I notice. . . I wonder. . .

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Transcription

I notice. . . I wonder. . .
J!opujdf/!/!/
Kiev
GERMANY
CZECH
REPUBLIC
FRANCE
Bern
Nantes
""
Turin
ANDORRA
Valladolid
Tangier
ITALY
Barcelona
Bari
Skopje
Tirane MACEDONIA
"
GREECE
Gibraltar
Gafsa
Rabat
MOROCCO
CYPRUS
Beirut
LEBANON
Tripoli
Jerusalem
ISRAEL
Alexandria
Banghazi
Cairo
Timimoun
Amman
JORDAN
EGYPT
Al J awf
Riyadh
Ao zou
MALI
BURKINA
BENIN
SIERRA LEONE
LIBERIA
Monrovia
IVORY COAST
M an
Abidjan
Maiduguri
OMAN
YEMEN
Al Fashir
Taizz
Mekele
N’Djamena
Moundou
Lome
Ndele
Asela
Yaounde
Goba
B o ss an goa
Bangui
Malabo
Al Mukalla
Djibouti
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
CAMEROON
Salalah
Addis Abbaba
Wau
NIGERIA
Porto Novo
Al Ghaydan
Sanaa
ERITREA
Asmara
Zaria
Abuja
Ibadan
GHANA
Accra
Kaduna
GO
TO
Korhogo
Tamale
CHAD
Zinder
Katsina
Atbarah
Khartoum
Ouagadougou
Kankan
SUDAN
Faya-Largeau
Tahoua
Niamey
Bamako
Bi lma
Agades
G ao
Bissau
Muscat
Al Khaluf
Tombouctou
Kayes
U. A. E.
Makkah (Mecca)
Port Sudan
NIGER
A ra ou an e
Nouakchott
Bam
Bandar Abbas
BAHRAIN
QATAR
Abu Zaby
Al Madinah (Medina)
A swa n
Tes s alit
MAURITANIA
Kerman
Shiraz
Djanet
Atar
GUINEA
Al Basrah
IRAQ
SAUDI ARABIA
!
Marzuq
IRAN
Esfahan
Kuwait
Taoudenni
Conakry
Freetown
Bakhtaran
Baghdad
WESTERN
SAHARA
SENEGAL
Damascus
El-Minya
Sabhah
Reggane
S u ez
Mashhad
Tehran
Mosel
SYRIA
Beni Suef
LIBYA
ALGERIA
Layoun
Nicosia
Tabriz
Adana
Aleppo
Antalya
Kha nia
Misratah
Ouargla
Marrakech
Izmir
Ir aklio n
Sfax
TUNISIA
Ankara
Vallelta
MALTA
Batna
Oran
TURKMENISTAN
TURKEY
Athens
Catania
Tunis
Annaba
Baku
Zonguldak
Bursa
Palermo
Algers
Malaga
Istanbul
Xanthi
Burgas
BULGARIA
Larisa
Palma
Varna
Sofia
ALBANIA
Naples
Valencia
Frunze
Constanta
SERBIA
MONTENEGRO
Odessa
Bucharest
Belgrade
BOSNIA
Sarajevo
MOLDOVA
Bra il a
Casablanca
Canary
Islands
Firenze Split
Cordoba
Sevilla
ROMANIA
Timisoara
CROATIA
Rome
Madrid
SPAIN
Genova
Kishinev
Cluj
Arad
Zagreb
Ljubljana
Banja Luka
Monaco
Marseille
HUNGARY
Pecs
SLOVENIA
Venezia
Zaragoza
Salamanca
PORTUGAL
AUSTRIA
Innsbruck
LUX.
Milano
Toulouse
Bilbao
Zurich
SWITZERLAND
Lyon
Bordeaux
Bayonne
Lisbon
Geneva
Clermont-Ferrand
RUSSIA
UKRAINE
Berbera
SOMALIA
ETHIOPIA
Juba
B ang as s ou
Ebo lowa
PANTONE 305-7 PANTONE 305-1
G ulu
PANTONE 228-5 PANTONE 228-8
Sfmjfg!gspn!uif!Upnc!pg!Nfouvfnifu
Egyptian, Thebes, Third Intermediate Period,
Dynasties 25–26, ca. 660 B.C.
Limestone with polychrome
14 x 18 in. (35.6 x 45.7 cm)
Museum purchase, M.H. de Young Memorial Museum
51.4.2
J!xpoefs/!/!/
Ancient Civilizations Object Information Sheet 6th Grade
1
2
Sfmjfg!gspn!uif!Upnc!
pg!Nfouvfnifu EGYPT
FI
Meet...
sfhjtufs; a band
on a wall in which
images are drawn
or carved to tell
a story
SH
Who:
Mentuemhet or Governor Ment
Role:
An Egyptian official who built
a tomb that contained this
painted wall relief
When:
Around 2,660 years ago
Where:
Thebes, a city located on the
Nile in Upper Egypt
What:
Offering food to the god Amun
Governor Ment needed many artists to restore
the old temples around Thebes and complete
his new building projects. Many of the artists
he employed lived in this village, called Deir
el-Medina. This is now a famous archaeological
site. Governor Ment’s tomb is located less than
a mile away from this village. Notice in the
background the lush green land along the banks
of the Nile River. This photograph shows the
stark contrast of the Egyptian landscape.
many titles and responsibilities. He was governor of
Upper Egypt, mayor of Thebes, and fourth qspqifu of
Bnvo. In short, he controlled the army, politics, and
religion in Upper Egypt. If you were alive at the time,
like the figures in this painting, you probably would
have been under his control. Governor Ment was also
responsible for restoring old temples and funding large
building projects. His tomb, where this relief was found,
was one of the largest tombs built for a non-royal
citizen. By studying this tomb painting, we can learn
about Governor Ment and Egyptian society.
Governor Ment built his burial tomb near Thebes.
Thebes is a city located on the Nile River in southern
Egypt. When this relief was made 2,660 years ago,
Egypt’s power was beginning to
weaken. In 671 B.C. all of Egypt,
including Thebes, fell to the Assyrian
Empire.
This painted wall panel depicts
three figures who are busy doing
everyday tasks. At the top of the
IE
qspqifu;
someone who
can tell the future
H
An official for the king, Governor Ment held
Bnvo; a god associated with things
hidden such as the wind. Amun was later
known as Amun-Re, the king of the gods.
relief, a man cleans blue-finned fish. Along
the lower sfhjtufs, a male and female are
shown balancing baskets on their heads. The
woman carries grapes in her basket, and the
man carries cucumbers, loaves of bread, and
a large head of lettuce. Can you tell which is
which?
Egyptian art portrays women with light
CL
EA
NI
skin and men with dark skin. This difference in
NG
DET
AI L
skin color is a sign of the division of labor between
men and women. In Egypt, men worked outside in the sun, while women
worked mostly indoors.
Egyptian artists wanted to create the most detailed view of a figure. To
do so, they drew the head and feet in profile and the body turned towards
the viewer. Likewise, Egyptian artists did not try to show qfstqfdujwf.
Notice how the fish pictured at the right of the relief appear to float. If the
artist showed the fish in perspective, lying on the ground, you would not be
able to see all the details.
Next to the lower figures are ijfsphmzqijdt. Hieroglyphics
is a type of writing that uses pictures or symbols to represent
ideas or sounds. The hieroglyphic writing next to the male
figure in the lower register reads, “produce for the temple
scribe of the domain of Amun.” The writings next to the
woman read, “grapes for the fourth prophet of Amun.”
This title refers to Governor Ment, who was also known
as the fourth prophet of the god Amun.
Like the Assyrian Winged Genius, this wall painting
was not simply decorative. It served as an fufsobm offering
RO
from Governor Ment to the god Amun. The food pictured on
GL
YP
HD
ETA
the panel was also a source of nourishment for the Governor’s
IL
ka, or soul. Tomb paintings were believed to create a place of eternal
comfort for the spirit of the dead. Governor Ment had plenty of servants and
food in the living world, and he planned to enjoy the same comforts after
death. If you were an Egyptian, what kind of objects would you have painted
on the walls of your tomb to make sure you enjoyed eternal comfort?
This sfmjfg tells us about more than just what Governor Ment needed
in the afterlife. It also tells us about Egyptian society. Egyptian society had a
very strict class system. In a class system, poor people are considered to be
at the very bottom. Then come those who earn a middle income, and finally
the rich are at the top. In a strict class system it is hard for poor people to
ever become rich because they are forced to take low-paying jobs. The
lowest and largest part of Egyptian society was made up of servants, like
those seen here, and farmers, who grew the foods the servants carry. The
artisans who made such scenes were also part of the lower tier of society.
These men and women provided goods and services for Governor Ment
and other officials. The top officials, in turn, served the king. In Egypt, the
king was considered a god; he owned all of the land and controlled all of the
people through officials such as Governor Ment. With such an important job,
do you think the king ever took a vacation?
qfstqfdujwf; drawing or painting the
distance between objects as the human
eye sees distances
ijfsphmzqijdt;
a form of writing
that uses pictures
or symbols to
represent ideas,
sounds or objects
fufsobm; lasting
forever, never
ending
sfmjfg; A relief is formed by carving
away stone or other materials to create
a shape. The height between the carved
image and the background can be in
either high or low relief. In a high relief,
the carving is so deep that the object is
almost separated from the background.
In this example, the difference between
the background and the figure is shallow,
or a low relief.
J!opujdf/!/!/
Kiev
GERMANY
CZECH
REPUBLIC
FRANCE
Bern
Nantes
""
Turin
ANDORRA
Valladolid
Tangier
ITALY
Barcelona
Bari
Skopje
Tirane MACEDONIA
"
GREECE
Gibraltar
Gafsa
Rabat
MOROCCO
CYPRUS
Beirut
LEBANON
Tripoli
Jerusalem
ISRAEL
Alexandria
Banghazi
Cairo
Timimoun
Amman
JORDAN
EGYPT
Al J awf
Riyadh
Ao zou
MALI
BURKINA
BENIN
Korhogo
SIERRA LEONE
LIBERIA
Monrovia
IVORY COAST
M an
Abidjan
Maiduguri
OMAN
YEMEN
Al Fashir
Taizz
Mekele
N’Djamena
Moundou
Lome
Ndele
Asela
Goba
B o ss an goa
Bangui
Malabo
Al Mukalla
Djibouti
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
CAMEROON
Salalah
Addis Abbaba
Wau
NIGERIA
Porto Novo
Al Ghaydan
Sanaa
ERITREA
Asmara
Zaria
Abuja
Ibadan
GHANA
Accra
Kaduna
GO
TO
Tamale
CHAD
Zinder
Katsina
Atbarah
Khartoum
Ouagadougou
Kankan
SUDAN
Faya-Largeau
Tahoua
Niamey
Bamako
Bi lma
Agades
G ao
Bissau
Muscat
Al Khaluf
Tombouctou
Kayes
U. A. E.
Makkah (Mecca)
Port Sudan
NIGER
A ra ou an e
Nouakchott
Bam
Bandar Abbas
BAHRAIN
QATAR
Abu Zaby
Al Madinah (Medina)
A swa n
Tes s alit
MAURITANIA
Kerman
Shiraz
Djanet
Atar
GUINEA
Al Basrah
IRAQ
SAUDI ARABIA
!
Marzuq
IRAN
Esfahan
Kuwait
Taoudenni
Conakry
Freetown
Bakhtaran
Baghdad
WESTERN
SAHARA
SENEGAL
Damascus
El-Minya
Sabhah
Reggane
S u ez
Mashhad
Tehran
Mosel
SYRIA
Beni Suef
LIBYA
ALGERIA
Layoun
Nicosia
Tabriz
Adana
Aleppo
Antalya
Kha nia
Misratah
Ouargla
Marrakech
Izmir
Ir aklio n
Sfax
TUNISIA
Ankara
Vallelta
MALTA
Batna
Oran
TURKMENISTAN
TURKEY
Athens
Catania
Tunis
Annaba
Baku
Zonguldak
Bursa
Palermo
Algers
Malaga
Istanbul
Xanthi
Burgas
BULGARIA
Larisa
Palma
Varna
Sofia
ALBANIA
Naples
Valencia
Frunze
Constanta
SERBIA
MONTENEGRO
Odessa
Bucharest
Belgrade
BOSNIA
Sarajevo
MOLDOVA
Bra il a
Casablanca
Canary
Islands
Firenze Split
Cordoba
Sevilla
ROMANIA
Timisoara
CROATIA
Rome
Madrid
SPAIN
Genova
Kishinev
Cluj
Arad
Zagreb
Ljubljana
Banja Luka
Monaco
Marseille
HUNGARY
Pecs
SLOVENIA
Venezia
Zaragoza
Salamanca
PORTUGAL
AUSTRIA
Innsbruck
LUX.
Milano
Toulouse
Bilbao
Zurich
SWITZERLAND
Lyon
Bordeaux
Bayonne
Lisbon
Geneva
Clermont-Ferrand
RUSSIA
UKRAINE
Yaounde
SOMALIA
ETHIOPIA
Juba
B ang as s ou
Ebo lowa
PANTONE 305-7 PANTONE 305-1
Dbopqjd!Kbs!pg!Qb.fg.ifsj.ofgfs
Egyptian, Late Dynastic Period, 747–332 B.C.
Alabaster
13 in. (33 cm)
Gift of M. H. de Young
20298.4a–b
Berbera
G ulu
PANTONE 228-5 PANTONE 228-8
J!xpoefs/!/!/
Ancient Civilizations Object Information Sheet 6th Grade
3
Dbopqjd!Kbs!pg!!
Qb.fg.ifsj.ofgfs EGYPT
Meet...
Who:
God Qebehsenuf—we can call
him Hawk God
Role:
An Egyptian god who protected
a mummy’s intestines. We can
see him on the lid of this jar.
This painting, which decorates a coffin, shows
the steps of the mummification ritual. After the
body was cleaned, mummified, and wrapped
in linen, it was placed in a tomb along with the
canopic jars. Can you find the hawk god and
his three brothers in this painting? What other
stages of the mummification ritual do you see?
A container for holding human
organs
efizesbuf; to
remove water or
liquids from
the Egyptian cult of the dead. Egyptians
believed that without the body, the spirit
would wander the world forever and never
know the pleasures of the afterlife. Qebehsenuf—our
Hawk God—and his three brothers, Imset, Ha’py and
Duamutef, played an important role in the cult of the
dead. They were in charge of protecting the body once
it was sealed in a tomb.
In order to preserve the body after death, it was first
efizesbufe. Then the organs were removed from the
body. The Egyptians thought that all knowledge was
held in the heart. It was the only organ allowed to remain
in the mummified body. The brain was considered
unimportant and was thrown away after being removed
through the nose. According to the Book of the Dead,
the god Anubis weighed the heart against the “feather
of truth.” The gods read the scales to determine if the
dead person was “pure of heart.” Good deeds made the
heart light, while bad deeds made it heavy. If the heart
balanced with the feather, the deceased was granted
eternal life.
The other vital organs, including the liver, intestines,
lungs, and stomach, were removed through a small opening in the torso.
The organs were then cleaned, treated, and preserved in a mineral
compound called obuspo. After being wrapped in linen, these organs
were stored in small jars such as the one you see here. These are known as
canopic jars.
The Egyptians topped these canopic jars with specially
carved lids each in the form of one of the four sons of Ipsvt.
The Egyptians believed that the sons of Horus would protect
and preserve the organs inside the jars. These jars each
held different organs: Imset, represented by the human
head, guarded the liver; Ha’py, the baboon, protected the
lungs; Duamutef, the jackal, protected the stomach; and
Qebehsenuf—or Hawk God—protected the intestines.
In addition to protecting the organs, the four sons of
Horus also served the deceased. They supported the body,
joined the limbs together, washed the face, and opened the
mouth. Opening the mouth allowed the
deceased to eat, breath, and speak. The
four sons also kept hunger and thirst
away from the body.
The names of the owner and of
the owner’s mother can be identified
from the ijfsphmzqijdt on this
canopic jar.
HIER
O
YP
GL
H
DE
T
obuspo; a compound of sodium salt
and carbonate acid used in embalming
Ipsvt; Egyptian
god of light, also
related to the
pharaoh or king;
represented by
the body of a man
and the head of a
hawk
L
Mummification was crucial to
What:
ET
AI
Ancient Egypt
L
Where:
AI
Around 2,500 years ago
D
© HILDESHEIM MUSEUM
When:
LI
D
ijfsphmzqijdt;
a form of writing
that uses pictures
or symbols to
represent ideas,
sounds or objects

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