Institute of Materials Science - Technische Universität Darmstadt

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Institute of Materials Science - Technische Universität Darmstadt
Annual Report
2014
Faculty of
Materials and Geo Sciences
Contents
Dean’s Office .................................................................................................................. 4
Institute of Materials Science ......................................................................................... 7
PHYSICAL METALLURGY ....................................................................................................... 11
CERAMICS GROUP .............................................................................................................. 21
ELECTRONIC MATERIAL PROPERTIES...................................................................................... 30
SURFACE SCIENCE .............................................................................................................. 36
ADVANCED THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY ..................................................................................... 51
DISPERSIVE SOLIDS ............................................................................................................. 54
STRUCTURE RESEARCH........................................................................................................ 72
MATERIALS ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................... 77
MATERIALS MODELLING DIVISION ......................................................................................... 86
PHYSICS OF SURFACES....................................................................................................... 101
JOINT RESEARCH LABORATORY NANOMATERIALS .................................................................. 106
MECHANICS OF FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS ............................................................................. 112
FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS ................................................................................................... 118
ION-BEAM MODIFIED MATERIALS........................................................................................ 125
MOLECULAR NANOSTRUCTURES.......................................................................................... 131
ELECTROMECHANIC OF OXIDES ........................................................................................... 136
COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH CENTER (SFB) .......................................................................... 143
DIPLOMA THESES IN MATERIALS SCIENCE ............................................................................ 147
BACHELOR THESES IN MATERIALS SCIENCE .......................................................................... 147
MASTER THESES IN MATERIALS SCIENCE ............................................................................. 151
PHD THESES IN MATERIALS SCIENCE .................................................................................. 153
MECHANICAL WORKSHOP .................................................................................................. 155
ELECTRICAL WORKSHOP .................................................................................................... 155
Institute for Applied Geosciences .............................................................................. 156
PREFACE ......................................................................................................................... 156
PHYSICAL GEOLOGY AND GLOBAL CYCLES ............................................................................ 158
HYDROGEOLOGY .............................................................................................................. 164
ENGINEERING GEOLOGY .................................................................................................... 168
GEOTHERMAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ........................................................................... 173
APPLIED SEDIMENTOLOGY .................................................................................................. 180
GEO-RESOURCES AND GEO-HAZARDS .................................................................................. 186
GEOMATERIAL SCIENCE ..................................................................................................... 189
ELECTRON CRYSTALLOGRAPHY ........................................................................................... 197
TECHNICAL PETROLOGY WITH EMPHASIS IN LOW TEMPERATURE PETROLOGY............................. 204
ENVIRONMENTAL MINERALOGY .......................................................................................... 216
DIPLOMA THESES IN APPLIED GEOSCIENCES ......................................................................... 220
BACHELOR THESES IN APPLIED GEOCIENCES ......................................................................... 220
MASTER THESES IN APPLIED GEOSCIENCES........................................................................... 222
MASTER THESES TROPHEE IN APPLIED GEOSCIENCES ........................................................... 223
PHD THESES IN APPLIED GEOSCIENCES................................................................................ 223
Faculty of Materials and Geo Sciences
3
Dean’s Office
Staff Members
Dean:
Prof. Dr. Ralf Riedel
Vice dean:
Prof. Dr. Christoph Schüth
Dean of studies Materials Science:
Prof. Dr. Lambert Alff
Dean of studies Applied Geosciences:
Prof. Dr. Matthias Hinderer
Scientific coordinator, department
and Materials Science:
PD Dr. Boris Kastening
Scientific coordinator, Applied Geosciences:
Dr. Karl Ernst Roehl
Secretary of department:
Renate Ziegler-Krutz
Secretary of personnel and finances:
Christine Hempel
Competence center for materials characterization:
Dr. Joachim Brötz
IT group:
Dipl. –Ing. (BA) Andreas Hönl
Building services:
Dipl. –Ing. Heinz Mohren
Coordination of the KIVA project:
Dr. Silvia Faßbender
Public relations:
Marion Bracke
Media Design:
Thomas Keller
4
Dean’s Office
Publications of Permanent Members of the Dean's Office
[1]
Weidner, Mirko; Broetz, Joachim; Klein, Andreas;
Sputter-deposited polycrystalline tantalum-doped SnO2 layers;
THIN SOLID FILMS, Volume: 555, Pages: 173-178, (2014)
[2]
Ruzimuradov, Olim; Nurmanov, Suvankul; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Prasad,
Ravi Mohan; Gurlo, Aleksander; Broetz, Joachim; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Riedel,
Ralf;
Fabrication of nitrogen-doped TiO2 monolith with well-defined macroporous and
bicrystalline framework and its photocatalytic performance under visible light;
JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Volume: 34, Issue: 3,
Pages: 809-816, (2014)
[3]
Kompaniiets, M.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Neetzel, C.; Porrati, F.; Broetz,
J.; Ensinger, W.; Huth, M.;
Long-range superconducting proximity effect in polycrystalline Co nanowires;
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Volume: 104, Issue: 5, Article Number: 052603,
(2014)
[4]
Ruzimuradov, Olim; Nurmanov, Suvankul; Hojamberdiev, Mirabbos; Prasad,
Ravi Mohan; Gurlo, Alexander; Broetz, Joachim; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Riedel,
Ralf;
Preparation and characterization of macroporous TiO2-SrTiO3 heterostructured
monolithic photocatalyst;
MATERIALS LETTERS, Volume: 116, Pages: 353-355, (2014)
[5]
Morasch, Jan; Li, Shunyi; Broetz, Joachim; Jaegermann, Wolfram; Klein,
Andreas;
Reactively magnetron sputtered Bi2O3 thin films: Analysis of structure, optoelectronic,
interface, and photovoltaic properties;
PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE,
Volume: 211, Issue: 1, Pages: 93-100, (2014)
[6]
Stegmann, Christian; Muench, Falk; Rauber, Markus; Hottes, Martin; Broetz,
Joachim; Kunz, Ulrike; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Ensinger,
Wolfgang;
Platinum nanowires with pronounced texture, controlled crystallite size and excellent
growth homogeneity fabricated by optimized pulsed electrodeposition;
RSC ADVANCES, Volume: 4, Issue: 10, Pages: 4804-4810, (2014)
[7]
Rachut, Karsten; Koerber, Christoph; Broetz, Joachim; Klein, Andreas;
Growth and surface properties of epitaxial SnO2;
PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE
Volume: 211, Issue: 9, Pages: 1997-2004, (2014)
Dean’s Office
5
[8]
Muench, Falk; Seidl, Tim; Rauber, Markus; Peter, Benedikt; Broetz,
Joachim; Krause, Markus; Trautmann, Christina; Roth, Christina; Katusic,
Stipan; Ensinger, Wolfgang;
Hierarchically porous carbon membranes containing designed nanochannel
architectures obtained by pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide;
MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, Volume: 148, Issue: 3, Pages: 846-853,
(2014)
[9]
Renard, Laetitia; Broetz, Joachim; Fuess, Hartmut; Gurlo, Aleksander; Riedel,
Ralf; Toupance, Thierry;
Hybrid Organotin and Tin Oxide-based Thin Films Processed from Alkynylorganotins:
Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Properties;
ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Volume: 6, Issue: 19, Pages: 1709317101 (2014)
6
Publications of Permanent Members of the Dean’s Office
Institute of Materials Science
Preface
Dear colleagues and friends,
The year 2014 was another successful period for the Department of Materials and Geo
Sciences of TU Darmstadt. Details of the activities and achievements related to the
individual departmental institutes, namely Materials Science and Applied Geosciences, are
highlighted below.
We would like to express our gratitude to all members of the Department – the mechanical
workshop staff, technical and administrative staff, students working on their diploma and
bachelor theses, Ph.D. students, and postdocs – for the outstanding effort and remarkable
enthusiasm they put into their work. Their outstanding engagement significantly
contributed to the performance of the Department. We aim to sustain and promote the
motivating and fruitful atmosphere at our institute in order to continue our commitment
and success in the time to come.
Materials Science
The amount of acquired third party funding has reached a nearly constant value in the
order of 10 million Euro. Presently, the total number of students (bachelor & master) in
materials science amounts round about 500. The number of freshmen of the bachelor study
course Materials Science in the winter semester 2014/15 reached 107 (see Figure 1).
The Materials Science and Geo Sciences Department’s Materialium Graduate School has
been further developed and now accommodates 90 PhD students. The research-oriented
doctorate program culminating in award of the degree of “Dr.-Ing.” or “Dr. rer. nat.” fosters
an interdisciplinary integration of the various Ph.D. studies between research groups inside
and outside of the Materials Science Department. During specific events, Ph.D. students
present their current scientific problems and methods, providing a forum for close
interdisciplinary problem solving that stimulates synergy between research groups.
Professors of Materialium are committed to supporting their Ph.D. students. For instance,
they strongly encourage participation at international conferences and publication in
refereed research journals, which is bolstered by the high number of coordinated research
programs in Materials Science at TU Darmstadt. Moreover, Materialium is a member of
Ingenium, the umbrella organisation of graduate schools at TU Darmstadt.
Coordinated Research Proposals
The new proposal RESPONSE funded by the Hessian State Government started in January
2014. The scientific topic of this research program is related to “The Reduction and
Substitution of Rare Earth Elements in High Performance Permanent Magnets”
(RESPONSE) and is coordinated by Prof. Gutfleisch. This initiative marks the
interdisciplinary approach the university is promoting and for which the Department of
Institute of Materials Science - Preface
7
Materials and Geo Science is ideal since its subjects combine various sciences like
chemistry, physics, electrical and mechanical engineering.
Figure 1: Development of the number of students in Materials Science over the past 15 years
Presently, the Department initiates a new Collaborative Research Center (SFB) funded by
the German Research Foundation (DFG). With Prof. Albe as the coordinator, the initiative
was successful with the preproposal in getting a recommendation by the DFG to submit a
full proposal, which will be finally evaluated end of September 2015.
Faculty Members and Affairs
End of March 2014, Prof. Heinz von Seggern officially retired. However,
according to an agreement with the Department, he still will be actively
involved in research and teaching in Materials Science for the next few
years.
In March, Dr. Kyle Webber, who run an Emmy Noether Independent
Junior Research Group funded by the DFG, was appointed to Junior
Professor in our Department to head the group “Electromechanics of
Oxides”.
8
Institute of Materials Science - Preface
In September 2014, Dr. Jürgen Wieser was appointed as Honorary
Professor at TU Darmstadt at the suggestion of the Department of
Materials and Geosciences. Professor Wieser is an expert in advanced
processing of polymers. His expertise will complement the research and
teaching activities of Materials Science in Darmstadt which are basically
focused on ceramics and metals.
After 10 years being active as Dean of Studies in
Materials Science, Prof. Alff resigned from this duty.
The Department wishes to thank Prof. Alff for his great
efforts and engagement during his mandate. As the
successor, Prof. Donner was voted as Dean of Studies in
Materials Science by the faculty commission in April
2014. At the same time, Prof. Riedel was reelected as
Dean of the Department.
One of the most important events for the Materials Science Division in 2014 was the start
of the departmental evaluation process. Accordingly, the faculty had to prepare a
comprehensive document related to the research and teaching situation in the Materials
Science Division. In December 2014, the Materials Science Division was assessed by a
group of reviewers in a two days lasting evaluation in our Department. At the same time
the bachelor and master courses in Materials Science were evaluated by the same
commission. Based on this result, the faculty will have to negotiate an objective agreement
on their future research and teaching targets together with the executive committee of the
TU Darmstadt in 2015.
Honours, Awards and Special Achievements
In 2014, the following precious awards were granted to faculty members of the materials
science department:
Prof. Fueß received the honor of “Offizier des Ordens der Palmes
Academiques“ by the French government
In December 2014, Prof. Riedel was honored with the Fellow of the
School of Engineering at the University of Tokyo, Japan, in recognition of
his distinguished contribution to the research and education of the above
mentioned school and of his outstanding accomplishments in research
and education in the field of engineering.
Preface
9
As usual, the annual awarding of the "MaWi Prize" formed part of the MaWi summer party.
The 1st prize was awarded to Ruben Heid from the division PhM for his Diploma thesis on
“Einfluss von gießtechnischen Prozessschwankungen auf das Eigenschaftsspektrum
crashrelevanter Aluminium-Druckgusslegierungen;” 2nd prizes were awarded to Tim
Niewelt from the division OF for his Diploma thesis about “Analyse von Defekten in
kristallinem Silizium” and to Joachim Langner from the division EE for his Diploma thesis
about “Ionische Flüssigkeiten als Elektrolyt, Co-Katalysator und Stabilisator in
Brennstoffzellen“. The 3rd prize was awarded to Christian Lohaus for his Bachelor thesis
about “Synthese verschiedener rußgeträgerter Pt-Ru-Au Katalysatoren und Untersuchung
des Degradationsverhaltens.”
Social Events
As every year, our annual summer party was scheduled for middle of July, shortly before
the summer break, being one of the most important social events of the Materials Science
Institute.
In December 2014 we celebrated the year-end ceremony for all research groups, staff
members and students, including the formal graduate celebration, where Bachelor, Master
and PhD students received their certificates. The celebration including the social
programme was organized by the Deanery´s team, in particular by PD Dr. Boris Kastening,
Heinz Mohren, Dr. Sylvia Faßbender and our workshop team.
On the following pages, this annual report shall provide you with some further information
on the most prominent research activities of the individual groups conducted in 2014.
Prof. Ralf Riedel
Dean of the Department
10
Institute of Materials Science - Preface
Physical Metallurgy
The Physical Metallurgy research group (PhM) in the department of materials science at TU
Darmstadt, headed by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Karsten Durst, works on structure-property
relationships of structural metallic materials and thin hard coatings with a focus on
mechanical properties from the microscopic to macroscopic length scale. The group utilizes
and develops state-of-the-art testing methods for enhanced understanding of the
deformation mechanisms of structural materials. Of main interest are mechanical properties
of materials under various loading conditions (uniaxial, fatigue, wear or creep), specifically
those relating the macroscopic material response to the micromechanical properties at
small length scales. New insights in the materials response are achieved through in-situ
mechanical testing approaches, where material is mechanically loaded and monitored by
microscopic or spectroscopic techniques simultaneously.
In 2014, several proposals for new test equipment were successfully acquired, summing to
a total investment at PhM of more than 800.000 €. PhM is now equipped with a Keysight
Nanoindenter with a tip and sample laser heater allowing for protective gas atmospheres
and temperatures up to 500°C. The system is equipped with scratch test capabilities and
allows max loads of up to 10 N and has already been used for both for thin film and bulk
material characterization. Additionally, the group purchased two nanoindenters from
Nanomechanics Inc. providing dynamic indentation testing with accurate oscillation control
and a maximum load of 45 mN. One of the nanoindenters is a standalone system that is
user friendly and has been successfully used in collaborations with other research groups
within the department. The other nanoindenter can be used inside our new Tescan Mira 3
XMH field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM). The SEM features a
DigiView 5 EBSD/EDX detector from EDAX and is equipped with a BSE detector providing
high resolution imaging for electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) and a separate
cooled detector allowing BSE imaging at high temperatures. In September 2014, PhM
organized a symposium on “Small Scale and in-situ Mechanical Testing” at the “Material
Science Engineering“, held in Darmstadt. The symposium was quite successful with five
session and an international audience, discussing the latest developments in the field of
micromechanics of in-situ tests in TEM, SEM, to thin layers and nanoindentation.
Current research includes steels, Al, Cu, and Ni-based alloys, a-C:H coatings, nickel-base
superalloys and silicate glasses. Another important class of materials being studied are the
so called ultrafine-grained or nanostructured materials, which are processed through severe
plastic deformation. The material microstructure is greatly refined by these processes,
leading to both strong and ductile materials. The research focuses on the deformation
mechanisms and post-treatment conditions for tailoring the mechanical properties as well
as residual stresses that arise during processing for different applications. Residual stresses
also play a critical role in the application of hard coatings on ductile substrates. Together
with corporate and academic partners, novel processing routes are being established,
allowing for the design of coatings with optimized mechanical properties with respect to
residual stress and contact loading conditions.
Institute of Materials Science - Physical Metallurgy
11
Further research at PhM includes active progress in the RESPONSE research initiative,
which focuses on new permanent magnets as well as in the DFG priority program
ultrastrong glasses.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. K. Durst
Research Associates
Dr. E. Bruder
Dr. K. Johanns
Prof. Dr. C. Müller
Technical Personnel
Ulrike Kunz
Claudia Wasmund
Petra Neuhäusel
Sven Frank
Secretaries
Christine Hempel
PhD Students
Dipl.-Ing. Vanessa Kaune
Dipl.-Ing. Thorsten Gröb
Dipl.-Ing. Jan Scheil
MSc. Farhan Javaid
Dipl.-Ing. K. v. Klinsky-Wetzel
Dipl.-Ing. Jörn Niehuesbernd
Dipl.-Ing. Christoph Schmid
MSc. Olena Prach
MSc. Laura Ahmels
Master Students
Das, Aniruddh
Rathore, Jitendra S.
Ahmels, Laura
Uhde, Jari
Opitz, Tobias
Bruns, Sebastian
Bachelor Students
Schütz, Theresa
Kowalik, Oskar
Schmiedl, Tobias
Grebhardt, Axel
Zimmermann, Golo
Schwing, Romana
Wehling, Carlo
Research Projects
“Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Bifurcated Sheet Profiles”, in SFB 666 of the
DFG “Integral Sheet Metal Design with Higher Order Bifurcations”, since 06/2005.
“Subsequent Formability of Bifurcated Profiles” in SFB 666 of the DFG “Integral Sheet
Metal Design with Higher Order Bifurcations”, since 06/2013.
“New Synthesis Methods top-down” in Priority Program LOEWE “Response
Ressourcenschonende Permanentmagnete durch optimierte Nutzung seltener Erden“, since
01/2014
“Damage Mechanims in Carbon Layer Systems”, DFG since 10/2011
“Influence of Glass Topology and Medium Range Order on the Deformation Mechanism in
Borosilcate Glasses – a Multiple Length Scale Approach”, DFG since 07/2012
DAAD scholarship Farhan Javaid since 07/2012
12
Institute of Materials Science - Physical Metallurgy
“Nanomechanics of single crystalline Nickel-Base superalloys”, co-applicant in SFB
Transregio 103 (Erlangen-Bochum): Super alloy Single Crystals
DAAD scholarship Elena Prach since 07/2014
iStress: residual stress analysis with the EU project EU iStress- 604646
Publications
[1]
Bruder, E.; Kaune, V.; Müller, C.: Integral sheet metal design via severe plastic
deformation: state of the art and future challenges, IOP Conference Series: Materials
Science and Engineering, Vol. 60, 2014, 012003
[2]
H. Hetzner, C. Schmid, S. Tremmel, K. Durst, S. Wartzack, Empirical-statistical
study on the relationship between deposition parameters, process variables, deposition
rate and mechanical properties of a-C:H:W coatings, Coatings 4 (2014) 772-795.
[3]
J Ast, T Przybilla, V Maier, K Durst, M Göken, Microcantilever bending
experiments in NiAl–Evaluation, size effects, and crack tip plasticity, Journal of
Materials Research 29 (18), 2129-2140, 2014
[4]
B Merle, V Maier, K Durst, Experimental and theoretical confirmation of the scaling
exponent 2 in pyramidal load displacement data for depth sensing indentation,
Scanning 36 (5), 526-529
[5]
F Haag, D Beitelschmidt, J Eckert, K Durst, Influences of residual stresses on the
serrated flow in bulk metallic glass under elastostatic four-point bending–A
nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy study, Acta Materialia 70, 188-197
Institute of Materials Science - Physical Metallurgy
13
Magnetic Hardening by Grain Refinement via Severe Plastic Deformation
T. Gröb, E. Bruder and C. Müller
Introduction
Permanent magnets are essential for our technological society especially in the field of
renewable energy and as key components in electromobility. These magnets contain high
amounts of rare earth elements. Because of the high demand of these elements and the
export limit from China, rare earths are a strategic resource. Due to these facts, there is a
great technological interest for rare earth free and reduced permanent magnets. The
LOEWE research cluster RESPONSE is working on several approaches to reach rare earth
free permanent magnets. One approach of the physical metallurgy at the TU Darmstadt to
achieve this goal is magnetic hardening by grain refinement via “Severe Plastic
Deformation” (SPD) processes.
SPD processes are mostly used to
change the mechanical properties of
materials. Besides the mechanical
properties also extrinsic magnetic
properties like the coercivity or the
remanence can be influenced by
these
processes
[1].
With
decreasing
grains
size,
the
coercivity is increasing until a
maximum is reached [2]. The
region, where grain refinement
leads to an increase in the
coercivity is the ultrafine grained
microstructure (UFG) of SPD
processes.
Figure 1: Coercivity force depending on grain size
The
magnetic
properties
are
characterised by the shape of their
hysterese loop, measured via Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM). The microstructure is
determined with Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD).
The change in the coercivity by grain refinemend during the Equal Channel Angular
Pressing (ECAP) process
Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) processes are used to reach a high plastic deformation in
metals, which can not be reached with conventional cold working methods. These high
plastic strains cause grain refinement through grain fragmentation which leads to ultrafine
grained (UFG) microstructure. Besides the influence of mechanical properties with
degreasing grain size, the magnetic properties are affected. This fact is used for the
approach of magnetic hardening by grain refinement.
For grain refinement, the ECAP process is used. ECAP is a well investigated SPD method
and is based on the shear deformation of the material. The die angle in the present
14
Institute of Materials Science - Physical Metallurgy
investigations was 120°. 1, 2, 4 and 8 passes of ECAP were performed without back
pressure using Route C. The magnetic properties were determined by a LakeShore VSM
System. For the experiments, pure iron (ARMCO®) and an iron-based alloy with 17 wt%
cobalt and 2 wt% chromium (VACOFLUX17) were used. Both materials were investigated
in microstructure and magnetic properties for the undeformed state and after each SPD
state.
Figure 2 shows the evolution of
the grain boundary density. Both
materials show a typical cold
working
behavior.
At
the
beginning, the low angle grain
boundary density (LAGB) is
increasing significantly up to a
grain boundary density value of 3
μm-1 at a strain of 2.6. For higher
strains, the LAGB density of
ARMCO is decreasing whereas for
VACOFLUX 17 it soars through
any further forming step. The high
angle grain boundary density
(HAGB) of both materials is
increasing slightly with each ECAP
pass.
Figure 2: Evolution of the gran boundary density during the
ECAP process
coercivity Hc [A/m]
2.000
Due to the ECAP process and the
VACOFLUX17
resulting increase in the HAGB
ARMCO
density with each ECAP pass,
1.500
there is a grain refinement in both
materials. Figure 3 shows the
1.000
evolution
of
coercivity
HC
depending on the grain size.
With decreasing grain size the
500
coercivity
is
increasing.
ARMCO starts at low coercivity of
200 A/m with an average grain
0
1
10
100
size of 42 μm. VACOFLUX17 starts
grain size [μm]
at 300 A/m with an average grain
size of 22 μm. After one pass of
Figure 3: Coercivity Hc vs. grain size
ECAP, the coercivity has increased
in both cases. After 8 passes the
average grain size of ARMCO has reduced from 42 μm to 8 μm. HC has increased to
875 A/m. At the same time the coercivity of VACOFLUX17 has increased to 1750 A/m at an
average grain size of 4.6 μm.
Not only the HAGB density, i.e. the grain size, effects the coercivity of the materials. The
change of the magnetic behavior depends on the size of the magnetic domains and on the
movment of domain walls [3]. Through the SPD process, the grain boundary density has
Institute of Materials Science - Physical Metallurgy
15
significantly enhanced (Figure 2). Due to the subgrainstructure, the mobility of the
magnetic domain walls is hindered. For the investigated materials the average grain size,
which was reached with 8 passes of ECAP by 120°, is above the critical single domain size.
So the main effect in the increase of the coercivity is caused by the subgrainstructure
induced by the SPD process.
Conclusions and outlook
The shown investigations offer the opportunity of magnetic hardening by SPD. It has been
demonstrated, that with SPD and the resulting grain refinement during this process, the
coercivity has been increased significantly. But the increase in grain boundary density is not
the only microstructural change. There is no evolution of a pronounced crystallographic
texture during the ECAP process by using route C. Further effects like a crystallographic
texture and an elongation of grains can affect the magnetic properties as well. An
elongation of grains can induce a shape anisotropy to the material [4]. Therfore, a
combination of SPD process with an additional forming process like rotary swaging can
induce this anisotropic magnetic behaviour and enhance the hard magnetic properties. The
investigations have been performed with soft magnetic materials. The next step is to
transfer these findings to a hard magnetic system to further increase the coercivity [5].
References
[1] J. M. D. Coey, Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Cambridge University Press, 2010
[2] G. Herzer, „Grain Size Dependence of Coercivity and Permeability in Nanocrystalline
Ferromagnets, Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 26 (iss. 5), 1990, 1397-1402
[3] A. H. R. Schäfer, Magnetic Domains: The Analysis of Magnetic Microstructures, Springer, 2008
[4] H.-L. Z. S.-L. P. H.-L. L. Yong Peng: Magnetic Properties and Magnetization Reversal of -Fe
Nanowires Deposited in Alumina Film, 2000
[5] M. K. W. R. K. Uestuener: Dependence of the Mean Grain Size and Coercivity of Sintered Nd–
Fe–B Magnets on the Initial Powder Particle Size, Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 42 (iss. 10),
2006, 2897-2899
16
Institute of Materials Science - Physical Metallurgy
Borosilicate Glass Topology and Deformation Mechanisms
K. E. Johanns, P. Malchow and K. Durst
Introduction
Instrumented indentation testing provides a means of examining elastic-plastic deformation
behavior in materials where more conventional testing may not be feasible. In particular, it
enables local probing of small volumes and, hence, correlation of mechanical response and
local structure of a material. This has generated significant interest for the study of
deformation processes in macroscopically brittle glasses. While the mechanical strength of
glasses (and other brittle materials) is inherently dominated by the material’s surface
properties, i.e., the number and size of surface defects, it has been noted semi-empirically
that the probability of local failure can be tailored via chemical composition. The notion of
“defect resistance” has been introduced as a means to describe the glass’ response to a
sharp contact, which may result in material compaction or indentation cracking. When the
probability of indentation cracking can be reduced and/or the fracture pattern which is
induced through indentation can be controlled, this would pave the way towards glasses
with significantly improved resistance to surface defects. In this context, sodium
borosilicate (NBS) glasses represent an especially interesting class of glasses. On the one
side, they are the major group of glasses for specialty applications such as in lighting,
electronic devices, biomedical substrates (and containers), labware or displays. On the
other side, due to their thermomechanical properties, their mechanical performance cannot
readily be improved through the conventional methods of thermal or chemical toughening.
However, as has recently been demonstrated for a series of model compositions, their local
deformation and cracking behavior is particularly strongly composition dependent, what
provides a third lever for designing an ultra-tough glass of the borosilicate-type [1].
In this project, we consider plasticity and fracture of NBS glasses by studying their response
to penetration of a sharp, three-sided pyramidal Berkovich indenter [2]. In such an
experiment, observations of elastic-plastic deformation can be made along with crack
initiation and subsequent crack growth [3]. As already noted, there are few other, if any,
mechanical tests which provide such a broad view at the mechanical properties of a brittle
material. The combination of indentation observation and analyses with spectroscopic
techniques (e.g., Raman spectroscopy), can provide descriptive insights at relationships
between constitutive behavior and local glass (molecular) structure.
Mechanical Properties via Indentation
Indentation deformation and crack initiation/growth are highlighted in Fig. 1. Significant
differences have been found between the compositions and the cooling conditions.
Furthermore, indentation testing results in Table I show that NBS1 has a greater elastic
modulus, E, and hardness, H, (E = 80.5 GPa, H = 7.4 GPa) than the furnace cooled NBS2
glass (E = 53.1 GPa, H = 5.8 GPa). These results are consistent with the expected
structural differences between the two compositions. The increased network modifier
content of Na2O in NBS1 gives rise to greater hardness, since the added Na2O causes only
partially a depolymerization of the glass structure, with sodium ions filling the voids, but
also, as the composition moves away from the boron anomaly line, results in a structure
with higher boron coordination, [BØ4]- charged balanced by sodium ions, and therefore
Institute of Materials Science - Physical Metallurgy
17
NBS1
Pmax = 2.5 N
Berkovich
NBS2 qu1
NBS2 fc
Pmax = 5.0 N
Berkovich
Pmax = 7.0 N
Berkovich
NBS2 qu2
Pmax = 7.0 N
Berkovich
Figure 1: Optical micrographs of Berkovich indentations in four NBS glasses, radial crack initiation
probability as a function of applied load, and crack growth
less free volume. Pile-up at the contact periphery, i.e., material that has plastically
deformed up the face of the indenter, is also found to be greater for the NBS1 composition
than NBS2 (fc). Evidence for this is found in ratios of pile-up height relative to total
indentation depth, hpile-up/hmax, given in Table 1. Lower pile-up heights are consistent
with ‘anomalous’ inelastic densification playing a strong role in the deformation of the
NBS2 composition. The more dense NBS1 composition responds in a ‘normal’ way with
shear driven plasticity dominating the deformation during indentation, hence increased
pile-up. The respective elastic modulus to hardness ratios, E/H, are 10.9 and 9.2 for NBS1
and NBS2 (fc), and while the difference is small, the larger E/H ratio of NBS1 is also
consistent with greater amount of observed pile-up of material and continuum ideas of
material flow during indentation.
Table 1: Experimental results on NBS glasses
NBS1
NBS2 (fc)
NBS2 (qu1)
NBS2 (qu2)
E
GPa
80.5 ± 0.2
53.1 ± 0.4
52.7 ± 0.2
53.6 ± 0.2
H
GPa
7.41 ± 0.03
5.79 ± 0.16
6.31 ± 0.05
6.35± 0.05
S²/P
GPa
1123 ± 60
615 ± 31
578 ± 28
589 ± 29
0.48 ± 0.02
1.20 ± 0.10
0.95 ± 0.02
0.82 ± 0.06
0.33 ± 0.06
0.30 ± 0.04
0.035 ± 0.004
0.033 ± 0.005
1/2
KIc
MPa·m
hf/hmax
-
0.47 ± 0.02
0.35 ± 0.03
hpile-up/hmax
-
0.046 ± 0.004
0.036 ± 0.004
18
Institute of Materials Science - Physical Metallurgy
a)
b)
c)
d)
Figure 2: Estimations of inelastic densification due to indentation in NBS glass: (a) Raman excitation curves;
(b) densification estimated from Raman peak shifts; (c) AFM profiles of indents before and after annealing
treatment; and (d) estimated densification from annealing treatment.
Structural Characterization via Raman Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy
Raman spectroscopy and relaxation anneal techniques show clear differences between the
glass states when compared under nearly identical conditions (e.g., fixed indentation load,
beam size, and annealing conditions). These trends are consistent with the expected
differences in structure between the glass states. Indentation testing provides a unique
opportunity to rapidly examine and compare elastic modulus, hardness, material inelastic
deformation, crack initiation during contact, and crack growth resistance. Furthermore, the
hardness, modulus, and, maybe most importantly, crack initiation resistance can be tailored
with relatively small changes in composition and casting conditions.
Conclusions
NBS1 has an elastic modulus to hardness ratio, E/H, of ~10.9, while E/H for NBS2 (fc) is
~9.2.While the two ratios are similar and well within the expected values for silicate
glasses, large differences in plastic deformation during indentation were observed. It may
Institute of Materials Science - Physical Metallurgy
19
be that E/H is not indicative, or sensitive, to changes in deformation behavior in these
materials.
Densification of material can occur through elastic recovery of material around a plastically
deformed volume as the indenter is unloaded (i.e., residual stress) and by structural
changes during the indentation process. While the former is common to all elastic-plastic
materials during indentation, the latter cause may be significant in NBS glasses, especially
the NBS2 composition, due to the temperature, pressure and composition-dependence of
the equilibrium between BØ3 and [BØ4]- groups, and their association on the mid-range
scale.
Additional densification of the borate sub-network could be provided by the increase of
connectivity with the transformation of trigonal BØ3 to tetrahedral [BØ4]- under contact
pressure, as implied by the study of different cooled NBS2 glasses. A detailed study of the
NBS2 composition with changes in boron coordination through heat treatments may shed
light on the role of the borate sub-network on plastic flow. However, while casting
conditions may influence boron coordination, they may also introduce residual stresses
which play a role in indentation behavior. It may be possible to optimize the resistance to
crack initiation/growth as well as densification during contact.
Acknowledgments
Financial support from the German Science Foundation through its priority program 1594
is gratefully acknowledged (grant no. MO1375/3-1).The authors thank A. WintersteinBeckmann and all colleagues as the Laboratory of Glass Science at FSU Jena for the
provision of glass samples and help in data evaluation. Also grateful thanks to Prof. M.
Göken and the entire Department WW1 of FAU Erlangen for the support and enabling to
work with their Nanoindenter and AFM equipment. Thanks also to Prof. J. Zaumseil and M.
Schweiger from the Department LSP of FAU Erlangen for their support and assistance with
the Raman spectroscopy.
References
[1] R. Limbach, A. Winterstein-Beckmann, A. Dellith, D. Möncke and L. Wondraczek: Plasticity,
crack initiation and defect resistance in alkali-borosilicate glasses: From normal to anomalous
behavior, J. Non-Cryst. Sol. 417–418, 2015, 15–27
[2] P. Malchow, K. E. Johanns, D. Möncke, S. Korte-Kerzel, L. Wondraczek, and K. Durst:
Composition and cooling-rate dependence of plastic deformation, densification, and cracking in
sodium borosilicate glasses during pyramidal indentation, J. Non-Cryst. Sol., 2015 (in press)
[3] K. E. Johanns, J. H. Lee, Y. F. Gao and G. M. Pharr: An evaluation of the advantages and
limitations in simulating indentation cracking with cohesive zone finite elements, Modelling
Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 22, 2014, 015011-(1-21)
[4] W. C. Oliver and G. M. Pharr: Measurement of hardness and elastic modulus by instrumented
indentation:
Advances
in
understanding
and
refinements
to
methodology,
J. Mater. Res. 19 (1), 2004, 3-20
20
Institute of Materials Science - Physical Metallurgy
Ceramics Group
The emphasis in the ceramics group is on the correlation between microstructure and
mechanical as well as functional properties. A number of processing methods are available
in order to accomplish different microstructure classes, to determine their specific
properties in an experiment and to rationalize these with straightforward modelling efforts.
Thus, a materials optimization is afforded which allows effective interplay between
processing, testing and modelling. In particular, new lead free piezoceramics are currently
being developed and mechanically tuned electrical conductivity is investigated as a
fundamental new design concept.
The scientific effort can be grouped as follows:
I. Development of new piezoceramics
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Rödel and Dr. Jurij Koruza
In response to the recent demands for environmentally friendly piezoelectric materials
for electrical and electronic applications, the principal focus of this group is the
development of non-toxic piezoceramics with electromechanical performance
comparable to their lead-containing counterparts.
Among all the potentially promising candidates special attention has been given to
bismuth-based materials whose properties can be effectively tailored using the so-called
morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) concept. Extensive compositional research has
been performed on various bismuth-based solid solution systems that contain a MPB
between separating different crystal symmetries of the members. Recently, we have also
started work on both KNN and BT-based lead-free piezoceramics.
To better understand the mechanisms governing the enhancement of electromechanical
properties of materials and to make our search for alternative materials more effective
fundamental scientific research on model systems have been performed in parallel to
the compositional investigations.
We employ various characterization techniques such as macroscopic dielectric,
ferroelectric and ferroelastic property measurements as well as crystallographic
structural analyses based on synchrotron and neutron diffractions, Raman, nuclear
magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques, and
transmission electron microscopy.
We are also simultaneously establishing thermodynamic and phenomenological models
which are verified by the first principles calculations. Currently, we have extensive
international collaborations with eminent ferroelectric groups throughout the world.
II. Conductivity of Oxides
Dr. Till Frömling and Dr. Nikola Novak
Modulation of conductivity of oxide ceramics is usually achieved by doping and
temperature treatment in a large oxygen partial pressure range. However, electric and
ionic conductivity can also be changed by mechanical modifications. In this research
group conductivity is of oxide ceramics is modified by the following approaches
a) Induction of dislocations: Dislocations are mechanically introduced into strontium
titanate which can be plastically deformed even at room temperature. Changes of
the electric and ionic conductivity are, amongst other methods, investigated by
complex impedance spectroscopy and dc-measurements. The aim of this project is to
identify the defect chemical properties of dislocation cores in strontium titanate and
related materials.
b) Altering potential barriers in piezoelectric semiconductor materials: In this project
Schottky-barriers and varistor material based on ZnO are investigated as a function
of applied pressure
Institute of Materials Science - Ceramics Group
21
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Rödel
Research Associates
Dr. Till Frömling
Dr. Wook Jo
Dr. Jurij Koruza
Dipl. Phys. Irene Mieskes
Dr. Nikola Novak
Dr. Eric Patterson
Dr. Kyle Webber
Dr. Ludwig Weiler
Technical Personnel
M. Sc. Patrick Breckner
Dipl.-Ing. Gundel Fliß
Michael Heyse
Dipl.-Ing. Daniel Isaia
Secretary
Roswita Geier
Gila Völzke
PhD Students
M. Sc. Matias Acosta
M. Sc. Azatuhi Ayrikyan
Dipl.-Ing. Raschid Baraki
Dipl.-Ing. Martin Blömker
Dipl.-Ing. Laetitia Carrara
M. Sc. Philipp Geiger
Dipl.-Ing. Claudia Groh
Dipl.-Ing. Christine Jamin
Dipl.-Ing. Markus Jung
M. Sc. Virginia Rojas
Dipl.-Ing. Eva Sapper
Dipl.-Ing. Florian Schader
Dipl.-Phys. Deborah Schneider
M. Sc. Malte Vögler
M. Sc. Jiadong Zang
Bachelor/Master
Students
Sarah Marie Denkhaus
Peter Keil
Lucas Porz
Mihail Slabki
Stephan Wollstadt
Manuel Rouven Riesner
Research Fellow
Dr. Yoshitaka Ehara (AvH)
Dr. Haibo Zhang (AvH)
Guest Scientists
Dr. Hyoung-Su Han
Prof. Dr. George A. Rossetti
Research Projects
22

Processing of textured ceramic actuators with high strain (SFB 595, 2003–2014)

Mesoscopic and macroscopic fatigue in doped ferroelectric ceramics (SFB 595,
2003–2014)

Development of new lead –free piezoceramics (ADRIA, state funding, 2008-2014)

Stress and strain fields in ferroelectrics (Graduate school “computational
engineering” 2009-2017)

Lead-free piezoelectric single crystals with high strain: orientation dependence,
polarization rotation and morphotropic phase boundaries (DFG 2011-2014)

Energy absorption of ZnO varistors (DFG 2011-2014)

Ag-based electrical switches (state of Hesse / Umicore)

Lead-free piezoceramics (Johnson Matthey)

Fracture of bismuth-based relaxors (DFG 2014-2017)

Complex phase diagrams in bismuth-based relaxors (AvH 2014-2016)
Institute of Materials Science - Ceramics Group
Publications
[1]
Groszewicz, Pedro B. ; Breitzke, Hergen ; Dittmer, Robert ; Sapper, Eva ; Jo,
Wook ; Buntkowsky, Gerd ; Rödel, Jürgen :
Nanoscale phase quantification in lead-free (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3 relaxor
ferroelectrics by means of 23Na NMR.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.90.220104]
In: Physical Review B, 90 (22) 220104(1-5). ISSN 1098-0121
[2]
Guenther, Gerrit ; Guillon, Olivier :
Models of size-dependent nanoparticle melting tested on gold.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10853-014-8544-1]
In: Journal of Materials Science, 49 (23) pp. 7915-7932. ISSN 0022-2461
[3]
Gobeljic, Danka ; Dittmer, Robert ; Rödel, Jürgen ; Shvartsman, Vladimir V. ;
Lupascu, Doru C. ; Zhang, S. :
Macroscopic and Nanoscopic Polarization Relaxation Kinetics in Lead-Free Relaxors
Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-Bi1/2K1/2TiO3-BiZn1/2Ti1/2O3.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jace.13227]
In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 97 (12) pp. 3904-3912. ISSN
00027820
[4]
Petzelt, Jan ; Nuzhnyy, Dmitry ; Bovtun, Viktor ; Paściak, Marek ; Kamba,
Stanislav ; Dittmer, Robert ; Svirskas, Šarunas ; Banys, Juras ; Rödel, Jürgen :
Peculiar Bi-ion dynamics in Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3from terahertz and microwave dielectric
spectroscopy.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01411594.2014.953517]
In: Phase Transitions, 87 (10-11) pp. 953-965. ISSN 0141-1594
[5]
Acosta, Matias ; Novak, Nikola ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel, Jürgen :
Relationship between electromechanical properties and phase diagram in the
Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3–x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 lead-free piezoceramic.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2014.07.058]
In: Acta Materialia, 80 pp. 48-55. ISSN 13596454
[6]
Ehmke, Matthias C. ; Schader, Florian H. ; Webber, Kyle G. ; Rödel, Jürgen ;
Blendell, John E. ; Bowman, Keith J. :
Stress, temperature and electric field effects in the lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Zr)O3
piezoelectric system.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2014.06.005]
In: Acta Materialia, 78 pp. 37-45. ISSN 13596454
Institute of Materials Science - Ceramics Group
23
[7]
Baraki, Raschid ; Novak, Nikola ; Frömling, Till ; Granzow, Torsten ; Rödel,
Jürgen :
Bulk ZnO as piezotronic pressure sensor.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4895941]
In: Applied Physics Letters, 105 (11) 111604(1-4). ISSN 0003-6951
[8]
Zakhozheva, M. ; Schmitt, Ljubomira A. ; Acosta, Matias ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel,
Jürgen ; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim :
In situ electric field induced domain evolution in Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O30.3(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ferroelectrics.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4896048]
In: Applied Physics Letters, 105 (11) 112904(1-4). ISSN 0003-6951
[9]
Sapper, Eva ; Dittmer, Robert ; Damjanovic, Dragan ; Erdem, Emre ; Keeble,
David J. ; Jo, Wook ; Granzow, Torsten ; Rödel, Jürgen :
Aging in the relaxor and ferroelectric state of Fe-doped (1-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3xBaTiO3 piezoelectric ceramics.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4894630]
In: Journal of Applied Physics, 116 (10) 104102(1-12). ISSN 0021-8979
[10]
Zang, Jiadong ; Li, Ming ; Sinclair, Derek C. ; Frömling, Till ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel,
Jürgen ; Johnson, D. :
Impedance Spectroscopy of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3Based High-Temperature
Dielectrics.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jace.13012]
In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 97 (9) pp. 2825-2831. ISSN
00027820
[11]
Zhang, Yichi ; Glaum, Julia ; Groh, Claudia ; Ehmke, Matthias C. ; Blendell,
John E. ; Bowman, Keith J. ; Hoffman, Mark J. ; Trolier-McKins, S. :
Correlation Between Piezoelectric Properties and Phase Coexistence in
(Ba,Ca)(Ti,Zr)O3Ceramics.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jace.13047]
In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 97 (9) pp. 2885-2891. ISSN
00027820
[12]
Gobeljic, Danka ; Shvartsman, Vladimir V. ; Wang, Ke ; Yao, Fangzhou ; Li,
Jing-Feng ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel, Jürgen ; Lupascu, Doru C. :
Temperature dependence of the local piezoresponse in (K,Na)NbO3-based ceramics
with large electromechanical strain.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4891398]
In: Journal of Applied Physics, 116 (6) 066811(1-5). ISSN 0021-8979
[13]
Fancher, Chris M. ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel, Jürgen ; Blendell, John E. ; Bowman,
Keith J. ; Ihlefeld, J. :
Effect of Texture on Temperature-Dependent Properties of K0.5Na0.5NbO3Modified
Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-xBaTiO3.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jace.12986]
In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 97 (8) pp. 2557-2563. ISSN
00027820
24
Institute of Materials Science - Ceramics Group
[14]
Schneider, D. ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel, Jürgen ; Rytz, Daniel ; Granzow, Torsten :
Anisotropy of ferroelectric behavior of (1 − x)Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3–xBaTiO3 single
crystals across the morphotropic phase boundary.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4891529]
In: Journal of Applied Physics, 116 (4) 044111(1-9). ISSN 0021-8979
[15]
Yao, Fang-Zhou ; Patterson, Eric A. ; Wang, Ke ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel, Jürgen ; Li,
Jing-Feng :
Enhanced bipolar fatigue resistance in CaZrO3-modified (K,Na)NbO3 lead-free
piezoceramics.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4884826]
In: Applied Physics Letters, 104 (24) 242912(1-5). ISSN 0003-6951
[16]
Groh, Claudia ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel, Jürgen :
Frequency and temperature dependence of actuating performance of Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3BaTiO3 based relaxor/ferroelectric composites.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4876680]
In: Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (23) 234107(1-6). ISSN 0021-8979
[17]
Acosta, Matias ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel, Jürgen ; Lupascu, Doru C. :
Temperature- and Frequency-Dependent Properties of the 0.75Bi1/2Na1/2TiO30.25SrTiO3Lead-Free Incipient Piezoceramic.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jace.12884]
In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 97 (6) pp. 1937-1943. ISSN
00027820
[18]
Brandt, David R. J. ; Acosta, Matias ; Koruza, Jurij ; Webber, Kyle G. :
Mechanical constitutive behavior and exceptional blocking force of lead-free BZT-xBCT
piezoceramics.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4879395]
In: Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (20) 204107(1-7). ISSN 0021-8979
[19]
Sapper, Eva ; Novak, Nikola ; Jo, Wook ; Granzow, Torsten ; Rödel, Jürgen :
Electric-field–temperature phase diagram of the ferroelectric relaxor system (1 −
x)Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3 − xBaTiO3 doped with manganese.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4876746]
In: Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (19) 194104(1-7). ISSN 0021-8979
[20]
Groh, Claudia ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel, Jürgen
Tailoring Strain Properties of (0.94−x)Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-0.06BaTiO3xK0.5Na0.5NbO3Ferroelectric/Relaxor Composites.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jace.12783]
In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 97 (5) pp. 1465-1470. ISSN
00027820
[21]
Zang, Jiadong ; Li, Ming ; Sinclair, Derek C. ; Jo, Wook ; Rödel, Jürgen ;
Zhang, S. :
Impedance Spectroscopy of (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-BaTiO3Ceramics Modified with
(K0.5Na0.5)NbO3.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jace.12804]
In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 97 (5) pp. 1523-1529. ISSN
00027820
Institute of Materials Science - Ceramics Group
25
[22]
Khansur, Neamul H. ; Groh, Claudia ; Jo, Wook ; Reinhard, Christina ;
Kimpton, Justin A. ; Webber, Kyle G. ; Daniels, John E. :
Tailoring of unipolar strain in lead-free piezoelectrics using the ceramic/ceramic
composite approach.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4869786]
In: Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (12) 124108(1--6). ISSN 0021-8979
[23]
Seo, Yo-Han ; Koruza, Jurij ; Benčan, Andreja ; Malič, Barbara ; Rödel, Jürgen
; Webber, Kyle G. :
Simultaneous Enhancement of Fracture Toughness and Unipolar Strain in
Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-ZrO2 Composites Through Composition Adjustment.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jace.12929]
In: Journal of the American Ceramic Society n/a-n/a. ISSN 00027820
[24]
Zhang, Hailong ; Jo, Wook ; Wang, Ke ; Webber, Kyle G. :
Compositional dependence of dielectric and ferroelectric properties in BiFeO3–BaTiO3
solid solutions.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2013.09.020]
In: Ceramics International, 40 (3) pp. 4759-4765. ISSN 02728842
[25]
Woodward, David I. ; Dittmer, Robert ; Jo, Wook ; Walker, David ; Keeble,
Dean S. ; Dale, Matthew W. ; Rödel, Jürgen ; Thomas, Pam A. :
Investigation of the depolarisation transition in Bi-based relaxor ferroelectrics.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4869132]
In: Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (11) 114109(1-10). ISSN 0021-8979
[26]
Baraki, Raschid ; Zierep, Paul ; Erdem, Emre ; Weber, Stefan ; Granzow,
Torsten :
Electron paramagnetic resonance study of ZnO varistor material.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/26/11/115801]
In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 26 (11) 115801(1-6). ISSN 0953-8984
[27]
Trefalt, Gregor ; Benčan, Andreja ; Kamplet, Mitja ; Malič, Barbara ; Seo,
Yohan ; Webber, Kyle G. :
Evaluation of the homogeneity in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3–zirconia composites prepared by the
hetero-agglomeration of precursors using the Voronoi-diagram approach.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2013.09.014]
In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 34 (3) pp. 669-675. ISSN 09552219
[28]
Sapper, Eva ; Gassmann, Andrea ; Gjødvad, Lars ; Jo, Wook ; Granzow,
Torsten ; Rödel, Jürgen :
Cycling stability of lead-free BNT–8BT and BNT–6BT–3KNN multilayer actuators and
bulk ceramics.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2013.09.006]
In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 34 (3) pp. 653-661. ISSN 09552219
[29]
Dittmer, Robert ; Gobeljic, Danka ; Jo, Wook ; Shvartsman, Vladimir V. ;
Lupascu, Doru C. ; Jones, Jacob L. ; Rödel, Jürgen :
Ergodicity reflected in macroscopic and microscopic field-dependent behavior of BNTbased relaxors.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4867157]
In: Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (8) 084111(1-10). ISSN 0021-8979
26
Institute of Materials Science - Ceramics Group
[30]
Dittmer, Robert ; Jo, Wook ; Webber, Kyle G. ; Jones, Jacob L. ; Rödel, Jürgen:
Local structure change evidenced by temperature-dependent elastic measurements:
Case study on Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-based lead-free relaxor piezoceramics.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4866092]
In: Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (8) 084108(1-7). ISSN 0021-8979
[31]
Franzbach, Daniel J ; Seo, Yo-Han ; Studer, Andrew J ; Zhang, Yichi ; Glaum,
Julia ; Daniels, John E ; Koruza, Jurij ; Benčan, Andreja ; Malič, Barbara ;
Webber, Kyle G :
Electric-field-induced phase transitions in co-doped Pb(Zr1−xTix)O3at the
morphotropic phase boundary.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1468-6996/15/1/015010]
In: Science and Technology of Advanced Materials, 15 (1) 015010(1-11). ISSN
1468-6996
[32]
Groh, Claudia ; Franzbach, Daniel J. ; Jo, Wook ; Webber, Kyle G. ; Kling, Jens
; Schmitt, Ljubomira A. ; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim ; Jeong, Soon-Jong ; Lee, JaeShin ; Rödel, Jürgen :
Relaxor/Ferroelectric Composites: A Solution in the Quest for Practically Viable LeadFree Incipient Piezoceramics.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201302102]
In: Advanced Functional Materials, 24 (3) pp. 356-362. ISSN 1616301X
[33]
Tan, Xiaoli ; Young, S.E. ; Seo, Yo-Han ; Zhang, J.Y. ; Hong, W. ; Webber, Kyle
G. :
Transformation toughening in an antiferroelectric ceramic.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2013.09.038]
In: Acta Materialia, 62 pp. 114-121. ISSN 13596454
[34]
Zang, Jiadong ; Jo, Wook ; Zhang, Haibo ; Rödel, Jürgen :
Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3–BaTiO3 based thick-film capacitors for high-temperature
applications.
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2013.07.020]
In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 34 (1) pp. 37-43. ISSN 09552219
Institute of Materials Science - Ceramics Group
27
Electric Field-Temperature Phase diagram in BiNaTiO3-Based Ceramics.
Yoshitaka Ehara, Eva Sapper, and Jürgen Rödel
The enhanced piezoelectric properties observed in Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3 (BNT)-based materials
were related to the relaxor behavior found in these materials. Therefore, a considerable
amount of research has been focused on the structural origin of the polarization in relaxors
and the nature of phase transitions between different states of ergodicity and long-range
order.[1-3] Recent developments in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics have raised questions
about the nature of field- and temperature-induced phases in macroscopically nonpolar
materials as well as their ranges of stability. Therefore, the influence of electric field and
temperature was investigated to establish E-T phase diagrams for BNT-xBT in compositions
across the MPB and to contrast this to corresponding lead-containing relaxors. In order to
reduce leakage current, of 0.5 mol% Mn acceptor doping was introduced (Mn3+ on the Bsite) for all compositions.[4]
Ceramic samples of BNT-3BT, BNT-6BT, BNT-9BT, all
doped with 0.5 mol% Mn, were produced according to a
conventional mixed oxide route.[5] The P(E) hysteresis at
difference temperatures are shown in Fig. 1 for BNT-3BT,
BNT-6BT, BNT-9BT doped with 0.5mol% Mn. These data
show that increasing the temperature tends to lower the
coercive field, while at the same time the remanent
polarization decreases. Figure 2 depicts the characteristic
field-dependent current density j(E) obtained at different
temperatures for BNT-3BT:Mn. The curves from the first
cycle, i.e., the poling cycle (Fig. 2, dotted lines) are
compared with a subsequent cycle measured directly after
the first one (Fig. 2, solid lines). A single peak is detected in
the current density j(E) at the transition field Et1 during the
poling cycle, regardless of temperature. In the subsequent
cycle, Et1 is identical with Ec at 25 oC (Fig. 2(a)). With a
Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of 0.96 kV/mm, the
peak in the j(E) curve is rather broad at this temperature.
In the vicinity of Td (Fig. 2(b)), however, a second peak is
detected at Et2 indicating that the polarization reversal Fig.1 Temperature-dependent
Polarization E-field loops of BNTtakes place in two steps. Furthermore, Et1 is higher in the 3BT:Mn (a) BNT-6BT:Mn (b), and
poling cycle (Fig. 2(b), solid line) than in the following BNT-9BT:Mn (c)
cycle (Fig. 2(b), dotted line), pointing towards a strong
influence of sample history. Since these findings indicate that the polarization reversal
differs from conventional ferroelectrics, the notation Et1 will be employed in the following
instead of Ec. At temperatures well above Td (Fig. 2(c)), Et2 shifts to the decreasing fields
and Et1 is again at the same position in both the first and the second cycle. Furthermore, the
peak width at Et1 and Et2 where polarization reversal occurs are significantly reduced. E-T
phase diagrams for BNT-3BT:Mn, BNT-6BT:Mn, and BNT-9BT:Mn are displayed in Fig. 3.
The insets on top of the graph show the characteristic j(E) curves for each temperature
regime. Additionally, Td determined before from thermally stimulated depolarization
28
Institute of Materials Science - Ceramics Group
current measurements (TSDC) of poled samples at zero field is shown as a reference
point.[5]
All transitions displayed in Figs. 3(a)–(c) are
determined from the poling cycle. The existence of a
room temperature field-induced transition from the
nonergodic to the induced ferroelectric (FE) state is
deduced from the drastic decrease of permittivity
during poling as well as from the stable remanent
polarization and piezoelectric coefficient. Within the
E-T phase diagram this transition line is then formed
by Et1 values from the j(E) measurement. Even
though above Td the remanent state is not stable
anymore, an induced long-range order domain state
can be inferred from the low permittivity at high
field. In all compositions, the ergodic and the
nonergodic state, as well as a region with a fieldinduced long-range order FE state were identified.
The reliability of the electromechanical properties
and their temperature and pressure stability are
crucial requirements to developing lead-free
actuators suitable for industrial applications. A 3D
Fig.2 Field-dependent currents in BNTphase diagram (electric field, pressure and 3BT:Mn at different temperature below
temperature: E-p-T) of BNT-based materialsis is Td at 25oC (a) around Td at 160oC (b),
currently under investigation, in order to give insight and above Td 200oC (c) The dotted line
into the full operational range of this important lead- shows the first cycle. The solid line
shows the following cycle.
free material.
Fig.3 Electric Field-Temperature phase diagram of (a) BNT-3BT:Mn, (b)BNT-6BT:Mn, and (c) BNT9BT:Mn. Transition field (Et) is dependent on temperature and stability regions the nonergodic relaxor
(NR) state, the ergodic relaxor (ER) state, and induced ferroelectric state (FE). Arrows indicate the
direction of E-field.
References
[1] P. Bonneau ,et al., J. Solid State Chem. 91, 350 (1991). [2] P. M. Gehring, J. Adv. Dielectr. 2,
1241005 (2012). [3] R. Blinc, et al., J. Mater. Sci. 41, 27(2006). [4] Q. Zhang, et al., Appl. Phys.
Lett., 95, 1 02904 (2009). [5] E. Sapper, et al., J. Appl. Phys., 111, 014105 (2012).
Institute of Materials Science - Ceramics Group
29
Electronic Material Properties
The Electronic Materials division introduces the aspect of electronic functional materials and
their properties into the Institute of Materials Science. The associated research concentrates
on the characterization of various classes of materials suited for implementation in
information storage and organic and inorganic electronics. Four major research topics are
presently addressed:




Electronic and optoelectronic properties of organic semiconductors.
Charge transport in inorganic semiconductor devices.
Charge transport and polarization in organic and inorganic dielectrics.
Photo- and photostimulated luminescence in inorganic phosphors.
For novel areas of application a worldwide interest exists in the use of organic
semiconductors in electronic and optoelectronic components, such as transistors and lightemitting diodes. So far, multicolour and full colour organic displays have been
implemented in commercially available cameras, car-radios, PDAs, mp3-players and even
television sets. Organic devices reaching further into the future will be simple logic circuits,
constituting the core of communication electronics such as chip cards for radio-frequency
identification (RFID) tags and maybe one day flexible electronic newspapers where the
information is continuously renewed via mobile networks. In view of the inevitable
technological development, the activities of the group are concerned with the
characterization of organic material properties regarding the performance of organic
electronic and optoelectronic devices. The major aspect deals with the charge carrier
injection and transport taking place in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic
light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In particular, the performance of unipolar and ambipolar
light-emitting OFETs and the stability of OFETs and OLEDs are subjects of recent
investigations. To conduct these demanding tasks, various experimental techniques for
device fabrication and characterization are installed. Besides basic electric measurement
setups, a laser spectroscopy setup used for time-of-flight as well as for life-time
measurements and a Kelvin-probe atomic force microscope to visualize the potential
distribution of organic devices with nanometer resolution are available.
Even though organic electronics is an emerging field especially for consumer electronics
applications today's electronic devices still mainly rely on conventional silicon technology.
While organic semiconductors have excellent optoelectronic properties they in general
suffer from low charge carrier mobilities limiting the switching rates in organic transistors.
Yet, metal oxides like ZnO, InZnO (IZO) or InGaZnO (IGZO) can bridge the gap between
the high mobility semiconductors like silicon and the low mobility organic semiconductors.
Using metal-organic precursors or nanoparticulate dispersions easy processing procedures
like spin-coating or printing can be applied and yield rather high field-effect mobilities in
the order of 1-10 cm²V-1s-1 for the produced thin film transistors (TFTs). Current research
activities in the group concentrate on the optimization of the processing procedures
especially the decrease of annealing temperatures is desired to make the processes
compatible with organic substrates. Furthermore, the influence of the layer morphology
and the role of the gas atmosphere for the device performance as well as stability issues are
investigated.
30
Institute of Materials Science – Electronic Material Properties
In the field of polymer electrets current research comprises the characterization of surface
charge distribution, charge stability, and charge transport properties of fluoropolymers, as
well as their applications in acoustical transducers. Present investigations of charge
transport and polarization in organic dielectrics are directed towards the basic
understanding of polarization buildup and stabilization in PVDF and in novel microporous
dielectrics. Latter are scientifically interesting as model ferroelectric polymers. Moreover,
the fatigue behaviour of electrically stressed inorganic PZT ceramics is investigated. The
focus lies on preventing the operational fatigue of ferroelectric devices due to cyclic and
static electrical stress. The available equipment includes poling devices, such as corona and
high voltage setups, and a thermally stimulated current setup to investigate the energetic
trap structure in dielectrics as well as the thermal charging and discharging under high
electric fields.
The field of photoluminescent and photostimulated luminescent (PSL) materials
(phosphors) is concerned with the synthesis and characterization of suited inorganic
compounds used as wavelength converters in fluorescent lamps and in scintillating and
information storing crystals. Present work is focused on x-ray detection materials, providing
improved resolution and high PSL-efficiency needed in medical imaging. In particular the
storage phosphors CsBr:Eu2+ and BaFBr:Eu2+ are under investigation. Research is
concentrated on the influence of humidity on the sensitivity of CsBr:Eu2+. Before and after
the treatment the materials are studied by means of spectroscopic methods as well as
scanning electron microscopy. The exchange of water during the thermal treatment is
measured in situ by thermal analysis methods. New synthesis methods for BaFBr:Eu2+ used
in commercial image plates are of interest and new synthesis routes will be tested for other
storage phosphors and scintillators. On the one hand the mechanism of PSL-sensitization,
which is found to be mainly due to the incorporation of oxygen and water, is investigated.
On the other hand the implementation of BaFBr:Eu2+ powders into organic binders in order
to form image plates is in the focus of the work.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Heinz von Seggern
Research Associates
Dr. Andrea Gassmann
Dr. Joachim Hillenbrand
Dr. Sergej Zhukov
Dr. Corinna Hein
Dr. Emanuelle Reis Simas
Dr. Jörg Zimmermann
Technical Personnel
Gabriele Andreß
Sabine Hesse
Helga Janning
Bernd Stoll
Secretary
Gabriele Kühnemundt
PhD Students
Tobias Könyves-Toth
Fabian Knoch
Oili Pekkola
Riitta Savikoski
Institute of Materials Science – Electronic Material Properties
Elmar Kersting
Paul Mundt
Florian Pfeil
Henning Seim
31
Master Students
Ralph Dachauer
Stefan Vogel
Guest Scientists
Anatoli Popov
Christopher Wolf
Stepfan Schlißke
Research Projects
Fatigue of organic semiconductor components (SFB 595 (DFG), 2003-2014)
Phenomenological modelling of bipolar carrier transport in organic semiconducting devices
under special consideration of injection, transport and recombination phenomena (SFB 595
(DFG), 2003-2014)
Polarization and charge in electrically fatigued ferroelectrics (SFB 595 (DFG), 2006-2014)
Development of organic piezo sensors (LOEWE AdRIA 26200026, 2008-2014)
Thin film dielectrics for high performance transistors (DFG, 2012-2015)
Development of gate insulators for organic field effect transistors exploiting self-assembly of
block-copolymers (IDS-FunMat (EU), 2012-2015)
Piezoelectric properties of ferroelectrics (DFG, 2012-2015)
Preparation and characterization of metal-oxide field-effect transistors (MerckLab, 20092015)
High resolution, transparent image plates based on the storage phosphor CsBr:Eu2+ (DFG,
2013-2015)
Metal oxide based field-effect transistors with top gate geometry (Helmholtz Virtual
Institute, 2012-2017)
Publications
[1]
Xu, Bai-Xiang; von Seggern, Heinz; Zhukov, Sergey; et al.
An internal-variable-based interface model for the charging process of ferroelectrets
EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF MECHANICS A-SOLIDS 48, 97-111 (2014)
[2]
Melzer, Christian; von Seggern, Heinz
The color change in polychromatic organic light-emitting field-effect transistors: Optical
filtering versus reemission
ORGANIC ELECTRONICS 15, 2505-2512 (2014)
[3]
Pekkola, Oili; Gassmann, Andrea; Etzold, Fabian; et al.
Influence of triplet excitons on the lifetime of polymer-based organic light emitting diodes
PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE 211,
2035-2039 (2014)
32
Institute of Materials Science – Electronic Material Properties
[4]
Koenyves-Toth, Tobias; Gassmann, Andrea; von Seggern, Heinz
The Challenge of Producing Fiber-Based Organic Electronic Devices
MATERIALS 7, 5254-5267 (2014)
[5]
Cherpak, Vladyslav; Gassmann, Andrea; Stakhira, Pavlo; et al.
Three-terminal light-emitting device with adjustable emission color
ORGANIC ELECTRONICS 15, 1396-1400 (2014)
[6]
Haeming, Marc; Issanin, Alexander; Walker, Daniel; et al.
Interrelation between Chemical, Electronic, and Charge Transport Properties of SolutionProcessed Indium-Zinc Oxide Semiconductor Thin Films
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C 118, 12826-12836 (2014)
[7]
Jakes, Peter; Zimmermann, Joerg; Von Seggern, Heinz; et al.
Eu2+-doped CsBr photostimulable X-ray storage phosphors - analysis of defect structure
by high-frequency EPR
FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS LETTERS 7, 1350073 (2014)
[8]
Zhukov, Sergey; Kungl, Hans; Genenko, Yuri A.; et al.
Statistical electric field and switching time distributions in PZT 1Nb2Sr ceramics: Crystaland microstructure effects
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 115, 014103 (2014)
Institute of Materials Science – Electronic Material Properties
33
Manufacturing and characterization of high resolution image plates
Elmar Kersting and Heinz von Seggern
Storage phosphors have the capability to store a two-dimensional latent image as a result of
an x-ray exposure of an investigated object. X-rays are thereby partially absorbed by the
investigated object and the penetrating radiation enters the image plate where it is again
absorbed generating electron holes pairs, which are trapped in defects of the storage
medium. The number of the locally trapped charge carriers depends thereby on the
intensity of X-rays, on their energy and the intensity pattern of the radiation created by the
object. This stored electrons can be stimulated by visible light (readout) and after been
liberated, recombine with trapped holes producing the photo- or optically-stimulated
luminescence (PSL or OSL), which can be collected by a photomultiplier. By scanning the
image plate with a focussed laser the photo-stimulated light can be collected and correlated
with the readout light and the corresponding electrical signal from the photomultiplier. A
plot of the emission intensity as a function of the laser spot results in the x-ray image which
can be displayed on a high resolution computer screen. The most relevant properties of
image plates are the spatial resolution, the stimulation energy (energy of the stimulating
light, which is required to reduce the PSL intensity to 1/e (37%) [µJ/mm2]) and the
conversion efficiency (total PSL energy released during stimulation per absorbed X-ray dose
[pJmR-1mm-2]).
A typical resolution of a powder based commercial image plate thereby varies between 3 to
5 linepairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and present
research is directed to improve this property due
to urgent need e.g. in mammography where at
least 10 lp/mm are necessary to image breast
cancer in an early state. The strategy to increase
the resolution is by reducing the scattering of the
stimulating light in the storage phosphor. This
can be archived by different methods: The first
realized method was to add an absorbent for the
stimulating light to the powder, thus preventing
Figure 4: Correlation of resolution and PSL it to scatter too far away from the point of
sensitivity to grain size of a storage phosphor. stimulation. The second method also commercial
Fine grained powder has a lot of grain
today is to fabricate the storage phosphor in a
boundaries, thus the stimulation light is
scattered often in a small distance and will not needle structure so that the stimulating light is
travel far. With increasing grain size the reflected alongside the needles [1]. These two
scattering volume grows until the effect of too methods are presently used in industry to
few grain boundaries becomes more important accomplish higher resolution. The more general
than the travelling distance between two
relation between grain size and resolution as
scattering events. In the extreme of a single
crystal no scattering occurs and the stimulated well as sensitivity is shown schematically in
Figure 1. One realises that really high resolution
area is only the laser spot itself.
can only be obtained for a very fine powder or
for single crystalline materials where the resolution is basically determined by very strong
scattering or the diameter of the laser, respectively.
34
Institute of Materials Science – Electronic Material Properties
Therefore in the present study the grain size is varied
to obtain a higher resolution. The utilized material is
CsBr doped with Europium whose cubic structure
allows the pressing of a transparent (low optical
scattering of the stimulation light) image plate
[Winch]. Unfortunately the exposure to the
environment and therewith to humidity causes
Figure 5: Example of a semitransparent recrystallization and the image plate starts to turn
image plate pressed out of Europium cloudy. The conversion efficiency, however gets
doped CsBr. The left one is directly after better the longer the image plate is hydrated. Figure
pressing and the right one after a few 2 shows an example of a semitransparent pressed
minutes exposed to air.
CsBr:Eu image
plate. Samples using both approaches, fine grained
powder and transparent pressing, are manufactured
and their optical properties examined.
To determine the optical quality and resolution of the
samples, a custom made readout system was designed
and built. Due to the design of this scanner, image
plates of different size, form and thickness can be
measured. An example thereof is displayed in Fig. 3.
To quantify the resolution of the image plates the
modular transfer function (MTF) is calculated using
the method described by Buhr [2]. The MTF is
basically the contrast ratio of alternating lines of
exposed and non-exposed areas plotted as a function
of the number of lines per millimeter.
Figure 3: X-Ray image from a RAM
module recorded with the custom made
scanner. The image plate used is from
Dürr Dental (ST4+).
Presently transparent image plates can be produced,
but there is still work to be done to determine the
optimal production methods and parameters and to
compare these transparent image plates to nontransparent image plates made out of fine powder
regarding the optical and functional properties, mainly
resolution, conversion efficiency and stimulation
efficiency.
References:
[1] Leblans, P., Vandenbroucke, D. & Willems, P. Storage
phosphors for medical imaging. Materials 4, 1034–1086 (2011)
[2] Buhr, E., Günther-Kohfahl, S. & Neitzel, U. Simple method for
modulation function determination of digital imaging detectors
from edge images. Medical Imaging 2003: Physics of Medical
Imaging, 877 (June 9, 2003)
Institute of Materials Science – Electronic Material Properties
Figure 4: Obtained MTF from the image
plate ST4+ from Dürr Dental. Often the
resolution is defined to be the lp/mm
where the contrast ratio still has a value
of 0.2.
35
Surface Science
The surface science division of the institute of materials science uses advanced surface
science techniques to investigate surfaces and interfaces of materials and materials
combinations of technological use. For this purpose integrated UHV-systems have been
built up which combine different surface analytical tools (photoemission, inverse
photoemission, electron diffraction, ion scattering, electron loss spectroscopy, scanning
probe techniques) with the preparation of thin films (thermal evaporation, close-spaced
sublimation, magnetron sputtering, MOCVD) and interfaces. The main research interest is
directed to devices using polycrystalline compound semiconductors and interfaces between
dissimilar materials. The perspectives of energy conversion (e.g. solar cells) or storage
(intercalation batteries) devices are of special interest. In addition, the fundamental
processes involved in chemical and electrochemical device engineering and oxide thin films
for electronic applications are investigated.
The main research areas are:
Electrochemical Interfaces
The aim of this research activity is the better understanding of electrochemical interfaces
and their application for energy conversion. In addition, empirically derived (electro-)
chemical processing steps for the controlled modification and structuring of materials is
investigated and further optimized. In the center of our interest are
semiconductor/electrolyte contacts.
Solar fuels
The direct solar light induced water splitting is investigated using photoelectrochemical
(electrode/electrolyte) or photocatalytic (particle) arrangements. New materials, design
structures, as well as interface engineering approached with advanced catalysts are
investigated. The catalysts are also tested for their application in water electrolysis
Intercalation Batteries
The aim of this research activity is the better understanding of electronic properties of Liintercalation batteries and of their degradation phenomena. Typically all solid state
batteries are prepared and investigated using sputtering and CVD techniques for cathodes
and solid electrolytes. In addition, the solid-electrolyte interface and synthetic surface
layers are investigated as well as composite systems for increasing the capacity.
Thin film solar cells
The aim of this research activity is the testing and development of novel materials and
materials combinations for photovoltaic applications. In addition, the interfaces in
microcrystalline thin film solar cells are to be characterized on a microscopic level to
understand and to further improve the empirically based optimisation of solar cells.
Organic-inorganic interfaces and composites
In this research area we are aiming at the development of composites marterials for (opto-)
electronic applications. The decisive factors, which govern the electronic properties of
interfaces between organic and inorganic materials are studied.
36
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
Semiconducting Oxides
The aim of this research area is to understand electronic surface and interfaces properties
of oxides. We are mainly interested in transparent conducting oxide electrodes for solar
cells and organic LEDs but also in dielectric and ferroelectric perovskites.
Surface analysis
The UHV-surface science equipment and techniques using different and versatile integrated
preparation chambers is used for cooperative service investigations. For the experiments we
use integrated UHV-preparation and analysis-systems (UPS, (M)XPS, LEISS, LEED),
spectromicroscopy (PEEM) coupled with UHV-STM/AFM. We further apply synchrotron
radiation (SXPS, spectromicroscopy), scanning probe methods (STM, AFM), and
electrochemical measuring techniques. UHV-preparation chambers dedicated for MBE,
CVD, PVD and (electro)chemical treatment are available.
The members of the group are involved in basic courses of the department’s curriculum and
offer special courses on the physics, chemistry and engineering of semiconductor devices
and solar cells, on surface and interface science, and on thin film and surface technology
and electrochemistry.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Wolfram Jaegermann
Research Associates
Dr. Gennady Cherkashinin
Dr. Lucangelo Dimesso
Dr. René Hausbrand
PD Dr. Bernd Kaiser
Dr. Hermann Schimper
Apl. Prof. Andreas Klein
Dr. Shunyi Li
Dr. Eric Mankel
Dr. Thomas Mayer
Dr. Florent Yang
Technical Personnel
Dipl.-Ing. Erich Golusda
Kerstin Lakus-Wollny
Secretaries
Leslie Frotscher
Marga Lang
PhD Students
Dipl.-Ing. Thorsten Bayer
M.Sc. Mercedes Carillo-Solano
M.Sc. Mariel Grace Dimamay
M.Sc. Ralph Dachauer
Dipl.-Ing. Anne Fuchs
M.Sc. Stephan Hillmann
M.Eng. Shun Kashiwaya
Dipl.-Ing. Mareike Hohmann
Dipl.-Ing. Maybritt Kühn
M.Sc. Christian Lohaus
Dipl.-Ing. Ruben Precht
Dipl.-Karsten Rachut
Dipl.-Ing. Philip Reckers
M.Sc. Thomas Späth
Dipl.-Ing. Natalia Schulz
Dipl.-Ing. André Schwöbel
M.Sc.Sebastian Siol
Dipl.-Phys. Sven Tengeler
Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Türck
Dipl.-Ing. Mirko Weidner
M.Sc. Hans Wardenga
M.Sc. Natascha Weidler
Dipl.-Ing. Mirko Weidner
M.Sc. Carolin Wittich
M.Sc. Michael Wußler
Dipl.-Ing. Jürgen Ziegler
Master Students
Andreas Eva
Sandro Setzer
Farzin Ziaiee Tabary
Philipp Wendel
Research Fellow
Dr. Lili Wu
Guest Scientists
Dr. Feng Chen
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
37
Research Projects
Function and fatigue of conducting electrodes in organic LEDs, SFB 595-D3 (DFG 2003-2014)
Polarization and charge in electrically fatigued ferroelectrics, SFB 595-B7 (DFG 2007-2014)
Integriertes Graduiertenkolleg SFB 595 (DFG 2008-2014)
Tunable Integrated Components for Microwaves and Optics, Graduiertenkolleg 1037 (DFG
2004-2014)
Boundary layers and thin films of ionic conductors: Electronic structure, electrochemical
potentials, defect formation and degradation mechanism SFB595-A3 (DFG 2003-2014)
Morphology and Electronic Structure of Organic/Organic and Organic/Metal-Oxid Hybrid
Systems, Innovation Lab GmbH Heidelberg oft he BMBF leading edge cluster Forum
Organic Electronics (BMBF 2009 – 2014)
9D-Sense Autonomous Nine Degrees of Freedom Sensor Module (BMBF/VDI 2011 – 2014)
Solid State Lithium Batterien mit organischen Kathoden (Novaled 2011 – 2014)
All Oxide PV (EU 2012 – 2014)
Inverted organic solar cells: Charge carrier extraction and interface characterization (DFG
2012- 2014)
Photoelectrochemical water splitting using adapted silicon based semiconductor tandem
structures (DFG 2012 – 2015)
Coordination SPP 1613 Solar H2 (DFG 2012 – 2015)
Joint project „PeroSol“:vacuum based thin film solar cells with novel organometal halide
perovskite absorber (BMBF 2014 – 2017)
Interface engineering for the chemical and electronic passivation of group III–phosphide
semiconductors to be used in highly efficient photoelectrochemical tandem cells for water
splitting” (DFG 2014 – 2017)
Publications
[1]
S. Stolz, M. Scherer, E. Mankel, R. Lovrinčić, J. Schinke, W. Kowalsky, W.
Jaegermann, U. Lemmer, N. Mechau, G. Hernandez-Sosa
Investigation of Solution-Processed Ultrathin Electron Injection Layers for Organic
Light-Emitting Diodes
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6, 6616-6622 (2014)
doi: 10.1021/am500287y
[2]
M. Alt, J. Schinke, S. Hillebrandt, M. Hänsel, G. Hernandez-Sosa, N. Mechau,
T. Glaser, E. Mankel, M. Hamburger, K. Deing, W. Jaegermann, A. Pucci, W.
Kowalsky, U. Lemmer, R. Lovrincic
Processing Follows Function: Pushing the Formation of Self-Assembled Monolayers to
High-Throughput Compatible Time Scales
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces 6, 20234-20241 (2014)
doi: 10.1021/am5057689
38
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
[3]
F. C. Hanusch, E. Wiesenmayer, E. Mankel, A. Binek, P. Angloher, C.
Fraunhofer, N. Giesbrecht, J. M. Feckl, W. Jaegermann, D. Johrendt, T. Bein, P.
Docampo
Efficient Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells Based on Formamidinium Lead
Bromide
J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 2791-2795 (2014) doi: 10.1021/jz501237m
[4]
M.V. Lebedev, T. Mayer
Superior electronic passivation of n-GaP(100) surface using alcoholic as compared to
aqueous ammonium sulfide solution: Wet processing studied with synchrotron
photoelectron spectroscopy
phys. stat. sol. a 211, 2005-2012 (2014) doi: 10.1002/pssa.201330402
[5]
M.V. Lebedev, W. Calvet, T. Mayer, W. Jaegermann
Photoelectrochemical Processes at n-GaAs(100)/Aqueous HCl Electrolyte Interface: A
Synchrotron Photoemission Spectroscopy Study of Emersed Electrodes
J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 12774-12781 (2014)
doi: 10.1021/jp500564c
[6]
E. Mankel, C. Hein, M. Kuehn, T. Mayer
Electric potential distributions in space charge regions of molecular organic adsorbates
using a simplified distributed states model
phys. stat. sol. a 211, 2040-2048 (2014)
doi: 10.1002/pssa.201330432
[7]
E. Juarez-Perez, M. Wussler, F. Fabregat-Santiago, K. Lakus-Wollny, E. Mankel,
T. Mayer, W. Jaegermann, I. Mora-Sero
Role of the Selective Contacts in the Performance of Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells
J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 680-685 (2014)
doi: 10.1021/jz500059v
[8]
Räupke, F. Albrecht, J. Maibach, A. Behrendt, A. Polywka, R. Heiderhoff, J.
Helzel, T. Rabe, H.-H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, E. Mankel, T. Mayer, P. Görrn,
T. Riedl
Conformal and Highly Luminescent Monolayers of Alq(3) Prepared by Gas-Phase
Molecular Layer Deposition
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6, 1193-1199 (2014)
doi: 10.1021/am404918g
[9]
J. Maibach, T. Adermann, T. Glaser, R. Eckstein, E. Mankel, A. Pucci, K.
Müllen, U. Lemmer, M. Hamburger, T. Mayer, W. Jaegermann
Impact of processing on the chemical and electronic properties of phenyl-C-61-butyric
acid methyl ester
J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 7934-7942 (2014)
doi: 10.1039/C4TC00769G
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
39
[10]
D. Becker, G. Cherkashinin, R. Hausbrand, W. Jaegermann
Adsorption of Diethyl Carbonate on LiCoO2 Thin Films: Formation of the
Electrochemical Interface
Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118, 962-967 (2014)
doi: 10.1021/Jp405714x
[11]
S. Schmid, R. Hausbrand, W. Jaegermann
Cobalt oxide thin film low pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.
Thin Solid Films 567, 8-13 (2014)
doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2014.07.029
[12]
R. Hausbrand
On the use of energy level diagrams for semiconducting ionic electrodes.
Physica Status Solidi a 211, 2049-2051 (2014)
doi: 10.1002/pssa.201330423
[13]
R. Hausbrand, D. Becker, W. Jaegermann
A surface science approach to cathode/electrolyte interfaces in Li-ion batteries: Contact
properties, charge transfer and reactions
Progress in Solid State Chemistry 42, 175-183 (2014)
doi: 10.1016/j.progsolidstchem.2014.04.010
[14]
Schwöbel, R. Precht, M. Motzko, M.A.C. Solano, W. Calvet, R, Hausbrand, W.
Jaegermann,
Determination of the valence band structure of an alkali phosphorus oxynitride glass:
A synchrotron XPS study on LiPON.
Applied Surface Science 321, 55-60 (2014)
doi: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2014.09.174
[15]
D. Ensling, G. Cherkashinin, S. Schmid, S. Bhuvaneswari, A. Thissen, W.
Jaegermann
Nonrigid band behavior of the electronic structure of LiCoO2 thin film during
electrochemical Li- deintercalation.
Chemistry of Materials 26, 3948-3956 (2014)
doi: 10.1021/cm501480b
[16]
G. Cherkashinin, D. Ensling, W. Jaegermann
LiMO2 (M= Ni, Co) thin film cathode materials: a correlation between the valence
state of transition metals and the electrochemical properties
Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2, 3571-3580 (2014).
doi: 10.1039/C3TA14509C
[17]
D. J. Babu, S. N. Varanakkottu, A. Eifert, D. Koning, G. Cherkashinin, S. Hardt,
J. J. Schneider
Inscribing Wettability Gradients Onto Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Surfaces
Advanced Materials Interfaces 1, 1300049 (2014)
doi: 10.1002/admi.201300049.
40
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
[18]
D. J. Babu, S. Yadav, T. Heinlein, G. Cherkashinin, J. J. Schneider
Carbon Dioxide Plasma as a Versatile Medium for Purification and Functionalization
of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes
Journal of Physical Chemistry C 118, 12028-12034 (2014)
doi: 10.1021/jp5027515
[19]
D. Scheid, G. Cherkashinin, E. Ionescu, M. Gallei
Single-Source Magnetic Nanorattles By Using Convenient Emulsion Polymerization
Protocols,
LANGMUIR, 30, 1204-1209 (2014) doi: 10.1021/la404285c
[20]
L. Dimesso, M. M. Dimamay, M. Hamburger, W. Jaegermann
Properties of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br, Cl) Powders as Precursors for
Organic/Inorganic Solar Cells
Chem. Mater. 26, 6762-6770 (2014) doi: 10.1021/cm503240k
[21]
L. Dimesso, D. Becker, C. Spanheimer, W. Jaegermann
Effect of Ca,Mg-ions on the properties of LiCo0.9M0.1PO4/graphitic carbon composites
Prog. Solid St. Chem. 42, 184-190 (2014)
doi: 10.1016/j.progsolidstchem.2014.04.011
[22]
L. Dimesso, C. Spanheimer, W. Jaegermann
Investigation of the LiCo1-xMgxPO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) - graphitic carbon foam composites
Solid State Sciences 30C, 89-93 (2014)
doi: 10.1016/j.solidstatesciences.2014.02.011
[23]
L. Dimesso, C. Spanheimer, W. Jaegermann
Influence of the annealing atmosphere on the properties of LiCoPO4 graphitic carbon
foams composites
Ionics 20, 621-628 (2014) doi: 10.1007/s11581-013-1025-8
[24]
L. Dimesso, C. Spanheimer, D. Becker, W. Jaegermann
Properties of LiCoPO4-non-graphitic carbon foam composites
J. Eur Ceram Soc 34, 933-941 (2014)
doi: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2013.10.030
[25]
L. Dimesso, C. Spanheimer, W. Jaegermann
Investigation of the LiCo1-xMgxPO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.1) system
J. Alloys Compd. 582, 69-74 (2014)
doi: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2013.08.034
[26]
J. Ziegler, B. Kaiser, W. Jaegermann, F. Urbain, J.-P. Becker, V. Smirnov, F.
Finger
Photoelectrochemical and Photovoltaic Characteristics of Amorphous-Silicon-Based
Tandem Cells as Photocathodes for Water Splitting
ChemPhysChem 15, 4026 (2014)
doi: 10.1002/cphc.201402552
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
41
[27]
F. Urbain, K. Wilken, V. Smirnov, O. Astakhov, A. Lambertz, J.-P. Becker, U.
Rau, J. Ziegler, B. Kaiser, W. Jaegermann, F. Finger,
Development of Thin Film Amorphous Silicon Tandem Junction Based Photocathodes
Providing High Open-Circuit Voltages for Hydrogen Production
Int. J. Photoenergy 2014, 249317 (2014).
doi: 10.1155/2014/249317
[28]
F. Urbain, V. Smirnov, J.-P. Becker, U. Rau, F. Finger, J. Ziegler, B. Kaiser, W.
Jaegermann
a-Si:H/µc-Si:H tandem junction based photocathodes with high open-circuit voltage
for efficient hydrogen production
J. Mat. Res. 29, 2605 (2014)
doi: 10.1557/jmr.2014.308
[29]
J. Pareja, C. Litterscheid, B. Kaiser, M. Euler, N. Fuhrmann, B. Albert, A.
Molina, J. Ziegler, A. Dreizler
Surface thermometry in combustion diagnostics by sputtered thin films of
thermographic phosphors
Appl. Phys. B 117, 85 (2014).
doi: 10.1007/s00340-014-5803-4
[30]
Q.-B. Ma, J. Ziegler, B. Kaiser, D. Fertig, W. Calvet, E. Murugasen, W.
Jaegermann
Solar water splitting with p-SiC film on p-Si: Photoelectrochemical behavior and XPS
characterization, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 39, 1623 (2014).
doi: j.ijhydene.2013.11.042
[31]
Q.-B. Ma, B. Kaiser, W. Jaegermann
Novel photoelectrochemical behaviors of p-SiC films on Si for solar water splitting,
Journal of Power Sources 253, 41 (2014).
doi: j.jpowsour.2013.12.042
[32]
J. Klett, S. Krähling, B. Elger, R. Schäfer, B. Kaiser, W. Jaegermann
The Electronic Interaction of Pt-Clusters with ITO and HOPG Surfaces upon Water
Adsorption,
Z. Phys. Chem. 228, 503 (2014). doi: 10.1515/zpch-2013-0499
[33]
W. Calvet, E. Murugasen, J. Klett, B. Kaiser, W. Jaegermann, F. Finger, S.
Hoch, M. Blug, and J. Busse
Silicon based tandem cells: novel photocathodes for hydrogen production,
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16, 12043 (2014).
doi: 10.1039/c3cp55198a
[34]
T. Adler, M. Botros, W. Witte, D. Hariskos, R. Menner, M. Powalla, A. Klein
Valence Band Offsets at Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Zn(O,S) Interfaces,
Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 211, 1972-1980 (2014)
doi: 10.1002/pssa.201330353
42
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
[35]
K. Rachut, C. Körber, J. Brötz, A. Klein
Growth and Surface Properties of Epitaxial SnO2
Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 211, 1997-2004 (2014)
doi: 10.1002/pssa.201330367
[36]
P. Erhart, A. Klein, D. Åberg, Babak Sadigh
Efficacy of the DFT+U formalism for modeling hole polarons in perovskite oxides
Phys. Rev. B 90, 035204 (2014)
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.035204
[37]
S. Li, F. Chen, R. Schafranek, T.J.M. Bayer, K. Rachut, A. Fuchs, S. Siol, M.
Weidner, M. Hohmann, V. Pfeifer, J. Morasch, C. Ghinea, E. Arveux, R.
Günzler, J. Gassmann, C. Körber, Y. Gassenbauer, F. Säuberlich, G.V. Rao, S.
Payan, M. Maglione, C. Chirila, L. Pintilie, L. Jia, K. Ellmer, M. Naderer, K.
Reichmann, U. Böttger, S. Schmelzer, R.C. Frunza, H. Uršič, B. Malič, W.-B.
Wu, P. Erhart, A. Klein
Intrinsic energy band alignment of functional oxides
Phys. Stat. Sol. (rrl) 8, 571-576 (2014)
doi:10.1002/pssr.201409034
[38]
S. Hirsch, P. Komissinskiy, S. Flege, S. Li, K. Rachut, A. Klein, L. Alff
Modification of energy band alignment and electric properties of Pt/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/Pt
thin-film ferroelectric varactors by Ag impurities at interfaces
J. Appl. Phys. 115, 243704 (2014)
doi: 10.1063/1.4885880
[39]
M.V. Hohmann, A. Wachau, A. Klein
In situ Hall effect and conductivity measurements of ITO thin films
Solid State Ionics 262, 636-639 (2014)
doi: 10.1016/j.ssi.2013.10.004
[40]
Y. Zuo, Y.A. Genenko, A. Klein, P. Stein, B. Xu
Domain wall stability in ferroelectrics with space charges
J. Appl. Phys. 115, 084110 (2014)
doi: 10.1063/1.4866359
[41]
M. Weidner, J. Brötz, A. Klein
Sputter-deposited polycrystalline tantalum-doped SnO2 layers
Thin Solid Films 555, 173-178 (2014)
doi: 10.1016/j.tsf.2013.05.147
[42]
J. Morasch, S. Li, J. Brötz, W. Jaegermann, A. Klein
Reactively magnetron sputtered Bi2O3 thin films: Analysis of structure, optoelectronic,
interface, and photovoltaic properties
Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 211, 93-100 (2014)
doi: 10.1002/pssa.201330216
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
43
[43]
F. Chen, W.-B. Wu, S. Li, A. Klein
Energy band alignment at ferroelectric/electrode interface determined by photoelectron
spectroscopy
Chin. Phys. B 23, 017702 (2014)
doi: 10.1088/1674-1056/23/1/017702
[44]
F. Muench, U. Kunz, H. F. Wardenga, H.-J. Kleebe, W. Ensinger
Metal Nanotubes and Nanowires with Rhombohedral Cross-Section Electrolessly
Deposited in Mica Templates
Langmuir 30, 10878-10885 (2014)
doi: 10.1021/la5012956
[45]
Y. M. Nikolaenko, Y. E. Kuzovlev, Y. V. Medvedev, N. I. Mezin, C. Fasel, A.
Gurlo, L. Schlicker, T. J. M. Bayer, Y. A. Genenko
Macro- and microscopic properties of strontium doped indium oxide
Journal of Applied Physics 116, 043704 (2014)
doi: 10.1063/1.4891216
[46]
M. Häming, A. Issanin, D. Walker, H. von Seggern, W. Jaegermann, K. Bonrad
Interrelation between Chemical, Electronic, and Charge Transport Properties of
Solution-Processed Indium–Zinc Oxide Semiconductor Thin Films
J. Phys. Chem. C 118, 12826-12836 (2014)
DOI: 10.1021/jp501956z
[47]
K. Fominykh, J.M. Feckl, J. Sicklinger, M. Döblinger, S. Böcklein, J. Ziegler, L.
Peter, J. Rathousky, E.-W. Scheidt, T. Bein, D. Fattakhova-Rohlfing, D.
Ultrasmall Dispersible Crystalline Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles as High-Performance
Catalysts for Electrochemical Water Splitting
Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 3123-3129 (2014)
doi: 10.1002/adfm.201303600
[48]
Radetinac, A. Mani, S. Melnyk, M. Nikfalazar, J. Ziegler, Y. Zheng, R. Jakoby,
L. Alff, P. Komissinskiy
Highly conducting SrMoO3 thin films for microwave applications
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 114108 (2014)
doi: 10.1063/1.4896339
44
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
Properties of CH3NH3PbX3 (X = I, Br) powders as precursors for
organic/inorganic film solar cells
L. Dimesso, W. Jaegermann
In an effort to generate more cost-effective technology, the field of thin film solar
photovoltaics (PV) presents a promising avenue toward high efficiency solar energy
conversion. Hybrid inorganic-organic (IO) semiconductors are opening up a new insight to
low dimensional PV nanostructures. They deliver a unique replacement of their inorganic
and organic counterparts in advanced device structures (an example is shown in Fig. 1) and
provide significant opportunity as multifunctional materials for many electronic and
optoelectronic applications. Among these hybrids, self-organized low-dimensional IO
structures, derived from component 3D networks of R-MX3 (R-organic amine and MXmetal halide) type perovskite, have attracted much attention because of their unique crystal
structures and the modified optical properties [1-3]. When the R-site in the perovskite
formula, R-MI3, is occupied by a monovalent cation, such as Rb, Cs, methylammonium
(MA+ hereafter), or formamidinium, a three-dimensional (3D) framework is obtained (as
shown in Fig. 2).
Fig. 1: Generic structure of a perovskite solar cell
Fig. 2: Structures
X hydrogen bonds)
of
MAPbI3
(in
red
N-H
Among them, MAPbX3 (X = Br, I) perovskites described by Weber [4] are compounds
unusual in several respects such as the color which intensifies rapidly from the reddishorange bromide to black iodide, pointing to a charge-transfer character of the Pb-X bonds
and possibly to photoconduction. Despite the widening literature on the photovoltaic use
of hybrid lead perovskites [2-4], many questions, concerning their peculiar structural,
electronic chemistry and material response to light induced processes, remain to be
addressed. The main purposes of our research is the investigation of the structural,
morphological, optical and electronic properties of the MAPbX3 powders (X = I, Br) which
can be used as precursors for dispersions to thin films devices.
Methyl-ammonium-tri-halogeno-plumbates (II) - CH3NH3+PbX3-, (X = Br, I) - were
synthesized by a modified self-organization process [5]. The materials were prepared in
concentrated aqueous solution of the acid HX which contained Pb2+ ions [from lead (II)
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
45
10
20
30
40
2 (degree)
Fig. 3: Typical XRD Diffractogramm for
MAPbI3 powder system.
(404)
(224)
(314)
(411)
(200)
(211)
(202)
(004)
(220)
(213)
(114)
(310)
(312)
(002)
Intensity (a.u.)
(110)
acetate] and a respective amount of CH3NH3+ (by adding a 40% solution of CH3NH2 in
water). Beautiful large crystals of size up to 1-2 mm are grown by cooling an aqueous
solution from about 95-105°C to room temperature.
The X-ray diffractogramms of the CH3NH3+PbX3- (X = I, Br) perovskites indicate, for X = I
(Fig. 3), the formation of a tetragonal structure at room temperature (space group I 4/m or
I 4/mcm) and for X = Br, the formation of a cubic structure at room temperature (space
group Pm3m) respectively. The results of the morphological investigation on the MAPbX3
systems revealed the
50
60
Fig. 4: Typical SEM micrographs of
MAPbI3 microcrystallites
formation of single microcrystalls of MAPbX3 generally formed as dodecahedra, with some
examples exhibiting faceting consistent with rhombo-hexagonal dodecahedra, which is a
typical crystal habit of a body centered tetragonal lattice as shown in Fig. 4 for X = I as
example.
The photoluminescence (PL) properties of specimens of the MAPbX3 systems were
measured at room temperature using an emission wavelength of 380 nm. PL emissions
were observed for I- and Br-containing compounds (shown in Fig. 5a-b). The emission
wavelength of MAPbI3 (peak maximum at ~754 nm as in Figure 5a) is consistent with our
optical absorption data [5] and supported by Stoumpos [6] providing further evidence for
the direct nature of the band gap. On the other hand, the emission wavelength of the
MAPbBr3 (peak maximum at ~568 nm as in Fig. 5b) is consistent with our optical
absorption data but it is slightly higher than the values (550 nm) reported in the literature.
In the case of comparative studies between continuous thin films and nano-powdered
materials, the sizes of primary particles can play a prominent role in the final properties.
46
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
Fig. 6: Photoluminescence spectra of
MAPbX3 systems (RT, emission at 380nm)
for a) X = I and b) X = Br respectively.
Fig. 7: A) Top view and B) tilted
view SEM images of a MAPbI3 layer
Deposited on FTO glass substrat
The next step of our investigation has been the preparation of layers using the prepared
powders as precursors. As example, 1.23 g of CH3NH3PbI3, dissolved in different amounts
of DMF, resulted in very homogeneous and stable dispersions with concentrations of 30%
wt, 10% wt, 5% wt and 1% wt of MAPbI3 respectively. Typically, 100 – 300 μL of the
dispersion have been dropped on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated (FTO-coated) glass
substrates, then deposited by spin-coating and finally thermally treated at 100 – 110°C for
5-10 minutes in order to evaporate the solvent and consequently to favor the
recrystallization of the MAPbI3 phase on the substrates.
The results of the morphological investigation on a typical MAPbI3 layer are shown in Fig.
7a-b. The tilted SEM image (Fig. 2B) confirm the formation of a layer on the FTO glass
substrate (indicated with red arrows) whereas the top view SEM image (Fig. 7A) confirm
the homogeneity of the layer, however, with the presence of small hollows possibly due to
the fast evaporation of the solvent during the thermal treatment.
References:
[1] Kagan C. R.; Mitzi D. B.; Dimitrakopoulos C. Science, 1999, 286, 945.
[2] Mitzi D. B. Prog. Inorg. Chem., 1999, 48, 1.
[3] Moller C. K. Nature, 1957, 180, 981.
[4] Weber D. Z. Naturforsch., 1978, 33b, 1443.
[5] Dimesso L., Dimamay M., Hamburger M., Jaegermann W., Chem. Mater. 2014, 26, 6762
[6] Stoumpos C. C.; Malliakas C. D.; Kanatzidis M. G. Inorg. Chem., 2013, 52, 9019.
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
47
Self-driven water electrolysis by high photovoltage thin film silicon tandem cells
Jürgen Ziegler, Joachim Klett, Natascha Weidler, Florent Yang, Bernhard Kaiser,
Wolfram Jaegermann
The storage of renewable energy is the major challenge for the energy revolution. Due to
the volatile nature of wind and solar power a suitable storage is essential for a future
reliable power supply. The conversion of sunlight to hydrogen as a solar fuel can be one
way to solve this problem. One approach to accomplish this is with a photoelectrochemical
cell (PEC). There are several types of PECs discussed in literature. We consider a "buriedjunction" photoelectrode, which is one of the more promising cell designs for
photoelectrochemical water splitting. We employ a cell provided by the Forschunszentrum
Jülich consisting of a thin film silicon based tandem solar cell like it is depicted in Figure 1.
Figure 1 Schematic of the PEC with a silicon thin film tandem cell with Pt catalyst and a RuO2 counter
electrode.
In a "buried-junction" the separation of the electron hole pairs is decoupled from the
chemical reaction. The tandem solar cell produces the required electrochemical potential to
drive the water splitting reaction. It is connected to the two half cells, where the cathodic
and the anodic reaction occur, namely the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the
oxygen evolution reaction (OER).
We apply two types of tandem solar cell, which are prepared in the framework of this
cooperation with Jülich: The first system is a stack of two amorphous silicon solar cells
(a-Si:H). The second type of solar cell is a-Si:H top cell with a bottom cell made of
microcrystalline silicon (µc-Si:H). The photovoltaic characteristics are depicted in Figure 2a.
The a-Si:H/a-Si:H tandem cell shows a high photovoltage of 1.55 V at the maximum power
48
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
point and achieves a photovoltaic efficiency of 9.0 %.1 In comparison the a-Si:H/µc-Si:H
tandem cell provides a higher photo current and a higher efficiency of 10.1 %.2 The
different characteristics are caused by the different band gaps of the tandem cells. This can
be seen in figure Figure 2b, where the external quantum efficiency of both cells is plotted.
The a-Si:H/a-Si:H tandem cell is build up of two wide band gap a-Si:H absorbers. Therefore
a high photovoltage can be achieved, but sunlight with a high wavelength cannot be
utilized by this cell type. A broader absorption is achieve by the a-Si:H/µc-Si:H tandem cell
which consist of a low band gap µc-Si:H absorber. Hence the a-Si:H/µc-Si:H tandem cell
can utilize more sunlight and has in principal a better chance to reach high photovoltaic
efficiencies then the a-Si:H/a-Si:H tandem cell, but it suffers under a low photovoltage.
(a)
(b)
Figure 2 (a) Photovoltaic characteristic of both cell types under AM1.5 illumination. (b) External quantum
efficiency.
In a self-sustaining PEC for water splitting, the current which flows under short-circuit
conditions, determines the efficiency. Hence the a-Si:H/µc-Si:H tandem cell could have an
advantage to the a-Si:H/a-Si:H tandem cell, if the required photovoltage for the water
splitting reaction is sufficient. Additional to the thermodynamic potential of 1.23 V,
potential losses (overpotentials) arise due to the chemical reactions in the half cells of the
electrochemical system. Suitable catalysts can reduce the overpotentials considerably, but
they remain a major potential loss in the circuit. In Figure 3a the HER and the OER with the
catalysts Pt on Ag foil and RuO2, respectively, is shown in 1 M H2SO4 vs. the reversible
hydrogen electrode (RHE). At a current density of 10 mA/cm2 an overpotential of 120 mV
and 340 mV is required for the HER and the OER, respectively. In disregard of the
electrolyte resistance a total potential of 1.23 V + 120 mV + 340 mV = 1.69 V is necessary
to split water. When looking at the photovoltaic characteristics of the tandem cells it
becomes evident, that the photovoltage of the a-Si:H/µc-Si:H cell is too low to split water
without an additional bias potential. Therefore the higher absorption of this cell type has no
benefit. In contrast the a-Si:H/a-Si:H cell should supply sufficient photovoltage to be used
in a self-sustaining PEC. In Figure 3b a cyclic voltammogram of an a-Si:H/a-Si:H cell
modified with a Pt catalyst is shown in 0.5 M H2SO4. The measurement is performed in a
two electrode arrangement vs. the RuO2 electrode. In this arrangement the short-circuit
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
49
condition and the working point of the PEC are at 0 V. The a-Si:H/a-Si:H photoelectrode is
indeed capable of generating a photocurrent of 4.1 mA/cm2 under real working conditions.
Under the assumption that this current solely leads to the production of hydrogen and
oxygen, a solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 5.0 % is achieved. In comparison to the
photovoltaic measurement the efficiency is nearly cut in half. The MPP of the photovoltaic
cell is situated a slightly lower potential than the required potential of the electrochemical
cell. Therefore the current density is very steep around 0 V. As a consequence a small
improvement of the photovoltage or a reduction of the overpotentials can result in a drastic
increase in the STH efficiency of this device.
(a)
(b)
Figure 3 (a) Cyclic voltammograms of the HER on Pt and the OER on RuO 2 in 1 M H2SO4. (b) Cyclic
voltammogram of Pt modified a-Si:H/a-Si:H photoelectrode vs. RuO2 in 0.5 M H2SO4.
Improving the catalysts morphology is our next step to enhance its active surface area, thus
reducing the overpotential of the water splitting reaction. As a next step we are also
investigating the substitution of the noble metal catalyst with highly active transition metal
oxides like cobalt and nickel oxides to reduce the overall cost of the device.
References:
[1]
[2]
[3]
50
F. Urbain, K. Wilken, V. Smirnov, et al., “Development of Thin Film Amorphous Silicon Tandem
Junction Based Photocathodes Providing High Open-Circuit Voltages for Hydrogen Production,”
International Journal of Photoenergy, vol. 2014, Article ID 249317, 10 pages, 2014.
doi:10.1155/2014/249317
Félix Urbain, Vladimir Smirnov, Jan-Philipp Becker, Uwe Rau, Friedhelm Finger, Jürgen Ziegler,
Bernhard Kaiser and Wolfram Jaegermann (2014). a-Si:H/µc-Si:H tandem junction based
photocathodes with high open-circuit voltage for efficient hydrogen production. Journal of Materials
Research, 29, pp 2605-2614. doi:10.1557/jmr.2014.308.
Ziegler, J., Kaiser, B., Jaegermann, W., Urbain, F., Becker, J.-P., Smirnov, V. and Finger, F. (2014),
Photoelectrochemical and Photovoltaic Characteristics of Amorphous-Silicon-Based Tandem Cells as
Photocathodes for Water Splitting. ChemPhysChem, 15: 4026–4031. doi: 10.1002/cphc.201402552
Institute of Materials Science - Surface Science
Advanced Thin Film Technology
The Advanced Thin Film Technology (ATFT) group works on advanced thin film deposition
techniques of novel materials. The group is specialized on physical vapor deposition
techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD), advanced oxide molecular beam epitaxy
(ADOMBE) and dc/rf-magnetron sputtering. The ADOMBE system is an in-house
development and has been jointly financed by Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research
in Stuttgart and TU Darmstadt. PLD and ADOMBE are part of a cluster system allowing for
in-situ sample exchange between the different deposition methods and characterization
tools. The ADOMBE apparatus is a worldwide unique thin film deposition system which is
dedicated to the growth of complex oxides beyond thermodynamic equilibrium. It allows
for the simultaneous deposition of six elements from electron beam sources and further
elements evaporated from effusion cells. The molecular beams of each element can be
individually controlled by a feed back loop using electron impact emission spectroscopy.
The group is working mainly on oxide ceramics which show a stunning variety of new
functional properties. Examples are high-temperature superconductors, magnetic oxides for
spintronics, high-k dielectrics, ferroelectrics, and novel thermoelectric materials. As a vision
for future, new solid state matter can be created by building hetero- and composite
structures combining different oxide materials. While present day electronic devices heavily
rely on conventional semiconducting materials, a future way to create novel functional
devices could be based (completely) on oxide electronics.
The group uses a Rigaku SmartLab X-ray thin film diffractometer with rotating anode
("synchrotron in house"). Other characterization tools located in the Advanced Thin Film
Technology group include powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoemission
spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HREM) with light
element sensitive EDX, and SQUID magnetometry. A 16 Tesla magnet cryostat allowing
measurements down to liquid helium temperature has been installed. Another magnet
cryostat (10 T) lowers the available temperature range to below 300 mK. This cryostat also
contains high-frequency feed-throughs for electrical characterization (40 GHz). The group
is also using external large scale facilities as synchrotron radiation (ESRF, Grenoble) and
neutron reactors (ILL, Grenoble / HMI and DESY, Berlin) for advanced sample
characterization.
Throughout 2014 Lambert Alff was working also as a Dean of Studies in the faculty of
Materials Science and head of the Graduate School Materialium. Lambert Alff has also
worked as an elected a member of the Senat of TU Darmstadt.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Lambert Alff
Research Associates
Dr. Ewrwin Hildebrandt
Dr. Soumya Ray
Dr. Philipp Komissinskiy
Technical Personnel
Dipl.-Ing. Gabi Haindl
Jürgen Schreeck
Secretary
Marion Bracke
PhD Students
Dipl.-Ing. Mani Arzhang
Dipl.-Ing. Alexander Buckow
M. Sc. Dominik Gölden
Dipl.-Ing. Aldin Radetinac
M.Sc. Sareh Sabet
MTech. Sharath Ulhas
Institute of Materials Science – Advanced Thin Film Technology
Dipl.-Ing. Mehrdad Baghaie
MTech Supratik Dasgupta
Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Hirsch
Dipl. Phys. Reiner Retzlaff
BTech. Vikas Shabadi
M.Sc. Stefan Vogel
51
Research Projects
Novel arsenic free pnictide superconductors (SPP 1458) (DFG 2013 - 2015)
Resistives Schalten in HfO2-basierten Metall-Isolator-Metall Strukturen für Anwendungen
im Bereich nicht-flüchtiger Speicher (DFG 2012-2016)
Novel oxid electrodes for all oxide varactors (DFG 2012-2014)
LOEWE-Centre AdRIA: Adaptronik – Research, Innovation, Application (HMWK 2011 2014)
EU/BMBF PANACHE (2014-2017)
LOEWE-Schwerpunkt RESPONSE
Publications
[1]
H. Wadati, J. Mravlje, K. Yoshimatsu, H. Kumigashira, M. Oshima, T.
Sugiyama, E. Ikenaga, A. Fujimori, A. Georges, A. Radetinac, K. S. Takahashi,
M. Kawasaki, and Y. Tokura
Photoemission and DMFT study of electronic correlations in SrMoO3: Effects of Hund's
rule coupling and possible plasmonic sideband
Phys. Rev. B 90, 205131 (2014)
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.205131
[2]
Erwin Hildebrandt, Mehrdad Baghaie Yazdi, Jose Kurian, S. U. Sharath,
Fabrice Wilhelm, Andrei Rogalev, and Lambert Alff
Intrinsic versus extrinsic ferromagnetism in HfO2−x and Ni:HfO2−x thin films
Phys. Rev. B 90, 134426 (2014)
doi: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.134426
[3]
Gang Niu, Erwin Hildebrandt, Markus Andreas Schubert, Federico Boscherini,
Marvin Hartwig Zoellner, Lambert Alff, Damian Walczyk, Peter Zaumseil, Ioan
Costina, Henrik Wilkens, and Thomas Schroeder
Oxygen Vacancy Induced Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in Pr-Doped CeO2 Thin
Films on Silicon
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2014, 6, 17496 − 17505
doi: 10.1021/am502238w
[4]
Aldin Radetinac, Arzhang Mani, Sergiy Melnyk, Mohammad Nikfalazar, Jürgen
Ziegler, Yuliang Zheng, Rolf Jakoby, Lambert Alff and Philipp Komissinskiy
Highly conducting SrMoO3 thin films for microwave applications
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 114108 (2014)
doi: 10.1063/1.4896339
[5]
V. Shabadi, M. Major, P. Komissinskiy, M. Vafaee, A. Radetinac, M. Baghaie
Yazdi, W. Donner and L. Alff
Origin of superstructures in (double) perovskite thin films
J. Appl. Phys. 116, 114901 (2014)
doi: 10.1063/1.4895636
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Institute of Materials Science - Advanced Thin Film Technology
[6]
S. U. Sharath, J. Kurian, P. Komissinskiy, E. Hildebrandt, T. Bertaud, C.
Walczyk, P. Calka, T. Schroeder and L. Alff
Thickness independent reduced forming voltage in oxygen engineered HfO2 based
resistive switching memories
Appl. Phys. Lett. 105, 073505 (2014)
doi: 10.1063/1.4893605
[7]
Mahdi Seifollahi Bazarjani, Mathis M. Müller, Hans-Joachim Kleebe, Yvonne
Jüttke, Ingolf Voigt, Mehrdad Baghaie Yazdi, Lambert Alff, Ralf Riedel, and
Aleksander Gurlo
High-Temperature Stability and Saturation Magnetization of Superparamagnetic
Nickel Nanoparticles in Microporous Polysilazane-Derived Ceramics and their Gas
Permeation Properties
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 2014, 6, 12270-12278
doi: 10.1021/am501892z
[8]
S. Hirsch, P. Komissinskiy, S. Flege, S. Li, K. Rachut, A. Klein and L. Alff
Modification of energy band alignment and electric properties of Pt/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/Pt
thin-film ferroelectric varactors by Ag impurities at interfaces
J. Appl. Phys. 115, 243704 (2014)
doi: 10.1063/1.4885880
[9]
Malgorzata Sowinska, Thomas Bertaud, Damian Walczyk, Sebastian Thiess,
Pauline Calka, Lambert Alff, Christian Walczyk and Thomas Schroeder
In-operando hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study on the impact of current
compliance and switching cycles on oxygen and carbon defects in resistive switching
Ti/HfO2/TiN cells
J. Appl. Phys. 115, 204509 (2014)
doi: 10.1063/1.4879678
[10]
Christin M. Hamm, Lambert Alff and Barbara Albert
Synthesis of Microcrystalline Ce2O3 and Formation of Solid Solutions between Cerium
and Lanthanum Oxides
Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 2014, 640, (6), 1050-1053
doi: 10.1002/zaac.201300663
[11]
S. U. Sharath, T. Bertaud, J. Kurian, E. Hildebrandt, C. Walczyk, P. Calka, P.
Zaumseil, M. Sowinska, D. Walczyk, A. Gloskovskii, T. Schroeder and L. Alff
Towards forming-free resistive switching in oxygen engineered HfO2−x
Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 063502 (2014)
doi: 10.1063/1.4864653
[12]
Lambert Alff, Philipp Komissinskiy, Aldin Radetinac, Tanju Sirman and
Mehran Vafaee
The role of cationic and anionic point defects in pulsed laser deposition of perovskites
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47 (2014) 034012 (6pp)
doi: 10.1088/0022-3727/47/3/034012
Institute of Materials Science - Advanced Thin Film Technology
53
Dispersive Solids
The main research interests of the group Dispersive Solids are directed towards the
development of novel strategies suitable for the synthesis of inorganic, oxidic and nonoxidic materials with properties beyond the state of the art. The materials of interest are
advanced oxidic and non-oxidic ceramics with extraordinary properties in terms of thermal
stability, hardness and electronic structure. Therefore, synthesis methods such as polymerpyrolysis, non-oxidic and oxidic sol-gel methods, chemical vapour deposition and novel
high pressure methods have been further developed.
The following topical issues are presently under investigation:
Polymer-Derived Ceramics
The thermolytic decomposition of suitable organosilicon polymers provides materials which
are denoted as polymer-derived ceramics (PDCs). The main emphasis is on the synthesis
and characterization of new ceramic materials in the B-C-N, Si-C-N, Si-O-C, Si-(B,C)-N and
Ti-(B-C)-N systems. The structural peculiarities, thermochemical stability, mechanical and
electrophysical properties of the PDCs have been investigated in a series of PhD theses and
research projects. Due to their outstanding thermochemical stability as well as excellent
oxidation and creep resistance at very high temperatures, the PDCs constitute promising
materials for high temperature applications. Another advantage of the PDC route is that the
materials can be easily shaped in form of fibres, layers or bulk composite materials.
Finally the correlation of the materials properties with the molecular structure of the used
preceramic polymer is elaborated
Molecular Routes to Nanoscaled Materials
The aim is to develop concepts for the production of novel multifunctional inorganic
materials with a tailor-made nanoscaled structure. In accordance with the so-called
“bottom-up” approach, specific inorganic molecules are to be assigned to higher molecular
networks and solid-state structures in the form of molecular nanotools by means of
condensation and polymerisation processes.
High Pressure Chemistry
Ultra-high pressure techniques like laser heated diamond anvil cell (LH-DAC) or multi anvil
devices have been applied to synthesise novel solid state structures which cannot be
produced by other methods, for example, inorganic nitrides. Moreover, the materials
behaviour under pressure such as phase transformations and decomposition can be
analysed.
Functional Materials
Further research topics are related to the development of materials suitable for applications
in the fields of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), optoelectronics (LEDs), pressure,
temperature and gas sensors as well as thermoresistant ceramic membranes for high
temperature gas separation. The integration of state-of-the-art in situ and in operando
spectroscopic methods is applied to understand the mechanisms responsible for sensing and
catalytic properties. Advanced polymer-derived ceramics are developed for applications in
the field of energy conversion and storage.
54
Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. rer. nat. habil. Prof. h. c. Dr. h. c. Ralf Riedel
Associated
Professors and
Lectures
Apl. Prof. Dr. Norbert
Nicoloso
Guest Professors
Prof. Dr. Zhaoju Yu
Research Associates
Dipl.-Ing. Anke Böttcher
Dr. Dmytro Dzivenko
Dr. Isabel Gonzalo de Juan
Dr. Magdalena Graczyk-Zajac
Technical Personnel
Dipl.-Ing. Claudia Fasel
Secretaries
Su-Chen Chang
Shobha Herur (EU project FUNEA)
PhD Students
Dipl.-Ing. Miria Andrade
M. Sc. Shrikant Bhat
M. Tech. Maged Bekheet
M. Sc. Christina Breunig
M. Sc. Sarabjeet Kaur
Dipl.-Ing. Jan Kaspar
Dipl.-Ing. Amon Klausmann
M. Sc. Sze-Hsuan Lee
M. Sc. Wenjie Li
M. Sc. Xingmin Liu
Dipl.-Ing. Christoph Linck
Dipl.-Ing. Lukas Mirko Reinold
Dipl.-Ing. Felix Roth
M. Sc. Cristina Schitco
Dipl.-Ing. Lukas Schlicker
Dipl.-Ing. Alexander Uhl
M. Sc. Dragoljub Vrankovic
M. Sc. Qingbo Wen
M. Sc. Jia Yuan
M. Sc. Cong Zhou
Diploma and Master Omar Ariobi
Students
Robert Brück
Dario De Carolis
Hanna Verena Heyl
Kai Kühne
PD Dr habil. Aleksander Gurlo
PD Dr. Leonore Wiehl
Dr. Emanuel Ionescu
Dr. Jan Kaspar
Dr. Gabriela Mera
Dr. Pradeep Vallachira Sasikumar
Samer Kurdi
Sai Priya S.V.M.L Munagala
Anke Silvia Ulrich
Dragoljub Vrankovic
Xifang Wang
Bachelor Students
Tim Hundhausen
Guest Scientists
Prof. Dilshat Tulyaganov, Turin Polytechnic University in
Tashkent, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Prof. Zhaoju Yu, Department of Materials Science and
Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen
China
Prof. Dr. Corneliu Balan, Politehnica, University of Bucharest,
Faculty of Enegetics, Hydraulics Departement, Bucharest,
Romania
Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
55
Dr. Xingang Luan, Associate Professor, Northwestern University
Polytechnical, Schule für Materialien, Xian, Shaanxi, PR China
Dr. Yun Wang, Beijing, China
Dr. Olim N. Ruzimuradov, Turin Polytechnic University in
Tashkent, Tashkent, Uzbekistan; Department of General
Chemistry,Faculty of Chemistry, National University of
Uzbekistan, Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Prof. Mikhail A. Vorotyntsev, Department of Electrochemistry,
Faculty of Chemistry, M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University,
Moscow, Russian Federation and Institut de Chimie Moléculaire
de l'Université de Bourgogne (ICMUB), Dijon, France
Dr. Mirabbos Hojamberdiev, Institute of General and Inorganic
Chemistry, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Uzbekistan
Research Projects
Nanostructured organotin-based hybrid thin films for sensing and optics (IDS FunMat, Oct.
2014 – Sept. 2017)
Electricalmagnetic properties of nano-scaled absorption filler reinforced porous ceramics
derived from single-source-precursors (China Scholarship Council (CSC), Sept. 2014 – Aug.
2017)
Hochtemperatur-Kriechverhalten SiOC-basierter Gläser und Glaskeramiken (DFG, May
2014 – April 2017)
Development of ultra abrasion resistant Hf- and Ta-based ceramic composites (KIMS, Jan.
2014 – Dec. 2016)
RESPONSE (DFG, Jan. 2014 – Dec. 2016)
SiHfC(N) and SiHfN(C)-based Ultrahigh-Temperature Ceramic Nanocomposites (UHTCNCs) for EBC/TBC Applications (China Council Scholarship (CSC), Oct. 2012 - Oct. 2016)
Nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries: Synthesis, thermodynamic
characterization and modeling of nanoparticular silicon dispersed in SiCN(O) and SiCObased matrices (DFG, Aug. 2010 – Dec. 2016)
High-Temperature Piezoresistivity in SiOC - Untersuchungen zur HochtemperaturPiezoresistivität in kohlenstoffhaltigen Siliciumoxycarbid-Nanokompositen (DFG, May 2013
- April 2016)
56
Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
Single-Phase Si-M-N Ceramic Materials (M = early transition metal): Synthesis from MetalModified Polysilazanes and microstructural characterization (DAAD PPP Japan, Jan. 2014 –
Dec. 2015)
Sensors Towards Terahertz (STT): Neuartige Technologien für Life Sciences, Prozess- und
Umweltmonitoring (HMWK-LOEWE, Jan. 2013 - Dec. 2015)
Mestabiles Indiumoxidhydroxid (InOOH) und Korund-Typ Indiumoxid (In2O3): Gezielte
Synthese, Einkristallzüchtung und in-situ Charakterisierung der Umwandlungspfade und
transienten Intermediaten (DFG, SPP 1415 "Kristalline Nichtgleichgewichtsstoffe", Jan.
2013 - Dec. 2015)
Ternary M-Si-N Ceramics: Single-Source-Precoursor Synthesis and Microstructure
Characterization (M = transition metal) (China Council Scholarship (CSC), Nov. 2012 Nov. 2015)
Molecular Routes to SiMBCN Ceramic Nanocomposites (M = Zr, HF) (China Council
Scholarship (CSC), Sep. 2011 - Aug. 2015)
Investigations of coatings on alumina fibers (Master thesis in cooperation with Schunk
Kohlenstofftechnik GmbH, Heuchelheim, Germany, Dec. 2014 – May 2015)
Synthesis of TiO2 flakes (Master thesis in cooperation with Merck KGaA, Performance
Materials- Pigments Decoratives Research, Darmstadt, Germany, Oct. 2014 – March 2015)
Charakterisierung des Thermischen Alterungsverhalten von Elastomeren (Master thesis in
cooperation with Fraunhofer-Institut für Betriebsfestigkeit und Systemzuverlässigkeit LBF,
Darmstadt, Germany, Oct. 2014 – March 2015)
Investigation of interdiffusion behaviour and oxidation resistance of different protective
high temperature layers on pure refractory metals (Master thesis in cooperation with
DECHEMA Forschungsinstitut, Frankfurt a.M., Germany, October 2014 – March 2015)
Investigations of Polysiloxanes (Diploma thesis in cooperation with Schunk, Heuchelheim,
Germany, July 2014 – March 2015)
FUNEA - Functional Nitrides for Energy Applications (Coordination, EU - Marie Curie Initial
Training Network, Feb. 2011 - Jan. 2015)
Mittel für Nachwuchsförderung (DFG, SPP1473, Jan. 2014 – Dec. 2014)
Novel functional ceramics with substitution of anions in oxidic systems (DFG, SFB 595,
project A4, Jan. 2003 - Dec. 2014)
Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Anwendung (HMWK-Loewe-AdRIA, Oct. 2008 - Sep. 2014)
Polymer-Processing of Dense and Crack-Free SiC Monoliths (Doctor Thesis, Oct. 2011 - Sep.
2014)
Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
57
FUNEA - Gas seperation membranes (EU - Marie Curie Initial Training Network, Oct. 2011 Sep. 2014)
FUNEA - Multifunctional perovskite nitrides (EU - Marie Curie Initial Training Network,
Oct. 2011 - Sep. 2014)
Mechanically controlled ionic conductivity in silicate-based glasses (Master Thesis, April
2014 – Sept. 2014)
Solid Electrolyte for Lithium-ion Battery (FAME-Master Thesis in cooperation with Energies
Alternatives, Laboratoire des Matériaux pour les Batteries, CEA, LITEN/DEHT/LMB,
Grenoble, France, April 2014 – Sept. 2014)
Graphene based SiCN composite ceramic materials (Master Thesis, Jan. 2014 – July 2014)
Keramische
SiCN-basierte
Hartstoffschichten
Substratwerkstoffe (DFG, June 2011 - June 2014)
für
thermisch
hochbeanspruchte
Untersuchung der Einflussparameter für die Biege- und Zugfestigkeitsverhalten oxidischer
Verbundkörper mit gefüllter Polysiloxanmatrix (Diploma Thesis, Dec. 2013 - June 2014)
Preparation and high-temperature behavior of TiSi2/SiOC ceramic composites (Bachelor
Thesis, 2014)
High-Pressure High Temperature Synthesis of Novel Binary and Ternary Superhard Phases
in the B-C-N System (DFG, Feb. 2011 - Jan. 2014)
Indium oxide (In2O3) under high pressure: rational design of new polymorphs and
characterisation of their physico-chemical properties (DFG, since June 2009)
Publications
[1]
Rottman-Yang, J.S.; Biswas, J.; Abe, O.O.; Campbell, K.L.; Gonzalo-Juan, I.;
Pham, V.H.; Gebre, T.; Dickerson, J.H.; Post-Electrophoretic Deposition
Electrochemical Separation (PEPDECS): Optimization of the Fabrication of
Freestanding Carbon Nanotube Films; ECS JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE SCIENCE
AND TECHNOLOGY, 3(11) (2014) M71-M75.
[2]
Ionescu, E.; Balan, C.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Müller, M.M.; Guillon, O.; Schliephake,
D.; Heilmaier, M.; Riedel, R.; High-Temperature Creep Behavior of SiOC GlassCeramics: Influence of Network Carbon Versus Segregated Carbon; JOURNAL OF THE
AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, 97(12) (2014) 3935-3942.
Kaur, S.; Riedel, R.; Ionescu, E.; Pressureless fabrication of dense monolithic SiC
ceramics from a polycarbosilane; JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC
SOCIETY, 34(15) (2014) 3571-3578.
[3]
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Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
[4]
Kaspar, J.; Graczyk-Zajac, M.; Lauterbach, S.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Riedel, R.; Silicon
oxycarbide/nano-silicon composite anodes for Li-ion batteries: Considerable influence
of nano-crystalline vs. nano-amorphous silicon embedment on the electrochemical
properties; JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES, 269 (2014) 164-172.
[5]
Wen, Q.; Xu, Y.; Xu, B.; Fasel, C.; Guillon, O.: Buntkowsky, G.; Yu, Z.; Riedel
R.; Ionescu, E.; Single-Source-Precursor Synthesis of Dense SiC/HfCxN1-x-Based
Ultrahigh-Temperature Ceramic Nanocomposite; NANOSCALE, 6 (2014) 1367813689.
[6]
Renard, L.; Brötz, J.; Fuess, H.; Gurlo, A.; Riedel, R.; Hybrid Organotin and Tin
Oxide-based
Thin
Films
Processed
from
Alkynylorganotins:
Synthesis,
Characterization, and Gas Sensing Properties; ACS APPLIED MATERIALS &
INTERFACES, 6(19) (2014) 17093-17101.
[7]
Yuan, J.; Hapis, S.; Breitzke, H.; Xu, Y.; Fasel, C.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Buntkowsky,
G.; Riedel, R.; Ionescu, E.; Single-Source-Precursor Synthesis of HafniumContaining
Ultrahigh-Temperature
Ceramic
Nanocomposites
(UHTC-NCs);
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 53(19) (2014) 10443–10455.
[8]
Shimokawa, Y.; Fujiwara, A.; Ionescu, E.; Mera, G.; Honda, S.; Iwamoto, Y.;
Riedel, R.; Synthesis and characterization of luminescent properties of ceramics
derived from polysilylcarbodiimides; JOURNAL OF THE CERAMIC SOCIETY OF
JAPAN, 122 (2014) 895-901.
[9]
Pradeep, V.S.; Graczyk-Zajac, M.; Wilamowska, M.; Riedel, R.; Soraru, G.D.;
Influence of pyrolysis atmosphere on the lithium storage properties of carbon-rich
polymer derived SiOC ceramic anodes; SOLID STATE IONICS, 262 (2014) 22-24.
[10]
Bazarjani, M.S.; Müller, M.M.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Jüttke, Y.; Voigt, I.; Baghaie
Yazdi, M.; Alff, L.; Riedel, R.; Gurlo, A.; High-Temperature Stability and
Saturation Magnetization of Superparamagnetic Nickel Nanoparticles in Microporous
Polysilazane-Derived Ceramics and their Gas Permeation Properties; ACS APPLIED
MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 6(15) (2014) 12270-12278.
[11]
Nikolaenko, Y.M.; Kuzovlev, Y.E.; Medvedev, Y.V.; Mezin, N.I.; Fasel, C.; Gurlo,
A.; Schlicker, L.; Bayer, T.J.M.; Genenko, Y.A.; Macro- and microscopic properties
of strontium doped indium oxide; JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 116(4) (2014)
043704.
[12]
Kaur, S.; Gallei, M.; Ionescu, E.; Polymer–Ceramic Nanohybrid Materials; Book
Section in ADVANCES IN POYLMER SCIENCE, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, July
2014.
Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
59
[13]
Kaspar, J.; Terzioglu, C.; Ionescu, E.; Graczyk-Zajac, M.; Hapis, S.; Kleebe, H.J.; Riedel, R.; Stable SiOC/Sn Nanocomposite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries with
Outstanding Cycling Stability; ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, 24(26)
(2014) 4097-4104.
[14]
Wilamowska, M.; Pradeep, V.S.; Graczyk-Zajac, M.; Riedel, R.; Sorarù, G.D.;
Tailoring of SiOC composition as a way to better performing anodes for Li-ion
batteries; SOLID STATE IONICS 260 (2014) 94-100.
[15]
Bazarjani, M.S.; Muller, M.M.; Kleebe, H.-J.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.; Gurlo, A.; In
situ formation of tungsten oxycarbide, tungsten carbide and tungsten nitride
nanoparticles in micro- and mesoporous polymer-derived ceramics; JOURNAL OF
MATERIAL CEMISTRY A, 2 (2014) 10454-10464.
[16]
Baek, S.-H.; Reinold, L.M.; Graczyk-Zajac, M.; Riedel, R.; Hammerath, F.;
Büchner, B.; Grafe, H.-J.; Lithium dynamics in carbon-rich polymer-derived SiCN
ceramics probed by nuclear magnetic resonance; JOURNAL OF POWER SOURCES,
253 (2014) 342-348.
[17]
Chavez, R.; Ionescu, E.; Fasel, C.; Riedel, R.; Imide-Containing Ladder
Polyphenylsilsesquioxanes with High Thermal Stability and Thermoplastic Properties;
JOURNAL OF APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, 131(7) (2014) 40085.
[18]
Yablonskikh, M.; Dzivenko, D.; Bourguille, J.; Riedel, R.; Magnano, E.;
Parmigiani, F.; Zerr, A.; Electronic structure and band gap of oxygen bearing c-Zr3N4
and of c-Hf3N4 by soft X-ray spectroscopy; PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A, 211(4)
(2014) 835-842.
[19]
Ruzimuradov, O.; Nurmanov, S.; Hojamberdiev, M.; Prasad, R.M.; Gurlo, A.;
Broetz, J.; Nakanishi, K.; Riedel, R.; Fabrication of nitrogen-doped TiO2 monolith
with well-defined macroporous and bicrystalline framework and its photocatalytic
performance under visible light; J JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC
SOCIETY, 34(3) (2014) 809-816.
[20]
Pradeep, V.S.; Graczyk-Zajac, M.; Riedel, R.; Soraru, G.D.; New Insights in to the
Lithium Storage Mechanism in Polymer Derived SiOC Anode Materials;
ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, 119 (2014) 78-85.
[21]
Li, D.; Li, W.; Fasel, C.; Shen, J.; Riedel, R.; Sinterability of the oxynitride LaTiO2N
with perovskite-type structure; JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, 586
(2014) 567-573.
[22]
Scheid, D.; Cherkashinin, G.; Ionescu, E.; Gallei, M.; Single-Source Magnetic
Nanorattles By Using Convenient Emulsion Polymerization Protocols; LANGMUIR,
30(5) (2014) 1204-1209.
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Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
[23]
Ruzimuradov, O.; Nurmanov, S.; Hojamberdiev, M.; Prasad, R.M.; Gurlo, A.;
Broetz, J.; Nakanishi, K.; Riedel, R.; Preparation and characterization of
macroporous TiO2-SrTiO3 heterostructured monolithic photocatalyst; MATERIALS
LETTERS, 116 (2014) 353-355.
[24]
Niwa, K.; Dzivenko, D.; Suzuki, K.; Riedel, R.; Troyan, I.; Eremets, M.;
Hasegawa, M.; High Pressure Synthesis of Marcasite-Type Rhodium Pernitride;
INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 53(2) (2014) 697-699.
[25]
Luan, X.G.; Tian, M.; Xu, X.Y.; Cheng, L.F.; Riedel, R.; Effect of matrix gas phase
deposition cycles on the microstructure and properties of 2D C/SiC; COMPOSITES
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, 90 (2014) 117-122.
[26]
Bhat, S.; Lauterbach, S.; Dzivenko, D.; Lathe, C.; Bayarjargal, L.; Schwarz, M.;
Kleebe, H.-J.; Kroke, E.; Winkler, B.; Riedel, R.; High-pressure high-temperature
behavior of polymer derived amorphous B-C-N; JOURNAL OF PHYSICS:
CONFERENCE SERIES, 500(18) (2014) 182004 (6 pp.).
[27]
Alaei, H.R.; Riedel, R.; Younesi, M.; Intersubband transitions under strong
screening effect of five carriers in the step doped InGaN/GaN Quantum Well;
JOURNAL OF OPTOELECTRONICS AND ADVANCED MATERIALS, 16(1-2) (2014)
25-30.
[28]
Yu, Z.J.; Yang, L.; Min, H.; Zhang, P.; Zhou, C.; Riedel, R.; Single-sourceprecursor synthesis of high temperature stable SiC/C/Fe nanocomposites from a
processable hyperbranched polyferrocenylcarbosilane with high ceramic yield;
JOURNAL OF MATERIAL CEMISTRY C, 2(6) (2014) 1057-1067.
[29]
Kaspar, J.; Graczyk-Zajac, M.; Riedel, R.; Determination of the chemical diffusion
coefficient of Li-ions in carbon-rich silicon oxycarbide anodes by electro-analytical
methods; ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, 115 (2014) 665-670.
Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
61
High Pressure Synthesis of Marcasite-Type Rhodium Pernitride
Ken Niwa,*,† Dmytro Dzivenko,‡ Kentaro Suzuki,† Ralf Riedel,‡ Ivan Troyan,§ Mikhail
Eremets,§ and Masashi Hasegawa†
†
Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan
Fachgebiet Disperse Feststoffe, Fachbereich Material- und Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität
Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany
§
Department of Biogeochemistry, Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Mainz, Germany
‡
Nitrides are attractive materials not only in the field of fundamental crystal chemistry but
also in industrial applications.1 In the 2000s, platinum group nitrides (PtN2, OsN2, IrN2,
and PdN2) were remarkably discovered in a direct chemical reaction between platinum
group elements and molecular fluid nitrogen at high pressures and temperatures.2−7
The new class of compounds attracted much attention due to the unusual crystal chemistry
as well as intriguing mechanical properties (e.g., K0 = 428 GPa for IrN2) owing to the
strong bonding interaction between noble metals and nitrogen.2−7
However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no experimental evidence of a
successful synthesis of rhodium nitride so far, although theoretical studies suggest that
rhodium is likely to form RhN2 with a marcasite-type structure.8,9
We now succeeded in the synthesis of marcasite-type rhodium nitride in a direct chemical
reaction between rhodium metal and molecular nitrogen at 43.2 GPa in a laser-heated
diamond-anvil cell (LH-DAC). The results are in good agreement with the theoretical
prediction.8,9 We report here the details of the synthesis experiments including
characterization of the product via high pressure in situ Raman and X-ray diffraction (XRD)
measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive
X-ray (EDX) analysis after recovering the sample at ambient conditions.
Figure 1. (a) XRD pattern of the sample measured
after heating at 43.2 GPa. The diffraction peaks,
which are labeled with the Miller indices,
correspond to marcasite-type rhodium nitride,
RhN2. Other peaks are due to the residual rhodium
metal10 and solid nitrogen.11 (b) XRD pattern of
the unheated region. N2 represents the solid
nitrogen with a rhombohedral structure.11 (c)
Simulated XRD pattern of marcasite-type RhN2 at
43.2 GPa together with a schematic illustration of
the crystal structure for marcasite-type RhN2. Large
and small balls represent rhodium and nitrogen
atoms, respectively. The lattice constants and
atomic positional parameters were taken from the
present results and from the theoretical calculation
study,8 respectively.
Figure 1(a) shows the XRD pattern of the sample that was measured after heating at 43.2
GPa. The details of the experimental setup are described in the Supporting Information.
Several sharp reflections (labeled with miller indices hkl) were found, in addition to the
diffraction peaks that correspond to the residual rhodium metal10 and solid nitrogen.11
The new reflections were perfectly indexed for an orthorhombic cell with the lattice
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Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
parameters of a = 3.847(5) Å, b = 4.683(5) Å, and c = 2.696(6) Å (at 43.2 GPa), which is
consistent with earlier predicted marcasite-type structures (space group Pnnm).8,9
Therefore, it can be concluded unambiguously that rhodium reacted with nitrogen to form
marcasite-type RhN2 above 43 GPa. The presence of the new reflections was clearly
identified during the decompression process to the pressure of approximately 10 GPa, while
immediately after the release of the pressure the reflections broadened significantly.
Although the diffraction lines of the recovered marcasite-type RhN2 were rather broad with
less intensity, they could be resolved, and the lattice constants could be calculated.
Accordingly, the lattice parameters of marcasite-type RhN2 at ambient pressure were
analyzed to be a0 = 3.982(1) Å, b0 = 4.858(1) Å, and c0 = 2.834(1) Å, which are close to
the results of the theoretical calculations.8,9
The fine grains of less than 100 nm in size were identified by SEM on the sample surface
close to the heated regions however, the chemical composition could not be determined
mainly due to the fundamental instability of marcasite-type RhN2 as identified from the
broadness of diffraction peaks or large amount of residual rhodium metal.
Figure 2. Raman spectrum of the sample after being heated at 43.2 GPa, together with the theoretical
prediction at 50 GPa.8 Peaks labeled I, II, III, and IV correspond to marcasite-type RhN2. Intense peaks at the
low-frequency region stem from solid nitrogen.12
Vibration spectroscopy analysis, combined with theoretical calculations, offers useful
information on the electronic valence state and the bonding nature of nitrogen in the metal
nitrides.5,6,13 Figure 2 represents the Raman spectrum of the sample that was measured
after heating at 43.2 GPa. The Raman spectrum did not change even after heating for long
time at 43.2 GPa. We found at least three sharp and one broad bands (denoted as I, II, III,
and IV in Figure 2), and no other peaks were detected in the wavenumber region of the
present study. Taking into account the results of the high pressure in situ XRD
measurement, it is concluded that the Raman spectrum corresponds to marcasite-type
RhN2. The group theory analysis gives six active Raman modes ( = 2Ag + 2B1g + B2g+
B3g) for marcasite-type TX2 ,and the Raman frequency modes are assigned with respect to
the dumbbell-like X−X units.14 The vibron frequency of dinitrogen in pernitrides or
molecules strongly depends on the bonding character, such as
N−N (∼1.4 Å, ∼800 cm−1),15 N N (1.2−1.3 Å, 1300−1550 cm−1),16−21 and N N (∼1.1 Å,
∼2400 cm−1).11,15 Spectroscopic approaches combined with theoretical calculations have
also been applied to platinum group metal nitrides.5,6,13 Recent theoretical calculation
studies reported that Pt4+ and N24− are the correct electronic valence states for PtN2.13 The
Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
63
anion N24− is isoelectronic with that of the fluorine molecule, and the N−N bond length is
well consistent with the F−F bond length (1.42 Å).13 Furthermore, the strong Raman peak
(∼800 cm−1) for PtN2 is well consistent with that of single-bonded polymeric nitrogen.5,13,15
These findings strongly suggested that dinitrogen (N−N) in PtN2 exhibits a single-bond
nature. In the case of rhodium pernitride, the Raman peak frequency (1100 cm−1)
characterized as dinitrogen is higher than that of PtN2 5,13 and single-bonded polymeric
nitrogen (∼800 cm−1),15 while it is lower than the frequency of 1300−1550 cm−1, which
corresponds to double-bonded nitrogen deduced from N2H2 and alkaline earth
diazenides.13,20,21 This observation indicates that the bond length of dinitrogen in
marcasite-type RhN2 is intermediate between single- and double-bonded dinitrogen.
Figure 3. (a) Normalized lattice parameters and volume of marcasitetype RhN2 as a function of pressure.
Dashed line represents a result of the B−M EOS fitting to the present data below 21 GPa because of the
discontinuity around 25 GPa as indicated by the open arrow. The EOS is extrapolated to higher pressure with
K0 = 235(13) GPa and K0 = 5.9(1.8).
(b) Schematic illustrations of the crystal structure of marcasite-type RhN2 viewed from [010] and [001]
directions. Large and small balls represent rhodium and nitrogen atoms, respectively. Rhodium atoms are
coordinated by six nitrogen atoms, and each RhN6 octahedra are connected by N−N units.
The elastic properties of marcasite-type RhN2 are evaluated based on the high pressure in
situ XRD measurements. As shown in Figure 3(a), the a- and b-axes of marcasite-type RhN2
show similar compressibility between each other, while the c-axis is more compressed than
the other two-axes. The order of axial compressibility is consistent with the result of the
recent high pressure experiment on marcasite-type FeP2.22 From the schematic illustration
of the crystal structure viewed from different axes (Figure 3(c)), it is reasonable to assume
the rotation of the RhN6 octahedron in the a−b plane and the distortion along the c-axis to
be the dominant compression mechanism. The alignment of N−N also plays an important
role for the anisotropic axial compressibility of marcasite-type RhN2. The DFT calculation
suggested that bonding interactions between nitrogen and the noble metal atom (Ru and
Rh) are weak, and the N−N distance in these two nitrides are shorter than that of other
noble metal nitrides (PtN2, OsN2, and IrN2).8 The neighboring RhN6 octahedra are
connected via bonded N−N. This also plays a role to block the rotation of the RhN6
octahedra with the pressure, which finally results in a lower compressibility of the a- and baxes. In contrast, the most compressed c-axis indicates that the RhN6 octahedra were
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Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
largely distorted along their equatorial direction, and the N−N seemed not to affect the
compressibility along the c-axis. The pressure−volume data below 21 GPa were fitted to
the Birch− Murnaghan equation of state because the discontinuity was found in the
compression curve at about 25 GPa. This procedure yields a zero-pressure bulk modulus of
K0 = 235(13) GPa (K0 = 5.9(1.8)). Although the present data were carefully and
repeatedly analyzed, the discontinuity accompanying with the volume expansion at high
pressure still remained. It seems difficult to accept this behavior based on the physical
points of view, and many more data points would offer a much clear conclusion. On the
other hand, a new Raman peak enoted as V appeared at a pressure of 28 GPa, which
corresponds to the onset pressure where the discontinuity was detected in the
pressure−volume data. This indicates that a change of the vibration property in the
dinitrogen (N−N) might strongly correlate with the bulk compression mechanism of RhN2.
The incorporation of molecular nitrogen into the lattice of RhN2 under high pressure might
also expand the unit cell volume. In order to clarify these, further detailed experimental
and theoretical investigations would be required. The obtained bulk modulus is 100−200
GPa lower than those of PtN2, OsN2, and IrN2 as reported in previous studies,2−4 and it is in
reasonable agreement with the theoretical zero-pressure bulk modulus of K0 = 286 GPa (K0
= 5.58).8 The low zeropressure bulk modulus of K0 = 235(13) GPa is due to the weak
bonding interaction between metal atoms and quasi-molecular dinitrogen units in the
marcasite-type structure, as proposed by theoretical studies.
REFERENCES
(1) (a) Oyama, S.T. In The Chemistry of Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides; Blackie Academic &
Professional, Chapman & Hall: Glasgow, 1996. (b) Ivanovskii, A.L. Russ. Chem. Rev. 2009, 78, 303.
(2) Gregoryanz, E.; Sanloup, C.; Somayazulu, M.; Badro, J.; Fiquet, G.; Mao, H.K.; Hemley, R.J. Nat. Mater.
2004, 3, 294.
(3) Young, A.F.; Sanloup, C.; Gregoryanz, E.; Scandolo, S.; Hemley, R. J.; Mao, H.K. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006, 96,
155501.
(4) Crowhurst, J.C.; Goncharov, A.F.; Sadigh, B.; Evans, C.L.; Morrall, P.G.; Ferreira, J.L.; Nelson, A.J. Science 2006,
311, 1275.
(5) Young, A.F.; Montoya, J. A.; Sanloup, C.; Lazzeri, M.; Gregoryanz, E.; Scandolo, S. Phys. Rev. B 2006, 73,
153102.
(6) Montoya, J.A.; Hernandez, A.D.; Sanloup, C.; Gregoryanz, E.; Scandolo, S. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 90, 011909.
(7) Crowhurst, J.C.; Goncharov, A.F.; Sadigh, B.; Zaug, J.M.; Aberg, D.; Meng, Y.; Prakapenka, V.B., J. Mater. Res.
2008, 23, 1.
(8) Yu, R.; Zhan, Q.; De Jonghe, L.C. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 1136.
(9) Hernández, E.R.; Canadell, E.J. Mater. Chem. 2008, 18, 2090.
(10) Perez-Albuerne, E.A.; Forsgren, K.F.; Drickamer, H.G. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 1964, 35, 29.
(11) Olijnyk, H.J. Chem. Phys. 1990, 93, 8968−8972.
(12) Schneider, H.; Hiifner, W.; Wokaun, A.; Olijnyk, H. J. Chem. Phys. 1992, 96, 8046.
(13) Wessel, M.; Dronskowski, R.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 2421.
(14) Lutz, H.D.; Müller, B. Phys. Chem. Minerals 1991, 18, 265.
(15) Eremets, M.I.; Gavriliuk, A.G.; Trojan, I.A.; Dzivenko, D.A.; Boehler, R. Nat. Mater. 2004, 3, 558.
(16) Vajenine, G.V.; Auffermann, G.; Prots, Y.; Schnelle, W.; Kremer, R.K.; Simon, A.; Kniep, R. Inorg. Chem.
2001, 40, 4866.
(17) Auffermann, G.; Prots, Y.; Kniep, R. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 547.
(18) Schneider, S.B.; Frankovsky, R.; Schnick, W. Inorg. Chem. 2012, 51, 2366.
(19) Schneider, S.B.; Frankovsky, R.; Schnick, W. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 1873.
(20) Bondybey, V E.; Nibler, J. W. J. Chem. Phys. 1973, 58, 2125.
(21) Auffermann, G.; Prots, Y.; Kniep, R.; Parker, S.F.; Bennington, S.M. Chem. Phys. Chem. 2002, 9, 815.
(22) Wu, X.; Kanzaki, M.; Qin, S.; Steinle-Neumann, G.; Dubrovinsky, L. High Pressure Res. 2009, 29, 235.
Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
65
Stable SiOC/Sn Nanocomposite Anodes for Lithium-Ion
Batteries with Outstanding Cycling Stability
Jan Kaspar*, Caglar Terzioglu*, Emanuel Ionescu*, Magdalena Graczyk-Zajac*,
Stefania Hapis#, Hans-Joachim Kleebe#, and Ralf Riedel*
*
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Materialwissenschaft, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Angewandte Geowissenschaften, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
#
Adv. Funct. Mater., 24 (2014) 4097–4104
ABSTRACT
Silicon oxycarbide/tin nanocomposites (SiOC/Sn) are prepared by chemical modification of
polysilsesquioxane Wacker-Belsil PMS MK (SiOCMK) and polysiloxane Polyramic RD-684a
(SiOCRD) with tin(II)acetate and subsequent pyrolysis at 1000 °C. The obtained samples
consist of an amorphous SiOC matrix and in-situ formed metallic Sn precipitates.
Galvanostatic cycling of both composites demonstrate a first cycle reversible capacity of 566
mAhg−1 for SiOCMK/Sn and 651 mAhg−1 for SiOCRD/Sn. The superior cycling stability and
rate capability of SiOCRD /Sn as compared to SiOCMK/Sn is attributed to the soft, carbonrich SiOC matrix derived from the RD-684a polymer, which accommodates the Sn-related
volume changes during Li-uptake and release.
The poor cycling stability found for SiOCMK/Sn relates to mechanical failure of the rather
stiff and fragile, carbon-poor matrix produced from PMS MK. Incremental capacity
measurements outline different final Li–Sn alloy stages, depending on the matrix. For
SiOCRD/Sn, alloying up to Li7Sn2 is registered, whereas for SiOCMK/Sn Li22Sn5 stoichiometry
is reached. The suppression of Li22Sn5 phase in SiOCRD/Sn is rationalized by an expansion
restriction of the matrix and thus prevention of a higher Li content in the alloy. For
SiOCMK/Sn on the contrary, the matrix severely ruptures, providing an unlimited free
volume for expansion and thus formation of Li22Sn5 phase.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Materials Characterization
The pure polysiloxanes PMS MK and RD-684a as well as the Sn(ac)2-modified polymers
were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy.
The spectrum of PMS MK shows absorption bands at ν = 590 cm−1 (SiOC-H), ν = 768,
1278 cm−1 (Si-CH3), ν = 1030 cm−1 (Si-O-C) and ν = 1122 cm−1 (Si-O-Si), as previously
reported.[1-5] The FTIR spectrum of the Sn(ac)2–modified sample shows additional
absorption bands corresponding to the acetate ligands, i.e. ν = 1340, 1572 cm−1 (C-O), ν =
1385 (C-CH3) and ν = 1524 cm−1 (C=C).[6-8] Furthermore, two new absorption bands were
assigned at ν = 689 cm −1 (Sn-O)[9,10] and ν = 925 cm −1 (Si-O-Sn).[11]
Thus, the added Sn(ac)2 undergoes a reaction with the Si-OH reactive groups present in
PMS MK (Figure 1), upon release of acetic acid and the formation of Si-O-Sn units. The
formation of Si-O-M (M=metal) units upon modification of the polymer with metal
alkoxides, as well as with acetylacetonates and acetates, was demonstrated previously for
metalorganic precursors of other metals, e.g. Fe,[1], Zr[2] and Hf.[3,40] The spectra of RD684a and Sn(ac)2-modified RD-684a look very similar. Within the polymer there are
neither OH nor Si-OR groups to react with Sn(ac)2 as it is the case for PMS MK. One could
expect a reaction of Si-H with Sn(ac)2 upon the formation of Si-Sn units, as it is reported
for the reaction of polycarbosilanes with acetylacetonates by Ishikawa et al.[12] and shortly
discussed by Ionescu et al.[13] However, the formation of Si-metal units still needs direct
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proof and thus no Si-Sn vibration could be assigned in the FTIR spectrum of the modifi ed
sample. Similar to PMS MK, the spectrum of modified RD-684a exhibits additional
absorption bands related to the acetate ligands: ν = 1339, 1570 cm−1 (C-O), ν = 1380 cm−1
(C-CH3) and ν = 1514 cm−1 (C=C) and at ν = 600 cm−1 (SiOC-H) and at ν = 667 cm−1 (SnO).[5-10] Although the exact reaction mechanism between Sn(ac)2 and polysiloxane RD-684a
remains unclear, the important finding here is that the transformation of the modified
polymer into a SiOC/Sn composite occurs comparable to that of the Sn(ac)2-modified PMS
MK.
Figure 1. Chemical modification of PMS
MK with Sn(ac)2.
Figure 2. XRD patterns of SiOCMK/Sn and SiOCRD/Sn after
pyrolysis at 1000 C.
The X-ray diffraction patterns of SiOCMK/Sn and SiOCRD/Sn are shown in Figure 2. Both
ternary silicon oxycarbides are found to be fully X-ray amorphous as previously
reported,[2,14,15] whereas the Sn-modified samples exhibit the presence of metallic tin,
formed in-situ upon pyrolysis. TEM analysis of both nanocomposites (Figure 3 and Figure
4) illustrates the presence of spherical crystalline Sn inclusions within the amorphous
matrices. In the case of SiOCMK/Sn (Figure 3) a large number of homogeneously dispersed,
ultrafine Sn grains with size below 10 nm and a few ones with larger size that tend to
agglomerate are found. For SiOCRD/Sn (Figure 4), Sn precipitations with an average
diameter of 45 nm are observed, likewise homogeneously distributed throughout the SiOC
matrix. In addition a very few ones with lager diameter are present as well. For both
composites, the EDS inset in the high resolution micrographs outlines the amorphous
matrices as composed of Si, O and C. The Cu-signal originates from the support grid. The
round-shaped Sn particles in both nanocomposites indicate that liquid tin shows a poor
wettability for the SiOC matrix, as it is known for ceramics with covalent bonding.[16,17]
Similar features were recently found in the case of SiCN/Fe-based nanocomposites, which
exhibited sphericalshaped Fe5Si3 precipitates dispersed within a SiCN matrix.[13,18]
Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
67
Figure 3. a) TEM micrograph of SiOCMK/Sn and b) high-resolution image with EDS pattern of the amorphous SiOC matrix
Figure 4. a) TEM micrograph of SiOCRD/Sn and b) high-resolution image with EDS pattern of the amorphous
SiOC matrix.
Interestingly, the crystallization of tin oxide was not found upon pyrolysis of the modified
precursors, unlike in other cases, where the modification of polysiloxanes with metal
alkoxides, acetylacetonates or acetates was shown to lead to a precipitation and
crystallization of the corresponding metal oxides, i.e. to the formation of SiOC/MOx
nanocomposites (M = Al,[5] Ti,[19] Zr,[2] Hf,[3,4] Nb,[20] Ta,[20,21] Mn and Lu,[1] Gd[22]).
However, in all cases a similar behavior with respect to the polymer-to-ceramic
transformation is expected, which leads in a first step to single phase-amorphous SiMOC
intermediates, subsequently partitioning into amorphous SiOC/MOx. Recently we have
shown that the phase composition and crystallization of those SiOC/MOx ceramics strongly
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depend on the redox stability of the metal oxide towards the C-CO system.[1] As in the
investigated systems carbon is found to be present in excess, the relative stability of the
systems C-CO and M-MOx determine the phase composition and the crystallization of these
SiMOC materials. Zirconia, hafnia or gadolinia are stable with respect to their carbothermal
reduction to metallic elements, whereas tin oxide, which is assumed to be generated
intermediary upon pyrolysis of the tin acetate-modified polysiloxanes, is not stable under
carburizing conditions. As tin does not form any silicides or carbides, the formation of
SiOC/Sn nanocomposites is consequently related to the carbothermal reduction of SnO to
Sn.
Electrochemical Results
Electrodes prepared from the composites were cycled by PCGA protocol in order to follow
the incremental capacity as a function of the lithiation/ delithation potential and to trace
the electrochemical activity of the embedded tin. Differential capacity plots for the fi rst,
second and fifth cycles are shown in Figure 5. For both samples, in the cathodic branch
cycle two and fi ve, strong and characteristic signals for Li-Sn alloying are visible: For
SiOCMK/Sn at 0.64 V (LiSn) and 0.38 V (Li22Sn5) and for SiOCRD/Sn at 0.66 V (LiSn) and
0.42 V (Li7Sn2).[23] The presence of these signals reveals the electrochemical activity of the
tin phase. Note that there is a distinct difference in the detected final alloy stage between
SiOCMK/Sn and SiOCRD/Sn. For SiOCMK/Sn the highest alloy phase Li22Sn5 is reached,
whereas for SiOCRD/Sn alloying stops with Li7Sn2. In the anodic branches, several signals
for Li-Sn dealloying appear around 0.44, 0.60, 0.61, 0.70 and 0.78 V. The numerous anodic
peaks indicate that dealloying occurs via multifold reactions and stages and cannot simply
be considered as the reverse reaction-path of the observed alloying process.[23]
Figure 5. Differential capacity plot for a) SiOCMK/Sn and b) SiOCRD/Sn; first, second and fifth cycle are shown.
Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
69
The suppression of the formation of Li22Sn5 in the SiOCRD/Sn composite is related to the
restriction of the alloy expansion within the embedding matrix. The volume increase for
Li7Sn2 only amounts 75%, as compared to Li22Sn5 resulting in less mechanical stress
transference to the matrix. This lower load can be well accommodated by the soft SiOCRD
without degradation. The stiff and fragile SiOCMK on the contrary, is not able to withstand
the alloy expansion and thus ruptures and pulverizes during cycling. Consequently, a
considerably higher volume is available for the Li-Sn expansion and the highest known LiSn stoichiometry Li22Sn5 is finally formed.
Table 1. Overview of the first cycle charging, discharging and irreversible capacity and coulombic efficiency (η)
for SiOCMK/RD/Sn and pure SiOCMK/RD reference electrodes.
SiOCMK a)
SiOCMK/Sn
SiOCRD a)
SiOCRD/Sn
Cch [mAhg-1]
1097
1190
978
1022
Cdis [mAhg-1]
236
566
598
651
Cirr [mAhg-1]
861
624
624
371
 [%]
22
48
48
64
a)
Reference electrodes were prepared and cycled similar to the composites.
From the elemental analysis data, a theoretical capacity for the SiOCMK/Sn and SiOCRD/Sn
composites can be calculated, taking the mass ratio SiOC:Sn into account. For the sample
SiOCMK/Sn, the theoretical capacity of Li22Sn5 (994 mAhg−1) and for SiOCRD/Sn that of
Li7Sn2 (790 mAhg−1) is considered. The capacity contribution of the SiOC matrices is
estimated from the reference electrode data (Table 1). Accordingly, the expected capacities
for the composites amount 395 mAhg−1 (SiOCMK/Sn) and 647 mAhg−1 (SiOCRD/Sn). For
SiOCRD/Sn the estimation is in excellent agreement with the experimentally registered
value of 651 mAhg−1. The experimentally found higher capacity of SiOCMK/Sn (566
mAhg−1) can be explained by two factors: Firstly, for the calculation of the theoretical
capacity of SiOCMK/Sn composite the data found for pure SiOCMK was applied. However,
the presence of dispersed metallic tin nanoparticles might increase the electronic
conductivity and/ or the availability of carbon phase within the SiOC matrix and thus
increases the composite capacity in a non-linear way with respect to the calculation. A
similar phenomenon was reported for mixtures of carbon-poor SiCN ceramic and
graphite.[49,50] In addition the free carbon content in the sample was found slightly
enhanced, providing additional Li-ion storing sites. Secondly, the higher capacity can be
attributed to the partially reversible storage of less-ionic lithium species in micropores[24] as
well as in the vicinity of SiO4 units.[25] These reactions take place at the potential E < 0.1 V
giving a well pronounced peak (c.f. Figure 5a)). The lithium storage in places close to the
oxygen is most probably responsible for the high first lithiation capacity (1190 mAhg−1) but
due to a strong interaction between lithium and oxygen it brings about a poor reversibility.
CONCLUSIONS
A new method of preparation of SiOC/Sn composite materials with outstanding stability
during electrochemical insertion and extraction of lithium ions is presented. The SiOC/Sn
nanocomposites were synthesized via pyrolysis of the polysiloxanes PMS MK and RD-684a
modified with tin(II)acetate at 1000 °C. Upon pyrolysis, metallic Sn segregates within the
SiOC ceramics, forming spherical nanoparticles of different sizes. In the case of modified
PMS MK, the composite predominantly contains Sn inclusions below 10 nm, whereas for
modified RD-684a an average grain diameter of around 45 nm is found. Electrochemical
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Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
measurements reveal a superior performance and cycling stability of the carbon-rich and
therefore rather soft SiOCRD/Sn material (Cmax = 651 mAhg−1 and stable), while fast
capacity fading is registered for the carbon-poor and therefore stiff and fragile SiOCMK/Sn
composite (Cmax = 566 mAhg−1, not stable). Incremental capacity measurements outlined
different final lithium-tin alloy stages, strongly depending on the embedding matrix and its
properties. Li22Sn5 and Li7Sn2 are formed in SiOCMK/Sn and SiOCRD/Sn, respectively. Our
study emphasizes that a single-source-precursor approach has two crucial advantages for
synthesizing Sn-containing nanocomposites as high-performance material for Li-ion battery
anode application:
i)it provides the in-situ generation of Sn nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed within the
SiOC host and ii) the choice of suitable single-source-precursors allows for tailoring of the
matrix properties (i.e. carbon-content/stress compliance), to be able to withstand the
volume expansion of the Sn precipitates upon alloying with Li.
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Institute of Materials Science - Dispersive Solids
71
Structure Research
In the year 2014, we setup a commercial Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) system and tested
it on the system Bi/Si(001). The MBE system (Riber EVA 32 R&D) is capable of evaporating
three metallic sources at a time and uses a mass spectrometer for deposition control. Thin
metallic samples can be grown in Ultra High vacuum and transfered, without braking the
vacuum, into a small x-ray baby chamber.
We refurbished an image plate detector with onsite readout (OBI) and set up a DebyeScherrer diffractometer. The diffractometer will be finally used together with a 6 Tesla
magnet to perform x-ray diffraction experiments in a magnetic field.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Donner
Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Hartmut Fueß
Research Associates
Dr. Joachim Brötz
Dr. Marton Major
Dr. Ljubomira Schmitt
Dr. Azza Amin
Technical Personnel
Dipl. Ing. Heinz Mohren
Jean-Christophe Jaud
Maria Bense
Ingrid Svoboda
Sabine Foro
PhD Students
M. Sc. Marwa Ben El Bahri
M. Sc. Marco Léal
Dipl.-Ing. Florian Pforr
M. Sc. Tom Faske
Master Students
Ahmad Ibrahim
Guest Scientists
Prof. Dr. Ismael Saadoune,
Université Cadi Ayyad, Maroc
Secretary
Prof. Dr. Anouar Njeh,
University of Sfax, Tunesia
Research Projects
Magnetostriction measurements using x-ray diffraction (LOEWE-RESPONSE, 2014-2016)
Development of electrode materials for high capacitance devices (IDS-FunMat, 2013-2015)
Phase transitions in thin potassium sodium niobate films (IDS-FunMat, 2012-2015)
Influence of biaxial strain and texture on the elastic properties of Barium Strontium Titanate thin
films (AvH Lab Partnership, 2013-2015)
Publications
[1]
72
Muench, F; Seidl, T; Rauber, M; Peter, B; Brotz, J; Krause, M; Trautmann, C;
Roth, C; Katusic, S; Ensinger, W
Hierarchically porous carbon membranes containing designed nanochannel
architectures obtained by pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide
MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS Volume: 148 Issue: 3 Pages: 846-853
DOI: 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2014.09.001 Published: DEC 15 2014
Institute of Materials Science - Structure Research
[2]
Soleimani-Dorcheh, A; Donner, W; Galetz, MC)
On ultra-high temperature oxidation of Cr-Cr3Si alloys: Effect of germanium
MATERIALS AND CORROSION-WERKSTOFFE UND KORROSION Volume: 65 Issue:
12 Pages: 1143-1150 DOI: 10.1002/maco.201307423 Published: DEC 2014
[3]
Renard, L; Brotz, J; Fuess, H; Gurlo, A; Riedel, R; Toupance, T
Hybrid Organotin and Tin Oxide-based Thin Films Processed from Alkynylorganotins:
Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Properties
ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES Volume: 6 Issue: 19 Pages: 17093-17101
DOI: 10.1021/am504723t Published: OCT 8 2014
[4]
Shabadi, V; Major, M; Komissinskiy, P; Vafaee, M; Radetinac, A; Yazdi, MB;
Donner, W; Alff, L
Origin of superstructures in (double) perovskite thin films
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Volume: 116 Issue: 11 Article Number: 114901
DOI: 10.1063/1.4895636 Published: SEP 21 2014
[5]
Zakhozheva, M; Schmitt, LA); Acosta, M; Jo, W; Rodel, J; Kleebe, HJ
In situ electric field induced domain evolution in Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O-30.3(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 ferroelectrics; APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Volume: 105 Issue:
11 Article Number: 112904 DOI: 10.1063/1.48960481 Published: SEP 15 2014
[6]
Rachut, K; Korber, C; Brotz, J; Klein, A
Growth and surface properties of epitaxial SnO2
PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Volume:
211 Issue: 9 Pages: 1997-2004 DOI:10.1002/pssa.201330367 Published: SEP 2014
[7]
Oz, S; Acar, N; Svoboda, I; Titis, J; Boca, R; Atakol, O
Synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of homotrinuclear Ni(II) complexes with
asymmetric Schiff-base ligands
INORGANICA
CHIMICA
ACTA
Volume:
421
Pages:
531-537
DOI: 10.1016/j.ica.2014.07.020 Published: SEP 1 2014
[8]
Oz, S; Ergun, U; Yakut, M; Svoboda, I; Atakol, A; Inal, EK; Yilmaz, N;Atakol, O
Synthesis, crystal structure, chromatographic seperation, and thermogravimetric
investigation of a ONNO type asymmetric Schiff base and its trinuclear complexes
RUSSIAN JOURNAL OF COORDINATION CHEMISTRY Volume: 40 Issue: 8 Pages:
571-582 DOI: 10.1134/S1070328414080089 Published: AUG 2014
[9]
Boyko, TD; Gross, T; Schwarz, M; Fuess, H; Moewes, A
The local crystal structure and electronic band gap of beta-sialons
Source: JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE Volume: 49 Issue: 8 Pages: 3242-3252
DOI: 10.1007/s10853-014-8030-9 Published: APR 2014
[10] Weidner, M; Brotz, J; Klein, A)
Sputter-deposited polycrystalline tantalum-doped SnO2 layers
THIN SOLID FILMS Volume: 555 Pages: 173-178 DOI: 10.1016/j.tsf.2013.05.147
Published: MAR 31 2014
Institute of Materials Science - Structure Research
73
[11] Kempter, I; Frensch, B; Kopf, T; Kluge, R; Csuk, R; Svoboda, I; Fuess, H; Hartung, J
Synthesis and structural characterization of the isomuscarines
TETRAHEDRON
Volume:
70
Issue:
10
Pages:
1918-1927
DOI: 10.1016/j.tet.2013.12.085 Published: MAR 11 2014
[12] Kompaniiets, M; Dobrovolskiy, OV; Neetzel, C; Porrati, F; Brotz, J; Ensinger, W;
Huth, M
Long-range superconducting proximity effect in polycrystalline Co nanowires
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Volume: 104 Issue: 5 Article Number: 052603
DOI: 10.1063/1.4863980 Published: FEB 3 2014
[13] Singh, A; Senyshyn, A; Fuess, H; Kennedy, SJ; Pandey, D;
Magnetic transitions and site-disordered induced weak ferromagnetism in (1-x)BiFeO3xBaTiO(3)
PHYSICAL REVIEW B Volume: 89 Issue: 2 Article Number: 024108 DOI:
10.1103/PhysRevB.89.024108 Published: JAN 31 2014
[14] Sen, N; Ozkaramete, E; Yilmaz, N; Oz, S; Svoboda, I; Akay, MA; Atakol, O
Thermal Decomposition of Dinitro-chloro-azido Benzenes: A Comparison of Theoretical
and Experimental Results
JOURNAL OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS Volume: 32 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-15 DOI:
10.1080/07370652.2012.725237 Published: JAN 2 2014
[15] Groh, C; Franzbach, DJ; Jo, W; Webber, KG; Kling, J; Schmitt, LA; Kleebe, HJ;
Jeong, SJ; Lee, JS; Rodel, J
Relaxor/Ferroelectric Composites: A Solution in the Quest for Practically Viable LeadFree Incipient Piezoceramics
ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 356-362 DOI:
10.1002/adfm.201302102 Published: JAN 2014
[16] Morasch, J; Li, SY; Brotz, J; Jaegermann, W; Klein, A
Reactively magnetron sputtered Bi2O3 thin films: Analysis of structure, optoelectronic,
interface, and photovoltaic properties
PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI A-APPLICATIONS AND MATERIALS SCIENCE Volume:
211 Issue: 1 Pages: 93-100 DOI: 10.1002/pssa.201330216 Published: JAN 2014
[17] Stegmann, C; Muench, F; Rauber, M; Hottes, M; Brotz, J; Kunz, U; Lauterbach,
S; Kleebe, HJ; Ensinger, W
Platinum nanowires with pronounced texture, controlled crystallite size and excellent
growth homogeneity fabricated by optimized pulsed electrodeposition
RSC ADVANCES Volume: 4 Issue: 10 Pages: 4804-4810 DOI: 10.1039/c3ra46204h
Published: 2014
[18] Schmitt, LA; Schrade, D; Kungl, H; Xu, BX; Mueller, R; Hoffmann, MJ; Kleebe,
HJ; Fuess, H
Bimodal domain configuration and wedge formation in tetragonal Pb[Zr1-xTix]O-3
ferroelectrics
COMPUTATIONAL MATERIALS SCIENCE Volume: 81 Pages: 123-132 (2014)
74
Institute of Materials Science - Structure Research
Use of a laboratory diffractometer to perform anomalous scattering experiments
on epitaxial films
Vikas Shabadi, Marton Major, and Wolfgang Donner
Alloy ordering in complex materials is always hard to detect, since different ordering
schemes could lead to the same superlattice reflections. One way to distinguish between
different atom types involved in the ordering is the use of anomalous scattering. Here the
energy-dependence of the atomic scattering factors is used to label certain atoms in a
scattering experiment. In most cases synchrotron radiation is used to tune the scattering
factor, since the continuous spectrum from a bending magnet can be filtered by a Si double
monochromator. In a laboratory source, the continuous bremsstrahlung is too weak to be
used for monochromatization. However, the characteristic radiation can also be used in
some cases to tune the scattering factors for maximum contrast.
In a recent experiment, we looked at the B-site ordering in a double-perovskite epitaxial
film. In Bi2FeCrO6, the Fe and Cr ions might be able to arrange themselves in a long-range
B-site ordering scheme, thereby modifying the magnetic behavior of this potential
multiferroic. The ordering of Fe and Cr ions would lead to superstructure reflections whose
intensities would be proportional to the square of the difference of the respective form
factors for iron and chromium.
Fig. 1: Left: (a) The real and imaginary parts of the atomic form factors of iron and chromium atoms plotted
against energy of radiation. (b) The calculated value of the
f Fe  fCr
2
contrast plotted as a function of the
radiation energy. Right:   2 measurements of the BFCO film grown on STO (001) substrate measured
along the perovskite [111] direction at two wavelengths – Co Kα and Co Kβ.
Institute of Materials Science - Structure Research
75
Figure 1 (left) shows the real and imaginary parts of the form factors for iron and
chromium in a range of energies that is accessible with laboratory sources. The contrast
between iron and chromium scatterers in a diffraction experiment can be calculated from
this form factors and is shown in fig.1 (left, b). The largest obtainable contrast can be
obtained using an x-ray energy just below and above 7000 eV. These happen to be the
emission energies of cobalt K_ and cobalt K_ radiation. Therefore we set up an
experiment on a four-circle diffractometer using a HOPG monochromator that was tuned to
cobalt K_ and cobalt K_, respectively.
Figure 1 (right) shows the results of two scans along the [111]-direction of a 25 nm thin
BFCO film epitaxially grown on strontium titanate. In the case of an ordering scheme
involving iron and chromium ions, we would expect a factor of seven difference in the
relative intensities of the superlattice reflections (see fig.1 (left,b)). In contrast, the relative
intensities were approximately the same for the two extreme energies. This is the proof that
the origin of the observed (111) superlattice reflection can not be the ordering of iron and
chromium. Instead, we propose a superstructure of oxygen octahedra tilts and/or bismuth
ion displacements.
The above experiment showed the capability of laboratory x-ray sources, which can be used
(albeit in rare cases) to perform experiments that were thought to be possible on at
Synchrotron radiation facilities.
76
Institute of Materials Science - Structure Research
Materials Analysis
The Materials Analysis group participates in two of the five Research Clusters of the
Technische Universität Darmstadt: New Materials and Nuclear and Radiation Science. On the
one hand the group is concerned with the characterization of self-synthesized modern
materials, on the other hand with effects on materials caused by exposition to detrimental
influences like ion irradiation. The research aims for clarification of the correlation of
materials properties and synthesis or exposition parameters, respectively, by investigation
of the elemental composition and the chemical binding.
Current research topics are:
Advanced 3-D Nanoobjects: Nanochannels, -wires, -tubes, and –networks: In
collaboration with the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, nanoporous
membranes are formed by ion irradiation of polymer foils producing latent ion damage
tracks which are chemically etched to nanochannels. These ion track (nano) filters can be
used for filtering particles from liquids, collecting aerosols, for gas separation, and for
analyzing small (bio)molecules. In the latter case, the nanochannel walls are chemically
modified so that the nanochannel sensor becomes sensitive and selective to certain
molecular species. Apart from polymer-based nanochannels, anodically oxidized aluminium
(AAO) is used. Filling the polymer or AAO nanochannels galvanically with metals, such as
copper, gold or platinum, and dissolving the templates, nanowires are formed. Here,
different metal deposition conditions are used in order to obtain monometal but also
multimetal (e.g. CuCo- and CuFe) nanowires.
By redox-chemical reactions, the nanochannel walls can be coated with metal or metal
oxide films, such as Ni, Cu, Ag, Au, Pt, Pd, and ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, In2O3, FexOy. Thus,
nanotubes can be formed. Here, different morphologies are available, ranging from smooth
compact nanotube walls to nanoporous walls to rough or peaked structures.
When the nanochannels are crossed, the resulting nanowires are interconnected, forming
nanowire networks. Dimensions, surface topography, microstructure, and crystallinity of
these nanostructures are investigated. Macroscopic properties such as thermal stability,
electrical conductivity and catalytic activity are analysed.
Additionally, the obtained properties are evaluated with respect to applications as sensors,
for gas flow or acceleration measurements, catalysts, for chemical reactions in
microreactors, or electrodes in fuel cells.
Thin film and coating deposition and analysis: In thin film and coating technology, the
identification of chemical compounds, phases and binding conditions is of basic
importance.
Surface modifications and layer deposition are performed via a plasma process. With
plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) it is possible to alter several surface properties by
ion implantation. Different gaseous species are used such as oxygen, nitrogen and
hydrocarbons, depending on the property to be modified, e.g. hardness, wear resistance,
lifetime and biocompatibility. Using hydrocarbon gases films of diamond-like carbon (DLC)
are deposited. Research topics are the adhesion of the DLC films to different substrates and
the influence of the addition of different elements, especially metals, to the DLC films. The
films are investigated for their chemical and phase composition, microstructure, adhesion,
and in relation to biological applications, tribological properties, corrosion and wear
protection of metal substrates, wettability, and temperature stability. Since the PIII
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Analysis
77
technique is also suitable for complex shaped substrates, the treated substrates also include
samples such as tubes, where the focus in on the treatment of their inner surfaces.
Materials in radiation fields: Irradiation of materials with energetic particles (protons,
heavy ions) and electromagnetic radiation (X-rays, gamma-rays) may lead to degradation
of the materials’ properties. This happens to components in space vehicles, in nuclear
facilities and in particle accelerators. Polymers with their covalent bonds are particularly
sensitive towards ionizing radiation. Polyimide, vinyl polymers and fiber-reinforced
polyepoxides, which are components of superconducting beam guiding magnets at the
future FAIR synchrotron and storage rings, oxides such as alumina which are used as beamdiagnostic scintillator screens, and semiconductor components such as CCDs are irradiated
and characterized for their properties, such as polymeric network degradation, mechanical
strength, electrical resistance, dielectric strength, and optical properties. Apart from basic
questions on material’s degradation mechanisms by energetic radiation, the investigations
are used to estimate service life-times of the materials/components.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Ensinger
Research Associates
Dr. Mubarak Ali
Dr. A.G. Balogh
Dr. Stefan Flege
Dr. Ruriko Hatada
Dr. Peter Hoffmann
Dr. Falk Münch
Dr. Quoc Hung Nguyen
Technical Personnel
Renate Benz
Brunhilde Thybusch
PhD Students
Anton Belousov
Eva-Maria Felix
Umme Habiba Hossain
Martin Hottes
Renuka Krishnakumar
Stephan Lederer
Alice Lieberwirth
Vincent Lima
Saima Nasir
Cornelia Neetzel
Sandra Schäfer
Christian Stegmann
Sebastian Wiegand
Simon Wallenborn
Diploma and Master Markus Antoni
Students
Andreas Hanauer
Christian Heidorn
Svenja Heise
Thomas Kaleja
Pejman Khamehgir
Sven Milla
Lukas Romanowski
Judith Simon
Thirumalai Sundararajan
Silke Wursthorn
Bachelor Students
Sebastian Lehmann
Philipp Rhein
Martin C. Scheuerlein
Tom Stein
Tobias Stohr
Kyle Taylor
Stephan Wagner
Jonas Wortmann
78
Andreas Abel
Sabrina Brehm
Agnes Bußmann
Lorenz Hagelüken
Paul Hoffmann
Marion Höfling
Benjamin Juretzka
Timo Kaiser
Christoph Kipper
Institute of Materials Science- Materials Analysis
Research Projects
Preparation of lead free piezo electric thin films (LOEWE centre AdRIA 2008–2014)
Beam diagnosis and radiation damage diagnosis – Scintillator materials for high current
diagnosis (BMBF/GSI 2012–2015)
Beam diagnosis and radiation damage diagnosis – radiation damage of accelerator
components made out of plastics and countermeasures (BMBF/GSI 2012-2015)
Preparation of rare earth free nano rods (LOEWE Response, 2014-2016)
1D based sensors for gases and magnetic fields 1D-SENSE (BMBF, 2014-2016)
Publications
[1]
U.H. Hossain, T. Seidl, W. Ensinger; Combined in-situ infrared and mass
spectrometric analysis of high-energy heavy ion induced degradation of polyvinyl
polymers; POLYMER CHEMISTRY, 5, (2014) 1001-1012.
[2]
C. Stegmann, F. Münch, M. Rauber, M. Hottes, J. Brötz, U. Kunz, S.
Lauterbach, H.-J. Kleebe, W. Ensinger; Systematic Investigation of
Electrodeposition Conditions for the Fabrication of highly textured Platinum
Nanowires with controlled Crystallite Size and Growth Homogeneity; RSC
ADVANCES, 4 (2014) 4804-4810.
[3]
M. Ali, P. Ramirez, S. Nasir, Q. H. Nguyen, W. Ensinger, S. Mafe; Nanoparticleinduced rectification in a single cylindrical nanopore: Net currents from zero timeaverage potentials; APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 104 (2014) 043703.
[4]
M. Kompaniiets, O. V. Dobrovolskiy, C. Neetzel, F. Porrati, J. Brötz, W.
Ensinger, M. Huth; Long-range superconducting proximity effect in polycrystalline Co
nanowires; APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, 104 (2014) 052603.
[5]
M. Mohri, M. Nili-Ahmadabadi, S. Flege; Diffusion Evaluation of Cu in NiTi Bilayer Thin Film Interface; JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS, 594 (2014)
87-92.
[6]
A. Belousov, E. Mustafin, W. Ensinger; CCD based beam loss monitor for ion
accelerators; NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH
SECTION A: ACCELERATORS, SPECTROMETERS, DETECTORS AND ASSOCIATED
EQUIPMENT, 743 (2014) 86-89.
[7]
F. Muench, A. Eils, M.E. Toimil-Molares, U.H. Hossain, A. Radetinac, C.
Stegmann, U. Kunz, S. Lauterbach, H.-J. Kleebe, W. Ensinger; Polymer activation
by reducing agent absorption as a flexible tool for the creation of metal films and
nanostructures by electroless plating; SURFACE AND COATINGS TECHNOLOGY,
242 (2014) 100-108.
[8]
S. Flege, R. Hatada, K. Baba, W. Ensinger; Corrigendum to „Fluorine and carbon
ion implantation and deposition on metals by plasma source ion implantation“;
SURFACE AND COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, 245 (2014) 167.
[9]
B. Peter, J. Melke, F. Muench, W. Ensinger, C. Roth; Stable platinum
nanostructures on nitrogen-doped carbon obtained by high-temperature synthesis for
use in PEMFC; JOURNAL OF APPLIED ELECTROCHEMISTRY, 44 (2014) 573-580.
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Analysis
79
[10]
U.H. Hossain, V. Lima, O. Baake, D. Severin, M. Bender, W. Ensinger; On-line
and post irradiation analysis of swift heavy ion induced modification of PMMA
(polymethyl-methacrylate); NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS IN PHYSICS
RESEARCH SECTION B: BEAM INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS,
326 (2014) 135-139.
[11]
P. Ramirez, J. Cervera, M.Ali, W. Ensinger, S. Mafe; Logic Functions with StimuliResponsive Single Nanopores; CHEMELECTROCHEM, 1 (2014) 698-705.
[12]
K. Drogowska, M. Elsayed, R. Krause-Rehberg, A.G. Balogh; About the defect
structure in differently doped PZT ceramics: A temperature dependent positron lifetime
study; CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL, 40 (2014) 9127-9131.
[13]
M. Pavlovic, M. Miglierini, E. Mustafin, T. Seidl, M. Šoka, W. Ensinger; Influence
of High Energy Heavy Ions on Magnetic Susceptibility of Soft Magnetic Metallic
Glasses; ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, 126 (2014) 54-55.
[14]
E.-M. Felix, F. Muench, W. Ensinger; Green plating of high aspect ratio gold
nanotubes and their morphology-dependent performance in enzyme-free peroxide
sensing; RSC ADVANCES, 4 (2014) 24504-24510.
[15]
F. Muench S. Bohn, M. Rauber, T. Seidl, A. Radetinac, U. Kunz, S. Lauterbach,
H.-J. Kleebe, C. Trautmann, W. Ensinger; Polycarbonate activation for electroless
plating by dimethylaminoborane absorption and subsequent nanoparticle deposition;
APPLIED PHYSICS A, 116 (2014) 287-294.
[16]
K. Baba, R. Hatada, S. Flege, W. Ensinger; DLC coating of interior surfaces of steel
tubes by low energy plasma source ion implantation and deposition; APPLIED
SURFACE SCIENCE, 310 (2014) 262-265.
[17]
R. Hatada, S. Flege, A. Bobrich, W. Ensinger, C. Dietz, K. Baba, T. Sawase, T.
Watamoto, T. Matsutani; Preparation of Ag-Containing Diamond-like Carbon Films
on the Interior Surface of Tubes by a Combined Method of Plasma Source Ion
Implantation and DC Sputtering; APPLIED SURFACE SCIENCE, 310 (2014) 257261.
[18]
S. Hirsch, P. Komissinskiy, S. Flege, S. Li, K. Rachut, A. Klein, L. Alff;
Modification of energy band alignment and electric properties of Pt/Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3/Pt
thin-film ferroelectric varactors by Ag impurities at interfaces; APPLIED PHYSICS
LETTERS, 115 (2014) 243704.
[19]
S. Nasir, M. Ali, P. Ramirez, V. Gomez, B. Oschmann, F. Muench, M. N. Tahir,
R. Zentel, S. Mafe, W. Ensinger; Fabrication of Single Cylindrical Au-Coated
Nanopores with Non-Homogeneous Fixed Charge Distribution Exhibiting High Current
Rectifications; ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 6 (2014) 12486–12494.
[20]
M. Ali, P. Ramirez, S. Nasir, Q. H. Nguyen, W. Ensinger, S. Mafe; Current
Rectification by Nanoparticle Blocking in Single Cylindrical Nanopores; NANOSCALE,
6 (2014) 10740-10745.
[21]
M. Kompaniiets, O. V. Dobrovolskiy, C. Neetzel, E. Begun, F. Porrati, W.
Ensinger, M. Huth; Proximity-induced superconductivity in crystalline Cu and Co
nanowires and nanogranular Co structures; JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 116
(2014) 073906.
80
Institute of Materials Science- Materials Analysis
[22]
R. Hatada, S. Flege, A. Bobrich, W. Ensinger, K. Baba; Surface modification and
corrosion properties of implanted and DLC coated stainless steel by plasma based ion
implantation and deposition; SURFACE AND COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, 256
(2014) 23-29.
[23]
S. Flege, R. Hatada, W. Ensinger, K. Baba; Improved adhesion of DLC films on
copper substrates by preimplantation; SURFACE AND COATINGS TECHNOLOGY,
256 (2014) 37-40.
[24]
F. Muench, U. Kunz, H. Wardenga, H.-J. Kleebe, W. Ensinger; Metal nanotubes and
nanowires with rhombohedral cross-section electrolessly deposited in mica templates;
LANGMUIR, 30 (2014) 10878-10885.
[25]
F. Muench, T. Seidl, M. Rauber, B. Peter, J. Brötz, M. Krause, C. Trautmann, C.
Roth, S. Katusic, W. Ensinger; Hierarchically porous carbon membranes containing
designed nanochannel architectures obtained by pyrolysis of ion-track etched
polyimide; MATERIALS CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS, 148 (2014) 846-853.
[26]
U.H. Hossain, F. Muench, W. Ensinger;
A Comparative Study on Degradation
Characteristics of Fluoropolymers Irradiated by High Energy Heavy Ions; RSC
ADVANCES, 4 (2014) 50171-50179.
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81
Green Synthesis of Gold Nanotubes by Electroless Deposition
Eva-Maria Felix, Wolfgang Ensinger
In Materials Analysis group, the synthesis of one-dimensional nanoobjects, such as
nanowires and nanotubes, by electroless plating is studied. By applying this special
synthesis route to ion-track etched templates, nanotubes of different metals could be
produced. The electroless deposition method displays a simple, yet highly versatile, wetchemical route. This reaction is controlled by the heterogeneously autocatalyzed reduction
of metal complexes on arbitrary substrates. A metastable redox pair consisting of a metal
complex and a reducing agent is the core of each electroless plating solution. Due to the
metastability, these components only react on catalytically active surfaces, leading to the
deposition of metal films on suitable substrates. To suppress homogeneous nucleation of
particles in solution a complexing agent is added. [1]
Fig. 1: Scheme of Au nanotube fabrication. [2] (1) Irradiation of polycarbonate foil with heavy ions. (2)
Selective etching of ion-tracks for nanopore formation. (3) Sensitization of polymer with Sn 2+ -ions. (4)
Activation with Ag+ - ions. (5) Surface-conformal metal film deposition by electroless plating. (6) Removal of
polymer template by chemical dissolution.
From the perspective of sustainable chemistry, electroless plating exhibits a number of
promising characteristics. On the one hand, the plating solutions are usually based on
water, depositions can be performed at ambient temperatures and require only simple
equipment. On the other hand, the use of highly toxic chemicals impedes the classification
of most electroless deposition processes as green syntheses. For instance, in Au plating bath
formulations often the hazardous ligand cyanide is employed. Furthermore, most of the
standard reducing agents, such as hydrazine, sodium borohydride, aminoboranes or
formaldyhyde are carcinogenic and toxic [1,3].
Taking the cost-efficient production advantages and modernizing the method with regard
to sustainability and environmental health, one can facilitate a green synthesis of Au
nanotubes [1].
The exchange of complexing and reducing agents leads to a "greener" synthesis of the
nanotubes. The green synthesis is based on the environmentally benign reducing agent
ascorbic acid and the complexing agent EDTA used for the fabrication of gold nanotubes in
porous polymer templates. The key action to achieve well-defined nanotubes of high aspect
ratio (>100) was the reduction reaction rate in order to ensure homogeneous metal
deposition within the extended inner template surface. Depending on the plating time,
nanotubes with porous as well as closed walls could be synthesized [1].
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Institute of Materials Science- Materials Analysis
Fig. 2: SEM images of the template-freed products of NT syntheses using electroless deposition by varying the
deposition time. [2] (A) Au nanotubes with porous wall structure after 3 days deposition time. (B) Au
nanotubes after 4 days deposition time. (C) Au nanotubes with closed walls after 7 days deposition time.
The porous and closed Au nanostructures (Fig. 2 A and C) were successfully implemented
as sensors in the amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. The generally improved
performance of the porous nanotubes compared to their closed counterparts was attributed
to their better accessible and larger surface area (cp Fig. 3). The limits of detection of
porous to closed Au nanotubes constitute 2.3 µM vs. 8.2 µM, the maxima of linear range
11.7 mM vs. 8.0 mM, response times 3.6 vs. 5.5 s, and sensitivities 770 µA mM cm-2 vs. 360
µA mM cm-2 [1].
Fig. 3: (A) Measured curves for the amperometric detection of H 2O2. (B) Corresponding fits of linear
concentration-current regimes [1,2].
This example shows the potential of green nanotechnology in applications such as chemical
sensing or clinical diagnostics.
References:
[1]
[2]
[3]
E.-M. Felix, F. Muench and W. Ensinger, RSC Adv., 2014, 4, 24504-24510.
E.-M. Felix, F. Muench and W. Ensinger, GDCh Conference on Electrochemistry, Basic Science
and Key Technology for Future Applications, Johannes Gutenberg University, 2014, Mainz.
C. R. K. Rao, and D. C. Trivedi, Coord. Chem. Rev., 2005, 249, 613-631.
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Analysis
83
Experimental Simulation of Materials’ Damage by Highly Energetic Ions of Heavy
Elements in Galactic Cosmic Rays
Anton Belousov, Umme Habiba Hossain, Vincent Lima, Wolfgang Ensinger
Devices operating in space, e.g. in satellites or space-based telescopes, are being hit by
galactic cosmic rays (GCR). These include so-called HZE-ions, with High mass (Z) and
energy (E). They consist of elements mainly of the first row of the transition metals of the
periodic system of elements, such as Fe. These ions penetrate deeply into the materials and
deposit a large amount of energy, typically several keV per nm range. No chemical bond
can stand such energies; as a consequence, serious damage is created. Apart from structural
damage, it is the generation of electrical charges which is a problem, particularly for
semiconductor-based devices.
The conditions in space can be experimentally simulated by generating the HZE ions in an
ion accelerator. For this purpose, the Universal Linear Accelerator UNILAC and the Heavy Ion
Synchrotron SIS of the GSI Helmholtz-Centre for Heavy Ion Research can have been used.
In order to simulate the damage and the resulting change in functionality of semiconductor
devices generated by HZE ions, an MOS field effect transistor chip was irradiated in
operando with 500 MeV/n Tantalum ions under observation with an oscilloscope. The
results show the direct influence of irradiation on the device performance parameters, such
as the threshold voltage Vth, which is the minimum voltage needed for conductance
between source and drain. Fig. 1 shows Vth as a function of the number of ions. First, a
considerable shift to lower values is observed. Passage of ionizing radiation leads to charge
build up in the SiO2/Si interface. When the chip had received about 4.4E10 ions/cm2, the
trend in Vth development changed and the values started jumping.
This example shows the deterioration of the device with loss of proper functionality under
ion irradiation.
Ta ions
Fig. 1: Left: sample holder for irradiation with MOS transistor chip on circuit; right: threshold voltage Vth as a
function of number of ions during irradiation with 500 MeV/n Ta ions. The dashed line indicates two stages of
Vth evolution: first a shift into negative direction, and then fluctuations [1].
Apart from semiconductors, electronic devices contain polymers as electrical insulators.
When they are hit by HZE-ions, their polymeric network is degraded and the polymers
transform to compounds closer to graphite with progressively losing their insulating
character. Due to bond breaking, small volatile molecules are cut out of the polymer. As a
result, the polymer loses mass. This is shown in Fig. 2 for the aliphatic polymer
polyvinylformal (PVF) which has been irradiated with different numbers (fluences) of gold
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ions in the energy range up to 11 MeV/n. It turns out that the polymer loses more than half
of its mass when it has been hit by several 10E12 ions per cm2.
Fig. 2: left: Residual mass of polyvinyl formal as a function of number of ions; right: optical band gap as a
function of number of ions [2].
Another observation is the shift in optical band gap due to formation of conjugated CC
double bonds, leading to colouration and also to a reduction in electrical insulation, see Fig.
2 right side. Fig. 3 shows as an example a typical molecular degradation mechanism of PVF,
with the scission of the side chain of the acetate subunit and of the acetale subunit, leading
to the volatile fragments CH3CHO and H2CO, CO2 and CO, resp.. These fragments and
others, particularly hydrogen, were found with Mass Spectrometry. The resulting formation
of the C=O and C=C groups was shown by Infrared Spectroscopy [3].
Fig. 3: Molecular degradation mechanism of polyvinylformal subunits polyvinylacetate and polyvinylacetale
under irradiation with high energy heavy ions [2,3].
Such investigations are important for estimating both service life-times of devices in longterm space missions and of ion accelerator components, such as those of the future Facility
for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) which is presently being built next to GSI.
References:
[1]
[2]
[3]
A. Belousov, Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices in High Energy Heavy Ion
Accelerators, Thesis, TU Darmstadt, 2014
U.H. Hossain, Swift Heavy Ion Induced Modification of Aliphatic Polymers, Thesis, TU
Darmstadt, 2014
U.H. Hossain, T. Seidl and W. Ensinger, Polym. Chem. 2014, 5, 2001-2012
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Analysis
85
Materials Modelling Division
The research of the Materials Modelling Division is focused on multi-scale modelling of
defect structures in functional oxides, energy materials, nanostructured metals and glasses.
We are combining electronic structure calculations with atomistic modelling methods and
continuum descriptions depending on time and length scales involved.
Quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory are used for electronic
structure calculations. Large-scale molecular dynamics with analytical interatomic
potentials are the method of choice for studying kinetic processes and plastic deformation.
Kinetic lattice Monte-Carlo simulations are extensively used for simulations of diffusional
and transport processes on extended time scales. The group is operating several HPCcomputers and has access to the Hessian High Performance Computers in Frankfurt and
Darmstadt.
The current research topics are:

Energy materials
o Interfaces in Li-intercalation batteries
o Si-based anodes for intercalation batteries
o Dislocations in CIS/CIGS absorber materials
o High-pressure phases of nitrogen
o Creep resistant alloys (Mo-Si-B)

Functional oxides
o Aging and fatigue of ferroelectrics
o Lead free relaxor materials
o Transparent conductive oxides
o Theory of superconducting materials

Mechanical properties of nanostructured metals and glasses
o Plasticity of metallic glasses with secondary phases
o Structure and properties of nanoglasses
o Creep resistant SiOC-based glasses
o Plasticity of nanocrystalline alloys
Within the Bachelor program the Materials Modelling Division is offering classes on
thermodynamics and kinetics as well as defects in materials and programming techniques.
In the master program we are teaching lectures on theoretical materials science, lab classes
on simulation methods and several elective courses.
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Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Karsten Albe
Emeritus Professor
Prof. Dr. Hermann Rauh, M.A., C.Phys., F.Inst.P., F.I.M.
Secretary
Renate Hernichel
Research Associates
PD Dr. Yuri Genenko
Dr. Sergey Yampolskii
Dr. Alexander Stukowski
Dr. Melanie Gröting
Dr. Jochen Rohrer
Dr. Omar Adjaoud
Dr. Uma Maheswari Sankara Subbiah
Dr. Marc Radu
Dr. Sabrina Sicolo
M.Sc. Heide Humburg
PhD Students
Dipl.-Ing. Arno Fey
Dipl.-Ing. Kai Meyer
Dipl.-Ing. Tobias Brink
M.Sc. Olena Lenchuk
M.Sc. Daniel Barragan-Yani
M.Sc. Constanze Kalcher
M.Sc. Markus Mock
Master Students
Constanze Kalcher
Samer Kurdi
Bachelor Students
Leonie Koch
Elke Flegel
Markus Mock
Research Projects
Mikrostruktur und Stabilität von Nanogläsern (DFG AL 578/6-2, 2013-2015)
Quantenmechanische Computersimulationen zur Elektronen- und Defektstruktur oxidischer
Materialien (SFB 595, Teilprojekt C1, 2007-2014)
Atomistische Computersimulationen von Defekten und deren Bewegung in Metalloxiden
(SFB 585, Teilprojekt C2, 2003-2014)
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
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Phänomenologische Modellierung von Injektion, Transport und Rekombination in
Bauelementen aus organischen Halbleitern sowie aus nichtorganischen Ferroelektrika (SFB
C5, 2003-2014)
Erforschung der Phasenstabilität und Niederdrucksynthese von festem Stickstoff mittels
atomistischer Computersimulationen und Experimenten (DFG AL 578/3-2, 2010–2014))
Beyond Ni-Base Superalloys: Atomistische Modellierung des Einflusses von
Legierungszusätzen auf die Korngrenzeigenschaften in Mo-Si-B und Co-Re Superlegierungen (DFG Forschergruppe 727, AL 578/9-1, 2010–2015)
Nanosilicon dispersed in SiCN(O) and SiCO-based ceramic matrices derived from
preceramic polymers: new composite anode materials for lithium ion batteries.
(DFG SPP 1473 „Wendelib“, DFG AL 578/10-2, 2014–2016)
Mechanische und kinetische Eigenschaften metallischer
Sekundärphasen (DFG AL578/13-1, 2011–2015)
Gläser
mit
nanoskaligen
Bleifreie Piezokeramiken, LOEWE-Schwerpunkt ADRIA (HMWK, 2011-2014)
Topological Engineering of Ultra-Strong Glasses (DFG AL 578/15-1, 2012-2015)
Modeling the electrocaloric effect in lead-free relaxor ferroelectrics: A combined atomisticcontinuum approach (DFG AL 578/16-1, 2012-2015)
Grenzflächenphänomene in ionenleitenden Systemen (DFG AL 578/19-1, 2014-2016)
Hochtemperatur-Kriechverhalten SiOC-basierter Gläser und Glaskeramiken
(DFG STU 611/1-1, 2014-2016)
(DFG RO 4542/2-1, 2014-2016)
Microstructure control for thin film solar cells - Virtuelles Institut (MICO‐TFSC)
(HZB VH-VI-520 2012-2017)
Tailoring nanoscaled features in novel steels for high-temperature applications using ion
beam modification (ODS-HiTs) (HGFJRG-411, 2014-2016)
Publications
[1]
Stukowski, A.
A triangulation-based method to identify dislocations in atomistic models.
J. Mech. Phys. Solids 70, 314-319 (2014)
[2]
Nikolaenko, Yuri M.; Kuzovlev, Y. E.; Medvedev, Yuri V.; Mezin, N. I.; Fasel,
Claudia; Gurlo, Aleksander; Schlicker, L. ; Bayer, Thorsten J.M. ; Genenko, Y.A.
Macro- and microscopic properties of strontium doped indium oxide.
J. Appl. Phys. 116, 043704 (2014)
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[3]
Zuo, Y. ; Genenko, Y.A. ; Xu, B.-X.
Charge compensation of head-to-head and tail-to-tail domain walls in barium titanate and
its influence on conductivity.
J. Appl. Phys. 116, 044109 (2014)
[4]
Ruestes, C.J.; Bringa, E.M.; Stukowski, A.; Rodríguez Nieva, J.F.; Tang, Y.; Meyers,
M.A.
Plastic deformation of a porous bcc metal containing nanometer sized voids.
Comp. Mat. Sci, 88, 92-102 (2014)
[5]
Ruestes, C. J.; Stukowski, A.; Tang, Y.; Tramontina, D. R.; Erhart, P.
Remington, B. A.; Urbassek, H. M.; Meyers, M. A.; Bringa, E. M.
Atomistic simulation of tantalum nanoindentation: Effects of indenter diameter,
penetration velocity, and interatomic potentials on defect mechanisms and evolution.
Mat. Sci. Eng. A 613, 390-403 (2014)
[6]
Stukowski, A.
Computational analysis methods in atomistic modeling of crystals.
JOM 66, 399 (2014)
[7]
Gröting, M.; Albe, K.
Comparative study of A-site order in the lead-free bismuth titanates M1/2Bi1/2TiO3.
J. Solid State Chem., 213, 138-144 (2014)
[8]
Yampolskii, S. V.; Genenko, Y.A.
Magnetic cloaking by a paramagnet/superconductor cylindrical tube in the critical state.
Appl. Phys. Lett., 104, 143504 (2014)
[9]
Bünz, J.; Brink, T.; Tsuchiya, K.; Meng F.,; Wilde, G.; Albe, K.
Low temperature heat capacity of a severely deformed metallic glass.
Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 135501 (2014)
[10]
Genenko, Y.A.; Hirsch, O.; Erhart, P.
Surface potential at a ferroelectric grain due to asymmetric screening of depolarization
fields.
J. Appl. Phys. 115, 104102 (2014)
[11]
Goel, S.; Faisal, N. H.; Ratia, V.; Agrawal, A.; Stukowski, A.
Atomistic investigation on the structure–property relationship during thermal spray
nanoparticle impact.
Comp. Mat. Sci., 84, 163-174 (2014)
[12]
Tramontina, D.; Erhart, P.; Germann, T.; Hawreliak, J.; Higginbotham, A.; Park,
N.; Ravelo, R.; Stukowski, A.; Suggit, M.; Tang, Y.; Wark, J.; Bringa, E.
Molecular dynamics simulations of shock-induced plasticity in tantalum.
High Energy Density Physics, 10, 9-15 (2014)
[13]
Zuo, Y.; Genenko, Y.A.; Klein, A.; Stein, P.; Xu, B.-X.
Domain wall stability in ferroelectrics with space charges.
J. Appl. Phys, 115, 084110 (2014)
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[14]
Gröting, M.; Albe, K.;
Theoretical prediction of morphotropic compositions in Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3-based solid
solutions from transition pressures.
Phys. Rev. B 89, 054105 (2014)
[15]
Zhukov, S.; Kungl, H.; Genenko, Y.A.; von Seggern, H.;
Statistical electric field and switching time distributions in PZT 1Nb2Sr ceramics: Crystaland microstructure effects.
J. Appl. Phys., 115, 014103 (2014)
[16]
Rohrer, J. ; Kaghazchi, P.;
Structure sensitivity in the decomposition of ethylene carbonate on Si anodes.
ChemPhysChem 15, 3950–3954 (2014)
[17]
Yampolskii, S.V.; Genenko, Y.A.
Magnetic detectability of a finite size paramagnet/superconductor cylindrical cloak.
Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 033501 (2014)
[18]
Avchaciov, K.A.; Ritter, Y.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K.; Albe, K.
Effect of ion irradiation on structural properties of Cu64Zr36 metallic glass.
Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 341, 22 (2014)
[19]
Ullah, M. W.; Kuronen, A.; Stukowski, A.; Djurabekova, F.; Nordlund, K
Atomistic simulation of Er irradiation induced defects in GaN nanowires.
J. Appl. Phys. 116, 123413 (2014)
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Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
Structure and Properties of Amorphous LiPON Electrolyte by First-Principles
Simulations
Sabrina Sicolo and Karsten Albe
Amorphous materials belonging to the family of Lithium Phosphorus Oxynitrides (LiPON)
are increasingly popular solid electrolytes for thin-film Li-ion batteries. RF-sputtering of a
lithium orthophosphate target in a nitrogen plasma leads to the deposition of amorphous
glasses [1]. Besides a fairly high ionic conductivity and very low electronic conductivity,
LiPON exhibits remarkable chemical and physical stability to such an extent that its use as a
protective layer for cathode materials has been suggested [2]. Rationalization of the
transport properties rests on a valid structural model for these glassy structures, whose
simulation represents a main challenge from a computational point of view also because of
their non-trivial compositions. The motivation for this study is the desire to assess the
structural, electronic and transport properties of an amorphous member of the LiPON
family with non-trivial composition and cross-linking.
Fig. 1: Structure of LiPON. Color code: green, Li; purple: P; red: O; light blue: N
The issue of structure prediction for a given composition is a longstanding problem even for
the simplest crystalline solids. The problem is further complicated in the case of an
amorphous material, as the potential energy landscape that describes the glassy region
exhibits a large number of minima of varying depths. We circumvented the problem by
using an evolutionary algorithm [3] to find a stable structure for a given composition and
subjecting it to ab-initio simulated annealing to create disorder (Fig. 1) [4].
In this work we present the results of Density Functional Theory calculations. After
characterizing the structural and electronic properties of our material, we addressed the
issue of ionic conductivity by calculating the defect formation energies of neutral and
charged point defects. We assume that the formation of defects is triggered by the diffusion
of lithium species through the interfaces with the electrodes, and therefore we calculated
defects formation energies referenced to two different Li reservoirs, namely a typical anode,
metallic lithium, and a typical cathode, lithium cobalt oxide (LCO) [4]. The Fermi level
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
91
dependences of the formation energies of Li(+) interstitials and vacancies for the two
different Li reservoirs are shown in Fig. 2. The left panel shows that when metallic Li is
considered as a lithium reservoir, excess interstitials are far more stable than vacancies
across the whole band gap. Neutral interstitials are competitive species at the interface
between LiPON and Li (green area) and their formation results in the chemical reduction of
LiPON and the disruption of the network, compatibly with what experimentally observed
[4,5]. When LCO is chosen as the lithium reservoir, vacancies are more stable than
interstitials for values of EF far from the valence band edge and in particular at the Fermi
level of the interface between LiPON and LCO (red area). For both reservoirs, charged
defects dominate over neutral ones, as expected of an ionic conductor. The inversion of
stability of Li+ interstitials and vacancies at the interface with metallic lithium and LCO,
respectively, is consistent with the spontaneous flow of Li ions from the anode (Li) to the
cathode (LCO) through the solid electrolyte during the battery discharge.
In summary, we have performed for the first time atomistic simulations of an amorphous
electrolyte with non-trivial structure and composition. The investigation of the defects
thermodynamics provides insights into the dominant species that govern the ionic
conductivity of the material and rationalizes the experimental findings about the
occurrence of side reactions at the interface with the anode.
Fig. 2: Defects formation energies as a function of the Fermi level energy with respect to metallic Li (left) and
LCO (right). The VBM coincides with EF = 0 and the grey areas represent the valence and conduction bands.
The green and red areas locate the estimated positions of the Fermi level at the interface with Li and LCO
according to Ref. [5], respectively.
References:
[1] J. B. Bates, N. J. Dudney, B. Neudecker, A. Ueda, C. D. Evans, Solid State Ionics 135, 33–45 (2000).
[2] J. Song, S. Jacke, D. Becker, R. Hausbrand, W. Jaegermann, Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., 14
(2), A11 (2011).
[3] A. O. Lyahkov, A. R. Oganov, H. T. Stokes, Q. Zhu, Comp. Phys. Comm., 184, 1172-1182 (2013).
[4] S. Sicolo, K. Albe, in preparation.
[5] A. Schwöbel, R. Hausbrand, W. Jaegermann, in preparation.
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Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
Developing Advanced Data Analysis Tools for Atomistic Simulations
Alexander Stukowski
Materials properties and the underlying mechanisms at the microscale are often linked to
structural changes in a material and the presence, formation, or interaction of different
crystal defects, for example dislocations and grain boundaries. Molecular dynamics (MD)
and other atomistic modeling techniques are powerful and well-established tools to study
such processes with full atomic detail and without restrictive assumptions. However, the
accurate and robust identification of defects in a material is essential for understanding,
interpreting, and quantifying atomic-scale processes occurring in such simulations, because
the MD simulation method does not explicitly keep track of these materials features.
A related question is how to bridge atomistic descriptions of a solid with higher-level
models and coarser materials descriptions. Classic continuum concepts such as strain and
stress fields, or mesoscale concepts such as grain boundary networks, dislocation densities,
and the geometry surface of a solid can have a different meaning or definition at the atomic
level. In many cases new theoretical concepts, metrics, and the corresponding
computational tools [1] must be developed to obtain such high-level information from
atomistic simulations and to make it available for a treatment with classic theories – or as
input to coarser materials models.
Recently, our research group developed several automated techniques, which greatly
simplify the analysis of structures and processes found in molecular dynamics simulations
of crystalline materials. Some of these software tools and algorithms will be presented in
the following.
Dislocation Extraction Algorithm
Dislocations theory and related simulation techniques such as discrete dislocation dynamics
(DDD) explicitly treat dislocations as line objects, which interact with the stress field, move,
or undergo reactions according to an appropriate set of rules. However, many important
effects such as split dislocation
cores,
nucleation,
and
interaction of dislocations with
other defects may be difficult or
impossible to incorporate in such
models. Whenever microscopic
details of dislocations behavior
are essential, fully atomistic
simulations become necessary.
The
so-called
Dislocation
Extraction Algorithm (DXA) [2],
in
our
group,
Figure 6: Left: Original atomistic visualization of the plastic zone in a developed
nanoidentation MD simulation of SrTiO3. Right: Dislocation line provides a bridge between both
structure obtained after processing with the Dislocation Extraction worlds. Starting from the atoms
Algorithm.
forming a material, it can
reconstruct the three-dimensional network of dislocation lines contained in the crystal at
each instant of time. In addition, it automatically determines the Burgers vector of each
dislocation segment [3]. It can therefore provide a detailed picture of dislocation structures
in a material and allows to measure the dislocation density – something that is not possible
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93
in the original atomistic picture, because here the total dislocation length is an ill-defined
quantity.
Surface reconstruction algorithm
Similar arguments have motivated the recent
development of a computational method that can
generate a geometric representation of the
external and internal surfaces of a solid. The
primary application of such a technique is to
measure the internal surface area and solid
volume fraction in molecular dynamics
simulations of materials containing voids, e.g.
nanoporous gold structures or consolidated
nanoparticles. Because surfaces and voids can
have great influence on the mechanical
properties and, at the same time, are changed by Figure 7: Specific surface area of nanoporous
the deformation of a material, monitoring the gold as a function of uniaxial compression.
surface area, surface curvature distribution, and
porosity are important analysis tools.
We have developed a parallelized algorithm [4] that constructs a closed two-dimensional
manifold from the atomic positions, representing the geometric surface of a solid. The
algorithm is based on the tetrahedral Delaunay tessellation and makes use of a
mathematical concept known as alpha complex. The resulting surface mesh provides a welldefined means to determine the surface area and solid volume of atomistic solids with
complex shapes or pore topology. Figure 7 shows surface evolution data obtained with this
method for a simulated nanoporous gold structure under compressive deformation.
OVITO – The Open Visualization Tool
To fully leverage the capabilities of analysis
algorithms like the DXA, tailored visualization
tools need to be developed that provide the
capability to simultaneously display, inspect, and
interrelate the original atomistic data and the
derived microstructure representations.
Within the past years, an open source program
package [5] has been developed in Darmstadt,
which serves as an integration platform for
various new data visualization and analysis
techniques. With already several thousands of
users in science and academia, the software is
rapidly establishing itself as one of the standard tools in the field of atomistic materials
modeling.
References:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
94
A. Stukowski, A. Arsenlis, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 20 (2012), 035012
A. Stukowski, V. V. Bulatov, A. Arsenlis, Modelling Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 20 (2012), 085007
A. Stukowski, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 70 (2014), 314-319
A. Stukowski, JOM 66 (2014), 399-407
http://www.ovito.org/
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
Magnetic Cloaking by a Finite Size Paramagnet/Superconductor Tube
in the Meissner and the full critical states
S.V. Yampolskii, Y.A. Genenko
Cloaking of electromagnetic waves as well as of static magnetic fields is one of the most
intriguing effects revealed by metamaterials [1-3]. A magnetic cloak is expected to produce
a dual effect: it must not distort the external field outside the cloak, thus being “invisible”
for external observation, and, on the other hand, has to protect its inner area from the
external field penetration. Different cloak designs have been already proposed, particularly,
in the forms of multilayered [4] or bilayered [5] magnet/superconductor hollow cylinder.
An essential component of the proposed hybrid cylindrical designs is the inner
superconducting layer which was assumed until quite recently to be an ideal diamagnetic
medium with zero effective permeability in both analytical and finite-element
considerations [3, 5]. This assumption is, however, unrealistic because of (1) finite field
penetration depth which can be comparable with superconductor thickness and (2) massive
magnetic flux penetration followed by formation of the critical state typical of magnetic
shielding applications.
We have studied theoretically static magnetic cloaking properties of a realistic bilayer
paramagnet/superconductor cylindrical tube with finite thicknesses of both
superconducting and magnetic constituents being in the flux-free Meissner state (Fig. 1,
left) or in the full critical state (Fig. 1, right).
Fig. 1: Cross-sectional view of a hollow superconductor cylinder in the Meissner state (left) or in the full critical
state (right), covered by a coaxial cylindrical magnetic sheath and assumed to be in the cloaking regime. The
vertical solid lines x=0 in the right panel denote the boundaries between the superconductor regions with
negative and positive directions of the critical current.The direction of the applied magnetic field H0 is also
indicated.
Let us consider an infinitely long hollow superconducting cylinder of thickness dS and
radius of a coaxial hole R0 enveloped in a coaxial cylindrical magnetic sheath of thickness
dM with relative permeability >l. This structure is exposed to an external constant
magnetic field H0 perpendicular to the cylinder axis as shown in Fig. 1. In the case of
Meissner state, the distributions of the magnetic field in the structure were found by exact
solving the coupled London and Maxwell equations for superconducting and magnetic
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
95
media, respectively, supplied by the appropriate boundary conditions [6]. It was
established that in the Meissner state the system with the finite penetration depth  of
magnetic field into a superconductor never completely protects the inner region (a central
hole) from the penetration of weak external field. On the other hand, a non-distorted
uniform magnetic field outside the cloak can exist in a wide range of values of the
permeability and thickness of the paramagnet sheath related with the other parameters of
the system by equation
   1     1
2

2

2
R22 R12

1 R R 1
2
2
2
1

I 0  R1   K 2  R0    K 0  R1   I 2  R0  
I 2  R1   K 2  R0    K 2  R1   I 2  R0  
,
(1)
where R1  R0  d S and R2  R1  d M . In particular, cloaking feature is exhibited for both
cases of thick and thin superconductor layers. At the same time, the magnetic moment of
such a bilayer tube vanishes under the cloaking conditions (1) (as well as all higher
multipole moments) making this object magnetically undetectable. Furthermore, initial
penetration of magnetic flux into a superconductor in the form of single vortices produces
rather small paramagnetic moment of the system, thus breaking the perfect cloaking only
slightly.
With further increase of applied field, magnetic flux enters the superconducting constituent
through the superconductor/magnet interface and, according to the Bean concept of the
critical state, induces shielding currents of density jc in the regions of flux penetration. At
fields H0 equal or higher than the field of full flux penetration in the superconducting
constituent,
    1 2  1  R22  R12    2  1  R22  R12  R0  R0  R1  

H fp  H 0fp 1 

6
R12
12
R12 R22


(2)
(here H 0fp   2 jc   R1  R0  is the same field for an unshielded superconductor cylinder),
the superconductor layer is completely penetrated by the magnetic flux, i.e., is in the full
critical state (see Fig. 1, right). It was established that in this case the magnetic field
outside the cloak remains undisturbed at applied field Hcl determined by equation
H cl 4 
R12  R1R0  R02

.
H 0fp 3   2  1
R22  R12
(3)
Notice that this is qualitatively different from the case of cloaking in the Meissner state,
where the cloaking conditions were field-independent. The calculated typical dependence
of Hcl/Hfp on the relative permeability µ and on the thickness dM is shown in Fig. 2 for the
case of dS = R0. At the same time, under the cloaking conditions (3), the magnetic moment
of the bilayer structure vanishes (as well as all higher multipole moments) making this
object magnetically undetectable as in the case of cloaking in the Meissner state. And
finally, when the applied field equals to the field of full flux penetration, such a system also
completely protects the inner region (a central hole) from the penetration of the external
field, thus revealing in this case cloaking in its ideal, “dual” form. At higher applied fields,
the central hole of the structure is never protected from the magnetic flux penetration.
96
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
Fig. 2: The dependence of the ratio Hcl/Hfp on the relative permeability µ and on the thickness dM of the
magnet sheath for the thickness of superconductor layer dS=R0.
Thus, both features of cloaking and of complete magnetic undetectability by a paramagnet/
superconductor cylindrical structure, realized in the Meissner state, can be reestablished by
increase of an applied magnetic field to a certain value in the range of the superconductor
full critical state. These results are expected to hold also for low frequency ac fields as is
generally the case for superconducting shielding.
References:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
J.B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D.R. Smith, Science 312, 1780 (2006).
D. Schurig, J.J. Mock, B.J. Justice, S.A. Cummer, J.B. Pendry, A.F. Starr, and D.R. Smith,
Science 314, 977 (2006).
A. Sanchez, C. Navau, J. Prat-Camps, and D.X. Chen, New J. Phys. 13, 093034 (2011).
S. Narayana and Y. Sato, Adv. Mater. 24, 71 (2012).
F. Gömöry, M. Solovyov, J. Šouc, C. Navau, J. Prat-Camps, and A. Sanchez, Science 335, 1466
(2012).
Y.A. Genenko, S.V. Yampolskii, and A.V. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3921 (2004).
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
97
Finite-element simulations of hysteretic ac losses
in a magnetically coated superconducting tubular wire
subject to an oscillating transverse magnetic field
Y.A. Genenko, H. Rauh, S. Kurdi
Cylindrical heterostructures made up of superconductor and paramagnet constituents find
use in various technological applications, power transmission cables involving secondgeneration high-temperature superconductor multistrand wires and electromagnetic coils
based on coated conductors or bulk MgB2/Fe filaments playing a prominent role thereby.
The combined magnetic shielding properties of these kinds of constituents render beneficial
effects like a reduction of hysteretic ac losses or an enhancement of the (field-dependent)
critical current, to name just a few. Given specific material characteristics and geometries,
coaxial superconductor/paramagnet heterostructures may even disclose the exceptional
hallmarks of magnetic cloaks.
Although multistrand wires and electromagnetic coils are obviously exposed to transverse
magnetic fields, only few works seem to have addressed the electromagnetic behaviour of
tubular superconductor/paramagnet heterostructures in oscillating applied magnetic fields.
An elaborate numerical study of the shielding properties of such heterostructures, for
example, assumes a nonlinear current-voltage characteristic of the superconductors and a
reversible field-dependence of the permeability µ of the magnetic constituents, apart from
including the field-effect on the critical current density jc . Hence, configurations with the
paramagnet layers placed outside the superconductor constituents exhibit much stronger
shieldings than those with the respective layers placed inside. Significant progress
exemplifies a theoretical analysis of the electromagnetic response of a cylindrical tubular
wire, an infinitesimally thin superconductor constituent subject to an oscillating transverse
magnetic field. In a description where the superconductor is delineated by the sheet current
J, with a (field-independent) critical value Jc, the profiles of the magnetic field, the field of
first penetration of magnetic flux and the hysteretic losses that ensue pave the way towards
research on the electromagnetic behaviour of tubular heterostructures embracing
superconductor as well as paramagnet constituents. We here extend this ansatz for a coated
superconductor tubular wire, with a coaxial paramagnetic support, by making recourse to
Bean’s model of the critical state and carrying out a finite-element analysis.
Let us first define the magnetostatic problem by considering a cylindrical superconductor/
paramagnet heterostructure of bilayer geometry, viz. an infinitely extended type-II
superconducting tubular wire of radius R and thickness d on an outer paramagnetic support
of respective thickness D, buffered by an infinitesimally thin non-magnetic layer in
between, and subject to a transverse magnetic field with strength Ha. We choose
dimensions that second-generation coated conductors typically display, i.e. R=5mm,
d=2µm and D=250µm, understanding that the paramagnetic support is delineated by a
finite permeability µ. Since d << R, we ignore spatial variations of the induced current on a
length scale less than d and, for mathematical convenience, regard the superconducting
tube as infinitesimally thin too, so that its physical state can be characterized by the sheet
current J alone. In conformity with Bean’s model of the critical state duly adapted to the
geometry of the tube for a polar orientation of the applied magnetic field, magnetic flux
penetrates from both equatorial sides of the tube into two cylindrical segments, of angle 2,
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Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
where the sheet current J equals the constant Jc; flux-free regions prevail in the polar
segments of the tube, where the normal component Hn of the magnetic field disappears. For
an oscillating applied magnetic field with amplitude Ha, the penetration of magnetic flux
and the consequential dissipation of energy, per cycle and unit length of the tube, Uac can
be determined by resorting to the quasistatic approach.
Fig. 1 illustrates the distribution of the magnetic field around the magnetically coated
superconducting tubular wire for a fixed permeability and three progressive values of the
amplitude of the applied magnetic field. At Ha/Hc=2.0, the interior of the wire is
completely shielded from the magnetic field by the paramagnetic support on top of the
superconducting tube: the lines of the magnetic field are refracted at the wire’s outer
surface and guided around inside the paramagnetic support (Fig. 1(a)). As the amplitude of
the applied magnetic field is increased to Ha/Hc=3.0, magnetic flux starts to enter the
superconductor constituent tangentially from both equatorial sides, threading two
cylindrical segments of the tube, with refraction of the lines of the magnetic field at the
wire’s inner surface too, before the interior of the wire accommodates the flux (Fig. 1(b));
an effect which, for Ha/Hc=4.0, gets more pronounced still, exhibiting intensified refraction
towards the poles (Fig. 1(c)). The paramagnetic support thus always plays a prominent role
in the distribution of the magnetic field. Its shielding capacity defines an effective, reduced
field, Hµ that acts on the wire’s superconductor constituent.
Fig. 1: Lines of the magnetic field around the superconducting tubular wire coated with an outer
paramagnetic support of relative permeability µ/µ0=10, when the normalized amplitude of the applied
magnetic field (a) Ha/Hc=2, (b) Ha/Hc=3 and (c) Ha/Hc=4. The support together with the tube is indicated
by black contour lines.
The variation of the half-angle of flux-penetration with the amplitude of the applied
magnetic field, depicted in Fig. 2(a) for a range of values of the permeability, confirms
these traits: penetration of magnetic flux sets in at Ha/Hc=π/2, like for an isolated
superconducting tube, with a monotonic rise and a tendency towards saturation in a fully
flux-filled state, as the amplitude of the applied magnetic field augments. Increasing the
permeability to account for a paramagnetic support results in a duplication of this course,
yet rescaled to higher values of the amplitude of the applied magnetic field. Similar traits
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
99
recur in the variation of the hysteretic ac loss with the amplitude of the applied magnetic
field shown in Fig. 2(b). The known threshold for the onset of the hysteretic ac loss
appears, followed by a sharp monotonic rise with a turn to a shallow maximum, given a
vacuum environment. Increasing the permeability to model a paramagnetic support thus
yields a shift to higher values of the amplitude of the magnetic field, but also a considerable
reduction in strength. It should be noted that these results can be calibrated to high
accuracy against the expressions
 = ( / )
with
 / = 1+0.048 (/0 − 1 )
and
with
the chosen values of the geometrical parameters of the wire implied, making recourse to
the functional dependences ( / ) and ( / )
deduced for the isolated
superconducting tube, either from analytical theory or numerical analysis.
Fig. 2: Dependence of (a) the half-angle of flux penetration  and (b) the normalized hysteretic ac loss
 /2 on  / , the normalized amplitude of the magnetic field applied to the magnetically coated
superconductor tubular wire, in the computationally accessible regimes, for four different values of the
relative permeability of the outer paramagnetic support /0 identified on the curves. The full triangles,
squares and circles elucidate the scaling properties of the respective physical observables; the dashed lines
represent analytical results for the isolated superconducting tube.
In conclusion, our finite-element simulations reveal a spectacular shielding effect of an
outer paramagnetic support in a tubular superconductor/paramagnet heterostructure
subject to an oscillating transverse magnetic field, with a possible reduction of hysteretic ac
losses by orders of magnitude, depending on the magnetic permeability and the amplitude
of the applied magnetic field.
100
Institute of Materials Science - Materials Modelling Division
Physics of Surfaces
Physical properties of surfaces and interfaces are relevant in nearly all areas of science and
engineering. The fundamental interactions between surfaces, the surrounding fluid and
small objects in the fluid play an important role, for example in biology, biotechnology,
mechanical engineering, or petroleum geology. The common research question can be
expressed as “How does the interplay between physical surface properties, surface and
interface chemistry, and fluid flow affect the entire system?”
We follow an interdisciplinary approach focusing on physical, chemical and biological
properties of surfaces. The connection between surfaces and fluids is of particular interest
because it is essential in many technological systems. Our research portfolio targets at a
better understanding of the interplay between surface pattering (morphological and
chemical) and modification with the fluid flow. Experimental methods such as microscopy,
microfluidics, or spectroscopy are essential tools.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Robert Stark
Research Associates
Dr. Christian Dietz
Dr. Suman Narayan
Technical Personnel
Sabine Hesse
Secretaries
Imke Murschel
Melanie Schulze-Wenck
PhD Students
Dipl.-Phys. Agnieszka Voß
Dipl.-Min. Maximilian Köhn
M.Sc. Kim Phuong Lieu
M.Sc. Andreas Plog
M.Sc. Limor Zemel
Dipl.-Phys. Simon Schiwek
Dipl.-Biol. Elke Kämmerer
M.Sc. Na Liu
M.Phil. Assma Siddique
Bachelor Students
Erhan Aras
Tobias Maisch
Jonas Müller
Annika Stocker
Master Students
Silke Dittombée
Marcus Schulze
Lukas Stühn
Johanna Wolf
Dr. Marek Janko
Research Projects
Smart Interfaces (DFG 2010-2014)
Bioborides (DFG 2012-2014)
Wetting of DLC Coatings (Industry 2012 – 2015)
Wafer cleaning (Industry 2012 -2016)
Institute of Materials Science - Physics of Surfaces
101
Publications
[1]
Controlling Polymerization Initiator Concentration in Mesoporous Silica Thin
Films
By: Krohm, Fabio; Didzoleit, Haiko; Schulze, Marcus; et al.
LANGMUIR Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 369-379 Published: JAN 14 2014
[2]
Selection of peptides binding to metallic borides by screening M13 phage
display libraries
By: Ploss, Martin; Facey, Sandra J.; Bruhn, Carina; et al.
BMC BIOTECHNOLOGY Volume: 14 Article Number: 12 Published: FEB 10 2014
[3]
Surface versus Volume Properties on the Nanoscale: Elastomeric
Polypropylene
By: Voss, Agnieszka; Stark, Robert W.; Dietz, Christian
MACROMOLECULES Volume: 47 Issue: 15 Pages: 5236-5245 Published: AUG 12
2014
[4]
Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior
surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and
DC sputtering
By: Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; et al.
APPLIED
SURFACE
SCIENCE Volume: 310 Special
Issue: SI Pages: 257261 Published: AUG 15 2014
[5]
Block Copolymers Self-Assembly Allows Obtaining Tunable Micro or
Nanoporous Membranes or Depth Filters Based on PMMA; Fabrication Method
and Nanostructures
By: Pinto, Javier; Dumon, Michel; Rodriguez-Perez, Miguel A.; et al.
JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C Volume: 118 Issue: 9 Pages: 46564663 Published: MAR 6 2014
102
Institute of Materials Science - Physics of Surfaces
Surface versus Volume Properties on the Nanoscale: Elastomeric Polypropylene1
Agnieszka Voss, Robert W. Stark, Christian Dietz
Recent developments in the synthesis of smart polymeric materials that allow for the
modification of various mechanical properties have triggered remarkable scientific and
economic interest.1 A prominent example from the broad field of polymers is that of
thermoplastic elastomers, also known as thermoplastic rubbers, which are often used in
high-impact plastics, pressure-sensitive adhesives and polymeric foams.2 To better
understand the relationship between the internal structure and the macroscopic material
behavior, it is essential to quantify the composition and mechanical properties with
nanometer resolution, not only on the surface but also in the bulk material. Polypropylene
is a thermoplastic material, and its elastomeric properties depend on the crystallinity of the
polymer. Polypropylene with a high degree of crystallinity is an important structural
material with outstanding properties, this is, low-cost production, low weight, and high
tensile strength, and is widely used in the machinery and automotive industries as well as
in electrical and civil engineering. The elastomeric properties of the material thus can be
tuned by balancing the content of atactic and isotactic polypropylene in the semi-crystalline
polymer.3 For full property mapping, various advanced AFM techniques have been
proposed to simultaneously acquire the surface topography and maps of the
nanomechanical properties of polymeric materials,4-9 but atomic force microscopy
measurements are inherently restricted to the surface. Thus, the volume must be inspected
in a layer-by-layer manner to obtain the structural and mechanical information within the
Figure 1. Mechanical surface properties of an
unetched ePP sample measured via quantitative
nanomechanical mapping: (a) Approach (blue) and
retract (red) curve of a single force versus
separation measurement. The derived physical
quantities are highlighted in the graph. (b)
Topography image. The bright areas correspond to
the crystalline regions of the polymer, whereas the
dark areas correspond to the amorphous regions.
(c) Corresponding error map for the feedback loop
maintaining a constant peak force of 8 nN during
imaging. (d) Elasticity map of ePP derived from a
DMT model fit. The crystals appear bright due to
their high stiffness. (e) Adhesion map of ePP. Please
note the inverted contrast. The force necessary to
separate the tip from the amorphous regions is
greater than the adhesion force on crystalline
regions. (f) Map of the energy dissipated between
the tip and the sample surface during one
oscillation cycle. The determined cantilever/tip
properties were k = 6.6 N/m and R = 8 nm.
1
Voss A., Stark R. W. and Dietz C. Surface versus Volume
Properties on the Nanoscale: Elastomeric Polypropylene.
Macromolecules. 2014; 47, 15, 5236–5245.
Institute of Materials Science - Physics of Surfaces
103
bulk of a sample.10-14 This nano-tomographic information is of particular interest for semicrystalline polymers because not only the nanomechanical properties but also the number,
shape and spatial arrangement of the crystalline component contribute to the macroscopic
elasticity and the material strength.1,13,15-17
In this work, we use the peak-force-tapping mode to correlate the morphology of
elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) with quantitative mechanical properties, such as elasticity,
adhesion, and dissipation. Successive etching provides these physical properties for the
layers located beneath the surface. This combination allowed an unprecedented
nanomechanical characterization of the volume morphology of elastomeric polypropylene.
The diversity of the mechanical properties of elastomeric polypropylene, which were
derived pixel-wise from the force-versus-distance data, as illustrated in Fig. 1(a), is
illustrated in Fig. 1(b)-(f). In the topographical image (Fig. 1(b)), two distinctive regions
are visible, which can be allocated to the crystalline (bright) and amorphous portions
(dark) of the semi-crystalline polymer. The root mean square (rms) roughness of the
surface was approximately 4.0 nm. Fig. 1(c) shows the corresponding error map (peakforce error) for the feedback loop maintaining a constant peak force of 8 nN during
imaging. The elasticity map (Fig. 1(d)) reveals the elastic modulus of the crystalline and
amorphous regions as 154 ± 10 MPa and 91 ± 2 MPa, respectively. Local maps of adhesion
and energy dissipated between the tip and the polymer sample are visualized in Fig. 1(e)
and 1(f), respectively. The adhesion values for the crystals were 9.6 ± 0.9 nN, and the
adhesion in the amorphous regions was 12.8 ± 0.4 nN. The respective values for the
dissipation were 0.8 ± 0.2 keV on the crystals and 2.3 ± 0.3 keV on the amorphous
regions. Note that the contrast in these images is inverted compared with that of Figs. 1(b)
and (d) due to the higher adhesion and dissipation values measured on the amorphous
portions compared with the crystalline portions of the polymer. Peak-force tapping also
allows for the quantification of the sample deformation of the polymer surface. In contrast
to the elasticity, adhesion, and dissipation values, we found significant differences between
deformation values provided by the Nanoscope software and the values we manually
extracted from single force curves. Please refer to the supplementary data to compare the
deformation maps for different sample depths. However, the absolute values of these maps
have to be treated with caution.
The morphology exhibits similarities to the bundled flowerlike structure at a later stage of
crystallization, as described by Schönherr et al.18 Our specimen showed a higher density of
crystals at the surface than that of Schönherr et al. due to the higher content of [mmmm]pentade of the polymer used in this work (36%). In addition, our samples were measured 1
week after preparation, when most of the isotactic polymer chains are expected to be in the
crystal phase. The surface roughness of 4 nm is a consequence of the difference in the
sample deformation/indentation due to the applied load of the tip between the crystalline
and amorphous regions (see supporting information). This suggests that the sample surface
is rather flat, and the measured roughness is mainly tip-induced instead. The localized DMT
modulus measured on the amorphous portions of ePP was on the same order of magnitude
as the values previously reported by Gracias et al.19 using tips with large radii of curvature
(1 µm). The surprisingly low DMT modulus measured on the crystalline regions, however,
can be explained by the presence of a thin amorphous layer covering the surface of the
crystals.12,20 Considering the geometric tip-sample convolution and the widths of single
crystalline lamellae of 14 nm in the -modification and 7 nm in the -modification,21 the
lateral resolution of the local elasticity map is striking because extremely thin crystalline
connections (~15 nm; see red arrow in Fig. 1(d)) are visible in the DMT modulus image.
104
Institute of Materials Science - Physics of Surfaces
The high adhesion force and dissipated energy measured on the amorphous phase
compared with those of the crystalline portions can be ascribed to the viscous properties of
an amorphous polymer in the non-glassy state.22
In summary, the combination of peak-force tapping and layer-by-layer etching of
elastomeric polypropylene permitted us to find a thin amorphous layer on top of a freshly
prepared film as well as regions of structural defects in the crystalline component of the
material, which also appeared in the volume of these films. This inhomogeneity measured
on the nanoscale can affect the mechanical stability of polypropylene on the macroscopic
scale. The technique presented in this work can be applied to other classes of material and
provides a basis for full quantitative nanomechanical tomography when combined with
nanotomography.11
References
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
G. H. Michler, Polymers for Advanced Technologies 9, 812 (1998).
N. Hadjichristidis, S. Pispas, and G. Floudas, Block copolymers: synthetic strategies, physical
properties, and applications (Wiley. com, 2003).
J. C. W. Chien, Y. Iwamoto, M. D. Rausch, W. Wedler, and H. H. Winter, Macromolecules
30, 3447 (1997).
D. G. Yablon, A. Gannepalli, R. Proksch, J. Killgore, D. C. Hurley, J. Grabowski, and A. H.
Tsou, Macromolecules 45, 4363 (2012).
D. G. Yablon, Scanning Probe Microscopy for Industrial Applications: Nanomechanical
Characterization (John Wiley and Sons, New Jersey, 2014).
D. Wang, S. Fujinami, K. Nakajima, S. Inukai, H. Ueki, A. Magario, T. Noguchi, M. Endo,
and T. Nishi, Polymer 51, 2455 (2010).
M. E. Dokukin and I. Sokolov, Langmuir 28, 16060 (2012).
T. J. Young, M. A. Monclus, T. L. Burnett, W. R. Broughton, S. L. Ogin, and P. A. Smith,
Measurement Science and Technology 22, 125703 (2011).
Y. F. Dufrene, D. Martinez-Martin, I. Medalsy, D. Alsteens, and D. J. Muller, Nat Meth 10,
847 (2013).
M. Franke and N. Rehse, Polymer 49, 4328 (2008).
R. Magerle, Phys. Rev. Lett 85, 2749 (2000).
C. Dietz, M. Zerson, C. Riesch, A. M. Gigler, R. W. Stark, N. Rehse, and R. Magerle, Applied
Physics Letters 92, 143107 (2008).
N. Rehse, S. Marr, S. Scherdel, and R. Magerle, Advanced Materials 17, 2203 (2005).
C. Dietz, M. Zerson, C. Riesch, M. Franke, and R. Magerle, Macromolecules 41, 9259 (2008).
G. H. Michler and R. Godehardt, Crystal Research and Technology 35, 863 (2000).
G. H. Michler, Kunststoff-Mikromechanik: Morphologie, Deformations und Bruchmechanischen
(Carl Hanser Verlag, 1992).
J. A. W. van Dommelen, D. M. Parks, M. C. Boyce, W. A. M. Brekelmans, and F. P. T.
Baaijens, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 51, 519 (2003).
H. Schönherr, R. M. Waymouth, and C. W. Frank, Macromolecules 36, 2412 (2003).
D. H. Gracias and G. A. Somorjai, Macromolecules 31, 1269 (1998).
A. T. Sakai, K.; Fujii, Y.; Nagamura, T.; Kajiyama, T. , Polymer 46, 429 (2005).
A. H. Boger, B.; Troll, C.; Marti, O.; Rieger, B. , European Polymer Journal 43, 634 (2007).
L. E. Nielsen, Mechanical Properties of Polymers and Composites (Marcel Dekker, Inc., New
York, 1994).
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105
Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials
The Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials was established in the year 2004 as a joint
project between the Institute for Materials Science (Technical University of Darmstadt) and
the Institute of Nanotechnology (INT) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Its
research focusses on the synthesis and characterisation of nanoparticles, nanoparticulate
layers, nanoporous as well as dense nanoscale materials. Special interest lies in the
determination of correlations between synthesis, interface and bulk properties and the
macroscopic functional and structural properties. An important building block is the
understanding of the surface, grain boundary and size effects on the physical material
properties, which can be significantly different from classical crystalline bulk materials.
Since a couple of years, the research has focused on energy materials (batteries, fuel cells).
In addition, (reversible) topochemical reactions (chemical and electrochemical) are also
under investigation, allowing for the tuning of material properties.
The materials of interest (nano- and microcrystalline powders) are produced by a variety of
techniques, ranging from gas phase processes (chemical vapour synthesis (CVS) over
aerosol based techniques (nebulized spray pyrolysis, NSP) to solid-state reactions (SSR).
Additionally, a variety of techniques are available for the preparation of thin films: spin
coating and different modifications of the chemical vapour deposition process (CVD).
A multitude of methods is available and in constant use for the characterisation of the assynthesized powders and thin-films as well as their properties, among them X-ray powder
diffraction, low-temperature N2 adsorption, dynamic light scattering, low and high
temperature impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Horst Hahn (Director Institute for Nanotechnology)
Research Associates
Dr. Oliver Clemens
Dr.-Ing. Ruzica Djenadic
Secretaries
Renate Hernichel
PhD Students
Dipl.-Ing. Christoph Loho
Dipl.-Ing. Miriam Botros
Dipl.-Ing. Alexander Benes
M.Sc. Cahit Benel
M.Sc. Andreas Giehr
Dipl.-Ing. Falk von Seggern
Dipl.-Ing. Mohsen Pouryazdan
M.Sc. Felix Joachim Neuper
M.Sc. Wang Wu
M.Sc. Serpil Tekoglu
M.Sc. Sree Harsha Nandam
Dipl.-Phys. Sebastian Becker
106
Dr. Mohammad Ghafari
M.Sc. Mohammad Fawey
M.Sc. Garlapati Suresh Kumar
Dipl.-Ing. Ira Balaj
M.Sc. Alan Molinari
Dipl. Phys. Arne Fischer
Dipl. Ing. Holger Hain
M.Sc. Chaomin Wang
Dipl. Ing. Aaron Kobler
M.Sc. Cheng Huang
Dipl.-Phys. Tom Braun
Dipl.-Ing. Ralf Witte
M.Sc. Massoud NazarianSamani
Institute of Materials Science - Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials
Guest Scientists
B.Sc. Klaudia Kantarowska, Poznan University of Technology,
Poland
Research Projects
Tunable Magnetic Nanostructures. Property Characterization and Modeling (DFG HA
1344/28-1, 2010 – 2014)
Investigation of non-equilibrium phonon populations in biased metallic single-walled
carbon nanotubes (DFG OR 262/1-2, 2011-2014)
Reversibles Durchstimmen der elektronischen Transporteigenschaften in oxidischen
leitfähigen Nanostrukturen zur Anwendung im Bereich der druckbaren Elektronik (DFG HA
1344/25-1, 2010 – 2014)
Helmholtz Portfolio, Elektrospeicher im System – Zuverlässigkeit und Integration
(325/20514659/NANOMIKRO, 2012-2014)
Förderung durch Mittel des Helmholtz Institut Ulm (2010-2014)
Publications
[1]
R. Djenadic, M. Botros, C. Benel, O. Clemens, S. Indris, A. Choudhary, T.
Bergfeldt, H. Hahn;
Nebulized spray pyrolysis of Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 solid electrolyte for battery
applications, SOLID STATE IONICS, 263 (2014) 49.
[2]
B. Mojic-Lanté, R. Djenadic, V.V. Srdic, H. Hahn;
Direct preparation of ultrafine BaTiO3 nanoparticles by chemical vapor synthesis,
JOURNAL OF NANOPARTICLE RESEARCH, 16 (2014) 2618.
[3]
C. Loho, A. J. Darbandi, R. Djenadic, O. Clemens, H. Hahn;
CO2-Laser Flash Evaporation as Novel CVD Precursor Delivery System for Functional
Thin Film Growth, CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION, 20 (2014) 152.
[4]
O. Clemens, C. Rongeat, M. Anji Reddy, A. Giehr, M. Fichtner, H. Hahn;
Electrochemical Fluorination of Perovskite Type BaFeO2.5, DALTON TRANSACTIONS,
43 (2014) 15771.
[5]
O. Clemens, R. Kruk, E. Patterson, C. Loho, C. Reitz, A. J. Wright, K. S. Knight,
H. Hahn, P. R. Slater;
Introducing a large polar tetragonal distortion into Ba-doped BiFeO3 by low
temperature fluorination, INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 53 (2014) 12571.
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107
[6]
O. Clemens, M. Gröting, R. Witte, J. M. Perez-Mato, C. Loho, F. J. Berry, R.
Kruk, K. S. Knight, A. J. Wright, H. Hahn, P. R. Slater;
Crystallographic and Magnetic Structure of the Perovskite-Type Compound BaFeO2.5:
unrivalled complexity in oxygen vacancy ordering, INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, 53
(2014) 5911.
[7]
O. Clemens, R. Haberkorn, M. Springborg, H. P. Beck;
On aliovalent substitution on the Li site in LiMPO4: a X-ray diffraction study of the
systems LiMPO4-M1.5PO4 (= LixM1.5-x/2PO4; M = Ni, Co, Fe, Mn), ZEITSCHRIFT FUER
ANORGANISCHE UND ALLGEMEINE CHEMIE, 640 (2014) 173.
[8]
Afyon, Semih; Kundu, Dipan; Darbandi, Azad J.; et al
A low dimensional composite of hexagonal lithium manganese borate (LiMnBO3), a
cathode material for Li-ion batteries
JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A Volume: 2 Issue: 44 Pages: 1894618951 Published: 2014
[9]
Gleiter, H.; Schimmel, Th; Hahn, H.
Nanostructured solids - From nano-glasses to quantum transistors
NANO TODAY Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 17-68 Published: FEB 2014
Dasgupta, Subho; Wang, Di; Kuebel, Christian; et al.
Dynamic Control Over Electronic Transport in 3D Bulk Nanographene via Interfacial
Charging
By: ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Volume: 24 Issue: 23 Pages: 34943500Published: JUN 2014
[10]
Dasgupta, Subho; Das, Bijoy; Knapp, Michael; et al.
Intercalation-Driven Reversible Control of Magnetism in Bulk Ferromagnets
ADVANCED MATERIALS Volume: 26 Issue: 27 Pages: 4639-+ Published: JUL
16 2014
[11]
Stoesser, A.; Ghafari, M.; Kilmametov, A.; et al.
Influence of interface on structure and magnetic properties of Fe50B50 nanoglass
By: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Volume: 116 Issue: 13 Article Number:
134305 Published: OCT 7 2014
[12]
Ivanisenko, Yu.; Tabachnikova, E. D.; Psaruk, I. A.; et al.Uniaxial in-plane
magnetization of iron nanolayers grown within an amorphous matrix
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLASTICITY Volume: 60
Pages: 4057 Published: SEP 2014
[13]
Ghafari, M.; Mattheis, R.; McCord, J.; et al.
Uniaxial in-plane magnetization of iron nanolayers grown within an amorphous
matrix
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Volume: 105
Issue: 7
Article Number:
073102 Published: AUG 18 2014
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Institute of Materials Science - Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials
Advances in Battery Materials and Technologies
Oliver Clemens, Ruzica Djenadic, Miriam Botros, Christoph Loho and Horst Hahn
Lithium-ion batteries are the fastest growing and widely used type of batteries. Most of
today electronic devices use batteries containing liquid electrolyte facing safety issues (e.g.
dendrite growth, leakage, and flammability). Therefore, development of a Li-ion
conducting solid electrolyte is a main focus of current battery research which potentially
will lead to a safe all-solid-state battery. Additionally to the safety improvement, solid
electrolytes offer stability over a broad electrochemical potential as well as a large
temperature range. There are already several solid electrolyte materials with Li-ion
conductivities equal or higher than liquid electrolytes, however, they are not stable over a
wide potential range. The main challenge is to produce a material which will combine all of
the mentioned properties.
Nebulized spray pyrolysis followed by consolidation and sintering was used for the first
time to prepare ultra-fine grained ceramics of Al-doped garnet-based Li7-3xLa3Zr2AlxO12 (x =
0 – 0.25) (LLZO), which is a good candidate to replace the existing liquid electrolytes. The
structural changes from the tetragonal (x = 0), via a mixture of the cubic and the
tetragonal (x = 0.07, 0.10) to the cubic modification (x = 0.15 – 0.25) were observed
(Figure 8a). Despite their low relative density preliminary ionic conductivities of the LLZO
ceramics (Figure 8b), were found to be 1.2·10-6 S cm-1 and 4.4·10-6 S cm-1 for tetragonal and
cubic LLZO at room temperature (Figure 8c), with activation energies of 0.55 eV and 0.49
eV, respectively. Further sintering optimization (i.e. use of spark plasma sintering) would
reduce porosity and consequently improve conductivity of LLZO ceramics.
Figure 8. (a) Structure, (b) typical microstructure and (c) temperature dependence of Li-ion conductivity of
LLZO ceramics with different Al-content, x.
In addition to the above mentioned advantages, solid state electrolytes allow for battery
miniaturization. The use of a liquid electrolyte in a thin-film battery may lead to leakage
problems upon bending of the thin-film battery, which is the reason why solid state
electrolytes are the material of choice. In order to build a complete all-solid-state thin-film
Li-ion battery, the deposition of anode, cathode and solid state electrolyte thin-films has to
be established. Recently, CO2-laser flash evaporation was introduced as a novel precursor
delivery system for a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. This so-called CO2-laser
assisted chemical vapor deposition (LA-CVD), shown in Figure 2, allows for the highly
controlled growth of multicomponent, functional thin-films. The capabilities of LA-CVD
were shown by means of LiCoO2 thin-films, which showed reasonable electrochemical
Institute of Materials Science - Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials
109
performance as cathode material. The deposition of the solid state electrolyte LLZO thinfilms was already successful, but needs further optimization.
Figure 9. Schematic illustration of a novel CVD precursor delivery system using CO2-Laser flash evaporation
(LA-CVD).
Apart from advances in the field of lithium ion battery technologies, first results could be
obtained in the field of new intercalation based fluoride ion batteries. This type of battery
was first demonstrated by Fichtner et al., who used conversion type electrode materials
M/MF3 (M = e. g. Bi, Fe), i. e. materials which suffer from an entirely reconstructive
structural change on charging/discharging. Although so far not reversible, we could show
that a fluoride ion battery type setup (see Figure 10a) can be used to intercalate fluoride ions
into perovskite type compounds, which was exemplarily shown on anion deficient BaFeO2.5
for the charging reaction. The successful intercalation was demonstrated by comparison to
chemically fluorinated BaFeO2.5 by means of X-ray diffraction (see Figure 10b).
(a)
(b)
Figure 10. (a) Schematic illustration of the cell setup used for the electrochemical fluorination of BaFeO 2.5,
(b) Rietveld analysis of the BaFeO2.5 containing active electrode material after charging against CeF 3 to 4 V.
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References:
Djenadic, R.; Botros, M.; Benel, C.; Clemens, O.; Indris, S.; Choudhary, A.; Bergfeldt, T.; Hahn, H.,
Nebulized spray pyrolysis of Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 solid electrolyte for battery applications. Solid
State Ionics 2014, 263, 49-56.
C. Loho, A. J. Darbandi, R. Djenadic, O. Clemens, H. Hahn; CO2-Laser Flash Evaporation as Novel
CVD Precursor Delivery System for Functional Thin Film Growth, CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION,
20 (2014) 152.
Anji Reddy, M.; Fichtner, M., Batteries based on fluoride shuttle. Journal of Materials Chemistry
2011, 21, (43), 17059-17062.
Clemens, O.; Rongeat, C.; Anji Reddy, M.; Giehr, A.; Fichtner, M.; Hahn, H., Electrochemical
fluorination of perovskite type BaFeO2.5. Dalton Transactions 2014, 43, (42), 15771-15778.
Clemens, O.; Gröting, M.; Witte, R.; Perez-Mato, J. M.; Loho, C.; Berry, F. J.; Kruk, R.; Knight, K. S.;
Wright, A. J.; Hahn, H.; Slater, P. R., Crystallographic and Magnetic Structure of the PerovskiteType Compound BaFeO2.5: unrivaled complexity in oxygen vacancy ordering. Inorganic Chemistry
2014, 53, (12), 5911-5921.
Institute of Materials Science - Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials
111
Mechanics of Functional Materials
The research at the Division of Mechanics of Functional Materials is focused on the
constitutive modeling and the simulation of functional materials and systems, for instance
ferroic materials and lithium-ion battery electrodes. These materials are characterized by a
coupling of multiple physical fields at a variety of length-scales. Their macroscopic
responses depend on the microstructure and its thermodynamic kinetics. The main features
of our research therefore include coupled fields (e.g. mechanical, electrical, chemical),
microstructural evolution, mesoscopic material properties, and homogenization. Primary
tools of our research are continuum models and Finite Element numerical simulations.
Novel concepts such as phase-field models or Isogeometric Analysis are regarded to an
increasing extent in our work.
Phase field simulation of the domain structure of ferroelectric ceramics
Ferroelectrics are widely applied as actuators, sensors, and memory devices due to
pronounced dielectric and piezoelectric properties. One of the most distinguishing features
of ferroelectrics is that they have different spontaneous polarization states. If an electric
field is applied, switching between these states is possible and cycling loading of a specimen
gives rise to nonlinear hysteretic behavior. Domain walls in ferroelectrics are transition
areas between two domains with different polarization states. Three kinds of 180° domain
walls are usually considered: "up-down", "head-to-head" and "tail-to-tail". These domain
walls are electrically neutral, positively charged, and negatively charged, respectively.
Bound charges at domain walls however generate large electric fields, making the
corresponding domain structure unstable.
There is significant effect of semiconducting properties on domain configurations in
ferroelectrics, especially in doped materials. We formulated a phase field model and
performed simulations for ferroelectrics with space charges due to donors, acceptors and
electronic charge carriers. These show that head-to-head and tail-to-tail domain
configurations in ferroelectric samples are both energetically favorable and stable due to
screening by electrons or holes. The role of donors, acceptors and electronic charge carriers
in the domain structure's stabilization can hence be investigated in a quantitative way.
Simulation of the electrocaloric effect of relaxor ferroelectrics
Ferroic cooling has an attractive potential for the reduction of energy or material
consumption. Solid state refrigeration using materials with a significant electrocaloric effect
(ECE) is a viable alternative to concepts based on the magnetocaloric effect. We aim at
investigating the underlying physics of the ECE, utilizing the tools of simulation. Through
application/removal of an electric field on ferroelectrics under adiabatic conditions, the
dipoles' alignment in the material, and hence the entropy, changes. In order to keep the
total energy constant, the temperature must change in order to accommodate this change
in entropy. By this means, the temperature variation can be obtained.
In order to investigate the ECE in both ferroelectrics and relaxor ferroelectrics, we proposed
a lattice-based model consisting of a phase-field-type potential energy and a thermal
energy. By combining the canonical and microcanonical ensemble, the ECE be evaluated
directly rather than indirectly through the Maxwell relation. The random fields are
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incorporated into the electrostatic energy to mimic the relaxor behavior. This shows that
the temperature-induced polarization change is moderate in the presence of random fields,
in contrast with the sharp change in conventional ferroelectrics. Our results also
demonstrate that the freezing temperature is lowered by random fields, while it is
promoted by the domain wall energy. Similarly, in presence of random fields the ECE peak
is shifted to lower temperature and the peak value drops. The domain wall energy
influences the ECE in an opposite fashion: here the peak appears at higher temperature and
the peak value increases. Finally, it is exposed that the ECE increases in three different
stages with the strength of the applied external field rather than in a simple linear manner.
Simulation of diffusion introduced stresses in the Lithium-ion batteries via
Isogeometric Analysis
Mechanical degradation of the active material has been identified as one of the root causes
of the degradation of Lithium-ion batteries, which can be observed macroscopically as a
gradual fade of the batteries' capacity. The understanding of the damage processes in the
electrodes’ particles and their influence on the mechanical-electrochemical properties is
hence of utmost importance.
The coupled electrochemical-mechanical processes in individual electrode particles are
described by continuum mechanics and higher-order Finite Element procedures based on
the concept of Isogeometric Analysis. Their application is motivated by higher-order
gradient/coupling terms arising from the thermodynamics of the problem; it allows for
stable implementation of the governing equations as well as for a unified treatment of
diverse particle shapes and electrode geometries.
In addition to large deformations of certain electrode materials, in situ TEM observations
have revealed the coexistence of lithium-poor and lithium-rich phases in the electrode
particles during charge and discharge, which suggests that the concentration of Li-ion does
not change gradually but experiences a gap at a certain interface. In order to capture this
behavior, a Cahn-Hilliard phase-field model is currently developed that regards not only the
chemical aspects of the phase separation and diffusion, but also viscoplastic effects.
Phase field modelling of ferromagnetic materials
Owing to their ferromagnetic property and magnetic-mechanical coupling, ferromagnetic
materials find wide industrial application, for instance in magnetic data storage, sensors
and actuators, transducers, or microelectromechanical systems. Viable applications and
reasonable design of devices based on ferromagnetic materials are highly dependent on the
fundamental understanding of these materials' microstructures. For materials with only
ferromagnetic orderings, magnetic domains play a critical role in determining both their
macro- and microscopic properties. If the magneto-mechanical coupling in the
magnetostrictive materials is considered, a mechanical scheme for tailing the properties
becomes possible. Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs), which possess both
ferroelastic and ferromagnetic orderings, can produce large strains under an external
magnetic field due to the martensitic phase transformation. By virtue of the coupling
between the ferroelastic and ferromagnetic orderings, the ferroelastic martensitic variants
can be manipulated by a magnetic field, whereas the ferromagnetic domains are sensitive
to mechanical loading. Uncovering the evolution of these microstructures in the abovementioned ferromagnetic materials is prerequisite for a deep understanding and control of
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113
the microscopic mechanism and macroscopic properties. In our group, we focus on the
phase field modeling towards this eternal goal.
Continuum modeling and numerical simulation of multicrystalline materials
The investigation of the hardening behavior and texture development in polycrystalline
materials is of high interest to scientists. Experimental results show an intrinsic sizedependent response of such materials along with inhomogeneous plastic flow on the microscale level. The existence of boundary layers thereby plays an important role. Their
influence on dislocation movement can be diverse, depending on, for instance, the
misorientation of the adjacent grains. Study and prediction of these behaviors require
incorporation of atomistic slip systems, gradient description and length scale parameters
into the conventional plasticity models.
In the current study, a well-defined gradient crystal plasticity model is employed in order to
investigate the size-dependent strengthening behavior and orientation gradient in a largegrain thin-sheet metal under mechanical loading. The constitutive description is an
extended crystal plasticity model based on the microscopic force balance and is consistent
with thermodynamic laws. Here, the free energy comprises two parts: a hyperelastic
description for large-deformation compressible material and a function of dislocation
densities via Peach–Koehler forces conjugate to corresponding glide directions. A non-local
plastic flow rule in the form of partial differential equation is introduced, which
incorporates energetic and dissipative gradient strengthening as well as latent hardening in
a multi slip-system crystal. The proposed constitutive model is implemented in the FEM
software ABAQUS via a user-defined element subroutine, where displacement components
and dislocation densities are treated as nodal degrees of freedom.
Staff Members
Head
J. Prof Dr. (Boshi) Bai-Xiang Xu
Research Associates
Habib Pouriayevali, PhD
Secretaries
Maria Bense
PhD Students
Dipl.-Ing. Dagmar Eder-Goy
Shuai Wang, M.Eng.
Ying Zhao, M.Eng.
Dr.-Ing. Peter Stein
Yangbin Ma, M.Sc.
Min Yi, B.Sc.
Dipl.-Ing. Yinan Zuo
Research Projects
Phase-field simulation of ferroelectrics with defects (Project in DFG-SFB 595, 2012-2014)
Simulation of the electrocaloric effect of relaxor ferroelectrics (Project in DFG-SPP 1599,
2013-2015)
Isogeometric simulation of diffusion-induced stress in Lithium-ion battery electrodes
(Project in GSC CE, 2013-2015)
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Phase-field modeling of ferromagnetic materials (Project in LOEWE Response)
Continuum modeling and numerical simulation of the hardening behavior and the texture
development of sheet metal under large plastic deformation (DFG-SFB 666, 2014-2016)
Publications
[1]
Yi, Min ; Xu, Bai-Xiang :
A constraint-free phase field model for ferromagnetic domain evolution .
In: Proceedings of Royal Society A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences,
470 (2171) p. 20140517. [Article], (2014)
[2]
Zuo, Yinan ; Genenko, Yuri A. ; Xu, Bai-Xiang :
Charge compensation of head-to-head and tail-to-tail domain walls in barium titanate
and its influence on conductivity .
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4891259] In: Journal of Applied
Physics, 116
(4) 044109(1-6). ISSN 0021-8979 [Article], (2014)
[3]
Zuo, Yinan ; Genenko, Yuri A. ; Klein, Andreas ; Stein, Peter ; Xu, Baixiang :
Domain wall stability in ferroelectrics with space charges .
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4866359] In: Journal of Applied
Physics, 115 (8) 084110. ISSN 0021-8979 [Article], (2014)
[4]
Stein, P. ; Xu, B. : 3D
Isogeometric Analysis of intercalation-induced stresses in Li-ion battery electrode
particles .
[Online-Edition: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cma.2013.09.011] In:
Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 268 pp. 225-244.
ISSN 00457825 [Article], (2014)
[5]
Schmitt, Ljubomira Ana ; Schrade, David ; Kungl, Hans ; Xu, Bai-Xiang ;
Mueller, Ralf ; Hoffmann, Michael J. ; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim ; Fuess, Hartmut
:
Bimodal domain configuration and wedge formation in tetragonal Pb[Zr1−xTix]O3
ferroelectrics
.
[Online-Edition:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2013.07.020] In: Computational Materials
Science, 81 pp. 123-132. ISSN 09270256 [Article], (2014)
[6]
Wang, Min-Zhong ; Xu, Bai-Xiang ; Gao, Yang :
On the assumptions of the generalized plane stress problem and the Filon average .
In: Acta Mechanica, 225 pp. 1419-1427. ISSN 0001-5970 [Article], (2014)
[7]
Xu, Bai-Xiang ; von Seggern, Heinz ; Zhukov, Sergey ; Gross, Dietmar :
An internal-variable-based interface model for the charging process of ferroelectrets .
In: European Journal of Mechanics - A/Solids, 48 pp. 97-111. [Article], (2014)
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115
Phase field modelling of microstructure and switching dynamics in
ferromagnetic materials
Min Yi and Bai-Xiang Xu
A continuum constraint-free phase field model is proposed to simulate the magnetic
domain evolution in ferromagnetic materials. The model takes the polar and azimuthal
angles (ϑ1, ϑ2), instead of the magnetization unit vector m as the order parameters. In this
way, the constraint on the magnetization magnitude can be exactly satisfied automatically,
and no special numerical treatment on the phase field evolution is needed. The phase field
model is developed from a thermodynamic framework which involves a configurational
force system for ϑ1 and ϑ2. A combination of the configurational force balance and the
second law of thermodynamics leads to thermodynamically consistent constitutive relations
and a generalized evolution equation for the order parameters (ϑ1, ϑ2). The 3D finite
element implementation of the constraint-free model is straightforward and, compared to
the constrained model, the degrees of freedom are reduced by one. The model is shown to
be capable of reproducing the correct damping-dependent switching dynamics, and the
formation and evolution of domains and vortices in ferromagnetic materials under the
external magnetic or mechanical loading. Particularly, the calculated out-of-plane
component of magnetization in a vortex is verified by the corresponding experimental
results, as shown in Figure 1.
Fig. 1 (a) Initial (top) and equilibrium (bottom) magnetization configuration in a free-standing sample. (b) The
contour plot of m1 in the equilibrium state. (c) Comparison of the measured and the calculated (c) m2 along
the line CC’ and (d) m1 along the line DD’. Both CC’ and DD’ go through the vortex core in (b).
The mechanically induced switching dynamics in nanomagnets is studied by the constraintfree phase field model. Depending on the geometry of the nanomagnets, there exist two
distinct switching modes: one is the coherent mode where the magnetization vector
remains homogeneous during the switching, and the other is the incoherent mode where
heterogeneous magnetization distribution occurs. For the application of nanomagnetsbased logic and memory devices, the coherent mode is of great interest. Results show that a
deterministic 1800 switching can happen if mechanical loading is removed once the
magnetization rotates to the largest switching angle ϑ1m, as shown in Figure 2. The
switching time decreases with the magnitude of the applied strain. In addition, the 180◦
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Institute of Materials Science – Mechanics of Functional Materials
switching under a combination of magnetic field and mechanical strain is also investigated.
Simulations demonstrate that an optimum additional strain to reduce the switching time is
around 0.2%. This work provides a foundation for the study of mechanically
driven/assisted nanomagnets-based logic and memory devices.
Fig. 2 Mechanical loading history and temporal evolution of magnetization components during the 180 0
switching.
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117
Functional Materials
The Functional Materials (FM) Research Group’s main research interests are permanent
magnets, and magneto caloric materials. The group works in close collaboration with the
Project Group for Materials Recycling and Resource Strategy at the IWKS Frauhofer
Institute in Hanau, a group of which Prof. Gutfleisch is also chair.
2014 has been an exciting year for the FM Group with the start of the LOEWE funding from
the Land Hessen to the RESPONSE project. This is a research program investigating the
possibilities of Rare Earth reduced and free permanent magnets and involves several groups
from the Material Science, Chemistry, and Mechanical Engineering Departments at TU
Darmstadt. This is a vitally important research area needed for sustainable and
environmentally-friendly technology development, and is an area where the FM Group is an
international leader.
2014 has been a year of expansion for the FM Group. Whilst continuing with our current
academic and industrial collaborations (for example the DRREAM, ROMEO, and
REFREEPERMAG projects), the group has grown in size to include 8 postdoctoral
researchers, a support team of 5 technical and administrative staff, 16 postgraduate
students and more than 10 undergraduates.
This year has also been a strong year for publications. We have published more than 20
peer reviewed papers in various international journals listed in this document. The group
has also been represented at international conferences. These included Intermag 2014
(Dresden) where Prof. Gutfleisch was the publication chair, Dr. B Kaeswurm was an Editor,
Thermag 2014 (Victoria, Canada) where Prof. Gutfleich was a member of the advisory
board, and REPM2014 (the Rare Earth and Future Permanent Magnets and their
Applications meeting in Annapolis, USA). Prof Gutfleisch will bring REPM to Darmstadt in
2016. The FM group has attended national meetings such as the annual DPG meeting in
Dresden. Together with European Innovation Partnership (EIP) on Raw Materials our
Group hosted the ''Raw Materials University Day'' in May 2014 at TU Darmstadt. The aim
was to create awareness amongst undergraduate and graduate students of all disciplines
about resource efficiency and working opportunities in the raw materials sector. Speakers
from academics, industries and politics informed and discussed with about 200 students.
The DGM-Fachausschuss Funktionsmaterialien was constituted also in May in Darmstadt
with a workshop on „Phase change materials and tuneable properties” with well-known
invited speakers.
We have also strengthened our international reputation through international
collaborations, receiving visitors from Japan, the USA, and Europe for both short and long
term stays. In addition to the groups research activities the FM Group has increased its
contribution to teaching at the Department of Material Science. We now offer 3 lecture
and 3 practical courses:
Lecture Courses
Material Science for
Prof. Gutfleisch,
renewable energy
Dr. Kaeswurm,
systems (M.Sci. in
Prof. Jaegermann*,
Energy Science)
Dr. Mankel*
118
Practical Courses
Wärmeleitung (FPI)
Prof. Gutfleisch,
Helbig, MSci,
Institute of Materials Science – Functional Materials
Materials
Prof. Gutfleisch
Widerstandsmessung
Prof. Gutfleisch,
Engineering (M.Sc.
Dipl. Ing. Löwe
einer Martensitischen
Dr. Kaeswurm,
in Material Science)
Umwandlung (FPII)
Funktionale
Prof. Gutfleisch
Permanentmagnete in Prof. Gutfleisch,
Materialien (B.Sc. in Dr. Kaeswurm
der Anwendung (FPII) Dipl.Wi. Ing. Sawatski
Material Science)
Dipl. Phys. Gottschall
*Prof. Jaegermann and Dr Mankel are members of the Oberflächenforschung Group.
This year another highlight for the group was a 3 day internal seminar in Grasellenbach.
This was an opportunity to discuss our work in an informal setting and take part in team
building exercises in the Bergstrasse countryside.
Staff Members
Chair
Prof. Dr. Oliver Gutfleisch
Administrative Staff
Ms Maija Laux
Sabine J. Crook, MA
Technical Personnel
Ms Gabi Andress
Ms Helga Janning
Dipl.-Ing Bernd Stoll
Research Associates
Dr. Leopold Diop
Dr. Semih Ener
Dr. Barbara Kaeswurm
PD Dr. Michael Kuzmin
Dipl.-Ing. Marc Pabst
Santosh Pal, M. Sci.
Dr. Iliya Radulov
Dr. Konstantin Skokov
PhD Students
Dipl.-Phys. Dimitri Benke
Imants Dirba, M. Sc.
Dipl.-Ing. Maximilian Fries
Dipl.-Phys. Tino Gottschall
Tim Helbig, M.Sc.
Dipl.-Ing. Konrad Löwe
Dipl.-Wi.-Ing. Simon Sawatzki
Dipl.-Ing. Christoph Schwöbel
External
Alexandru Lixandru, M. Eng.
Iuliana Poenaru, M. Sc.
Dipl.-Phys. Fabian Rhein
Xi Lu, M. Sc.
Master Students
Bahar Fayyazi, B.Sci.
Johannes Kröder, B.Sci.
Shilpi Sharma, B.Sci.
Daniel Simon, B.Sci.
Project “FAME” Students
Hardian Rifan, B.Sci.
Frangou Lamprini, B.Sci.
Bachelor Students
Mr Valentin Brabänder
Mr Florian Esdar
Mr Benjamin Krah
Mr Tobias Braun
Mr Tim Lienig
Mr Lukas Pfeuffer
Mr Sandro Szabo
Mr Konrad Opelt
Guest Scientists
Prof. Dr. Victorino Franco
Hong Jian, B. Eng
Ms Samantha Swayne
Mr Dimitri Karpenkov
Working Students
Ms Kirsten Friemert
Ms Adjana Eils
Mr Andreas Taubel
Mr Tarini Mishra
Mr David Brand
Institute of Materials Science –Functional Materials
119
Publications
[1]
K.P. Skokov, D.Y. Karpenkov, M.D. Kuz'min, I.A. Radulov, T. Gottschall, B.
Kaeswurm,
M. Fries, O. Gutfleisch, Heat exchangers made of polymer-bonded La(Fe,Si)(13),
Journal of Applied Physics, 115 (2014).
[2]
G. Hrkac, T.G. Woodcock, K.T. Butler, L. Saharan, M.T. Bryan, T. Schrefl, O.
Gutfleisch, Impact of different Nd-rich crystal-phases on the coercivity of Nd-Fe-B grain
ensembles, Scr. Mater., 70 (2014) 35-38.
[3]
M. Klose, I. Lindemann, C.B. Minella, K. Pinkert, M. Zier, L. Giebeler, P. Nolis, M.
Dolors Baro, S. Oswald, O. Gutfleisch, H. Ehrenberg, J. Eckert, Unusual oxidation
behavior of light metal hydride by tetrahydrofuran solvent molecules confined in ordered
mesoporous carbon, Journal of Materials Research, 29 (2014) 55-63.
[4]
T.G. Woodcock, Q.M. Ramasse, G. Hrkac, T. Shoji, M. Yano, A. Kato, O.
Gutileisch, Atomic-scale features of phase boundaries in hot deformed Nd-Fe-Co-B-Ga
magnets infiltrated with a Nd-Cu eutectic liquid, Acta Materialia, 77 (2014) 111-124.
[5]
M. Krautz, J. Hosko, K. Skokov, P. Svec, M. Stoica, L. Schultz, J. Eckert, O.
Gutfleisch, A. Waske, Pathways for novel magnetocaloric materials: A processing
prospect, Physica Status Solidi C - Current Topics in Solid State Physics, 11 (2014)
1039-1042.
[6]
M.D. Kuz'min, K.P. Skokov, H. Jian, I. Radulov, O. Gutfleisch, Towards high-performance
permanent magnets without rare earths, J. Phys.-Condes. Matter, 26 (2014).
[7]
Dirba, S. Sawatzki, O. Gutfleisch, Net-shape and crack-free production of Nd-Fe-B
magnets by hot deformation, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 589 (2014) 301-306.
[8]
S. Sawatzki, I. Dirba, H. Wendrock, L. Schultz, O. Gutfleisch, Diffusion processes in
hot-deformed Nd-Fe-B magnets with DyF3 additions, Journal of Magnetism and
Magnetic Materials, 358 (2014) 163-169.
[9]
S.K. Pal, L. Schultz, O. Gutfleisch, Structural and magnetic properties of heat-treated
ultrafine single crystalline Nd2Fe14B particles obtained by ball-milling of dynamic
hydrogenation disproportionation desorption and recombination powder, Scr. Mater.,
78-79 (2014) 33-36.
[10]
S. Bance, H. Oezelt, T. Schrefl, G. Ciuta, N.M. Dempsey, D. Givord, M.
Winklhofer, G. Hrkac, G. Zimanyi, O. Gutfleisch, T.G. Woodcock, T. Shoji, M.
Yano, A. Kato, A. Manabe, Influence of defect thickness on the angular dependence of
coercivity in rare-earth permanent magnets, Applied Physics Letters, 104 (2014).
[11]
S. Sawatzki, A. Dirks, B. Frincu, K. Loewe, O. Gutfleisch, Coercivity enhancement in
hot-pressed Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets with low melting eutectics, Journal of Applied
Physics, 115 (2014).
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Institute of Materials Science – Functional Materials
[12]
D. Comtesse, M.E. Gruner, M. Ogura, V.V. Sokolovskiy, V.D. Buchelnikov, A.
Gruenebohm, R. Arroyave, N. Singh, T. Gottschall, O. Gutfleisch, V.A.
Chernenko, F. Albertini, S. Faehler, P. Entel, First-principles calculation of the
instability leading to giant inverse magnetocaloric effects, Physical Review B, 89
(2014).
[13]
O.L. Baumfeld, Z. Gercsi, M. Krautz, O. Gutfleisch, K.G. Sandeman, The dynamics
of spontaneous hydrogen segregation in LaFe13-xSixHy, Journal of Applied Physics,
115 (2014).
[14]
T.G. Woodcock, F. Bittner, T. Mix, K.H. Mueller, S. Sawatzki, O. Gutfleisch, On
the reversible and fully repeatable increase in coercive field of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets
following post sinter annealing, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 360
(2014) 157-164.
[15]
M. Krautz, K. Skokov, T. Gottschall, C.S. Teixeira, A. Waske, J. Liu, L. Schultz, O.
Gutfleisch, Systematic investigation of Mn substituted La(Fe,Si)(13) alloys and their
hydrides for room-temperature magnetocaloric application, Journal of Alloys and
Compounds, 598 (2014) 27-32.
[16]
J. Gao, P. Ngene, M. Herrich, W. Xia, O. Gutfleisch, M. Muhler, K.P. de Jong, P.E.
de Jongh, Interface effects in NaAlH4-carbon nanocomposites for hydrogen storage,
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 39 (2014) 10175-10183.
[17]
G. Hrkac, K. Butler, T.G. Woodcock, L. Saharan, T. Schrefl, O. Gutfleisch,
Modeling of Nd-Oxide Grain Boundary Phases in Nd-Fe-B Sintered Magnets, Jom, 66
(2014) 1138-1143.
[18]
M. Moore, R. Sueptitz, A. Gebert, L. Schultz, O. Gutfleisch, Impact of magnetization
state on the corrosion of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets for e-motor applications, Materials
and Corrosion-Werkstoffe Und Korrosion, 65 (2014) 891-896.
[19]
B. Boehme, C.B. Minella, F. Thoss, I. Lindemann, M. Rosenburg, C. Pistidda, K.T.
Moller, T.R. Jensen, L. Giebeler, M. Baitinger, O. Gutfleisch, H. Ehrenberg, J.
Eckert, Y. Grin, L. Schultz, B1-Mobilstor: Materials for Sustainable Energy Storage
Techniques - Lithium Containing Compounds for Hydrogen and Electrochemical Energy
Storage, Advanced Engineering Materials, 16 (2014) 1189-1195.
[20]
J. Hong, K.P. Skokov, M.D. Kuz'min, I. Radulov, O. Gutfleisch, Magnetic Properties
of (Fe,Co) 2B Alloys With Easy-Axis Anisotropy, IEEE Trans. Magn., 50 (2014)
2104504 (2104504 pp.)-2104504 (2104504 pp.).
[21]
S. Bance, H. Oezelt, T. Schrefl, M. Winklhofer, G. Hrkac, G. Zimanyi, O.
Gutfleisch, R.F.L. Evans, R.W. Chantrell, T. Shoji, M. Yano, N. Sakuma, A. Kato,
A. Manabe, High energy product in Battenberg structured magnets, Applied Physics
Letters, 105 (2014).
Institute of Materials Science –Functional Materials
121
Temperature dependent Dy diffusion processes in
Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets
K. Löwe1, C. Brombacher2, M. Katter2, O. Gutfleisch1,3
1
Material Science, TU Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 16, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
2
Vacuumschmelze GmbH & Co. KG, 63412 Hanau, Germany
3
Fraunhofer IWKS Project Group for Materials Cycles and Resource Strategy, 63450 Hanau, Germany
Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets have been coated with 0.6 wt.% Dysprosium and annealed at
various temperatures to study the impact of the temperature dependent Dy diffusion
processes on both the magnetic properties and the microstructure (figure 1). When
optimum annealing conditions are applied the Dy processed magnets with initial coercivity
of about 1100 kA/m yield coercivity increases which can exceed 400 kA/m without a
significant reduction of the remanent magnetic polarization.
Figure 11: (a) Room temperature coercivity HcJ of bulk samples after diffusion treatment for 6 h at 600°C ≤ T a ≤
1050°C and (b) corresponding remanent polarization B r. The coercivity and remanence of annealed reference
samples without Dy – coating and the average HcJ and Br in the initial state prior to the annealing treatment
are indicated for comparison.
The improved stability against opposing magnetic fields can be observed up to a depth of
about 3 mm along the diffusion direction restricting the application of the Dy diffusion
process to either thin magnets or magnets with tailored coercivity gradients (figure 2).
While in the proximity of the Dy – coated surface, each grain has a Dy enriched shell with a
Dy – content of around 6 at.%, the Dy concentration decreases exponentially to about 1.8
at.% after a diffusion depth of 400 µm and to about 1 at.% after a diffusion depth of 1500
µm, as was found with WDX and STEM EDX, respectively (figure 3).
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Institute of Materials Science – Functional Materials
Figure 2: Dependence of the switching field variation ΔH S on the distance d to the Dy coated lateral surface of
samples after a grain boundary diffusion process at 700°C ≤ Ta ≤ 1000°C for 6 h and of one sample in the initial
state without diffusion process. Note that for better visibility, the error bars of Δx = +/- 300 µm and ΔHs = +/40 kA/m are not indicated.
In the vicinity of the Dy – coated surface, the mechanism of the Dy – shell formation is
attributed to the melting/solidification of a heavy rare earth rich intermediate phase during
high-temperature annealing. This is based on the observation that a constant Dy
concentration over the width of the shells was found. Also an epitaxial relation between Dy
– poor core and Dy – rich shell was observed by EBSD. This finding is supported by results
obtained with Kerr microscopy.
Figure 3: Depth profiles of the Nd and Dy concentration after Dy – diffusion treatment at 900°C for 6 h. Each
data point was obtained from a WDX measurement in a Dy enriched shell.
Acknowledgement
The authors would like to thank Dr. T. Woodcock for help with the EBSD analysis. Financial support
from the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) via the PerEMot project (No.
03X4621A) is gratefully acknowledged.
This work has been published: K. Loewe, C. Brombacher, M. Katter, O. Gutfleisch, Temperaturedependent Dy diffusion processes in Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets, Acta Materialia, 83 (2015) 248-255.
Institute of Materials Science –Functional Materials
123
Large reversible magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-In-Co
T. Gottschall, K. P. Skokov, B. Frincu and O. Gutfleisch
The number of publications related to magnetic refrigeration drastically increased after the
discovery of the giant magnetocaloric effect. There are only few material families showing a
first-order magnetostructural transition near room temperature being mostly based on rare
earth elements like Gd-Si-Ge and La-Fe-Si. Besides the Fe2P-type materials, Heusler alloys
are among the most promising rare earth free magnetic refrigerants. Unfortunately, a large
thermal hysteresis is typically observed in Heusler compounds, which has negative impact
on a cyclic operation. In this work, we comprehensively investigate the hysteretic behavior
of Ni-Mn-In-Co, showing ways and means to partially overcome the thermal hysteresis
problem which allows to achieve large reversible magnetocaloric effects.
Fig. 1: Different presentation of the field induced
temperature change plotted together with the
magnetic phase diagram (martensite start Ms,
martensite finish Mf, austenite start As, and
austenite finish Af). The inset shows the reversible
behavior under cycling.
Fig. 2: Optical microscopy images of the initial sample in
austenite state at room temperature (a), at low
temperature in pure martensite state after first (b),
second (c), and third (d) cool down.
We report on the high irreversible adiabatic temperature change of -8K in a magnetic field
change of 1.95 T in the Heusler compound Ni45.7Mn36.6In13.5Co4.2 showing a first-order
magnetostructural transition which is visible in Fig. 1. Due to the large thermal hysteresis
of 10 K, this high ΔTad cannot be obtained in a cyclic way but still the reversible
magnetocaloric effect amounts to -3K (cyclic operation plotted in the inset) - an
unexpectedly high value which compares to the ΔTad of La(Fe,Si,Co)13. In order to reveal
the nature of this high reversible magnetocaloric effect, in-situ temperature dependent
optical microscopy of minor loops of thermal hysteresis has been done. An example of the
martensite formation after different cooling cycles is shown in Fig. 2.
This research has received funding from funding from the DFG SPP 1599 and has been
published: T. Gottschall, K.P. Skokov, B. Frincu, O. Gutfleisch, Large reversible
magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-In-Co, Applied Physics Letters, 106 (2015).
124
Institute of Materials Science – Functional Materials
Ion-Beam Modified Materials
Our research activities concentrate on processes related to high-energy heavy ions and their
interaction with solids. The different topics cover destructive processes leading to radiation
damage as well as using ions as structuring tool to fabricate tailored nanopores and
nanowires. Ion beams used in this field have typically kinetic energies in the MeV to GeV
range and are produced at large accelerator facilities such as the GSI Helmholtz Centre for
Heavy Ion Research. During the last year we focussed on radiation-induced degaradation of
material candidates suitable for components to be used in high dose environments. This
includes, various carbon based materials as well as molybdenum-carbide graphite (Mo-Gr)
composites specifically developed for high-energy physics applications. This latter material
shows a very promising combination of thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties for
application in beam protection elements for high-power accelerators. Irradiation
experiments were performed at the linear accelerator UNILAC of GSI using Au ions of about
10% velocity of light. The analysis of beam-induced modifications was performed by means
of Raman Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and
nanoindentation.
Nanotechnology with energetic ions benefits from the fact that each individual ion
generates a nanometer wide damage trail along its trajectory. By selective chemical etching,
the damage along the ion track is converted into an open high-aspect ratio channel.
Because of the low threshold for track formation and for track etching, most commonly
polymer films (typical thickness 10-30 µm) such as polycarbonate or polyethylene
terephthalate are used. To modify the pore wall of track-etched nanochannels, e.g. for
better wettability or controlled size reduction, we applied the rather new technique of
atomic layer deposition (ALD). Layer by layer, shape-conform coatings of nanochanels were
successfully performed with SiO2, TiO2 or Al2O3 as coating material.
Track-etched nanopores were also filled galvanically with different materials. By dissolution
of the polymer membrane nanostructures are obtained which are of great interest for
various applications due to their extremely high surface to volume ratio. We investigated
e.g. plasmonic properties of Au or AuAg alloy nanowires. By selectively dissolving the silver
component, highly porous nanostructures are synthesiszed and studied by infrared
spectroscopy (see report below). By performing irradiations under tilted beam incidence
from different angles, nanowire networks were fabricated. Given by the high degeree of
interconnections, they show excellent mechanical stability. Other nanostructures we
synthesized were Bi-compound nanowires for thermoelctric applications as well as for
testing properties of nanostructured topological insulators. Ion-track based semiconducting
nanostructures are considered as excellent model systems to reach higher efficiencies for
harvesting solar-energy via water splitting..
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Christina Trautmann
PhD Students
Dipl. Ing. Loic Burr
Dipl. Phys. Marco Cassinelli
Dipl. Ing. Christian Hubert
M. Sc. Janina Krieg
Institute of Materials Science – Ion Beam Modified Materials
Dipl. Ing. Katharina Kupka
Dipl. Phys. Liana Movsesyan
M. Sc. Anne Spende
Dipl. Ing. Michael F. Wagner
125
Bachelor Students
Ben Heider
Philipp Bolz
Christoph Reimuth
Pascal Simon
Research Projects
Fabrication of Bi-based nanowires and their characterisation with respect to thermoelectric
properties (FIAS 2011-2014)
Fabrication of semiconducting nanowires using the ion track technology (Beilstein Institute,
2012 – 2015)
Fabrication and controlled surface functionalisation of mesoporous SiO2 materials and iontrack nanochannels (DFG, Forschergruppe (FOR 1583), 2011-2014)
Radiation hardness of carbon stripper foils under high current UNILAC operation (BMBF,
Verbundforschung, 2012 – 2015)
Radiation hardness of carbon-based components for the future FAIR facility (GSI, 20122015)
Investigation of response of graphite and new composite materials for Super-FRS target and
beam catchers to intense ion beam-induced thermal stress waves (BMBF,
Verbundforschung, 2012 – 2015)
Publications
[1]
Annealing behaviour of ion tracks in olivine, apatite and britholite: B.Afra; M.Lang;
T.Bierschenk; M.D.Rodriguez; W.J.Weber; C.Trautmann; R.C.Ewing; N.Kirby;
P.Kluth; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 326 (2014) 126–
130
[2]
Thermal response of nanoscale cylindrical inclusions of amorphous silica embedded in
α-quartz: B.Afra, K.Nordlund, M.D.Rodriguez, T.Bierschenk, C. Trautmann,
S.Mudie, and P.Kluth; Physical.Review. B 90, (2014) 224108 – Published 30
December 2014; DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.224108
[3]
Effect of electronic energy loss on ion track formation in amorphous Ge: T.
Bierschenk, B. Afra, M.D. Rodriguez, R. Giulian, C. Trautmann, S. Mudie, M.C.
Ridgway, P. Kluth; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 326
(2014) 113–116
[4]
Tailored nanochannels of nearly cylindrical geometry analysed by small angle X-ray
scattering: Kuttich, B.; Engel, M.; Trautmann, C.; Stühn, B.; Applied Physics A:
Materials Science and Processing 114 (2014) 387-392; DOI: 10.1007/s00339-0138167-4; Published online 29.11.2013
Swift heavy ion track formation in Gd2Zr2_xTixO7 pyrochlore: Effect of electronic
energy loss: Lang, M.; Toulemonde, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, F.; Tracy, C.L.; Lian,
J.; Wang, Z.; Weber, W.J.; Severin, D.; Bender, M.; Trautmann, C.; Ewing,
R.C.; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 336 (2014) 102–115
[5]
[6]
Swift heavy ion-induced phase transformation in Gd2O3: M. Lang, F. Zhang, J.
Zhang, C.L. Tracy, A.B. Cusick, J. VonEhr, Z. Chen, C. Trautmann, R.C. Ewing;
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 326 (2014) 121–125
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Institute of Materials Science - Ion Beam Modified Materials
[7]
Effect of orientation on ion track formation in apatite and zircon: Li, W.; Kluth, P.;
Schauries, D.; Rodriguez, M.D.; Lang, M.; Zhang, F.; Zdorovets, M.;
Trautmann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; American Mineralogist 99 (2014) 1127–1132,
[8]
Static elasticity of cordierite I: Effect of heavy ion irradiation on the compressibility of
hydrous cordierite: Miletich, R.; Scheidl, K.S.; Schmitt, M.; Moissl, A.P.;
Pippinger, T.; Gatta, G.D.; Schuster, B.; Trautmann, C.; Physics and Chemistry of
Minerals , 8 April 2014, 41, 579-591
[9]
Polycarbonate activation for electroless plating by dimethylaminoborane absorption
and subsequent nanoparticle deposition: F. Muench, S. Bohn, M. Rauber, T.Seidl,
A. Radetinac, U. Kunz, S. Lauterbach, H.-J. Kleebe, C. Trautmann, W. Ensinger;
Applied Physics A, July 2014, 116, 1, 287-294
[10]
Hierarchically porous carbon membranes containing designed nanochannel
architectures obtained by pyrolysis of ion-track etched polyimide: F. Muench, T.
Seidl, M. Rauber, B. Peter, J. Brötz, M. Krause, C. Trautmann, C. Roth, S.
Katusic, W. Ensinger; Materials Chemistry and Physics, 148, 3, (15 December
2014) 846–853
[11]
Swift heavy ion irradiation-induced amorphization of La2Ti2O7: S. Park, M. Lang,
C.L. Tracy, J. Zhang, F. Zhang, C. Trautmann, P. Kluth, M.D. Rodriguez, R.C.
Ewing; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 326 (2014) 145–149
[12]
SAXS and TEM investigation of ion tracks in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium
garnet: M.D. Rodriguez, W.X. Li, F. Chen, C. Trautmann, T. Bierschenk, B.
Afra, D. Schauries, R.C. Ewing, S.T. Mudie, P. Kluth; Nuclear Instruments and
Methods in Physics Research B 326 (2014) 150–153
[13]
The shape of ion tracks in natural apatite: Schauries, D.; Afra, B.; Bierschenk, T.;
Lang, M.; Rodriguez, M.D.; Trautmann, C.; Li, W.; Ewing, R.C.; Kluth, P.;
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 326 (2014) 117–120
[14]
Static elasticity of cordierite II: effect of molecular CO2 channel constituents on the
compressibility: Scheidl, K.S.; Gatta, G.D.; Pippinger, T.; Schuster, B.;
Trautmann, C.; Miletich, R.; Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 23 April 2014,
41, 617-631
[15]
Local formation of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond by swift heavy ions:
Schwartz, J.; Aloni, S.; Ogletree, D.F.;Tomut, M.; Bender,M.; Severin, D.;
Trautmann, C.; Rangelow, I.W.; Schenkel, T.; JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS
116, 214107 (2014); DOI: 10.1063/1.4903075
[16]
Silver nanostructures formation in porous Si/SiO2 matrix: V. Sivakov, E.Yu.
Kaniukov, A.V. Petrov, O.V. Korolik, A.V. Mazanik, A. Bochmann, S. Teichert,
I.J. Hidi, A. Schleusener, D. Cialla, M.E. Toimil-Molares, C. Trautmann, J.
Popp, S.E. Demyanov; Journal of Crystal Growth 400 (2014) 21–26
[17]
Modeling of defect accumulation in lithium fluoride crystals under irradiation with
swift ions: M.V. Sorokin, K. Schwartz, C. Trautmann, A. Dauletbekova, A.S. ElSaid; Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 326 (2014) 307–310
[18]
Defect accumulation in ThO2 irradiated with swift heavy ions: Tracy, C.L.; Pray,
J.M.; Lang, M.; Popov, D.; Park, C.; Trautmann, C.; Ewing, R.C.; NUCLEAR
INSTRUMENTS & METHODS IN PHYSICS RESEARCH SECTION B-BEAM
INTERACTIONS WITH MATERIALS AND ATOMS; Vol. 326, p. 169-173, May 2014
Institute of Materials Science - Ion Beam Modified Materials
127
Infrared spectroscopy analysis of surface plasmons in smooth and porous nanowires
created by electrodeposition in ion-track etched polymer templates
I.Schubert1, P. Kröber1,2, C. Huck3, F. Neubrech4, M. E. Toimil-Molares1, J. Vogt3,
A. Pucci3,,C. Trautmann1,2
1
GSI, Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planktr. 1, Darmstadt;
2
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2;
3
Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, Heidelberg;
4
Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, Stuttgart; Germany
Localized surface plasmons (LSP) are collective electronic oscillations on the surface of a
nanoparticle that are excited by the electromagnetic field of light. They are promising
candidates for sensing applications, such as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and
infrared spectroscopy since they exhibit very high nearfield enhancement on the
nanoparticle surface [1]. For molecules attached to a nanoparticle, these field
enhancements result in intensified molecular signals in the corresponding spectra, if the
wavelength of the surface plasmons is tuned to the vibrational one [2,3]. It has recently
been shown that spherical porous nanoparticles exhibit excellent tunability of the
resonance wavenumber and intensified local electric fields in the visible and near-infrared
wavelength range that can be efficiently used for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy
(SERS) [4].
In this project, we analysed the plasmonic properties of smooth and porous Au nanowires
by infrared (IR) spectroscopy. While spherical nanoparticles have a resonance wavenumber
that is located in the visible spectral range, for nanowires with length of few µm the
resonance is shifted to the middle infrared regime. We have used IR spectroscopy to
investigate the plasmonic characteristics of the dipolare LSP mode in this wavelength
range. These results are of great importance for further applications of the wires as
substrates for surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SEIRS). Our nanowires were
prepared by electrochemical deposition of gold into the pores of ion-track etched polymer
templates [5]. 30 µm-thin polymer foils were irradiated with swift heavy ions at the linear
accelerator UNILAC at GSI Helmholtz Center. Each ion creates a damage trail along its
trajectory consisting of broken polymer chains and other defects. By wet-chemical etching
each ion track is transformed into an open nanochannel. To prepare a cathode for the
electrochemical deposition process, a thin Au layer was sputtered on one side of the foil.
This layer was reinforced to obtain a stable layer by electrodeposition of Cu. Subsequently,
the nanowires were electrodeposited in the nanochannels in a three-electrode configuration
applying a potential of 1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode. As electrolyte we used 50 mM
KAu(CN)2 for the Au wires and 50 mM KAu(CN)2 and 50 mM KAg(CN)2 to grow AuAg alloy
nanowires. Both electrolytes contained an amount of 0.25 M Na 2CO3. A platinum coil
served as anode.
After dissolution of the polymer, the nanowires were released from their backlayer by
ultrasonification in dichloromethane and drop cast on a diamond substrate with
lithographically attached Au grid for localization of the nanowires. The Au wires were
annealed for 30 min at 200 °C. Finally, both types of wires were immersed into nitric acid
for 3h. While the Au wires maintain their smooth morphology, the Ag content in the AuAg
wires is dissolved resulting in porous wires consisting mainly of Au with a very small
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Institute of Materials Science - Ion Beam Modified Materials
amount of 5-10 % of Ag [6]. Figure 1 shows representative scanning electron microscopy
(SEM) images of smooth and porous nanowires on a Si substrate that were prepared
according to the described protocol.
100 nm
100 nm
Figure 1: SEM image of a porous (a) and smooth (b) Au nanowire with very similar length of about 1 µm and
diameter of about 100 nm.
Microscopic infrared spectroscopy of our nanowires was performed at the synchrotron light
source Soleil. We recorded relative transmission spectra using an IR beam polarized parallel
to the longitudinal wire axis. The contribution of the substrate was considered by recording
reference spectra of the bare substrate and a subsequent normalization. In Figure 2, the
resonance wavelength determined from the transmission spectra are shown as a function of
the nanowire length for smooth (black symbols) and porous (red symbols) nanowires. For
the smooth nanowires, it is well known that the resonance wavelength is shifted to higher
values with increasing wire length [7]. Our data nicely confirms this relationship for wires
of length between 1300 and 2200 nm. For porous wires, our data also reveals increasing
resonance wavelengths with nanowire length. However, the resonance is clearly red-shifted
for a porous nanowire compared to a smooth nanowire of the same length due to the
increased damping.
Finally, Figure 3 shows exemplarily relative IR transmission spectra corresponding to three
smooth nanowires with length 1560 nm (red), 1680 nm (green) and 1930 nm (blue). All
wires are coated with a 5-nm thin layer of CBP (4,4’-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1’-biphenyl) as test
molecule for SEIRS measurements. The vibrational bands of this molecule are marked by
vertical black lines. For the longest wire, the vibrational modes are detected between 1230
and 1603 cm-1, while for the shortest wire only the vibrational modes between 1450 and
1603 cm-1 are enhanced. Our data clearly show that fine tuning of the nanowire parameters
is necessary to enhance specific molecular vibrations.
In conclusion, our measurements demonstrate that the resonance wavelength of a nanowire
is tunable not only by its dimensions, but also by its surface morphology. Here a resonance
shift of about 1000 nm is found for the porous wires with same dimensions as the smooth
ones. For SEIRS, fine tuning of the nanowire parameters is important to efficiently enhance
specific vibrational modes of the analyte. Further investigations to compare SEIRS
enhancement of smooth and porous nanowires are ongoing.
Institute of Materials Science - Ion Beam Modified Materials
129
Figure 2: Resonance wavelength versus nanowires length for smooth (black) and porous nanowires (red).
Figure. 3: Relative transmission spectra for three nanowires coated with CBP with length L of 1560 nm (red),
1680 nm (green) and 1930 nm (blue). The dashed horizontal lines mark the vibrational modes of CBP
References:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
130
J. Aizpurua et al. Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 235420.
S. Nie et al. Science 275 (1997) 1102.
F. Neubrech et a. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 (2008) 157403.
Q. Zhang et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5 (2041) 370.
I. Schubert et al. submitted to Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology.
I. Schubert et al. accepted Adv. Mat. Lett. March 2015.
G.W. Bryant et al. Nano Lett. 8 (2008) 631.
Institute of Materials Science - Ion Beam Modified Materials
Molecular Nanostructures
The Joint Laboratory for Molecular Nanostructures has been established in 2011 to enhance
the cooperation between the Institute for Nanotechnology at the Karlsruhe Institute of
Technology (KIT) and the Institute of Materials Science at the Technische Universität
Darmstadt. The research focus of the labratory is on nanocarbon materials, in particular on
carbon nanotubes and graphene. Carbon nanotubes and graphene are made of a single
layer of covalently bonded carbon atoms. The electrical, optical, chemical and mechanical
properties of these molecular nanostructures are outstanding, which is why CNTs and
graphene are considered as important new materials for high speed electronics,
optoelectronics, sensing, coatings, material reinforcements and other potential applications.
The motivtation of the Joint Laboratory is to gain new and important insights into carbon
nanomaterials for enabling future applications. In 2013 funding for a Fourier-Transform
Photocurrent-Spectromicroscope using a Supercontinuum-Lightsource has been provided by
the German Science Foundation, the Insitute of Materials Science and the President of the
Technische Universität Darmstadt. The system has been commissioned in 2014 and is used
to study the optoelectronic properties of materials and functional devices.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Ralph Krupke
Secretaries
Renate Hernichel
PhD Students
Dipl.-Phys. Feliks Pyatkov (KIT) M.Sc.Wieland Reis (BASF)
M.Sc. Moritz Pfohl (KIT)
M.Sc.Wenshan Li (KIT)
M.Sc. Asiful Alam (KIT)
Master Students
Adnan Riaz (KIT)
Publications
[1]
Michael Engel, Frank Hennrich, Ralph Krupke
Klein, Schnell, Hell
Physik in unserer Zeit 45 (2014) 243, 10.1002/piuz.201401364
[2]
Asiful Alam, Benjamin S. Flavel, Simone Dehm, Uli Lemmer, Ralph Krupke
Photocurrent Imaging of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Devices with Local Mirrors
Physica Status Solidi B 251 (2014) 2471, 10.1002/pssb.201451272
[3]
Wenshan Li, Feliks Pyatkov, Simone Dehm, Benjamin S. Flavel,Ralph Krupke
Deposition of Semiconducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes using Light-Assisted
Dielectrophoresis
Physica Status Solidi B 251 (2014) 2475, 10.1002/pssb.201451280
Institute of Materials Science - Molecular Nanostructures
131
[4]
Michael Engel, Katherine E. Moore, Asiful Alam, Simone Dehm, Ralph Krupke,
Benjamin S. Flavel
Photocurrent Spectroscopy of (n,m) Sorted Solution-Processed Single-Walled Carbon
Nanotubes
ACS Nano 8 (2014) 9324, 10.1021/nn503278d
[5]
Daniel D. Tune, Adam J. Blanch, Ralph Krupke, Benjamin S. Flavel, Joseph G.
Shapter
Nanotube film metallicity and its effect on the performance of carbon nanotube–silicon
solar cells
Phys. Status Solidi A 211(7)(2014) 1479-1487, 10.1002/pssa.201431043
[6]
C. Thiele, H. Vieker, A. Beyer, B. S. Flavel, F. Hennrich, D. Muñoz Torres, T. R.
Eaton, M. Mayor, M. M. Kappes, A. Gölzhäuser, H. v. Löhneysen, R. Krupke
Fabrication of carbon nanotube nanogap electrodes by helium ion sputtering for
molecular contacts
Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 (2014) 103102, 10.1063/1.4868097
[7]
S. Khasminskaya, F. Pyatkov, B. S. Flavel, W. H. P. Pernice, R. Krupke
Waveguide-Integrated Light-Emitting Carbon Nanotubes
Advanced Materials 26 (2014) 3465, 10.1002/adma.201305634
Projects
[1]
132
Waveguide Integrated Nanotube Light Sources (WINS); Volkswagenstiftung 20142017
Institute of Materials Science – Molecular Nanostructures
Waveguide-Integrated Light-Emitting Carbon Nanotubes
Svetlana Khasminskaya1, Feliks Pyatkov1,2, Benjamin S. Flavel1, Wolfram H. Pernice1
& Ralph Krupke1,2
1
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Nanotechnology, D-76021 Karlsruhe,Germany.
2
Department of Materials and Earth Sciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, D-64287
Summary from Advanced Materials 26 (2014) 3465-3472 | doi: 10.1002/adma.201305634
Photons propagating at the speed of light and outpacing electrons are the fastest carriers of
information possible. For this reason a large proportion of mid- and long-distance electrical
communication connections have been replaced by fiber optics in the last years. [1] The
next evolutionary step will be the replacement of short-distance electrical connections by
optical waveguides, which will thereby enhance on-chip data transfer rates, for example
between processor and memory. [2] In order to achieve this goal the development of
optical modules with large numbers of input and output channels will be required.
Furthermore, on-chip generation of light will be needed to overcome foreseeable limitations
in scalability and reproducibility. The then required level of integration will exceed the
capacity of conventional integrated optical circuits [3] and will necessitate the use of
waveguides with tight modal confinement, as well as the co-integration of active
components. Since the beginning of the fi eld it has been a challenge to
couple light into nanoscale photonic waveguides. The current state-of-the-art solution is to
launch light from external sources, such as lateral microcavity lasers, [4] vertical cavity
surface emitting lasers, [5] or microdisc lasers, [6] into the photonic waveguides using
fiber-coupling techniques. [7,8] These hybrid solutions, however, require sophisticated
multilevel nanofabrication processes for producing the lasers, which is in marked contrast
to comparably simple photonic waveguide processing techniques. Furthermore, tight
alignment tolerances for the orientation of the waveguide with respect to an optical fiber
coremake such an approach unfeasible for large numbers of input/output ports. In this
work we demonstrate efficient coupling of light emitted from an electrically-stimulated
carbon nanotube into a photonic circuit by integrating a CNT with its long axis
perpendicular to a photonic waveguide. We use electric-field assisted placement of
solution-processed carbon nanotubes into pre-patterned structures containing the photonic
waveguide, couplers, Mach-Zehnder structures and electrical wiring. Our approach allows
for contacting multiple devices in parallel as a key step towards carbon based optical
interconnects.
All the devices in this study consist of three basic components: carbon nanotubes,
nanophotonic waveguides with coupler gratings, and metallic contacts. The device
fabrication was performed in three steps. At first, 60 nm thick metal contacts with a gap of
1 μm were formed on a doped Si-wafer with SiO2 (2 μm)/Si3N4 (0.2 μm) top layers, using
electron-beam lithography and subsequent metal evaporation. Then, 500 nm wide
waveguides terminated with focusing grating couplers were defined with electron beam
lithography and formed by thinning 100 nm of the Si3N4 layer in between the metal
contacts by reactive ion etching. Optimal etching parameters for
obtaining the nominal etching depth in combination with minimal surface roughness were
identifi ed using reflectometry, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.
Institute of Materials Science - Molecular Nanostructures
133
Finally, single-walled carbon nanotubes were deposited in between the metal contacts and
onto the waveguide by dielectrophoresis from an aqueous dispersion. Use of CNT based
material enables us to employ nanotube solutions with high uniformity and sufficient CNT
content for efficient contacting of many devices in one single deposition step, which is thus
a procedure also suitable for waferscale fabrication. The dielectrophoretic force thereby
ensures precise alignment of the nanotubes with the nanotube axis perpendicular to the
direction of the waveguide, which guarantees optimal coupling of the emitted radiation
into the underlying optical circuitry.
Fig. 1: Waveguide-coupled carbon nanotube light emitter. (a) Schematic cross-sectional view of the multilayer
device structure (not to scale). The central waveguide is etched into the Si3N4 layer and runs along the x-axis.
The carbon nanotube is in contact with the Au/Cr metal and the waveguide, and aligned with the y-axis. (b)
False-colored scanning electron micrograph showing two metal electrodes (yellow) and a photonic waveguide
(purple), bridged by a single-walled carbon nanotube. The inset shows the indicated region at higher
magnification. Carbon nanotubes appear as thin white lines. (c) CCD-camera image of a device under electrical
bias. Light emission is observed from the carbon nanotube emitter (E) and from the terminating coupler
gratings C1 and C2, both connected with (E) through the waveguide (not visible). Superimposed is a grayscale
image of the sample under external illumination to reveal the position of the electrodes. Scale bar 50 μm. (d)
Sequence of carbon nanotube emission spectra recorded at (E) with increasing electrical power dissipation.
The data is fitted with a Planck spectrum modulated by substrate induced interference fringes. The fitparameter temperature is given for every curve.
The direct, near-field coupling of light from an electrically driven carbon nanotube into a
waveguide, as opposed to the traditional far-field fiber coupling of an external light source,
134
Institute of Materials Science – Molecular Nanostructures
opens up new opportunities to produce compact optoelectronic systems. Considering the
wide range of different, structure dependent emission spectra of semiconducting and
metallic carbon nanotubes and the continuing progress in the sorting of specific nanotubes,
it seems possible to use nanotubes with specific emission lines in the near future. The use of
electrically triggered on-chip nanotube emitters for signal transmission through extended
waveguides and interferometers shown in this work provides the basis for next-generation
nanoscale interconnects that can be seamlessly integrated with passive silicon photonic
technology. While the emitters are operated
at high currents in this work leading to incandescence, in contrast, tailored
electroluminescent emission within the range of the CCD detector will be possible by
employing CNT material with an S11 peak at shorter wavelengths. Alternatively extending
the detecting window of the camera into the technologically relevant NIR-range could
reveal electroluminescence at low current levels where thermal radiation is expected to be
absent. This mode of operation will then enable to use tailored spectral emission in
nanophotonic circuits by using a suitable type of carbon nanotube.
References:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
M. J. O’Mahony , C. Politi , D. Klonidis , R. Nejabati , D. Simeonidou, J. Lightwave Technol.
2006 , 24 , 4684 – 4696.
Y. Vlasov , W. M. J. Green , F. Xia , Nature Photonics 2008 , 2 , 242 –246 .
M. Hochberg , T. Baehr-Jones , Nature Photonics 2010 , 4 , 492 –494 .
O. Painter , R. K. Lee , A. Scherer , A. Yariv , J. D. O’Brien ,
P. D. Dapkus , I. Kim , Science 1999 , 284 , 1819 – 1821.
J. L. Jewell , J. P. Harbison , A. Scherer , Y. H. Lee , L. T. Florez , IEEE Journal of Quantum
Electronics 1991 ,27, 1332 – 1346 .
S. L. McCall , A. F. J. Levi , R. E. Slusher , S. J. Pearton , R. Logan , Appl. Phys. Lett. 1992 , 60 , 289.
M. Lipson , J. Lightwave Technol. 2005 , 23 , 4222 – 4238.
C. Kopp , S. Bernabe , B. B. Bakir , J.-M. Fedeli , R. Orobtchouk , F. Schrank , H. Porte , L.
Zimmermann , T. Tekin , IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 2011 , 17 ,
498 – 509.
Institute of Materials Science - Molecular Nanostructures
135
Electromechanic of oxides
The group of J.-Prof. Kyle G. Webber focuses on the functional properites of oxides through
combined experimentation and simulation. Of particular interest is the influence of external
mechanical, electrical, and thermal fields on ferroelectricity and ionic conduction and the
role of field induced phase transitions. Together, macroscopic constitutive behavior and insitu structural studies are used together to elucidate the microstructural processes
responsible for the observed phenomena.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Kyle G. Webber
Research Associates
Dr. Jurij Koruza
Dr. Yoshitaka Ehara
PhD Students
Dipl.-Ing. Florian Schader
Dipl.-Ing. Philipp Geiger
Azatuhi Ayrikyan, M.Sc.
Shuai Wang, M.Eng.
Diploma Students
Malte Vögler
Virginia Rojas
Guest Scientists
Prof. Dr. George Rossetti
Research Projects
Mechanical Compliance at Phase Transitions in Lead-Free Ferroelectrics (DFG 2011 – 2014)
The Influence of Mechanical Loads on the Functional Properties of Perovskite Oxides
(DFG Emmy Noether Programme 2013 – 2018)
The effect of electric field-induced phase transitions on the blocking force in lead-free
ferroelectrics (DFG SFB595/D6 2013 – 2014)
Publications
[1]
By: Wang, Zhiyang; Webber, Kyle G.; Hudspeth, Jessica M.; et al.
Electric-field-induced paraelectric to ferroelectric phase transformation in prototypical
polycrystalline BaTiO3
APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS Volume: 105 Issue: 16 Article Number:
161903 Published: OCT 20 2014
[2]
By: Ehmke, Matthias C.; Schader, Florian H.; Webber, Kyle G.; et al.
Stress, temperature and electric field effects in the lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Ti,Zr)O-3
piezoelectric system
ACTA MATERIALIA Volume: 78 Pages: 37-45 Published: OCT 1 2014
136
Institute of Materials Science – Electromechanic of oxides
[3]
By: Webber, Kyle G.; Franzbach, Daniel J.; Koruza, Jurij
Determination of the True Operational Range of a Piezoelectric Actuator
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY Volume: 97 Issue: 9 Pages:
2842-2849 Published: SEP 2014
[4]
By: Brandt, David R. J.; Acosta, Matias; Koruza, Jurij; et al.
Mechanical constitutive behavior and exceptional blocking force of lead-free BZT-xBCT
piezoceramics
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Volume: 115 Issue: 20 Article Number:
204107 Published: MAY 28 2014
[5]
By: Daniel, L.; Hall, D. A.; Webber, K. G.; et al.
Identification of crystalline elastic anisotropy in PZT ceramics from in-situ blocking
stress measurements
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Volume: 115 Issue: 17 Article Number:
174102 Published: MAY 7 2014
[6]
By: Seo, Yo-Han; Koruza, Jurij; Bencan, Andreja; et al.
Simultaneous Enhancement of Fracture Toughness and Unipolar Strain in Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-ZrO2 Composites Through Composition Adjustment
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY Volume: 97 Issue: 5 Pages:
1582-1588 Published: MAY 2014
[7]
By: Zhang, Hailong; Jo, Wook; Wang, Ke; et al.
Compositional dependence of dielectric and ferroelectric properties in BiFeO3-BaTiO3
solid solutions
CERAMICS INTERNATIONAL Volume: 40 Issue: 3 Pages: 4759-4765 Published:
APR 2014
[8]
By: Khansur, Neamul H.; Groh, Claudia; Jo, Wook; et al.
Tailoring of unipolar strain in lead-free piezoelectrics using the ceramic/ceramic
composite approach
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Volume: 115 Issue: 12 Article Number:
124108 Published: MAR 28 2014
[9]
By: Trefalt, Gregor; Bencan, Andreja; Kamplet, Mitja; et al.
Evaluation of the homogeneity in Pb(Zr,Ti)O-3-zirconia composites prepared by the
hetero-agglomeration of precursors using the Voronoi-diagram approach
JOURNAL OF THE EUROPEAN CERAMIC SOCIETY Volume: 34 Issue: 3 Pages:
669-675 Published: MAR 2014
[10]
By: Dittmer, Robert; Jo, Wook; Webber, Kyle G.; et al.
Local structure change evidenced by temperature-dependent elastic measurements:
Case study on Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-based lead-free relaxor piezoceramics
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS Volume: 115 Issue: 8 Article Number:
084108 Published: FEB 28 2014
Institute of Materials Science - Molecular Nanostructures
137
[11]
By: Franzbach, Daniel J.; Seo, Yo-Han; Studer, Andrew J.; et al.
Electric-field-induced phase transitions in co-doped Pb(Zr1-xTix)O-3 at the
morphotropic phase boundary
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF ADVANCED MATERIALS Volume: 15 Issue:
1 Article Number: 015010 Published: FEB 2014
[12]
By: Tan, X.; Young, S. E.; Seo, Y. H.; et al.
Transformation toughening in an antiferroelectric ceramic
ACTA MATERIALIA Volume: 62 Pages: 114-121 Published: JAN 2014
[13]
By: Groh, Claudia; Franzbach, Daniel J.; Jo, Wook; et al.
Relaxor/Ferroelectric Composites: A Solution in the Quest for Practically Viable LeadFree Incipient Piezoceramics
ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS Volume: 24 Issue: 3 Pages: 356362 Published: JAN 2014
138
Institute of Materials Science – Electromechanic of oxides
Mechanical stability of polar defects in ferroelectric perovskites
Florian Schader and Kyle G. Webber
Perovskite oxides are an important material class due to their numerous functional
properties. One of the central advantages of the simple ABO3 structure is the ability to
significantly alter the functional properties with relatively small amounts of aliovalent and
isovalent substitutions. Often, in the case of ferroelectric materials, aliovalent transition
metals or rare-earth ions are selected that occupy either an A- or B-site, resulting in the
formation or elimination of oxygen vacancies for charge compensation. Acceptor-doping
with lower valence ions leads to the formation of oxygen vacancies ( VO·· ), which has been
shown to electrically “harden” the ferroelectric, [1] i.e., increase the electrical poling field
and decrease the piezoelectric response, and result in aging. [2] These effects correspond
closely to the development of an apparent internal bias electric field that depends on the
concentration content as well as the thermoelectrical history of the sample. [3, 4] Studies
on acceptor-doped (Fe3+) Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)0.99Fe0.0103) have also demonstrated
the formation of nanodomains and increasing rhombohedral content in comparison to
undoped materials. [5] Although donor-doped ferroelectrics are less understood, it is
generally agreed that the observed enhancement in electromechanical properties and
decreased electric poling fields may empirically be correlated with the decreased oxygen
vacancy content, the formation of A-site vacancies, and changes in B-site valance. [1] This
facilitates increased domain wall motion and, therefore, increased extrinsic contributions to
the electromechanical properties.
Despite the importance of perovskite ferroelectrics and the number of investigations,
there has been little work on the mechanical stability of polar defects. Understanding the
role of mechanical fields on acceptor-doped ferroelectrics is important, as many
applications apply mechanical loads during operation. There is, unfortunately, little
experimental data available on the influence of mechanical stress on acceptor-doped
perovskite ferroelectrics. Previous characterization of the macroscopic electromechanical
and stress-strain behavior has shown that uniaxial compressive stress can result in
ferroelastic switching [6, 7] as well as field-induced phase transitions in polycrystalline
PZT. [8] Therefore, the primary aim of this work is to investigate role of stress on donor
and acceptor-doped Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 through the characterization of the stress- and
temperature-dependent direct piezoelectric response.
Experimental Methodology
Materials
The samples used in this study are widely used, industrial important and commercially
available soft and hard PZT, which are both near the morphotropic phase boundary on the
tetragonal side. These terms soft and hard are loosely used here and only exemplify the
observed constitutive behavior; both materials are substituted with multiple cations, some
of which can act as an acceptor or donor depending on the site location and oxidation state.
Replacing Ti/Zr with lower valence ions on the B-site is most often referred to as acceptor
doping although this is more correctly described as chemical substitution. The soft PZT
material (PIC151, PI Ceramic GmbH, Lederhose, Germany) has the following composition:
Pb0.99[Zr0.45Ti0.47(Ni0.33Sb0.67)0.08]1.00O3. The hard PZT (PIC181, PI Ceramic GmbH,
Institute of Materials Science - Molecular Nanostructures
139
Lederhose,
Germany)
has
the
following
composition
2+
Pb1.00[Zr0.47Ti0.48(Mn0.33Sb0.32Nb0.33)0.05]1.00O3. Mn acts as an acceptor-dopant on the Bsite, whereas Nb5+ is a donor dopant.
Experimental Procedure
Cylindrical samples of 5.8 mm diameter and 6 mm height were produced by core drilling
and grinding from an as-sintered block of material. After machining, the samples were
electroded with a sputtered thin layer of platinum. Prior to testing, all samples were
annealed at 450 °C for 30 min. Measurement of the temperature- and stress-dependent
longitudinal direct piezoelectric coefficient d33 was performed on a screw-driven load frame
(Z030, Zwick GmbH & Co.KG, Ulm, Germany) fitted with a heating chamber (SV800,
Thermal Technology GmbH, Bayreuth, Germany) and custom-built equipment capable of
applying small mechanical impulses at various frequencies. The load frame applied the
global bias uniaxial compressive stress, while an integrated piezoelectric stack actuator (P025.80, PI Ceramic GmbH, Lederhose, Germany), positioned in series with the sample and
controlled by a LabVIEW program, partially unloaded the sample with a sinusoidal
mechanical signal. During testing a load amplitude of ±0.5 MPa was used. The small signal
direct piezoelectric coefficient was calculated from the measured amplitudes of stress and
polarization in a frequency range between 50 mHz and 240 Hz with an accuracy of better
than ±0.2 pC/N.
Results
The direct piezoelectric coefficient of the soft and hard compositions was determined
during uniaxial compressive loading and unloading in the frequency range between 50
mHz - 240 Hz and is shown in Fig. 1. The arrows indicate the direction from lower
frequencies to higher frequencies. The soft material displays a significantly larger d33 value,
550 to 600 pC/N, depending on frequency, in the poled state without applied stress. In
contrast, the hard PZT composition has a d33 of 250 to 280 pC/N over the same frequency
range. The lower piezoelectric response of hard PZT is due to the decrease in domain wall
mobility and a subsequent decrease in the intrinsic contribution. [9]
With an increasing compressive stress, the piezoelectric response of the soft PZT is
found to monotonically decrease above approximately -25 MPa, which is related to the first
deviation from the linear elastic behavior (Fig. 1a). This point is where ferroelastic domain
reorientation begins and is defined as the onset stress (0). As the external compressive
stress reorients domains parallel to polarization direction, the average piezoelectric
response of the polycrystal decreases. This effect continues until saturation, where no
additional domains are available to be switched. In comparison, the hard PZT displays a
considerably different response to the applied compressive stress (Fig. 1b); namely, an
initial increase in d33 until -75 MPa, followed by a decrease and subsequent saturation. A
similar increase in d33 with compressive stress in Fe3+-doped PZT has been previously
observed, although this study only applied bias stresses up to -80 MPa and, therefore, did
not observe the subsequent decrease. [10] The initial increase is proposed to be due to the
presence of an internal bias field, created by the high temperature poling procedure. At
elevated temperature, the mobility of polar defects increases, [11] which allows for their
orientation in the polarization direction. Upon field cooling, the polar defects remain in the
oriented state (aligned in the direction of applied electric field) and are frozen in at room
temperature, where their mobility is significantly decreased. As the applied bias stress
increases, the electrostatic and mechanical forces work antagonistically and result in an
140
Institute of Materials Science – Electromechanic of oxides
increase in the piezoelectric response through enhanced domain wall motion. Further
increases in the mechanical load see a shifting of this balance and a mechanical clamping of
domains.
Fig. 1: Frequency dependent piezoelectric coefficient during uniaxial compressive loading in soft (a) and hard
(b) PZT. The solid arrows indicate the direction of increasing measurement frequency, which was varied from
50 mHz to 240 Hz. The dashed arrows illustrate the loading direction.
The stress-dependent experimental results (Fig. 1) indicate that compressive stress
can reduce the apparent internal bias that is caused by the ordered orientation of polar
defects. Through the increase in temperature, the influence of stress on the polar defect
should increase with the increasing thermally activated mobility of such defects. Soft PZT
displays a reduced d33 value at room temperature and a gradual decrease with increasing
temperature. Hard PZT, however, clearly shows a two-step switching process with the first
decrease occurring at ~40 °C. Importantly for applications, this limits the thermal operating
range of such materials when a compressive stress is applied. Above approximately 150 °C,
the rate of decrease in d33 drops and the subsequent d33(T) behavior matches well that
observed in soft PZT. In addition, the high temperature frequency dispersion is also reduced
with a bias stress of -100 MPa. This two-step switching step is proposed to be due to the
reorientation of the polar defects with the application of a bias stress. At lower
temperatures, the mobility of the polar defects is low enough that they are not significantly
influenced by the stress. However, as the temperature and the mobility increase, they can
reorient, which is the origin of the first step. Because they are mechanically clamped, the
frequency dispersion at higher temperatures also decreases. Eventually, the material loses
the spontaneous polarization and the d33 reduces to zero.
Institute of Materials Science - Molecular Nanostructures
141
Fig. 2: Temperature-dependent direct piezoelectric coefficient for soft (a), (b) and hard (c), (d) PZT with a bias
compressive stress of -5 MPa and -100 MPa.
The present findings indicate that compressive stress reduces the intrinsic forces generated
by electrostatic ordering of charged defect population. This resulted in the presence of a
two-step switching in hard PZT with increasing temperature that was rationalized to be due
to the increasing mobility of the charged point defects, most likely oxygen vacancies. These
data, however, cannot directly determine whether the observed behavior is due to the
direct influence of stress on the polar defects or the indirect reorientation of ferroelastic
domains. Further stress-dependent electron paramagnetic resonance measurements are
required in order to directly address this.
References:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
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Lambeck PV, Jonker GH. Ferroelec. 1978;22:729.
Carl K, Härdtl KH. Ferroelectr. 1978;17:473.
Arlt G, Neumann H. Ferroelec. 1988;87:109.
Jin L, He Z, Damjanovic D. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2009;95:012905.
Webber KG, Aulbach E, Key T, Marsilius M, Granzow T, Rödel J. Acta Mater. 2009;57:4614.
Marsilius M, Webber KG, Aulbach E, Granzow T. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 2010;93:2850.
Seo Y-H, Franzbach DJ, Koruza J, Benčan A, Malič B, Kosec M, Jones JL, Webber KG. Phys.
Rev. B 2013;87:094116.
Damjanovic D, Demartin M. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 1996;29:2057.
Ochoa DA, Garcia JE, Tamayo I, Gomis V, Damjanovic D, Perez R. J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
2012;95:1656.
Warren WL, Vanheusden K, Dimos D, Pike GE, Tuttle BA. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 1996;79:536.
Institute of Materials Science – Electromechanic of oxides
Collaborative Research Center (SFB)
Collaborative Research Center (SFB)
“Electrical Fatigue in Functional Materials”
2003 – 2014
www.sfb595.tu-darmstadt.de
The center for collaborative studies (Sonderforschungsbereich) has been awarded by the
Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft in 2002 to TU Darmstadt and is centered in the
Department of Materials and Earth Sciences with important contributions from the
Department of Chemistry as well as the Mechanical Engineering Department of the
University of Karlsruhe. The center was renewed in 2006 and again in 2010 and is now in
the third and final four-year funding period.
It is comprised of a total of 19 projects and financial resources for the current four yearperiod of about 8 Mio. €. The center has an active guest program with guests visiting from
2 days to 3 months. In 2008, an integrated graduate school was also implemented with
graduate students visiting from other Universities for time frames between 1 to 12 months.
The collaborative research center SFB595 will be closing by the end of 2014 after twelve
years of operation. Finally an International Symposium on Electrical Fatigue in Functional
Materials was on September, 15th-18th 2014 at the Cliff Hotel on Rügen island directly at
the German side of the Baltic sea. The meeting brought together international experts on
ageing and fatigue in ferroelectrics, ionic conductors and organic semiconductors. The
workshop presented invited talks and contributed posters by active and former members of
SFB595, international guests and partners from industry. It provided ample of time for
scientific discussions.
For specific information, please contact either the secretary of the center, Mrs. Gila Völzke,
or the chairman of the center, Prof. Karsten Albe.
Contact:
SFB 595 Electrical Fatigue in Functional Materials
Department of Materials Science
Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2
64287 Darmstadt
Tel.: +49 6151 16 - 6362
Fax: +49 6151 16 - 6363
Building/Room: L201 / 121
E-mail:
[email protected]
[email protected]
Electrical fatigue in functional materials encompasses a set of phenomena, which lead to
the degradation of materials with an increasing number of electrical cycles. Electrical
cycling leads to both reversible and irreversible currents and polarisations. Ionic and
electronic charge carriers interact with each other and with microstructural elements in the
bulk as well as at interfaces (grain boundaries and domain walls) and interphases
(electrode/electrolyte). This in turn causes local changes in the distribution of electric
currents and electric potentials. As a consequence local overloads and material degradation
ensues and leads to irreversible loss of material properties. This material degradation can
lead finally to mechanical damage as well as to dissociation reactions. The basic
phenomena of electrical fatigue are not yet understood on a microscopic level.
A key feature of the center is therefore the steady comparison between theory and
experiment. This is utilized to find the physico-chemical origins of electrical fatigue as well
as to develop strategies for new materials and improved material combinations. The
Institute of Materials Science – Collaborative Research Center (SFB595)
143
materials of interest are ferroelectrics, electrical conductors (cathode materials for lithium
batteries and transparent conducting oxides) and semiconducting polymers.
The goal of this center of excellence is the understanding of the mechanisms leading to
electrical fatigue. An understanding of the experimental results is supported by concurrent
materials modelling which is geared to encompass different time and length scales from the
material to the component. In the third phase next to a quantitative modelling the
development of fatigue-resistant materials and in the case of ferroelectrics, lead-free
piezoceramics, is of particular focus.
Projects:
Division A: Synthesis
A1
P.I.: Prof. J. Rödel
Topic: Manufacturing of textured ceramics actuators with high strain
A2 [ended 2010]
P.I.: Prof. M. J. Hoffmann
Topic: Manufacturing and characterization of PZT-ceramics under dc loading
A3
P.I.: Prof. W. Jaegermann
Topic: Boundary layers and thin films of ionic conductors: Electronic structure,
electrochemical potentials, defect formation and degradation mechanisms
A4
P.I.: Prof. R. Riedel
Topic: Novel functional ceramics using anionic substitution in oxidic systems
A5
P.I.: Prof. M. Rehahn
Topic: Synthesis of semiconducting model polymers and their characterization before and
after cyclic electric fatigue
Division B: Characterization
B1 [ended 2010]
P.I.: Dr. R.-A. Eichel
Topic: EPR-Investigations of defects in ferroelectric ceramic material
B2 [ended 2010]
P.I.: Dr. A. G. Balogh
Topic: Investigations of the defect structure and diffusion in ferroelectric materials
B3
P.I.: Prof. H.-J. Kleebe / Prof. W. Donner
Topic: Structural investigations into the electrical fatigue in PZT
144
Institute of Materials Science – Collaborative Research Center (SFB595)
B4
P.I.: Prof. H. Ehrenberg
Topic: In-situ investigations of the degradation of intercalation batteries und their
modelling
B7
P.I.: Prof. H. v. Seggern / Prof. A. Klein
Topic: Dynamics of electrical properties in fatigued PZT
B8
P.I.: Prof. Christian Hess
Topic: In situ characterization of intercalation batteries using Raman spectroscopy
B9
P.I.: Prof. Gerd Buntkowsky / Dr. Hergen Breitzke
Topic: Characterization of structure-property relationships of functional materials using
solid state NMR
Division C: Modelling
C1
P.I.: Prof. K. Albe
Topic: Quantum mechanical computer simulations for electron and defect structure of
oxides
C2
P.I.: Prof. K. Albe
Topic: Atomistic computer simulations of defects and their mobility in metal oxides
C3 [ended 2010]
P.I.: Prof. R. Müller / Prof. W. Becker
Topic: Microscopic investigations into defect agglomeration and its effect on the mobility of
domain walls
C5
P.I.: Dr. Y. Genenko / Prof. H. v. Seggern
Topic: Phenomenological modelling of bipolar carrier transport in organic semiconducting
devices under special consideration of injection, transport and recombination phenomena
C6
P.I.: Jun. Prof. B. Xu
Topic: Micromechanical Simulation on Interaction of Point Defects with Domain
Structure in Ferroelectrics
Division D: Component properties
D1
P.I.: Prof. J. Rödel
Topic: Mesoscopic and macroscopic fatigue in doped ferroelectric ceramics
Institute of Materials Science – Collaborative Research Center (SFB595)
145
D3
P.I.: Prof. A. Klein
Topic: Function and fatigue of conducting electrodes in organic LEDs and piezoceramic
actuators
D4
P.I.: Dr. A. Gassmann / Prof. H. v. Seggern
Topic: Fatigue of organic semiconductor components
D5 [ended 2011]
P.I.: Prof. W. Jaegermann
Topic: Processing and characterization of Li-ion thin film batteries
D6
P.I.: Dr. Kyle G. Webber
Topic: The effect of electric field-induced phase transitions on the blocking force in
lead-free ferroelectrics
Division T: Industry transfer
T1 [ended 2013]
P.I.: Prof. H. Ehrenberg
Topic: In operando investigations of fatigue of commercial battery types using neutron
tomography and diffraction
T2
P.I.: Prof. M. Hoffmann
Topic: Influence of PbO stoichiometry on microstructure and properties of PZT ceramics
and multilayer actuators
T3
P.I.: Prof. H. Ehrenberg
„in operando“ studies on Li(Ni,Co,Mn)O2 cathode materials (NCM) using local and global
methods for structure analysis – modification and fatigue of materials
Integrated Graduate school
MGK
P.I.: Prof. A. Klein
146
Institute of Materials Science – Collaborative Research Center (SFB595)
Diploma Theses in Materials Science
[1] Mohammad Omar Ariobi; Die Untersuchung des Biegefestigkeitsverhaltens Oxidischer
Verbundskörper mit gefüllter Polysiloxan-Matri, 18.06.2014
[2] Dominik Heiler; Untersuchung des Schichtwachstums von SnS auf Au-beschichteten MoSubstraten, 08.09.2014
Bachelor Theses in Materials Science
[1]
Andreas Abel; Tribologische Untersuchungen an DLC-Schichten, 28.10.2014
[2]
Tayyab Ahmad; Growth of MnBi thin films by RF-magnetron sputtering, 06.10.2014
[3]
Erhan Aras; Untersuchung der mechanischen und adhäsiven Eigenschaften von
schaltbaren Polymerbürsten mit dem Rasterkraftmikroskop, 05.08.2014
[4]
Kim Martine Bergner; Methoden zur Bestimmung des Austenit-Kohlenstoffgehaltes in
ADI, 07.04.2014
[5]
Philip Bolz; Nanoindentationsstudie
kompositen, 19.09.2014
[6]
Tim Böttcher; Wechselwirkungen zwischen Mikrostruktur und Plasmanitrierbedingungen und deren Auswirkungen auf das Korrosionsverhalten austenitischer
Stähle, 12.08.2014
[7]
Alexander Valentin Brabänder; Einfluss der Hydrierungsparameter auf die
mechanischen Eigenschaften von La1,06Fe11,6Si1,4 im Massivmaterial, 26.08.2014
[8]
Sabrina Angelika Brehm; Optische Emissionsspektroskopie an Lichtbogenplasmen,
30.08.2014
[9]
Agnes Beate Bußmann; Ölseparation und Viskosität von Schmierfetten unter Druck
und Temperatur: Entwicklung und Evaluation einer Messmethode, 18.09.2014
[10]
Sarah Marie Denkhaus;
keramiken, 17.12.2014
[11]
Florian Esdar; Heißkompaktierte und heißumgeformte Nd-Fe-B Magnete, 06.08.2014
[12]
Thimo Henning Ferber; Grenzflächenstruktur von
stabilisierten Zirkondioxid-Vielfachschichten, 21.10.2014
Bachelor Theses in Materials Science
von
ionenbestrahlten
Elektromechanische
Eigenschaften
Kohlenstoffbasis-
bleifreier
Piezo-
Scandiumoxid-Yttrium-
147
[13]
Ruth Giesecke; Einfluss von Sauerstoffleerstellen auf die Barrierenhöhe von LaAIO3
Einkristallen, 19.09.2014
[14]
Lorenz Hagelüken; Stromlose Abscheidung von 1D Gold-Nanostrukturen auf 3D
Makrostrukturen, 22.08.2014
[15]
Stefan Hawel; Grenzflächenuntersuchungen an Zinkoxid (ZnO) - Einkristallen,
05.08.2014
[16]
Ben Heider; Fabrication of gold nanocones in a triode field emission configuration,
31.10.2014
[17]
Marion Anita Höfling; Herstellung von stickstoffhaltigen DLC-Schichten mit
Plasmaimmersions-Ionenimplantation und -deposition, 08.09.2014
[18]
Jennifer Honselmann; Analyse der Schichtbildung Chrom(III)-haltiger AluminiumPassivierungen, 05.08.2014
[19]
Karoline Linda Hoyer;
Dünnschichten, 13.02.2014
[20]
Tim Hundhausen; Synthesis and High Temperature Behavior of SiOC-TiSi2 PolymerDerived Ceramics, 20.07.2014
[21]
Benjamin Juretzka; Stromlose Abscheidung von superhydrophoben, mikro- und
nanostrukturierten Silberoberflächen durch Halogenidzusatz, 13.05.2014
[22]
Timo Kaiser; Nutzung nanostrukturierter Silberschichten zur Abscheidung von AgDLC-Schichten auf der Innenseite eines Rohres, 04.11.2014
[23]
Oskar Kowalik; Einfluss der Prozessparameter auf die Struktur und die mechanischen
Eigenschaften lasergeschmolzener Stähle, 08.07.2014
[24]
Alexander Kremer; Temperaturabhängige Messung des Debye-Waller-Faktors von (1x)(Bi,Na)1/2TiO3-x(BaTiO3), 31.03.2014
[25]
Sebastian Lehmann; Elektrodeposition von eindimensionalen
Nanostrukturen aus einem alkalischen Elektrolyten, 29.09.2014
[26]
Frank Löffler; Bestimmung
Emissionsschichten, 05.03.2014
[27]
Tobias Simon Maisch; Eddy Current Testing of wires made of Platinum alloys,
12.05.2014
[28]
Corinna Müller; Nahordnung in BNT und BNT-BT, 06.05.2014
148
Optische
von
Eigenschaften
von
Triplett-Niveaus
kristallinen
und
SrMoO3-
Rhodium-
Abklingzeiten
von
Bachelor Theses in Materials Science
[29]
Jonas Müller; Manipulation von Nanopartikeln mit dem Rasterkraftmikroskop,
15.09.2014
[30]
Konrad Opelt; Einfluss unterschiedlicher Prozessparameter auf die Mikrostruktur
einer rascherstarrten Nd-Fe-B-Legierung, 14.08.2014
[31]
Lukas Pfeuffer; Synthese und Characterisierung von (MnFePSi)-Legierungen für
magnetokalorische Anwendungen, 04.11.2014
[32]
Lukas Porz; Influence of angle dependent fracture toughness on crack path evolution
in brittle solids, 24.07.2014
[33]
Christoph Reimuth; Fabrication and Characterization of Conical Gold Nanowires,
05.05.2014
[34]
Philipp Frederick Rhein; Herstellung und Charakterisierung von Nickel-EisenNanodraht-Arrays mit unterschiedlichen Geometrien, 29.08.2014
[35]
Lukas Riemer; Einfluss des Mikrogefüges und der Plasmanitrier-Bedingungen auf die
resultierenden Eigenschaften von austenitischem Stahl 1.4404, 03.04.2014
[36]
Manuel Rouven Riesner; Einfluss von In-Dotierung auf die Eigenschaften von
95Bi1/2Na1/2TiO3-5BaTiO3 Piezoelektrika, 19.12.2014
[37]
Rico Rupp; Einfluss von Sauerstoffpartialdruck und Ort der Gaszuführung auf die
Magnetron-Kathodenzerstäubung von SrTiO3, 28.07.2014
[38]
Martin Christoph Scheuerlein; Herstellung und Charakterisierung
magnetischen Nanodraht-Arrays aus Ni1-xCox-Legierungen, 18.12.2014
[39]
Christina Schmied; Korngrößen - ein Vergleich zwischen der Auswertung von EBSDDaten mit der herkömmlichen lichtmikroskopischen Bestimmung, 04.02.2014
[40]
Tobias Schmiedl; Nanoskalige Austenitumkehr durch Partitionierung, 04.02.2014
[41]
Pascal Simon; Infrared Thermography and Spectroscopy Investigations of Swift
Heavy-Ion Induced Effects in Amorphous Carbon Stripper Foils, 27.10.2014
[42]
Mihail Slabki; Entwicklung eines Herstellungsverfahrens für papierabgeleitete poröse
Piezokeramiken auf Basis von 0,5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0,5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3,
16.10.2014
[43]
Annika Stocker; Untersuchung mechanischer Eigenschaften von Immunglobulin G
und Immunglobulin M mittels Rasterkraftmikroskopie, 19.12.2014
Institute of Materials Science – Collaborative Research Center (SFB595)
von
149
[44]
Tobias Stohr; Synthese von (Au, Pt)-Nanoröhren über stromlose Abscheidung und
ihre Charakterisierung mittels Rasterelektronenmikroskopie (REM) und Cyclovoltammetrie (CV), 23.05.2014
[45]
Sandro Szabo; Korngrenzendiffusionsprozesse von Dysprosium in NdFeB-Magneten
aus heißgepresstem HDDR-Pulver, 08.09.2014
[46]
Stephan Wagner; Untersuchung zur Perkolationsschwelle von Cu/C-Mischungen,
15.09.2014
[47]
Constantin Wansorra; Wachstum von Bismutschichten auf Silizium, 24.09.2014
[48]
Carlo Wehling; Pyramidische Härteeindrücke und Rissstrukturen in Quarzglas und
Wolframkarbid, 28.11.2014
[49]
Kerstin Wissel; Ionische Flüssigkeiten als Elektrolyt für Lithiumionenbatterien,
07.04.2014
[50]
Lorenz Wöllmann; Aufbau eines Systems zur Herstellung nanopartikulärer
Pulverkomposite, 17.11.2014
[51]
Stephan Wollstadt; Mn
Bi0.5K0.5TiO3, 31.03.2014
[52]
Jonas Wortmann; Umsetzung eines Druckreglers für ein Plasma-ImmersionsIonenimplantation & Deposition-System, 10.01.2014
150
acceptor
doping
in
the
system
Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-
Bachelor Theses in Materials Science
Master Theses in Materials Science
[1]
Daniel Bick; Investigation of Iron Nitride Thin Films grown by Reactive Molecular
Beam Epitaxy, 14.03.2014
[2]
Ralph Dachauer; Influence of oxygen on the performance of small molecular and
polymeric thiophene-based organic field effect transistors, 11.03.2014
[3]
Johannes Dingeldein; Characterization and evaluation of modern bi-layer thermal
barrier coatings, 29.10.2014
[4]
Silke Christina Dittombée; Production and characterization of modified gelatin
devices for biological application, 03.03.2014
[5]
Andreas Eva; Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Platinum Nanoparticles
for Water Electrolysis, 04.12.2014
[6]
Elke Barbara Flegel; Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Liquid Phase Crystallized
Silicon, 31.07.2014
[7]
Lamprini Frangou; Fabrication and characterization of composite antiferromagnetic
materials for ultimate spintronic devices, 29.09.2014
[8]
Richard Günzler; Untersuchung des Einflusses von
Pufferschichten auf die dielektrischen Eigenschaften
Dünnschichtvaraktoren, 25.02.2014
[9]
Rifan Hardian; Evaluation of hydrogen storage materials based on waste magnesium
alloys through different preparation methods, 29.09.2014
[10]
Constanze Kalcher; Monte Carlo Simulations of the Electrocaloric Effect in Relaxor
Ferroelectrics, 10.06.2014
[11]
Thomas Paul Kaleja; Herstellung und Charakterisierung
biofunktionaler Oberflächen mit dem PICVD-Verfahren, 01.10.2014
[12]
Pejman Khamehgir; Evaluierung verschiedener technischer Ansätze zur
Identifizierung beschichteter Glasprodukte auf Basis amorpher Kohlenstoffschichten,
15.03.2014
[13]
Manuel Kloos; Characterization of the microstructural evolution of Nickel-Based
Superalloys at high temperatures in the interface region with and without coating,
30.09.2014
[14]
Samer Kurdi; Garnet Type Inorganic Solid Electrolyte for Lithium-Ion Batteries,
29.09.2014
[15]
Christian Lohaus; Untersuchungen an RF-Magnetron gesputterten Co3O4Dünnschichten hinsichtlich der Werwendbarkeit in photovoltaischen Anwendungen,
01.04.2014
Master Theses in Materials Science
Ta2O5- und Bi2O3von Ba0.6Sr0,4TiO3-
siliziumhaltiger
151
[16]
Markus Mock; Analytical Bond-Order Potential for alpha- and beta-tin, 30.04.2014
[17]
Timo Noll; 3D Isogeometric Analysis of phase separation in Li-ion battery electrode
particles, 30.09.2014
[18]
Jitendra Singh Rathore; Finite Element and Experimental Investigation of the
Influence of Residual Stress on the Indentation Behavior, 23.09.2014
[19]
Virginia Alejandra Rojas Michelena; Operational Range and Blocking Force of
BNT-based Lead-free Piezoceramics, 30.06.2014
[20]
Lukas David Romanowski; Herstellung und Optimierung transparenter leitfähiger
Schichten auf Basis metallischer Nanodrähte, 30.06.2014
[21]
Sandra Schäfer; Electroless plating of metallic 1D-Nanostructures for electrocatalytic
application, 21.02.2014
[22]
Marcus Schulze; The influence of alkali metal cations on the mechanical properties of
PDMAA- and PDMAA-b-PMAA-polymer brushes, 24.11.2014
[23]
Sandro Setzer; Analyse von Grenzflächenladungen durch Photoelektronenspektroskopie am Beispiel von (Ba,Sr)TiO3/Al2O3 – Dünnschichtsystemen, 04.11.2014
[24]
Marius Siebers; Study of the Impact of Microstructure, Hydrogen and Tensile Load on
the Passivation Properties of Nickel-Based Alloy 718 (2.4668), 29.04.2014
[25]
Judith Simon; Thermokatalytische Oxidbeschichtungen für Glaskeramiksubstrate,
12.06.2014
[26]
Lukas Stühn; Mechanische Manipulation von Polystrol-Nanokugeln mit dem
Rasterkraftmikroskop, 23.12.2014
[27]
Sundararajan Thirumalai; Surface and Tribological Characteristics of Diamond-like
Carbon (DLC) coated Engineering Elastomers, 29.09.2014
[28]
Jari Uhde; Methode zur Dimensionierung von T-Profilen aus Faser-KunststoffVerbund, 09.07.2014
[29]
Stefan Vogel; Schottky-diodes based on ZnO-nanoparticles, 01.12.2014
[30]
Malte Vögler; Stress and temperature dependency of piezoelectric properties of
acceptor doped PZT and their fatigue behavior, 30.04.2014
[31]
Dragoljub Vrankovic; Mechanically-controlled Ionic Conductivity in Silicate-based
Glasses, 30.09.2014
[32]
Xifan Wang; Synthesis and Characterization of Polymer-Derived reduced Graphene
Oxide (rGO)/SiNx(Oy) Ceramic Nanocomposites, 09.09.2014
[33]
Johanna Wolf; Biomimicking: Porous Polymeric Microhairs for a Tunable Elastic
Modulus, 27.11.2014
152
PHD Theses in Materials Science
PHD Theses in Materials Science
[1]
Thorsten Bayer; Einfluss injizierter Ladungen auf Ba0,6Sr0,4TiO3-Dünnschichten:
Elektrische
und
dielektrische
Charakterisierung
und
Simulation
des
Ladungstransports, 10.09.2014
[2]
Maged Fadl Issa Bekheet; Synthesis and Characterization of Binary and Ternary
Indium Oxide Polymorphs, 09.10.2014
[3]
Anton Belousov; Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices in High Energy Heavy
Ion Accelerators, 20.10.2014
[4]
Claudia Groh; Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Relaxor/Ferroelectric Composites Based on
Bismuth Sodium Titanate, 20.10.2014
[5]
Umme Habiba Hossain; Swift Heavy Ion Induced Modification of Aliphatic Polymers,
16.12.2014
[6]
Cheng Huang; Phase Separation in Thin Polymer Films: From Self Stratification to
Polymer Blend Lithography, 18.12.2014
[7]
Christine Jamin; Constrained Sintering of Patterned Ceramic Films on Stiff
Substrates, 09.05.2014
[8]
Sebastian Kaserer; Untersuchung von Adsorptions- und Vergiftungsprozessen in HTPEM Brennstoffzellen unter realistischen Betriebsbedingungen, 20.03.2014
[9]
Jan Hans Kaspar; Carbon-rich Silicon Oxycarbide (SiOC) and Silicon
Oxycarbide/Element (SiOC/X, X=Si, Sn) Nano-Composites as new Anode Materials
for Li-Ion Battery Application, 04.07.2014
[10]
Aaron Kobler; Untersuchung von Deformationsmechanismen in nanostrukturierten
Metallen und Legierungen mit Transmissionenelektronenmikroskopie, 18.12.2014
[11]
Philipp Moritz Leufke;
nanostructures, 29.01.2014
[12]
Julia Maibach; Preparation and Characterization of Solution-Processed Organic
Semiconductor Interfaces: Electronic Properties of Thiophene-Fullerene based DonorAcceptor Systems, 22.01.2014
[13]
Saima Nasir; Stimuli-Triggered Ionic and Molecular Transport through Track-Etched
Nanopores, 03.11.2014
[14]
Cornelia Neetzel; Formkontrollierte Herstellung von mikro-/nanostrukturierten
Kupfer- und Eisenverbindungen sowie Anwendungsbeispiele, 25.07.2014
PhD Theses in Materials Science
Magnetoelectric
coupling
in
layered
LSMO/PZT
153
[15]
Rene Peter Pekkola; Electronic Structure of Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells:
Synchrotron Induced Photoelectron Spectroscopy on Nanocrystalline TiO2, Newly
Developed Dyes and Spiro-MeOTAD, 09.04.2014
[16]
Benedikt Peter; Einfluss der Trägermorphologie auf die 3D-Elektrodenstruktur von
Kathoden in Polymerelektrolyt-Membran-Brennstoffzellen, 19.12.2014
[17]
Eva Sapper; Lead-free (1-x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3-xBaTiO3: The impact of relaxor
characteristics and induced long range order on piezoelectric properties, 25.07.2014
[18]
Anja Schneikart; Herstellung und Charakterisierung von SnS-Dünnschichtsolarzellen,
24.02.2014
[19]
Robert Schütz; Ladungsträgerdynamik an der organisch/anorganischen Hybridgrenzfläche in Farbstoffsolarzellen Eine Ultrakurzzeit-Spektroskopie basierte Studie
neuer Absorber-Konzepte, 10.03.2014
[20]
Sebastian Siol; Quasistatische und transiente Oberflächenpotentialverteilungen
organischer Feldeffekttransistoren, 02.10.2014
[21]
Andre Wachau; Sauerstoffaustausch polykristalliner kathodenzerstäubter Indiumoxid-Dünnschichten, 29.04.2014
[22]
Clemens Wall; Mangan- Nickel- und Cobaltverbindungen als Konversionselektrodenmaterialen für Lithium-Ionen-Batterien, 31.01.2014
[23]
Sebastian Wiegand; Herstellung und Charakterisierung Sol-Gel basierter KaliumNatrium-Niobat-Schichten, 12.02.2014
[24]
André Leo Wolz; Nanostrukturierte PEM-Brennstoffzellenelektroden aus alternativen
Materialien, 06.06.2014
[25]
Jiadong Zang; High-temperature dielectrics based on relaxor ferroelectrics,
06.05.2014
154
PHD Theses in Materials Science
Mechanical Workshop
The mechanical workshop of the Institute of Materials Science is designing, manufacturing
and modifying academic equipment for a broad range of projects. In the year 2014 the
workshop was involved in the following major projects:

Components for Evaporation System for Rotated Fibre Substrates

UHV-preparation chambers
(electro)chemical treatment

Components for six-circle diffractometer

Design and manufacturing of a protection chamber for x-rays with up to 150keV photons

UHV baby chamber for x-ray diffraction experiments
dedicated
for
MBE,
CVD,
PVD,
PLD
and
Staff Members
Head
Jochen Rank
Technical Personnel
Frank Bockhard
Volker Klügl
Ulrich Füllhardt
Herry Wedel
Electrical Workshop
The electrical workshop of the Institute of Materials Science was involved in the following
projects:

Maintenance and repair of various academic equipment like the Electron Probe
Micro-Analyzer (EPMA), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), sintering
furnace, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray powder Diffractometer
(XRD) and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)

Design and development of electronic components for specific research projects like
temperature control unit, data logging, power controller, high voltage amplifier,
high voltage power supply, measuring amplifier, high temperature furnace for
impedance measurements

Development of testing software (V-Basic / LabView / i-Tools)
Staff Members
Electronic Personnel
Michael Weber
Institute of Materials Science – Mechanical and Electrical Workshop
155
Institute for Applied Geosciences
Preface
Many of today’s major societal challenges are, to a large extent, geoscientific origin. The
efficient management of water as well as other geo-resources, the securing of our future
energy demands, or the understanding of the effects of the anthropogenic alteration of
global cycles are vital for the future development of our society.
The Institute of Applied Geosciences at the TU Darmstadt has continued its efforts to focus
research activities as well as its educational program on our key activities in Water – Energy
– Environment. In 2014, most research groups of the institute participated in a LOEWE
initiative UrbanH2O together with collegues from the IWAR of FB 13. The audit in March
2014 was highly successful and the project was scientifically top ranked. Unfortunately, the
political decision process led not to a funding of this project.
The Hydrogeology group organized the Kick-Off meeting of the FP7 project MARSOL that
they coordinate. It took place in February 2014 in Darmstadt with 40 colleagues from 7
countries attending. In this project alternative water resources are used to increase water
availability in the water scarce Mediterranean countries. The project has a high
international visibility and will help to further establish water as a one of the key activites
of our Institute. The group is also active in international cooperation. They started to
implement a PhD program in Hydrogeology at the Mekelle University in Ethiopia. There is
an urgent need for experts in water resurces management especially in the water troubled
countries in Northern Africa. In the first batch, 5 Ethiopean PhD students have been
selected that will spend part of their time in our Institute.
In the focus of the 9th deep geothermal energy forum, held by the research group of Prof.
Ingo Sass on September 30th 2015 at the Institute of Applied Geosciences, were
presentations of the recent Hessian deep geothermal energy power plant projects and the
medium deep geothermal potentials in the urban areas of Hesse as well as preliminary
results of recent research projects.
In 2014, our revised consecutive Bachelor and Masters program ’Angewandte
Geowissenschaften’ has been successfully accredited by the accreditation agency ASIIN and
the new curriculae could start in the winter term 2014/15. Basically, we kept the
orientation of the study programs but the structure of the modules was homogenized and
the sequence of lecture through the study became more visible. Moreover, the master
students can select between two key aspects: Applied Geology (Angewandte Geologie) and
Environmental Geochemistry (Umweltgeochemie). The master program turned out to be
highly attractive for external applicants who make up ca. half of all master students. The
main reason is the specific applied focus in geosciences in Darmstadt which is among few in
Germany.
Also the international master course TropHEE increasingly attracts students. Since 2013 the
amount of students has doubled and ca. 50 students are enrolled in total. They are from 29
(!) different countries, in particular from developing countries in Africa and Asia. However,
also students from South America, the USA, New Zealand, and eastern Europe take part in
the course. Every year DAAD awards 5 to 6 scholarships to TropHEE and support the course
also financially.
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Again, we could donate 6 Deutschlandstipendien to excellent students. In the winter term
2014/15 the IAG hosted 332 Bachelor, 87 master, and 55 TropHEE students. Together with
diploma and PhD students, the total number was 515 students. Of those, 32% are female.
On December 05, 2014, we organized for the
first time a celebration for our graduates,
where their Diploma, BSc or MSc thesis was
briefly introduced. All students received a
small item which should serve as a nice
memory of this very special event in their
scientific carreer.
The Institute is very grateful for the intensive
help in organizing this event, in particular,
Gabriela Schubert (left in picture), Melanie
Werner and Astrid Kern; without their
continuous support during the run-up of the
planed celebration, we would not have had
such a positive response from our alumni.
On October 31, 2014, we organized a symposium for Prof. Dr. Dietrich Schumann on the
occasion of his 80th birthday. Prof. Schumann was an active member of the institute in the
field of paleontology from 1974 to 2000. Prior to the symposium, Prof. Schumann invited
us to the Landesmuseum to see this famous fossilized rudist reef from Oman. We stayed
there for more than one hour while Prof. Schumann explained all details of the original of
this particular reef and how he finally managed to transport this natural treasure to
Darmstadt.
As it is a long standing tradition in Geosciences to conclude the academic year with the
‘Barbara Fest’, all faculty, staff and students got together to discuss the events of the year as
well as the future in a very friendly and positive atmosphere. Due to the high number of
freshmen, the welcome ceremony of the new students, who were babtized during this
event, was rather crowded but, finally, everyone was finally officially accepted as a new
member of the Institute of Applied Geosciences.
Institute of Applied Geosciences – Preface
157
Physical Geology and Global Cycles
In the solar system, Earth is a unique rocky planet with an ocean and an atmosphere. It is
inhabited by bacteria since about 4 billion years and by higher life – plants and animals –
since ca. 600 million years. Organisms, air, water, and rocks are interconnected in a never
ending cycle of matter and energy: The Earth System.
The crustal plates of Earth are driven by radioactive heat. This causes creation of new crust
at mid-oceanic ridges at rates of several centimeters per year. On the other side, plate
margins become subducted into the mantle again or fold up vast mountain ranges, like the
Alps and the Himalayas, combining rocks of very different origin. During subduction the
basaltic crust is partially melted, generating more felsic magmas which rise to form plutons
and to cause lines of andesitic volcanoes such as occurring around the entire Pacific Rim.
This is called the endogenic cycle of rocks.
At the same time Earth receives solar radiation which moves air and water in gigantic
cycles around the planet. Specifically the water cycle causes the denudation of mountains
by mechanical erosion and the leveling of plains by chemical weathering, the latter aided
tremendously by vegetation and its CO2-input to soils. This is called the exogenic cycle of
rocks.
This exogenic cycle is increasingly impacted by mankind. The radiation balance of the
atmosphere has been upset by the emission of carbon dioxide, methane, and other trace
gases. Earth is warming. Industrially produced chlorinated hydrocarbons have risen to the
stratosphere, weakening the protective ozone layer. Dust from traffic, industry and
agriculture produces reagents which alter air chemistry, causing unprecedented interactions
with the marine realm, vegetation and even rocks through acidification, excessive
deposition of nutrients and salts. Dry and wet deposition of anthropogenic (i.e. produced
by humans) particles can be measured world-wide. The population explosion caused the
intensification of agriculture and an alarming loss of topsoil while reducing the extent of
natural ecosystems at the same time. Artificial fertilization of soils causes wide-spread
nitrate pollution of shallow ground waters. Urbanization alters the water cycle above and
below ground. Local leakage of chemicals impacts soil, rivers and ground water. Civil
engineering causes alterations in almost all rivers world-wide, and even coastal oceans
show increasing eutrophication, siltation and ecosystem changes in the water column and
in their shallow sediments. Scars left by mining of minerals and fossil energy are visible
everywhere and cause increasing problems. Throughout the globe man has changed the
rate of natural processes. He spreads ever further into the landscape, utilizing regions and
building in areas which are not suitable for construction, considering their natural risks.
Thus, damage of natural catastrophes rise each year, endangering the world insurance
system. These processes and their consequences are topics in Environmental Geology.
Understanding Global Change and accepting the responsibility of mankind to conserve the
planet and its resources for future generations are prerequisites for ensuring a sustainable
development. The division of Physical Geology and Geological Cycles at the Institute for
Applied Geosciences addresses questions important to environmental geology both in the
present and in the geological past.
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Institute of Applied Geosciences – Physical Geology and Global Cycles
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Stephan Kempe
Research Associates
Dipl. Ing. Ingo Bauer
Technical Personnel
Ingrid Hirsmüller
Secretaries
Kirsten Herrmann
Pia Cazzonelli
PhD Students
Ingo Bauer
Hans-Peter Hubrich
Diploma Students
Sven Philipp
Student research
projects
Jan Will, Christopher Henze
Research Projects
3D Scanning of caves and speleogenetic process studies
Pyroducts (Lava Tunnels) in the Kahuku Ranch area, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Desert Kites in the Harrat of Jordan
Dekapolis Tunnel, a presumably >100 km long Roman aqueduct system in Northern
Jordan
Tectonic structure of the southern boundary of the Harz Mountain and its development
since the Permian
Publications
[1]
[2]
[3]
Kempe, S. (2014):
Hypogene limestone caves in Germany: Geochemical background and regionality. – In:
Klimchouk, A., Sasowsky, I.D., Mylroie, J., Engel, S.A., & Engel, A.S. (eds):
Hypogene Cave Morphologies, Karst Waters Inst. Spec. Publ. 18: 48-56.
Kempe, S. (2014):
How deep is hypogene? Gypsum caves in the South Harz. – In: Klimchouk, A.,
Sasowsky, I.D., Mylroie, J., Engel, S.A., & Engel, A.S. (eds): Hypogene Cave
Morphologies, Karst Waters Inst. Spec. Publ. 18: 57-64.
Schleusener, F., Kempe, S., Dirks, H., Rausch, R., & Göbel, P. (2013):
Die Erdfälle von Layla und Al-Kharj - Einblicke in die Karst-Hydrogeologie des oberen
Jura von Saudi-Arabien. – GRUNDWASSER 2013, 18(4): 271-276 (Impact Factor:
0.95). 10/2013; DOI: 10.1007/s00767-013-0235-3.
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159
CaCO3 Precipitation in Multilayered Cyanobacterial Mats: Clues to Explain the
Alternation of Micrite and Sparite Layers in Calcareous Stromatolites.
Józef Kaźmierczak 1,*, Tom Fenchel 2, Michael Kühl 2, Stephan Kempe 3, Barbara Kremer 1,
Bożena Łącka 4 and Krzysztof Małkowski 1
1 Institute of Paleobiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818 Warsaw,
Poland; E-Mails: [email protected] (B.K.); [email protected] (K.M.)
2 Marine Biological Laboratory, University of Copenhagen, Strandpromenaden 5, 3000
Helsingør, Denmark; E-Mails: [email protected] (T.F.); [email protected] (M.K.)
3 Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnsstr. 9,
64287 Darmstadt, Germany; E-Mail: [email protected]
4 Institute of Geological Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Twarda 51/55, 00-818
Warsaw, Poland; E-Mail: [email protected]
Marine cyanobacterial mats were cultured on coastal sediments (Nivå Bay, Øresund,
Denmark) for over three years in a closed system. Carbonate particles formed in two
different modes in the mat: (i) through precipitation of submicrometer-sized grains of Mg
calcite within the mucilage near the base of living cyanobacterial layers, and (ii) through
precipitation of a variety of mixed Mg calcite/aragonite morphs in layers of degraded
cyanobacteria dominated by purple sulfur bacteria. The 13C values were about 2 ‰
heavier in carbonates from the living cyanobacterial zones as compared to those generated
in the purple bacterial zones. Saturation indices calculated with respect to calcite,
aragonite, and dolomite inside the mats showed extremely high values across the mat
profile. Such high values were caused by high pH and high carbonate alkalinity generated
within the mats in conjunction with increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium
that were presumably stored in sheaths and extracellular polymer substances (EPS) of the
living cyanobacteria and liberated during their post-mortem degradation. The generated
CaCO3 morphs were highly similar to morphs reported from heterotrophic bacterial
cultures, and from bacterially decomposed cyanobacterial biomass emplaced in Ca-rich
media. They are also similar to CaCO3 morphs precipitated from purely inorganic solutions.
No metabolically (enzymatically) controlled formation of particular CaCO3 morphs by
heterotrophic bacteria was observed in the studied mats. The apparent alternation of in
vivo and post-mortem generated calcareous layers in the studied cyanobacterial mats may
explain the alternation of fine-grained (micritic) and coarse-grained (sparitic) laminae
observed in modern and fossil calcareous cyanobacterial microbialites as the result of a
probably similar multilayered mat organization.
References:
Published in: Life 03/2015; 5(1):744-769. DOI: 10.3390/life5010744
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Fig.: A schematic presentation of the artificial mat zonation (in vertical section), with examples of most
characteristic calcium carbonate morphs precipitated in micritic (left column) and sparitic (right column) layers.
Scale bars: (a) 5 μm, (b) 1 μm, (c) 1 μm, (d) 100 μm, (e) 10 μm, (f) 10 μm, (g) 10 μm, (h) 10 μm, (i) 3 μm, (j) 20
μm, (k) 2 μm.
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Hypogene limestone caves in Germany, geochemical background and regionality
Stephan Kempe1
1 Institut für Angewandte Geowissenschaften, TU-Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9, 64287
Darmstadt, Germany, E-Mail: [email protected]
Germany exhibits a very diverse geological history. Thus a large number of
stratigraphically, petrographically and tectonically different carbonate and sulfate rocks
exist that have been subject to karstification. Possible “agents” (sensu Klimchouk) of
hypogene karstification fall into three principally different processes: (i) water rising
because of buoyancy (either thermally or concentration induced), (ii) in-situ oxidation of
siderite,
according to:
4FeCO3 + O2 + 6H2O →4FeO(OH) + 4HCO3- + 4H+
(1)
or (iii) rising gases (CO2, H2S or CH4), whereby hydrogensulfide and methane could be
oxidized
H2S + 2O2 →2H+ + SO42- ↔H+ + HSO4-
according to:
+
and
CH4 + O2 →4H + CO2
yielding acids to dissolve limestone.
(2)
(3)
Germany has a complex geology featuring large tracts of Devonian, Carboniferous,
Permian, Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous carbonates and sulfates. The Devonian and
Carboniferous rocks have been subject to the variscian orogeny with intensive folding.
Permian and Mesozoic rocks have been subject to gradual uplift and fracturing and, in the
south of Germany, to Alpine orogenic thrusting. If applying the most pertinent epigene
versus hypogene morphological characteristics (see Table) it becomes evident that
hypogene caves occur in many different areas of Germany, often side-by-side with clearly
epigene caves.
Table comparing epigene versus hypogene morphological features.
Evidence for
Epigene
Hypogene
General layout of Linear,
tributary,
cave
of Maze, isolated cavities, cave
cave
substantial longitudinal extent
passages limited to a small area
Entrances
Former ponors or springs
Shape of rooms
Canyons, waterfall pits, seepage Large chambers interconnected (if
shafts,
at all) by narrow passages, shafts,
or phreatic round or oval passages of rough cross-section
passages
General
morphology
wall Meandering passages,
pots, scallops
No
natural
entrance
or cave opened accidentally by
erosion
erosion Ceiling cupolas, solutional ceilings,
solution cups, sloping side walls
Wall roughness
Smoothed and polished walls
Sediments
Allochthonous or autochthonous Fine
grained,
gravel, sandy material
sediments
162
Walls irregular with pockets,
harder seams protruding, fossils
exposed
autochthonous
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For many areas, the agents of hypogene speleogenesis must remain unclear. This applies for
most caves in the Paleozoic limestones of the Rhenish Schist Massif. Only the Iberg/Harz
caves seem to be a clear case; here the world-wide highest concentrations of siderite
weathering-induced caves occur. The large cavities discovered recently in the Blauhöhlen
System and some of the deep pit caves in the Swabian Alb may have their explanation in
volcanic CO2, having emanated from some of the 355 pipes of the Swabian volcanic field.
Most striking is the high concentration of hypogene caves in the Franconian Alb. Many of
them occur in a small area while other areas are devoid of larger caves. Here the tectonic
situation suggests that fractures could have taped reservoirs of either sulfide or methane
from below. The finding of goethitic crusts in the Bismarckgrotte may indicate that rising
anaerobic gases could have been involved.
References:
Kempe, S. (2014): Hypogene limestone caves in Germany: Geochemical background and regionality. –
In: Klimchouk, A., Sasowsky, I.D., Mylroie, J., Engel, S.A., & Engel, A.S. (eds): Hypogene Cave
Morphologies, Karst Waters Inst. Spec. Publ. 18: 48-56. (Proc. San Salvador, Bahamas Feb. 2-7,
2014).
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163
Hydrogeology
The Hydrogeology Group focuses on three main research areas, (I) the fate of organic
contaminants in the environment, (II) the development of novel methods to remediate soil
and groundwater contaminations, and (III), on water resources management from a local
to a regional scale. In all three research areas externally funded projects are currently
running, some as part of larger joint projects with national and international pertners.
The Kick-Off meeting of our EU FP 7 project MARSOL (Managed Aquifer Recharge as a
Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought) was held in Darmstadt in February. 40 of our
partners from southerm Europe and Israel attended this meeting and were excited to start
with this project that is tackling the severe water problems these coutries are facing. Over
the year field sites have been implemented and first results have been presented in several
conferences and journals.
We also started two projects in international cooperation with Bangladsh and Ethiopia. In
Bangladesh the main focus is sea water inrtusion into coastal aquifers due to overpumping
of groundwater. The study area is Cox’s Bazar, were a booming touristic sector is using
large amounts of fresh water. In Bangladesh we are developing, with funding of DAAD, a
PhD program focusing on Hydrogeology. Already 5 PhD students have been hired by the
Ethiopian partners at Mekelle University that are co-supervised by us.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Christoph Schüth
Research Associates
Dr. Laura Foglia
Dr. Thomas Schiedek
Dr. Annette Wefer-Roehl
Dr. Andres Marandi
PhD Students
Abidur Khan
Nils Michelsen
Layth Sahib
Christoph Kludt
A.B.M. Firoz
Anja Tögl
Mustafa Yasin
Stefan Schulz
Anja Wolf
Matthew Silver
Surayia Sumi
Master Students
Stefanie Kellmann
Amani Mahindawansha
Andre Russmann
Jessica Beck
Inga Schreiter
Sören Herrman
Kristina Kutschke
Yoshi Mohini
Technical Personnel
Zara Neumann
Rainer Branolte
Claudia Cosma
Secretary
Pamela Milojevic
Research Projects
MARSOL - Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Droughts (EU2013-2015)
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RADAQUA - Pilotstudie zur Einschätzung erhöhter Radionuklidkonzentrationen in Grundwässern der Arabischen Halbinsel und Nord-Afrikas (BMBF 2013-2014)
Prozessorientierte Untersuchung zum Nitratabbauvermögen der Grundwasserkörper im
Hessischen Ried (HLUG: 2012-2014)
Heavy metal contamination of surface water and groundwater resources in the industrial
area of Dhaka City, Bangladesh (BMBF-IPSWAT, 2011-2014)
Detection of oil spills and water contamination in the Kirkuk area, Irak, using remote
sensing data (DAAD 2011-2014)
Charakterisierung und Modellierung der Meerwasserintrusion in den Küstengebieten von
Bangladesch (BMBF 2014-2017)
Institutional Partnership for the Establishment of a PhD Program in Hydrogeology at
Mekele University, Ethiopia (DAAD 2014-2018)
Publications
[1]
Engelhardt, I., De Aguinaga, J.G., Mikat, H., Schüth, C., Liedl, R. (2014):
Complexity versus Simplicity: An Example of Groundwater Model Ranking with the
Akaike. Ground Water, 52, 4, 573-583.
[2]
Rausch, R., Dirks, H., Kallioras, A., Schüth, C. (2014): The riddle of the Springs of
Dilmun – does the Gilgamesh epic tell the truth ? Ground Water, 52, 4, 640-644.
[3]
Al Ajmi, H., Hinderer, M., Rausch, R., Hornung, J., Bassis, A., Keller, M.,
Schüth, C. (2014): Matrix versus fracture permeability in a regional sandstone
aquifer (Wajid sandstone, SW Saudi Arabia). Grundwasser, 19, 2, 151-157.
[4]
Lewin, I., Drefke, C., Piepenbrink, M., Schüth, C., Hoppe, A. (2014): Ermittlung
der hydraulischen Durchlässigkeit von quartären Sedimenten mittels Siebanalysen und
Pumpversuchen. Siebanalysen versus Pumpversuche–ein Methodenvergleich.
Grundwasser, 19, 127-135.
[5]
Rahobisoa, J.-J., Kallioras, A., Schüth, C. (2014): Use of isotopic signatures for the
determination of natural recharge and chemical characterization of groundwaters. The
case of Horombe plateau area, SW Madagascar. Environmental Earth Sciences, 71,
4497-4511.
[6]
Pfletschinger, H., Proemmel, K., Schüth, C., Herbst, M., Engelhardt, I. (2014):
Sensitivity of Vadose Zone Water Fluxes to Climate Shifts in Arid Settings. Vadoze
Zone Journal, 13.
[7]
Engelhardt, I.; Prommer, H., Schulz, M.; Vanderborght, J., Schüth, C.; Ternes,
T.A. (2014): Reactive transport of iomeprol during stream-groundwater interactions.
Environmental Science and Technology, 48, 199-207.
[8]
Engelhardt, I., Barth, J.A., Bol, R., Schulz, M., Ternes, T., Schüth, C., van
Geldern. R. (2014): Quantification of Long-term Wastewater Fluxes into the
Riparian Zone: A New Approach combines Stable Isotopes and Acesulfame. The
Science of the Total Environment, 466-467, 16-25.
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165
MARSOL – Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought
Christoph Schüth, Laura Foglia, Annette Wefer-Röhl, Karl-Ernst Röhl
The Mediterranean basin is one of the most sensitive regions of the world with respect to
the likely climatic changes that are predicted as a result of human activities. According to
the latest IPCC projections, average temperatures are expected to increase by 3,5°C by the
end of the century and precipitation could decrease on average by more than 10%, with a
larger decrease in summer and in the more southern areas. Despite the uncertainties in
projections, the anticipated reduction of renewable water resources can be as high as 50%
within the next 100 years hitting regions that already suffer from water scarcity and
droughts. In addition, the Mediterranean coastal zone represents already one of the most
densely populated regions in the world with currently 180 million inhabitants, and 250
million expected by 2025 due to strong population growth. This will increase the demand
for food, energy and other natural resources, putting additional stress on the diminishing
water resources. As a further consequence, the detoriation of fresh groundwater resources
due to intensive use of fertilizers in agriculture, pollution by industrial activities, or
overexploitation of coastal aquifers resulting in seawater intrusion is already a reality.
At the same time, large water quantities are lost to the Mediterranean Sea as surface runoff
and river discharge, discharge of treated and untreated wastewater, or as discharge of
excess water from various sources during periods of low demand. These alternative water
sources in principal can be used to increase water availability in general and in periods of
high demand, and therefore improve water security. The main factors hindering the
effective use of such waters are related to concerns about water quality, the lack of
sufficient low cost intermediate storage options, and a lack of confidence in available
concepts such as Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR).
Storing water in aquifers during times of excess can help address water scarcity challenges
experienced in many parts of the Mediterranean Basin. In principal, large storage capacity
is available in shallow aquifers, either due to thick unsaturated zones or due to already
depleted water resources in overexploited aquifers. In addition, water quality can be
improved due to chemical and biological reactions during transport of the infiltrated water
through the unsaturated and saturated zone, and by infiltrating waters for hydraulic
control, e.g. to prevent seawater intrusion. Therefore, MAR, together with Soil-AquiferTreatment (SAT) systems and Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) could be the key Water
Resources Management (WRM) tool for tackling water scarcity in Southern Europe, the
Mediterranean, and in water scarce regions worldwide by linking water reclamation, water
reuse and water resources management.
In the MARSOL project we will: (1) review, evaluate and expand the worldwide available
scientific and experimental knowledge on MAR, (2) demonstrate the feasibility and
efficiency of MAR in combating future water scarcity threats in the Circum-Mediterranean
area using unique DEMO sites, and (3) develop innovative solutions that can be generally
applied to arid and semi-arid regions. For this, the MARSOL consortium combines the
expertise of consultancies, water suppliers, research institutions, and public authorities
ensuring high practical relevance and market intimacy.
A total of 8 field sites in 6 countries with a variety of running MAR facilities, or MAR
facilities that are ready for operation, will ensure a coverage of the broad spectrum of
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potential water sources and MAR technical solutions that are available (Fig. 1). The
operators of all field sites will offer a tailored information and training program on their
respective sites for different stakeholders to demonstrate the potential of MAR for a variety
of targets and under a variety of boundary conditions ensuring dissemination, public
awareness and commercial exploitation.
Fig. 1: Field demonstration sites of the MARSOL project and training activity at the Menashe site in Israel.
The main objective of MARSOL is to demonstrate that MAR is a sound, safe and sustainable
strategy that can be applied with great confidence. With this, MARSOL aims to stimulate
the use of reclaimed water and other alternative water sources in MAR and to optimize
WRM through storage of excess water to be recovered in times of shortage or by
influencing gradients. Widespread application of MAR can help address water security
problems to stimulate economic development, improve public health and well-being, and
maintain ecological functions and biodiversity. The use of MAR technologies can substitute
the need for other, more energy-intensive water supply options, such as seawater
desalination.
MARSOL's main output will be a powerful knowledge base of existing field applications of
MAR technologies for addressing different societal challenges related to water availability.
The effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability of existing MAR technologies will be
demonstrated, including operation, maintenance and monitoring procedures. Examples
include different water sources, ranging from treated waste water to desalinated seawater
and various technical solutions e.g. infiltration ponds, injection wells, river bed
scarification, and hydraulic barriers against seawater intrusion. The pros and cons of each
technology will be assessed systematically, and compared to alternative solutions.
Economic costs and benefits of MAR options for the various economic sectors will be
quantified. Causes of public concern or acceptance of MAR will be examined and proven
ways to enhance public acceptability (e.g. through education and transfer of knowledge,
evaluation of best practices) identified. Governance frameworks (laws, policies, institutions,
etc.) that enhance the prospects of successful implementation of MAR will be proposed.
Finally, guidelines will be developed for MAR site selection, technical realization,
monitoring strategies, and modelling approaches to offer stakeholders a comprehensive,
state of the art and proven toolbox for MAR implementation.
MARSOL, a FP 7 project with 21 partners, is coordinated by the Hydrogeology Group at TU
Darmstadt. It started in December 2013 and will run for three years.
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167
Engineering Geology
Engineering Geology is a branch of geology that deals with the characterization of soil, rock
and rock masses for the location, design, construction and operation of engineering works.
Typical tasks relate to foundation of roads and buildings, but also to underground
excavations like tunnels and caverns. The special focus of the Engineering Geology group at
Technische Universität Darmstadt is on reservoir geomechanics, i.e., the application of rock
mechanics as well as of techniques for stress and fracture characterization to depth of up to
5 km. In particular, numerical (finite element) models are used to predict the
corresponding subsurface conditions prior to drilling operations. Such predictive tools are
of great value not only for the optimal exploration and efficient use of hydrocarbon and
geothermal reservoirs, but also for CO2 sequestration sites as well as radioactive waste
repositories.
The present research activities of the group comprise several case studies applying
geomechanical modeling techniques to oil and gas reservoirs in the North German basin
and the Rhine Graben area as well as to a demonstration site for subsurface storage of CO 2
in Australia (see Abstract 2 for details). In addition, large-scale surface outcrops serving as
analogs to subsurface reservoirs are investigated. These studies utilize a terrestrial laser
scanner for rapid detection of fractures and their geometrical and statistical properties (see
Abstract 1 for details). One of these natural laboratories is located in the Spanish Pyrenees
and allows for a comprehensive analysis of fault-and-thrust structures at a reservoir scale.
Research activities of our group won special recognition as Dr. Karsten Fischer received the
Georg-Hunaeus award of the Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft für Erdöl, Erdgas und
Kohle (DGMK). He left soon after his PhD to work at the Schlumberger Reservoir
Geomechanics Centre of Excellence in the UK. We wish him all the best for his future
career.
Staff Members
Head:
Prof. Dr. Andreas Henk
Research Associates:
Dr. Karsten Fischer (until February 2014)
Dipl. Geol. Christian Heinz
M.Sc. Dennis Laux
Dipl. Geol. Christoph Wagner
Technical Personnel:
Reimund Rosmann
Secretary:
Dipl. Kffr. Stefanie Kollmann
Ph.D. students:
M.Sc. Chiara Aruffo
M.Sc. Bastian Weber
M.Sc. students:
Sebastian Kurka
Stefan Wewior
Benjamin Schmitz
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Research Projects
Prediction of tectonic stresses and fracture networks with geomechanical reservoir models
(DGMK Projekt 721, ExxonMobil, GDF SUEZ, RWE Dea)
PROTECT - PRediction Of deformation To Ensure Carbon Traps (BMBF)
Buidling and populating geomechanical reservoir models – a case study from the Upper
Rhine Graben (GDF SUEZ)
LIDAR-based analysis of fracture networks (PhD thesis)
Fracture prediction in fold-and-thrust belts – a worked example from the southern Pyrenees
(PhD thesis)
Publications
[1]
Aruffo, C.M., Rodriguez Herrera, A., Tenthorey, E., Krzikalla, F., Minton, J., &
Henk, A. (2014):
Geomechanical Modelling to Assess Fault Integrity at the CO2CRC Otway Project,
Australia. – Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 61, 987-1000.
[2]
Aruffo*, C. M., Henk, A. & PROTECT Research Group, 2014.
Fault stability and potential fault reactivation analysis in Otway Basin, Australia.
Extended abstract, 4th EAGE CO2 Geological Storage Workshop, Stavanger,
Norway.
[3]
Aruffo, C. M., Henk, A.,& PROTECT Research Group, 2014.
Fault stability assessment of the CO2CRC Otway Project, Australia – A geomechanical
approach. Extended Abstract, 76th EAGE, Amsterdam, Niederlande.
[4]
Aruffo, C. M., Henk, A.,& PROTECT Research Group, 2014.
Fault stability assessment of the CO2CRC Otway Project, Australia - a geomechanical
approach. GEOTECHNOLOGIEN-Statusseminar, 23.-24.06.2014, Leipzig
[5]
Cornillon, S, Trullenque, G., Potel, S., Combaud, A., Henk, A. & Laux, D.,2014.
Intérêt de deux approches géomatiques (SIG et LIDAR terrestre) pour la détermination
de champs de contraintes - Cas du pluton granitique de Malsburg (Forêt Noire,
Allemagne). SAGEO 2014, 24.-27.11.2014, Grenoble, France.
[6]
Fischer, K. & Henk, A. (2014)
Modeling the pre-production stress state in a gas reservoir – an applied workflow. Oil
Gas European Magazine, 130: OG190-OG195.
[7]
Heinz, C., Trullenque, G., Henk, A., 2014.
Fracture patterns and geomechanics of fold and thrust structures – input data for a
fracture prediction workflow from the Southern Pyrenees (Spain), GeoFrankfurt 2014,
22.09.-24.09.2014, Frankfurt.
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[8]
Laux, D., Henk, A., 2014:
Quantification of fracture attributes from terrestrial laserscanning to improve input
parameters for Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) modeling. Conference Proceedings,
AAPG International Conference & Exhibition, 14.09. – 17.09.2014, Istanbul.
[9]
Wagner, C. & Henk, A., 2014:
Seismic interpretation and geomechanical reservoir modelling – a case study from the
Upper Rhine Graben. Conference Proceedings, AAPG International Conference &
Exhibition, 14.09. – 17.09.2014, Istanbul.
[10]
Weber, B., Henk, A., and PROTECT Research Group, 2014:
Incorporation of spatial variations in elastic rock properties in geomechanical reservoir
models. GEOTECHNOLOGIEN-Statusseminar, 23.-24.06.2014, Leipzig
[11]
Weber, B. & Henk, A., 2014:
Incorporation of spatial variations in elastic rock properties in geomechanical reservoir
models – workflow and case studies. Conference Proceedings, AAPG International
Conference & Exhibition, 14.09. – 17.09.2014, Istanbul.
[12]
Weber, B., Henk, A., and PROTECT Research Group, 2014:
Incorporation of spatial variation in elastic rock properties in geomechanical reservoir
models – workflow and application to the CO2CRC Otway project. Abstract volume
CO2CRC Research Symposium, Tourquay, Australia.
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Geomechanical reservoir models for tectonic stress prediction – workflow and
case studies
Henk, A., Fischer, K & Aruffo, C.M.
Detailed knowledge of the tectonic stress field is crucial for the optimal exploration and use
not only of conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs, but also for deep
geothermal reservoirs, carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects as well as underground
mining and nuclear waste repositories. Any reliable stress prediction is hindered by the
observation that the magnitude and orientation of the stress field can vary significantly –
not only in time, but also in space. Such spatial stress variations comprise all scales, i.e.,
from the scale of lithospheric plates down to the grain-scale. On the reservoir- and fault
block-scale, the local stress field can be influenced by faults and different mechanical
properties of lithologies. The resulting variations in stress magnitude and/or stress
orientation are commonly referred to as stress perturbations and give rise to a unique,
reservoir-specific stress pattern. Thereby, local stress fields can deviate by up to 90° in
orientation and several tenth of Megapascal (MPa) in magnitude from regional trends.
The state of stress in the subsurface can be determined by various methods, but all these
stress data rely on wells as stress is commonly measured either downhole under in situ
conditions or in experiments on core samples. However, stress information is frequently
required already prior to drilling, e.g., for planning of horizontal well trajectories. Any predrilling prognosis has to incorporate the specific reservoir geometry regarding faults and
lithological boundaries as well as the specific rock mechanical parameters and the far-field
stresses. Integration of all this information for a quantitative analysis can only be achieved
with a numerical model. In the following we present a general workflow to build and
calibrate such geomechanical reservoir models. Subsequently, two case studies are used to
test the workflow and illustrate its value in the real world. Case study I describes a fieldscale (35 x 30 km) model of an intensively faulted gas reservoir in Northern Germany
where numerous well data are available to compare model predictions to stresses actually
observed. Case study II deals with a former gas reservoir in Australia which is now used for
CO2 injection. This model is smaller (8 x 5 km) but comprises the entire overburden of the
reservoir up to the earth’s surface.
The main focus for both case studies is set on the spatial variations of the present-day
tectonic stress field resulting from faults and contrasts in mechanical rock properties. As
these models reveal insights into the local in situ stress distribution prior to production,
they also provide a refined input for further modeling work like flow simulations
(considering stress-dependent permeabilities) and hydro-mechanically coupled models
addressing the future reservoir behaviour due to pore pressure changes during production
or injection. The ultimate goal of our work is the development of a tool for a reliable stress
prediction based primarily on seismic and only sparse well data.
A major outcome of the project is the development of a comprehensive workflow for
building and calibrating geomechanical FE models. It considers the reservoir-specific
subsurface geometry as well as the mechanical stratigraphy and incorporates existing faults
as distinct planes of weakness by using 2D interface elements. This allows for addressing
Institute of Applied Geosciences – Engineering Geology
171
the stress state and movement behavior of the modeled faults in addition to the tectonic
stresses within the fault blocks. Computing time and resolution are optimized by using two
different load frames in combination with the cut-boundary displacement method to
incorporate the regional stress field. During a calibration phase modeling results are
compared to stress data actually observed in borehole data. Thereby, poorly constrained
input parameters are iteratively modified within reasonable limits until a satisfactory fit
between calculated and measured stresses is achieved. This validated model can then be
used for stress predictions in undrilled parts of the reservoir or along planned well
trajectories.
The workflow is applied successfully to two case studies. They demonstrate that even
geometrically complex structures with numerous faults can be transferred to a FE model for
tectonic stress analysis. In particular, case study I, for which abundant calibration data is
available, indicates that more than 80 % of the observed stress data can be satisfactorily
reproduced by the numerical model. Case study II illustrates that the approach is not
restricted to the reservoir itself but can incorporate the entire overburden for borehole
planning and fault stability analyses, for example. These case studies also demonstrate the
general potential of geomechanical models for reservoir- to fault block-scale stress
predictions. This offers a wide range of applications not only for hydrocarbon exploration
and production, but also for other stress-related applications in the fields of deep
geothermal energy, carbon capture and storage (CCS), underground mining as well as
nuclear waste disposal.
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Geothermal Science and Technology
Geothermal Energy is defined as the heat of the accessible part of the earth crust. It
contains the stored energy of the earth which can be extracted and used and is one part of
the renewable energy sources. Geothermal Energy can be utilized for heating and cooling
by applying heat pumps as well as it can be used to generate electricity or heat and
electricity in a combined heat and power system.
The field of Geothermal Science has natural scientific and engineering roots. Geothermal
Science connects the basic knowledge with the requirements of practical industry
applications. Geothermal Science is in interdisciplinary exchange with other applied
geological subjects such as hydrogeology and engineering geology and therefore is a logic
and proper addition to the research profile of the Technische Universität Darmstadt.
The broad implementation of geothermal energy applications and the utilization of the
underground as a thermal storage will help to reduce CO2 emissions and meet the
according national and international climate protection objectives. Furthermore, the
utilization of geothermal energy will strengthen the independency on global markets and
the utilization of domestic resources. Geothermal Energy will be an essential part of the
decentralized domestic energy supply and will contribute an important share of the desired
future renewable energy mix.
Regarding the worldwide rising importance of renewable energy resources, Geothermal
Science is one of the future's most important field in Applied Geosciences. In 2009, the
industry-funded Chair for Geothermal Science and Technology was established at the TU
Darmstadt – the first foundation professorship in energy science of the university.
The Chair of Geothermal Science and Technology deals with the characterization of
geothermal reservoirs, starting from basic analyses of thermo-physical rock properties,
which lead to sophisticated calculation of the reservoir potential of distinct rock units.
Reliable reservoir prognosis and future efficient reservoir utilisation is addressed in outcrop
analogue studies world-wide. Organisation of a highly qualified geothermal lab and
experimental hall (TUDA HydroThermikum) started already in 2007 and was continued in
2014. Field courses and excursions in 2014 focused on geothermal energy in New Zealand,
Germany and Austria.
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173
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Ingo Sass
Research Associates
Dr. Kristian Bär
Dr. Wolfram Rühaak
Technical Personnel
Gabriela Schubert
Rainer Seehaus
Secretaries
Simone Roß-Krichbaum
PhD Students
Dipl.-Ing. Hauke Anbergen
M.Sc. Swaroop Chauhan
M.Sc. Yixi Gu
M.Sc. Claus-Dieter Heldmann
Dipl.-Ing. Philipp Mielke
Dipl.-Ing. M.Sc. Johanna Rüther
M.Sc. Daniel Schulte
Dipl.-Ing. Bastian Welsch
M.Sc. Achim Aretz
Dipl.-Ing. Christoph Drefke
Dipl.-Geol. Ulf Gwildis
Dipl.-Geol. Clemens Lehr
M.Sc. Liang Pei
Dipl.-Ing. Rafael Schäffer
Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Stegner
Students
Bemmlott, Juliane
El Dakak, Walid
Gärtner, David
Hofheinz, Andreas
Linsel, Adrian
Müller, Adrian
Schubert, Kay-Oliver
Steiner, Sarah
Thoma, Niels
Trojanowski, Dominik
Weber, Jan Niklas
Wiesner, Hans-Peter
Biewer Hendrick
Egert, Robert
Hochstein, Tim
Jensen, Benjamin
Matsikanides, Damianos
Orendt, Robert
Schwalb, Björn
Rybak, Thomas
Treffeisen, Torben
Vondran, Lea
Weinert, Sebastian Michael
Zimmermann, Philipp
Research Fellow
Bullock, Rosie (4 weeks)
Maire, Romain (6 months)
Guest Scientists
Dr.-Ing. Dan Bauer, ITW, Universität Stuttgart
Dr. habil. Andrea Förster, GFZ Potsdam
Prof. Dr. Sebastian Geiger, Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh
Dr. habil. Gabriele Marquardt, RWTH Aachen
Prof. Dr. Martin Sauter, Universität Göttingen
Prof. Dr. Eva schill, INE und KIT Karlsruhe
Prof. dr. Günter Zimmermann, GFZ Potsdam
Guest Lecturers
Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Burbaum, CDM Consult Alsbach
Dr. Zijad Lemeš, HSE AG
Dipl.-Geol. Stefan Knopf, Krebs und Kiefer Ingenieure, Karlruhe
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Institute of Applied Geosciences – Geothermal Science and Technology
Research Projects
Geothermal Reservoir Analogs in Foreland Basins – „Malvonian“ (DAAD 2014 – 2016)
Schlüsseltechnologien und Modellierungsmethoden zur errichtung von Enhanced
Geothermal Systems – Key Technologies and Modeling Methodologies for Establishing
Enhanced Geothermal Systems – „KeyTEGS“ (DAAD 2014 - 2016)
Entwicklung von wartungsarmen PEHD-Filterelementen für oberflächennahe
thermische Brunnenanlagen (Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU) 2011 – 2015)
geo-
Machbarkeitsstudie „Machbarkeit und Nutzung von tiefer geothermischer Energie am
Flughafen Frankfurt (FRAPORT AG 2010 – 2014)
Charakterisierung des Geothermischen Reservoirpotenzials des Permokarbons in Hessen
und Rheinland-Pfalz (BMU & BMWI 2011 – 2015)
Rock and Hydrothermal Fluid Interactions and Their Impacts on Permeability, Reservoir
Enhancement and Rock Stability (DAAD 2011 – 2015)
Quantitativer Einfluss des Wasserhaushalts, der Umwelttemperatur und der
geothermischen Kennwerte auf die Wärmeableitung erdverlegter Starkstromkabel (E.ON
Innovation Center Distribution und Bayernwerk AG 2012 – 2015)
Entwicklung von thermophysikalisch optimierten Bettungsmaterialen für Mittel- und
Niederspannungskabeltrassen (HeidelbergCement, Baustoffe für Geotechnik GmbH & Co.
KG 2012 – 2015)
Reduzierung des Gebäudewärmebedarfs mittels geothermischer Speicher - Entwicklung
eines interagierenden Simulationsmodells (TU Darmstadt, Förderinitiative Interdisziplinäre
Forschung 2014 – 2015)
Simulation und Evaluierung von Kopplungs- und Speicherkonzepten regenerativer
Energieformen zur Heizwärmeversorgung (HA Hessen Agentur GmbH, Energietechnologieoffensive Hessen 2013 – 2015)
Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration - IMAGE (EU - Seventh
Framework Programme (FP7) - ENERGY.2013.2.4.1: Exploration and assessment of
geothermal reservoirs 2013 – 2017)
Geothermische Untersuchungen und wissenschaftliche Begleitung der Tiefbohrungen des
Geothermieprojektes Geretsried (ENEX Power Germany GmbH 2013 – 2015)
Interdisziplinäres Forschungsprojekt zur Messung, Bewertung und Optimierung der
Erwärmung und Strombelastbarkeit von erdverlegten Mittel- und Niederspannungskabelnetzen (TU Darmstadt, Förderinitiative Interdisziplinäre Forschung 2014 – 2015)
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175
SUGAR III – Submarine Gashydrat Ressourcen. Entwicklung einer Auswertesoftware für 3D
röntgentomographische Aufnahmen (BMBF 2014 – 2015)
Publications
[1]
Anbergen, H., Rühaak, W., Frank, J. & Sass, I.; Numerical simulation of a freeze-thawtesting procedure for borehole heat exchanger grouts, CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL
JOURNAL (2014)
[2]
Anbergen, H., Frank, J., Müller, L., Sass, I.; Freeze-Thaw-Cycles on Borehole Heat
Exchanger Grouts: Impact on the Hydraulic Properties, GEOTECHNICAL TESTING
JOURNAL (2014) 37(4) 639-651.
[3]
Al-Zyoud, S., Rühaak, W. & Sass, I.; Dynamic numerical modeling of the usage of
groundwa-ter for cooling in north east Jordan - a geothermal case study, RENEWABLE
ENERGY 62 (2014) 63-72.
[4]
Bär, K., Sass, I.; 3D-Model of the Deep Geothermal Potentials of Hesse (Germany) for
En-hanced Geothermal Systems, Proceedings of the 39th STANFORD GEOTHERMAL
WORKSHOP (2014), Stanford University, Stanford, California, February 24-26,
2014, SGP-TR-202: 208-219. (peer-reviewed)
[5]
Chauhan, S., Rühaak, W., Enzmann, F., Khan, F., Mielke, P., Kersten, M. & Sass, I.;
Comparison of micro X-ray computer tomography image segmentation methods artificial neural net-works vs. support vector machine, Mathematics of Planet Earth
(2014), Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences: 141-145.
[6]
Götz, A. E., Török, Á., Sass, I.; Geothermal reservoir characteristics of Meso- and
Cenozoic sedimentary rocks of Budapest (Hungary), Z. Dt. GES. GEOWISS., E.
Schweizerbart’sche Verlags-buchhandlung, Stuttgart, Vol. 165 (3) (2014), 487-493.
DOI: 10.1127/1860-1804/2014/0069.
[7]
Homuth, S., Götz, A. E., Sass, I.; Lithofacies and depth dependency of thermo- and
petrophys-ical rock parameters of the Upper Jurassic geothermal carbonate reservoirs of
the Molasse Basin, Z. Dt. GES. GEOWISS., E. Schweizerbart’sche
Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart, Vol. 165 (3) (2014) 469-486(18), DOI:
10.1127/1860-1804/2014/0074.
[8]
Homuth, S., Götz, A. E., Sass, I.; Reservoir characterization of the Upper Jurassic
geothermal target formations (Molasse Basin, Germany): role of thermofacies as
exploration tool, Special Issue on “Geothermal Play Types” des GEOTHERMAL
ENERGY SCIENCE JOURNAL (2014), Copernicus (invited paper).
[9]
Homuth, S., Sass, I.; Outcrop Analogue vs. Reservoir Data: Characteristics and
controlling Factors of Reservoir Properties of the Upper Jurassic geothermal Carbonate
Reservoirs of the Molasse Basin, Germany, Proceedings of the 39th STANFORD
GEOTHERMAL WORKSHOP (2014):, Stanford, California, USA. (peer-reviewed)
[10] Huber, H., Arslan, U., Sass, I.; Zum Einfluss der Filtergeschwindigkeit des
Grundwassers auf die effektive Wärmeleitfähigkeit, GRUNDWASSER, 19 (3) (2014)
173-179.
[11] Lehr, C., Sass, I.; Thermo-optical parameter acquisition and characterisation of
geologic properties - A 400 meter deep BHE in a karstic alpine marble aquifer.
ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES 72 (5) (2014) 1403–1419. DOI:
10.1007/s12665-014-3310-x.
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Institute of Applied Geosciences – Geothermal Science and Technology
[12] Lewin, I., Drefke, C., Piepenbrink, M., Schüth, C., Hoppe, A.; Ermittlung der
hydraulischen Durchlässigkeit von quartären Sedimenten mittels Siebanalysen und
Pumpversuchen, GRUNDWASSER 19(2) (2014)127-135. DOI: 10.1007/s00767-0140253-9
[13] Mielke, P., Bauer, D., Homuth, S., Götz , A. E., Sass, I.; Thermal effect of a borehole
thermal energy store on the subsurface. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY, 2 (1) (2014)
[14] Pei, L., Rühaak, W., Stegner, J., Bär, K., Homuth, S., Mielke, P., Sass, I.; ThermoTriax: an Apparatus for Testing Petrophysical Properties of Rocks under Simulated
Geothermal Reservoir Conditions, GEOTECHNICAL TESTING JOURNAL 38(1) (2014)
DOI: 10.1520/GTJ20140056.
[15] Rühaak, W., Bense, V. F. & Sass, I.; 3D hydro-mechanically coupled groundwater flow
mod-elling of Pleistocene glaciation effects, COMPUTERS & GEOSCIENCES, 67, (2014)
89-99.
[16] Rühaak, W., Bär, K., Sass, I.; Combining numerical modeling with geostatistical
interpolation for an improved reservoir exploration, ENERGY PROCEDIA 59 (2014)
315-322. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.10.383.
[17] Rühaak, W., Guadagnini, A., Geiger, S., Bär, K., Gu, Y., Aretz, A., Homuth, S., Sass,
I.; Upscaling Thermal Conductivities of Sedimentary Formations for Geothermal
Exploration. GEOTHERMICS (2014)
[18] Schäffer, R., Sass, I.; The thermal springs of Jordan, ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH
SCIENCES 72 (1) (2014) 171–187.
[19] Schulte D.O., Ring, U., Thomson, S.N., Glodny, J., Carrad, H.; Two-stage development
of the Paparoa Metamorphic Core Complex, West Coast, South Island, New Zealand:
Hot continental extension precedes sea-floor spreading by ~25 Myr, LITHOSPHERE,
6(3) (2014) 177-197, doi: 10.1130/L348.1.
[20] Willershausen, I., Weyer, V., Schulte, D., Lampe, F., Buhre, S., Willershausen, B.; In
Vitro Study on Dental Erosion Caused by Different Vinegar Varieties Using an Electron
Micro-probe, CLINICAL LABORATORY, 60 (5) (2014) 783-790.
[21] Sass, I., Brehm, D., Coldewey, W.G., Dietrich, J., Klein, R., Kellner, T., Kirschbaum,
B., Lehr, C., Marek, A., Mielke, P., Müller, L., Panteleit, B., Pohl, S., Porada, J.,
Schiessl, S., Wedewardt, M., Wesche, D.; Empfehlung Oberflächennahe Geothermie Planung, Bau, Betrieb und Über-wachung - EA Geothermie. Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Geotechnik, e.V.; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften, e.V. (Hrsg.) (2014).
336 S., Ernst & Sohn, Berlin.
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177
Testing procedure for the assessment of the influence of cyclic freeze-thawstresses on borehole heat exchanger grouts
Hauke Anbergen, Ingo Sass
In Germany the borehole heat exchanger is the most common application for shallow
geothermal systems. It is used for domestic heating coupled with a ground source heat
pump system. During periods of extensive heat extraction freezing and thawing of the grout
of the borehole heat exchanger might occur. This can affect the sealing properties of the
grout. Consequently legal authorities require that grouting materials have to be resistant
against freeze-thaw-cycles. However, there is no standardized procedure to test freezethaw-resistance of geothermal grouts.
Due to broad experiences in cyclic freeze-thaw-tests for concrete and natural stones, most
previous grout tests relied on testing procedures for these materials. The procedures focus
on the assessment of mechanical properties such as compressive strength or the loss of
weight caused by frost. However, these tests do not follow the in-situ boundary conditions
for geothermal grouts and also neglect to take into account the theoretical models of
freezing-processes. To address these shortcomings a testing procedure was developed that
simulates the downhole in-situ conditions as confining radial earthpressure, freezing and
thawing direction from the inside to the outside, and saturated conditions. The hydraulic
conductivity can be measured in axial flow direction. Thus statements according to the
susceptibility of grouts against cyclic freezing and thawing stresses can be made. The
theoretical models and the implementation of the testing procedure will be discussed.
Time- and temperature dependency of grouting materials was investigated and thus four
criteria for a valid testing procedure were formulated:
1) The hydraulic conductivity of the system grout / probe has to be assessed.
2) The systems´ hydraulic conductivity has to be assessed after a freely selectable
number of freeze-thaw-cycles.
3) The specimen must remain under defined pressure conditions inside the testing
device during the whole procedure.
4) The specimens must be frozen radially from inside out, simulating in-situ conditions.
The specimens were designed in true portions to a real borehole heat exchanger. They are
composed of an axial polyethylene pipe and a surrounding grout body. Thus the systems´
hydraulic conductivity is considered.
Several grouts were tested and the procedure was implemented in different geotechnical
laboratories with different infrastructures. Therewith procedural independency with regard
to laboratories or locations was proven. Tests with pure components of grouts were
executed in order to proof the variability of the procedure. A testing series with a high
number of freeze-thaw-simulations showed the general hydraulic behavior of froststressed
grouts. Tracer tests underpinned the need of the assessment of the system hydraulic
conductivity.
Temperature during the freeze-thaw-simulations was logged and validated experimentally
and numerically. Therefore a plug-in was developed for the finite element method software
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FEFLOW. The plug-in enables FEFLOW to simulate phase change processes considering the
temperature dependent material properties while including latent heat effects.
Based on tests conducted the following conclusion can be made:

The system hydraulic conductivity is higher than hydraulic conductivity of the bulk
material;

the difference is of a magnitude around two;

the increase of the system hydraulic conductivity due to cyclic freeze-thaw-stresses
depends on the type of grout material;

the first freeze-thaw-stresses cause the heaviest increase in hydraulic conductivity.
As the testing device is similar to the dimensions of regular hydraulic conductivity test and
due to its handling, the procedure can be easily implemented into any geotechnical
laboratory. Thus the testing procedure can contribute to quality assurance for shallow
geothermal systems.
Fig. 1: Closed Measurement Cell (left: schematics; right: foto)
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179
Applied Sedimentology
Sedimentary rocks cover about 75% of the earth’s surface and host the most important oil
and water resources in the world. Sedimentological research and teaching at the Darmstadt
University of Technology focus on applied aspects with specific emphasis on
hydrogeological, engineering and environmental issues. One key issue in this context is the
quantitative prediction of subsurface reservoir properties which is essential in modelling of
regional groundwater hydrology, oil and gas exploration, and geothermal exploitation.
However, also basic sedimentological research is carried out, e.g. the use of sediments as
archives in earth history to reconstruct geodynamic, climatic and environmental processes
and conditions in the past. To predict groundwater movement, pollutant transport or
foundations of buildings in sedimentary rocks a detailed knowledge about the hydraulic,
geochemical or geotechnical properties is needed which often vary about several
magnitudes. This kind of subsurface heterogeneity can be related to distinct
sedimentological patterns of various depositional systems. In addition, changes of
depositional systems with time can be explained by specific controlling parameters e.g.
changes in sea level, climate, sediment supply and are nowadays described by the concept
of sequence stratigraphy. The research in applied sedimentology also includes modelling of
erosion and sediment transport and its implication for the management of rivers and
reservoirs with the help of GIS.
For any subsurface management a quantitative 3D model is a prerequisite, either related to
water and geothermal energy or to gas, oil, and CO2 storage. Together with the groups of
Prof. Schüth (Hydrogeology), Prof. Sass (Geothermics), and Prof. Henk (Engineering
Geology) the sedimentology group focusses on detecting the large to meso-scale
sedimentary architecture and permeabilities of sedimentary reservoir rocks in order to
achieve an optimized subsurface management of water and renewable energy resources. In
2014, the sedimentological research groups participated in the LOEWE initiative UrbanH2O
together with collegues from the IWAR of FB 13. This program was designed to receive funding
for this kind of joint research in water resrouces. The audit in March 2014 was highly successful
and the project was scientifically top ranked. Unfortunately, the political decision process led not to
a funding of this project. Dr. Hornung received a grant from Shell to analyse small-scale
heterogeneities of porosities and permeabilities of sedimentary rocks and their link to
microfacies patterns.
To detect subsurface heterogeneities at a high resolution, the sedimentology group hosts a
georadar equipment for field measurements. This geophysical device is composed of
various antennas and a receiver unit. Sophisticated computer facilities are provided to
process the data and construct real 3D subsurface models. The group shares their
equipment and facilities with the Universities of Frankfurt (Applied geophysics), Tübingen
(Applied sedimentology), Gießen, Bonn, the RWTH Aachen and industrial partners. These
institutions founded the Georadar-Forum which runs under the leadership of Dr. Jens
Hornung (http://www.georadarforum.de/). Thanks to funding via a DFG research grant
and recently by the Hochschukpakt we could invest into a shear wave measuring unit,
which will extent our abilities for subsurface surveys down to several hundred meters and
through materials, weakly penetrable by electromagnetic waves. Here we cooperate with
the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics in Hannover and the University of Hamburg.
For quantification of reservoir properties a self-constructed facility for permeability
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measurements of soil and rock materials exists which is further developed. This lab is also
fundamental to geothermal research. The industrial project with Shell enabled us to design
and construct a scanning device for automatized petrophysical screening of rocks. This
device was constructed in 2014 and is planed to start its operation in 2015. This unique
scanning device provides a new dimension in petrophyiscal surveys of rocks on the
extended lab scale and its development was also embraced by industrial partners. On the
other hand, it well suits as a training facility for students and offers new possibilities for
bachelor theses.
In 2014, the group still participated in the DFG Research Unit RiftLink
(http://www.riftlink.de/) whereas the two European Research Groups within the
EUCORES Programme (TOPOEurope, SedyMONT) were completed. The topic of these
research projects are in the context of earth surface processes and palaeoenvironmental
reconstructions. Here still two funded PhD theses were running in 2014. The research
activities in Saudi Arabia in cooperation with the GIZ (Gesellschaft für International
Zusammenarbeit), the UFZ (Umweltforschungszentrum Halle-Leipzig), and the Ministry of
Water and Energy of Saudi Arabia (MOEWE) also were completed, however, a report
workshop together with the ministry in January 2014 opened new perspective for further
cooperation. In April 2014, a new proposal was submitted to MOEWE and awaits decision
for funding. Anorther outcome is the acceptance of a 3 years DFG proposal in order to
elucidate the provenance of the widespread sandstones on the Arabian Peninsula and
Ethiopia.
Based on previous work of the group several research initiatives are running at the
moment, e.g. past environmental pollution in Central Europe as reconstructed from lake
sediments, Mesozoic palaeoenvironmental evolution in NW China (initiative together with
University of Bonn and Jilin University, China), and high-resolution palaeoclimatic studies
in Messel and similar maar lakes (DFG). Jianguang Zhang continued his PhD with a
Chinese grant. Dr. Dorthe Pflanz quitted our grouped after receiving a position at the
Landesanstalt für Umwelt in Bavaria, but she is still active in publishing results of her stay
in Darmstadt about loess deposits in southern Hessia.
Prof. Hinderer is continued to be the representative of the German-speaking
sedimentologists (Section of Sedimentology in Geologische Vereinigung and SEPM-CES)
and co-organized the DGG-GV conference in Frankfurt 2014. In this context he participated
in the process to merge the two geological societies in Germany, the DGG and GV to the
new joint society DGGV – Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft – Geologische Vereinigung
e.V. He kept on being a member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Earth
Sciences.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Matthias Hinderer
Research Associates
Dr. Jens Hornung
Institute of Applied Geosciences – Applied Sedimentology
Dr. Olaf Lenz
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Postdoctoral Students Dorthe Pflanz
PhD Students
Alexander Bassis
Dennis Brüsch
Daniel Franke
Inge Neeb
Technical Personnel
Reimund Rosmann
Secretary
Kirsten Herrmann
Frank Owenier
Sandra Schneider
Jianguang Zhang
Research Projects
Linking source and sink in the Ruwenzori Mountains and adjacent rift basins, Uganda:
landscape evolution and the sedimentary record of extreme uplift: Subproject B3 of DFG
Research Group RIFT-LINK “Rift Dynamics, Uplift and Climate Change: Interdisciplinary
Research Linking Asthenosphere, Lithosphere, Biosphere and Atmosphere” (DFG HI 643/72).
Monitoring of soil water content with ground penetrating radar (PhD thesis).
Climatic and tectonic interplay in central Asian basins and its impact on paleoenvironment
and sedimentary systems during the Mesozoic (PhD thesis, Chinese funding).
Provenance of Paleozoic clastic sediments and reasons for radioactive anomalies in
groundwaters on the Arabian Platform (PhD thesis, partly GIZ funding)
Paleozoic source to sink relationship around the northern Trans-Gondwana Mountain Belt
(East Africa, Arabia) (PhD thesis, DFG HI 643/13 together with Universität Göttingen)
Periglacial eolian sediments in southern Hessia, their chornology, and their genesis
(Diploma und BSc theses and preparation of a DFG project)
2-D heterogeneities of poroperm, ultrasonic and resistivity on sub-meter scale (Diploma
und BSc theses, funded by Shell)
Publications
[1]
Al Ajmi, H., Hinderer, M., Hornung, J., Bassis, A., Keller, M., Rausch, R.,
Schüth, C. (2014): Matrix versus fracture permeability in a regional sandstone
aquifer (Wajid sandstone, SW Saudi Arabia). Grundwasser 19/2: 151-157.
[2]
Filomena C. M., Hornung J., Stollhofen H. (2014): Assessing accuracy of gasdriven permeability measurements: a comparative study of diverse Hassler-cell and
probe permeameter devices. Solid Earth, 01/2014; 5(1):1-11.
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[3]
Franke D., Hornung J., Hinderer M. (2014): A combined quantitative study of
radar facies, lithofacies and 3D architecture over an Alpine alluvial fan (Illgraben fan,
Switzerland). Sedimentology 01/2014, doi: 10.1111/sed.12139.
[4]
Hartmann, J., Moosdorf, N., Lauerwald, R., West, J., Hinderer, M. (2014):
Spatial explicit representation of global chemical weathering - the role of lithology,
temperature and soil properties, and associated P-release. Chemical Geology 363:
145-163.
[5]
Lenz, O.K., Wilde, V., Riegel, W. (2014): Palynology as a High-Resolution Tool for
Cyclostratigraphy in Middle Eocene Lacustrine Sediments: The Outstanding Record of
Messel (Germany). In: Rocha, R., Pais, J., Kullberg, J.C., Finney, S. (eds.): STRATI
2013 - First International Congress on Stratigraphy - At the Cutting Edge of
Stratigraphy. Springer, Heidelberg: 113 – 117.
[6]
Pflanz, D., Hornung, J., Hinderer, M. (2014): Dreidimensionale
Hydrostratigraphie eines Tal-Hang Aquifers: Integration von Georadar, Geoelektrik,
Bodenkunde und Sedimentologie am Beispiel des Seebachs, Nordschwarzwald. Z. dt.
Gesell. Geowiss. 165: 425-438.
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183
New palynology-based astronomical and revised 40Ar/39Ar ages for the maar lake of
Messel (Germany)
Olaf K. Lenz, Volker Wilde, Dieter F. Mertz, Walter Riegel
The Upper Rhine Graben is the prominent central segment of the Cenozoic Central
European Rift System. Initial crustal weakness along the incipient Upper Rhine Graben is
indicated by Paleogene phreatomagmatic volcanism sometimes leaving behind isolated
sinks where sedimentation started prior to the onset of major rifting and graben formation.
The best known of about half a dozen isolated occurrences of Paleogene sediments on the
Sprendlinger Horst which flanks the Upper Rhine Graben to the northeast, is Messel. As
most of them it represents the filling of a maar structure.
A continuous core from Messel revealed a complete reference section of the Eocene lake
deposits (Messel Formation), including 90 m of clastic lake sediments overlain by 140 m of
the classical “Messel oil shale”, a continuous succession of finely laminated bituminous
claystones. The lamination was caused by annual algal blooms in the meromictic lake
forming light layers alternating with the dark layers of the terrigenous background
sedimentation (Lenz et al., 2010). These oil shales provide a unique high-resolution archive
for palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate of a time interval of ~640 ka during the
Paleogene. The character of the annually laminated sediments allows studies at an
unprecedented resolution within the most recent greenhouse period on Earth.
As a consequence of orbitally controlled changes of the vegetation in the vicinity of the lake
(Lenz et al., 2011) the lacustrine laminites can now be astronomically tuned. The
correlation is based on the eccentricity amplitude modulations of the regional pollen rain
and their correlation to the astronomical La2010a/d solutions in combination with a
revised 40Ar/39Ar plateau age between 48.26 and 48.11 Ma ± 0.22 Ma (2-sigma) for the
eruption at Messel (Lenz et al., 2015) . This allows for the first time the exact correlation of
a Paleogene lacustrine sequence to the marine record. The Messel oil shale therefore
becomes slightly older than previously assumed and includes the Ypresian/Lutetian
boundary which moves the base of the European Land Mammal Age (ELMA) Geiseltalian
(MP 11) into the Lower Eocene. Astronomical tuning in combination with refined
radioisotopic ages now enables to establish an independent chronostratigraphic framework
for Paleogene terrestrial records and their correlation to the marine realm. Furthermore,
astronomical tuning of Messel reveals that higher amounts of pollen from “wet” and
thermophilous plants indicate increased precipitation and slightly higher temperatures
during a well expressed eccentricity minimum.
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Fig. 1: Upper part of core “Messel 2001” and new chronostratigraphicages based on astronomical tuning
and recalculated 40Ar/39Ar ages. Depending on astronomical dating using the La2010a solution or the
La2010d solution, the boundary Lower/Middle Eocene (Ypresian/ Lutetian) is placed in the middle (~59 m
depth) or in the upper part (~30 m depth) of the MMF (based on the new age of 47.8 Ma for the GSSP of
the Lutetian/Ypresian boundary (Molina et al. 2011; Cohen et al. 2013).
References
1.
Cohen,
K.M.,
Finney,
S.C.,
Gibbard,
P.L.,
Fan,
internationalchronostratigraphic chart. Episodes 36:199–204
2.
Lenz, O.K., Wilde, V., Riegel, W. (2011): Short-term fluctuations in vegetation and
phytoplankton during the Middle Eocene greenhouse climate: a 640-kyr record from the Messel
oil shale (Germany). Int. J. Earth Sci., 100: 1851 -1874. DOI 10.1007/s00531-010-0609-z.
3.
Lenz, O.K., Wilde, V., Riegel, W., Harms, F.-J. (2010): A 600 k.y. record of El Niño–Southern
Oscillation (ENSO): Evidence for persisting teleconnections during the Middle Eocene
greenhouse climate of Central Europe. Geology, 38 (7): 627-630.
4.
Lenz, O.K., Wilde, V., Mertz, D.F, Riegel, W. (2015): New palynology-based astronomical and
revised 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Eocene maar lake of Messel (Germany). International Journal of
Earth Sciences 104: 873-889; doi: 10.1007/s00531-014-1126-2.
5.
Molina, E., Alegret, L., Apellaniz, E., Bernaola, G., Caballero, F., Dinarès-Turell, J., Hardenbol,
J., Heilman-Clausen, C., Larrasoaña, J.C., Luterbacher, H., Monechi, S., Ortiz, S., OrueEtxebarria, X., Payros, A., Pujalte, V., Rodríguez-Tovar, F.J., Tori, F., Tosquella, J., Uchman, A.
(2011): The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Lutetian Stage at
the Gorrondatxe section, Spain. Episodes 34:86–108
Institute of Applied Geosciences – Applied Sedimentology
J.X.
(2013):
The
ICS
185
Geo-Resources and Geo-Hazards
When the group was founded in 2001 it was named “Geo-Resources and Geo-Hazards”, as
the first in Germany, based on the experience of the chair holder that geology becomes
more and more important for societies and its decision makers while these normally have
big difficulties to understand the 3 to 4-dimensional aspects of this discipline. As a
consequence, the group used the increasing possibilities of electronic data processing,
especially the techniques of GeoInformationSystems and 3D-modelling to translate the
geoscientific knowledge especially in the surroundings of urban areas. In the following
years model areas in southern Hesse, the Ebro Basin and Belo Horizonte in Brazil have been
analysed.
During the years expert knowledge was gained, transferred in courses to students and
deepened by BSc, MSc and doctoral theses. Among the German geological institutes this is
a unique feature, recognized as well by an external group of experts who evaluated the
institute. After the retirement of Andreas Hoppe end of March and the leave of Rouwen
Lehné in October to the Geological Survey of Hesse, the institute tries consequently to
maintain these capabilities by building a GeoInformationGroup led by Rouwen Lehné who
will continue to give courses for the students and to develop projects which address topics
and methods mentioned above.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Andreas Hoppe
Research Associates
Dr. Rouwen Lehné
Technical Personnel
Dipl.-Kartogr. (FH) Ulrike Simons
Secretary
Pia Cazzonelli
PhD students
Hannah Budde (MSc Geowiss.)
Dipl.-Geol. Ina Lewin
Students
Georg Kuhn (MSc)
Marie Mohr (MSc)
Laura Tani (MSc)
Alexandra Littkeitz (BSc)
Stefan Rautenberg (MSc)
Thomas Schmitz (MSc)
Research Projects
Focus was still laid on the analysis and evaluation of geopotentials in the surroundings of
urban areas as well as on hazards based on mass movements. Tools do achieve these goals
were GeoInformationSystems (GIS) and 3D modelling (GOCAD).
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Institute of Applied Geosciences – Geo-Resources and Geo-Hazards
Hannah Budde continued to elaborate a 3D model for the Rhein-Main area in cooperation
with the Hessian Geological Survey (HLUG). Ina Lewin elaborated a high resolution model
of Quaternary sediments in a test area east of the Odenwald and investigated the water
exchange between a dredging lake and a groundwater well in cooperation with the local
water distributor (ZVG Dieburg).
3D modelling of the Quaternary of the Northern Upper Rhine Graben was intensified by
Rouwen Lehné. Together with HLUG, he also started, together with a number of graduate
assistants, a GIS supported data base on geo-hazards in Hesse.
Distribution and quality of geopotentials in Estonia (i.e. oil shale and black shale) have
been investigated with GIS and GOCAD techniques by Rouwen Lehné and master students
in co-operation with the Estonian Land Board.
Rouwen Lehné served as speaker of the Section Geoinformatics within the German
Geological Society (DGG).
Andreas Hoppe initiated and led together with Rouwen Lehné an interdisciplinary project
seminar about the possibilities to use some parts of the many artificial lakes in the northern
part of the Upper Rhine Graben for solar energy. He served as Chief Editor of the ZDGG
(German Journal of Geology) and evaluated in February the education in geology and
mineral prospecting at the University of Ust-Kamenogorsk in Kazakhstan. In March he was
invited speaker of the Akita University in Tokyo and in Akita. He continues lecturing at the
universities of Darmstadt and Freiburg im Breisgau (where he was appointed as honorary
professor).
Publications
[1]
Dávila Pórcel, R.A., Schüth, C., De León-Gomez, H., Hoppe, A. & Lehné, R.
(2014):
Land-use impact and nitrate analysis to validate DRASTIC vulnerability maps using a
GIS platform of Pablillo River Basin, Linares, N.L., Mexico. – Int. J. Geosci. 5: 14681489 (doi 10.4236/ijg. 2014.512120).
[2]
Hofmann, M. (2014):
GIS-based Analysis of Geo-Potentials for a Tropical Metropolitan Area: the Northern
Periphery of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil): - Dissertation Fachber. Material& Geowiss., 365 pp., Technische Universität Darmstadt (http://tuprints.ulb.tudarmstadt.de/4152/33/PhDThesis_Monika_Hofmann_2014_Part_I.pdf).
[3]
Hoselmann, C. & Lehné. R. (2014):
Die quartärgeologische Entwicklung und ein
Oberrheingrabens. – Geol. Jb. Hessen 138: 57-73.
Institute of Applied Geosciences – Geo-Resources and Geo-Hazards
3D-Modell
des
nördlichen
187
[4]
Lewin, I., Drefke, C., Piepenbrink, M., Schüth, C. & Hoppe, A. (2014):
Ermittlung der hydraulischen Durchlässigkeit von quartären Sedimenten mittels
Siebanalysen und Pumpversuchen. – Grundwasser 19: 127-135, Heidelberg (doi
10.1007/ s00767-014-0253-9).
[5]
Schofield, N., Alsop, I., Warren J., Underhill, J., Lehné, R., Beer, W. & Lukas, V.
(2014): Mobilizing Salt: Magma-Salt Interactions. – Geology 42 (7): 599-602.
[6]
Tiwari, T., Zagana E., Lehné, R., Kallioras, A. & Schueth, C. (2014):
An investigation of the hydrological potentials of an ancient Greek city, Palairos
(Western Greece). – Proceedings of IWA Regional Symposium on Water, Wastewater
and Environment: Traditions and Culture, Patras, Greece, 22-24 March 2014: 641651.
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Geomaterial Science
The research group of Prof. Hans-Joachim Kleebe is active in the field of Geomaterial
Science (formerly Applied Mineralogy) and explores the formation/processing conditions,
composition, microstructure and properties of natural minerals and in addition of material
science relevant compounds. The study of the latter material group focuses on both basic
science questions and potential industrial applications. Research activities include a
comprehensive characterization of natural and synthetic materials, their performance for
example at elevated temperature, local chemical variations as well as tailored synthesis
experiments for high-tech materials.
The experimental studies comprise the crystal chemistry of minerals and synthetic
materials, their crystal structure, phase assemblage and, in particular, their microstructure
evolution. The microstructure variation (e.g., during exposure to high temperature) has an
essential effect on the resulting material properties, which is true for synthetic materials as
well as for natural minerals. Therefore, the main focus of most research projects is to
understand the correlation between microstructure evolution and resulting material
properties.
An important aspect of the Fachgebiet Geomaterial Science is the application of
transmission electron microscopy (TEM/STEM) techniques for the detailed micro/nanostructural characterization of solids. STEM in conjunction with spectroscopic analytical
tools such as energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy-loss
spectroscopy (EELS) are employed for detailed microstructure and defect characterization
down to the atomic scale. High-resolution imaging of local defects in addition to chemical
analysis with high lateral resolution is similarly applied to natural minerals as well as to
high-performance materials.
Recent research projects involve topics such as fatigue of ferroelectrics, defect structures in
Bixbyite single crystals (and their corresponding exaggerated grain growth), morphology of
In2O3 nanocrystals, ultra-hard materials such as boron suboxide, transparent polycrystalline
ceramics (LiF-doped Mg-Al spinel), interface structures in polycrystals, high-temperature
microstructures, fatigue of ferroelectrics, and the study of biomineralisation and
biomaterials.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Hans-Joachim Kleebe
Associated
Professors
Prof. Dr. Ute Kolb – Electron Crystallography
Prof. Dr. Peter van Aken, MPI Stuttgart, TEM/HRTEM/EELS
Research Associates
Dr. Stefan Lauterbach
Postdoctoral Students Dr. Ana Ljubomira Schmitt
Dr. Michael Dürrschnabel
Institute of Applied Geosciences – Geomaterial Science
Dr. Leopold Molina-Luna
Dr. Ingo Sethmann
189
PhD Students
Stefania Hapis
Cigdem Özsoy Keskinbora
Marc Rubat du Merac
Mathis M. Müller
Katharina Nonnenmacher
Senior Scientist
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang F. Müller
Diploma Students
Angela P. Moissl
Sven Schild
Technical Personnel
Bernd Dreieicher
Secretary
Angelika Willführ
Michael Scherrer
Ekin Simsek
Dmitry Tyutyunnikov
Carolin Wittich
Marina Zakhozheva
Leoni Wilhelm
Research Projects
Polymer-derived SiCO/HfO2 and SiCN/HfO2 Ceramic Nanocomposites for Ultrahightemperature Applications, SPP-1181 (DFG 2009-2014)
Structural Investigations of Fatigue in Ferroelectrics,
Characterization of Lead-Free Ferroelectrics (DFG 2007-2014)
SFB-595,
detailed
TEM
TEM Characterization of Various Materials/Composites in the LOEWE Excellence Initiative
AdRIA (Adaptronik – Research, Innovation, Application 2011-2014)
Investigation of the Atomic and Electronic Structure of Perovskite-MultilayerHeterojunctions (in collaboration with the MPI Stuttgart, Prof. P. van Aken)
Phase Developments and Phase Transformations of Crystaline Non-Equilibrium Phases (in
collaboration with the MPI Stuttgart, Prof. P. van Aken)
Microstructure Characterization and Correlation with Corresponding Properties, in
particular Hardness und Fracture Toughness, of Boron Suboxide Materials (DFG 20122015)
Microstructure Characterization of Polycrystalline Transparent Mg-Al-Spinel Samples; The
Effect of LiF Doping (Industry 2012-2014)
Microstructucure and Defect Control of Thin Film Solar Cells (Helmholtz Virtual Institute
2012-2018)
Hydrothermale Umwandlung von porösen Ca-Carbonat Biomineralen in antibiotische und
antiosteoporotische Ca-Phosphat-Knochenimplantat-Materialien mit eingelagerten Mg-, Sr-,
Zn- und Ag-Ionen (DFG 2014 – 2016)
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Institute of Applied Geosciences – Geomaterial Science
Publications
[1]
S. Abdulhussain, H. Breitzke, T. Ratajczyk, A. Grunberg, M. Srour, D. Arnaut,
H. Weidler, U. Kunz, H.-J. Kleebe, U. Bommerich, J. Bernarding, T. Gutmann,
and G. Buntkowsky, "Synthesis, Solid-State NMR Characterization, and
Application for Hydrogenation Reactions of a Novel Wilkinson's-Type Immobilized
Catalyst," Chem-Eur J, 20 [4] 1159-66 (2014).
[2]
M.S. Bazarjani, M.M. Mueller, H.-J. Kleebe, Y. Juttke, I. Voigt, M.B. Yazdi, L.
Alff, R. Riedel, and A. Gurlo, "High-Temperature Stability and Saturation
Magnetization of Superparamagnetic Nickel Nanoparticles in Microporous
Polysilazane-Derived Ceramics and their Gas Permeation Properties," Acs Appl
Mater Inter, 6 [15] 12270-78 (2014).
[3]
M.S. Bazarjani, M.M. Mueller, H.-J. Kleebe, C. Fasel, R. Riedel, and A. Gurlo,
"In situ formation of tungsten oxycarbide, tungsten carbide and tungsten nitride
nanoparticles in micro- and mesoporous polymer-derived ceramics," J Mater Chem
A, 2 [27] 10454-64 (2014).
[4]
H. El-Shinawi, T. Leichtweiss, K. Peppler, M.M. Mueller, H.-J. Kleebe, and J.
Janek, "Synthesis and lithium storage properties of porous Li4/3Ti5/3O4-M/MOx
(M=Ni,Co) composites," Electrochim Acta, 120 264-72 (2014).
[5]
A.A. El Mel, L. Molina-Luna, M. Buffiere, P.Y. Tessier, K. Du, C.H. Choi, H.-J.
Kleebe, S. Konstantinidis, C. Bittencourt, and R. Snyders, "Electron Beam
Nanosculpting of Kirkendall Oxide Nanochannels," Acs Nano, 8 [2] 1854-61 (2014).
[6]
A.A. El Mel, M. Buffiere, C.P. Ewels, L. Molina-Luna, E. Faulques, J.F. Colomer,
H.-J. Kleebe, S. Konstantinidis, R. Snyders, and C. Bittencourt, "Zn based
nanoparticle-carbon nanotube hybrid materials: Interaction and charge transfer,"
Carbon, 66 442-49 (2014).
[7]
C. Groh, D.J. Franzbach, W. Jo, K.G. Webber, J. Kling, L.A. Schmitt, H.-J.
Kleebe, S.J. Jeong, J.S. Lee, and J. Rodel, "Relaxor/Ferroelectric Composites: A
Solution in the Quest for Practically Viable Lead-Free Incipient Piezoceramics," Adv
Funct Mater, 24 [3] 356-62 (2014).
[8]
E. Ionescu, C. Balan, H.-J. Kleebe, M.M. Mueller, O. Guillon, D. Schliephake, M.
Heilmaier, and R. Riedel, "High-Temperature Creep Behavior of SiOC GlassCeramics: Influence of Network Carbon Versus Segregated Carbon," J Am Ceram
Soc, 97 [12] 3935-42 (2014).
[9]
J. Kaspar, C. Terzioglu, E. Ionescu, M. Graczyk-Zajac, S. Hapis, H.-J. Kleebe,
and R. Riedel, "Stable SiOC/Sn Nanocomposite Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries
with Outstanding Cycling Stability," Adv Funct Mater, 24 [26] 4097-104 (2014).
[10]
J. Kaspar, M. Graczyk-Zajac, S. Lauterbach, H.-J. Kleebe, and R. Riedel, "Silicon
oxycarbide/nano-silicon composite anodes for Li-ion batteries: Considerable
Institute of Applied Geosciences – Geomaterial Science
191
influence of nano-crystalline vs. nano-amorphous silicon embedment on the
electrochemical properties," J Power Sources, 269 164-72 (2014).
[11]
A.-A. El Mel, L. Molina-Luna, M. Buffière, P.-Y. Tessier, K. Du, C.-H. Choi, H.-J.
Kleebe, S. Konstantinidis, R. Snyders, “Electron Beam Nanosculpting of
Kirkendall Oxide Nanochannels”, ACS Nano 8 (2), pp. 1844-1853 (2014).
[12]
F. Muench, U. Kunz, H.F. Wardenga, H.-J. Kleebe, and W. Ensinger, "Metal
Nanotubes and Nanowires with Rhombohedral Cross-Section Electrolessly
Deposited in Mica Templates," Langmuir, 30 [36] 10878-85 (2014).
[12]
F. Muench, A. Eils, M.E. Toimil-Molares, U.H. Hossain, A. Radetinac, C.
Stegmann, U. Kunz, S. Lauterbach, H.-J. Kleebe, and W. Ensinger, "Polymer
activation by reducing agent absorption as a flexible tool for the creation of metal films
and nanostructures by electroless plating," Surf Coat Tech, 242 100-08 (2014).
[13]
F. Muench, S. Bohn, M. Rauber, T. Seidl, A. Radetinac, U. Kunz, S. Lauterbach,
H.-J. Kleebe, C. Trautmann, and W. Ensinger, "Polycarbonate activation for
electroless plating by dimethylaminoborane absorption and subsequent
nanoparticle deposition," Appl Phys a-Mater, 116 [1] 287-94 (2014).
[15]
S. Saini, P. Mele, H. Honda, D.J. Henry, P.E. Hopkins, L. Molina-Luna, K.
Matsumoto, K. Miyazaki, and A. Ichinose, "Enhanced thermoelectric performance
of Al-doped ZnO thin films on amorphous substrate," Jpn J Appl Phys, 53 [6]
(2014).
[16]
L.A. Schmitt, D. Schrade, H. Kungl, B.X. Xu, R. Mueller, M.J. Hoffmann, H.-J.
Kleebe, and H. Fuess, "Bimodal domain configuration and wedge formation in
tetragonal Pb[Zr1-xTix]O3 ferroelectrics," Comp Mater Sci, 81 123-32 (2014).
[17]
I. Sethmann, B. Grohe, and H.-J. Kleebe, "Replacement of hydroxylapatite by
whewellite: implications for kidney-stone formation," Mineral Mag, 78 [1] 91-100
(2014).
[18]
C. Stegmann, F. Muench, M. Rauber, M. Hottes, J. Brotz, U. Kunz, S.
Lauterbach, H.-J. Kleebe, and W. Ensinger, "Platinum nanowires with
pronounced texture, controlled crystallite size and excellent growth homogeneity
fabricated by optimized pulsed electrodeposition," Rsc Adv, 4 [10] 4804-10 (2014).
[19]
J. Yuan, S. Hapis, H. Breitzke, Y.P. Xu, C. Fasel, H.-J. Kleebe, G. Buntkowsky,
R. Riedel, and E. Ionescu, "Single-Source-Precursor Synthesis of HafniumContaining Ultrahigh-Temperature Ceramic Nanocomposites (UHTC-NCs)," Inorg
Chem, 53 [19] 10443-55 (2014).
[20]
M. Zakhozheva, L.A. Schmitt, M. Acosta, W. Jo, J. Rodel, and H.-J. Kleebe, "In
situ electric field induced domain evolution in Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-0.3(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3
ferroelectrics," Appl Phys Lett, 105 [11] (2014).
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In situ Electric Field Investigations on Lead-free Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3
Piezoceramic
Marina Zakhozheva, Ljuba Schmitt and Hans-Joaochim Kleebe
The evolution of ferroelectric domains in the lead-free Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3-x(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3
(BZT-xBCT) piezoelectric ceramic was investigated in situ under an applied electric field
using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Poling induced reversible multi- to singledomain state transformation has been monitored for a large variety of compositions. For all
studied materials, this transformation occurs with the appearance of an intermediate
nanodomain state at moderate poling fields. According to our results, under high poling
fields a single-domain state vanishes and multiple domains reappear within the grains.
Upon further cycling switching between two different multi-domain states occurs. For all
investigated BZT-xBCT compositions no sign of the electric-field-induced structural changes
have been detected using the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns, which are
devoid of the reflection splitting or any detectable changes during electrical poling. The
extrinsic contribution to the piezoelectric properties is found to dominate in the BZT-xBCT
piezoceramic.
Figure 1. In situ TEM bright field images of the BZT-0.3BCT along the [1-53]c zone axis at (a) zero field, (b)
0.66 kV/cm, (c) 1,33 kV/cm, (d) 2 kV/cm, (e) 0,66 kV/cm, (f) zero field, (g) -2.66 kV/cm, (h) -14 kV/cm, (i) 20 kV/cm. The direction of poling field is indicated by arrows.
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Using in situ TEM allowed for the first time to show the formation of a unique singledomain state in BZT-0.5BCT during electrical poling [1]. This single-domain state
formation was associated with enhanced piezoelectric properties in the system.
Nevertheless, such single-domain state was also reported for the rhombohedral BZT-0.3BCT
and therefore is not an exclusive characteristic of the PPT composition.
Most of the studies mainly concentrate on the BZT-xBCT composition around the PPT
region [1-4], because of its outstanding properties. However, to fully understand the
structure property relationship, the domain morphology evolution should be investigated in
a broad compositional range. A composition dependent in situ electric field induced
microstructure evolution in lead-free BZT-xBCT system could be verified. Strain and
polarization measurements as a function of electric field are consistend with the in situ
electric field TEM findings.
The microstructure evolution in the BZT-xBCT system correlates well with the macroscopic
data, since maximum values in saturation and remanent polarization for PPT compositions
correspond to the miniaturization of domains. For instance, the higher coercive field for
tetragonal BZT-0.6BCT (Fig. 2 (c)), is correlated with the high poling fields required to
induce the singe domain state in comparison with rhombohedral and PPT compositions.
Enhanced values of maximum and remanent strain for BZT-0.4BCT and BZT-0.52BCT
compositions, which locate near to the (R – O) and (O – T) PPT areas in the phase diagram,
respectively, coincide with reduction in the domain size. A sharp decrease in these values
for the BZT-0.45BCT can be attributed to the presence of an orthorhombic structure far
from phase boundaries.
The domain evolution as a function of an applied electric field in lead-free BZT-xBCT
piezoelectric showed a multiple-domain state (A) →nanodomain state →single-domain state
transformations, which occurred in all compositions studied. Further increase in poling field
leads to the multiple-domain state (B) formation, which can be associated with strain
incompatibility between neighboring grains under the electric field. SAED patterns did not
reveal any detectable changes during the poling process. Domain wall motion during
electrical poling is a sign of a high extrinsic contribution to the piezoelectric response in all
studied lead-free BZT-xBCT compositions. Stresses are suggested to determine the domain
configuration evolution under the field.
References
[1] M. Zakhozheva, L. A. Schmitt, M. Acosta, W. Jo, J. Rödel, and H.-J. Kleebe, Applied Physics
Letters 105, 112904 (2014).
[2] F. Cordero, F. Craciun, M. Dinescu, N. Scarisoreanu, C. Galassi, W. Schranz, and V. Soprunyuk,
Applied Physics Letters 105, 232904 (2014).
[3] H. Guo, C. Zhou, X. Ren, and X. Tan, Phys. Rev. B 89, 100104 (2014).
[4] H. Guo, B. K. Voas, S. Zhang, C. Zhou, X. Ren, S. P. Beckman, and X. Tan, Physical Review B
90, 014103 (2014).
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Electron Beam Nanosculpting of Kirkendall Oxide Nanochannels
Leopoldo Molina-Luna and Hans-Joachim Kleebe
The nanomanipulation of metal nanoparticles inside oxide nanotubes, synthesized by
means of the Kirkendall effect, is demonstrated. In this strategy, a focused electron beam,
extracted from a transmission electron microscope source, is used to site-selectively heat
the oxide material in order to generate and steer a metal ion diffusion flux inside the
nanochannels. The metal ion flux generated inside the tube is a consequence of the
reduction of the oxide phase occurring upon exposure to the e-beam. We further show that
the directional migration of the metal ions inside the nanotubes can be achieved by locally
tuning the chemistry and the morphology of the channel at the nanoscale. This allows
sculpting organized metal nanoparticles inside the nanotubes with various sizes, shapes,
and periodicities. This nanomanipulation technique is very promising since it enables
creating unique nanostructures that, at present, cannot be produced by an alternative
classical synthesis route. In summary, a novel manipulation strategy of Cu nanoparticles
inside Kirkendall copper oxide nanotubes has been demonstrated. This strategy is based on
the control of the thermally activated local diffusion of Cu ions inside the nanotube using
an e-beam extracted from a TEM source.
Figure 1: Electron energy-loss spectroscopy showing the impact of the e-beam on the chemical state of an
oxide nanotube created by the Kirkendall effect. (a) High-angle annular dark field (HAADF)-STEM micrograph
of an oxide nanotube containing a nanoparticle created by irradiation using an e-beam; the dashed red circle
represents the e-beam spot, whereas the yellow and the black rectangles represent the two regions analyzed
by spatially resolved EELS in combination with STEM. (b) EELS spectra of a hollow tube area composed of
cuprous oxide (region 1). (c) EELS spectra of a tube area containing a nanoparticle (region 2); Cu and Cu2O
EELS references are plotted in red and cyan, respectively. (d, e) Evolution of the Cu L3/L2 ratios (the raw data
are plotted in black, and the deconvoluted ones are in red) on going from the inner side toward the extremity
of (d) region 1 and (e) region 2.
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The migration of Cu ions was found to be governed by the surface diffusion mechanism
occurring on the inner walls of the nanotube. The directional diffusion of Cu can be
achieved by controlling the chemical state of the different regions surrounding the particles.
This manipulation technique allows the creation of nanoparticles with various sizes, shapes,
and spatial distributions that are confined inside an oxide nanochannel. Copper has been
selected as the model system in this study, but this strategy can also be applied to other
metals such as iron. In the case of ferromagnetic metals, this nano-scale manipulation
strategy could be ideal for the fabrication of novel magnetic nano-objects. The main
limitation of the reported nano manipulation strategy appears to be that it works better for
particles with relatively large interparticle distances (>100 nm), limiting the ability to
control finely the coupling between magnetic nanoparticles. This limitation is mainly
related to the relatively large e-beam spot size (50 nm) used in this study. One way to
overcome this drawback is by decreasing the e-beam spot size, which allows reducing the
size of the locally heated area.
References
A.-A. El Mel, L.Molina-Luna, M. Buffière, P.-Y. Tessier, K. Du, C.-H. Choi, H.-J. Kleebe, S.
Konstantinidis and R. Snyders, “Electron Beam Nanosculpting of Kirkendall Oxide Nanochannels”,
ACS Nano 8 (2), pp. 1844-1853, 2014.
196
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Electron Crystallography
Electron crystallography uses electron radiation to characterize the structure of matter by
imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy from fully crystalline over highly disordered to
amorphous materials. One of the most potential tools for solid state investigation in the
nano regime are transmission electron microscopes (TEM). Apart from imaging techniques
in parallel illumination, scanning methods, based on a sequential data collection, are
becoming more and more popular.
The scientific approach of this group lies mainly on the development of electron diffraction
techniques. A new method was invented, Automated Diffraction Tomography (ADT),
consisting of a new data collection concept and applicable to nano particles down to a size
of some tens of nanometer. Using ADT, nearly kinematical 3D electron diffraction data can
be collected from a selected nano crsytal being suitable for „ab-initio“ structure solution,
i.e. based only on electron diffraction data. In contrast to high resolution imaging this
approach is applicable even to material highly sensitive to the electron beam (e.g. drugs,
MOFs, zeolites, hybrid materials)
Application as well as development of the above described ADT method has a high demand
for cooperation within the Materials- and Geosciences but also with other departments such
as chemistry, mathematics and informatics.
The new tomographic approach can be run on different transmission electron microscopes
and can be learned from scratch in a reasonable time. Thus it is suitable for teaching
purposes not only directly associated with electron crystallography but as well for basic
understanding of crystallographical concepts.
Structure determination of highly crystalline nano particles has been established even for
complicated structural features. Therefore the focus of the development in this group has
moved on to the analysis of additional scattering potential originating from splitted atomic
positions, channel ions, templates in zeolites and solvate molecules. A quantitative
approach to describe disordered structures is under development. The use of total
scattering approaches (e.g. pair distribution function PDF) successfully applied to X-ray
data is planned to be established for electron diffraction
Prof. Kolb started to build up the group in the Institute of Applied Geosciences in November
2012. In addition she has been assigned as Equal Opportunities Officer.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Ute Kolb
Diploma Students
Angela P. Moissl (MSc)
Secretary
Angelika Willführ
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Publications
[1]
R. Arletti, E. Mugnaioli, U. Kolb, F. Di Renzo, MZ-35, a new layered pentasil
borosilicate synthesized in the presence of large alkali cations, , Microporous and
Mesoporous Materials, 189 64-70 (2014).
[2]
J. M. Zuo, J. L. Lábár, T. E. Gorelik, U. Kolb, Powder diffraction – electrons;
International Tables Volume H invited chapter (2014).
[3]
G. C. Capitani, P. Gentile, T. Catelani, A. Lucotti, E. Mugnaioli, R. Branscheid,
U. Kolb, The Bi sulfates from the Alfenza Mine, Crodo, Italy: An Automatic Electron
Diffraction Tomography (ADT) Study, American Mineralogist, 99 (2-3) 500-510 (2014).
[4]
E. Mugnaioli and U. Kolb, Structure solution of zeolites by automated electron
diffraction tomography - impact and treatment of preferential orientation,
Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 189, 107-114 (2014).
[5]
I. Pignatelli, E. Mugnaioli, R. Mosser-Ruck, O. Barres, U. Kolb, N. Michau, A
multi-technique description from micrometric to atomic scale of synthetic
chukanovite, Fe-2(CO3)(OH)2, European Journal of Mineralogy, 26, 221-229 (2014)
[6]
Robert Imlau, András Kovács, Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski, Pengxiang Xu, Gustav
Bihlmayer, Ervin Mehmedovic, Hartmut Wiggers, Christine Leidinger,
Reinhard Carius, Andrew Stewart, Ute Kolb and Martina Luysberg, Structural
and electronic properties of β-FeSi2 nanoparticles: The role of stacking fault
domains, Phys. Rev. B, 89, 054104 (2014).
[7]
M. Koch-Müller, E. Mugnaioli, D. Rhede, S. Speziale, U. Kolb, R. Wirth,
Synthesis of quenchable high-pressure form of magnetite (h-Fe3O4) with
composition Fe1(Fe2+0.75Mg0.26) Fe2(Fe3+3 0.70Cr0.15Al0.11Si0.04)2O4, American
Mineralogist, 99 (11-12) 2405-2415 (2014).
[8]
S. Samuha, E. Mugnaioli, B. Grushko, U. Kolb, L. Meshi, Atomic structure
solution of the complex quasicrystal approximant Al77Rh15Ru8 from electron
diffraction data, Acta Cryst. B 70 (6) 999-1005 (2014).
[9]
T. Gorelik, M. U. Schmidt, U. Kolb and S. Billinge, Total-Scattering PairDistribution-Function of Organic Material from Powder Electron Diffraction Data,
Microscopy and Microanalysis, on-line (2014) NB5084.
[10]
E. Mugnaioli, J. Reyes-Gasga, R. Garcia-García, U. Kolb, J. Hémmerlé, É. F.
Brès, Evidence of Noncentrosymmetry of human tooth hydroxyapatite Crystals,
Chem. Eur. J. 20, 6849 – 6852 (2014).
[11]
Y. Lorgouilloux, M. Dodin, E. Mugnaioli, C. Marichal, P. Caullet, N. Bats, U.
Kolb and J.-L. Paillaud, IM-17: a new zeolitic material, synthesis and structure
elucidation from electron diffraction ADT data and Rietveld analysis, RSC Adv., 4,
19440-19449 (2014).
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Noncentrosymmetry of human tooth hydroxyapatite
Ute Kolb and Etienne Brès
Due to the sophisticated growth mechanisms, human calcified tissues (bones and teeth)
present a hierarchical architecture over several length scales, tuning each tissue to its
specific biological
function. Mechanical properties are optimized and adapted to stress (e.g., femurs for
bending strength or teeth for wear resistance). The microscale of calcified tissues is made
up of nanocrystals arranged and oriented in specific fashions. The atomic structure of
human calcified tissue nanocrystals (tooth enamel, dentine, and bone), determined by Xray diffractometry,
IR and Raman spectrometry, and thermal decomposition, is very similar to that of
hydroxyapatite (HA: [Ca(2)6Ca(1)4(PO4)6(OH)2]). The HA structure can be described as a
column of OH- ions, located on the 63 screw axis parallel to the c axis and surrounded by
two equilateral Ca(2) atom triangles directed in opposite directions, perpendicular to the c
axis and separated by a distance of c/2. The mirror plane in the HA P6 3/m structure is
preserved by a statistical positioning of the OH- ions above and below the Ca(2) triangles
(Figure 1 right, a). OH- ions can be shifted by the presence of interstitial F- and O2- ions, or
H2O, or by direct substitution of CO32- ions on the 63 axis. When this is observed over
several unit cells, the hexagonal P63/m symmetry is reduced to the monoclinic P21/b
symmetry (Figure 1b). In this structure, the mirror plane is transformed into a glide plane
and the a or the b parameter is doubled. Hexagonal and monoclinic domains can coexist
simultaneously in the same single crystal.
The HA structure of macroscopic crystals is centrosymmetric as shown by X-ray
diffractometry with a statistical occupancy of 50% for the OH- positions above and below
the Ca(2) triangles. This structure has been assumed also for human enamel and dentine
nanocrystals. Up to now, there has not been any direct proof of the structure of HA
nanometric crystals of biological calcified tissues. Herein, we investigate human single
hydroxyapatite crystals (enamel and dentine) by convergent-beam electron diffraction
(CBED) and automated electron-diffraction tomography (ADT). The CBED pattern shows
the absence of the mirror plane perpendicular to the c axis leading to the P63 space group
instead of the P63/m space group considered for larger-scale crystals, this is confirmed by
ADT. This experimental evidence is of prime importance for understanding the
morphogenesis and the architectural organization of calcified tissues. In the case of
hydroxyapatite (tooth enamel, Figure 1) it was possible to determine the absence of a
centre of symmetry, important for the orientation of enamel nanoparticles in tissue directly
with ADT data.
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Figure 1: Left) Dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy image of an enamel crystal; b) convergent
beam electron diffraction of zero-order Laue zone pattern oriented along the [11-20] zone axis; c) ADT data
viewed along b*; d) ADT data viewed along c*. Right) hydroxyapatite (HA) structures: a) 2x2 HA unit cells
with random positions of OH- groups above and below the Ca(2) triangles (space group P6 3/m); b) 1x1 HA
unit cell with alternated OH-positions (space group P21/b); ADT structure: c) 2x2 HA unit cells with ordered
OH-positions above the Ca(2) triangles (space group P6 3). OH- groups are shown as big red spheres; PO43groups as violet tetrahedral structures; Ca atoms as green spheres.
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Total-Scattering Pair-Distribution-Function of Organic Material from
Powder Electron Diffraction
Ute Kolb and Tatiana Gorelik
In order to investigate structural features of amorphous material it is often necessary to
perform a pair-distribution function (PDF) analysis. This approach is getting more and
more accepted for X-ray diffraction but is seldom applied based on electron diffraction data.
This work demonstrates that PDF analysis can be carried out on organic and organometallic
compounds from powder electron diffraction data. Different experimental setups are
demonstrated, including selected area electron diffraction and nanodiffraction in
transmission electron microscopy or scanning transmission electron microscopy modes. The
methods were demonstrated on organometallic complexes (chlorinated and unchlorinated
copper phthalocyanine) and on purely organic compounds (quinacridone). The PDF curves
from powder electron diffraction data, called ePDF, are in good agreement with PDF curves
determined from X-ray powder data demonstrating that the problems of obtaining
kinematical scattering data and avoiding beam damage of the sample are possible to
resolve.
In total, 50 pairs of diffraction/image pairs were collected from each sample. This approach
not only maximizes the counting statistics while minimizing beam damage, but increases
the powder statistics (the number of crystallites that are averaged to obtain the integrated
diffraction pattern) in a natural way. Based on the corresponding images these pairs could
be classified into: (i) diffraction patterns from the material, (ii) diffraction patterns from
the carbon film only. The patterns from the carbon film were averaged and used for
background estimation. All diffraction patterns from the material were summed together,
likewise for all the background diffraction patterns, and these integrated images were used
for further processing.
After the patterns were centered by the gradient of the central beam, several patterns from
different parts of the sample, as described above, were averaged in order to increase the
signal-to-noise ratio owing to the counting statistics and to improve the powder average.
Averaged patterns were then azimuthally integrated and normalized by a number of 2D
pixels into each bin of constant Q-value. The integration procedure was done by a homewritten program and produced integrated intensity versus Q.
The high Q-range accessible in principle in the TEM, and the sensitivity to light atoms,
means that ePDF may become a powerful method for nanostructure characterization. The
maximum values of Q obtained here were modest, and future work will also be invested in
protocols for collecting data in TEMs over wider ranges of momentum transfer. Potential
advantages of ED derived PDFs are that they can be obtained from small quantities of
material, and material in special geometries, such as in the form of a thin film. While they
are not currently straightforward to obtain, this may be remedied in the future with special
attachments to microscopes coupled with dedicated software for data collection and
reduction.
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Figure 1: Diffraction data of chlorinated Cupperphthalocyanine: a) red curve: X-ray (Mo-Kα1), blue curve:
electron diffraction data collected with transmission electron microscopy/nanodiffraction mode, green curve:
electron diffraction data collected using scanning transmission electron microscopy/nanodiffraction mode
both after azimuthal integration and with the x axis converted to Q, respectively; b) Comparison of the
electron pair-distribution function (ePDF:blue line) with a simulated pair-distribution function (PDF:red line)
from the known crystal structure.
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Electron Crystallography School – Introduction to Electron Diffraction Tomography
Ute Kolb
In the tradition of Electron Crystallography Schools, started in Erice (Sicily) in 1990 and
held since then in different European countries, a school with a focus on electron
diffraction tomography took place in Darmstadt (Germany) on 7.4.-11.4.2014. The school
organized by the group of Prof. Ute Kolb covered the basic concepts of electron diffraction
and imaging, new ways of data acquisition using different upcoming tomography methods
in reciprocal space as well as procedures for structure solution. 9 Lecturers provided
theoretically morning lectures and 5 Lecturers gave practical afternoon courses using
different transmission electron microscopes at the Technical University in Darmstadt.
42 students (15 woman and 27 men) from 16 countries all over the world (Belgium,
Denmark, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Russia, Slovakia,
Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, USA) participated in the school many of whom
contributed their own research for discussion in the poster session.
We are grateful for the support provided by the national and international associations of
Crystallography (International Union of Crystallography IUCr, European Crystallographic
Association ECA, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kristallographie DGK), and Microscopy
(European Microscopy society EMS).
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Technical Petrology with Emphasis in Low Temperature Petrology
Petrology is devoted to study the genesis and the mineralogical evolution of a rock with a
specific bulk composition at various physical and chemical conditions. The scientific and
educational fields of this branch within the applied geosciences are based on crucial
knowledge in magmatic-, metamorphic-, hydrothermal petrology, mineralogy, structural
geology, tectonophysics, geothermal geology, sediment petrography, thermodynamics/
kinetics and geochemistry.
Technical Petrology aims to assess the physical and chemical properties of natural or
synthetic rocks for applied purposes at various physical and chemical conditions (e.g.
pressure, temperature, chemical composition). The Technical Petrology group is in
particular devoted to study the low temperature domain. These low temperature studies
serve as an aid to qualify and quantify processes occurring in hydrocarbon prospecting,
geothermal system, and geodynamic study.
The principal motivation of our Low-Temperature Petrology research group is to
understand and to quantify low temperature petrologic processes. For this purpose, an
effort is addressed to innovate new tools to calibrate and to model the metamorphic P-TXd-t conditions in low-grade rocks. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary because
crystallization and recrystallisation are not obvious at low temperature. Hence, our work
links field and experimental petrology, analytical methods, thermodynamic and kinetic
modelling. Similar approaches are easily applied in archaeometry in order to characterise a
range of firing temperatures and to describe recrystallisation processes of starting clay
material. Opposite to prograde diagenetic to metamorphic processes, presented working
philosophy is employed to describe the reverse cycles of destruction and weathering of
rocks and the formation of clays and techno soils.
The main research interests of the Technical Petrology Group are focussed on the following
topics:
Clay Mineralogy
o The application of Kübler Index and other clay mineral parameters to determine a
grade of diagenesis and incipient metamorphism.
o Development of Geothermobarometers based on the reaction kinetics in the reaction
progress and aggradation of clay minerals to micas. These can be used in orogenic
researches, sediment basin analyses, hydrocarbon exploration, and geothermic
prospections.
o Improvement of methods related to hydrocarbon exploration.
o Improvement of methods related to the low-grade metamorphism characterisation.
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Stability of clay barriers
Natural bentonite is considered as a suitable candidate for buffer material required for the
underground disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW). Repositories of HLW are
commonly representing multibarrier systems. The host rock is an important barrier and so
is clay used as backfill and buffer, that is the interface between the canister with the
radioactive waste and the host rock. Backfill material is considered as a safety barrier in the
emplacement tunnel. There are a number of concepts for the future disposal of HLW in
underground repositories. They are based on the use of "multi-barrier" systems made up of
two basic factors: an engineered barrier and host rock. The engineered barrier comprises
metallic container (“canister”) containing vitrified nuclear waste or spent nuclera fuel. The
metallic containers could be made of iron or copper. These are placed in underground
caverns within host rock (e.g. shale, granite or salt), which constitutes the natural
geological barrier. Our research focuses on concepts of different countries of using iron
metallic castor and salt, crytallized rock or claystone rocks formations as host rock and
bentonite acts as buffer and backfill materials . The main question for this type of scenario
is, will bentonite be stable or not? In order to examine this question as well as to evaluate
the long term safety of the repository, it is necessary to consider the stability of the buffer
and backfill components by laboratory testing and theoretical modelling. Different smectitic
rich clay and bentonite in the worlds are examined with the aims are followed:
o Stability of chemical structure and geotechnical paramters of smectite rich
clays/bentonite in contact with groundwater, cement and Fe leachate from concrete
and Fe-canister of multi barrier systems.
o Kinetics dissolution of smectite rich clays/bentonites under HLW-repository
conditions.
o Natural Fe-rich clays as potential natural analouges to buffer alteration processes,
driven by the presence of Fe and high alkaline groundwater in system.
Low-Temperature Petrology s.l
Orogen and palaeogeothermal researches in foreland basins of the Alps, Vosges, Dinarides,
Carpathians, Stara Planina (Bulgaria), Balkanides, Variscides of the Bosporus and Turkey.
A broad analytical spectrum must be applied in low-temperature petrology due to very
small grain-size. Technical Petrology group maintains a Microscopy Laboratory (CCA
coalreflection microscopy, MPV coal-reflection microscopy, fluorescence microscopy,
transmitted light microscopy). The former XRD laboratories (Clay and XRD Laboratory and
a research XRD Laboratory) had to be moved and merged with the awkward geochemical
laboratory. The ICP-AES, TOC, AOX and gas chromatography together with the Organic
Geochemical Laboratory was closed in 2012. A non-completed refurbishment of the
Geoscience Institute forced us to accept an adverse decision. A XRF laboratory (Wavedispersive BRUKER S8-Tiger) is maintained together with the groups of Chemical Analytics
and Environmental Mineralogy.
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Due to the adjournment of the refurbishment of the building and the infrastructure the
situation did not change since 2012. On photographs of the laboratories the iniquitous
situation depended on development is documented on the Web page to testify the need to
get back ideal working conditions. In 2014 the negative development in rejected funding
continued. The economic situation declined again and evaluation criteria of the faculty
forced the need to cut an assistant position and thus some parts of the infrastructure of the
technical petrology group had to be closed (Experimental Coal Petrology, Coal Petrology,
Archaeometry and part of the instrumental analytics). The rebuke against the head is a
concealed and perfidious way to erode scientific licence and freedom of research causing
damage on the ambitious content in education of the specialism. It is to point out that the
coal petrology research associate (position being cut in 2013 due to employment rules for
research associates - 12 years of temporary engagement) Dr. Ronan Le Bayon and the head
were honoured by The Society of Organic Petrology (TSOP) with five reference papers on
the society homepage, also the appointment as convenors of a coal petrologic session on the
GeoFrankfurt 2014 and as guest editors. A strong misfit between the evaluation at the
university and the reputation in the coal community is evident. The reduction of the wide
research base in Germany will cause future damages in sciences.
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Rafael Ferreiro Mählmann
Research Associates
Dr. Lan Nguyen-Thanh
Technical Personnel
Dr. Norbert Laskowski
Secretary
Astrid Kern
BSc-MSc Students
Tobias Necke and Sascha Kümmel
Research Projects
Kübler Index standardization. Cooperation with Greifswald University (D) and the working
group of the MECC 2014.
Temperature determination between 50 and 270 °C through fluid inclusion
microthermometry and vitrinite reflectance values in the external parts of the Central Alps.
Cooperation with Basel University (CH) and RWTH Aachen (D).
Reliability of very low-grade metamorphic methods to decipher basin evolution: case
studies from basins of the Southern Vosges (NE France). Cooperation with LaSalle Beauvais
Geosciences Department, (F), Geoscience Australia Resources Division (AU).
Low-grade study on the thermal evolution of wairarapa area, North Island, New Zealand.
Cooperation with LaSalle Beauvais Geosciences Department, (F), UMR 8217 Géosystèmes,
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Institute of Applied Geosciences – Technical Petrology
bâtiment SN5, University of Lille (F), University of Picardie Jules-Verne (F), GNS Science
(NZ).
Mineralogical characterization of Di Linh bentonite, Vietnam: A methodological approach
using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Cooperation with Vietnam
National University, Hanoi (Vietnam), Jörn-Kasbohm-Consulting, Greifswald (D),
Greifswald University (D), Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute (Vietnam), Advance
Technology Transfer and Consultancy Ltd. (Vietnam), Institute of Geological Sciences and
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (Vietnam), Luleå University of Technology
(S).
The Zlatitsa para-series group, a new Palaeozoic lithostratigraphic member determined in
the Kashana section at the southern Stara Planina mountain range (Central Balkanides,
Bulgaria). Cooperation with the Universität Freiburg (D), Université de Genève (CH),
University of Sofia "St. Kl. Ohridski" (Bg).
Characterization of Fe-smectites from Nui Nua clay, Thanh Hoa province, Viet Nam and its
alteration potential considering for HLW repositories. Cooperation with the Ernst-MoritzArndt-Universität, Greifswald (D), Hanoi University of Science (Vietnam), Gesellschaft für
Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Braunschweig (D), Vietnamese Academy of Science
and Technology.
Fossil Multiphase Normal Faults - Prime Targets for Geothermal Drilling in the Bavarian
Molasse Basin. Cooperation with the University of Alberta (Canada), GeoTec Consult,
Markt Schwaben (D), Loske Geosciences, Essen (D), GFZ - Helmholtz Centre Potsdam (D),
Exorca, Grünwald (D).
Determination of rock maturity using vitrinite like bituminite kinetics. A field and
laboratory study including liptinite and vitrinite reflectances. Implications for prospection
and engeneering geology in meta-sedimentary rocks. Cooperation with GFZ - Helmholtz
Centre Potsdam (D). The project was finished in 2014 without funding and the results by
the usual route to be published.
Conversion mechanism of bentonite barriers. Cooperation with the Ernst-Moritz-ArndtUniversität, Greifswald (D), Hanoi University of Science (Vietnam), Gesellschaft für
Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Braunschweig (D). The project will run from
01.01.2015 to 30.09.2017.
Society activities
The head was appointed member of the Scientific Program Committee at the 68th
International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) Meeting, Potsdam 2015,
Germany.
The head and Ronan Le Bayon have been conveners with Ralf Littke at the GeoFrankfurt
2014 Conference, Earth System Dynamics (GV, DGG). Session A09: “Organic petrology,
organic geochemistry and mineralogy in basic research and applied geosciences”. Frankfurt,
Germany.
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The head was convener with Laurence N. Warr and chairperson at the 7th Mid-European
Clay Conference (MECC14). Session 5: “Clay minerals in diagenetic and low temperature
metamorphic environments” including a round table about the ”Kübler Index standardisation“. Dresden, Germany.
The head was member of the Scientific Program Committee at the 9th European Coal
Conference. Gliwice, Poland.
The head was elected reviser of the Swiss Society of Mineralogy and Petrology (SSMP).
Publications
[1]
Nguyen-Thanh, L., Herbert, H.J., Kasbohm, J., Hoang-Minh, T., Ferreiro Mählmann,
R. (2014b) Effects of chemical structure on stability of smectites in short-term
alteration experiments. Clays and Clay Minerals 62, 425-446.
[2]
Nguyen-Thanh, L., Hoang-Minh, T., Kasbohm, J., Herbert, H.J., Duong, N.T., Lai,
L.T. (2014a) Characterization of Fe-smectites and their alteration potential in
relation to engineered barriers for HLW repositories: the Nui Nua clay, Thanh Hoa
province, Vietnam. Applied Clay Sciences 101, 168-176.
[3]
Šegvić, B., Mileusnić, M., Aljinović, D., Vranjković, A., Mandic, O., Pavelić, D.,
Dragičević, I. and Ferreiro Mählmann, R. (2014): Magmatic provenance and
diagenesis of Miocene tuffs from the Dinaride Lake System (the Sinj basin, Croatia).
European Journal of Mineralogy 26/1, 83–101.
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Correlation of vitrinite like bituminite reflectance with vitrinite reflectance in
various geological settings: A tool for determining organic matter
maturation level
Rafael Ferreiro Mählmann & Ronan Le Bayon
Introduction
With the growing interest in oil and gas shales, organic petrology and geochemistry as well
as mineralogy are again in the focus of interest of sedimentary basin research. In particular,
high levels of diagenesis reaching the early stage of metamorphism have become
economically more interesting than in the past. Shales are also important as potential
storage sites for (nuclear) waste and as cap rocks for natural and artificial gas
accumulations in the subsurface. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in coal-anthracite
raw material prospection. Petroleum production now moves more and more into complex
tectonic settings and into areas with high fluid pressure, especially at passive continental
margins with deep burial shelf conditions. Fast sedimentation, under-compaction, overpressured poor fluids, thermal anomalies and abnormally low thermal conductivities have a
strong influence on organic matter maturity. In these settings, pressure can play an
important role in maturation, especially if fast tectonic load in orogenic settings prolongs
low conductivity conditions hindering thermal steady state advection and if strong tectonic
forces cause cleavage. In these settings, a combination of parameters including organic
geochemical, organic petrological, and clay mineralogical parameters can be of advantage.
Anthracites and hard coals in inverted basins as well as bituminite hosted ore deposits often
contain unexpected, high amounts of gas. Contact metamorphism without release of
hydrocarbons can lead to high over-pressure. The prediction of gas in internal orogenic
settings is also of interest for large tunnel constructions and forces the need of basis
research. A refined and sophisticated modelling will have considerable economic benefit
and increase security precaution. For prospection of hydrocarbons empirical and kinetic
based models will allow to predict hydrocarbon quantity and composition including
secondary cracking-products. Due to the increased demand in fertilizers, pharmaceutics,
petrochemical products and carbonaceous materials a precise prediction of properties of the
mostly small deposits is a pre-requisite for the success.
Specific research interest
Vitrinite reflectance (VR) is a useful and reliable parameter to monitor the level of organic
matter maturation from the immature stage to graphite. Additionally, VR is a useful and
essential tool in modeling the temperature–maturation time path followed by
huminite/vitrinite-bearing sedimentary and meta-sedimentary terranes throughout their
geological history. VR pressure (P) dependence (Le Bayon et al. 2011, 2012) can not be
ignored, but no equation fit to be used for the moment employing P as a VR-controlling
variable (Ferreiro Mählmann, 2001). Such modeling enables to reconstruct the geological
history of sedimentary and metamorphic terranes, to improve geothermal prospection,
hydrocarbon exploration and gas-blow prediction in the tunnel construction. The usefulness
of VR for such crucial purposes evidently depends on the presence of huminite/vitrinite (i.e.
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209
Type III organic matter) phytoclasts in the geological terranes. However, pre-late Silurian
to Devonian rocks and many organic-rich marine rocks (e.g. sapropelic sediments) lack of
huminite/vitrinite particles. Furthermore, vitrinite is sparse in carbonate sediments.
However, the presence of bituminite (including exsudatinite, migrabitumen and
pyrobitumen) in rocks lacking of Type III organic matter is shown to provide a valuable aid
via its reflectance (vitrinite like bituminite reflectance – VlBR, and/or bituminite reflectance
- BR) to fulfill the above-described tasks, that VR enables. This study presents a relationship
between BR/VlBR and VR for various types of geodynamic setting and over the largest
possible range of maturation level so that VlBR may be used as a substitute for VR.
Whereas the effort to correlate VlBR with VR is not novel, it is the first time that such
VR/VlBR(BR) correlations are established for various frequent geodynamic contexts. The
investigated geological contexts are:
(1) sedimentary basins (e.g. the Saar, Ruhr Pennsylvanian, Texas and Petrosani basins);
(2) metasedimentary terranes occuring as inverted basins in orogenic belts (e.g. from the
Subalpine-Molasse, Helvetic, Austroalpine and Danubian nappe systems) and having
suffered from very low to low grade metamorphism (from anchizone to greenschist facies);
(3) metasedimentary terranes (e.g. slates and schists from the Franciscan and Alpine belts)
that were subducted at anchizone to blueschist facies conditions; and
(4) metasedimentary terranes suffering from contact metamorphism. Together, the
frequent geological settings are referred and most of the earth geothermal conditions and
heat fluxes considered.
At least VR and BR comparisons with mineralogical calibrations and temperature
estimations have to be discussed. Frequently VR is used for palaeo-temperature calibrations
in low grade metamorphic settings. Depending from the P-T conditions a sub-division of
diagenesis, sub blueschist facies and sub-greenschist facies will be proposed (Fig. 1).
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References
1.
Ferreiro Mählmann, R. (2001). Correlation of very low-grade data to calibrate a thermal
maturity model in a nappe tectonic setting, a case study from the Alps. Tectonophysics, 334, 1 –
33.
2.
Le Bayon, R., Brey, G.P.; Ernst, W.G., Ferreiro Mählmann, R. (2011): Experimental kinetic
study of organic matter maturation: Time and pressure effects on vitrinite reflectance at 400 °C.
Organic Geochemistry, 42, 340-355.
3. Le Bayon, R., Adam, Ch., Ferreiro Mählmann, R. (2012): Experimentally determined pressure
effects on vitrinite reflectance at 450°C. International Journal of Coal Geology, 92, 69-81.
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211
Effects of chemical structure on stability of smectites in short-term alteration
experiments
Lan Nguyen-Thanha, Horst-Jürgen Herberta, Jörn Kasbohmb, Thao Hoang-Minhd,
Rafael Ferreiro Mählmannc
1
Technical Petrology, Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt,
Schnittspahnstr. 9, 64287 Darmstadt, Germany
2
Institute of Geography and Geology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald, Friedr.-Ludwig-
Jahn-Str. 16, 17487 Greifswald, Germany
3
Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH, Theodor-Heuss-Str. 4, 38122 Braunschweig,
Germany
4
VNU University of Science, 334 Nguyen Trai road, Thanh Xuan district, Hanoi, Vietnam
Bentonites are suitable candidates as buffer and backfill materials in HLW-repositories. An
objective of these investigations was to explore the idea that bentonites have a specific
dissolution potential (by “rate of alteration”-experiments).
The “rate of alteration” experiments were carried out as overhead-shaking batch
experiments. Well characterized bentonites (9 from API-standard series, 12 from the BGRcollection and 4 others) were investigated in contact with deionized water (liquid/solidratio = 10/1) and with NaCl 1N solution (liquid/solid-ratio = 4/1) for 30 days. XRD and
TEM – EDX measurements were the major analytical techniques applied in this research.
FT-IR and XRF analyses were used as additional tools for the characterization of the
structure and composition of the smectites.
Numerical description of the degree of alteration by Δ%S by TEM-EDX
a. Using of Mineral Formulae with focus on the tetrahedral composition (Si-amount)
b. Calculation of smectitic layer (S%) by Środon et al. (1992)
S%
= 100.38 * (4 - IVSi)² - 213 * (4 - IVSi) + 109.4
(%S: proportion of smectitic layer; IVSi: Si in tetrahedral sheet)
c. Calculation of degree of alteration (Δ%S )
Δ%S = S%experiment – S%origin (Δ%S > 0: smectitization; Δ%S < 0 “illitization”)
After the mineralogical characterization of original samples and of the reaction products of
these experiments different degrees of alteration were recognized. Each approached
smectite has shown a specific dissolution potential. This potential was identified by degree
of “illitization” or smectitization for each sample (proofed by TEM-EDX, FT-IR) Figure 1,
2A. Bentonites with illite-smectite mixed layer phase in the original material have shown
commonly smectitization. It seems that such mixed layer phases can buffer dissolved Si.
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Interlayer cations (Δ%SXII )
Octahedral cations (Δ%SVI)
Si – mitigation
~ “illitization” process (Δ%S < 0)
Si – enrichment
~ smectitization process (Δ%S > 0)
Figure 1. Smectitization and illitization caused by the (60 rpm + NaCl) experiment (left). Empirical determination of
impact by (A) initial interlayer cations ΔSXII and (B) initial octahedral cations ΔSVI on specific dissolution potential, ΔP,
for experimental series: 60 rpm + NaCl. Note: ΔS = ΔSXII + ΔSVI; the diameter of the circles is related to the measured
decrease of smectitic layer ratio, %S, between the original and treated smectites
The following parameters were identified as driving forces for the mentioned specific
dissolution potential: (i) original distribution of Al, Fe and Mg in octahedral sheet and (ii)
Na/(Ca+Mg)-ratio in cationic composition of interlayer space.
Increasing octahedral Fe- and Mg-amounts are promoting a faster dissolution of smectite.
Two types of dissolution behavior were identified for 21 different bentonites. High Na
amount in interlayer space has acted in some cases as stabilizator (type A) (Fig. 2B). In
other cases Ca+Mg-cations in interlayer space stabilized the aggregates (Fig. 2C). These
two groups are characterized by specific composition of octahedral sheet (Fig. 3A) and by a
specific signature in FT-IR-spectroscopy (Fig. 3B).
The Al-Fe ratio in the octahedral sheet influences the stability of the interlayer:
a. Aloct > 1.4 and Feoct > 0.2 (per (OH)2 O10) favour delamination of quasicrystals. The swelling
pressure increases by a co-volume process between the delaminated layers with higher numbers
of quasicrystals for Na-dominant population of the interlayer space (Laird, 2006). The
microstructural components including both small and large particles and parts of them have a
very small ability to move and undergo free rotation. Such Na-montmorillonites are considered
as stable phases and have only a low specific dissolution potential. They are „Sleepers“.
b. Aloct > 1.4 and Feoct < 0.2 or Aloct < 1.4 and Feoct > 0.2 (per (OH)2 O10) promote demixing of
monovalent and divalent interlayer cations (Laird, 2006). In the case of Ca and Mg-dominant
interlayers, quasicrystal can break at Na-bearing interlayers and help to maintain the quasicrystal
structure. Such Ca and Mg-montmorillonites can be also be taken as „Sleepers“, because of their
low specific dissolution potential.
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213
Specific degree of alteration
(Δ%Stotal) of bentonites.
Notes: Δ%SXII - impact of
interlayer cations on stability of
smectite; Δ%SVI - impact of
octahedral cations on stability of
smectite; Δ%Stotal = Δ%SXII +
Δ%SVI - specific dissolution
potential of smectite
Δ%Stotal > -20%
(„Sprinter“)
Δ%Stotal = - 5% → -20%
(Intermediator)
Δ%Stotal < - 5%
(„Sleeper“)
Figure 2 Smectitization and illitization caused by the (20 rpm + NaCl) experiment (A) and group A (B), group B (C)
and specific dissolution potential (ΔS) of bentonite classified by short-term alteration experiments (table below)
It is assumed that the original composition of octahedral sheet is representing mainly the
pH-environment during the formation of the smectite clay and therefore it serves as a
geological fingerprint.
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Figure 3. Chemical parameters classifying bentonites as members of type A (filled circles) or type B (open circles) with
respect to their alteration in experimental series of (20 rpm +NaCl), (20 rpm + H2O), and (60 rpm + H2O): (a)
verification of TEM-EDX-based octahedral Al-values by FTIR; and (b) verification of TEM-EDX-based octahedral Fevalues by FTIR
The specific dissolution potential of MX80 determined by “rate of alteration” experiments
has shown in figure 2 comparable values to degree of alteration in tetrahedral sheet of
“clay/iron-interaction” experiments. This observation indicates that the results of specific
dissolution potential form “rate of alteration”-experiments could be transferred to processes
in the “clay/iron-interaction”-experiments.
An Excel-based tool has been developed in order to estimate the specific dissolution
potential and expected Si-precipitation of any bentonite. This tool can be used for the
preselection of possible suitable bentonites for long-term stable barriers in repositories.
References
1.
Laird, D.A. (2006) Influence of layer charge on swelling of smectites. Applied Clay Science, 34,
74–87.
2. Środón, J., Elsass, F., McHardy, W.J., and Morgan, D.J. (1992) Chemistry of illite-smectite
inferred from TEM measurements of fundamental particles. Clay Minerals, 27, 137–158.
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215
Environmental Mineralogy
Environmental mineralogy focuses its research on the characterization of individual aerosol
particles by electron beam techniques (high-resolution scanning electron microscopy,
transmission electron microscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy).
We study individual aerosol particles in order to derive the physical and chemical
properties (e.g., complex refractive index, deliquescence behavior, ice nucleation) of the
atmospheric aerosol. These data are of great importance for modeling the global radiation
balance and its change due to human activities.
We are also interested in studying particle exposure in urban environments and at working
places. As aerosol particles may have adverse effects on human health, the knowledge of
the particle size distribution and the chemical and mineralogical composition of the
particles is of prime importance in order to derive the exact mechanisms of the adverse
health effects.
In addition, we also investigate particles as carriers of pollutants into Nordic and Arctic
ecosystems.
Our research is carried out in cooperation with the following national and international
partners: Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Institute for Atmosphere and
Environmental Sciences (University of Frankfurt) Institute for Atmospheric Physics
(University of Mainz), Institut für Steinkonservierung (IFS) in Mainz, Institute for
Meteorology and Climate Research (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology), Institute for
Tropospheric Research in Leipzig, Institute of Atmospheric Physics (German Aerospace
Center DLR) in Oberpfaffenhofen, Paul Scherrer Institute (Laboratory of Atmospheric
Chemistry) in Villigen (Switzerland), National Institute of Occupational Health (STAMI) in
Oslo (Norway), and the Norwegian University of Life Science (NMBU) in Ås (Norway).
Staff Members
Head
Prof. Dr. Stephan Weinbruch
Research Associates
APL Prof. Dr. Martin Ebert
Dr. Nathalie Benker
Postdocs
PD Dr. Konrad Kandler
Dr. Dirk Scheuvens
Technical Personnel Thomas Dirsch
Secretary
Astrid Kern
PhD Students
Dipl.-Met. Dörthe Ebert
Dipl.-Ing. Katharina Schütze
Dipl.-Ing. Thomas Herrmann
MSc Mark Scerri
Master Students
Markus Hartmann
Angela Moissl
Bachelor Students
Alexander Gruhn
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Institute of Applied Geosciences – Environmental Mineralogy
Research Projects
Environmental scanning electron microscopical studies of ice-forming nuclei (DFG
Forschergruppe INUIT).
Electron microscopy of long-range transported mineral dust.
Source apportionment of rural and urban aerosols.
Sources of soot at work places (National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo, Norway).
Influence of traffic on the surface of monuments.
Particle and organic pollutant emissions of coal burning in the Arctics.
Publications
[1]
Niedermeier N., Held A., Müller T., Heinhold B., Schepanski K., Tegen I.,
Kandler K., Ebert M., Weinbruch S., Read K., Lee J., Fomba K.W., Müller K.,
Herrmann H., and Wiedensohler A. (2014): Mass deposition fluxes of Saharan
mineral dust to the tropical northeast Atlantic Ocean: An intercomparison of
methods, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 14, 2245-2266.
[2]
Dartey E., Berlinger B., Thomassen Y., Ellingsen D.G., Odland J.Ø., Nartey
V.K., Yeboah F.A., and Weinbruch S. (2014): Bioaccessibility of lead in
airborne particulates from car battery repair work. Environmental Science Processes and Impacts, 16, 2782-2788.
[3]
Weinbruch S., Worringen A., Ebert M., Scheuvens D., Kandler K., Pfeffer U.,
and Bruckmann P. (2014): A quantitative estimation of the exhaust, abrasion and
resuspension components of particulate traffic emissions using electron microscopy.
Atmospheric Environment, 99, 175-182.
[4]
Lindqvist, H., Jokinen, O., Kandler, K., Scheuvens, D., Nousiainen, T. (2014):
Single scattering by realistic, inhomogeneous mineral dust particles with
stereogrammetric shapes. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 14(1), 143-157. doi: 10.5194/acp-14143-2014
[5]
F. M. Janeiro, F. Carretas, K. Kandler, P. M. Ramos, F. Wagner (2014):
Advances in cloud base height and wind speed measurement through stereovision
with low cost consumer cameras. Measurement 51, 429-440. doi:
10.1016/j.measurement.2014.02.001
[6]
D. Scheuvens, K. Kandler (2014): On composition, morphology and size
distribution of airborne mineral dust. In: P. Knippertz, J. B. Stuut (eds.), Mineral
dust - A Key Player in the Earth System. Springer, Dordrecht, 15-50.
[7]
R. Weigel, C. M. Volk, K. Kandler, E. Hösen, G. Günther, B. Vogel, J. U. Grooß,
S. Khaykin, G. V. Belyaev, S. Borrmann (2014): Enhancements of the refractory
submicron aerosol fraction in the Arctic polar vortex: feature or exception? Atmos.
Chem. Phys. 14, 12319-12342, 2014. doi: 10.5194/acp-14-12319-2014
Institute of Applied Geosciences – Technical Petrology
217
Long-range-transported Saharan dust in the Caribbean – an electron
microscopy perspective of aerosol composition and modification
Konrad Kandler(1), Markus Hartmann(1), Alexander Gruhn(1), Martin Ebert(1),
Stephan Weinbruch(1), Bernadett Weinzierl(2,3), Adrian Walser(3,2), Daniel Sauer(3,2),
Khanneh Wadinga Fomba(4)
1
Institut für Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schnittspahnstr. 9,
64287 Darmstadt, Germany
2
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre,
82234 Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany
3
Max Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Meteorologisches Institut, Theresienstraße 37,
80333 München, Germany
4
Leibniz-Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), Permoserstr. 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
From June to July in 2013, the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-CloudInteraction Experiment (SALTRACE) was performed in the Caribbean. Airborne aerosol
sampling was performed onboard the DLR Falcon aircraft in altitudes between 300 m and
5500 m. Ground-based samples were collected at Ragged Point (Barbados, 13.165 °N,
59.432 °W) and at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory (Sao Vicente, 16.864 °N,
24.868 °W). Different types of impactors and sedimentation samplers were used to collect
particles between 0.1 µm and 4 µm (airborne) and between 0.1 µm and 100 µm (groundbased). Particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive Xray microanalysis, yielding information on particle size, particle shape and chemical
composition for elements heavier than nitrogen. A particle size correction was applied to
the chemical data to yield better quantification. A total of approximately 100,000 particles
was analyzed. For particles larger than 0.7 µm, the aerosol in the Caribbean during the
campaign was a mixture of mineral dust, sea-salt at different aging states, and sulfate
(Figure 1). Inside the Saharan dust plume – outside the marine boundary layer (MBL) – the
aerosol is dominated by mineral dust. Inside the upper MBL, sea-salt occurs as minor
component in the aerosol for particles smaller than 2 µm in diameter, larger ones are
practically dust only. When crossing the Soufriere Hills volcano plume with the aircraft, an
extremely high abundance of small sulfate particles could be observed. At Ragged Point, in
contrast to the airborne measurements, aerosol is frequently dominated by sea-salt particles
(Figure 1). Dust relative abundance at Ragged Point has a maximum between 5 µm and 10
µm particles diameter; at larger sizes, sea-salt again prevails due to the sea-spray influence.
A significant number of dust particles larger than 20 µm was encountered. The dust
component in the Caribbean – airborne as well as ground-based – is composed of mainly
silicates and minor amounts of Ca-rich and Fe-/Fe-Ti-rich particles (less than 10 % of dust
fraction). The composition of the silicates indicates a major contribution of kaolinite (Al/Si
atomic ratio between 0.6 and 1) and a minor contribution of quartz and feldspar particles.
The inter-sample variation of the dust composition is generally low, pointing to a very
thorough mixing from differently-composed Saharan sources. The temporal evolution of
aerosol composition at Ragged Point shows a variation in dust abundance, but strong
isolated events could not be identified. An airmass change induced by the passing by of a
hurricane, however, is visible in sulfate abundance and their composition (Figure 2).
Pronounced internal mixing of dust and sulfate or dust and sea-salt is very rare (up to 1 %
218
Institute of Applied Geosciences – Environmental Mineralogy
of particles in the airborne samples), but a slight increasing tendency with decreasing
altitude was found. In the lower MBL at Ragged point, dust/sea-salt mixtures are more
frequent (in the same abundance range as pure dust particles). A first conclusion from the
data set is that dust aging with respect to internal mixtures does not happen during the
long-range transport across the Atlantic Ocean, but rather at the end during the downmixing of mineral dust into the Caribbean MBL.
Figure 1: General composition development for Eastern (Cape Verde) and Western (Barbados) North Atlantic
Ocean. SAL = Saharan Air Layer, BL = Planetary Boundary Layer.
Mg / (Na+Mg+Ca)
Ragged Point before …
S
… and after hurricane
Ca = 0
sea-water
Cl
Na / (Na+Mg+Ca)
RP-S CV-S
Cape Verde
? ?
S-S
Figure 2: Sulfate composition of single particles (0.7 µm < d < 8 µm) with respect to their cation composition (x
and y axis) and their ageing (anion composition, color scale). RPE_20, 04 and 09 were collected during
maritime conditions, RPE_26 and 30 show Barbados island influence. At Cape Verde, high amounts of sulfate
and magnesium are detected in the aerosol.
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219
Diploma Theses in Applied Geosciences
Gilfert, Martin; Untersuchungen zur Radarfazies alluvialer Sedimente in alpinen
Haupttälern, 14.02.2014
Kämmerling, Rebekka; Postglaziale Fächerarchitektur und -Sedimentationsprozesse am
Ostrand der östlichen Kordillere und im nördlichen Altiplano; 01.04.2014
Kirsten, Jens,
Landscheidt, Vanessa; Untersuchung und Charakterisierung postglazialer Schwemmfächer
in Südperu (Altiplano, Ostkordillere) mittels Georadar und sedimentologischer Methoden;
01.04.2014
Rybak, Thomas (2014): Untersuchung und Weiterentwicklung thermisch optimierter
Bettungsbau-stoffe für Erdkabel. – unpub. Diploma Thesis, TU Darmstadt, 81 p., 60 fig., 11
tab., 1-CD-ROM. 04.09.2014
Bachelor Theses in Applied Geociences
Baltruschat, Stefan; Soil organic matter and stable carbon isotopes in surficial permafrost on
Herschel Island, Yukon Territories, Canada; 24.11.2014
Biewer, Hendrik; Bestimmung der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Wärmekapazität und
Wärmeleitfähigkeit von Karbonatgesteinen der Schwäbischen und Fränkischen Alb;
29.07.2014
Egert, Robert; Vergleichende Enhanced Geothermal Response Tests an einer mitteltiefen
Erdwärmesonde, Tuxertal, Tirol; 24.11.2014
Gärtner, David; Radonkartierung der Kinzig- und Salztalstörung im Raum Bad SodenSalmünster; 22.09.2014
Hädeler, Jonas; Polyzyklische aromatische Kohlenwasserstoffe (PAK) im Boden im Rheintal
zwischen Bingen und Koblenz; 27.06.2014
Henze, Jan Christopher; Geologische Aufnahme des Barbarastollens (Hahnstätten) mit Hilfe
eines 3D-Laserscanners; 28.10.2014
Hochstein, Tim; Leistungsvergleich von Erdwärmesonden in Abhängigkeit ihrer Bauart;
24.01.2014
Hofheinz, Andreas; Bestimmung des Frost-Tau-Wechsel-Einflusses auf die hydraulische
Durchlässigkeit von Hinterfüllbaustoffen für Erdwärmesonden; 20.10.2014
220
Diploma- and Master Theses in Applied Geosciences
Jensen, Benjamin; Geothermische Untersuchung des Hauptrogenstein im südlichen
Oberrheingraben; 24.04.2014
Knodt, Julian; Bestimmung von felsmechanischen Parametern für eozäne Karbonate der
Boltana Antiklinale/südl. Pyrenäen; 19.12.2014
Linsel, Adrian; Lithofaziesanalyse der Forschungsbohrung Messel GA1; 20.10.2014
Rößler, Marc; Sedimentologische Untersuchungen an Lössprofilen am Odenwald-Nordrand;
14.01.2014
Rosmann, Yasmin; PAK-Belastung der bodennahen Luft im Rheintal zwischen Koblenz und
Bingen; 14.02.2014
Schmidt, Stefanie; Comparison of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Petroleum
Hydrocarbon (TPH) content from soil samples around a seepage in NE Iraq; 24.10.2014
Schuster, Felix; Polychlorierte Biphenyle im Boden des Rheintals zwischen Koblenz und
Bingen; 11.08.2014
Seierl; Svenja; Volumenberechnungen
Laserscanners; 30.07.2014
durch den
Einsatz eines terrestrischen
3D-
Seitz, Alexander; Charakterisierung von an der Christuskirche (Mainz) passiv gesammelter
Riesenpartikel mittels Rasterelektronenmikroskopie; 10.10.2014
Stricker, Kerstin; Model Experiments in the LiF-MgAl2o4 System; 10.06.2014
Treffeisen, Torben; Sensitivitätsanalyse des Speicher- und Entzugsverhaltens bei mitteltiefen
Erdwärmesonden; 29.10.2014
Vogel, Nadine; Partikuläre Trockendeposition im Mittelmeerraum am Beispiel einer Zeitreihe
in Èvora; 04.11.2014
Vondran, Lea; Planung eines Markierversuches im Zillertal; 17.12.2014
Weber, Jan Niklas; Geothermische Aufschlussanalyse des Steinbruches "Mainzer Berg", östlich
von Darmstadt; 13.01.2014
Zaun, Florian; Adsorption Behaviour of Trihalomethanes in Surface Water from the Three
Gorges Reservoir in China on three Activated Carbons; 13.03.2014
PhD Theses in Applied Geosciences
221
Master Theses in Applied Geosciences
Bemmlott, Juliane; Untersuchung der geothermischen Gesteinskennwerte
Kulmgrauwacke (Oberharz) und Tanner Grauwacke (Nordhessen), 02.04.2014
von
Kuhn, Georg; Radonmessungen in der Bodenluft bei Trebur einschließlich der Entwicklung
eines standardisierten Messverfahrens zur Lokalisation von Verwerfungen; 04.09.2014
Kutschke, Kristina; Bestimmung der Kohlenstoffspezies in Böden mittels Temperaturmethode
und deren Einfluss auf den PAK-Gehalt, 15.05.2014
Moissl, Angela Patricia; Elektronenmikroskopische Charakterisierung von nanokristallinen
Silikaten; 16.05.2014; 16.5.14
Mohr, Marie; Lagerstättenerkundung des Basaltsteinbruchs Nieder-Ofleiden und seiner
Umrahmung (Vogelsbergkreis) mittels 3D-Modellierung, 30.9.14
Orendt, Robert; Geothermisches Potenzial im Erlaubnisfeld Südtaunus; 17.03.2014
Rautenberg, Stefan Herrmann; Geological 3D-modelling of pre-Quaternary strata and
evaluation of related geopotentials in NE-Estonia - a case study for the Rakvere area;
27.03.2014
Reinheimer, Hanna; Lagerstättenerkundung des Quarzitsteinbruchs Sooneck (Rheinisches
Schiefergebirge) und seiner Umrahmung mittels 3D-Modellierung; 02.09.2014
Schmitz, Thomas; Geological 3D-modelling of pre-Quaternary strata and evaluation of
related geopotentials in NE-Estonia - a case study for the Narva area; 27.03.2014
Schubert, Kay-Oliver; Analytische Bestimmung bodenphysikalischer
Aufheizkurven von erdverlegten Stromkabeln; 01.10.2014
Kennwerte
an
Schwalb, Björn; Bestimmung geothermischer Kennwerte an Cuttings und Auswertung der
bohrtechnischen Daten der Tiefbohrung Geretsried; 13.01.2014
Trojanowski, Dominic; Prognose der Abrasivität der Karlsruher Untergrunds in Hinblick auf
den maschinellen Tunnelvortrieb; 18.02.2014
Wiesner, Peter-Hans; Modellierung einer mitteltiefen Erdwärmesonde zur Heizgrundlastabdeckung des Taunusgymnasiums Königstein im Taunus; 20.10.2014
Zimmermann, Philipp; Hydrogeologische und
Hochstegenmarmors im Tuxertal, Tirol; 27.03.2014
222
geothermische
Untersuchungen
des
Bachelor Theses in Applied Geosciences
Master Theses TropHEE in Applied Geosciences
Viera Tani, Laura; GIS-based modeling of groundwater vulnerability and mapping of land use
changes at a catchment of Lower Main Plains in Germany; 31.03.2014
Mohini, Joshi; Ground water potential in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; 15.01.2014
PhD Theses in Applied Geosciences
Hauke Anbergen; Prüfverfahren zur Bestimmung des Frost-Tau-Wechseleinflusses auf
Hinterfüllbaustoffe für Erdwärmesonden, 12.12.2014
Thomas Herrmann; Eisnukleation unter rasterelektronenmikroskopischer Beobachtung und
chemische Charakterisierung von Eiskeimen, 31.03.2014
Sebastian Homuth; Aufschlussanalogstudie zur Charakterisierung
geothermischer Karbonatreservoire im Molassebecken, 17.10.2014
PhD Theses in Applied Geosciences
oberjurassischer
223
Materials Science:
Alarich-Weiss-Straße 2 L2/01
64287 Darmstadt
Applied Geosciences:
Schnittspahnstraße 9 B2 01/02
64287 Darmstadt
Phone: +49(0)6151/16-5377
Fax: +49(0)6151/16-5551
www.mawi.tu-darmstadt.de
Phone: +49(0)6151/16-2171
Fax: +49(0)6151/16-6539
www.iag.tu-darmstadt.de
For further information contact:
Dr. Joachim Brötz, Phone: +49(0)6151 / 16-4392; eMail: [email protected]
Dipl.-Ing.(BA) Andreas Chr. Hönl, Phone: +49(0)6151 / 16-6325, eMail: [email protected]
224
Bachelor Theses in Applied Geosciences

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