Sustaining Camp Michigania - Graham Sustainability Institute

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Sustaining Camp Michigania - Graham Sustainability Institute
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
Environment
391
Project
Final
Report
12.15.11
Shelby
Burgess
Lizzie
Grobbel
Beatrice
Holdstein
John
Lorenz
Erica
Salmirs
Paula
Seville
Jeff
Waraniak
Table
of
Contents
EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................... 3
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 4
BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................................................... 4
METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................... 5
PHASE
I:
SECONDARY
RESEARCH ................................................................................................................. 5
PHASE
II:
PRIMARY
RESEARCH .................................................................................................................... 5
PHASE
III:
ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................................. 6
RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................................................................... 7
IMPLEMENTING
REUSABLE
MUGS ................................................................................................................ 7
STAFF
EDUCATION .................................................................................................................................... 8
CAMPER
EDUCATION ................................................................................................................................ 9
IMPROVED
SIGNAGE ............................................................................................................................... 10
EVALUATING
RECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................................. 12
CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................................... 13
APPENDICES....................................................................................................................................... 14
APPENDIX
A:
SURVEY
RESULTS.................................................................................................................. 14
APPENDIX
B:
RUBBERMAID
DISHPAN ......................................................................................................... 18
APPENDIX
C:
MAP
OF
MUG
DROP‐OFF
STATIONS ......................................................................................... 19
APPENDIX
D:
STAFF
COMPOST
QUIZ .......................................................................................................... 20
APPENDIX
E:
STAFF
EDUCATION
REMINDER
SHEET ........................................................................................ 21
APPENDIX
F:
EXAMPLE
CAMPER
LESSON
PLANS ............................................................................................ 22
LESSON
PLAN
I:
INFORMAL
EDUCATION ............................................................................................................. 22
LESSON
PLAN
II:
MICHIGAN
NATIVE
PLANT
EXPLORATION .................................................................................... 22
LESSON
PLAN
III:
GREAT
LAKES
JENGA ............................................................................................................... 23
LESSON
PLAN
IV:
SUSTAINABILITY
SCAVENGER
HUNT ........................................................................................... 24
APPENDIX
G:
SIGNAGE ............................................................................................................................ 26
DINING
HALL .............................................................................................................................................. 26
CABINS ....................................................................................................................................................... 29
LEED ........................................................................................................................................................... 31
APPENDIX
H:
EVALUATION ....................................................................................................................... 32
REFERENCES....................................................................................................................................... 34
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
2
Executive
Summary
Camp
Michigania
is
a
popular
summer
vacation
destination
for
University
of
Michigan
alumni
and
their
families.
Located
on
Walloon
Lake,
the
camp
hosts
as
many
as
400
youth
and
adult
campers
each
week.
Campers
spend
their
weeks
at
Michigania
participating
in
a
wide
variety
of
activities,
from
waterfront
sports
and
arts
and
crafts
to
informal
education
sessions.
The
natural
setting
and
seclusion
of
the
camp
present
an
ideal
platform
to
encourage
sustainability
initiatives
among
the
University
of
Michigan
alumni
population.
The
goal
of
this
project
is
to
assess
Michigania’s
past
sustainability
efforts,
and
identify
strategies
to
decrease
environmental
impact
and
encourage
overall
awareness
of
sustainability
at
Michigania
and
beyond.
Michigania
has
pursued
a
number
of
sustainability
initiatives
to
date.
Single‐stream
recycling
has
been
implemented
to
simplify
the
recycling
process.
Camp
Michigania
has
encouraged
food
consumption
and
waste
awareness
by
implementing
a
Food
Waste
competition.
The
program,
which
began
in
2011,
tracks
the
accumulation
of
uneaten
food
and
recognizes
campers
who
take
measures
to
limit
food
waste.
Michigania
currently
uses
compostable
cups
and
shreds
them
manually
on‐site.
Michigania
also
has
a
recently
refurbished
dining
hall,
which
incorporates
sustainable
features
in
compliance
with
LEED
standards.
Film
screenings,
discussions,
hikes,
and
other
education
programs
are
made
available
to
campers
throughout
the
summer.
While
these
efforts
have
been
significant,
a
comprehensive
survey
distributed
to
campers
regarding
these
initiatives
and
secondary
research
findings
suggest
an
opportunity
for
increased
sustainability
efforts.
The
recommendations
presented
in
this
report
will
help
to
decrease
Michigania’s
environmental
impact
while
increasing
camper
and
staff
awareness
of
sustainability.
These
recommendations
include:
implementing
reusable
ceramic
mugs
in
place
of
compostable
cups,
improving
sustainability
education
among
staff
and
youth
campers,
and
enhancing
signage
throughout
camp
to
increase
awareness
and
effectiveness
of
sustainable
practices.
Purchasing
ceramic
mugs
is
a
cost
effective
approach
to
decreasing
Michigania’s
environmental
footprint.
The
current
compostable
cup
system
is
inefficient;
cups
are
shredded
by
a
gas‐powered
machine
and
cannot
decompose
on‐site.
Existing
recycling
and
composting
signage
was
repurposed
and
new
signage
was
created
for
cabins
and
the
dining
hall.
This
new
signage
provides
improved
clarity
and
more
detailed
sustainability
information.
New
education
programs
were
designed
to
increase
camper
awareness
of
sustainability
at
Michigania
and
cultivate
knowledge
of
the
surrounding
environment.
Staff
education
modules
were
designed
to
increase
involvement
in
the
food
waste
competition,
recycling
and
composting.
Camp
Michigania
is
an
important
tradition
for
many
University
of
Michigan
alumni.
It
is
a
unique
setting
for
the
leaders
and
best
to
reminisce
about
their
time
spent
in
Ann
Arbor.
The
University
of
Michigan
community
has
demonstrated
significant
interest
in
adopting
sustainable
practices,
and
this
extends
to
Camp
Michigania
as
well.
Implementing
these
recommendations
will
allow
Michigania’s
leadership
to
embed
a
new
tradition
of
sustainability
within
Michigania’s
culture.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
3
Introduction
Camp
Michigania,
a
family
summer
camp
operated
by
the
Alumni
Association
of
the
University
of
Michigan,
offers
University
alumni
an
opportunity
to
enjoy
a
weeklong
family
vacation
on
the
shores
of
Walloon
Lake
in
Boyne
City,
Michigan.
Over
the
course
of
the
eleven
weeks
the
camp
is
in
session,
Michigania
hosts
over
4,500
campers,
providing
them
with
food,
housing,
and
a
wide
variety
of
recreational
activities
including
outdoor
sports,
arts
and
crafts,
University
faculty
seminars,
and
more.
While
the
camp
has
worked
to
reduce
its
environmental
impact
on
its
400‐acre
site
for
years,
it
has
recently
incorporated
sustainability
as
an
everyday
aspect
of
camp
life.
The
camp
currently
manages
the
following
sustainability‐related
programs:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Environmental
education
sessions
Food
waste
reduction
competition
Composting
program
Single‐stream
recycling
system
LEED
(Leadership
in
Energy
and
Environmental
Design)
construction
elements
in
dining
hall
Small‐scale
garden
The
goal
of
this
report
is
to
outline
recommendations
to
expand
Michigania’s
sustainability
initiatives
based
on
camper
feedback
and
leadership
input.
To
provide
these
recommendations,
we
conducted
primary
and
secondary
research
by
analyzing
previous
reports,
surveying
campers,
and
discussing
the
camp’s
sustainability
goals
with
the
director,
Mitch
Rosenwasser.
Based
on
this
research,
the
project
scope
was
narrowed
to
incorporate
the
following
topics:
1. Replacing
compostable
cups
with
reusable
mugs
2. Promoting
sustainability
awareness
and
education
among
staff
and
campers
3. Improving
visibility
and
clarity
of
signage
related
to
sustainability
efforts
and
issues
The
following
report
outlines
recommendations
for
implementing
changes
in
these
three
focus
areas
to
guide
Michigania
towards
greater
sustainability
achievements
in
years
to
come.
Background
The
leadership
of
Camp
Michigania
has
made
great
progress
in
implementing
sustainability
across
the
camp
during
the
last
several
years,
but
they
are
determined
to
integrate
sustainability
into
the
basic
framework
of
daily
camp
life.
The
camp
has
adopted
single‐stream
recycling
through
Bay
Area
Recycling
for
Charities,
making
the
process
simpler
for
campers
and
encouraging
recycling
practices.
Michigania
began
composting
food
and
biodegradable
products
in
order
to
reduce
waste
sent
to
landfills.
A
food
waste
competition,
begun
in
2011,
encourages
campers
to
re‐evaluate
their
food
consumption
and
waste
habits.
Additionally,
the
camp
transitioned
to
providing
compostable
rather
than
disposable
cups.
The
new
dining
hall
was
designed
following
LEED
certification
guidelines.
A
Sustainability
Coordinator
was
hired
on
staff
to
provide
educational
opportunities,
raise
awareness,
and
coordinate
sustainability
initiatives
at
the
camp.
The
camp
started
a
small
garden
in
hopes
of
growing
its
own
food.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
4
While
Michigania
has
made
vast
improvements
in
the
arena
of
sustainability,
there
are
many
opportunities
to
advance
these
efforts
across
the
camp.
Because
the
camp
is
a
vacation
destination,
Mitch
and
the
Camp
Michigania
leadership
felt
it
was
critical
to
assess
how
campers
felt
about
these
various
initiatives.
They
also
wished
to
gauge
camper
reactions
towards
future
sustainability
efforts
under
consideration.
Camp
Michigania
has
clearly
demonstrated
a
commitment
to
sustainability,
and
while
past
efforts
have
been
substantial,
there
are
many
opportunities
for
the
camp
to
become
more
sustainable.
Methodology
In
order
to
collect
our
data
for
the
project,
we
spoke
with
our
project
sponsor,
Mitch
Rosenwasser,
on
a
weekly
basis
to
receive
direction
and
feedback
throughout
the
project.
As
the
Executive
Director
of
Camp
Michigania,
he
provided
key
insight
into
how
the
camp
functions
and
the
feasibility
of
sustainability
initiatives.
Research
and
analysis
was
completed
in
three
phases,
outlined
below:
Phase
I:
Secondary
Research
We
each
conducted
research
on
different
aspects
of
sustainability
that
could
relate
to
multiple
areas
of
improvement
at
Camp
Michigania.
These
topics
included:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Environmental
education
Composting
Environment
and
behavior
Barriers
to
financing
sustainability
initiatives
How
education
can
influence
behavior
change
Compostable
cups
Solar
panels
These
topics
were
chosen
based
on
preliminary
meetings
with
Mitch
and
the
information
presented
in
the
2011
Sustainability
Manual,
compiled
by
Dino
Ruggeri,
Michigania’s
Sustainability
Coordinator.
The
individual
research
helped
us
to
narrow
our
scope
to
focus
on
the
recommendation
areas
outlined
in
this
report.
Phase
II:
Primary
Research
Our
first
step
in
gauging
camper
reactions
to
Michigania’s
past
and
future
sustainability
initiatives
was
to
create
a
survey
to
distribute
to
campers.
The
topics
in
the
survey
ranged
from
recycling
at
Michigania
to
existing
and
potential
education
programs.
We
developed
our
survey
questions
as
a
group
after
consulting
with
Mitch
and
Mike
Pryplesh,
the
research
analyst
for
the
Alumni
Association.
We
created
a
survey
draft,
including
the
questions
and
response
options,
and
Mike
used
this
information
to
generate
a
final
survey
through
Zoomerang
(an
online
survey
tool).
The
survey
included
both
multiple
choice
questions
as
well
as
comment
boxes
to
allow
campers
to
elaborate
on
specific
questions.
The
survey
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
5
was
successfully
delivered
to
1118
camper
email
addresses
and
generated
319
completed
surveys,
resulting
in
a
response
rate
of
approximately
29%.
Survey
results
can
be
found
in
Appendix
A.
Following
the
survey,
we
conducted
a
site
visit
of
Camp
Michigania
during
their
Fall
Colors
event
to
see
the
facilities
in
action.
Although
there
were
only
about
60
adult
campers
in
attendance,1
we
were
still
able
to
get
a
better
picture
of
how
the
camp
functions
throughout
the
summer.
The
overnight
visit
allowed
us
to
observe
the
cabins,
where
we
noticed
a
lack
of
signage
related
to
sustainable
practices
such
as
turning
off
the
lights
or
conserving
water
in
the
shower.
Additionally,
both
the
dining
hall
and
program
areas
lacked
clear
signage
for
composting
and
recycling.
We
were
also
able
to
speak
with
campers
attending
the
Fall
Colors
event
about
sustainability.
After
the
visit,
we
decided
to
focus
on
signage
as
a
minimally
intrusive
approach
to
increasing
awareness
of
sustainability
throughout
camp.
As
the
final
component
of
our
primary
research
we
attended
a
Camp
Council
Meeting,
where
we
had
the
opportunity
to
speak
directly
with
campers
and
receive
individualized
feedback.
We
asked
campers
about
logistics
of
implementing
the
ceramic
mugs
and
they
provided
ideas
on
how
to
promote
shorter
showers.
The
campers
provided
us
with
valuable
information
about
their
beliefs
and
attitudes
about
sustainability
at
Michigania,
which
led
us
to
focus
on
a
youth‐oriented
approach
to
environmental
education.
Campers
expressed
that
they
view
their
stay
at
Michigania
as
vacation
time,
so
they
were
critical
of
extensive
environmental
education
programming
for
adults.
However,
they
were
enthusiastic
about
environmental
education
for
their
children
at
Michigania
and
indicated
that
the
youth
brought
these
lessons
back
to
the
adults.
Phase
III:
Analysis
Our
findings
from
primary
and
secondary
sources
helped
identify
the
most
influential
and
feasible
sustainability
initiatives
for
Camp
Michigania.
Using
the
survey
results,
we
graphed
the
distribution
of
responses
for
each
question
and
tracked
open‐ended
responses.
This
analysis
involved
sorting
answers
into
categories
including
recommendations,
dissatisfactions,
and
satisfactions.
We
also
conducted
research
to
supplement
our
recommendations
by
looking
for
information
about
successful
environmental
education
programs,
effective
signage
and
benchmarking
reusable
mug
implementation
at
another
University’s
alumni
camp.
This
analysis
helped
us
build
the
framework
for
our
recommendations,
which
are
outlined
in
the
following
sections.
11
In
a
typical
week,
Michigania
hosts
roughly
400
campers.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
6
Recommendations
In
order
to
move
forward
and
become
a
more
sustainable
camp,
Michigania
should
focus
on
implementing
the
following
recommendations:
•
•
•
Implementation
of
Reusable
Mugs
Educational
Programs:
Youth
Campers
and
Staff
Improved
Signage
Recommendations
Implementing
Reusable
Mugs
Camp
Michigania
currently
purchases
upwards
of
50,000
compostable
cups
each
summer,
then
spends
valuable
staff
time
shredding
these
cups
using
a
gasoline‐powered
shredder.
Additionally,
these
cups
do
not
actually
compost
on‐site;
they
require
an
industrial
composter
and
thus
accumulate
in
the
compost
pile.
Hundreds
of
these
cups
are
used
daily
to
drink
coffee
and
hot
chocolate,
despite
the
availability
of
ceramic
mugs
in
the
dining
hall.
Campers
enjoy
the
convenience
of
being
able
to
carry
their
favorite
beverages
with
them,
without
thinking
about
the
environmental
impact.
Dino
Ruggeri,
Michigania’s
Sustainability
Coordinator,
has
expressed
many
reasons
to
abandon
compostable
cups:
[The
cups]
say
they’re
compostable
so
people
think
they’re
doing
something
good
when
they
use
them,
but
little
do
they
know
that
they
simply
get
shredded
and
sit
in
a
wet,
anaerobic
pile
because
they’re
only
compostable
under
the
heat
of
an
industrial
composting
facility!
Only
53%
of
survey
respondents
said
they
would
be
willing
to
carry
around
their
own
reusable
travel
mug.
After
receiving
feedback
from
campers
and
input
from
Mitch,
the
idea
of
personal
travel
mugs
was
replaced
with
the
implementation
of
ceramic
mugs
across
camp.
Based
on
Dino’s
recommendations
and
a
cost‐benefit
analysis,
Michigania
should
cease
using
compostable
cups
and
implement
reusable
ceramic
mugs
at
camp.
The
costs
and
benefits,
outlined
below,
demonstrate
the
positive
impact
this
change
will
have
across
camp.
Costs:
• Ceramic
Mugs:
$980.152
• Replacement
Mugs:
est.
250
per
summer
for
cracks,
lost,
stolen
=
$207.50
• Dishpans
for
drop‐off
stations3:
12
*
$10.55
each
=
$126.60
• Increase
in
energy
required,
as
outlined
by
LCA
Benefits:
• Money
saved
from
compostable
cup
costs:
($5219.15)
• Staff
time
shredding
cups,
time
can
now
be
spent
educating
campers
• Lower
environmental
impact,
as
outlined
by
LCA
below
Based
on
these
estimates,
the
money
saved
by
not
purchasing
compostable
cups
far
outweighs
the
upfront
capital
costs
of
purchasing
reusable
ceramic
mugs.
In
addition
to
saving
($5219.15‐$980.15‐
$126.60)
$4,112.40
in
the
first
year,
Michigania
will
also
save
staff
time
and
hassle
shredding
the
cups.
2
$980.15
=
750
mugs
*
$0.83/each
+
$357.65
shipping
fee
from
www.discountmugs.com
See
Appendix
B
for
example
dishpan
3
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
7
To
quell
campers
concerns
of
inconvenience,
drop‐off
bins
will
be
placed
at
twelve
program
areas
across
camp,
where
staff
will
be
stationed
and
easily
be
able
to
return
the
bins
to
the
dining
hall.
(A
map
of
drop
off
locations
can
be
found
in
Appendix
C.)
This
way,
campers
can
still
take
their
mugs
with
them
to
different
activities
and
don’t
have
to
worry
about
returning
the
mug
back
to
the
dining
hall.
Before
meal
times,
the
staff
stationed
near
each
drop‐off
bin
will
bring
the
dirty
mugs
back
to
the
dining
hall
to
be
washed.
Mugs
will
also
be
available
at
the
Nature
Center
to
replace
the
compostable
cups
currently
in
use.
The
Nature
Center
has
a
dishwasher
that
will
be
able
to
handle
the
increase
in
mug
usage,
according
to
the
camp
director.
A
Life
Cycle
Analysis
reveals
that
a
ceramic
mug
needs
to
be
used
39
times
in
order
to
be
as
energy
efficient
as
a
single
use
paper
cup
(University
of
Victoria,
1994).
Although
Michigania
uses
compostable
cups,
for
the
sake
of
a
life
cycle
analysis
a
paper
cup
is
fitting,
seeing
as
the
current
cups
cannot
be
composted
without
an
industrial
composter
and
are
essentially
waste.
Accounting
for
washing
time
and
mugs
being
dropped
off
at
different
locations,
a
mug
will
be
used
approximately
twice
per
day.
Using
this
data,
each
mug
will
be
used
roughly
154
times
per
summer
(2x
per
day
*
7
days/week
*
11
weeks).
154
uses
significantly
outweighs
the
break
even
point
of
39
mugs.
The
University
of
California—Berkeley’s
alumni
summer
camp,
Lair
of
the
Golden
Bear,
successfully
implemented
reusable
mugs
in
their
dining
hall
in
2009.
Over
the
past
two
years,
the
camp
has
seen
over
$2,000
in
savings
each
summer
and
positive
camper
feedback.
Having
a
successful
implementation
to
benchmark
against
will
give
Michigania
more
confidence
and
a
great
resource
as
they
undergo
this
transition.
Mitch
and
representatives
present
at
the
Camp
Council
Meeting
were
on
board
with
implementing
reusable
mugs,
as
long
as
convenient
drop‐off
stations
still
allowed
campers
to
take
hot
drinks
with
them
to
different
locations
throughout
camp.
Based
on
this
feedback,
the
success
at
Lair
of
the
Golden
Bear
and
the
monetary
savings,
implementing
reusable
mugs
at
Camp
Michigania
will
provide
many
economic
and
environmental
benefits
in
both
the
short
and
long
term
and
relay
the
importance
of
reusing
to
campers.
Staff
Education
Because
most
of
the
responsibility
for
implementing
sustainability
programs
across
Camp
Michigania
fell
on
the
shoulders
of
the
Sustainability
Coordinator,
the
leadership
of
the
camp
identified
educating
the
rest
of
the
staff
in
sustainability
as
a
top
priority.
Improving
staff
awareness
of
recycling,
composting,
and
other
sustainability
practices
is
important
so
that
these
initiatives
can
run
more
smoothly
with
the
combined
efforts
of
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
and
staff.
Additionally,
during
the
Camp
Council
meeting,
adult
campers
indicated
that
their
children
view
the
staff
as
role
models.
They
mentioned
that
children
like
to
follow
the
staff
around
and
try
to
emulate
their
behavior.
Because
of
this,
Michigania
leadership
desires
staff
to
be
up
to
speed
on
all
sustainability
efforts
at
camp
in
order
to
set
an
example
for
all
campers.
Camp
Michigania
coordinators
suggested
setting
aside
a
15‐30
minute
time
period
during
Staff
Orientation
in
the
summer
to
familiarize
the
staff
with
sustainability
practices
at
camp.
To
achieve
this,
a
presentation
for
staff
orientation
was
created.
This
interactive
program
is
intended
to
teach
staff
the
specifics
of
Michigania’s
sustainability
efforts
thus
far,
including
composting,
the
food
waste
competition,
recycling,
and
implementing
reusable
mugs.
The
program
includes
a
Composting
Quiz
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
8
(Appendix
D)
as
an
active
way
to
test
staff’s
initial
knowledge,
as
well
as
a
group
discussion
on
how
to
engage
campers
in
food
waste
reduction
based
on
their
survey
comments
and
feedback.
A
one‐page
bulleted
information
sheet
for
staff
members
was
generated
to
outline
the
basic
requirements
for
recycling
and
composting
across
camp,
as
well
as
the
details
of
the
food
waste
competition.
This
is
intended
to
be
a
review
of
the
Orientation
program.
With
this
sheet
of
reminders,
staff
members
should
be
able
to
assist
campers
in
recycling
and
composting
without
needing
to
consult
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
or
other
leadership.
This
bulleted
sheet
can
be
found
in
Appendix
E.
In
addition,
a
short
sustainability
segment
should
be
implemented
into
each
weekly
staff
meeting.
Staff
members
can
share
comments,
concerns,
and
successes
they
have
experienced
while
trying
to
educate
campers
and
implement
sustainable
practices
across
camp.
During
these
sessions,
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
can
address
staff
concerns
and
share
his
or
her
vision
for
continued
sustainability
efforts
and
how
the
staff
can
help
achieve
this.
Mitch
has
indicated
that
1‐2
minutes
of
each
staff
meeting
can
be
set
aside
for
this
purpose.
Camp
Michigania
leadership
stressed
that
in
order
for
sustainability
to
be
a
true
success
across
the
camp,
staff
members
need
to
feel
a
sense
of
ownership
over
the
initiatives
and
in
generating
change.
The
goal
of
these
weekly
reviews
is
to
create
a
culture
of
pride
and
motivation
towards
sustainability
at
Michigania.
Camper
Education
Education
is
one
of
the
most
important
tools
for
creating
a
sustainable
society.
Education
creates
awareness
and
knowledge
to
increase
environmentally
friendly
behavior.
Youth
education
is
especially
important
because
humans
develop
their
personality
and
values,
which
shape
their
thoughts,
beliefs,
and
behavior,
in
the
early
years
of
their
lives
(Samuelsoon
and
Kaga,
2008).
Educating
children
is
also
important
because
they
will
be
facing
the
impacts
of
climate
change
during
their
lifetimes.
Environmental
education
in
particular
results
in
many
benefits
for
children.
Integrated
outdoor
education
programs
have
been
shown
to
improve
social
skills
such
as
cooperation
and
conflict
resolution
(American
Institutes
for
Research,
2005).
Environmental
education
can
also
help
to
improve
students’
performance
in
math,
writing,
social
studies,
and
sciences
(What
is
Environmental
Education,
2005).
Additionally,
outdoor
programs
help
to
improve
the
children’s
health
by
increasing
activity
levels
(What
is
Environmental
Education,
2005).
Education
must
incorporate
broad
knowledge
and
appreciation,
as
well
as
more
concrete
actions
for
environmental
stewardship.
Education
should
be
hands‐on
to
be
both
interesting
and
informative
(Saumuelsson
and
Kaga,
2008).
Sobel
suggests
that
there
are
stages
of
environmental
education
based
upon
age
group:
empathy,
exploration,
and
social
action.
Educators
should
focus
on
nature
appreciation
and
exploration
for
elementary
school
aged
children.
According
to
the
survey
results,
81%
of
campers
indicated
that
it
was
either
important
or
very
important
to
teach
their
children
about
sustainability.
However,
79%
of
campers
did
not
attend
sustainability
related
events
at
camp
themselves.
At
the
Camp
Council
Meeting,
campers
shared
how
they
were
on
vacation
and
would
rather
not
attend
environmental
education
events
themselves,
but
are
interested
in
learning
about
sustainability
through
their
children.
They
indicated
that
their
children
enthusiastically
encouraged
sustainable
behavior
both
at
camp
and
back
at
home
after
being
educated
about
it
at
Michigania.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
9
Education
should
include
intellectual
dialogue
regarding
sustainability
but
also
allow
for
creativity
and
interaction
with
nature
(Samuelsson
and
Kaga,
2008).
As
a
way
to
provoke
intellectual
discussion,
both
formal
and
informal
education
modules
were
developed
for
use
at
Camp
Michigania.
The
modules
will
combine
aspects
of
sustainability
and
ecology
to
give
children
interdisciplinary
educational
opportunities.
Formal
education
modules
will
be
led
by
nature
staff
and
be
incorporated
along
with
existing
nature
programs.
These
programs
include
a
sustainability
scavenger
hunt,
local
plant
exploration,
and
Great
Lakes
ecology
Jenga.
Informal
education
will
occur
during
meal
times.
Because
78%
of
campers
said
that
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
was
helpful
in
facilitating
their
recycling,
composting,
and
other
sustainability
efforts,
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
will
lead
informal
education
regarding
consumption,
food
waste,
and
sustainable
behavior.
Meal
times
are
an
important
time
to
influence
children’s
behavior
because
direct
recommendations
can
be
made
to
increase
awareness
(Personal
interview,
Jeff
Sisson,
food
service
director).
In
addition
to
the
youth
education
component,
Mitch
requested
a
presentation
that
can
be
shown
to
visiting
campers
and
guests
regarding
Michigania’s
sustainability
efforts
of
the
past,
present,
and
future.
This
presentation
is
intended
to
raise
awareness
of
sustainability
and
spark
interest
in
sustainable
behavior
both
at
Michigania
and
beyond.
Education
module
lesson
plans
can
be
found
in
Appendix
F.
Improved
Signage
After
speaking
with
several
of
last
year’s
campers
and
analyzing
the
results
from
this
year’s
sustainability
survey,
a
common
complaint
emerged
concerning
Michigania’s
recycling
and
composting
signage.
Although
79%
of
campers
indicated
that
it
was
clear
how
to
use
the
current
recycling
and
trash
stations,
a
significant
number
of
written
comments
suggested
that
better
signage
would
assist
campers
in
disposing
their
recyclables
and
food
scraps
properly.
For
example,
campers
reported
that
if
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
was
not
stationed
at
the
composting
area
in
the
dining
hall
during
meals,
they
were
unsure
how
to
deal
with
their
food
waste.
In
cabins
specifically,
nearly
20
free
responses
provided
by
campers
(7%)
expressed
a
desire
for
clear
or
better
signage
explaining
what
can
and
cannot
be
recycled.
Similarly,
nearly
a
dozen
free
responses
(4%)
expressed
a
desire
for
clear
or
better
signage
explaining
what
can
and
cannot
be
composted
in
the
dining
hall.
Regarding
the
current
directions
present
on
signs,
Dino
Ruggeri
stated
“Campers
really
don’t
read
signs
well,
especially
the
adults”.
Thus,
in
order
to
increase
the
number
of
campers
who
find
recycling
and
composting
to
be
a
simple,
integrated
process
at
camp,
more
effective
signage
is
required
in
both
cabins
and
the
dining
hall.
After
analyzing
the
findings
of
two
studies
that
examined
the
effectiveness
of
different
signs
(“A
Field
Experiment
in
a
Shower
Room,”
Aronson,
O’Leary,
and
“Don’t
Throw
in
the
Towel,”
Cialdini),
the
team
designed
several
signs
that
make
use
of
specific
statistical
data
and
large
pictures.
If
placed
properly
in
cabins
and
the
dining
hall,
effective
signage
will
both
simplify
the
recycling
and
composting
process
and
inform
campers
of
the
impact
of
such
sustainable
practices
as
waste
reduction.
The
“Don’t
Throw
in
the
Towel”
experiment,
which
examined
hotel
towel
signs,
revealed
that
the
most
successful
signs
in
prompting
guests
to
re‐use
their
towels
included
descriptive‐norm
information,
that
is,
information
describing
the
common,
“norm”
behavior
regarding
towel
usage.
A
sign
stating
that
75%
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
10
of
guests
used
their
towels
more
than
once
influenced
the
greatest
number
of
other
guests
to
re‐use
their
own
towels.
This
research
suggests
that
Michigania’s
recycling
and
composting
signs
should
similarly
include
descriptive
norm
information
about
the
number
of
campers
who
recycle
and/or
compost
properly.
Including
this
information
on
signs
that
clearly
indicate
what
can
be
recycled
and
composted
(as
included
on
the
newly
designed
“What
Can
You
Recycle?”)
could
potentially
motivate
a
greater
number
of
campers
to
participate
in
the
camp’s
efforts
to
send
less
waste
to
the
landfill.
If
campers
learn
that
the
majority
of
their
peers
are
routinely
recycling
and
composting,
studies
indicate
that
they
will
be
more
likely
to
recycle
and
compost
as
well.
In
addition
to
the
recycling
and
composting
signs,
the
team
has
designed
an
additional
sign
to
be
placed
in
cabin
showers
alongside
hourglass
timers
purchased
by
Camp
Michigania.
These
shower
timers
were
sitting
in
storage
at
camp,
unused,
and
Mitch
indicated
that
they
could
be
implemented
as
a
sustainability
tool.
The
shower
sign
informs
campers
how
reducing
their
shower
time
can
contribute
to
water
conservation.
All
redesigned
signs
can
be
seen
in
Appendix
G.
Mitch
also
requested
increased
visibility
of
sustainability
initiatives
undertaken
thus
far
at
Michigania.
One
substantial
sustainability
effort
was
the
implementation
of
LEED
elements
in
the
construction
of
the
new
dining
hall.
LEED,
or
Leadership
in
Energy
and
Environmental
Design,
is
a
certification
that
serves
as
an
evaluation
tool
for
both
encouraging
and
rewarding
sustainable
building
practices.
LEED
is
awarded
by
achieving
a
certain
number
of
points
for
various
aspects
of
sustainability,
including
everything
from
adding
recycling
and
composting
systems
to
using
recycled
materials
in
building.
To
reflect
these
efforts
and
educate
campers
about
this
wide
range
of
sustainable
practices,
a
large
sign
for
the
dining
hall
was
designed
demonstrating
the
various
steps
undertaken
by
Camp
Michigania.
The
aspects
of
LEED,
described
on
the
sign
and
incorporated
with
the
help
of
architect
Mike
O’Leary,
included
the
following:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Reusing
existing
building
materials
Constructing
the
new
dining
hall
in
the
same
site
as
the
old
Filtering
100%
of
the
rain
water
before
it
enters
the
natural
aquifers
Adding
no
exterior
light
fixtures,
using
lake
water
for
irrigation
Using
energy
efficient
appliances
Having
areas
for
recycling
both
during
construction
and
while
in
use
Building
with
regionally
sourced
materials
Using
low
VOC
(volatile
organic
compound)
glues,
adhesives,
sealants,
and
paints
Installing
motion
sensor
lights
Allowing
90%
of
occupied
spaces
to
be
lit
with
natural
light.
Ultimately,
the
most
effective
way
to
promote
proper
recycling,
composting,
and
other
sustainable
practices
at
camp
is
via
modeling.
Modeling,
as
demonstrated
in
Aronson
and
O’Leary’s
study,
has
been
proven
to
be
one
of
the
most
effective
forms
of
behavior
change.
If
campers
witness
staff
members
or
other
campers
recycling
and
composting
properly,
they
are
likely
to
adopt
the
common,
proper
behavior.
Clearer
and
more
prominent
signage
should
aid
this
process.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
11
Evaluating
Recommendations
Evaluation
is
a
key
part
to
any
successful
system.
Evaluation
allows
for
reform
and
improvement,
as
well
as
eliminating
parts
of
the
system
that
aren’t
working.
Incorporated
in
our
recommendations
is
an
evaluation
of
Camp
Michigania’s
current
sustainability
efforts.
This
evaluation
was
completed
through
camper
surveys,
interviews,
and
secondary
research.
To
measure
the
effectiveness
of
Camp
Michigania’s
proposed
future
sustainability
efforts,
different
evaluation
measures
will
be
put
in
place.
In
order
to
evaluate
overall
camper
satisfaction
with
the
removal
of
compostable
cups,
the
effectiveness
of
staff,
and
the
new
education
programs,
as
well
as
their
impression
of
the
sustainability
efforts
as
a
whole,
a
survey
will
be
issued
to
all
campers
at
the
end
of
the
summer.
Surveying
campers
gave
key
information
for
the
current
recommendations
and
will
allow
future
consultant
teams
to
evaluate
the
effectiveness
of
Camp
Michigania’s
initiatives.
Another
important
evaluation
that
will
be
conducted
is
a
staff
evaluation
of
the
education
modules.
At
the
end
of
each
education
program,
nature
staff
will
fill
out
a
rubric
detailing
what
program
was
led,
the
attendance,
as
well
as
a
ranking
of
campers’
involvement.
Staff
will
be
responsible
for
recording
any
comments
or
suggestions
for
improvement.
Nature
staff
will
review
these
forms
at
the
end
of
each
week
to
improve
nature
programs.
In
addition
to
evaluating
staff
impressions
of
the
nature
programs,
staff
will
also
complete
an
evaluation
of
the
education
module
directed
for
staff
education.
Staff
will
evaluate
the
education
module,
giving
their
thoughts
on
how
informative
and
engaging
it
was.
They
will
have
an
opportunity
to
give
their
recommendations
for
future
staff
education.
These
evaluations
can
be
found
in
Appendix
H.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
12
Conclusion
Camp
Michigania
has
made
significant
strides
toward
incorporating
sustainable
practices
into
their
camp
culture.
The
food
waste
competition,
single‐stream
recycling
program,
compostable
cups,
preliminary
education
programs,
composting
and
improved
dining
facilities
have
demonstrated
that
Michigania
is
committed
to
fostering
sustainability.
The
recommendations
put
forth
in
this
report
will
help
Camp
Michigania
achieve
a
higher
level
of
sustainability.
These
recommendations
will
be
evaluated
by
camper
and
staff
feedback,
as
well
as
quantitative
data
from
food
waste
measurements
and
recycling.
The
findings
indicated
that
compostable
cups
are
expensive
and
wasteful.
Implementing
a
reusable
mug
system
is
cost‐effective
and
can
reduce
Michigania’s
environmental
impact.
By
raising
awareness
through
signage
and
education,
environmentally
friendly
actions
will
become
more
second
nature
to
campers
in
a
nonintrusive
manner.
Staff
education
will
help
all
staff
to
engage
in
sustainable
practices
during
the
summer
and
direct
campers
to
do
the
same.
Lastly,
expanding
on
the
youth
camper
sustainability
education
will
help
to
instill
the
importance
of
preservation
and
sustainability
at
an
early
age.
The
recommendations
presented
in
this
report
will
help
to
engage
alumni
and
their
families
in
the
sustainability
goals
prioritized
by
the
University
of
Michigan
community.
Camp
Michigania
is
an
extension
of
the
University,
so
it
is
important
for
the
University’s
sustainability
goals
to
be
integrated
into
Camp
Michigania’s
framework.
Incorporating
these
recommendations
into
Camp
Michigania’s
existing
programs
will
decrease
the
camp’s
environmental
impact
and
increase
sustainability
awareness
and
engagement
among
campers
and
staff.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
13
Appendices
Appendix
A:
Survey
Results
Our
survey
was
designed
to
identify
how
strongly
campers
integrate
sustainability
into
their
lives
outside
of
Michigania
and
during
their
week
at
camp.
An
analysis
of
survey
results
helped
us
indicate
how
well
campers
believe
Michigania
promotes
sustainability
efforts.
INDIVIDUAL
CAMPER
SUSTAINABILITY
INITIATIVES
The
first
portion
of
the
survey
indicated
that
campers
were
highly
involved
in
sustainability
initiatives
outside
of
Camp
Michigania.
• 85%
of
individuals
regarded
recycling
as
‘important’
or
‘very
important’
in
their
daily
lives
SUCCESS
OF
MICHIGANIA
SUSTAINABILITY
The
next
piece
of
our
survey
analyzed
Camp
Michigania’s
influence
on
campers’
lifestyle
choices
and
sustainability
related
habits.
• 57%
of
individuals
said
that
they
feel
the
camp
has
influenced
them
very
little
or
not
at
all,
indicating
an
opportunity
for
development.
• Only
4%
said
that
it
influenced
them
to
a
great
extent.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
14
•
81%
said
that
it
is
important
or
very
important
that
children
learn
about
sustainability
at
Camp
Michigania.
SIGNAGE
We
also
used
our
survey
as
a
means
to
indicate
specific
areas
for
sustainability
improvement
at
Camp
Michigania.
• 79%
of
campers
indicated
that
signage
was
effective.
• A
majority
of
campers
felt
that
the
number
of
trash
cans
and
recycling
bins
throughout
the
cabins,
dining
halls,
and
program
areas
was
‘just
enough’.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
15
COMPOSTABLE
CUPS
• 71%
of
Michigania
campers
would
be
likely
or
very
likely
to
use
a
reusable
water
bottle
in
place
of
a
disposable
one
• 53%
of
campers
said
they
would
carry
reusable
mugs
with
them
throughout
the
day
if
Michigania
provided
it.
FOOD
WASTE
COMPETITION
97%
of
campers
are
either
satisfied
or
very
satisfied
with
the
food
portions
they
received
at
camp.
Although
the
most
frequent
opinion
of
individuals
(44%)
was
that
the
food
waste
program
altered
their
eating
habits
‘somewhat’,
free
responses
regarding
the
food
waste
competition
showed
that
the
process
made
many
campers
feel
uncomfortable.
Campers
consistently
reported
feeling
guilty
about
the
amount
of
food
that
they
ate
and
claimed
that
the
competition
was
overbearing
during
a
vacation
that
should
have
been
relaxing.
One
response
stated,
"Sometimes
I
may
have
felt
like
I
was
eating
even
more
so
I
wouldn't
have
food
to
throw
away.”
Campers
also
felt
that
dumping
their
liquids
in
one
bucket
was
visually
unappealing.
When
survey
participants
were
asked
to
state
what
they
enjoyed
about
the
competition
they
consistently
reported
that
it
increased
their
awareness
of
food
consumption.
One
camper
claimed
that,
"It
created
great
awareness
of
our
behaviors
in
terms
of
food
choices
and
recycling.”
EDUCATIONAL
PROGRAMS
The
next
portion
of
the
survey
assessed
the
environmental
education
programs
provided
for
campers.
Only
21%
of
campers
participated
in
environmental
activities
at
Michigania.
Majority
of
which
watched
the
"Wastelands"
movie.
Comments
said
that
campers
either
found
the
activities
redundant
or
said
that
they
reinforced
information
that
they
already
knew.
43%
of
survey
participants
said
that
they
would
be
neither
likely
nor
unlikely
to
participate
in
another
program,
huh?
and
29%
expressed
that
they
would
not
participate
again.81
%
of
campers
said
that
it
was
either
important
or
very
important
that
Camp
Michigania
offer
education
programs
for
their
children,
and
this
was
reinforced
in
the
comment
section,
where
campers
expressed
that
they
prefer
to
learn
from
their
children.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
16
RESULTS
Overall,
responses
indicated
in
the
survey
reinforced
our
choice
of
focus
on
improving
and
creating
new
education
programs
for
children,
improving
camp
wide
signage,
and
developing
a
cost
benefit
analysis
for
reusable
mugs
at
Camp
Michigania,
areas
that
our
sponsor,
Mitch
Rosenwasser,
had
already
expressed
needed
attention.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
17
Appendix
B:
Rubbermaid
Dishpan
$10.55
on
Amazon
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
18
Appendix
C:
Map
of
Mug
Drop‐off
Stations
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
19
Appendix
D:
Staff
Compost
Quiz
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Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
20
Appendix
E:
Staff
Education
Reminder
Sheet
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Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
21
Appendix
F:
Example
Camper
Lesson
Plans
Lesson
Plan
I:
Informal
Education
Age
Range:
All
Lesson
Plan:
The
Sustainability
Coordinator
will
spend
time
during
the
end
of
the
meal
sitting
with
children
and
discussing
sustainable
behavior.
Both
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
and
the
food
service
director
observed
that
children
took
too
much
food
and
ended
up
composting
large
amounts
of
it.
The
Sustainability
Coordinator
would
focus
on
teaching
children
why
it
is
important
to
only
take
what
they
think
they
will
eat,
and
go
back
for
seconds
if
they
want
more.
Both
the
survey
results
and
input
from
the
Camp
Council
Meeting
revealed
that
campers
disliked
the
back
up
in
line
traffic
when
their
children
would
talk
to
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
when
they
worked
the
compost
bin.
To
avoid
this,
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
would
be
tasked
with
discussing
reducing
waste
with
children
at
one
lunch
and
one
dinner
per
week.
They
would
hold
an
informal
dialogue
to
avoid
being
intrusive.
The
coordinator
should
include
the
following
points:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Why
they
picked
the
foods
they
did?
Do
they
know
what
happens
to
the
food
after
they
don’t
eat?
After
this
question
the
coordinator
can
elaborate
on
the
process
of
composting
What
does
sustainability
mean
to
them?
Why
does
it
matter?
How
do
they
think
they
could
act
more
sustainable?
Lesson
Plan
II:
Michigan
Native
Plant
Exploration
Age
Range:
Ages
7+
Main
Concepts:
Introduction
to
local
species
in
Northern
Michigan,
overview
of
threatened
species,
why
species
are
becoming
threatened
and
how
that
relates
to
invasive
species,
climate
change,
human
encroachment,
how
forest
destruction
influences
the
composition
of
forests
Required
Materials:
Michigan
Trees
&
Wildflowers:
An
Introduction
to
Familiar
Species
($5.95
on
amazon.com)
Lesson
Plan:
The
children
are
given
a
list
of
all
the
species
and
a
copy
of
Michigan
Trees
&
Wildflowers.
The
nature
staff
will
give
a
brief
overview
of
what
each
species
looks
like,
what
type
of
habitat
it
is
found
in.
The
children
will
be
given
30
‐45
minutes
to
explore
the
surrounding
area
and
find
as
many
species
as
possible.
They
will
take
a
picture
of
the
tree
and
write
and
accompanying
description.
Some
of
the
plants
and
trees
campers
might
find
in
the
area
include,
but
are
not
limited
to,
tiger
lily,
ragweed,
American
beech,
red
oak,
and
sugar
maple.4
After
returning,
the
child
who
finds
the
most
species
will
win
candy.
After
returning
the
nature
staff
will
teach
children
about
the
ecology
of
the
system.
Points
to
address
are
as
follows:5
4
Source:
Michigan
Trees
&
Wildflowers:
An
Introduction
to
Familiar
Species
Source:
http://epa.gov/climatechange/kids/glossary.html
5
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
22
•
•
•
•
Species
of
Concern:
Species
that
may
become
threatened
or
endangered
but
there
are
not
sufficient
data
to
show
a
serious
decline
Threatened
Species:
Any
species
which
are
vulnerable
to
endangerment
in
the
near
future
Endangered
Species:
A
species
whose
population
has
declined
to
the
point
where
it
may
become
extinct
Invasive
Species:
Non‐native
species
that
are
introduced,
either
intentionally
or
unintentionally,
and
adversely
effect
the
habitats
they
invade
economically,
environmentally
or
ecologically
To
demonstrate
the
link
between
invasive
species
and
species
of
concern,
threatened
species,
and
endangered
species,
the
nature
staff
will
have
the
children
compare
the
amount
of
invasive
species
children
found
to
native
species.
They
will
discuss
how
invasive
species
outcompete
native
species
for
sunlight,
nutrients,
and
water,
key
elements
for
plant
survival.
The
nature
staff
will
lead
a
game
of
sharks
and
minnows
to
engage
children
with
this
new
information.
Instead
of
playing
as
sharks
and
minnows,
the
children
will
be
invasive
and
native
species.
This
will
demonstrate
the
takeover
of
invasive
species
in
an
area.
The
nature
staff
will
then
discuss
how
new
chemicals,
plants,
and
animals
are
introduced
to
an
ecosystem
by
humans.
They
will
help
the
children
to
brainstorm
different
ways
that
humans
impact
the
environment
and
how
this
can
change
the
dynamic
of
the
ecosystem.
Lesson
Plan
III:
Great
Lakes
Jenga6
Age
Range:
Ages
7+
Main
Concepts:
Biodiversity,
resource
conservation,
interactions
between
organisms
within
the
Great
Lakes
ecosystem
and
how
indirect
actions
can
affect
an
entire
ecosystem
Required
Materials:
Bill
Nye
the
Science
guy
video
clip:
Biodiversity
Part
17,
Jenga
set
($9.89
on
Amazon.com),
slips
of
paper
with
different
terms
related
to
biodiversity
in
the
Great
Lakes
(listed
below),
tape
to
secure
the
terms
to
Jenga
pieces
Lesson
Plan:
Campers
will
watch
the
Bill
Nye
video,
which
gives
a
brief
and
direct
introduction
to
biodiversity.
After
the
video
is
over,
the
nature
staff
will
set
up
the
Jenga
set
for
the
campers,
which
will
have
different
terms
scattered
within
the
blocks.
The
terms
will
focus
on
organisms
that
can
are
typically
found
in
the
Great
Lakes.
Some
of
the
most
important
terms
to
include
in
the
tower
are:
sunlight,
nutrients
(nitrogen
and
phosphorus),
algae,
salmon,
mussels,
whitefish,
and
decomposers.8
There
will
also
be
a
group
of
terms
that
are
not
included
in
the
beginning
of
the
game,
which
will
be
the
“threatening
factors”
pile.
These
terms
will
be
added
to
the
theoretical
Great
Lakes
ecosystem
tower
when
native
species
and
components
are
removed.
The
terms
in
this
category
include:
sewage,
mercury,
zebra
mussels,
alewife,
crayfish,
and
overfishing.
The
campers
will
work
together
to
brainstorm
10‐12
terms
that
are
important
components
of
the
Great
Lakes
ecosystem
and
counselors
will
guide
campers
to
the
right
answers
listed
above.
The
Jenga
tower
is
meant
to
represent
an
ecosystem.
The
older
campers
ages
11+
might
have
previous
knowledge
of
the
species
listed
above,
but
the
younger
campers
ages
7‐11
will
definitely
need
a
brief
6
7
8
Source: http://vitalventure.gmri.org/activities/biodiversity-jenga/
Source: http://www.gamequarium.org/cgi-bin/search/linfo.cgi?id=7698
Source: http://www.great-lakes.net/
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
23
explanation
of
each
term.
As
campers
play
the
game,
they
will
pull
pieces
out
of
the
“ecosystem,”
and
as
the
terms
are
extracted,
the
counselors
will
generate
a
discussion
of
the
term
and
how
the
ecosystem
might
change
when
an
element,
such
as
nutrients,
is
removed
from
the
Great
Lakes.
Each
time
a
native
species
is
removed
from
the
tower,
the
camper
will
have
to
choose
a
block
from
the
“threatening
factors”
pile
and
place
it
on
top
of
the
tower.
As
the
block
is
placed
on
top
of
the
Great
Lakes
ecosystem
tower,
the
term
will
be
discussed
and
counselors
will
explain
how
introducing
an
element
such
as
mercury
or
zebra
mussels
will
affect
the
interactions
in
the
ecosystem.
This
will
continue
until
the
tower
inevitably
collapses,
and
terms
that
were
not
discussed
will
be
covered
at
the
end
of
the
game.
Then,
the
campers
will
need
to
explain
what
happened
in
the
activity,
which
will
allow
them
to
better
understand
the
complexity
of
the
Great
Lakes
ecosystem
as
well
as
the
importance
of
protecting
biodiversity.
They
will
answer
the
following
questions
on
a
slip
of
paper,
followed
by
a
discussion:
1. What
happened
as
the
native
species
were
removed
from
the
Great
Lakes
ecosystem?
2. Why
are
invasive
species
threatening
the
Great
Lakes
region?
3. What
can
we
do
to
preserve
the
Great
Lakes?
Why
is
it
important
to
save
this
ecosystem?
Lesson
Plan
IV:
Sustainability
Scavenger
Hunt
Age
Range:
Ages
5‐11
Main
Concepts:
Understanding
the
different
elements
of
sustainability
around
camp
Required
Materials:
Scavenger
hunt
clue
list,
camera
Lesson
Plan:
This
activity
is
simple
and
engaging.
It
can
be
used
to
orient
new
campers
with
the
different
areas
at
Michigania
that
relate
to
sustainability.
Additionally,
the
scavenger
hunt
can
helps
to
remind
returning
campers
of
the
different
areas.
Campers
will
split
into
three
groups,
and
a
nature
staff
member
will
lead
each
group.
The
group
will
be
given
a
list
of
clues
that
will
lead
them
to
four
distinct
areas
of
camp
(clue
and
specific
activity
listed
under
each
location):
1. The
recycling
bins
by
the
Arts
and
Crafts
Center
•
•
Clue:
If
you
want
to
be
green,
you
put
these
in
the
containers
of
blue.
Bottles,
paper,
and
glass
too.
Try
not
to
be
too
crafty,
this
hint
is
in
plain
sight.
Race
to
the
finish
and
you’ll
get
it
right!
Activity:
The
nature
staff
leading
the
group
will
explain
that
Michigania
practices
single‐stream
recycling
and
that
the
materials
recycled
are
used
to
make
new
goods,
such
as
recycled
notebooks
and
clothing.
The
staff
will
tell
campers
that
they
can
do
their
part
by
placing
all
materials
that
can
be
recycled
into
the
bins.
Campers
will
then
be
required
to
name
five
materials
that
can
be
recycled.
2. The
camp
garden
•
•
Clue:
When
you
are
hungry,
this
is
not
where
you
go.
But
if
you
want
to
smell
the
flowers,
you
can
see
them
grow!
Activity:
The
nature
staff
will
explain
the
garden
setup
to
the
campers
and
then
the
campers
will
have
the
opportunity
to
guess
the
different
items
growing
in
the
garden.
The
staff
will
fill
in
the
gaps
for
the
herbs
and
vegetables
that
the
campers
do
not
guess
correctly.
The
garden
in
2011
included
green
beans,
radishes,
jalapenos,
thai
peppers,
cucumbers,
zucchini,
snap
peas,
basil,
thyme,
oregano,
and
rosemary,
but
the
2012
garden
might
have
a
different
composition.
The
staff
will
ask
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
24
campers
what
their
favorite
camp
foods
are
and
then
they
will
explain
how
some
of
the
herbs/vegetables
in
the
garden
are
incorporated
into
their
favorite
dishes
(e.g.
oregano
sprinkled
on
top
of
pizza,
basil
in
a
pasta
dish,
etc.).
3. The
food
waste
competition
area
of
the
dining
hall
(where
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
is
situated)
•
•
Clue:
At
the
end
of
our
meals,
we
make
a
pit
stop
here.
Clean
plates
are
always
encouraged,
so
never
fear!
Activity:
Returning
campers
will
be
asked
to
explain
the
foodwaste
competition
to
the
new
campers
in
the
group,
and
the
nature
staff
will
fill
in
the
gaps
in
knowledge
to
ensure
that
everyone
understand
how
the
foodwaste
competition
works.
The
staff
will
explain
the
following
key
facts
about
the
competition
and
composting
in
general:9
o Fruits,
vegetables,
bread,
rice,
pasta,
napkins,
and
tea
bags
can
be
placed
in
the
compost
bin.
However,
meat
and
dairy
cannot
be
composted
because
they
smell
bad
when
placed
in
compost
and
attracts
bacteria
that
could
contaminate
the
compost
pile.
o The
amount
of
food
wasted
is
weighed
every
day
and
the
Sustainability
Coordinator
displays
this
information
on
a
white
board
for
everyone
to
see
their
progress
for
the
week.
o Campers
can
earn
two
different
badges
for
their
lanyards
that
are
related
to
reducing
food
waste.
These
include:
 Clean
Plate
Club:
Campers
need
to
eat
all
of
the
food
on
their
trays
for
at
least
three
meals.
 Trayless
Warrior:
Campers
must
not
use
a
tray
for
at
least
three
meals.
4. The
compost
pile
•
•
Clue:
It
might
be
smelly,
but
this
pile
is
not
bad.
It
puts
old
food
to
use
by
fertilizing
our
camp
garden,
so
you
should
be
glad!
Activity:
Campers
will
go
to
the
compost
pile,
but
they
will
not
go
too
close
to
it
because
of
the
smell.
The
nature
staff
will
then
explain
how
food
and
napkins
turn
into
composted
material.
They
will
also
explain
how
this
helps
to
add
important
nutrients
to
the
garden.
Campers
will
take
photos
at
each
location
to
prove
that
they
successfully
completed
the
activity.
This
module
serves
to
increase
the
younger
campers’
awareness
and
understanding
of
the
different
components
of
sustainability
at
Camp
Michigania
that
directly
relate
to
them.
9
Source:
2011
Camp
Michigania
Sustainability
Manual
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
25
Appendix
G:
Signage
DINING
HALL
Napkin
Holders
Signage
containing
food
waste
statistics
was
designed
to
place
in
napkin
holders
on
the
dining
hall
tables
at
Camp
Michigania.
These
signs
were
created
to
discourage
campers
from
taking
large
food
portions.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
26
Dining
Hall
Wall
Signage
was
designed
for
the
dining
room
walls
at
Michigania,
containing
information
about
the
camp’s
food
waste
initiatives.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
27
Recycling
Before:
After:
The
clarity
of
images
and
information
was
improved
in
recycling
signage
for
Michigania’s
dining
hall.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
28
CABINS
Composting
and
Recycling
Composting
signs
were
newly
designed
for
cabins,
showing
campers
what
they
can
and
cannot
compost.
Recycling
signs
were
also
created
to
clarify
what
goods
can
be
processed
through
single‐stream
recycling.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
29
Shower
Timer
Signage
was
designed
for
showers
to
accompany
existing
5‐minute
shower
timers,
encouraging
campers
to
reduce
their
shower
time.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
30
LEED
Signs
indicating
Michigania’s
efforts
towards
achieving
LEED
recognition
were
created.
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
31
Appendix
H:
Evaluation
Camper
Survey:
General
How
much
do
you
think
Camp
Michigania's
recycling
programs
and
awareness
building
efforts
have
influenced
your
lifestyle
choices
and
recycling
habits
at
home?
1
3
5
Not
at
all
Somewhat
A
significant
amount
To
what
extent
did
the
Camp
Michigania
food
waste
competition
cause
you
to
change
your
food
consumption
choices?
1
3
5
Not
at
all
Somewhat
A
significant
amount
Composting
&
Recycling
Was
there
proper
signage
directing
what
could
be
composted?
1
3
5
Not
at
all
Somewhat
A
significant
amount
Was
it
clear
how
to
properly
use
the
recycling/trash
stations?
1
3
5
Not
at
all
Somewhat
A
significant
amount
Staff
Did
you
find
the
sustainability
coordinator,
to
be
helpful
in
facilitating
your
composting,
waste
reduction,
recycling,
and
other
sustainable
activities?
1
3
5
Not
at
all
Somewhat
A
significant
amount
Did
you
find
the
staff
overall
to
be
a
helpful
resource?
1
3
5
Not
at
all
Somewhat
A
significant
amount
Comments
on
how
staff
and
the
sustainability
coordinator
could
be
more
helpful?
Education
Did
your
children
attend
Camp
Michigania’s
educational
programs
about
sustainability?
Yes
No
Did
your
children
find
the
programs
educational?
1
3
5
Not
at
all
Somewhat
Very
Did
your
children
find
the
programs
engaging?
1
3
5
Not
at
all
Somewhat
Very
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
32
What
else
would
you
like
to
see
in
the
educational
programs?
Mugs
Did
you
carry
a
reusable
mug?
Yes
No
Did
you
think
Camp
Michigania
had
sufficient
drop
off
stations
for
your
mug?
1
3
Not
at
all
Somewhat
What
did
you
think
about
the
elimination
of
compostable
cups?
Staff
evaluation
of
Camper
Education
Module:
Name
of
Program:
Number
of
campers
in
attendance:
Age
range:
Rank
of
Camper
involvement:
Not
Interested
Somewhat
Engaged
Comments:
Things
to
be
improved:
Staff
evaluation
of
Staff
Education
Module:
How
engaging
was
the
Staff
Educational
module?
Not
at
all
Somewhat
Did
you
learn
new
information?
Not
at
all
Somewhat
What
did
you
like?
What
did
you
dislike?
Recommendations
for
improvement:
Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
5
A
significant
amount
Very
Engaged
Very
Yes,
entirely
33
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Sustaining
Camp
Michigania
34


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