Diagnosis of the present state of Gulf of Mexico wetlands regarding

Comments

Transcription

Diagnosis of the present state of Gulf of Mexico wetlands regarding
Integrated Assessment and Management of the
Gulf of Mexico Large Marine Ecosystem
DIAGNOSIS OF THE PRESENT STATE OF GULF OF
MEXICO WETLANDS REGARDING GEOLOGICAL,
PHYSICAL, BIOLOGICAL, FLUVIAL ANTHROPOLOGICAL
AND SOCIAL ASPECTS
Guadalupe de la Lanza Espino
Abril, 2013
1
INTRODUCTION
Marine contamination is defined as "the direct or indirect introduction of substances or
fuel into the marine environment-including estuaries-which harm live resources,
endanger human health, disrupt marine activities (e.g. fishing) and reduce the sea´s
recreational value and quality” (Joint Group of Experts on the Scientifics of Marine
Pollution, 1972). Marine environmental pollutants can be natural and artificial. Natural
ones include non-refined oil components, heavy metals, and nutrients derived from
Nitrogen and Phosphorous. Human intervention has increased the discharge of these
compounds in the marine environment, and the study of their behavior is not easy
because of the need to distinguish between natural concentrations and those that result
from human activities. Concentrations also show significant variations depending on
time and place (http://www.posgrado.unam.mx/publicaciones/ant_omnia/23/07.pdf).
Agriculture in the activity with the highest impact on the aquatic environment in México
followed by contamination by sewage (domestic water discharge), and by industrial
activities which frequently contaminate with metals (Jimenez, 1995). Eighty percent of
substances contaminating the sea originate in land, mainly by “diffuse contamination”
which includes smaller sources such as septic tanks, among others, and larger ones like
farms and agricultural land, just to mention a few. Maritime accidents are responsible for
approximately 5% of hydrocarbons spilt in the sea compared to a city of five million
inhabitants that ends up pouring, in one year, the same amount as the Exxon Valdez did
in Alaska. Approximately one third of the contamination that reaches the sea begins as
atmospheric
contamination
which
ends
up
falling
down
into
the
oceans
(http://www.tecnun.es/asignaturas/Ecologia/Hipertexto/11CAgu/140MarCo.htm).
Bodies of water have a certain capacity for self-cleaning that several authors attribute to
a combination of physic-chemical and biological factors. It consists in reducing organic
matter through oxidation and mineralization of organic pollutants carried out by certain
bacteria and fungi. This capacity increases in places where the water is in constant
2
movement due to active oxygen exchange between the water and the atmosphere
which favors the decomposition of organic matter (Rheinheimer, 1992).
These conditions are also present in most rivers, streams and coastal waters with
pronounced tides or strong wind induced currents. Nevertheless, when the
concentration of organic matter increases as a result of residual water, anaerobic
bacteria, ciliates and viruses increase tremendously. When the body of water scarcely
moves, the residual water stagnates and the lack of oxygen causes the collapse of the
self-cleaning process from an increase in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (Brock,
1987; Campbell, 1987; Mitchell, 1972; Abel, 1996).
The microbial community in estuaries and coastal lagoons consists of fresh- and marinewater microorganisms from that include bacteria, fungi, virus and yeast. The bacterial
flora composition depends, and varies, depending on the type of water as it is a function
of physical and chemical parameters (Wong and Barrera, 2005).
The main problems of lagoons and coastal water systems found in or near urban areas
are: eutrophyzation as a result of contamination; silting, almost always caused by an
inadequate management of the urban basin; and lack of control of residual water inflow.
During the dry season organic matter decomposes and biomass production increases:
algae, biogas and floating mud can be seen in different coastal bodies of water. As a
consequence, there are bad odors in the nearby areas, possibly from the absence of
oxygen and/or the presence of suspended sediments (Hansen, et al., 2007). Red tide is
a natural phenomenon that occurs in temperate and tropical coasts around the world. It
is a temporal bloom of phytoplankton species, which produce red pigment in the process
of photosynthesis. Among the hundreds of different species that have been known to
cause red tide, certain planktons produce toxic substances. The toxin can cause serious
3
MICROORGANISMS
Much effort has been made regarding the development of environmental norms related
to the amount of coliform contaminants that can be poured into bodies of water. NOM002-ECOL-1996 includes emission and reception limits for the culture of different
species as well as a limit to what can be ingested. The levels of contamination by fecal
coliforms (FC) and total coliforms (TC) registered in some coastal regions of the Gulf of
México, mainly in Veracruz, Tabasco and Campeche, are frequently above the
permissible limits of TC and FC for water and organisms (Wong and Barrera, 2005).
When there is an input of residual water, industrial waste and contaminants, alterations
must be neutralized by microorganisms from native flora. Nevertheless, pouring residual
water into the coastal area increases the amount of nutrients and a massive growth of
bacteria, fungi, virus, protozoa and metazoan which, among other effects, inhibits,
destroys or substitutes the natural micro-flora with something different (Wong and
Barrera, 2005).
HYDROCARBONS
Oil has a natural origin therefore many organisms are adapted to its presence, some
types of bacteria and fungi even degrade it, unlike other contaminants like pesticides,
drugs and substances of industrial origin which are nor naturally degraded. Oil
hydrocarbons reach the sea from different sources but the main one is related to ship
transportation (National Academy of Science, 1985).
Aromatic policyclics (APC), derived from oil hydrocarbons, are widely spread in oceans
and coastal areas, in rivers, soil and sediments. The presence of these compounds in
marine organisms has been mainly attributed to oil spills, but biosynthesis by microorganisms and municipal and industrial waste sere also important sources (Neff 1979,
National Research Council 1985).
4
Hydrocarbons spread vary fast in water due to different densities of these two liquids:
they can spread throughout large areas making cleaning very difficult as a thin layer,
scarcely a few microns thick, hinders the interaction of ATM with the aquatic flora and
fauna,
obstructing
the
natural
life
cycle
(www.tesis.bioetica.org/des13-
1.htm#_Toc26628132).
PESTICIDES
Humans have discovered chemical products called pesticides used to control or
eliminate diseases-causing pests that interfere with agricultural production. Among
these we have: insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, nematocides and
molluskcides. Today, there are around 3,500 organic pesticides in use.
Synthetic pesticides are widely used substances considered high-risk environmental
contaminants, their use in agricultural activities endanger nearby aquatic ecosystems.
They reach the coastal area washed down from the nearby fields. Today, no coastal
ecosystem in the Gulf of México is safe from human activity.
Pesticides accumulated in water endanger the life of aquatic flora and fauna, final
consumers like humans are also endangered as contaminants concentrate in live
tissues.
There are about 500 synthetic pesticides used in agriculture. Some plants have
insecticide-like substances such as pyrethrum chrysanthemums. Among the synthetic
pesticides we find chlorate hydrocarbons like DDT, dieldrine, aldrine, hepachlorine,
clordane, endrine and lindane. Contamination caused by these substances is getting
worse each passing day, both in quantity and diversity because some species have
become pesticide-resistant so larger quantities are used to obtain the desired effects on
pests. Native flora and fauna are being increasingly damaged and natural regional
diversity is being destroyed. Humans can also ingest pesticides through plants and
5
animals that accumulate them in their tissues (Barrera-Escorcia and Namihira-Santillan,
2004).
Contamination levels found are a warning sign indicating the need for immediate actions
(Albert and Benítez, 2005).
HEAVY METALS
Heavy metals are found naturally in the earth´s crust. They can become contaminants
when human activities alter their distribution in the environment. This can occur during
mining activities, refining of mining products, or when they are liberated into the
environment through industrial effluents and vehicular emissions. The inadequate
disposal of metallic residues has also caused contamination of soil, superficial and
underground water, and aquatic environments. Some of these contaminants are also
used in agriculture and horticulture.
Metal emissions can have natural or human sources. Elements such as selenium,
mercury and manganese originate mainly from natural sources; nevertheless, on a
regional basis, anthropogenic sources contribute in an important way, and these metals
become pollutants on a local scale. The most worrisome sources of metals in Mexico
are: mercury, lead and cadmium (Álvarez and Saenz, 2005).
Studies of aquatic resources must be all-encompassing; they should consider the
ecological functions of ecosystems, the environmental services they provide (fishing
industry), and the pressure from contamination in fish lakes which, according to
CONABIO, are priority marine areas with high diversity, and which are now endangered.
Great changes have taken place in the years after the industrial revolution regarding
natural mineral concentrations due to their excessive use in industrial and human
activities. A good example of this can be seen in the Basin of the Gulf of México where
6
there are excessive amounts of metals in its coastal ecosystems from the inflow of
contaminated rivers.
STUDY AREA
The Gulf of México is the ninth largest body of water in the world; its borders are: the
United States of America on the north (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana and
Texas); five Mexican states to the west (Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche
and Yucatán); the Atlantic Ocean and the island of Cuba to the southeast. It is 6,600 km
long on an east-west direction; 1,300 km long on north-south direction on its western
side; 900 km long on the central and eastern parts. Its surface is 1.6 million km2 and has
an approximate volume of 2.4 million km3 of water (Secretaría de Marina, 2002). The
economic exclusive zone is 0.9 x 106 km2 which represents 55% of the total surface of
the Gulf (Vidal et al., 1999). It is a diversified “interior” sea because of its physical and
chemical characteristics, and its latitudinal location (from tropical, subtropical to
temperate, with climates classified “dry season” spring, rainy season summer, autumn
and “north winds” winter). Six main rivers in Mexico drain directly into the Gulf: Panuco,
Coatzacoalcos, Papaloapan, Grijalva-Usumacinta, Champoton and Bravo, and on the
United States side, the rivers: Tennessee, Mississippi, Brazos, Colorado and Bravo,
among others, which provide large amounts of sediments, nutrients and contaminants in
4,000 km of coast form Yucatán to Florida (de la Lanza et al., 2004).
The max depth of the Gulf is 4.384 m; the average depth is 1.615 m. The total drain
basin of the Gulf measures 5,180,000 km2, discharging more than 80% of the United
States´s fresh water across 60% of its continental geography. The highest fluvial
discharge in the United States´s coasts takes place during April-May. More than 62% of
all Mexican fresh water is discharged across 40% of its continental geography, the
highest fluvial discharge on the coast of México taking place during September-October
(Day et al., 2004).
Table 1. Ecological Caudal: Brownsville, Rio Bravo, Matamoros, Tamaulipas.
7
Annual volume of seasonal ordinary caudal
Volume of caudal regime
of the base caudal (VCoe 5.5 75.8
3
Hm /year)
by
each
condition
% Medium anual drain
Frecuency of the
(ƒCoe)
151.8
1995.3
0.3
4,8
9.6
125.6
1
0
0
0
Percentage of medium annual
drain
0.35
ocurrence
Volume for the
disponibility balance
3
(VtCoe - Hm /year)
6
Final volume reserve (Vfr) annual
Vfr =
VtCoe
+
Vtra
Vfr =
6
+
42
47
Vfr =
Attribute of hydrological regime
Category I
3
m /s
3
Hm /day
(Va)
Magnitud
3
Hm /year
25
150
570
2
13
49
2
1
1
7
7
6
Frecuency of ocurrence (Fa)
Duration (no. day - Da)
Ocurrence time
3.0% EMA
Category II Category III
May-Nov
Assent
36
Change rate (%)
Descent
Vtra a 10 years
26
416
Vtra al year
42
Hydrological
región code
Name of the
hydrological
region
Name o the
disponibility
study basin
24
Bravo-Conchos
Bravo 1
24
Bravo-Conchos
Bravo 2
Ecological
importance
Pressure
of use
Wish
conservation
state
Medium
Very High
Deficient
Low
Very high
Deficient
Table 2. Ecological Caudal: Rio Panuco, Tamaulipas
8
Environmental
objective
D
D
Annual volume of seasonal ordinary caudal
Volume of caudal regime of the base caudal (VCoe 5459
3
4445.7
Hm /year) by each condition
.4
6975.4
14563.5
% Medium anual drain
37.7 46.3
59.2
123.6
Frecuency of the ocurrence (ƒCoe)
0.2
0.4
0.1
Volume for the disponibility balance (VtCoe 3
Hm /year)
0.3
Percentaje of medium
annual drain
6773
57
Final volume reserve (Vfr) annual
Vfr = VtCoe
+
Vtra
Vfr = 6773
+
1.730
8503
Vfr =
3
Hm /year
72.2%
EMA
Magnitud
Category I
3
m /s
Category II
Category III
1200
1800
2900
104
156
251
Duration (no. day - Da)
10
6
2
Ocurrence time
7
7
7
Frecuency of ocurrence (Fa)
3
Hm /día
(Va)
Change rate (%)
Jun-Oct
Assent
33
Descent
17
Change rate (%)
Vtra a 10 years
17297
Vtra al year
1730
Ecological importance
Very High
Pressure of wáter use
Environmental objetive
Curren of the nature
Recommended percentage
Flow for p. a.
Draining Volume
Low
Class A
Perenne
≥40%
12551,48
3
Annual Medium ha /año
Volume medium annual of runoff from the watershed upstream
Table 3. Ecological Caudal: El Tejar Río Jamapa, Veracruz
9
Annual volume of seasonal ordinary caudal
Volume of caudal regime of the base
3
caudal (VCoe - Hm /year) by each
condition
171.6
240.1
323.6
678.4
% Medium anual drain
30.4
42.6
57.4
120.3
1
0
0
0
Percentaje of medium
annual drain
30
Frecuency of the ocurrence (ƒCoe)
Volume for the disponibility balance (VtCoe
3
- Hm /year)
172
Final volume reserve (Vfr) annual
Vfr =
VtCoe
+
Vtra
Vfr =
172
+
16
188
Vfr =
3
Hm /year
33.3% EMA
Category I
Category II
Category III
75
185
400
6
16
35
Frecuency of ocurrence (Fa)
1
1
Duration (no. day - Da)
3
1
Attribute of hydrological regime
3
m /s
Magnitud
3
Hm /day (Va)
Ocurrence time
Change rate (%)
Vtra a 10 years
Vtra al year
Ecological importance
Pressure of wáter use
Environmental objective
Curren of the nature
Assent
96
Descent
46
160
16
High
Very High
Class D
Perenne
Recommended percentage
13%
Flow for p. a.
Draining Volume
563.73
3
Annual Medium ha /año
3
Volume medium annual of nature drain 586,54 (meters cubic million per year, hm )
Table 4. Ecological Caudal: Gaviotas Río Grijalva, Tabasco.
10
Annual volume of seasonal ordinary caudal
Volume of caudal
regime of the base
caudal (VCoe 3
Hm /year) by each
condition
2672.3
4311.1
6239.2
11106.9
% Medium anual drain
29.5
47.6
68.9
122.7
Frecuency of the
ocurrence (ƒCoe)
0.4
0,4
0.2
0
Volume for the
disponibility balance
3
(VtCoe - Hm /year)
Percentaje of medium
annual drain
4041
45
Final volume reserve (Vfr) annual
Vfr =
VtCoe
+
Vtra
Vfr =
4041
+
402
4443
Vfr =
3
Hm /year
49.1% EMA
Attribute of hydrological regime
m3/s
Magnitud
Hm3/day (Va)
Frecuency of ocurrence (Fa)
Duration (no. day - Da)
Category I
Category II
Category III
550
800
1050
48
69
91
5
3
2
7
7
5
Ocurrence time
Jun-Dic
Assent
12
Change rate (%)
Vtra a 10 years
8
4022
Vtra al year
402
Descent
Table 5. Ecological Caudal: Champoton, Río Champoton, Campeche
11
Annual volume of seasonal ordinary caudal
Volume of caudal regime of the
3
base caudal (VCoe - Hm /year) 278.7 715.9
by each condition
792.0
847.1
% Medium anual drain
25.7
66.0
73.0
78.1
Frecuency of the ocurrence
(ƒCoe)
0.4
0.4
0.2
0
Percentaje of medium
annual drain
51
Volume for the disponibility
3
balance (VtCoe - Hm /year)
556
Final volume reserve (Vfr) annual
Vfr =
VtCoe
+
Vtra
Vfr =
556
+
10
566
Vfr =
3
Hm /year
52.2% EMA
Ecological importance
Low
Pressure of use of water
Environmental objective
Low
Class B
Current of the nature
Perenne
Recommended percentage of caudal to P.A.
35%
3
Drain volume medium annual hm /year
1088.74
3
Medium annual volume of drain from the watershed downstream 590.56 hm /year
EMA Escurrimiento Medio Anual by Spanish acronyms (Medium Annual Drain)
CONAGUA. Subdirección General Técnica. México D.F. 2009.
In the Gulf of Mexico agricultural area at 2010 sown in the municipalities adjacent to the
coastal zone was 1200350 ha, and the largest area had 456509 to 443132 ha in
Tamaulipas, Veracruz with 400126 to 1245937 ha, Tabasco with 203,769 to 151273 ha,
Campeche with 139946 to 1295362. The largest sorghum crop corresponded to
municipalities near the coast and rivers of Tamaulipas with 387266 ha. However
Veracruz has mainly corn grown. The table 6 shows are significant differences in the
cultivated area event in the same source, which can result in some leagues cultivation,
12
include both temporal and irrigation. It should also be noted that these differences may
be due to variability in water availability year-river.
The tables1 to 5 shows the calculation of Medium Annual Drain (MAD or EMA) for the
ecological maintenance for the principal rivers of the Gulf of Mexico. The results shows
that the Matamoros River affluent of Río Bravo have the most lower MAD that minds the
great variations in time, space and utilization by human activities between United States
and Mexico, and the higher percentage of MAD was Rio Pánuco even it has a harbour
activities and diverse industries.
Table 6. Agricultural areas planted with the municipalities in the coastal zone of the state
of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, and Campeche in 2010. (INEGI 2012).
Tamaulipas
MUNICIPALITIES
AGRÍCULTURAL
ÁREA (ha)
PRINCIPAL
GROWING
IMPACT
MATAMOROS
147177-56587
Corn, grass,
sorghum, cotton
Río Bravo
SAN FERNANDO
202865-283786
Beans, corn,
sorghum
Río Conchcos
SOTO LA MARINA
34247-26299
ALDAMA
23323-20389
Green chile, beans,
corn, grasses,
sorghum, tomatoes,
green tomatoes
Río Morón
ALTAMIRA
72220-56071
Green chile, beans,
corn, grasses,
sorghum, tomatoes,
green tomatoes
Río Tamessí
Bean, pasture, corn,
sorghum
Veracruz
13
Río Soto La
Marina
MUNICIPALITIES
AGRÍCULTURAL
ÁREA (ha)
PRINCIPAL
GROWING
IMPACT
PUEBLO VIEJO
712-528
Beans, corn, red
tomatoes
Río Panuco
TAMPICO ALTO
1707-1707
Corn, Tomato Red
Río Panuco
OZULUAMA
9895-6778
Beans, corn, red
tomatoes
Río Panuco
TÁNTIMA
1337-5474
Beans, corn
Río Tamessi
TAMALÌN
947-17561
Beans, corn
Río Tamessi
TAMIAHUA
7060-7963
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Barberena
TUXPAN
14757-58339
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Tuxpán
CAZONES
8,746-19,793
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Cazones
PAPANTLA
45719-32089
Green chile, beans,
corn
Ríos Nautla
Tecolutla y
Cazones
TECOLUTLA
10987-11017
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Tecolutla
GUTIERREZ ZAMORA
12033
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Tecolutla
SAN RAFAEL
90-18,200
Beans, corn
Río Bobos
NAUTLA
3011-17803
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Bobos
MISANTLA
14623
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Misantla
VEGA DE ALATORRE
1777-1776
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Colipa
ALTO LUCERO
6788-8021
Green chile, beans,
corn
Ríos Capitán,
La Peña y El
Limón que son
afluentes del
Río Actopan
RSULO GALVÀN
7533-8197
Beans, corn
Río Actopán
14
LA ANTIGUA
3214-4460
Sugar cane, corn
Río La Antigua
PASO DE OVEJAS
11047
Green chile, beans,
corn, grasses,
sorghum, tomato red
Río Paso de
Ovejas
SOLEDAD DE DOBLADO
4172
Green chile, beans,
corn, grasses
Río Jamapa
MANLIO FABIO
ALTAMIRANO
7076
Green chile, beans,
corn, grasses,
sorghum, red
tomatoes, green
tomatoes
Río Jamapa
VERACRUZ
3011-3011
BOCA DEL RÌO
15201-898580
Beans, corn
Ríos Jamapa y
Coaxtla
IGNACIO DE LA LLAVE
1531
Beans, corn
Río
Papaloapan
ALVARADO
1114-1049
Beans, corn
Río
Papaloapan
TLALIXCOYAN
7321
Green chile, beans,
corn, grasses
Río Papalopan
SALTABARRANCA
1683
corn, sorghum
Río Papalopan
TLACOTLAPAN
5428
Beans, corn,
sorghum
Río
Papaloapan
COSOMALOAPAN
21070
corn, sorghum
Río
Papaloapan
LERDO DE TEJADA
2420-2833.
Corn
Río
Papaloapan
ÀNGEL R. CABADA
935
Beans, corn
Río Cañas
CATEMACO
4390-24200
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Grande
SAN ANDRÉS TUXTLA
26345-24499
Green chile, beans,
corn, tomato red
Río San Andres
SANTIAGO TUXTLA
10078
Beans, corn, red
tomatoes
Río Cañas
MECAYAPAN
6225-6276
Green chile, beans,
corn
Ríos tributarios
del Chalapa
Corn, pasture
15
Ríos Jamapa y
Coaxtla
TATAHUICAPAN
2829-16694
Beans, corn
Ríos
Tatahuicapán,
Zapoapan,
Piedra
Labrada,
Texizapan, y
Temoloapan.
ACAYUCAN
12914
Green chile, beans,
corn, sorghum
Ríos
Chacalapa y
Lalana
HUEYEPAN
24726
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Hueyepan
COSOLEACAQUE
2566
Beans, corn
Río
Coatzacoalcos
CUICHAPA
5295
Beans, corn
Río
Coatzacoalcos
HIDALGOTITLAN
14417
Beans, corn
Río
Coatzacoalcos
IXHUATLÁN DEL
SURESTE
2026
Beans, corn
Río
Coatzacoalcos
JALTIPAN
4880
Green chile, beans,
corn, sorghum
Río
Coatzacoalcos
NANCHITAL
379
Beans, corn
Río
Coatzacoalcos
PAJAPAN
3210-3239
Beans, corn
Río
Coatzacoalcos
ZARAGOZA
4287
Beans, corn
Río
Coatzacoalcos
MINATITLAN
19,319
Beans, corn
Río
Coatzacoalcos
COATZACOALCOS
2137-7022
Beans, corn
Río
Coatzacoalcos
AGUA DULCE
2409-2200
Beans, corn
Ríos Pedregal,
Tonalá;
Nanchita
LAS CHOAPAS
VERACRUZ
18749
Beans, corn
Ríos Pedregal,
Tonalá;
Nanchital
16
Tabasco
MUNICIPALITIES
AGRÍCULTURAL
ÁREA (ha)
PRINCIPAL
GROWING
IMPACT
HUIMANGUILLO
41578-45091
Beans, corn,
sorghum, tomato red
Río
Mezcalapa
CÁRDENAS
42608-52800
Green chile, beans,
corn, sorghum
Río Mezcalapa
CUNDUCAN
15596
Beans, corn
Río Mezcalapa
BALANCAN
28269
Green chile, beans,
corn, sorghum,
tomato red
Río
Usumacinta
EMILIANO ZAPATA
6414
Green chile, beans,
corn, sorghum,
tomato red
Río
Usumacinta
JONUTA
8057
Green chile, beans,
corn, sorghum
Río
Usumacinta
TENOSIQUE
29214-10490
Green chile, beans,
corn, sorghum,
tomato red
Ríos
Usumacinta y
San Pedro
Mártir
COMALCALCO
17353-23142
Beans, corn
Ríos
Cuxcuchapa,
seco, Tular y
Cocohital
NACAJUCA
1725-2441
Beans, corn
Ríos Carrizal,
Samaria y
Cunduacán
CENTLA
7957-9279
Green chile, beans,
corn, tomato red
Ríos Grijalva y
Usumacinta
JALPA DE MÉNDEZ
4998-8030
Beans, corn
Río Nacajuca
17
Campeche
MUNICIPALITIES
AGRÍCULTURAL
ÁREA (ha)
PRINCIPAL
GROWING
IMPACT
PALIZADA
13439
Bean. Corn, sorghum
Ríos Grijalva y
Usumacinta
CARMEN
14663-327168
Green chile, beans,
corn, sorghum
Ríos Chumpan y
Mamantel
CANDELARIA
12404
Green chile, beans,
corn
Río Candelaria
CHAMPOTÓN
34734-927364
Green chile, beans,
corn, sorghum
Río Champotón
CAMPACHE
35221-15724
Green chile, beans,
corn, sorghum,
tomato red
Cauces
subterráneos
causados por el
agua de lluvia
TENABO
6738-5830
Green chile, corn,
red tomatoes
Carece de ríos,
cuenta con un
sistema hidrológico
subterráneo
HECELCHAKÁN
15579-11961
Corn, red tomatoes,
green tomatoes
Carece de ríos
CALKINI
7168-7315
Green chile, corn,
red tomatoes
Carece de ríos
Source Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. SAGARPA.
Servicio de Información Agroalimentaria y Pesquera. Consultado el 6 de diciembre de 2011.
COASTAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN MEXICO
With base of JICA (2000) the table 7 shows an inventory of pollution sources in some
coastal water bodies at the Gulf of Mexico.
18
Table 7. Inventory of pollution sources at the Gulf of Mexico.
19
Figure 1. Main Oil industry Development Areas in Mexico.
Coastal lnfrastructure
The 11,500-km long coastline has driven the development of a vast port network in
Mexico. The country has established 76 maritime ports by 1996, including deep-sea
ports, commercial ports, ferryboats stations, and fishing ports (Figure 2). The
commercial ports of Manzanillo and Lazaro Cardenas in the Pacific Coast, and those of
Altamira and Veracruz in the Gulf of Mexico stand out since they handle 60Vo of total
maritime cargo. These ports are important due to their proximity to large urban and
industrial centers. With respect to maritime fleet, by 1994, Mexico only has three vessels
for transporting chemical products and eight tankers.
20
Figure 2. Seaport Distribution in Mexico.
There are 395 municipalities in the states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco,
Campeche, Yucatán and Quintana Roo (Figures 3 to 8), 63 of which are coastal and 83
are adjacent to the coastal ones and the remaining 249 municipalities or boundary that
relates to the coast through state development plans. All together, the 6 states have a
total area of 314 308.7 km2. Most of the 395 municipalities concentrate in Veracruz
(53.3%) and Yucatán (26.8%). The states with the smallest number of municipalities are
21
Campeche (2.8%) and Quintana Roo (2%). The region´s population has undergone a
rapid increase in the last 50 years. Based on the 2010 census, there are 17, 257,947
inhabitants in the Gulf of México.
Figure 3. State of Tamaulipas. Map representing coastal municipalities, main rivers,
catchment area, urban settlements, economic activities and main ports. Maps prepared
for this document by: Tapia-Silva F. O. and Romero-Novales J, 2013.
22
Veracruz and Tamaulipas concentrate more than half of this population with 44.3 and
18.9% of the region´s total, respectively. Regarding the municipal population, the main
centers are the cities of Reynosa and Matamoros, in Tamaulipas; Xalapa and the
municipality of Veracruz, in the state of Veracruz; the municipality of Centro, in Tabasco;
and Mérida and Benito Juarez, in Yucatán and Quintana Roo, respectively (Boris et al.,
2009).
Figure 4. Veracruz Map representing coastal municipalities, main rivers, catchment
area, urban settlements, economic activities and main ports. Maps prepared for this
document by: Tapia-Silva F. O. and Romero-Novales J, 2013.
23
Figure 5. Tabasco. Map representing coastal municipalities, main rivers, catchment
area, urban settlements, economic activities and main ports. Maps prepared for this
document by: Tapia-Silva F. O. and Romero-Novales J, 2013.
Figure 6. Campeche. Map representing coastal municipalities, main rivers, catchment
area, urban settlements, economic activities and main ports. Maps prepared for this
document by: Tapia-Silva F. O. and Romero-Novales J, 2013.
24
Figure 7. Yucatán. Map representing coastal municipalities, main rivers, catchment area,
urban settlements, economic activities and main ports. Maps prepared for this document
by: Tapia-Silva F. O. and Romero-Novales J, 2013.
Figure 8. Quintana Roo. Map representing coastal municipalities, main rivers, catchment
area, urban settlements, economic activities and main ports. Maps prepared for this
document by: Tapia-Silva F. O. and Romero-Novales J, 2013.
25
Population growth in the coastal region is the result of the arrival of economic activities
(Table 8), mainly tourism, oil related activities, ports, agricultural and industrial. At the
end of the 1970´s, the oil industry in the Gulf of México became the engine of the
economy playing a fundamental role in the organization of regional and national space
(Sanchez, 1990).
Table 8. Main economic activities/state and number of residual-water treatment plants.
Statistical reports for 2010 according to INEGI, CONAGUA and CONAPESCA.
State
Ha of
cultivated
surface
Tons of
disembarked
weight
Residual-water
treatment plants
No. of Hotels
Inhabitant per
Hotel
Tamaulipas
1,445,149
37,623
42
571
20,243
Veracruz
1,452,456
77,848
105
1,343
37,746
Tabasco
238,642
37,716
73
429
10,704
Campeche
236,895
38,134
21
279
7,017
Yucatán
640,086
32,016
20
371
10,209
Quintana Roo
112,199
1,073
31
893
82,983
Regarding the land property in the Gulf of México, the largest area is privately owned
(57.26%) and 37.18% is “ejido” (both account for 94.44% of the total surface). The
system known as “ejido” is found mainly in the states of Quintana Roo, Campeche and
Veracruz, with most municipalities with 50% of the surface (agriculture/cattle ranching
activities) being “ejidos”. The states of Tabasco and Tamaulipas have few municipalities
with “ejidos”. All together there are 90 municipalities with more than 50% of their
agricultural surface under the “ejido” system (Boris et al., 2009).
Wetlands, marshes and coastal flooded flatlands in the Gulf, associated to coastal
zones on the border between sea and land, are prone to seasonal flooding from excess
rainfall and excess fresh-river water, and constitute dykes and canals that playan
important role on the coastal landscape and contribute to the high production of the
coastal region. The coastal area associated to rivers interconnects, through an
extensive network of flatlands and seasonal and perennial flooded flatlands that permit
water retention act as filters, deposits and sources for various substances, and conform
26
the habitat of many plant species adapted to these conditions, and to the fauna
associated to this type of vegetation, both submerged and terrestrial. Mangroves
constitute the only type of forest located in the border between land and sea in the Gulf,
their presence promotes the deposit of fine particles that permit the re-colonization of
the river bottom with roots and seedlings. The amount and quality of solids and
dissolved and suspended material determine primary and secondary production in
wetlands; sediments and associated benthonic fauna collaborate in trapping nutrients,
organic carbon, and pollutants and toxic substances. (Escobar, 2004).
METHODOLOGY
We conducted a search for studies with detailed yearly information on population growth
and industrial activities which would indicate high levels of contamination by
hydrocarbons, metals, pesticides, PCB´s and micro-organisms in water, sediments and
organisms in the main rivers of the coastal zone of the Gulf of México. Due to the
absence of this type of information for Mexican rivers, other bodies of water, like coastal
lagoons in the states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatán and
Quintana Roo, were taken into consideration.
Several publications, scientific articles and books, were collected; the information found
was arranged in a data base with the following information: environmental component
(water, sediment and organisms), coastal state, type of body of water, type of pollutant,
sampling year, author of the study, value of pollutants, units, information about the study
where the information was taken from and, when pollutants had been measured from
living organisms, the scientific name and/or common name of the species was added.
Information from each document was subsequently recorded in a data base.
To design the relevant maps, we used geographic layers with boundaries of states,
municipalities, urban localities, catchment area (basins), rivers and bodies of water.
Some of these were in metric coordinates in conical projection according to Lambert, so
they were transformed to geographic coordinates. Municipalities were especially
27
selected to include, every time they were visited, (one per state) only those that
correspond to coastal zones on the Atlantic side of México (Gulf of México and
Caribbean Sea). It was very important to produce a table with data on geographic
coordinates (latitude and longitude), type of activity and name of the enterprise and/or
economic units (agricultural, mining and industrial) found on the coastal municipalities.
This information was obtained from the INEGI through a process of manual data
selection with which the above mentioned table was created. This table was used to
generate a vectorial layer of points in shape format by using the values of the
geographic coordinates. The catchment areas and the rivers were obtained with the
Digital Elevation Model from the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, Far and
Kobrik, 2000) from NASA in the USA, and JAXA from Japan, according a procedure
based on the definition of flow directions and accumulations proposed by Jenson and
Dominguez (1988). These cartographic elements constitute the geographical frame for
the visualization of potential effects of industrial activities and other economic activities
in terms of their location on the basins and their distance to rivers and bodies of water.
RESULTS
Documents consulted included publications from the 1990´s up to 2012 which recorded
concentrations of pollutants in water, sediments and organisms in superficial bodies of
water on the coastal zone of the Gulf of México and the Caribbean Sea. These
pollutants were: total coliform bacteria (CF), fecal coliform bacteria (FC) and, in some
cases, fecal enterococii (FE); hydrocarbons, metals and pesticides; approximately 33
compounds. For name lagoons are abbreviated to more practice (Table 8).
Results from coastal states, component (water, sediment and organisms), and type of
pollutant, are shown on the following paragraphs:
28
Tamaulipas
Industrial wastewater discharge to surrounding coastal water .The coastal ecosystems,
mainly the one in the Gulf of Mexico, is exposed to considerable impacts of the industrial
wastewater. The coastal area in Tamaulipas State is one region that illustrates the
typical pressures on coastal and marine ecosystems in the country. Wastewater from
the industrial corridor of Altamira region is discharged to the surrounding water bodies,
evoking serious environmental contamination. As for the sea area, wastewater from a
chemical industry within the Altamira Industrial Corridor is discharged directly to
seawater off Miramar Beach. In this area, water pollution is observed as daily
occurrence. There is water discoloration <0.5-12.6 due to ion compounds and the
"patch" sometimes diffuses to cover 10km2 of water surface centering the outlet.
Tampico is the site of the largest oil refineries in Mexico. There is a danger that this area
will be polluted by leakage of oil and sewage. It is recommended that indicators of oil
pollution and water pollution caused by daily human activities be added to the organic
monitoring parameters. Surfactant, as an indicator of water pollution from detergents,
should be monitored to determine the inputs from the populated areas. It is expected
that the coastal area of Tampico will be polluted by domestic wastewater because of the
lack of sewage treatment facilities in Tampico.
Rivers and Non-point Pollution Sources
Tables 9 and 10 show the daily discharge volume, concentration of pollutants, and daily
pollution loads from rivers and non-point pollution sources in the dry season and rainy
season respectively.
Pollution loads are much larger in rainy season rather than in dry season. The upstream
of Pánuco River discharges the largest pollution loads into Tampico Area (91% of total
BOD5 load and 95% of total COD load in dry season; 92% of total BOD 5 load and 96%
of total COD load in rainy season from rivers and non-point pollution sources); and
29
Tamesi River discharges the second largest pollution loads from rivers and non-point
pollution sources.
Table 9. Profile of Present Non-Point Pollution Sources in Dry Season.
Table 10. Profile of Present Non-point Pollution Sources in Rainy Season.
30
However, there were few studies from this state. There was only found a few records for
metals, for 1998-1999 on Crassostrea virginica oysters from the San Andrés lagoon,
with an average value of 5.85 µg/g for Pb, and 2.55 µg/g for Cd, as show in this table 11.
Table 11 Petroleum hydrocarbon content in water, sediments and organisms of Gulf of
Location Mexico and Yucatan Peninsula (JICA, 2000).
*UNESCO's Value afishes, bcrustaceans, cmollusks
Point Pollution Sources
Point pollution source in the Tampico Area is much important because their industrial
and municipal wastewater, and some entities utilize treatment facilities before
discharging wastewater into water bodies. These wastewater treatment facilities are
shown in Table 12.
There were two discharge paths of wastewater: One was directly discharged into
Altamira Industrial Port, and the other was discharged into Altamira Industrial Port
through Garrapatas Stream.
31
Table 12. Treatment plants of industrial wastewater.
Source JICA (2000)
It is estimated that the Río Bravo basin receives an annual volume of wastewater of 625
Mm3. In 2009 there were 205 treatment plants in operation in the area (Table 13)
(CONAGUA, 2011), with a capacity of 6.20 m 3/s (195.52 Mm3/year), that treated
approximately 30% of the generated volume of water (Table 13).
In 2009 the state of Tamaulipas had 104 sewage treatment plants, with a capacity of
2.54 m3/s (CONAGUA, 2011). It is important to point out that the water treatment
capacity in the state increased approximately 400% from 1995 to 2007. Up to 2007,
sewage treatment took place in only 33 state plants (INEGI, 2010) (Table 14).
The Río Pánuco basin receives 12,000 Mm3 of wastewater per year. However, it has
only 104 treatment plants with a capacity of 2.54 m 3/s (80.10 Mm3/year) (CONAGUA,
2011), that represents approximately 0.6% of the total wastewater that is generated in
the basin (Table 13).
32
Table 13. Characteristics of the basins that discharge into the Gulf of Mexico.
Basin
Population:
number of
inhabitants
3
10,844,542
4,05 million
3
4,665,616
Río Bravo
Río Pánuco
Río TuxpanJamapa
3
Río Papaloapan 3,608 million
2
Grijalva4, 919,793
Usumacinta
Yucatán península:
1
Río Candelaria
45,350
1
228,607
Río Hondo
Average
annual runoff
3
(Mm )
3
5,588
3
20,330
23,403
Wastewater
3
discharges (Mm /year)
4
625
4
12,000
561
3
44,662
5
115, 536
*385
3
2,011
2
533
6
The direct discharge of
underground water to
the sea is almost three
times greater than
2
surface runoff
Treatment
plants in
operation
3
205
3
104
3
140
Treated
volume
21.68
2.54
4.06
6
23
3
102
2.37
3
72
1.90
*total volume of municipal and industrial wastewater.
1
2
3
Taken from Benítez, 2010; Consejo de Cuenca de los ríos Grijalva y Usumacinta; CONAGUA, 2011;
4
5
6
INEGI, 2007; Whizar Lugo, 2012; Consejo del Sistema Veracruzano del Agua y las Cuencas
Hidrológicas, 2006.
In 2009 the hydrological region along the mid-Gulf (Veracruz) had 140 treatment plants
that treated 4.06 m3/s (128.04 Mm3/year) (CONAGUA, 2011). Of the 561 Mm 3 that are
generated in the Tuxpan-Jamapa basin per year, only approximately 23% was treated
during that year (Table 14). The number of treatment plants in operation increased 20%
throughout the state of Veracruz from 1995 to 2007. However, their treatment capacity
during that period decreased from 2.9 to 2.6 m3/s (INEGI, 2010) (Table 14).
Table 14. Municipal wastewater treatment plants and treated volume in the Gulf of
Mexico states (1995 and 2007).
1995
2007
Plants in
Treated volume
Plants in
Treated volume
operation
(l/s)
operation
(l/s)
Tamaulipas
11
817
33
3,574
Veracruz
37
2,910
87
2,654
Tabasco
6
707
70
1,316
Campeche
5
25
10
47
Yucatán
17
53
13
68
Quintana Roo
15
1,457
19
1,601
Taken from: INEGI, 2010. Anuario de estadísticas por entidad federativa 2010.
State
33
In 2006 the Papaloapan basin generated 385 Mm 3 per year of wastewater, for which
there were 23 municipal treatment plants with an efficiency of 6.7% (Table 13). Industrial
discharges amounted to 287.77 Mm3, of which only 185.77 Mm3 were treated and 102.2
Mm3 were left untreated (Consejo del Sistema Veracruzano del Agua y las Cuencas
Hidrológicas, 2006).
In 2009 the hydrological region that includes the states of Tabasco and Campeche had
102 plants in operation with a capacity of 2.37 m 3/s (85.14 Mm3/year) (CONAGUA,
2011). The number of treatment plants in the state of Tabasco increased almost 200%
over 12 years, as well as the treated volume of water. The state of Campeche doubled
its number of treatment plants and treated volume of water (INEGI, 2010) (Table 15).
In 2009 the hydrological region of the Yucatán peninsula had 72 treatment plants with a
treatment capacity of 1.90 m3/s. The state of Yucatán stopped operating four treatment
plants from 1995 to 2007, however the treated volume of water increased 9% (INEGI,
2010) (Table 15). There are more than 411000 septic tanks in the Yucatán peninsula
that discharge water into the soil. That water then reaches the water table, underground
rivers, the coastal area and lagoons, polluting the receiving bodies and forming confined
or open underground aquifers. All these systems eventually discharge into the sea
(Kauffer Michel and Villanueva Aguilar, 2011). Wastewater treatment takes place in
small treatment plants that all together treat only 45 l/s (Fernández, 2011).
In the state of Quintana Roo, tourism and biological pollution have generated high levels
of fecal coliforms, as also occurs in the southern region of Campeche, together with the
presence of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals (Chi, et al., 2011).
Table 15 shows that the state with the greatest number of treatment plants, plants in
operation and treated volume is Veracruz, while the state with the lowest number of
plants and the smallest treated volume is Quintana Roo, a state that has been favored
touristic ally and which, in consequence, has a potentially greater pollution.
34
Table 15. Industrial wastewater treatment plants in operation in the states along the Gulf
of Mexico (2007 and 2008).
2007
2008
Plants in
Treated volume
Plants in
Treated volume
operation
(l/s)
operation
(l/s)
Tamaulipas
46
832
46
1,118
Veracruz
160
8,638
161
8,649
Tabasco
108
150
115
150
Campeche
49
159
49
159
Yucatán
36
71
36
71
Quintana Roo
2
5
2
5
Taken from: INEGI, 2010. Anuario de estadísticas por entidad federativa 2010.
State
Veracruz
With the propose to more ease the names of the coastal lagoon were abbreviated as
show en the table 16.
Table 16. Coastal bodies of water in the state of Veracruz, and abbreviation key.
Cuerpo de Agua
El Conchal
Laguna Alvarado
Laguna Ostión
Laguna Pueblo Viejo
Laguna Tamiahua Estero Ciénega
Laguna Tamiahua Estero Laja
Laguna Tamiahua
Laguna Tamiahua zona sur
Laguna Mandinga
Laguna Salada
Laguna Sontecomapan
Laguna el Llano
Laguna La Mancha
Laguna Tampamachoco
Estado de Veracruz
Clave
Cuerpo de Agua
EC
Puerto de Veracruz
LA
Río Blanco
LO
Río Papaloapan
LPV
Río Coatzacoalcos
LTEC
Río Coatzacoalcos, Agua Dulce
LTEL
Río Coatzacoalcos, Ciudad Coatza.
LTA
Río Coatzacoalcos, Cosoleacaque
LTZS
Río Coatzacoalcos, Las Choapas
LMA
Río Coatzacoalcos, Litoral
LS
Río Coatzacoalcos, Minatitlan
LSO
Río Coatzacoalcos, Nanchital
LLL
Río Tonalá
LLM
Río Tuxpan
LTP
Clave
PV
RB
RP
RC
RCAD
RCCC
RCC
RCLC
RCL
RCM
RCN
RT
RTX
Water
Total coliform and fecal bacteria
Studies were carried out during the 1980´s for TC and FC in eight coastal bodies of
water (rivers and lagoons); TC concentrations varied between 240 and 10 NMP/100ml;
the most polluted bodies of water are, in descending order: RCL>LA>RCL and
RT>LTEC, LTEL and LTZS>EC. Regarding FC, the interval varied between 240 and
0.37 NMP/100ml, the most polluted was RCL, followed by, in decreasing order:
RT>RCL>LTZS, LTEL and LTEC>EC. For EF, information for only 3 bodies of water
35
was found, with concentrations of approximately 9 NMP/100ml (Figure 9). Subsequently
Japan International Cooperation Agency and the Comisión Nacional del Agua (2000)
included more sites where bacteriological monitoring was made, shown in table 17.
Figure 9. Contamination by total coliforms (TC) and fecal (FC) in coastal bodies of water
in the State of Veracruz.
The data presented in table 17 indicate that most of the sites were exceeded the
permissible levels established by the national legislation (240 cfu/100 ml; CNA, 2003),
except for Cosoleacaque, Minatitlán and Nanchitlal where bacterial concentrations were
acceptable.
In the northern region of Veracruz, the sites with the greatest bacterial levels was
Laguna de Tamiahua and its estuaries (Ciénega and La Laja), with values around 10000
cfu/100 ml probably due to it being a semi-enclosed coastal lagoon with a low dilution
and dispersion of pollutants, as well as to the continuous input of sewage.
The middle region of Veracruz was presents the greatest concentrations of total
coliforms, especially in Laguna de Alvarado probably in response to the high load of
pollutants that is provided by the many cities established along the margins of the rivers
that reach the area, particularly the Papaloapan basin.
36
Table 17. Coliform bacteria concentrations in Gulf of Mexico waters (cfu 1/100 ml).
Locality
Year
Total coliforms
(thousands)
Fecal coliforms
(thousands)
Northern Veracruz
Laguna de Tamiahua
Estero Ciénega
Estero La Laja
open deposit of Estero La Laja
Estero Cucharas
port of Veracruz
Laguna de Alvarado
Laguna La Mancha
Southern Veracruz
Coatzacoalcos region
river
lagoon
city
Laguna Ostión
Cosoleacaque
Minatitlán
Agua Dulce
Las Choapas
Nanchitlal
Tonalá river
Tabasco
Laguna de las Ilusiones
Laguna Carmen-Machona
Laguna Balchacah
Laguna Puerto Rico and Boca de
Atasta
Laguna de Términos
1987
1987-1988
1988
1988-1989
1989-1990
1989-1990
1989-1990
Central Veracruz
1981
16
10
10
19
10
4
1.8
10
10
10
10
10
4
2.8
ND
2005-2006*
1.1
110
4.2
1982
1982
1982
1983
1983
1983
1984
1984
1984
1986
1983
240
24
0.24
2.4
0.038
0.24
0.008
0.24
0.24
0.096
24
240
24
0.24
2.4
0.02
0.24
0
0.038
0.038
0.020
38
24000
0.24
2400
0.24
0.24
0.24
1978
0.24
0.24
1981-1982
1985-1986
1985-1986
14
5
0.24
0.24
1986
1979
Campeche
1978
2
0.2
0.38
Quintana Roo
Mahahual
20011**
28-45.7
3-42.2
1
2
cfu: colony forming unit. not given. Taken from *Cruz Toledo et al. (2008); **Torres-Alvarado and Calva
Benítez (2011). Taken from: Wong Chang and Barrera Escorcia (1996).
In the southern region of Veracruz, from the lower basin of the Coatzacoalcos river to
the Tonala River, a constantly high coliform bacterial pollution had been recorded as a
result of the discharge of untreated sewage (Wong Chang and Barrera Escorcia, 1996).
In contrast, the bacterial levels recorded in Minatitlán, Nanchitlal and Cosoleacaque
37
were below the permissible levels (8.38 and 96 cfu/100 ml, respectively), despite these
areas receiving considerable discharges from urban and industrial activities.
The state of Tabasco have been heavily polluted by fecal bacteria, especially the
Laguna de las Ilusiones that has a coliform content of 24000x103 cfu/100 ml. This urban
lake, surrounded by the city of Villahermosa, receives untreated runoff water. In 1995 it
was decreed a protected natural area, however it is increasingly polluted by sewage and
municipal solid waste (Padrón-Rivera 2004; Aquatic Ecosystems, 2012). The coastal
lagoons of Tabasco represent a potential danger to human health as the oyster reefs
established there constitute one of their main sources of fisheries production.
The state of Campeche was presents high concentrations of fecal coliforms also that
exceed permissible levels. Different studies have shown that people´s health may be
threatened by eating oysters from the Campeche oyster reefs considering that,
according to the Ministry of Health (SS 1995, 1997), the permissible levels of coliform
bacteria for shellfish cultivation and consumption are 70 cfu/100 ml for total coliforms
and 14 cfu/100 ml for fecal coliforms.
The southern coast of the state of Quintana Roo, particularly Mahahual beach, recorded
coliform concentrations above permissible levels. The higher values at Mahahual are
related to the greater tourism activity (Torres-Alvarado and Calva-Benítez, 2011).
Some sites along the coast of the state of Tamaulipas presented total and fecal coliform
concentrations that varied from low to greater than the permissible levels established by
the national legislation (JICCA, 2000) (Table 18).
Coliform bacteria concentrations in sediments are presented in table 19, where a greater
proportion of total and fecal coliforms in sediments than in coastal waters may be
observed. The greatest levels of bacteria were recorded for the estuaries of northern
Veracruz and the coastal lagoons of Carmen-Machona and Mecoacán in Tabasco
(Wong Chang and Barrera Escorcia, 1996).
38
Table 18. Tamaulipas. Bacteriological water quality analysis for the dry season (JICA,
2000).
Total
Fecal
coliforms
coliforms
1
1
(cfu /100
(cfu /l00 ml)
ml)
3
2
2.3x10
4.7x10
3
3
4.9x10
4.0x10
2
1
5.8x10
5.7x10
2
1
1.8x10
4.2x10
0
0
3.0x10
3.0x10
4
4
1 6x10
1 6x10
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
1
0
1.4x10
9.0’x10
0
5.0x10
ND
1
cfu: colony forming unit.
Total
coliforms
1
(cfu /100
ml)
3
2.3x10
0
7.0x10
2
9 8x10
0
6.0x10
1
1.5x10
0
4.0x10
0
1.0x10
1
9.1x10
1
1.4x10
ND
ND
ND
Fecal
coliforms
1
(cfu /l00
ml)
2
8.3x10
ND
2
9.8x10
0
2.0x10
0
1.0x10
ND
ND
1
6.7x10
0
8.0x10
ND
ND
ND
Total
coliforms
1
(cfu /100
ml)
0
8.0x 10
1
1.4x10
1
1.1x10
1
3.8x10
2
1.8x10
ND
ND
0
3.0x10
1
1.6x10
ND
Fecal
coliforms
1
(cfu /l00
ml)
0
1.0x10
0
1.0x10
0
5.0x10
1
2.9x10
1
3.2x10
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
Table 19. Concentration of bacterial in Gulf of Mexico sediments (cfu1/100 ml).
Locality
Year
Total
coliforms
(thousands)
Fecal coliforms
(thousands)
1987
1987-1988
1988
1988-1989
1989-1990
1989-1990
1989-1990
16
90
540
540
1000
270
19
11
90
140
190
1000
270
19
1982
1982
1983
240
24
24
88
3.8
2.1
1980
1981
1981
1980
1981
1981
1980
1981
1981
2400
1500
230
380
220
150
2400
2400
230
150
880
110
150
220
0.28
380
500
140
Veracruz
Laguna de Tamiahua
Estero Ciénega
Estero La Laja
open deposit of Estero La Laja
Estero Cucharas
Coatzacoalcos region
river
Laguna Ostión
Tonalá river
Tabasco
Laguna Carmen-Machona
Laguna Tupilco
Laguna Mecoacán
Campeche
1981-1982
18
4.2
1985
3.8
1985-1986
24
3.8
1
cfu: colony forming unit. Taken from: Wong Chang and Barrera Escorcia (1996).
Laguna de Términos
39
Hydrocarbons
During the 1980´s decade, five bodies of water were analyzed for hydrocarbons in
water. Average concentrations varied between 20 and 12 µg/l, while the highest values
recorded oscillated between 62 and 17 µg/l. Values are shown in descending order
according to the max concentration of HAP’s, RC>RTX>PV>RTX>LO (Figure 10).
Figure 10. Contamination with hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in coastal bodies of water in the
state of Veracruz.
Sediments
Total and fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal enterococii (FE)
Records in six coastal bodies of water from the 1980´s and 1990´s decades were the
following: regarding TC in the most polluted lagoons, in decreasing order, were
LTEL>LTEC>LPV>LTA>RC with concentrations between 1000 and 91 NMP/100ml.
Values recorded for FC varied between 46 and 1000 NMP/100ml. The most polluted
lagoons are, in decreasing order: LTEL>LTA>LTEC>LTZS>RC>LPV. For fecal
enterococii (FC), values were registered for only five bodies of water, with
concentrations varying between 24 and 302 NMP/100ml. The most polluted bodies of
water are, in decreasing order: LLTEC>LPV>LTEL>LTZS>LTA (Figure 11).
40
Figure 11.Contamination by total coliforms (TC) and fecal (FC) as well as by fecal
streptococii (FE) in coastal bodies of water in the state of Veracruz.
Hydrocarbons
Records from the 80`s and 90’s decades showed a considerable decrease in
hydrocarbons in sediments. The max levels in seven bodies of water on the coast
fluctuated between 30 and 2623 µg/g, and average values of 18 and 1189 µg/g. The
bodies of water, in decreasing order, regarding the max concentration recorded, are:
RC>RT>LO>LA (Figure 12).
Figure 12. Contamination with hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in coastal bodies of water in the
state of Veracruz.
41
Metals
Regarding metals in sediment, the following records were found in 13 coastal bodies of
water studied during the 90´s decade. The element with the highest concentrations was
Pb in all bodies of water, with a fluctuating range of 81.0 and 0 µg/g, the most polluted
bodies
of
water
were:
LLM >LLL >LS >LMA >RP >RC >RB >LA >LMA >LA >LTA >LSO >LTP >LMA >LO.
Concentrations of Cd were much lower, with values between 6.21 and 0.015 µg/g
(Figure13).
Figure 13.Contamination by metals in coastal bodies of water in the state of Veracruz.
Organisms
Total coliform and fecal bacteria, and Vibrio parahemolyticus.
Records from the 80’s showed contamination by TC and FC in two coastal bodies of
water. The most contaminated was total coliform with concentrations of 70 NMP/100ml,
followed by LTA with 0.03 NMP/100ml. For FC, values were 15 and 0.002 NMP/100ml
respectively. The presence of Vibro parahemolyticus was recorded in LMA for 2008,
with a max value of 8.15 µg/g during the rainy season (Figure 14).
42
Figure 14. Contamination by total coliform (TC) and fecal (FC), in Crassostrea virginicain
coastal bodies of water in the state of Veracruz.
Hydrocarbons
Regarding the presence of Hydrocarbons in live tissue, were found studies from four
bodies of water from the 70’s and 80 are decades showing average concentrations
varying between 15 and 0.13 µg/g. The most polluted lagoons, in descending order:
LTA>LPV>>LA>Isla Pajaritos>RC (Figure 15). Bodies of water included in the graph
where those for which there was data regarding the sampling year, nevertheless, there
is data for other eight bodies of water.
Figure 15. Contamination by Hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in oysters(Crassostrea virginica) or
clams (Polymeso dacarolineana)from coastal bodies of water in the state of Veracruz.
43
Metals
Regarding metals present in organisms, they were found in five coastal lagoons studied
during the 90’s. The element with the highest concentrations was Pb in all of them,
varying between 21.42 and 1.86 µg/g. Bodies of water with the highest concentrations
were: Tamiahua_2>LMA>LA>LLM>LMA>LLL>LTP. Regarding Cd, concentrations were
smaller, between 7.32 and 1.11 µg/g (Figure 16).
Figure 16. Contamination by metals in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in coastal bodies
of water in the state of Veracruz.
High levels of heavy metal contamination in water and sediments have been reported
south of the Gulf of Mexico. In estuaries of Coatzacoalcos River, there was mercury
contamination in water and sediments, as shown in Table 20. ln many coastal areas of
Veracruz, Tabasco and Campeche States, high lead concentration in water and
sediments has been reported as shown in Table 21.
Pesticides
This type of pollutant was found in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) during 2001-2002; the
smallest concentrations were found in the Alvarado Lagoon: 53.89 ƞg/g, followed by
Laguna la Mancha with 99.47 ƞg/g. In 2004, the Tamiahua lagoon was the most
contaminated, with values of 114.73 ƞg/g.
44
Application of pesticides in Mexico for agriculture and public sanitation purposes has
been practiced since 1946. The pesticides outflow from the applied area to the coastal
area through, groundwater, river, and wind and so on. Contamination levels of
organochloride pesticides in the Mexican coast are high in Tabasco and Campeche
States.
Table 20. Mean Concentration and Standard Deviation (S.D.) of Mercury in Water and "
SEDUE's Value Sediments of Gulf of Mexico Area (JICA, 2000).
SEDUE's Value. Source: Lagunas Costeras y el Litoral Mexicano; de la Lanza Espino and Cárceres
Martínez (1994).
Table 21. Mean Concentrations and Standard Deviation (S.D.) of Lead in Water and
Sediments of Gulf of Mexico Area (JICA, 2000).
* Mean Concentration and Standard Deviation (S.D.) of Lead in Water and Sediments of Gulf of Mexico
Area Location State (micro-g/l) ín Water (micro-g/g, dry weight) in Sediments Sedue (1986).
45
Tabasco
Table 22.Coastal bodies of water in the state Tabasco, and abbreviation key.
Estado de Tabasco
Cuerpo de Agua
Laguna Carmen-Machona
Laguna de las Ilusiones
Laguna El Carmen
Laguna Mecoacán
Laguna Sánchez Magallanes
Laguna Tupilco
Laguna Juvilá
Laguna Santa Anita
Laguna Machona
Laguna Yucateco
Plataforma Continental
Clave
LCM
LI
LC
LM
LSM
LTU
LJ
LSA
LMA
LY
PC
Water
Total and fecal coliform bacteria
Studies were made during the 80`s for TC and FC in five coastal bodies of water in
rivers and lagoons. The two most polluted lagoons were LSM and LI, with TC levels
between 400 and 24 NMP/100ml respectively. For FC, the interval varied between 90
and 2.4 NMP/100ml, the most polluted being LSM (Figure 17).
Figure 17. Contamination by total Coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) in coastal bodies
of water in the state of Tabasco.
46
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons in water showed a considerable decrease between records of the 80´s
and those of the 90’s. The max contents in four coastal bodies of water oscillated
between 11 and 2.8 µg/g, and average values of 7 and 0.93 µg/g. The bodies of water,
in decreasing order regarding max recorded concentration are: LMA>LM>LC>LM
(Figure 18).
Figure 18. Contamination by Hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in coastal bodies of water in the
state of Tabasco.
Sediment
Total and fecal coliform bacteria
Records for the 80`s decade in three lagoons were high for TC, between 2400 to 150
NMP/100ml. The most polluted lagoons were LM and LCM with 2400 NMP/100ML while
LTU recorded values of max. 380. For FC, the highest value was LCM, followed by LM,
and lastly LTU (Figure 19).
47
Figure 19. Contamination by total coliform (TC) and fecal (FC) in coastal bodies of water
in the state of Tabasco.
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons in sediments during the 1980’s, 1990’s and 2000’s decades decreased
considerably. The max values recorded for HAP’s concentrations in seven coastal
bodies of water varied between 1060 and 0.39 µg/g, and average values of 112.2 and
0.13 µg/g. The most polluted bodies of water were LM and LCM with their max recorded
concentrations (Figure 20). Recent average values, detected in 2005 for LY showed
concentrations of 1.09 µg/g with max values of 1.63 µg/g, while for LM in 2009, the
average was 0.15 µg/g and the max value, 0.39 µg/g.
Figure 20. Contamination by Hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in sediment in coastal bodies of
water in the state of Tabasco.
48
Metals
Metals present in sediment were recorded in seven coastal bodies of water during the
1990’s any 2000’s decades: Pb varied between 158.7 and 6.49 µg/g. The most polluted
bodies of water, in descending order were: LI>LY>LJSA>LJ>LM>LC>LMA>LC. (Figure
21).
Figure 21. Contamination by metals in coastal bodies of water in the state of Tabasco.
Pesticides
In 2005, the concentration of ∑PCB in the Laguna el Yucateco had a content of 2.82
ƞg/g in the area of river influence, while concentrations decreased in the area of sea
influence to <0.01 ƞg/g.
Organisms
Total and fecal coliform bacteria
During the first years of the 1980`s the concentration recorded for TC and FC in oysters
Crassostrea virginica was 2400 (thousands) NMP/100g in the Sánchez Magallanes
lagoon, and in 1985 values recorded for the Carmen and Mecoacán lagoons were
smaller: CT of 30 (thousands) NMP/100g and 20 (thousands) NMP/100g respectively,
for FC, records were of 2 (thousands) NMP/100g and 0.015 (thousands) NMP/100g.
49
Hydrocarbons
Live tissue from organisms from four bodies of water, during the 1970´s and 1990´s
decades showed average concentrations varying between 45 and 0.22 µg/gr, the most
polluted lagoons being, in descending order: LM and LC>LMA>LCM (Figure 22), with a
considerable decrease seen in HAP´s concentration in organisms during the 1990´s
decade regarding LMA, LM and LC.
Figure 22. Contamination by Hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in oysters in coastal bodies of water
in the state of Tabasco.
Metals
During the 1990’s and 2000’s, concentrations of Pb and Cd in some of the three bodies
of water in the state of Tabasco varied between 15.68 and 0 µg/g. The highest value
corresponds to LY for 1997, followed, in descending order, by LC>LM>LMA. By 2003
there was a decrease in Pb concentrations. Regarding contamination by Cd, the
concentration varied between7.09 µg/gr for LC and 0 µg/g. in LMA and LY (Figure 23).
50
Figure 23. Contamination by metals in coastal bodies of water in the state of Tabasco.
Campeche
Estado de Campeche
Cuerpo de Agua
Clave
Laguna de Atasta
LA
Boca de Atasta
BA
Boca Palizada Vieja
BPV
Laguna Balchacha
LB
Laguna de Términos
LT
Laguna Puerto Rico
LPR
Río Palizada
RP
Río Candelaria
RC
Sonda de Campeche
SCA
Río Chumpan
RCH
Plataforma Continental
PC
Water
Total and fecal coliform bacteria
During the 1980´s decade, studies for TC and FC were carried out in different areas of
LT, the highest levels were detected for TC, the most polluted place with a concentration
51
of 14 NMP/100ml, followed by BPV with 3.8 NMP/100 ml: the FC had lower
concentrations, the highest values being once again for BA (Figure 24).
Figure 24. Coastal bodies of water contaminated by total coliform bacteria (TC) and
fecal bacteria (FC) in the state of Campeche.
Hydrocarbons
HAP’s in water during the 1980`s decade: the Laguna de Términos registered average
concentrations of 48 µg/gr, with max. values 319 µg/g; average contents were 8.8 µg/g
in the Sonda de Campeche (Figure 25).
Figure 25. Coastal bodies of water contaminated by Hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in the state
of Campeche
52
Pesticides
Three coastal bodies of water in the state were studied in 2005; the four important types
of contaminants found were: ∑PCB, Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1260 and ∑DDT. Range of
values in each case was 3405 to 864 pg/l for ∑PCB. The following bodies of water, in
descending order, based on their degree of contamination are: RP>RC>RCH. Contents
of Aroclor 1254 varied between 4050 to 1000 pg/l; the most contaminated body of water
was RP, followed by RC and, lastly, RCH. The same behavior was seen for Aroclor
1260. ∑DDT in these bodies of water had the lowest concentration, between 531
and159 pg/l (Figure 26).
Figure 26. Coastal bodies of water contaminated with pesticides in the state of
Sediments
Total and fecal coliform bacteria
The highest levels of TC in the Laguna de Términos during the 1980´s were 18
NMP/100ml in 1981-1982, reaching 24 NMP/100ml by 1985-1986. While the FC had
much lower values, varying between 3.8 and 4.2 NMP/100ml. (Figure 27).
53
Figure 27. Coastal bodies of water contaminated with total coliform (TC) and fecal (FC)
bacteria in coastal bodies of water in the state of Campeche.
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons in sediments showed a considerable decrease during the 1980`s and
1990’s in PC. The max concentration was recorded in PC in a study from1978-1981 with
a content of 715 µg/g, while by 1990, the max, value recorded had gone down to 0.47
µg/g. In the Laguna de Términos concentrations recorded varied between 10 and 50
µg/g (Figure 28).
Figure 28. Coastal bodies of water contaminated with Hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in coastal
bodies of water in the state of Campeche.
54
Metals
Metals found in sediments in three coastal bodies of water: the highest concentration
was for Pb in LT and RP, with a variation range of18.2 to 74.2 µg/g, the most
contaminated river was RP, followed by LT and, lastly, RC. Levels of Cd showed a
range of values from 1.39 a 22.3 µg/gr, with the highest concentration in RC, followed by
RP and, lastly, LT (Figure 29).
Figure 29. Coastal bodies of water contaminated with metals in coastal bodies of water
in the state of Campeche.
Pesticides
Pesticides in sediments. In 2000, two rivers in this state had ∑PCB, Aroclor 1254 and
∑DDT; the most contaminated river was RC with the three types of contaminants (Figure
30).
Figure 30. Contamination by pesticides in coastal bodies of water in the state of
Campeche.
55
Organisms.
Total and fecal coliform bacteria
In 1985, contamination by TC and FC bacteria was recorded in two coastal bodies of
water in the state of Campeche, which oscillated between 0.4 and 4.8 NMP/100ml
(Figure 31).
Figure 31. Contamination by total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria in
oysters in bodies of water in the state of Campeche.
Hydrocarbons
At the beginning of the 1990’s, two studies in Laguna de Términos recorded, in
Crassostrea virginica tissue, values of 0.32 µg/grand 17.3 µg/g.
Metals
Two coastal bodies of water studied during the 1990’s decade recorded the highest Pb
concentrations for three cases except LT, with a variation range of 1.52 and 8.84 µg/g.
For Cd, concentrations were lower, between 1.08 and 5.33 µg/g (Figure 32).
56
Figure 32. Contamination with metals in Crassostrea virginicain coastal bodies of water
in the state of Campeche.
Pesticides
In 2000, the oyster Crassostrea virginica from two rivers showed the lowest
concentrations for RCH, and the highest for RC, with contents that varied from 200 pg/l
to 6329 pg/l (Figure 33).
Figure 33. Contamination by pesticides in coastal bodies of water in the state of
Campeche.
57
Yucatán
The Chelem Lagoon was the only body of water for which there was contamination
records (in water, sediment and organisms) for HAP’s in water and sediment; the
aquatic component oscillated between 5 and 35 µg/l, while the variation interval in
sediments was 170 µg/gr to 544 µg/gr (Figures 34 and 35).
Figure 34. Contamination with hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in water in the Chelém (LCH)
lagoon, Yucatán.
Figure 35.Contamination with Hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in sediments in the Chelém lagoon,
Yucatán.
58
Quintana Roo
Estado de Quintana Roo
Cuerpo de Agua
Bahía Akumal
Laguna de la Media Luna
Laguna Yalku
Puerto Morelos
Puerto Morelos, Cenote sumergido
Puerto Morelos, Manglar
Puerto Morelos, Playa
Puerto Morelos, Pozo
Laguna Holbox
Mar Caribe
Laguna Bojórquez
Laguna Nichupté
Laguna Chetumal
Clave
BAK
LML
LY
PM
PMCS
PMM
PMP
PMPO
LH
MC
LB
LN
LCHT
Water
Total and fecal coliform bacteria
In 2000, TC and FC were recorded in three different bodies of water in the state. The
highest levels of TC were 460 NMP/100ml in the BAK and LY lagoons, while low
average concentrations varying from 60 to 134.83 NMP/100ml. Max values of FC
recorded were 43 NMP/100ml for BAK and LY, while for LML it was 7NMP/100ml
(Figure 36). In 2006, contents for FC were recorded between 25.3 and 679.9 CFU
(Figure 37).
59
Figure 36. Contamination by total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria in
coastal bodies of water in the state of Quintana Roo.
Figure 37. Contamination by total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) in coastal bodies
of water in the state of Quintana Roo.
60
Hydrocarbons
The HAP`s recorded in the 1980’s decade in water: average contents varied between
4.4 µg/l to 15 µg/l, with a max for MC of 46 µg/l (Figure 38).
Figure 38. Contamination by Hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in coastal bodies of water in the
state of Quintana Roo.
Sediments
Total and fecal coliform bacteria
In 2001, TC and FC were found in three coastal bodies of water in the state;
concentrations varied between 750 and 24000 NMP/100ml in BA, followed by LML and,
lastly LY where concentrations were lower (Figure 39).
Figure 39. Contamination by total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria in
oysters in coastal bodies of water in the state of Quintana Roo.
61
Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons in sediments decreased considerably in the records from the 1980`s
and1990’s decades. The max concentration was recorded in LN in studies from 1985
with a content of 298 µg/g, while for LB concentration was 18 for 1981 µg/g (Figure 40).
Figure 40. Contamination by hydrocarbons (HAP’s) in coastal bodies of water in the
state of Quintana Roo.
Metals
Cd concentration in 2004 in lagoons LH and PM varied between 0.5 and 1.0 µg/g for PM
and LH (Figure 41).
Figure 41. Contamination by metals in coastal bodies of water in the state of Quintana
Roo.
62
The table 22. compare the different countries criteria’s for water quality for different
elements and compounds
Table 22. Criteria of Quality Standards and Results of Pilot Monitoring Survey (Toxic
Parameters) (JICA, 2000).
(1) The criteria were established by CAN (Comisón Nacional del Agua) in 1989.
(2) This was recommended by EPA in December 10, 1998 in "National Recommended
Water Quality Criteria; Notice; Re-publication".
Diagnostic characteristics of Water Quality specially to the Tampico Area, but applied to
the other coastal sites
From what has been discussed above, it is concluded that:
1) Chemical parameters have an effect on each other. This characteristic is not peculiar
to Tampico Area; it could also be observed in other areas.
2) It is possible to verify data by the above theory.
63
3) The measuring results of COD, SS, nitrogen and phosphorous, caused by domestic
wastewater, showed high concentration, some of them even exceeding. Levels the
criteria of water quality in Japan, united states and Mexico.
4) Contrary to these basic parameters, the concentration of heavy metals in water was
relatively high in Panuco River and near the river mouth compared with the other areas,
but their values were low and exceeded the criteria of water quality only in Japan and
the United States. Pesticide, PCB and other volatile organic matter (VOC) were almost
below the detection limit.
5) The concentrations of pollutants in water have the tendency to be higher in Panuco
River, especially PR-2, PR-3, than in the other areas. In Pueblo Viejo Lagoon, it was
assumed that pollutants originated from Pánuco River, because the concentrations of
pollutants showed high value in the northern area (PL-1, PL-z) and it decreased in the
southern area.
6) On the other hand, in the coastal area, the concentrations of each parameter showed
higher values near the mouth of Panuco River than in the other areas. The reason is
that pollutant substances are provided from Pánuco River.
7) Dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a in Marismas Lagoon showed high concentrations.
And since water temperature was high at above 30 ', there is high photosynthesis
activity. As a result, eutrophication has occurred. The result of nitrogen and
phosphorous also indicated it.
8) The contents in sediment were related with particle size. That is to say, the more silt
in sediment, the more the pollutants, e.g. COD, heavy metals. The reasons are as
follows:
Pollutants easily gather on the bottom where fine particle substances are
accumulated, because water movement is not active.
Silty sediment easily adsorbs pollutants, because its particle size is small and surface
area is extremely large.
9) Sediment polluted by organic substances, such as COD, and heavy metals, have
higher concentrations in Panuco River than in the other areas) same as water quality. It
is supposed that pollution sources are mainly from urban and industrial discharge.
64
10) PCB, VOC and alkyl-mercury content of pesticides are below detection limit in
sediment, the same as in water quality.
11) The result of elution test showed that the concentrations of all toxic parameters were
below detection limit or just exceeded it. So serious problem by elution was not seen.
12) ln bioiogical accumulation test, relatively high values were detected for some heavy
metals. Copper and zinc content is the same level as the normal average level.
However, a few samples, Ronco in the coastal area, Gurrubata in Panuco River and
Pueblo Viejo Lagoon, contained high concentrations of mercury. This number is higher
than in other results of monitoring survey, for example in Japanese coast.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The present inform was made with the support of M. en C. Julieta Romero Novales,
Tech. Salvador Hernández Pulido and M en C. José Luis Carbajal Pérez.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abel, P.D. 1996. Water Contamination Biology. Tony and Francis U.K. 286p.
Albert, L.A., y J.A. Benítez. 2005. Impacto ambiental de los plaguicidas en los
ecosistemas costeros. P. 157-176 En: A.V. Botello, J, Rendón-von Osten, G. Gold
Bouchot y C. Agraz Hernández (eds). Golfo de México Cotaminación e Impacto
Ambiental: Diagnóstico y Tendencias, 2da Edición. Universidad Autónoma de
Campeche, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto Nacional de Ecología:
696 p.
Álvarez-Legorreta, T., y R. Sáenz-Morales. 2005. Hidrocarburos aromáticos policíclicos
en sedimentos de la bahía de Chetumal. P. 299-310 En: A.V. Botello, J, Rendón-von
Osten, G. Gold Bouchot y C. Agraz Hernández (eds). Golfo de México Cotaminación e
Impacto Ambiental: Diagnóstico y Tendencias, 2da Edición. Universidad Autónoma de
Campeche, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto Nacional de Ecología:
696 p.
Atlas de Riesgo del Municipio de Vega de Alatorre. 2011 (SEDESOL).
Barrera-Escorcia G. y P.E. Namihira-Santillán. 2004. Contaminación Microbiológica en
la zona costera de Akumal, Quintana Roo, México, Hidrobiológica 14(1): 27-35.
65
Benítez, J.A. 2010. Situación actual de las cuencas de los ríos Candelaria y Hondo. Las
Cuencas Hidrográficas de México.
Boris G. Palma G.R., V.M. Mondragón, G. Chazarro G. y U. Bando. 2009. Análisis
socioeconómico de la zona costera del Golfo de México. P 281.306 En: Buenfil
Friedman J. (ed). Adaptación a los impactos del cambio climático en los humedales
costeros del Golfo de México Vol. I. Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos
Naturales, Instituto Nacional de Ecología, México. 841p.
Brock, T.D., D.W. Smith y M.T. Madigan. 1987. Microbiología. 4a Ed. Prentice Hall.
México. 906 p.
Campbell, R. 1987. Ecología Microbiana. Editorial Limusa. Noriega editores. México.
518p.
Chi, J., M. López, G. Téllez, and S. Quiñones. 2011. Estudio comparativo de la calidad
bacteriológica del agua de la isla de Cozumel, Quintana Roo, México. Foro de
investigación científica, de desarrollo tecnológico y exposición cultural del “sistema
hidrológico de la cuenca Península de Yucatán”. Mérida, Yucatán. 23p.
Comisión Nacional del Agua (CNA). 2003. Ley Federal de Derechos Normas Aplicables
en materia de Aguas Nacionales y sus Bienes Públicos inherentes 2003. Diario Oficial
de la Federación, México. Enero de 2: 173-191.
CONAGUA. 2011. “Atlas del Agua en México 2011”. SEMARNAT, México, DF.
Consejo
de
Cuenca
de
los
ríos
Grijalva
y
Usumacinta
ftp://ftp.consejosdecuenca.org.mx/pub/downloads/docs_basicos/ejecutivos/24-RGU.pdf
(12-04-13).
Consejo del Sistema Veracruzano del Agua y las Cuencas Hidrológicas. 2006.
Disponibilidad del recurso hídrico en la cuenca del Río Papaloapan.
http://www.csva.gob.mx/foroagua/Material/4taReunion/07_CSVA.pdf (10-04-13).
Cruz Toledo J.C., M.R. Torres-Alvarado, A. Zarmina S. and G. B. Calva. 2008.
Contaminación orgánica y microbiológica en una laguna costera con boca efímera (La
Mancha), Veracruz. II Reunión Internacional de Oceanografía y XV Congreso Nacional
de Oceanografía. Boca del Río, Veracruz. 15-10-2008.
Cuadernillos Municipales, 2013 Pueblo Viejo.
Cuadernillos Municipales, 2013 Ozuluama de Mascareñas.
Cuadernillos Municipales; Tecolutla, 2013.
De la Lanza E.G., y J.C. Gómez Rojas. 2004. Características Físicas y Químicas del
Golfo de México. P 105-136. En: Caso M., I. Pisanty y E. Ezcurra (Comps). Diagnóstico
Ambiental del Golfo de México. Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
66
Instituto Nacional de Ecología Instituto de Ecología, A.C.,Harte Research Institute for
Gulf of Mexico Studies. 1083p.
Diagnóstico y Plan Municipal de Desarrollo Rural Sustentable, Soto La Marina Tams.
2006-2010.
Diagnóstico y Plan Municipal de Desarrollo Rural Sustentable. 2006.
Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México; Alto Lucero. 2005.
Escobar B.E. 2004. Estado del conocimiento de las comunidades Bénticas en el Golfo
de México. P 201-246. En: Caso M., I. Pisanty y E. Ezcurra (Comps). Diagnóstico
Ambiental del Golfo de México. Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales
Instituto Nacional de Ecología Instituto de Ecología, A.C.,Harte Research Institute for
Gulf of Mexico Studies. 1083p.
Estado de Tabasco, Enciclopedia de los Municipios: Cárdenas. 2010.
Estado de Tabasco, Enciclopedia de los Municipios: Centla. 2010.
Estado de Tabasco, Enciclopedia de los Municipios: Comalcalco. 2010.
Estado de Tabasco, Enciclopedia de los Municipios: Huimanguillo. 2010.
Estado de Tabasco, Enciclopedia de los Municipios: Jalpa de Méndez. 2010.
Estado de Tabasco, Enciclopedia de los Municipios: Nacajuca. 2010.
Estado de Tabasco, Enciclopedia de los Municipios: Tenosique. 2010
Ecosistemas Acuáticos. 2012. Proyecto de investigación de algas en la Laguna de las
Ilusiones. http://ecosistemasitvh.wordpress.com/2012/06/11/proyecto-de-investigacionde-algas-2/ (17-04-13).
Fernández, A. 2011. Suministro sustentable de agua potable. Foro de investigación
científica, de desarrollo tecnológico y exposición cultural del “sistema hidrológico de la
cuenca Península de Yucatán”. Mérida, Yucatán. 37p.
Gobierno del estado Instituto de Desarrollo y Formación Social H. Ayuntamiento de
Calkini.
Hansen A.M., M. Van Afferden, F Torres-Bejarano. 2007. Remediation of the Cencali
lagoon, Villahermosa, Tabasco. I. Pollution and sediment reuse. Ing Hidraul Mex 22:87–
102.
http://www.conagua.gob.mx/CONAGUA07/Noticias/SGP-18-11.pdf (15-04-13).
67
http://www2.ine.gob.mx/publicaciones/libros/639/rcandelaria.pdf (15-04-13).
INEGI. 2007. Anuario Estadístico de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.
http://www.inegi.gob.mx/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/integracion/pai
s/aeeum/2007/Aeeum071.pdf (12-04-13).
INEGI.
2010.
Anuario
de
estadísticas
por
entidad
federativa
2010.
http://www.inegi.gob.mx/prod_serv/contenidos/espanol/bvinegi/productos/integracion/pai
s/aepef/2010/Aepef2010.pdf
http://www.conapesca.sagarpa.gob.mx, www.conagua.gob.mx y www.inegi.org.mx
http://www.tecnun.es/asignaturas/Ecologia/Hipertexto/11CAgu/140MarCo.htm
http://www.tesis.bioetica.org/des13-1.htm#_Toc26628132
INEGI. 2012. Anuario de estadísticas por entidad federativa 2012.
http:--www3.inegi.org.mx-sistemas-mexicocifrasInformación Municipal; Agua Dulce. 2013.
Información Municipal; Coatzacoalcos. 2013.
Información Municipal; Mecayapan. 2013.
Información Municipal; Pajapan. 2013.
Información Municipal; San Andrés Tuxtla. 2013.
Información Municipal; Tatahuicapan. 2013
JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency National Water Commission). 2000. The
Study on Development of the National Water Quality Monitoring Program in Coastal
Areas in the United Mexican States (Final Report). Pacific Consultants International
Metocean.
Jiménez, C.B.E. 1995. Bases para el manejo integral de la cantidad y calidad del agua
en México. XX Congreso de la Academia Nacional de Ingeniería. Veracruz, Ver.
México: 14-19.
Joint Group of Experts on the Scientifics of Marine Pollution.
http://www.posgrado.unam.mx/publicaciones/ant_omnia/23/07.pdf.
1972.
En:
Kauffer Michel, E.F. and C.L. Villanueva Aguilar. 2011. Retos de la gestión de una
cuenca construida: la península de Yucatán en México. Aqua-LAC. Vol. 3. No. 2. pp. 8191. http://www.unesco.org.uy/ci/fileadmin/phi/aqualac/pp_81-91.pdf (25-04-13).
68
Mitchell, R., (ed). 1978. Water pollution microbiology (Vol. 2). John Wiley and Sons, New
York, NY, USA. 422 p.
Municipio de Aldama, Tams.
Municipio de Cd. Madero.
Municipio de Hecelchakán Monografía de Hecelchakán. 2005.
Municipio de Tamalín.
Municipio de Tampico.
Municipio de Tántima.
Municipio del Campeche, Monografía de Campeche. 2005.
Municipio del Carmen, Monografía de Carmen. 2005.
Municipio del Champotón, Monografía de Champotón. 2005.
Municipio del Tenabo, Monografía de Tenabo. 2005
National Academy of Science. 1985. Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates and Effects. National
Academic Press Washington, D.C. 280p.
National Research Council. 1985. Nutrient Requirements of Sheep. Washington, D.C.:
National Academy of Sciences. 99p.
Neff M.F. 1979. Polyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the aquatic environment. Sources,
Fates and Biological Effects. Applied Science Publishers U.K. 262p.
Padrón-Rivera B.B. 2004. Calidad del agua en la Laguna de las Ilusiones y su relación
con la distribución del manatí (Trichechus m. manatus) en el municipio del Centro,
Tabasco. Tesis de Licenciatura en Ecología, Unidad Sierra, División Académica de
Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco,102 pp.
Plan de Desarrollo Municipal. 2008–2010: Úrsulo Galván.
Plan de Desarrollo Municipal rural, Papantla de Olarte, Ver. 2006.
Plan de desarrollo Municipal; Nautla. 2011-2013.
Plan Municipal de Desarrollo, Cazones, Ver. 2005–2007.
Plan Municipal de Desarrollo. 2008-2010.
69
Plan Municipal de Desarrollo de Altamira. 2011 2016.
Plan Municipal de Desarrollo de Veracruz. 2011-2013.
Plan Municipal de Desarrollo Rural Sustentable. 2006-2010.
Plan Municipal de Desarrollo Rural Sustentable de Programa de Desarrollo Urbano del
Centro de Población de San Rafael, Ver. Gaceta Oficial. 2007.
Programa Municipal de Desarrollo. 2011-2013, Boca del Río.
Rheinheimer, G., 1992. Aquatic Microbiology. J. Wiley and N.Y. Sons. (4th Edition). VIII
+ 363. 258p.
Sánchez S.M.T. 1990. La industria petrolera como factor de cambio territorial en la
economía nacional a partir de los años setentas. Boletín de Investigaciones
Geográficas, Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, México (21): 75-95.
Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería, Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación.
(SAGARPA). 2011. Servicio de Información Agroalimentaria y Pesquera. Sistema de
Información Municipal Cuadernillos Municipales: Tampico Alto.
Secretaría de Salud (SS). 1995. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-031-SSA1-1993. Bienes
y Servicios. Productos de la Pesca. Moluscos bivalvos frescos-refrigerados y
congelados. Especificaciones sanitarias. Diario Oficial de la Federación, México. Marzo
6. 22 p.
Secretaría de Salud (SS). 1997. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-129-SSA1-1995. Bienes
y Servicios. Productos de la Pesca: secos-salados, ahumados, moluscos, cefalópodos y
gasterópodos frescos-refrigerados y congelados. Disposiciones y especificaciones
sanitarias. Diario Oficial de la Federación, México.
Sistema de Información Municipal; Alvarado. 2013.
Sistema de Información Municipal; Catemaco. 2013.
Sistema de Información Municipal; La Antigua. 2013.
Sistema de Información Municipal; Lerdo de Tejada. 2013.
Torres-Alvarado M.R. and L.G. Calva-Benítez. 2011. Costa Maya sur y cambio
climático; posible efecto del huracán Dean en la calidad ambiental. In: A. Vázquez
Botello, S. Villanueva, J. Gutiérrez and J.L. Rojas Galaviz (Eds). Vulnerabilidad de las
zonas costeras mexicanas ante el cambio climático. 2ª Edición. INE, SEMARNAT,
UNAM, Universidad Autónoma de Campeche.
70
Vidal Lorandi F.V., V.M.V. Vidal Lorandi, P.F. Rodríguez Espinosa, L. Zambrano
Salgado, J. Portilla Casillas, R. Rendón Villalobos, y B. Jaime de la Cruz. 1999.
Circulaciòn del Golfo de México. Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural,
México, V49: 1-15.
Whizar Lugo. 2012. Participación Social en la Gestión Integral de la Cuenca Grijalva.
Secretaria de Recursos Naturales y Protección Ambiental. Gobierno del Estado de
Tabasco,
México.
http://www.nrg4sd.org/sites/default/files/default/files/content/public/news/WWF/participac
ion_social_en_la_gestion_integral_de_la_cuenca_grijalva_-_tabasco.pdf (12-04-13).
Wong Chang I. and G. Barrera Escorcia. 1996. Niveles de contaminación microbiológica
en el Golfo de México; p. 383-397. En: A.V. Botello, J.L. Rojas-Gómez, J.A. Benítez, D.
Zárate-Lomelí (eds). Golfo de México, Contaminación e Impacto Ambiental: Diagnóstico
y Tendencias. Universidad Autónoma de Campeche. EPOMEX Serie Científica, 5.
666p.
Wong, CH,I. y E.G. Barrera. 2005. Contaminación microbiológica en la zona costero
marina: Implicaciones ecológicas. En: Botello, A.V., J. Rendón von Osten, G. GoldBouchot y C. Agraz-Hernández (eds.). Golfo de México, contaminación e impacto
ambiental: diagnóstico y tendencias. 2ª Ed. Univ. Autón. de Campeche, Univ. Nal. Auton
de México., INE, México: 475-486.
71

Similar documents