Rezumat ENGLEZA_Badescu Rodica - USAMV Cluj

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Rezumat ENGLEZA_Badescu Rodica - USAMV Cluj
UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES AND VETERINARY MEDICINE
CLUJ-NAPOCA
Eng. Rodica G. JOLDIȘ
JOLDI (căs. BĂDESCU)
Ph.D. THESIS
RESEARCHES REGARDING THE USE OF G.I.S.
TECHNOLOGIES FOR MONITORING THE DEGRADED LAND
BY EROSION, CLUJ COUNTY
SCIENTIFIC ADVISER
ADV
Prof. univ. PhD. Eng. MARCEL DÎRJA
CLUJ-NAPOCA
2014
PhD SUMMARY
Researches regarding the use of G.I.S. technologies for monitoring the degraded land by erosion, Cluj county
Table of content
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................... 3
Chapter I ........................................................................................................................................ 4
REVIEWS REGARDING EROSIONAL PROCESS................................................................ 4
Chapter II....................................................................................................................................... 6
ESTIMATION OF SOIL LOSS DURING EROSION .............................................................. 6
Chapter III ..................................................................................................................................... 7
APPLYING THE SPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FUNDAMENTAL
MEASURMENTS REGARDING DEGRADED LAND ASSESSMENT ................................ 7
Chapter IV ..................................................................................................................................... 8
AIM AND OBJECTIVES. MATERIALS AND METHODS USED........................................ 8
Chapter V ..................................................................................................................................... 10
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE TERITORIAL UNITS EHERE
THE RESEARCHES WERE CONDUCTED (CIURILA, SĂVĂDISLA, FLOREȘTI –
CLUJ COUNTY) ......................................................................................................................... 10
Chapter VI ................................................................................................................................... 12
ASSESSMENT OF PROBABILITY PARAMITERES REGARDING EROSIONAL
PROCESES .................................................................................................................................. 12
6.1. GEO-GRADIENT .............................................................................................................. 12
6.2. SLOPE ORIENTATION .................................................................................................... 12
6.3. HYPSOMETRIC ................................................................................................................ 12
6.4. THE DREINAGE DENSITY ............................................................................................. 14
6.5. DEPTH OF DREINAGE .................................................................................................... 14
6.6. WETNESS INDEX ............................................................................................................ 16
6.7. STREAM POWER INDEX................................................................................................ 16
6.8. PLAN AND PROFILE CURVE ........................................................................................ 17
6.9. SPATIAL ANALYSE ........................................................................................................ 18
6.10. USLE MODEL IMPLEMENTATION USING GIS TECHNIQUES ............................. 19
Chapter VII .................................................................................................................................. 23
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMANDATIONS........................................................................ 23
7.1. CONCLUSIONS .................................................................................................................... 23
7.2. RECOMANDATIONS .......................................................................................................... 27
SELECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 28
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Researches regarding the use of G.I.S. technologies for monitoring the degraded land by erosion, Cluj county
INTRODUCTION
Soil erosion is the hazard with the biggest negative effects, with visible consecuences for
medium and long term, and is also the most extensive form of degradation (SEVASTEL, 2014),
aspect which were considered in selection of study cases used in the present PhD thesis. GIS
facilitates delivering of results faster as the creation of support / base materials used in the
planning and organization of eroded land (MARTINEZ, 2000).
In these circumstances, the attention of researchers skilled in the art and is directed by
government authorities on developing a risk management geomorphological processes in order
to prevent loss of lives and reduce property damage (LINDSTROM, 1986).
From research conducted in recent years in Cluj county, research supported by S.C. EXPERCO
- ISPIF SRL (2003), taking into account the specific natural conditions of the county, it appears
that in terms of degradation processes erosion on agricultural land values are high. Degradation
processes, whether fixed or semistabilizate negatively influence much of the agricultural area,
especially pastures which are the most dangerous outbreaks of soil degradation.
The PhD thesis with the title “RESEARCHES REGARDING THE USE OF G.I.S.
TECHNOLOGIES FOR MONITORING THE DEGRADED LAND BY EROSION, CLUJ
COUNTY” deals with problems of great current global and national levels.
The importance of this work lies in the accurate estimation of the likelihood that a given
area is exposed to the occurrence of erosion processes. Research requires multiple treatments,
which involves the systematic analysis of several factors preparatory and triggers erosion
processes. In this debate, very useful are the means computerized mapping by which creates the
risk of erosion processes, ie Geographic Information Systems. A great advantage in applying
GIS functions is potentiality improve forecasting models occurrence of erosion processes,
evaluating their results and by modifying factors. Another vital part of determining the
likelihood of erosion processes by means of GIS is the ability to analyze data storage and
spatiotemporal available.
The need for a study to identify and assess risk of erosion processes is of great
importance because only risk measure may be developed measures and ways of preventing and
combating erosion processes. In this paper, by using geospatial data were drawn from processes
of erosion risk maps for territorial administrative units Floresti Ciurila and Săvădisla that can be
analyzed and interpreted to create a support in establishing measures to combat erosion processes
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in the area . With maps can be traced consequences on the environment and human settlements.
In order to estimate vulnerability to erosion processes, the researched area were introduced nine
indicators geomorphometry (geodeclivitatea, slope orientation, hypsometric, drainage density,
the drainage, the curvature in plan, profile curvature index infiltration water capacity index
transport), geological data, hydrographic, digital raster formats.
The purpose of research is the monitoring of degraded lands, giving priority to those
affected by surface erosion due to natural factors, in order to establish strategies to redress the
consequences of economic, social and environmental and bringing land into production, the
improvement works. The consequences resulting from soil degradation processes are: reducing
agricultural production, withdrawal aside, leaving the land by owners, clogging of water courses
and reservoirs, destruction of communication lines and human settlements, environmental
degradation surrounding and destroying the ecological balance.
The thesis is divided into seven chapters, comprising 187 pages, 13 tables, 44 figures,
219 national and international bibliographic titles. Research undertaken to develop thesis were
conducted under the guidance of Prof. univ. dr. ing. Marcel DÎRJA, scientific leader PhD, which
I address in this way most sincere feelings of gratitude, respect and gratitude for the professional
competence and patience with which I coordinated all the work.
Chapter I
REVIEWS REGARDING EROSIONAL PROCESS
Erosion is spread over the land, not just the surface covered with soil, therefore, is the
general expression,, land erosion. '' Although in most cases the soil is affected, and the
expression is used,, soil erosion '. The consequences of this situation are investigated and type of
process spread on the soil cover (BEL et al, 1995; DÎRJA et al, 2000). The word comes from the
Latin erosion from erosion,, "and means separation, divorce. The erosion is the detachment,
transport and deposition of soil particles under the action of water and wind exogenous agents
(DÎRJA and BUDIU, 1997; DÎRJA, 2000). Through the influence of morphogenetic processes,
has changed the earth's crust. Regarding exogenous geomorphological processes, soil erosion
modeling is crucial to the crust (GOVERS et al, 1990). Erosion can be defined as a physical
process that occurs at the soil surface or in its depth, where large masses of sil with fertility are
transported either by water or wind, at different distances - sometimes thousands of miles
(BERCA , 2008).
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Detachment, transport and deposition of soil particles are produced by moving water and
air, whose inexhaustible sources are solar and kinetic gravity. Another determinant of erosion
processes is human activity (Feizi and CESEVICIUS, 2006).
Eroziunea solului este determinată indeosebi de: relief, climă (temperatura aerului,
vântul, precipitaţii atmosferice, presiunea atmosferică, umiditatea aerului, durata stălucirii
soarelui, nebulozitatea, fenomene meteorologice), sol, roca de solificare, vegetaţie şi exploatarea
terenurilor. Land degradation affects soil infiltration and permeability. The permeable soils water
infiltrates to the layers of plastic rocks and they form water-soaked bed that degradation will
occur. Clay soils, drying, cracking and thus facilitates the degradation of land. Roca, its
structure, the feature size, the permeability, tilt and tilt direction is an element that has influence
to a large extent of land degradation (Montanarella, 1999; DÎRJA et al, 2000).La sfârşitul
secolului XX, pe plan mondial se găseau în diferite stadii de degradare, următoarele suprafeţe:
38% din suprafaţa cultivată, 21% din păşuni şi 18% din terenurile împădurite (OZPINAR şi
CAY, 2006).
In many areas of the world (India, Africa, Australia, New Zealand) deforestation of large
areas of forest in order to extend crops, overgrazing and forest fires, often in an arid climate
conditions, accelerates land erosion, especially wind (BIALI GABRIELA and Popov, 2003).
Rational exploitation of land situated in slope erosion causes soil loss between 5-10 t / ha
in Africa, Australia and Europe, 10 - 20 t / ha in South America, Central and North and up to 30 t
/ ha in Asia (GARDNER and Peterson, 1996; PATH et al, 1997).
PIMENTEL (1993) shows that all processes of soil degradation, erosion is the most
damaging, causing loss of soil average annual amount of 18.1 t / ha in North America, 13.0 t / ha
in Europe 40 t / ha in Asia and 100 t / ha in Africa. However, it is estimated that in the US,
USSR, China and India, although representing nations that are major sources of food, soil
erosion amounted to 11.8 billion tons per year, meaning 52% of the world total.
In the US and Canada pays special attention to the development of national targets for
estimating soil quality under the influence of technological impact and to prevent farmers. The
prosecution and spread soil quality data for the conservation of natural resources and the
environment, in 1993, the United States was founded Soil Quality Institute (SQI) belonging to
the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) (PAUWELS et al, 2006). Ditzler and
Tugela (2002) recommended a number of indicators of soil quality, after obtaining several
models of soil health cards (card hearth soil) and soil quality test kits (soil quality test kit).
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Chapter II
ESTIMATION OF SOIL LOSS DURING EROSION
The erosion were studied 11 methods for estimating soil loss:
- The first method is applied in a land of Germany;
- The second method is used in regional and national in Poland;
- The third method is used in Spain, with spatial resolution on a national scale;
- The fourth method is employed at national level in Finland;
- The fifth method is practiced at regional and national level in Hungary, based on universal
equation of soil erosion - USLE (Universal Soil Loss equational);
- The sixth method is applied in Flanders (region of north-western Europe and is one component
of the federal state of Belgium);
- The seventh method is folodită in Norway at regional level and is based on universal equation
of soil erosion - USLE, adapted to the specific conditions in Norway;
- The eighth method is practiced in France, having spatial coverage nationwide and very high
resolution at different levels;
- A new method is CORINE and applied in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, southern France, with
coverage at national and European levels, but low resolution;
- The tenth method is Peseri and is used in Europe, with high spatial resolution;
- The eleventh method is GLASOD, with global coverage, but low resolution.
Analyzing the 11 methods for estimating soil loss is noted that, although many of them
have similar effects can not be applied in other regions, the results being diverted.
Differences may arise due to the calculation methods of the parameters, the composition
of the input data, differences in reacting model, examining subjective differences of scale, etc.
(Williams and BERNDT, 1972; Williams et al, 1984).
However, the results estimated to be close, that to be part of the three categories of
quantitative erosion classes: low (0-5 t / ha / year), medium (5-10 t / ha / year) and high (> 10 t /
ha / year). To this end, different methods may be applied, expert examinations or method USLE
method, the results can be interpreted similarly.Chiar dacă există cazuri în care se aplică diverse
metode de estimare a pierderilor de sol şi se obţine rezultate diferite, acestea nu pot fi mutual
comparabile. Pentru excluderea acestui impediment, este recomandată standardizarea, care
necesită utilizarea unor metode, soluţii omogenizate pentru a cuantifica şi estima ratele şi riscul
de eroziune (STOCKING, 1981).
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Chapter III
APPLYING THE SPATIAL TECHNOLOGIES FOR FUNDAMENTAL
MEASURMENTS REGARDING DEGRADED LAND ASSESSMENT
Navigation systems based on artificial satellites were born with space programs in these
area famous countries (USA and USSR). The first navigation systems were based on the
principle of the Doppler Effect, ie, changing the frequency of a wave emitted by a source of
oscillations, if it is moving towards the receiver (NEUNER, 2000).
In 1970, based on the very good results obtained in the first satellite-based navigation
systems were developed more advanced systems, both the US and the USSR. In the US the
foundations of global navigation satellite system development NAVSTAR GPS - and the
foundations of development in the USSR satellite system GLONASS global navigation. These
two systems are independent and are in process of modernization (BĂDESCU, 2005).
In the late 1990s, the European Union is launching a European satellite navigation and
positioning, which together with the European Space Agency develops and arises Galileo global
navigation satellite system. At the beginning of this millennium, China starts building a global
navigation satellite system called Beidou (Compass).
The NAVSTAR Global Navigation Satellite GPS is a system developed by the
Department of Defense of the United States. It was designed for military applications, aimed at
determining the position, velocity and time into a common reference system, to any point on the
Earth's surface, or near, regardless of weather conditions. Shortly after its inception, GPS has
enabled the application of the civil sector, proving to be very useful, especially in geodesy
(Remond, 1990). As for the kinematic measurements, it is essential to choose the correct path in
order to ensure continuous reception of signals.
Kinematic measurements is recommended for networks that are relatively open areas.
Because during data collection must be visible at least four satellites, that this condition must be
satisfied on the whole route followed by the rover. Also, you can lose track satellites, regardless
of the speed at which pass under obstacles. The problem is even more striking if the method is
proposed to raise topographic details (BĂDESCU, 2005).
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Researches regarding the use of G.I.S. technologies for monitoring the degraded land by erosion, Cluj county
Chapter IV
AIM AND OBJECTIVES. MATERIALS AND METHODS USED
The purpose of research is the monitoring of degraded lands, giving priority to those
affected by surface erosion due to natural factors, in order to establish strategies to redress the
consequences of economic, social and environmental and bringing land into production, the
improvement works.
The objectives set in order to obtain conclusive results on the identification of degraded
land using GIS techniques are:
consulting the literature to describe the conduct of scientific research;
establish protocol for the validation, storage and analysis of space-time:
• GPS measurements using the kinematic method;
• GPS data processing and observations;
• developing a GIS database to identify the probability of erosion processes;
• mapping the risk of soil loss;
• determine the probability of loss of soil by GIS methods;
• introduction of new indicators geomorphometry on:
1. geodeclivitatea
2. slopes orientation
3. hypsometric
4. drainage density
5. the drainage
6. curvature in plan
7. The curvature of the profile
8. Water infiltration index
9. transport capacity index.
use of geological data, hydrographic digital raster formats;
preparation, analysis and interpretation of documents prepared for the
establishment of measures to combat erosion processes of territorial
administrative units Floresti Ciurila and Săvădisla (Cluj County).
Creating GIS spatial analysis model required the following steps: creating a database,
spatial modeling appropriate validation of the model to quantify the risk. Spatial analysis is
based only on morphometric characteristics of the territory, which are derived from digital
elevation model (DEM).
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The spatial analysis we developed using several database structures, based on
morphometric primary database (contour lines, hydrography) Database Model (DEM, drainage
density, water infiltration rate potential, transport capacity index, coefficient of probability) and
derived data base (tilt angle, slope aspect, drainage density, plan curvature, profile curvature,
hypsometric and the drainage).
Figure 1. The compilation, analysis and interpretation of documents drawn up
To create the primary database we used cartographic materials which consisted of
contour maps at 1: 25,000, which I scanned and georeferenced Stereo projection system 70. In
order to obtain digital elevation model, we digitized contours and curves of the river system. Via
the ArcToolbox - Spatial Analyst Tools - Interpolation - Topo to Raster of ArcGIS software, we
created a digital elevation model with a resolution of 20 meters. Each element of the database we
included morphometric analysis model parameter identification spatial probability of erosion
processes.
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Chapter V
NATURAL ENVIRONMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE TERITORIAL UNITS EHERE
THE RESEARCHES WERE CONDUCTED (CIURILA, SĂVĂDISLA, FLOREȘTI –
CLUJ COUNTY)
Figure 2. Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești ATUs localization (Cluj County, Romania) and
geographic coordinates (https://www.google.ro/maps)
Ciurila (Fig. 3) is located 20 km from the city of Cluj-Napoca, Feleacului Hill - Hăşdate
depression in the river basin Hăşdate. It covers an area of 72.22 km2, is located at an altitude of
562 m and the intersection of the parallel of 46 ° 39 '03' 'North and the meridian of 23 ° 32'
54''Est. From this common part the following locations: Ciurila, Sălicea, Sălişte, Pruniş, Şutu,
Pădureni, Filea de Jos and Filea de Sus.
Săvădisla (Fig. 4) is located about 22 km southwest of Cluj-Napoca, the Apuseni
Mountains, the relief being formed in depressions. It covers an area of 52.11 km2, is located at
an altitude of 492 m and the intersection of the parallel of 46 ° 40 '25' 'North and the meridian of
23 ° 27' 21 '' East. From this common part the following locations: Săvădisla, Stolna, Vlaha,
Vălişoara, Finişel, Hăşdate, Lita and Liteni.
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Figure 3. Aspects from the zone where the topographic determinations were done, ATU Ciurila
Figure 4. Aspects from the zone where the topographic determinations were done, ATU
Săvădisla
Figure 5. Aspects from the zone where the topographic determinations were done, ATU Florești
Floreşti (Fig. 5) is located about 10 km from Cluj-Napoca, on the right bank of the river
Somes Mic, at the junction of the Apuseni Mountains and Transylvanian Plateau. It covers an
area of 6092 hectares, is located at an altitude of 500-600 meters and intersected by the parallel
of 46 ° 44 '52' 'North and the meridian of 23 ° 29' 27 '' East. From this common part the
following locations: Floreşti, Luna de Sus and Tăuţi.
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Chapter VI
ASSESSMENT OF PROBABILITY PARAMITERES REGARDING EROSIONAL
PROCESES
6.1. GEO-GRADIENT
Geodeclivitatea or slope is morphometric parameter that shows the inclination of land.
Slope with petrographic and structural elements of a complex, formed one of the most important
requirements in geomorphological assessment researched territory. They determine the processes
that shape the intensity and type of substrate.
The slope is a parameter that must be quantified both in terms of quantity (as a factor that
generates slope processes) and in terms of quality (as a factor that generates landforms that result
from these processes).
6.2. SLOPE ORIENTATION
Parameter qualitative spatial analysis of morphometric characteristics of the relief is
defined by surfaces inclined orientation or orientation slopes. Orientation slopes participate in
the evolution of slope geomorphological processes due to climatic factors are not dispersed
evenly over the surface of the land: solar radiation, sunlight, precipitation and temperatures. This
parameter causes differences duration of exposure to the sun.
After surfaces with different weight categories slope orientation, we can see that the
largest areas of slopes are recognized to be the exhibition N, NE 31.93%, E, NV 24.72%, SE, S
21.17% and SV, V 20.30%. The share of flat surfaces is 1.88% of the total (Joldis BĂDESCU
RODICA et al, 2014).
6.3. HYPSOMETRIC
Hypsometric analysis in terms of the area studied, emphasizes large expansion of lowlying areas. Probability values were chosen for each altitudinal range under which the database
was completed which represents the probability hypsometric.
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Figure 6. Slope susceptibility for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
Figure 7. Slope orientation susceptibility for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
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Figure 8. Hypsometric susceptibility for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
6.4. THE DREINAGE DENSITY
The drainage density and landscape fragmentation is an area ratio of the length (measured
in km) and unit area (calculated km²) and expresses the degree of horizontal fragmentation of the
landscape. It may refer to a particular area or the area of the catchment.
The application of this parameter is useful in dissecting the expression level in the
horizontal plane of the surface morphology of an area, due to its shaping as a result of the action
of exogenous factors.
6.5. DEPTH OF DREINAGE
Depth fragmentation presents one important morphometric parameters of relief, giving its
developmental stage and intensity of current morphodynamic processes. This parameter
quantitative trait relief expose some of the genesis of the studied area. Reached the stage where
erosion, on the in-depth, drainage depth is given in particular to erosion caused by rivers. If the
drainage depth is large, then we show that the soil is not stable and erosion may occur. Usually,
it occurs in areas with a large gradient.
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Figure 9. Dreinage density susceptibility for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
Figura 10. Dreinage depth susceptibility for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
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6.6. WETNESS INDEX
Since the potential for water infiltration and transport capacity index are classified as
class parameters that influence the topography, they can be associated.
The potential for water infiltration indicates the degree of accumulation of water in
certain areas, and transport capacity index indicates the power flow in water erosion in some
catchment area.
Figure 11. Wetness index (WI) susceptibility for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
6.7. STREAM POWER INDEX
Stream Power Index is the product of the land surface (As) and slope (p).
The values obtained for transport capacity index is between 0.099 and 0.800 and are
directly proportional to the likelihood of erosion processes.
The lower transport capacity index emphasizes low power drainage and erosion and of
course a low probability for the occurrence of erosion processes. Higher levels of transport
capacity index characterizing erosion areas where power is high, this causes a very high
probability and erosional processes occur.
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Figura 12. Stream power index (SPI) susceptibility for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS
map)
6.8. PLAN AND PROFILE CURVE
Areas showing steep slope and exposure changes are recognized using topographic
surface curvature. According to the method of analysis of the curve, one can identify two
parameters: the curvature in plan and profile curvature.
The curvature in the plane perpendicular to the orientation shown the maximum slope.
Convex slopes are typical convergent flow positive values indicate high probability of
occurrence of erosion processes.
Divergent flow concave slopes are negative values and presents specific probability of
occurrence of erosion processes from low to medium.
The curvature of the profile of the references moderate and large flow areas in the terrain
surface, taking into account the shape of the slope (straight, convex or concave).
Characteristic convex slopes are negative values and shows a low probability of
occurrence of erosion processes. Sharp concave slopes are specific to the positive and shows a
very high degree of probability of occurrence of erosion processes.
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Figure 13. Plan curve susceptibility for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
Figure 14. Profile curve susceptibility for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
6.9. SPATIAL ANALYSE
The spatial modeling of the probability of erosion processes requires the application of
several methods for spatial analysis methods that consist of specialized softwares and thematic
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C county
database processing by means of mathematical formulas translated into GIS spatial analysis
functions (Moore et al, 1991).
The central objective
jective is to determine the new attributes stored in multiple database
structures. In this sense, started on spatial databases and modeling techniques using GIS spatial
analysis and reclassification database, we compiled intermediate models that we introduced
introdu
in
the final structure of the model probability of occurrence erosion processes.
Figure 15. Erosional proces susceptibility for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla
S ădisla and Florești
Flore (GIS map)
6.10. USLE MODEL IMPLEMENTATION USING GIS TECHNIQUES
Given the need to implement
implement projects in Romania which have been proposed for joining
the European Union in terms of attracting proposed structural funds, necessary for the
development of agriculture is very important inventory of land exposed to various natural and
anthropogenic
ic processes. It is also necessary to identify the causes that produce these processes
in order to make the right decisions regarding the possibility of land reclamation works in the
affected areas. The process of soil erosion is influenced, as I mentioned,
mentioned several
geomorphological parameters: slope, degree of slope, land cover management, etc., soil
characteristics and climatic characteristics. This research paper proposes a GIS model to
calculate the amount of soil lost and represent areas of UAT Ciurila, UAT Săvădisla
S
and UAT
Floreşti,
ti, which are exposed to erosion.
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The risk we have evaluated the impact of the vulnerability of land sought to identify
geomorphological processes on the land use categories. Based on Corine Land Cover 2006, we
identified the land use categories and type of vulnerability map we superimposed it over the land
use categories. For this we use the Identify function. Depending on the map you've drawn a
determining vulnerability researched area geomorphological processes and bibliographic study,
we prepared tables risk classes.
Figure 16. Slope length coefficient and slope degree defined as topographic factor (GIS map) for
ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
Figure 17. Coefficient for soil erodability for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
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Figure 18. Coefficient for cover-management factor and vegetation characteristics for ATU
Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești
(GIS map)
Figure 19. Average annual surface erosion rate (t/ha/year) after universal soil erosion equation
computed with geographic information system (GIS) for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești
(GIS map)
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Figure 20. Teritorial vulnerability because of geomorfological process for ATU Ciurila,
Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
Figure 21. Risc classes regarding soil erosion for ATU Ciurila, Săvădisla and Florești (GIS map)
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Chapter VII
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMANDATIONS
7.1. CONCLUSIONS
1.
Geographic Information System developed from studies conducted in ATU Ciurila,
and UAT UAT Săvădisla Floresti related identification of degraded land by applying ArcGIS
software provides a set of tools and comprehensive spatial analysis and visualization platform
and dissemination of results on the identification of degraded land.
2.
Using this methodology allowed a better practice to make data resources to be made
available to those who need them, they are available for consultation and the online data, maps
or standard templates, are useful in future organizing information and parameters measured and
determined.
3.
Another important aspect Geographic Information System for the realization of this
research work is the possibility of exposure of a large volume of data that can be presented in an
intuitive format on the map.
4.
Information and preparation of maps are able to be synthesized, giving users the
information they need.
5.
Geospatial information is suitable many opportunities that can lead to better
decisions at a higher yield in terms of productivity in agriculture.
6.
Geographic Information System is able to store information layers, for example:
yields, soil mapping maps on reports of crop recognition and nutrient levels in the soil.
7.
Geospatial information may present geo-reference data, enhancing the visual
perspective interpretation. In addition to high capacity data storage and display can be used
Geographic Information System for assessing the management of present and also for the
management and handling alternative by combining data layers to obtain a review of
management scenarios.
8.
The area is included in the category average probability of occurrence of erosion
processes; however, there are areas not classified as probability of occurrence of large erosion
processes.
9.
The erosion values obtained are between 0 and 38.88 t / ha / year.
10. Areas of erosion is stronger on 0.11% of the studied area.
23
PhD SUMMARY
Researches regarding the use of G.I.S. technologies for monitoring the degraded land by erosion, Cluj county
11. Curvature profile map was determined that the greatest expansion area is in the range
of low probability, is a significant probability of occurrence of geomorphic processes of slope
(torrent, runoff, landslides) or meadow (erosion linear regression, side).
12. The combination of databases on susceptibility to erosion processes and erosion can
be seen that there is land with high vulnerability.
7.2. RECOMANDATIONS
1. It is recommended accurate identification of areas with high risk of erosion, to
intervene by measures of consolidation, stabilization, smoothing, shaping the land and other
hydro works.
2. It is recommended systematization of arable crops, the optimal choice of land use
category after evaluation marks, use suitable agro system in order to prevent the negative effects
of erosion.
3. Monitoring GIS technologies of erosion on agricultural land and beyond, must be
complemented by measurements in situ measurements on soil + vegetation system, expressed by
accumulated biomass quality.
4. It is recommended to apply methodologies for estimating the risk of erosion,
standardized, given that each country uses a methodology to estimate the risk of erosion.
5. Hydraulic works should be implemented in the event of incipient erosion process.
24
PhD SUMMARY
Researches regarding the use of G.I.S. technologies for monitoring the degraded land by erosion, Cluj county
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