Fatty Acids Composition And Total Fat Content In Traditional Foods

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Fatty Acids Composition And Total Fat Content In Traditional Foods
FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION AND TOTAL FAT CONTENT IN TRADITIONAL
FOODS FROM BLACK SEA AREA COUNTRIES
Tânia Gonçalves Albuquerquea,b, Ana Sanches-Silvaa, Paul Finglasc, Filippo D’Antuonod,
Antonia Trichopouloue,f, Iordanka Alexievag, Nadiya Boykoh, Carmen Costeai, Katerina
Fedosovaj, Dmitry Karpenkok, Zaza Kilasonial, Bike Koçaoglum, Helena Soares Costaa
a
Department of Food and Nutrition, National Institute of Health Dr. Ricardo Jorge, I.P., Lisbon, Portugal;
b REQUIMTE/Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal; c Institute of Food Research, Norwich,
UK; d Food Science University Campus, University of Bologna, Cesena, Italy; e Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology &
Medical Statistics, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece; f Hellenic Health
Foundation, Athens, Greece; g University of Food Technologies, Plovdiv, Bulgaria; h UzhNU (Uzhhorod National
University), Ukraine; i ASE Bucharest, Romania; j Department of Nutrition, Odessa National Academy of Food
Technologies, Odessa, Ukraine; k State Educational Institution of the High Professional Education “Moscow State
University of Food Productions”, Moscow, Russian Federation; l Elkana, Biological Farming Association, Tbilisi,
Georgia; m T C Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey
E-mail: [email protected]
Traditional foods from 6 Black Sea Area Countries (Bulgaria, Georgia,
Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey and Ukraine) were prioritized within
the frame of the European Project BaSeFood (Sustainable Exploitation of
Bioactive Components Black Sea Area traditional foods) [1]. One of the aims
within BaSeFood project was to produce an overview of the nutritional
value of each traditional food and compare it among the categorized food
groups.
33 Traditional Foods
[2]
2 – 10 g of sample
Extraction/
transesterification [3]
75 mL ultra-pure water + 45 mL of
HCl (Fig. 2A)
Boiled for 20 min
0.2 - 1 g of sample (Fig. 3A)
Equipment: HP 6890 N
2 mL toluene + 3 mL methanolic
HCl (5%) (Fig. 3B)
Column: HP-88 (100 m x 0.25 mm i.d.,
0.20 µm)
Water bath (70 ºC, 2 h)
Detector: MS
5 mL K2CO3 (0.06 w/v)
Carrier gas: Helium
1 mL toluene
Split: 50:1
Centrifuged (5 min, 1500 rpm)
Injection volume: 1 µL
Filtered (Whatman n.º40) (Fig. 2B)
The overall objective of this study was to determine the total fat content
and fatty acids (FA) composition among 33 traditional foods (Fig. 1) from
six Black Sea Area countries (BSAC).
Extracted using a Soxhlet with 75
mL petroleum ether (Fig. 2C)
Residue was dried for 1 h 30 min at
101 ºC ± 2 ºC, until constant weight
A
B
Ramp
C
A
BULGARIA
(A) Baked layers of pastry stuffed with
pumpkin; (B) Halva; (C) Millet ale;
(D) Mursal tea; (E) Rodopian dried beans;
(F) Rose jam
D
B
C
A
Figure 2. (A) Boiling. (B) Filtration. (C) Soxhlet
apparatus.
A
B
C
GEORGIA
D
Figure 3. (A) Weighing. (B) Fatty acids
extraction.
25
77
0.0
Ramp 2
17
168
32
Ramp 3
1.5
195
0.0
Ramp 4
0.5
199
0.0
Ramp 5
1.0
220
3.0
Ramp 6
25
235
0.0
Flax oil
Halva
99.9 g/100 g for flax oil
Uzvar
Plums jam
Churchkhela
Ukranian borsch
Transcarpathian green borsch
D
From the 33 analysed
E
Kale soup
Nettle sour soup
traditional foods, 27.3%
Nettles with walnut sauce
Rodopian dried beans
had fat contents below
RUSSIAN
FEDERATION
Ramp 1
Mustard oil
B
(A) Cornmeal mush; (B) Nettle sour soup;
(C) Herbal dish; (D) Elderberry soft drink;
(E) Plums jam.
11
Roasted sunflower seeds
and mustard oil (Fig. 4).
A
50
Wild plum sauce
for Uzvar (Ukraine) and
ROMANIA
Hold
Herbal dish
between 0.138 g/100 g
C
Next °C
RESULTS
Total fat content ranged
E
°C/min
Initial
B
F
E
(A) Nettles with walnut; (B) Tsiteli doli
bread; (C) Churchkhela; (D) Flax oil; (E)
Wild plum sauce.
Gas chromatography
A
B
C
Sour rye bread
Bulgur pilaf
the limit of quantification
Buckwheat porridge crumbly
Cornmeal mush
(< 0.1 g/100 g).
Tsiteli Doli Bread
Baked layers of pastry stuffed with pumpkin
D
0.0
E
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
Figure 4. Total fat content (g/100 g of edible portion) of the analysed traditional foods from BSAC.
g/100 g
TURKEY
(A) Black tea; (B) Bulgur pilaf; (C) Fruit of
the evergreen cherry laurel; (D) Sautéed
pickled green beans; (E) Kale soup.
D
E
50.0
50.0
40.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
20.0
10.0
10.0
0.0
0.0
SFA
UKRAINE
D
E
PUFA
SFA
50.0
50.0
40.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
10.0
0.0
0.0
MUFA
PUFA
1
2
8.0
4.0
0.0
0.0
SFA
MUFA
PUFA
SFA
Tikvenik
12.0
3
8.0
4.0
PUFA
30.0
20.0
SFA
MUFA
Halva
60.0
g/100 g
C
g/100 g
B
MUFA
Mustard oil
60.0
A
30.0
12.0
8.0
4.0
0.0
0.0
MUFA
MUFA
PUFA
Nettles with walnut sauce
8.0
4.0
SFA
Churchkhela
12.0
g/100 g
C
Bulgur pilaf
12.0
g/100 g
B
Flax oil
60.0
g/100 g
A
Roasted sunflower seeds
g/100 g
60.0
(A) Sauerkraut; (B) Ukrainian borsch;
(C) Transcarpathian green borsch;
(D) Roasted sunflower seeds; (E)
Uzvar; (F) Sour rye bread; (G) Cottage
cheese with dill and garlic.
20.0
Total fat (g/100 g)
g/100 g
(A) Buckwheat porridge crumbly;
(B) Kvass southern; (C) Watermelon
juice; (D) Mustard oil; (E) Vegetable
okroshka.
PUFA
SFA
MUFA
PUFA
Figure 5. Fatty acids content (g/100 g of edible portion) of the analysed traditional foods from BSAC.
F
G
The highest content for saturated and polyunsaturated FA (Fig. 5) was found for flax oil
(15.3 ± 0.6 g/100 g and 58.5 ± 0.5 g/100 g, respectively).
Figure 1. Selected traditional foods from BSAC.
Mustard oil showed the highest value for monounsaturated FA (55.1 ± 0.7 g/100 g), although
it also has a high polyunsaturated FA content (38.0 ± 0.6 g/100 g of edible portion).
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework
Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n.º 227118.
[1] D’Antuono L.F., Sanches-Silva A., Soares Costa H. (2010). BaSeFood: Sustainable exploitation of bioactive
components from the Black Sea Area traditional foods. Nutrition Bulletin, 35, 272-278.
[2] AOAC 2000 - 948.15. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Gaithersburg, USA: AOAC
International.
[3] Sanches-Silva, A., Quirós A. R., López-Hernández, J., Paseiro-Losada, P. 2003. Gas chromatographic
determination of glycerides in potato crisps fried in different oils. Journal of Chromatography A, 58, 517–521.
In general, there was a great variability of results with respect to the FA profile of the
analyzed traditional foods from BSAC, since there is a wide range of traditional foods from
different countries and cultures. Some traditional foods from BSAC are a good source of
unsaturated FA which are related to several health benefits.

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