to store
Cheddar cheese for storage and shipping. Examples of styles of naturally
bandaged Cheddars would be a gem,
daisy wheel or a mammoth.
Nutty: A descriptive term for cheese
with a nut-like avor, a characteristic
of Swiss types. Cheddars may exhibit a
avor reminiscent of walnuts; fresh goat
cheese and Gruyère are said to resemble the taste of hazelnuts. The avor
blends causing this characteristic are
actually found in nuts.
GLOSSARY
Off: A term referring to undesirable avors or odors too faint or ill-dened to be
more precisely characterized.
yields a lower-fat cheese that may have
desirable properties compared to the
full-fat cheeses. See Skimmed Milk.
Oil Off: Refers to the separation of oil
when cheese melts.
Pasta Filata: Translated literally from
Italian, to spin paste or threads. Pasta
Filata refers to a type of cheese where
curds are heated and then stretched or
kneaded before being molded into the
desired shape. The resulting cheese
has great elasticity and stretches when
cooked or melted. Cheeses in this family include Mozzarella, Provolone and
String.
Oily: A descriptive term that may refer to
body, aroma and avor. Cheese held out
of refrigeration for extended periods may
also appear oily.
Open: A term applied to cheese varieties
containing small, mechanical holes that
develop as a result of the manufacturing process. The holes may be small or
large, densely patterned or randomly
scattered, and irregular in shape. The
blue mold that grows in Blue-veined
cheeses forms around the openings in
the lightly pressed curd. Air is introduced
through punctures made with steel pins
into the cheese (see Mechanical Holes).
Pin holes are not to be confused with the
open eyes in Swiss-type cheeses caused
by fermentation. See Close.
Ost: The Scandinavian word for cheese.
Ovalini: A Fresh Mozzarella ball shape
that weighs approximately 4 ounces.
Overripe: A term descriptive of cheese
that has passed its ideal state of avor
development or that has become too
soft.
Pack Date: A code date put on cheese to
indicate the date the cheese was packed
by the manufacturer.
Pail: For practical and economic reasons, getting products in an industrialsize container is the way to go. Products
packed this way are typically heading for
a commercial kitchen.
Paneer: A fresh cheese originally from
India. A farmerstyle cheese that would
typically be unsalted. This cheese is acid
set and has vegetarian appeal because
of the lack of animal rennet. The texture
is similar to Queso Blanco.
Parafn: A wax coating applied to the
rinds of some cheese varieties for both
protection during export and extended
life spans. Parafn may be clear, black,
brown, yellow or red.
Part-skim: A term used to denote the
manufacture of a cheese, such as Mozzarella, with partly skimmed milk. This
Paste: A descriptive term for the interior
texture of soft-ripened cheeses, such
as Brie, that exhibit a semi-soft to runny
consistency.
Pasteurization: The process of heating
milk to a specic temperature for a
specic period of time in order to destroy
any disease-producing bacteria, also
checking the activity of fermentative
bacteria.
Pasteurized Process Cheese: A blend of
fresh and aged, natural cheeses that
have been shredded, mixed and heated
(cooked) with an addition of an emulsier salt, after which no further ripening
occurs.
Pasteurized Process Cheese Food: A
variation of Pasteurized Process cheese
containing less fat and a higher moisture content. It differs from Process
cheese in that either nonfat dry milk or
whey solids and water have been added,
thus reducing the percentage of actual
cheese in the nished product.
Pasteurized Process Cheese Spread: A
variation of Pasteurized Process cheese
containing a higher moisture content
and lower milkfat content than Process
Cheese Food. A stabilizer is added to
prevent separation of ingredients.
Pasture-grazed: A term describing cheese
made exclusively from the seasonal milk
of pasture-grazed animals.
Pear: A Provolone style that weighs
between 20 and 40 pounds and resembles the shape of a pear. Ropes are
tied around the cheese for hanging for
proper aging.
Penicillium: Principal genus of fungi used
to develop molds on certain cheese
27
varieties during ripening. Penicillium
candidum is used to develop many softripened cheeses, such as Brie; Penicillium glaucum or roqueforti are used for
Gorgonzola and Roquefort® cheeses,
respectively.
Peppery: A descriptive term for cheese
with a sharp, pepper avor. Aged Cheddar may be described as peppery.
Performance: Refers to the way a particular type or variety of cheese responds
to handling during preparation, from
mechanical manipulation (e.g., slicing,
shredding, grating, etc.) in its cold state,
to the quality of the cheese’s response
to heating (e.g., characteristics such
as melting, stretching, browning, etc.).
Performance also describes how cheese
avors combine with each other or with
additional ingredients.
Persille: The French translation for parsleyed, which refers to delicately veined
Blue varieties, such as Roquefort,® Blue
and Stilton,® where the mold resembles
sprigs of parsley.
Pickled Cheese: A term used to classify
cheeses that are stored and packed in a
brine solution, such as Feta.
Piquant: A descriptive term for cheese
with an appealing sharpness, avor or
aroma. Aged Asiago, Aged Provolone,
and Blue-veined cheeses are sometimes
described by this term.
Plastic Curd: A classication of cheeses
whose curd is heated and then kneaded
to form various shapes. The Italian
term for these cheese varieties is Pasta
Filata. Mozzarella, Provolone and String
are plastic curd-type cheeses and may
be described as string-like. See Pasta
Filata.
Pressed Cheese: A descriptive term for
cheese whose curd has been placed in
a mold and literally pressed to form the
intended shape of the nished cheese.
Fresh, uncured cheese varieties, such as
Cream or Feta, and cured cheeses, such
as Brick, Cheddar, Parmesan and Romano, are examples of pressed cheese.
Print: A rectangular style of cheese that
has been cut from a 40-pound block.
Prints are normally 10-pound loaves.
GLOSSARY
Process Cheese: See Pasteurized Process
Cheese.
Process Cheese (Pasteurized Process
Cheese): A blend of fresh and aged
natural cheeses that have been shredded, mixed, and heated (cooked) with an
addition of an emulsier salt, after which
no further ripening occurs.
Pronounced: A descriptive term for
cheese that exhibits a distinct aroma
or avor stronger than mild but not as
powerful as intense. See Intense.
Pull Date: A code date stamped on
cheese to indicate when the product
should be removed from stock as being
too old.
Pungent: A descriptive term for cheese
with an especially poignant aroma or
sharp, penetrating avor. Limburger
cheese aroma is classed as pungent.
rinds or possess rinds that are produced
by harmless mold. See Bloomy Rind and
Natural Rind.
Rindless: Cheese without a rind. Some
rindless varieties, such as Brick and
Colby, are ripened (cured) in plastic lm
or other protective coating to prevent
rind formation. Some cheeses, such as
Feta, are rindless because they are not
allowed to ripen.
Ripe: A descriptive term for cheese that
has arrived at peak avor through aging.
The optimum period of aging varies
widely among cheese varieties.
Ripening: The chemical and physical
alteration of cheese during the curing
process. See Aging and Curing.
Robust: A descriptive term for cheese
with a very strong aroma and full avor.
Round: See Ball/Round.
Quarter Wheel: Cheese manufacturers
cut 20-pound wheels or larger into four
quarters for more efcient use by the
end user.
Rubbery: A term characterizing the
resilient feel and texture of a cheese.
Generally a term for cheese that is overly
chewy or excessively elastic in texture.
Queijo: The Portuguese word for cheese.
Runny: A descriptive term for cheeses
that have returned to a partially liquid
state as a result of insufcient drainage
of whey or exposure to excessive heat.
Soft-ripened cheese varieties often
become runny at the peak of ripeness or
if placed in warm temperatures for long
periods.
Queso: The Spanish word for cheese.
Rancid: A term relating to avors caused
by lipase enzymes releasing fatty acids
from butterfat. Some cheeses are not
supposed to have avors caused by fatty
acids in high concentrations, such as
Cheddar, while others, such as Romano,
gain much of their avor from the rancidity of fatty acids. In many dairy avors,
excessive rancidity is considered a
notable defect. See Lipase.
Raw Milk: Milk that has not undergone
pasteurization.
rBGH/Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone: A synthetic version of BGH used in
dairy cows to aid in the increase of milk
production.
Rennet: An extract from the membranes
of calves’ stomachs that contains rennin, an enzyme that aids in coagulating
milk or separating curds from whey.
Rennet-like enzymes, also used commercially, are produced by selected fungi
and bacteria.
Rind: The outer surface of cheese. A rind
varies in texture, thickness and color.
Cheeses may be rindless, display natural
Rustic: A descriptive term for cheese with
a hearty or earthy avor and distinct
aroma. Country or mountain cheeses are
sometimes referred to as rustic.
Salami: A Provolone style resembling a
small to large log, ranging in size from
13 to 100 pounds.
Salamini: Similar to a Provolone Salami,
the Salamini is smaller — 1 or 8 pounds
in size — and tied off with ropes for
hanging for proper aging.
Salting: A step in the cheesemaking
process requiring the addition of salt.
Depending upon the cheese variety, salt
can be added while the cheese is in curd
form or rubbed on the cheese after it is
pressed. Salt is used to help preserve
cheese, as well as to enhance its avor.
Cheese also may be soaked in a salt
solution, a process termed brining.
28
Salty: Most cheeses possess some degree of saltiness. Pronounced saltiness
is characteristic of specic varieties;
however, excessive saltiness is a defect.
Cheeses lacking in salt are described as
dull or at.
Satiny: A descriptive term referring to the
texture and mouthfeel of soft, spreadable cheese varieties. A satiny texture
is characteristic of perfectly ripened
Brie. Also referred to as a smooth, silky
texture.
Sell-by Date: A code date put on cheese
by the manufacturer to indicate the date
recommended that the cheese be sold
to the consumer.
Semi-hard: A classication of cheese
based upon body. Cheddar, Colby, Edam
and Gouda are examples of semi-hard
cheese varieties.
Semi-soft: A wide variety of cheeses
made with whole milk. Cheeses in this
category include Monterey Jack, Brick,
Muenster, Fontina and Havarti, and melt
well when cooked.
Sharp: A descriptive avor term referring to the fully developed avor of aged
cheeses, such as Cheddar, Provolone
and some Blue-veined varieties. The
avor is actually sharp and biting, but
not excessively acrid or sour.
Sheep: A classication of cheese made
from ewe’s milk.
Sheepy: Characteristic avor of some
cheeses made from ewe’s milk.
Shredded: A very popular style or form
with many varieties of cheese. Manufacturers now make standard, small strip
shreds to fancy, very ne strip shreds of
cheese. This form is ideal when cooking
with cheese.
Silky: See Satiny.
Silky (Satiny): A descriptive term referring
to the texture and “mouthfeel” of soft,
spreadable cheese varieties. A satiny
texture is characteristic of perfectly ripe
Brie. Also referred to as a smooth, silky
texture.
Skimmed Milk: The milk that remains
after all or part of the cream containing
the fat has been removed.
GLOSSARY
Sliced: Another popular style or form of
cheese is the slice. First incorporated
into the world of American Pasteurized Process cheese, you can now nd
hundreds of natural cheese varieties in
this form.
Smoked Cheese: Cheese that has been
smoked in a process similar to smoking meat. Methods for smoking cheese
include the addition of liquid smoke to
the brine or smoking over woodchips.
Smoked Cheddar, Swiss and Provolone
yield a unique avor.
Soapy: Descriptive of a taste caused by
long-chain fatty acids sometimes present in cheese caused by excessive milkfat breakdown. See Lipase and Rancid.
Soft-fresh: A category of cheeses with
high moisture content that are typically
direct set with the addition of lactic
acid cultures. Cheeses in this category
include Cottage cheese, Cream cheese
and Neufchatel, Feta, Mascarpone,
Ricotta, and Queso Blanco.
Soft-ripened: A classication of cheese
based upon body. Brie and Camembert
are examples of soft-ripened cheese
varieties.
Soft/Fresh: A category of cheeses with
high-moisture content that are typically
direct-set with the addition of lactic
acid cultures. Cheeses in this category
include Cottage cheese, Cream cheese
and Neufchâtel, Feta, Mascarpone,
Ricotta and Queso Blanco. See Directset.
Solids: See Dry Matter.
Solids (Dry Matter): All the components
of cheese (solids) excluding moisture
(water). Dry matter includes proteins,
milkfat, milk sugars, and minerals.
Sour: A descriptive term for cheese with
an excessive acid content. However, a
mild, tangy, sour avor can be attractive
in young cheeses. Tartness is the same
as sourness in avors.
Sour Milk: Milk made acidic by fermentation. The predominant acid formed is
lactic acid. See Lactic and Starter.
SOUR MILK CHEESE Cheese that has been
curdled (coagulated) by natural souring
or by the addition of lactic acid bacte-
ria, such as Cottage cheese. Sour milk
cheese does not use rennet for coagulation.
Strong: A descriptive term for cheese
with a pronounced or penetrating avor
and aroma.
Specialty Cheese: A subjective term used
to classify cheeses of exceptional quality, notably unique or produced in quantities of less than 40 million pounds per
year. Cheeses that are combinations of
different cheese types also may be referred to as specialty. For example, Blue/
Brie is a soft-ripened specialty cheese
with a blue vein mold throughout.
Style: A classication of cheese based
upon its shape, size and packaging.
Spiced: A term sometimes used to
classify all cheese varieties containing
spices, herbs or avorings. For example,
caraway Gouda is a spiced cheese.
Spicy: A descriptive term for cheese varieties with a peppery, herby avor.
Springy: A descriptive term for cheese
with a resilient texture that springs back
when gently pressed. Ripe or nearly ripe,
soft-ripened varieties should be springy.
Stabilizer: An ingredient added to a product to bind water, improve consistency or
stabilize an emulsion. Examples include
whey protein concentrate (WPC), gelatin,
xanthan gum, guar gum and locust bean
gum.
Starter: A culture that normally consists
of varying percentages of lactic acid,
bacterial or mold spores, enzymes or
other microorganisms and natural chemicals. Starter cultures speed and control
the process of curdling milk during cheesemaking in part by converting lactose
to lactic acid. They also lend unique
avor characteristics to the cheese.
Stick: See Chunk/Bar.
String Like (Plastic Curd): A classication
of cheeses whose curd is heated and
then kneaded to form various shapes.
The Italian term for these cheese varieties is pasta lata. Mozzarella, Provolone,
and String cheese are plastic-curd type
cheeses and may be described as string
like. See Pasta Filata.
String-like: See Plastic Curd.
String/Rope: Small cylinders of typically
Mozzarella or Provolone. This snack-style
cheese is very popular to use in school
lunch packs.
29
Supple: A term describing the body of
certain cheeses when handled. Supple
cheese varieties, such as Fontina, are
somewhat elastic, consistent and yielding.
Surface-ripened: A term referring to
cheese that ripens from the exterior
when a harmless mold, yeast or bacteria
is applied to the surface. Bloomy-rind
cheeses, like Brie and Camembert, and
washed-rind cheeses, like Limburger, are
both surface-ripened.
Swiss-type: A term used to classify
cheeses that share the common characteristics of eyes (holes) in their interior.
Eyes develop during the curing process
when gas, formed through fermentation,
is trapped and expands, thus forming
holes. The size of eyes can range from
small as a pea in Baby Swiss to the
larger holes typical of Aged Swiss. The
original Switzerland Swiss is known as
Emmentaler.
Texture: A general term for the fabric or
feel of cheese when touched, tasted or
cut. Characteristics of cheese texture
may be smooth, grainy, open or closed,
creamy, aky, dense, crumbly and so
forth, depending upon the specic
variety.
Thermalization: The process of heat-treating milk to less than 160°F for less than
15 seconds prior to cheese production.
This process utilizes a lower temperature
for a shorter period of time than pasteurization.
Tome: This French word for cheese is
native to the Haute Savoie section of
France. The word precedes the names
of certain cheeses, such as Tome de
Savoie or Tome de Beaumont. The
Tomes have much in common with the
washed-rind cheeses produced in the
monasteries of France.
Tomme: Sometimes spelled Tome, this
French word for cheese is native to the
Haute Savoie section of France. The
word precedes the names of certain
GLOSSARY
cheeses such as Tomme de Savoie or
Tomme de Beaumont. The Tommes have
much in common with the washed-rind
cheeses produced in the monasteries of
France.
Triple Cream: The French term for cheese
which contains over 72 percent butterfat
in the cheese solids. See Creams and
Fat Content.
Tub: A similar form to the cup, only
shorter in height and typically wider in
circumference.
Turophile: A lover of cheese. Taken from
the Greek word turos (cheese) and the
root phil (love).
Type: A term used to classify or categorize cheeses that share common
characteristics, such as degree of rmness, texture, avor and manufacturing
procedure, with a widely known and
established cheese variety.
Ultra Pasteurization: Also referred to as
UHT. The process of super-heating milk
to 275°F for 4 to 15 seconds.
US RDA: The abbreviation for United
States Recommended Daily Allowance
referring to the nutritional contributions
foods, such as cheese, give to the diet.
Variety: The generic name of a cheese
by which it is most commonly identied,
such as Cheddar, Colby, Blue, etc.
Washed-rind: A cheese rind that has been
washed periodically with brine, whey,
beer, cider, wine, brandy or oil during ripening. The rind is kept moist to encourage the growth of an orange-red bacteria. The bacteria may be scraped off,
dried or left to further rind development.
Washed-rind and bloomy-rind cheeses
compose what is termed the soft-ripening (surfaced-ripened) classication.
Limburger is a washed-rind cheese.
Waxed: Prior to airtight shrink bags, cheesemakers would wrap their cheese in
cheesecloth and dip in wax for preservation. Many wax colors denote some attribute of that cheese. For example, with
Cheddar: clear = mild, red = medium,
and black = aged or sharp.
Waxy: A term describing the wax-like
appearance of a cheese body, or its texture, when tasted or cut. See Texture.
Wedge: A cut form, usually in a cake or
pie-style wedge, from a wheel of cheese.
Many varieties of cheese use this style
when merchandising a retail cheese
case.
Weeping: A descriptive term referring to
Swiss-type cheeses whose eyes glisten
with bits of moisture. This is caused by
the release of moisture by proteins as
they are broken down during ripening.
Weeping often indicates that a cheese
has achieved peak ripeness and will
exhibit full avor. Can also be caused by
storing cheese at too warm a temperature.
30
Wheel/Round: A circular style or form that
is usually at on the top and bottom.
Whey: (1) The thin, watery part of milk
that separates from the coagulated
curds during the rst step of the cheesemaking process. It still contains most of
the milk sugar or lactose found in milk.
(2) A classication of cheeses made
predominantly from the whey obtained
during the manufacture of other cheeses
like Gjetost. Ricotta can be made from
whey.
Whole Milk: Milk that is neither skimmed
nor enriched with extra cream.
Wisconsin State Brand/Wisconsin Grade A:
These interchangeable grades appear
on American cheeses and meet the
state’s highest quality and standards.
Wrapping
The exterior material used to enclose or
cover cheese for protection and storage.
Examples of wrapping material include
leaves, plastic, cloth, parafn and foil.
Young: See Current.
Young (Current): Generally semi-rm, rm
or hard cheese varieties that have been
cured for two weeks up to 30 days. Such
cheeses usually have mild avors.
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