conservation of old buildings in melaka izat hilmi bin mohamed

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conservation of old buildings in melaka izat hilmi bin mohamed
CONSERVATION OF OLD BUILDINGS IN MELAKA
IZAT HILMI BIN MOHAMED SALLEH
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA
DECLARATION OF THESIS / UNDERGRADUATE PROJECT PAPER AND COPYRIGHT
Author’s full name
Date of birth
:
Author’s full name :
Date of birth
:
: IZAT HILMI BIN MOHAMED SALLEH
6 APRIL 1987
IZAT HILMI BIN MOHAMED SALLEH
6 APRIL 1987
Title
: CONSERVATION OF OLD BUILDINGS IN
MELAKA
: CONSERVATION OF OLD BUILDINGS IN MELAKA
Title
Academic
Session
: 2011/2012
Academic
Session
: 2011/2012
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870406-30-5285
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MR. BACHAN SINGH A/L BESAWA
JAGAR SINGH
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Date :
870406-30-5285
SINGH A/L BESAWA
JAGAR SINGH
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If the thesis is CONFIDENTAL or RESTRICTED, please attach with the letter from
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sufficient in terms of scope and quality for the award of Bachelor of Civil
Engineering”
Signature
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Name of Supervisor : Mr. Bachan Singh a/l Besawa Jagar Singh
Date
: 25 June 2012
CONSERVATION OF OLD BUILDINGS IN MELAKA
IZAT HILMI BIN MOHAMED SALLEH
A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the
requirements for the award of the degree of
Bachelor of Civil Engineering
Faculty of Civil Engineering
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia
June 2012
ii
I declare that this thesis entitled “Conservation of Old Building in Melaka” is the
result of my own research except as cited in references. The thesis has not been
accepted for any degree for and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any
other degree.
Signature
:
Name
: Izat Hilmi bin Mohamed Salleh
Date
: 25 June 2012
iii
Specially dedicated to my mother, my father, my lovely family, my supervisor,
friends and lecturers
“Thanks for all support, time, love and understanding”
iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Alhamdulillah and praise to Allah for His Grace and Mercy, for giving me
the strength and guidance to complete the report of “Conservation of Old Buildings
in Melaka”. My hardship will be meaningless if I don’t express my gratitude to all
the parties that lend me their hands throughout my time here.
First of all, I would like to say thanks to Mr. Bachan Singh a/l Besawar Jagar
Singh for his encouragement, guidance, critics, advices and motivation. His
continuous guidance was the main reason for this project to be done successfully.
I would also like to extend my gratitude to examiners, lecturers, and
interviewees for their assistance and support throughout the project.
In addition, this project will not be completed without the supports I received
from my beloved family, Nadiah, and all my friends here. Without them, I’ll
probably end up stranded somewhere not knowing what to do. Their supports and
guidance will forever be remembered.
Thank you very much.
v
ABSTRACT
Melaka, being a historical city, need to conserve the old buildings so that the
history of the city can be preserved and narrated to the public. The history of the city
depends on the evidence of the existence of buildings constructed in the 15th and 16th
century. The conservation of these buildings is not an easy task as the problems of
materials used in their construction is no longer available. Furthermore, the structural
aspect of the building need to be strengthened and it needs expertise. The objectives
of this study are; to identify the procurement methods for the conservation of old
building, to identify the building elements that are upgraded or repaired in the
conservation process, the problems faced by the municipal council, contractors and
building owners in the conservation of old buildings and the treatment methods are
being used for building conservation. This study is carried out in the city of Melaka.
The study is conducted through interviews and questionnaires. The respondents are
the local council, contractors and the building owners. The data is analysed by
Average Index. From the study, the types of procurement methods for the
conservation of the old buildings are requisition, quotation, open tendering and term
contract. The main building elements that are upgraded are windows, doors, ceramic
tiles, flooring, roof tiles, granite Edges and timbers. The problems faced by the
council are: poor allocation of funds from the state government for conservation
projects and materials needed to replace the damaged ones in the buildings are no
more in production. The treatment methods being used to conserve the old buildings
are damp proofing system using silicone cream to form a barrier against rising damp
and grouting for reinforced concrete beam using microcrete to fill up the cavity.
vi
ABSTRAK
Melaka, sebagai sebuah bandar sejarah, perlu memulihara bangunan-bangunan lama
supaya sejarah bandar ini dapat dikekalkan dan menceritakan kepada orang ramai.
Sejarah bandar ini bergantung kepada bukti-bukti kewujudan bangunan yang dibina
pada abad ke-15 dan ke-16. Pemuliharaan bangunan ini merupakan satu tugas yang
sukar kerana masalah bahan-bahan yang digunakan dalam pembinaan mereka sudah
tiada lagi. Tambahan pula, aspek struktur bangunan itu perlu diperkukuhkan dan ia
memerlukan kepakaran. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti kaedah
perolehan bagi pemuliharaan bangunan lama, untuk mengenal pasti elemen-elemen
bangunan yang dinaik taraf atau dibaiki dalam proses pemuliharaan, masalah yang
dihadapi oleh majlis perbandaran, kontraktor dan pemilik bangunan dalam
pemuliharaan bangunan-bangunan lama dan kaedah rawatan yang digunakan untuk
membina pemuliharaan. Kajian ini dijalankan di bandar Melaka. Kajian ini
dijalankan melalui temubual dan soal selidik. Responden adalah majlis perbandaran
tempatan, kontraktor dan pemilik bangunan. Data yang diperolehi dianalisis oleh
Indeks rata. Daripada kajian ini, jenis kaedah perolehan bagi pemuliharaan
bangunan-bangunan lama adalah permintaan, sebutharga, tender terbuka dan kontrak
jangka. Elemen-elemen bangunan utama yang dinaik taraf tingkap, pintu, jubin
seramik, lantai, jubin bumbung, tepi granit dan kayu. Masalah yang dihadapi oleh
majlis itu adalah: pengagihan dana dari kerajaan negeri untuk projek-projek
pemuliharaan dan bahan-bahan yang diperlukan untuk menggantikan yang rosak
dalam bangunan yang miskin tiada lagi dalam pengeluaran. Kaedah rawatan yang
digunakan untuk memulihara bangunan-bangunan lama adalah sistem kalis lembap
menggunakan krim silikon untuk membentuk halangan terhadap peningkatan lembap
dan Grouting bagi rasuk konkrit bertetulang yang menggunakan microcrete untuk
mengisi rongga.
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER
TITLES
PAGES
DECLARATION OF THESIS
1
2
AUTHOR DECLARATION
ii
DEDICATION
iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
iv
ABSTRACT
v
ABSTRAK
vi
TABLE OF CONTENTS
vii
LIST OF TABLES
ix
LIST OF FIGURES
x
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
xii
LIST OF APPENDICES
xiii
INTRODUCTION
1
1.1
Background of Research
2
1.2
Research Problems
4
1.3
Objectives
4
1.4
Significance of Research
5
LITERATURE REVIEW
6
2.1
Introduction
6
2.2
To create awareness to the public
6
2.3
The ways of rehabilitating and preserving
the buildings
2.4
7
The procurement of nominating the right contractor
for the project
9
viii
2.5
2.6
3
repaired in the rehabilitation process
10
The cost of rehabilitating an old building
12
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
14
3.1
Introduction
14
3.2
Data Collection
14
3.2.1 Literature Review
15
3.2.2 Questionnaire
15
3.2.3 Interviews
16
3.2.4 Preparation Questionnaire
16
3.2.5 Submission of Questionnaire
17
Analysis of Data
17
3.3.1 Average Index Method
17
3.3.2 Percentage Method
18
Conclusion
19
3.3
3.4
4
The building elements that are upgraded or
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
20
4.1
Introduction
20
4.2
Questionnaires Response
21
4.3
Interview Questions
27
4.3.1 Interview Answers
28
Restoration Methods
30
4.3.1 Rising Dampness Treatment
30
4.4
4.3.1.1 Saline Diffusion System
30
4.3.1.2 Siliconate Transfusion System
30
4.3.1.3 Siliconate Injection System
31
4.3.1.4 Preparation of Dryzone
Damp-proof Course Installation
4.3.2 Grouting of Cavity to R.C. Beam at
31
ix
balcony area by using Sika Microcrete 2000
38
4.3.2.1 Method of statement
38
4.3.3 Rebar Embedding
4.3.3.1 Method of statement
39
39
4.3.4 Waterproofing for Flat Roof by Using
CL Kote UV Resistant Waterproofing
Coating
40
4.3.4.1 Method of statement
40
4.3.5 Waterproofing System for Wet Floor Area
4.3.5.1 Method of statement
4.5 Building Elements Breakdown
5
41
41
45
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATION
77
5.1
Conclusion
77
5.2
Future Recommendations
79
REFERENCES
80
x
LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NO.
TITLES
PAGES
4.1
Procurement Method
21
4.2
Problems faced by contractors
22
4.3
Problems faced by authorities
23
4.4
Problems faced by building owners
25
4.5
Drill Hole Depths
33
4.6
Material Requirements
36
4.7
Building Elements of Each Lot
45
4.8
Summary of Each Element
48
xi
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO.
PAGES
TITLES
4.1
Drilling Patterns
32
4.2
Drilling Pattern for Cavity Walls
33
4.3
Drilling for Solid Brick Walls
34
4.4
Injection Positions
35
4.5
Grouting of Cavity
38
4.6
Rebar Embedding
39
4.7
Waterproofing for Flat Roof
40
4.8
Waterproofing for Wet Area Floors
41
4.9
Measuring Concrete Moisture Content
42
4.10
System for detecting rebar in concrete structures
43
4.11
Dryzone Damp proofing
43
4.12
StoCrete #4222 Waterproofing
44
4.13
General Elements A
67
4.14
General Element B
68
4.15
General Elements C
69
4.16
Elements in Lot No.10
70
4.17
Elements in Lot No.12 A
71
4.18
Elements in Lot No.12 B
72
4.19
Elements in Lot No.12 C
73
xii
4.20
Elements in Lot No.12 D
74
4.21
Elements in Lot No.12 E
75
4.22
Elements in Lot No.14
76
xiii
LIST OF SYMBOLS/ABBREVIATIONS
UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
SPSS
- Statistical Package for Social Science
AI
- Average Index
M.S.
- Mild Steel
3D
- Three Dimensional
M&E
- Mechanical and Electrical
TBC
- To Be Confirmed
DPC
- Damp-Proof Coating
DPM
- Damp-Proof Membrane
Mm
- Millimeter
m
- Meter
UV
- Ultraviolet
%
- Percentage
1
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
In the age of globalization buildings that have been around for the past
century is slowly being forgotten. Those buildings that’s been ignored by the modern
community have great historical and aesthetical value. Bad weather and the types of
materials used in the buildings may be the factors that lead to their destruction. In the
future, most of the world’s inhabitants will live in big cities because the numbers of
inhabitants in cities are increasing rapidly. The industrialisation, the concentrated
activities of the population in the cities and the rapid increase of traffic are the main
factors contributing to the increased energy consumption and air pollution in the
cities, as well as to the deteriorated environmental and climatic quality. From what
have been observed, the planners and architects are more focused on making more
buildings and paid very little attention on preserving the old ones.
The main point that needs attention is the lack of awareness on the
significances of the old buildings of is the main contributors to our urban heritage.
Some of the buildings have been subjected to changes or being neglected and left to
be swallowed by time. The old buildings found in the city are unique to this area.
The main issue to be highlighted is the lack of awareness regarding the significance
of the old shop houses as one of the main contribution to our urban heritage, among
2
both the higher authorities and the users. Some of the old shop houses have been
subjected to either changes or neglect that damage the essence of the old shophouses. Even though part of the built form can be traced back to Southern China and
European countries, the corridor added after 1880s, gives its unique character.
Realising its heritage value, some emphasis have been given to the conservation of
the old shop houses. The threats, apart from the natural causes include the lack of
legislation to protect heritage buildings, economic interest to replace heritage
buildings with new ones, lack of funds, conflict of interests and lack of
understanding with regards to the values of heritage buildings between the different
categories of public. In Malaysia, there are two historic cities in the straits of Melaka,
Georgetown and Melaka that have been awarded with “UNESCO’s World Heritage
Site.
1.1
Background of Study
The biggest single threat to our heritage at present is our modern culture of
disposability where our throw-away society is marginalising the past (Heritage of
Malaysia Trust 2004). Despite increasing governmental and public concern, in the
absence of effective legal protection, Malaysian cultural heritage continues to
disappear at an alarming rate. In Malaysia, consciousness with regards to urban
conservation is still a new phenomenon. In Kuala Lumpur, for instance, a growing
concern among people arose due to the destruction of the urban environment and the
threat to some of the city’s familiar and historical landmarks with the consequent
alteration of the city’s character. The first public outcry was raised in 1983 (Chen
Voon Fee 1989). Despite some efforts by conservation enthusiasts, demolition and
unsympathetic changes to the original buildings still continue. In 2003, the President
of the Heritage of Malaysian Trust had remarked that the oldest buildings in Malacca
and Penang are under threat. Although these historic cities are seeking listing from
UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, this destruction is fast spreading to other towns
throughout the country (Heritage of Malaysia Trust 2003).
The old shop-houses are under threats of extinction. Problems that relate to
the destruction of the old shop-houses include the lack in legislation, lack of control
within the local governments, modernisation i.e. economic interest to replace the old
3
shop-houses with new buildings, lack of funds, conflict of interests and lack of
awareness in regards to the values of heritage buildings between the different
categories of public. Apart from those aspects mentioned, the fact that the old shophouses are privately owned also plays a major role to their destruction. According to
Jokilehto (1999), conservation in the specialised sense has two aspects: first the
control of the environment to minimise the decay of artefacts and material and
second, their treatment to arrest decay and to stabilise them where possible against
further deterioration. Restoration is the process undertaken when conservation
treatment is thought to be insufficient, to the extent of restoring an object without
changing it to a condition in which it can be exhibited. Realising the heritage value
of the old shop-houses, some emphasis have been given to the conservation of this
building type. However, from the exploratory survey, it was found that the efforts in
conserving the old shop-houses are still not effective. Some works can simply be
called upgrading projects and do not qualified to be called conservation simply
because the projects did not undergo the processes as mentioned earlier. Insensitive
development both by private sectors and by the local governments can be damaging
to the old shophouses.
There are several problems encountered in conserving the old buildings. The
problems include the lack of craftsmanship and shortage of original materials. For
the conservation of Cheng Hoon Teng Temple and Puri Hotel in Malacca for
instance, the artists and artisans had to be brought from China simply because the
lack of skill locally. This involves costs that presumably not affordable by most
owners of the old shop-houses. Secondly, the building materials used in the old shophouses are very rare and not in the production line today (Yongtanit 1997). Such
materials are, for instance, baked clay roof tiles, French window with panelled
louvered shutters and timber roof structure of the consequence of the development of
mass production that causes homogenous building types.
4
1.2
Research Problems
The old shop-houses are under threats of extinction. Problems that relate to
the destruction of the old shop-houses include the lack in legislation, lack of control
within the local governments, modernisation i.e. economic interest to replace the old
shop-houses with new buildings, lack of funds, conflict of interests and lack of
awareness in regards to the values of heritage buildings between the different
categories of public. Apart from those aspects mentioned, the fact that the old shophouses are privately owned also plays a major role to their destruction. Next issue is
that Melaka is a tourist hotspot, from locals to tourists abroad. Government and
privately owned historical buildings located inside the city is apart of the reason
tourist come to visit Melaka. Both parties need to take action to keep the good name
of the city but the lack of materials to restore the buildings is becoming a big issue in
conserving the buildings. Other issue that comes to mind is that, there are no
engineers who are experts in this field. Usually, the restoration architect will be in
charge in the decisions made without any reference to the engineering side of the
project. No offense to the other professionals, but the engineering side of the project
is very important, there is more to this than making the building look good and that is
safety.
1.3
Objectives of Research
1- To identify the procurement method for the restoration of old building
2- To identify the building elements that are upgraded or repaired in the
rehabilitation process
3- To identify the problems faced by the municipal council, contractors and
building owners in the rehabilitation of old buildings
4- To identify some of the methods being used to repair the buildings
5
1.4
Significance of Research
The significance of the study is to find ways to make old buildings more
appealing to the masses. They say “you don’t know where you are, till you know
where you come from”. History is an important aspect in this modern and fast
growing society; people should know how to value their heritage. Preserving old
buildings are one of them. But in the process of rehabilitating these buildings, they
need the right set of professionals that can handle these projects, because the
restoration and beautification works are very delicate and intricate. Hiring the right
professionals is vital in this kind of work. The next step is how these professionals
evaluate the buildings. Whether it is in good inhabiting condition or it is to be left
untouched or torn down for safety reason. We need to know the situation before we
could do anything to rectify it. After the valuating process is done, the cost of
restoration comes into mind, because Melaka strive in the tourism industry and they
need these building to look good to the tourist that comes in to tour the city. My hope
for this research is to get a better perspective of what are the processes that
undergoes in this kind of projects. This is a fairly new industry in Malaysia and to
have more professionals in the field would create a healthy competition for
restoration projects for old buildings. On the other hand, I also hope that there will be
an area of expertise for engineers who are experts in this field of rehabilitation or
restoration works for old buildings.
6
CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
Literature review was preliminary and main study used to view the related
overall study. Literature review is made to obtain background and understanding of
research topics beginning of the study title. Understanding of the overall study is
important to get information about the study and avoid some of the information
obtained will not be in the range of research done. It is also important to integrate all
data and information has been obtained. The information required in the preparation
of literature review for this study was through journals, articles, websites and former
student’s thesis.
2.2
To create awareness to the public about the importance of rehabilitating
and preserving the old building
According to Wan Hashimah Wan Ismail and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suhana
Shamsuddin, authority leaders, community and developers sees the preservation of
historical buildings and sites as an obstacle for modernisation. Citizens of developing
nations usually associate rehabilitating with steps backwards; with the usual outcome
is the absence of ambition to conserve. Safeguarding is perceived as stagnation or the
opposite of progress. As a result, commoners are more proud with advancement, not
safeguarding, because advancement is often measured in industrial terms.
7
The study done by Wan Hashimah Wan Ismail and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suhana
Shamsuddin also states that there is also variedness in the public view in different
categories of the world (Timothy & Boyd 2003). Most of the Third World countries,
the impression of heritage conservation are relatively new. Comparatively, few
people appreciate the need for it. The case of conservation will be meaningful when
there is a promise of financial benefits.
Therefore, it is hard to increase their interests for preserving the heritage,
comparable to their basic necessities. According to Lowenthal (1996), in most of the
developed world, people have an urge to grow keener in their own heritage as they
get older. In thriving regions, however, the elders are not so keen in keeping the past.
Instead it is the younger generations who are fascinated in keeping their heritage.
According to Burton (1993) in South-East Asia, safeguarding is fundamentally the
eagerness of the affluent young; compared to the elders who have little affection to
buildings that remind them of their humble beginnings. These arguments, however,
need to be proven whether they relate to the old shop-houses as well.
The argument of how economical it is to keep the old buildings or to
demolish them and build a new one, because the price of the land in town is very
valuable. The funds for the rehabilitation project are severely lacking. An on-going
investigation is being conducted to clarify this matter.
2.3
The ways of rehabilitating and preserving the buildings that will not
harm the building in the process
According to Wan Hashimah Wan Ismail and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Suhana
Shamsuddin the sequence of stages for heritage conservation involves procedure.
Like policy setting, restoration identification of heritage location, management and
interpretation research and inventory are all included in the procedures. To suit each
circumstance, all of the procedures must can be taken as templates and be adapted
individually.
8
According to Jokilehto (1999), preservation in the specialised sense has two
components: first is ensuring the environment is under control to minimize the
deterioration of the building’s aesthetic and material and second the decay needs to
be stabilized and treated whichever possible to protect it from further deterioration.
Restoration is the process used when conservation treatment is is not enough, to the
extent of restoring an object without modifying or altering it, to a condition in which
it can be displayed.
Sudden realizations that the old shophouses have heritage value, there have
been some importance in conserving this type of building. However, from the some
survey conducted, it was found that the efforts in conserving the old shop-houses are
still ineffective. Some works seen as upgrading projects and does qualify to be called
conservation simply because the projects did not undergo the processes as mentioned
earlier. Careless development both by private sectors and by the local governments
can severely damaging to the old shop houses.
There are a few problem faced in conserving of old building. Some of the
problems are the lack of skilled craftsman and the shortage of original materials. For
the conservation of Cheng Hoon Teng Temple Trust and Puri Hotel in Malacca for
example, the artists and artisans had to be brought in from China because the lack of
local craftsmen. The costs involved are presumptively can’t be afforded by the
residents of the old shop-houses. Secondly, construction materials used in the old
shop houses are very rare and have ceased production today (Yongtanit 1997). Such
materials are, for example, baked clay roof tiles, French window with panelled
louvered shutters and timber roof structure are the consequence of the development
of mass production that causes homogenous building types.
As emphasized earlier, the beauty of the shop houses lies in their creation as a
group and their scene. The other aspect is regarding the authenticity. According to
Mattinen, 1997 in Jokilehto 2002, authenticity can best be experienced as the
ambiance of originally incorporated into the building, that is, a certain kind of
unchanging characteristic of the building. An attempt to attain authenticity is the
evident in the upgrading project of the old shop-houses along Laksamana Street,
Malacca. In terms of colour, the choice is to go back to the grey colour as during the
9
Dutch period. Some may indicate that the area is already famous as the Red Square
and the choice of colour may make the row of buildings to be out of place. The
addition of landscaping and painting of the old shop houses have definitely enhanced
the area.
These old premises some of them have changed its functions. Some shop
houses have been converted to shop and store, restaurants, etc. An example is the
corner building in Jonker Street, Malacca which has undergone adaptive re-use to
function as a restaurant. The final result is rather admirable. There are reports that
some of the old buildings, including the old shop houses are converted as the
breeding ground of birds. This is damaging since birds droppings destroy the interior
fabric components of the old buildings (Interview with the Executive Director,
Heritage of Malaysia Trust, 2003).
It should be clear that conservation is the action taken to prevent
deterioration, embracing all acts that sustain the life of the cultural and natural
heritage. Approaches in conservation include three major aspects, that is,
preservation, restoration and renovation. However, the current practice is
concentrated more on building conservation and preservation rather than the setting.
Affecting the predicament of the old shop houses whose main property is in its group
value and setting. It is common to find only a few shop houses in the row to be
preserved while the rest were subjected to the repulsive renovation works that totally
destroy the aesthetic value of the row of old shop houses.
2.4
The procurement of nominating the right contractor for the project
The nominations of contractors for this kind of projects are difficult. The
contractors must have the knowledge of constructing or restoring these building back
to its original condition without changing or modifying its look. The method that
must be used is a specialized ways. The repairing works must follow how the
building was built in the old days. The lack of skill locally is a big factor to do this
process. Some of the materials used or manufactured materials are currently not
available nowadays because it has been discontinued. For instance the window
10
panels that’s been used in the old buildings are not made locally, they must be
imported from China. This will not be cost effective because there is no budget
allocated for this kind of projects from the local government.
According to Highfield (1987), the cost of rehabilitating an existing building
will be only 50-80% of the cost of a new construction, resulting in considerable
financial savings. Contractors should look into this matter and maybe take an extra
initiative to be a pioneer in rehabilitation projects. The advantages are numerous;
they will be called for any rehabilitation projects. Melaka and Penang were given the
UNESCO’s World Heritage name because of these old buildings. The state
government should take this opportunity to gain tourists from all over the world to
come and visit their respective states and see the beauty of the old shop-houses. To
make this possible is by nominating the right contractors for the job and ensure a
satisfying outcome.
2.5
To identify the building elements that are upgraded or repaired in the
rehabilitation process
According to Young (2008), the goals of the building investigation are to
identify character-defining features (elements that enhance the historic qualities) of a
building, document existing conditions, and identify sources of decay and
deterioration. Through a combination of on-site and archival research, missing
features and changes that have occurred through time can also be determined. Based
on the findings from these investigations, the desired rehabilitation, preservation, or
restoration treatment can be selected.
Essentially, the building is the accumulation of its previous usages and
reflects the needs of the occupants through time. Character-defining features are
identified by how a feature affects the presence of the building on the site and in its
neighbourhood context, how one’s awareness of the surface, detail, and form
changes as one approaches the building, and how the interior space is perceived due
to both surface ornamentation and spatial relationship.
11
Exterior character-defining features may include overall building height,
shape, and massing, roof and roof features such as chimneys, roof monitors,
projection, such as porches, oriel windows, or bay windows, recesses, such as
galleries, arcades, or recessed porches and balconies, openings, such as windows and
doorways, and various exterior materials that contribute to the building's uniqueness.
The building's condition directly affects the scope and cost of work.
Obtaining a valid condition assessment before starting design or construction is
critical. Two indicators that contribute to the immediate perception of potential cost
are structural integrity and moisture damage. Initially, preliminary assessments are
made of the overall building envelope, structural construction, and other architectural
features to determine if they are in sustainable condition to proceed with the proceed
with the proposed work or if they need major a alterations.
A common approach used to initiate a project is a simple walk through of the
building and site. In this approach, a preliminary assessments of the conditions and
the extent of deterioration from the initial decision to either pursue or to stop further
plans. Depending on the complexity of the building and the expertise of the parties
involved, this phase may be completed in as little as a few hours. With current digital
technology, it is possible to take notes and photographs as needed to summarize both
overall and specific problems and opportunities. The walk through enable the team to
form initial opinions about proceeding with the project and often allows the
identification of systems and building elements in need of stabilization or temporary
protection before a more formal and detailed inspection can safely occur.
If the findings from the preliminary walk through are positive then the next
step is the reconnaissance survey, in which the conditions are studied more closely.
Note-taking and photography becomes more systematic and formal at this point since
they will be used to prepare more detailed reports that will be used in the overall
condition assessment. This phase includes both a thorough exterior envelope and
structural assessment and an interior room-by-room analysis. Any number of
consultants maybe used for work as need for specific expertise is identified. The
complexity of the work Proposed and the historic significance of the building will
12
dictate the length of time and number of disciplines involved. This phase may take as
little a few days or as much as several months or more.
This survey can be a combination of visual and hands on inspection methods
that include surface mapping, non destructive testing, and material sampling for
laboratory analysis. The goal is to asses’ physical condition and sources of decay.
Treatments addressing only the symptoms of the problem ultimately fail in the cause
of decay is not corrected.
2.6
The cost of rehabilitating an old building
According to Norman Tyler (2000), the cost/benefit financial analysis for
rehabilitation of a historic property is typically more complicated than for new
construction, and a number of factors must be considered. Someone once described
historic preservation as a very expensive art form. Historic buildings "are vehicles of
culture and in their evolved states, whole works of art, in whose intangible elements
the true value lies, because it is there we find the signs of life". (Adele ChatfieldTaylor, "From Rouskin To Rouse,"29).
Rehabilitation can seem as an expensive option for a commercial developer,
for there are drawbacks to rehabbing older structures; space not easily adapted to
current needs, problems of deterioration not apparent at the beginning of work,
difficulty in finding appropriate construction materials.
Yet rehab can also pay. Studies show that rehab can save money compared to
new construction. According to one study, rehabilitation cost per square foot is often
significantly less than the cost of new construction. At a conference, a study shows
that the cost for rehabilitation of structures generally runs 25-33 percent less than a
new construction project. In addition, rehabilitation oftentimes bypasses lengthy
development review processes, local neighborhood opposition, and zoning delays.
(Reprinted From Thomas D Bever, "Economic Benefits of Historic Preservation," in
Norman Williams, Edmund H Kellogg, and Frank B Gilbert (eds.), Reading in
13
Historic Preservation: Why? What? How? (New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban
Policy Research, 1983)
The costs of rehabilitation can be seen in other ways as well. As government
study found that rehabilitation construction uses 23 percent less energy than new
construction, the primary reason being that the work is more labour intensive than
material intensive, depleting fewer natural resources. (Thomas D Bever, “Economic
Benefits of Historic Preservation," 81)
The cost of rehabilitation can be calculated in a number of ways. Initially, a
project architect gives preliminary estimates based on prices from similar projects,
also incorporating figures from costs-estimating books. Typically, a preliminary cost
based on an overall per-square-foot value. This quick and easy approach generalizes
many of the project details. The square-foot amount can also be obtained by talking
to builders or realtors in the area, who can estimate it based on their experience with
similar project.
14
CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
Prior to execution of the work of a study, one must be careful in planning to ensure
smooth implementation of the study and organized. Without careful planning, many
problems will arise, particularly in terms of time management. Therefore, a survey
methodology should be designed to show the work flow that occurs from the start of
the study until the study found. The methodology of the study is a matter that
describes the method used to obtain information related to the study or to meet all the
requirements for carrying out the research study. For this study, problems that range
are to obtain information relating to how the selection of contractors, ways to
rehabilitate a building, the evaluation of old building whether it is still in good or bad
condition, to find the cost of rehabilitating a building and other problems faced
during the rehabilitation work. So a good methodology should be designed so that
the goals and objectives of the study set to be executed.
3.2 Data Collection
There are is several methods that can be used to collect all data and information
obtained to complete this study. In this study, data collection is divided into several
parts. The first part is the interview process and the second is through a questionnaire
survey form. But in both this section will be broken into several stages of
implementation so that the study can be implemented systematically and smoothly.
Interviews will be conducted on clients such as the Municipal Council, contractors
15
and building owners. Whereas for surveys, it involves the preparation of
questionnaires,
the
identification
of
respondents,
sending
and
receiving
questionnaires. Research for each stage is very important that the data obtained can
be used to make conclusions on each of the objectives of the study.
3.2.1 Literature Review
Literature review was preliminary and main study used to view the related overall
study. Literature review is made to obtain background and understanding of research
topics beginning of the study title. Understanding of the overall study is important to
get information about the study and avoid some of the information obtained will not
be in the range of research done. It is also important to integrate all data and
information has been obtained. The information required in the preparation of
literature review for this study was through journals, articles, websites and former
student thesis.
3.2.2 Questionnaire
The questionnaire is one of the important methods to obtain data and information
related to the research conducted. Provision of questionnaires to a specific
respondent is one way to collect information related to the rehabilitation of old
buildings. Questionnaires are provided must be detailed and easy to understand by
the respondents. Content of questionnaire focuses on the objectives of the study is
made. Number of questionnaire survey forms was distributed to respondents who
were identified as clients, contractors, and building owners. This form will be
distributed to respondents in several ways, through the postal service, email and also
send it to the respondents and will be collected again as soon as possible.
16
3.2.3 Interviews
Interviews conducted for this study involves two parties, between the developer of
the old buildings as a client and contractor. The client selected because they are the
party that will conduct the research of the building and evaluate on how to do the
project until it is completed. The main purpose of this interview method is to obtain
relevant information and support in addition to the information that was obtained
from questionnaires that have been made.
3.2.4 Preparation Questionnaire
This stage is a continuation of interviews that have been implemented. Information
obtained at this stage is more structured and accurate, if compared to the information
at the interview. This is due to collect data that was formed involving more
respondents and the information obtained is comprehensive. Preparation of the
questionnaire forms the main strength of this study. Choice questions included in the
questionnaires should be able to achieve goals and meet all the objectives that were
made. Preparation of the questionnaire forms refer to the interviews and discussions
with supervisors. Each set of questionnaires provided is broken into two parts, Part A
and Part B. The following stated goals for each division:
i.
Part A is the process to obtain information concerning the respondent's
background in contract procurement by means of how to rehabilitate a
building and respondents identified the contractors, authorities and building
owners.
ii.
Part B is to get information about the views and problems faced of
contractors, authorities and building owners on the rehabilitation process.
17
3.2.5 Submission of Questionnaire
The process of research can be done after the respondent has been set. There are two
methods used in performing this study is;
i.
Delivery of questionnaires through their own means of delivery.
ii.
Delivery of questionnaire through mail.
For part (A), a total of 10 selected respondents to answer the research being done.
While for part (B), the total of 10 respondents consisting of a contractor, authorities
and building owners who will answer the research is being done. Both these methods
are used for the next process of data analysis. For part (B) four questionnaires will be
handed out to the authority, four to contractors and two to building owners.
3.3 Analysis of Data
At present, data analysis can be done using a computer based on a variety of software
has been developed. Among the software most often used for the analysis were as
software Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). In addition, there is also a
method of analysis using the appropriate average Index conducted for this study
because it is easier to use, easy to understand compared to SPSS.
3.3.1 Average Index Method
In this study, the average index is used to determine the order obtained based on the
opinion of the average respondent. Each factor has 5 hierarchical level of interest it
was decided that the most important hierarchy factors and decreased 5 represents the
lower level of significance. However, in the form of questionnaires, these factor
based on the proposed form of questions. However, the concept of hierarchy remains
the same degree of importance. Therefore, the calculation of the average index is
based on the following formula:
18
Average Index, (AI) = (  /
)
Percentage of Average Index, (AI %) = (  /
) (100%)
In which,
 = constant, which indicates the weight given to each response.
( = 5, 4, 3, 2, 1) depending on the questions raised.
 = frequency of respondents for each constant.
 = number of proposed factors.
After all factors considered, then the next step is to arrange these factors in declining
order. Index will be placed in the order of the largest average on top and the lower
average index at bottom of the order. From this order, please note that the factors that
are located at the top is the most important factor for each section to be studied and
then the factors involved will be classified according to their level. Here is an
example of a constant (a) used to form a questionnaire. However, this constant
depends on the requirements questionnaire.
User:
5 = strongly agree
4 = agree
3 = moderate 2 = disagree
1
=
strongly
disagree
3.3.2 Percentage Method
After the data is taken; this data will be analyzed using the percentage method of
analysis which is illustrated by the pie chart or bar chart. The data collected made
comparison with the literature review in Chapter 2. The results obtained are
discussed and the information thus concluded the results obtained.
Percentage =
Number of Respondents Who Answered The Questionaire
Total Respondents
× 100%
19
3.4 Conclusion
The process of data collection is done by using survey questionnaires are based on
literature review, objectives of the study, and discussions with supervisors and the
results of an interview with the contractor, consultant, and also the city council.
Complete analysis can be acquired in Chapter 4 is devoted to the analysis of data
only.
20
CHAPTER 4
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1
Introduction
This chapter is the part of the study where the data will be presented and
analysed. From the study been done there will be a set of questionnaires, interview,
and suitable materials to support the findings. A total of ten questionnaires have been
handed out to four member of the conservation committee from the state
government, four have been handed out to contractors and two to the owners of a
building that is being conserved. All of the participating respondents cooperated well
and shared their experiences during the conservation process. Also the relevant
materials to support what is being done also will be presented in this chapter. There
will be some methods that being used in the conservation process for example,
waterproofing systems, grouting and more.
21
4.2
Questionnaires Response
The questionnaire is divided in to three parts; A, B, and interview questions. Part A
will be answered by all respondents. Part B is different because it is been broken
down to three types. The types are for authorities, building owners and contractors.
There is ten questions being asked as part for the interview. Here is the result of the
survey and interview session.
Table 4.1: Procurement Method
1 - Strongly Disagree
5 - Strongly Agree
Section A
- To identify the procurement
method for the maintenance of old
building
1
2
3
4
5
AI
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
10
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
10
5
0
0
5
Q1. Procurement Method
frequently used to rehabilitate the
buildings
a) Requisition
b) Quotation
c) Tender
i)
Open
ii)
Restricted
iii)
Selected
d) Term Contracts
This part was answered by all ten respondents. Table 4.1 shows that the method of
procurement used is through requisition, quotation, open tender and term of
contracts. Requisition is a request by a party for a project, in this case the party is
usually the government and they will pay for the owners for the requisition, usually
not a big project, maybe for repair works. Next is quotation, contractors need to
submit a quotation if they want to gain projects. Other than that, the method of open
tender, where a number of contractors will try to bid for a project through tendering
for the project, the most suitable contractor will be awarded with the project. Next
method is term of contracts, where contractors will be paid after the project is
completed in a lump sum. To sum up, restricted and selected tendering is not used to
award a project.
22
Table 4.2: Problems faced by contractors
1 - Strongly Disagree
Section B (Contractors)
- Problems faced by contractors in the
rehabilitation of old buildings
Q1. Unable to obtain materials
Q2. Few suppliers
Q3. Lack of capital
Q4. Poor cooperation from building owners
Q5. Short duration to complete work
5- Strongly Agree
1
2
3
4
5
AI
0
0
0
4
4
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
3
1
1
This part was answered by four contractors. Through table 4.2 it shows that
contractor faces a problem with obtaining materials and suppliers. Next is the lack of
capital is a problem for half of the respondents and the other half doesn’t seem to be
bothered by the issue that much. Moving on, there is no issue between contractors
and building owners. Finally the contractors don’t agree with a short duration to
complete their tasks.
The problem with the materials it is hard to obtain because some of them are no
longer being manufactured and back then maybe it was imported into Melaka. This is
incoherent with the lack of suppliers for these materials. For example the floor tiles
used in the building is no longer manufactured. Next issue is the lack of capital. This
comes down on how the project was awarded to the contractors. If the owners used
the term contracts as the method of procurement, then the contactors must use their
own money to complete the project but if the method of payment id progressive
payment, the contractor won’t face too much problems because they can claim their
payment whenever a target is achieved. Next, the contractor doesn’t seem to have
problems with the building’s owner maybe because the owners understand what
needs to be done for the project to be completed. Finally about the short duration for
work to be completed, the contractor does not agree because the time needed to
complete a project is a long time because it takes time to get the works done right.
Each conservation project is unique in its own way because some just needs a little
touch-up and some needs a lot of refurbishment work done.
23
Table 4.3: Problems faced by authorities
5 – Strongly
1 - Strongly Disagree
Agree
Section B (Authorities)
- Problems faced by authorities in the
rehabilitation of old buildings
Q1. Difficulty to identify buildings to be
rehabilitated
Q2. Rehabilitation of old buildings is a waste
of money
Q3. Poor cooperation from building owners
Q4. Poor allocations of funds from the
government
Q5. Main components that needs repairing:
a) Roof
b) Roof beams
c) Columns
d) Gutters
e) Ceramic
f) Windows
g) Doors
h) Flooring
i) Stairs
j) Timber
k) Granite
l) Beams
1
2
3
4
5
AI
4
0
0
0
0
1
4
0
0
0
0
1
0
4
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
4
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
This part is being answered by four respondents of the authorities. Table 4.3
shows that there is no problem in identifying buildings to be rehabilitated. Next
question shows that the rehabilitation is a waste of money is not true. Moving on, it
shows that the authorities don’t have that much of a problem with building owners.
Next, it shows that there is a poor allocation of funding from the government for
rehabilitation projects. Finally it shows that all building components need repairs.
Firstly, the authorities do not face problems regarding how to identify
buildings that needs conserving. This is because there is a conservation zone, and in
this conservation zone, the building needs to be conserved because it is under the
conservation law of UNESCO. They will have a procedure on how to asses a
building that needs conserving. They will need the architect to come up with a
24
dilapidation report for the building to be conserved and the conservation work starts
form there. Second issue is that some party seems that conserving the building is a
waste of money and a step back in a world of modernization. The authorities seem to
think otherwise because they need to conserve these buildings because it attracts
tourists from in and around the world. Melaka is a state that runs on tourism and with
these conservation projects, it will boost the tourism industry, with that they don’t
see it as a waste of money, more like an investment for the tourism industry. Next is
the matter with the building owners. The authority does not have any problems with
the building owners. This is because the authority will help the owners throughout
the course of the project. Moving on is the issue of funding from the state
government. Seem that they agree with the statement that there are insufficient
financial allocations for these conservation projects. Some of the projects need a
large amount of investment for it to be completed and with the current allocation it
doesn’t give the authority the freedom to manage many projects. Finally regarding
the building elements that need repair is mostly all of them, from top to bottom.
Generally all of the components listed needs repairs. The breakdown for this will be
presented latter in this chapter with the example of a breakdown table that shows
components that needs repairs and replacements.
25
Table 4.4: Problems faced by building owners
5 – Strongly Agree
1 - Strongly Disagree
Section B ( Private Building Owners )
- Problems faced by private building owners in
the rehabilitation of old buildings
1
2
3
4
5
AI
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
0
2
0
0
3
2
0
0
0
0
1
2
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
2
5
b) Roof beams
0
0
0
0
2
5
c) Columns
0
0
0
0
2
5
d) Gutters
0
0
0
0
2
5
e) Ceramic
0
0
0
0
2
5
f) Windows
0
0
0
0
2
5
g) Doors
0
0
0
0
2
5
h) Flooring
0
0
0
0
2
5
i) Stairs
0
0
0
0
2
5
j) Timber
0
0
0
0
2
5
k) Granite
0
0
0
0
2
5
l) Beams
0
0
0
0
2
5
Q1. Difficulty in looking for funding.
Q2. Difficult to find qualified contractors to
undertake projects
Q3. Poor cooperation from authorities.
Q4. The condition of the building is beyond
repair
Q5. Main components of building that needs
repairing/replacement:
a) Roof
This part was answered by two building owners. The first question shows that
respondents don’t have an issue with funding. Second question shows that there is a
problem looking for qualified contractors to undertake the projects. The next
question shows that there is no problem working with authorities. The fourth
question shows that the building is not beyond repair. Finally, all building
components need repairs.
26
Firstly, the owners do not have problems in funding for the conservation
project because it is privately funded and some help from the authority. Major
investment comes from the owners and if needed some from the authority. The next
issue are regards to find the right contractors to undertake the project. This is not a
conventional construction project it is a conservation project, the original building
can’t be demolished to make way for a new building. It is very tedious and intricate
works that need experts to give consultation to what needs to be done. In the
interview this question will be answered. Moving on, there is no issue with the
authority because the authority helps them every step of the way in the conservation
process and giving good input on how to finish the project successfully. Next issue
on hand is the building is not beyond repair. The owners agree that the building can
salvaged from its current condition back to the glory days. The owners understand
that work needed to be done and they are fine with it and they have resources to
make that dream into reality. Finally the all components listed needs to be repaired or
replaced. There will be a table to describe what needs to be done with the mentioned
building components.
27
4.3
Interview Questions
1. What are the main problems faced?
2. What is the financial range to rehabilitate the building?
3. How do you assess the building if it needs restoration?
4. Is there any kind of targets that you must achieve annually in this kind of
projects?
5. Are there many contractors that do these kinds of projects? How was the
performance of the contractors?
6. Is there any special funding from the government for these kinds of projects?
7. What is the average time needed to complete the projects?
8. Who carry out the design work?
9. Difficult component of the building to be rehabilitated?
10. How do you deal with the building components that have been changed to a
more advanced technology of its time?
28
4.3.1
Answers
1. From what the interview has produced the main problem faced is the safety of
the structure. The structure must be analyzed thoroughly and in detail to
ensure that the building is safe to be rehabilitated. The next problem faced is
finding the exact replacement for some part for the building for example the
crafted wooden windows, the crafted partitions, just to name a few. Other
than that, the growth of plants in the building and some living animals such as
birds and strays. The main problems that are being highlighted by all parties
are searching for the replacement for parts of the buildings.
2. From the interview conducted all parties’ mention the price of rehabilitating
the buildings varies because all of the cases are unique in its own way. Some
of the buildings are well kept because it is still taken care of by family
members who inherited the building from their elders and some are left to be
swollen by time. It depends on the nature of the project. The building size and
approach that will be used. Is it pure conservation works, repair works,
alteration of the existing building or an adaptive reuse. What is meant by
adaptive reuse is that the building owner can change their lot into a business
lot for example the owner changes his lot into a boutique hotel.
3. In the interview all parties mentioned that they must make a dilapidation
report of the building and must be sent to the authority for approval. In this
process, the party who wants to rehabilitate must sent together the
dilapidation report with the scope of work that needs to be done, the
conservation approach and method how the conservation process will be
conducted. Without the authorities’ approval they can proceed with the next
stage of the project because most of the buildings are located in the
conservation area.
4. This question was directed to only the authority. Their reply is no. there is no
target on how many conservation projects that needs to be done annually
because this thing needs time and they can’t rush into making decisions that
will benefit them only.
29
5. This question was directed to the local authority and the building owners. The
authority mentioned that there are only nine contractors who are qualified to
do conservation works and so far they have performed well and within
regulations. The owner’s response was that the contractors was performing
well and doing the job very carefully and patiently, they said they were happy
with the works that have been done and they don’t mind the time the
contractors needed because they fully understand the work that needs to be
done.
6. There are funding from the state government for this kind of projects. Every
year, the state government will allocate a certain amount of fund for
conservation projects, but the projects are never fully funded by the
government. It is a joint effort from the building owners and the government
where the majority of the funding comes from the owner of the buildings.
The government funds will aid some of the project cost not all of it. It’s like
the funds are for emergency cases only.
7. There is no specific time that a conservation project needs to be completed.
All of the projects are unique in its way. Some projects may take longer time
because the work that needs to be done is a lot or maybe intricate and some
may have a shorter period because the works that needed to be done is not
that difficult.
8. The design works will be carried out by the conservation architect with the
approval of the owners and the final approval from the conservation
committee.
9. The difficult component that needs rehabilitating is usually the structure of
the building. All of the respondents agree that the structural aspect is the most
challenging. They gave examples of the settlement problems the buildings
had. They need to rectify the structural issues before they can proceed further
with the project.
10. The response was that they will change to a more subtle technology. For
example the M.S. window louvers, back in the day there were no such thing
as a M.S. louvers, back in the day there were only wooden louvers.
30
4.3
Restoration Methods
This section will discuss about some of the methods being used in the
rehabilitation process. Just to highlight that the parties involved can’t change
the originality of the building because it is protected under the UNESCO
Conservation act.
4.3.1
Rising Dampness Treatment
4.3.1.1 Saline Diffusion System
This is the very latest in damp proofing utilising a concentrated, thixotropic
silane / silicone cream to form a barrier against rising damp. As the cream
slowly diffuses, it releases a silane vapour which reacts with the silica in the
masonry to form a water repellent resin. No liquid is involved so the wall is
dries quicker and it is not injected under pressure so there are no problems
with party walls. It is particularly recommended for:
i.
Walls of any thickness
ii.
Brick or stone
iii.
280mm cavity brick walls
iv.
For both external and internal use
4.3.1.2 Siliconate Transfusion System
Developed more than 40 years ago, the transfusion system has proved the
most universally applicable method of installing remedial dpc. The gravity
fed transfusion units allow a slow, even distribution of the siliconate fluid
into the wall and unlike pressure injection, there is no wastage via hidden
fissures or voids. It is suitable for
i.
Walls of any thickness
ii.
Brick or stone
31
iii.
Rubble filled walls
iv.
Cavity walls, from one side only of needed
4.3.1.3 Siliconate Injection System
This method is recommended on occasions, primarily on 112mm single brick
walls, injecting the fluid into the wall with a single lance under low pressure.
4.3.1.4 Preparation of Dryzone Damp-proof Course Installation
4.3.1.4.1 Pre-installation Procedure
Important: before undertaking any work it is essential to check the following
1. Check all cavities, where present, for debris which may cause bridging of the
damp-proof course
2. Ensure subfloor ventilation is adequate where timber suspended floors are
installed.
3. Lower ground levels where necessary.
4. Remove perished/damaged external plinths and cut any external rendering
back to above the height of the DPC line.
5. Remove all floor covering and furniture.
6. Remove floorboards if appropriate.
7. Remove timber skirting and architraves. If they are to be refixed put to one
side; remove all fixing grounds.
8. Remove all plasterwork to a minimum height of 1 metre or to 500 mm above
evidence of dampness/ contamination with hygroscopic salts.
9. Ensure that plants, paths and glass are protected from spillage.
32
10. Check level of any adjoining solid floor which may be present and ensure that
proposed DPC line is not bridged.
4.3.1.4.2 The Drilling Programme
4.3.1.4.2.1 Line of the Damp-proof Course
1. All damp-proof courses should be installed not less than 150 mm above
external ground level.
2. The intended line for the damp-proof course should be exposed and clearly
defined, taking into consideration internal and external ground levels, party
and abutting walls, and changes in ground levels. Internally, where a solid
floor is present, the DPC should be inserted as close as possible to floor level.
In all cases there should be continuity between the injected DPC and any
damp-proof membrane of a solid floor, where suspended timber floors are
encountered the DPC should, if possible, be inserted below the timbers.
4.3.1.4.3 Drill Hole Size, Depth and Location
For treatment to be fully effective the correct volume must be introduced. The
system requires 12mm diameter holes to be drilled at horizontal centres no greater
than 120mm. The depth of hole required for various thickness of wall. For all other
walls the depth of hole should be to within 40mm of the opposite face. In all cases
the most effective target site is to drill horizontally directly into the mortar course,
preferably at the base of all perpends of the selected course.
Drilling pattern for Double Flemish Bond
Drilling pattern for Stretching Bond
Figure 4.1 Drilling Patterns
33
Table 4.5: Drill Hole Depths
4.3.1.4.4 Drill Preparation
Measure the thickness of each wall to be treated. Set the depth gauge of the drill or
apply tape to the drill bit in order to identify the correct drilling depth accordingly.
4.3.1.4.4.1 Drilling Cavity Walls
Cavity walls may be drilled/treated from one side in a single operation or if preferred
each leaf may be treated separately. When undertaking treatment from one side drill
completely through the selected mortar coarse, allow drill bit to pass across the
cavity and then drill the other leaf of brickwork to a depth of 90mm. the viscosity of
silane is such that it is possible to treat each leaf from a single drilling operation.
Always ensure that the cavity is clear before treatment.
Single drill from one side for cavity walls
Figure 4.2: Drilling Pattern for Cavity Walls
34
4.3.1.4.4.2 Drilling Solid Brick Walls
In virtually all cases solid brick walls may be drilled/ treated from one side only in a
single operation. Drill the selected mortar course at the prescribed centres to the
appropriate depth in accordance with the table above.
Figure 4.3: Drilling for Solid Brick Walls
35
4.3.1.4.5 Examples of Injection Positions
Please note: Ideally inject below timber suspended floors. Where timber above and
below injected damp-proof courses exist action must be taken to protect them from
decay.
Figure 4.4: Injection Positions
36
4.3.1.4.6 Material Requirements
Table 4.6: Material Requirements
37
4.3.1.4.7 Making Good after Treatment
IMPORTANT: The insertion of a chemical damp-proof course does not dry out
already damp walls; it only controls the further vertical ingress of moisture from the
ground. Therefore, if possible, delay the attendant works for as long as feasible to
facilitate the maximum possible period for drying.
1. Provide good ventilation to allow drying of the wall.
2. Ensure that the damp-proof membrane (DPM) of any new solid floor overlaps
with the inserted damp-proof course. If necessary join the DPM with the DPC
by the use of a pitch epoxy material or similar. If no DPM is present run
Safeguard SWS Slurry out across the solid floor for 50-100 mm and up the
wall to overlapwith the DPC.
3. Replaster strictly in accordance with the “Replastering Specification”.
4. Refix timber skirtings after applying a liberal coat of bonding agent to their
backs and base. Similarly,when dry apply two coats of bituminous paint to
the backs and base. Fix using plastic grounds. If timber grounds are used
these must be first worked to size then thoroughly treated with bonding agent
prior to fixing.
38
4.3.2 Grouting of Cavity to R.C. Beam at balcony area by using Sika Microcrete
2000
4.3.2.1 Method of statement
Figure 4.5: Grouting of Cavity
1. Identify unsound concrete, chip to remove the loosed particles until solid base is
obtained by using chipper hammer.
2. Clean entire surface by steel brush followed by high pressure water blasting.
3. Erect formwork as per size of exposed substrate.
4. Mix Sika Microcrete as per manufacturer’s specifications and instructions :a. Add 4.4 litre of water into a container.
b. Add it into the container slowly, and start to stir by using electrical tool.
c. During mixing process, add water and Sika Microcrete 2000 into bigger
container simultaneously. Mix until uniform mortar is obtained.
5. Damp the concrete surface whiles the mixing process in action. Prime bonding
agent base material.
6. Filling up cavity by form and pour method. Care should be taken to prevent air
void trapped during grouting.
7. Allow 28 days full cure prior to dismantling of formwork.
39
4.3.3
Rebar Embedding
4.3.3.1 Method of Statement
Figure 4.6: Rebar Embedding
1. Drill the rebar holes according to Hilti specifications
2. Clean the drilled holes thoroughly by using steel brush and blow out dust
by using air blower.
3. Insert Hilti HY-150 Geo-Polymer cartridge into MD-2000 dispenser.
4. Pump the content of HY-150 into the drill hole
5. Shaft in cut to length bar into the hole.
6. Wait for chemical to dry in 1 hour time full cure prior to casting concrete.
40
4.3.4
Waterproofing for Flat Roof by Using CL Kote UV Resistant
Waterproofing Coating
Figure 4.7: Waterproofing for Flat Roof
4.3.4.1 Method of Statement
1. Remove bitumen, oils, dusts, rust loose particles, brittle parts, and
laitance.
2. Repair damaged substrate and shrink holes first with with suitable repair
material. All corners to be filled up using cement sand to form angle fillet
3. After hardening and curing period of 24 hours, apply CL Primer P1. First
coat of weather resistant acrylic waterproofing coating CL Kote 22 to be
applied one day later after primer coat.
4. The second comes with fabric to be applied wet on wet or within period
of 24 hours after first coat. Use spike roller to release air trapped if notice
air bubble during or after application.
5. Apply finishing coat within 24 hours after second coat.
41
4.3.4.2 Rectification Work
1. To add one more coat or layer on top of leaking are; and
2. To seal up water seepage at the soffit slab by PU injection method.
4.3.5
Waterproofing System for Wet Floor Area
4.3.5.1 Method of Statement
Figure 4.8: Waterproofing for Wet Area Floors
A) Pre-treatment of Substrate
All substrate to be coated with Stocrete #4222 must be cleaned and
structurally sound. Remove all dirt and contaminants, repair all crack
and joint leakage with Ispo Concretin PLUG. Prepare angle fillet
around all up-stands.
B) Mixing of Stocrete #4222
1. Damp the surface before application of Stocrete #4222
2. Add Stocrete #4222 powder gradually to the liquid polymer and
mix thoroughly to a consistency of heavy batter,
42
3. For the first coat, apply a minimum of 1kg/m2 . Application is best
suited to a stiff brush.
4. Allow 8 hours or more between coats.
5. Apply a second coat, preferably at 90° to the first coat at a
minimum uniform rate of 500gms/m2.
Figure 4.9: Measuring Concrete Moisture Content
43
Figure 4.10: System for detecting rebar in concrete
structures
Figure 4.11: Dryzone Damp proofing
44
Figure 4.12: StoCrete #4222 Waterproofing
System
4.5
Building Elements Breakdown
Table 4.7: Building Elements of Each Lot
Not
Original
Poor
Condition
M.S.*1 Gutter


M.S. Gutter 2




Building Elements
Original
Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action
Lot No. 10
External
MS Door
TBC*4

M.S. Collapsible Grille
Plaster Arches & Central
Keystone

Louvers Window w/ Fanlights

3D*2 Plaster Wall w Intensive
use of Chinese & European
Decorations

Roof "Di Shui"

Timber Window

Timber Window 2

















To retain, repair, make good and
refinish
To retain, repair, make good and
refinish
To retain, repair, make good and
refinish
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To retain, repair, make good and
refinish
To retain, repair, make good and
refinish

To retain, repair, make good and
refinish










To retain, repair, make good and
refinish
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To remove with care, repair area
affected by item for new design
installation
45
Building Elements
Original
Timber Panels

Cement Screed Flooring

Not
Original


Poor
Condition


Cement In-print
TBC

Cement In-print 2
TBC

Granite Edge

Interlocking French Tiles

Interlocking French Tiles 2

Chimney

Corrugated Metal Roof

Corrugated Metal Roof 2













Fair
Condition










Good
Condition


Action
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To remove with care, repair area
affected by item for new design
installation
To remove with care, repair area
affected by item for new design
installation
To retain, repair, make good and
refinish
To retain, repair, clean, make good and
refinish
To retain, repair, make good and
refinish
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To remove with care, repair area
affected by item for new design
installation
46
Building Elements
Vent Pipe
Original

Not
Original
Poor
Condition


Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action

To remove, make good area & install new item
to match original

To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Ceramic Baluster
TBC
Ceramic Baluster 2
TBC

To remove with care, repair area affected
Ceramic Air Vent


Ceramic Air Vent 2


To remove, make good area & install new item
to match original
To remove, make good area & install new item
to match original
Ceramic Roof Tile
TBC

Mural
TBC


Roof Ridge

Wooden Door


Wooden Plaque


Wall




To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To remove with care, repair area affected

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To restore and make good to engineer's
specification
47
Building Elements
Original
Not
Original
Poor
Condition




Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action
Internal Ground Floor
Timber Floor Joists

Timber Floor Joists 2

M&E*3 Services

Party Wall

Party Wall 2

Paint Finish

Wooden Plaque

Timber Panels







Cement Screed Flooring

Cement Screed Flooring 2










To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To repair/ replace with new matching items

To retain, repair, make good and refinish


To retain, repair, make good and refinish


To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish







To remove, make good area & install new item
to match original
To remove, make good area & install new item
to match original
To remove, make good area & install new item
to match original
48
Building Elements
Cornices
Original

Not
Original
Poor
Condition


Timber Staircase
TBC

Timber Staircase 2
TBC

Timber Finish Opening
TBC




Fair
Condition

Good
Condition







Action
To retain, repair, make good and refinish
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
Courtyard
Party Wall

Wells

Geometric Floor Tiles

Geometric Floor Tiles 2

Geometric Floor Tiles 3

Granite Edge













Timber Staircase
TBC

Timber Louvers
TBC


To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To remove, make good area & install new item
to match original
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation


49
Building Elements
Original
Wall

M.S. Door

Built-in Cabinet & Stove

Toilets

M&E Services

Not
Original





Poor
Condition





Fair
Condition





Good
Condition
Action
To restore and make good to engineer's
specification
To retain, repair, make good and refinish
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation. To Reroute
Internal First Floor
Timber Ceiling

Timber Ceiling 2

Timber Ceiling 3

Timber Ceiling 4

Timber Floor Boards












To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish
50
Building Elements
Original
Timber Floor Boards 2

Timber Floor Boards 3

Timber Partition
TBC
Timber Partition 2
Timber Window Louvers

Timber Window Louvers 2

Timber Window Louvers 3

Timber Window Louvers 4

Timber Staircase

Timber Staircase 2

M&E Services

Not
Original


Poor
Condition

To retain, repair, make good and refinish








Action
To retain, repair, make good and refinish


Good
Condition



Fair
Condition







To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation. To
reroute



51
Building Elements
Original
Paint Finish

Party Wall

Wall & Doorway

Hanging Lights

Not
Original




Poor
Condition




Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation. To reroute

52
Not
Original
Poor
Condition
M.S. Gutter


M.S. Gutter 2




Building Elements
Original
Fair
Condition
Good
Condition


Action
Lot No. 12
External
M.S. Door
TBC
M.S. Grille

M.S. Grille 2

Plaster Arches & Central
Keystone

Louvers Window w/ Fanlights

3D Plaster Wall w Intensive
use of Chinese & European
Decorations

Roof "Di Shui"

Timber Window

Timber Window 2



















To retain, repair, make good and refinish
To remove, make good area & install new
item to match original
To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove, make good area & install new
item to match original

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish


To retain, repair, make good and refinish


To retain, repair, make good and refinish








To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
53
Building Elements
Granite Flooring
Original
Not
Original
Poor
Condition
TBC
Edged Granite

Interlocking French Tiles

Interlocking French Tiles 2

Corrugated Metal Roof

Corrugated Metal Roof 2











Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, clean, make good and
refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To remove, make good area & install new
item to match original
To remove, make good area & install new
item to match original

Ceramic Baluster
TBC

To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Ceramic Baluster 2
TBC

To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Ceramic Air Vent


Ceramic Air Vent 2


To remove, make good area & install new
item to match original
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
Ceramic Roof Tile
TBC

To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Ceramic Wall Tiles


To retain, repair, make good and refinish
TBC

To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Mural
54
Building Elements
Original
Roof Ridge

Wooden Door

Party Wall

Cement In-print
Not
Original
Poor
Condition
Fair
Condition



Action
To retain, repair, make good and refinish
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation



TBC
Good
Condition
Internal Ground Floor
Timber Floor Joists

Timber Floor Joists 2

M&E Services

Wooden Plaque

Cornices

Cornices 2

Timber Windows

Geometric Floor Tiles


















To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To repair/ replace with new matching items

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish
55
Building Elements
Original
Geometric Floor Tiles 2

Ceramic Wall Tiles

Courtyard
Not
Original

Poor
Condition

Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish


Party Wall








To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Wells




To retain, repair, make good and refinish
TBC


To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Granite Edge



To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
Granite Floor Tiles



To retain, repair, make good and refinish
TBC


To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Geometric Floor Tiles
Timber Staircase
Wall




To restore and make good to engineer's
specification
M.S Door




To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Toilets




To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
56
Building Elements
Original
M&E Services

Built-in Timber Cabinets

Ceramic Wall Tiles

Cement In-print
Built-in Cabinet & Stove
Not
Original






Fair
Condition

Good
Condition


Action
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation. To
reroute


To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation

TBC

Poor
Condition

Internal First Floor
Timber Ceiling




To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Timber Ceiling 2




To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Timber Floor Boards




To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Timber Floor Boards 2




To retain, repair, make good and refinish
Timber Floor Boards 3




To retain, repair, make good and refinish
TBC



To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
Timber Partition
57
Building Elements
Original
Timber Partition 2
TBC
Not
Original


Timber Board
Timber Window Louvers

Timber Window Louvers 2

Timber Staircase Blustered

Timber Staircase Blustered 2

Timber Staircase

M&E Services

Paint Finish

Wall

Corridor Doorway



Poor
Condition















Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action

To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation. To
reroute

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation

To retain, repair, make good and refinish
58
Building Elements
Original
Not
Original
Poor
Condition
Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action
Lot No. 14
External
M.S. Grille
Louvers Window
Timber Panels
TBC

TBC






Cement Screed Flooring

Corrugated Metal Roof


Corrugated Metal Roof 2



Ceramic Roof Tile
TBC


Mural
TBC


M.S. Door
TBC











To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To retain, repair, make good and
refinish
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To remove with care, repair area
affected by item for new design
installation
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To remove, make good area & relocate
to proposed area
To retain, repair, make good and
refinish
To remove, make good area & relocate
to proposed area
Internal Ground Floor
Timber Floor Joists

To retain, repair, make good and
refinish
59
Building Elements
Original
M&E Services

Party Wall

Paint Finish

Glass Louvers

Cement Screed Flooring

Not
Original
Poor
Condition
Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action

To repair/ replace with new matching items

To retain, repair, make good and refinish


To retain, repair, make good and refinish


To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation


To retain, repair, make good and refinish
To remove, make good area & install new
item to match original
To remove, make good area & install new
item to match original
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation


Timber Panels
TBC

Timber Staircase
TBC

Timber Partition


Toilets


To remove with care, repair area affected
M.S. Staircase


M.S. Door


To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
60
Building Elements
Original
Not
Original
Poor
Condition
Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action
Internal First Floor
Timber Ceiling

Timber Ceiling 2

Timber Floor Boards

Timber Floor Boards 2

Timber Floor Boards 3

Timber Partition

Timber Partition 2

Timber Window Louvers

Timber Staircase

M&E Services

Wall


























To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original
To remove, make good area & install
new item to match original

To retain, repair, make good and refinish

To retain, repair, make good and refinish






To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To remove with care, repair area affected
by item for new design installation
To repair/ replace with new matching
items
To remove with care the existing
plantation, repair area affected by item
61
Building Elements
Original
Not
Original
Poor
Condition
Glass Louvers


Corrugated Metal Roof


Toilets


Fair
Condition
Good
Condition
Action
To remove with care, repair area
affected by item for new design
installation
To remove with care, repair area
affected by item for new design
installation
To remove with care, repair area
affected by item for new design
installation
Legend:
Table Header
*1 M.S.: Mild Steel
Lot Number
*2 3D : Three Dimensional
External
*3 M&E : Mechanical and Electrical
Internal Ground Floor
*4 TBC : To Be Confirmed
Internal First Floor
Courtyard
62
Table 4.8: Summary of Each Element
Item Breakdown
Nos.
Original Not Original Poor Condotion Fair Condition Good Condition
M.S.
M.S. Collapsible Grille
M.S. Door
M.S. Grille
M.S. Gutter
M.S. Staircase
1
2
2
4
1
Plaster Arches & Central Keystone
2
2
3D Plaster Wall w Intensive use of
Chinese & European Decorations
2
2
Timber Board
Timber Ceiling
Timber Finish Opening
Timber Floor Boards
Timber Floor Joists
Timber Louvers
Timber Panels
Timber Partition
Timber Staircase
Timber Staircase Blustered
1
8
1
9
5
1
4
7
9
2
8
1
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
Plaster
2
2
Timber
1
6
1
7
1
9
5
4
2
4
4
2
4
5
1
2
2
4
1
2
3
4
2
63
Item Breakdown
Nos.
Original Not Original Poor Condotion Fair Condition Good Condition
Timber Window
Timber Window Louvers
5
7
5
7
4
4
1
3
Cement In-print
Cement Screed Flooring
4
5
-
4
1
4
Ceramic Air Vent
Ceramic Baluster
Ceramic Wall Tiles
Ceramic Roof Tile
4
4
3
3
4
3
-
Granite Edge
Granite Floor Tiles
3
1
3
1
Wooden Door
Wooden Plaque
2
3
2
3
2
1
Built-in Cabinet & Stove
Built-in Timber Cabinets
2
1
2
1
2
Cement
5
Ceramic
4
4
3
3
-
Granite
3
1
Wooden
2
Others
1
64
Item Breakdown
Chimney
Cornices
Corridor Doorway
Corrugated Metal Roof
Geometric Floor Tiles
Glass Louvers
Hanging Lights
Interlocking French Tiles
Louvers Window
Louvers Window w/ Fanlights
M&E Services
Mural
Paint Finish
Party Wall
Roof "Di Shui"
Roof Ridge
Toilets
Vent Pipe
Nos.
1
3
1
7
6
2
1
4
1
2
8
3
4
7
2
2
4
1
Original Not Original Poor Condotion Fair Condition Good Condition
1
3
1
7
6
1
3
2
1
4
1
2
6
7
2
2
2
1
7
6
2
1
3
1
1
2
2
3
4
2
1
8
1
5
2
2
1
3
3
2
2
2
65
Item Breakdown
Wall
Wall & Doorway
Wells
Sum
Nos.
Original
5
5
1
1
2
2
70
176
118
Sum of Originality
Not Original Poor Condotion Fair Condition Good Condotion
4
1
1
2
38
= 156
98
76
Sum of Conditions
2
= 176
*The discrepancy between the sums of originality and conditions occur because of the unidentified elements of the building that are it is original
or not the original.
66
Figure 4.13: General Element A
67
Figure 4.14: General Element B
68
Figure 4.15: General Element C
69
Figure 4.16: Elements in Lot No.10
70
Figure 4.17: Elements in Lot No.12 A
71
Figure 4.18: Elements in Lot No.12 B
72
Figure 4.19: Elements in Lot No.12 C
73
74
Figure 4.20: Elements in Lot No.12 D
Figure 4.21: Elements in Lot No.12 E
75
Figure 4.22: Elements in Lot No.14
76
77
CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1
Conclusion
From the data analysis, the following conclusions are as follows:
Objective 1: The procurement method for the conservation of old building
From the study, the procurement methods used for the conservation of old buildings
are:

Open Tendering

Quotation,

Selected Tendering
Objective 2: Building elements that are upgraded or repaired in the
conservation process
From the study, the buildings elements that are repaired or upgraded are:

Timbers

Doors

Roof

Gutters

Stairs

Granite Edges

Windows

Ceramic Tiles.

Flooring
78
Objective 3: The problems faced by the municipal council, contractors and
building owners in the conservation of old buildings
From the study, the problems faced by the council are:

Poor allocation of funds from the state government for conservation projects.

Materials needed to replace the damaged ones in the buildings are no more in
production.

Lack of local qualified experts in conservation projects.

Contractors do not have enough capital to carry out conservation work
Objective 4: Treatment methods being used for building conservation.
From the study, the treatment methods used for building conservation are

Damp proofing system using silicone cream to form a barrier against rising
damp.

Grouting for reinforced concrete beam using microcrete to fill up the cavity.

Rebar embedding using geo-polymer and new steel bar to re-bar the section.

Waterproofing for flat roof using specialist’s waterproof coating.

Waterproofing for wet floor area using specialist’s waterproof coating.
79
5.2
Recommendation
The study been done have a lot of area that needs improving. The lack of materials
and suppliers for them is a big issue. The study strongly recommends that there
should be more suppliers for the materials needed to complete the project. Next the
financial allocation from the government should be increased so that there will be
more conservation projects could be undertake. Finally there should be a way to
inject some engineering expertise in the field of conservation. Currently there are no
local experts that could help with these kinds of projects. These experts should be
molded from the higher educational system because in higher learning institutions
there are no courses which can mould these engineering experts. Hope that the field
of building will have a bright future to withstand the tide of modernization.
80
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