Europa Universalis Alternative Rules

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Europa Universalis Alternative Rules
Europa Universalis
ALTERNATIVE RULEBOOK
Alvaro Prada
January 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. INTRODUCTION
I.1. Preface
I.2. Lexicon
I.3.Game Components
2
2
2
2
II. BASIC RULES
II.1. Sequence of Play
II.2. Maintenance and Purchase
II.3. Leaders
II.4. Stacking
II.5. Supply
II.6. Campaigns
II.7. Movement
II.8. Naval Transport
II.9. Interception
II.10. Retreats
II.11. Technologies
II.12. Combat
II.13. Siege
II.14. End of Military Phase Test
II.15. Redeployment Phase
II.16. Interphase
5
5
5
7
8
8
9
9
11
12
13
14
14
17
19
19
20
III. ADVANCED RULES
III.1. Sequence of Play
III.2. Periods
III.3. Bankruptcy
III.4. Stability
III.5. Monarch Phase
III.6. Events Phase
III.7. Diplomatic Phase
III.8. Income Phase
III.9. Administrative Phase
III.10. Military Phase
III.11. Redeployment Phase
21
21
21
22
22
22
23
24
29
32
37
41
1
III.12. Peace Phase
III.13. Interphase
42
44
IV. SPECIAL RULES
IV.1. Special Leaders
IV.2. Special Minor Countries
IV.3. Russia
IV.4. Turkey
IV.5. Netherlands
IV.6. Spain
IV.7. Portugal
IV.8. Religion
IV.9. Civil Wars
IV.10. Wars of Succession
IV.11. Siberia
IV.12. Tordesillas Treaty
46
46
48
51
52
53
54
55
55
56
57
57
57
V. VICTORY
V.1. General Victory Points
V.2. Specific Victory Points
V.3. Period Objectives
59
59
60
60
VI. OPTIONAL RULES
VI.1. Basic Game
VI.2. Advanced Game
VI.3. Simultaneous Movement
61
61
61
62
VII. DESIGNER’S NOTES
65
VIII. COMPLETE EXAMPLE
OF GAME TURN
66
IX. INDEX
69
X. MAP AND COUNTERS KEY
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I. INTRODUCTION
I.1. PREFACE
Csc: conscript
CTZ: Country Trade Zone
D$: ducat, monetary unit of the game
D10: ten-sided die
D100: hundred-sided die; one d10 indicates tenths,
other indicates units.
DIP: Monarch’s Diplomacy rating
Dr: Die roll.
DTI: Domestic Trade Index
F+: Fleet, side (+)
F-: Fleet, side (-)
FTI: Foreign Trade Index
G: galley
Gln: Galleon Naval Technology
HRE: Holy Roman Empire
Inf: infantry
Lace: War in Laces Land Technology
LD: Land detachment
LS: Latin Sail Naval Technology
MC: Multiple Campaign
Man: War of Manoeuvre Land Technology
Med: Medieval Land technology
MIL: Monarch’s Military rating
MNU: Manufacture
MP: Movement Points
Mus: Musket Land Technology
N: warship
NC: No campaign
ND: Naval Detachment
PC: Passive Campaign
Ren: Renaissance Land Technology
RoW: Rest of the World (outside Europe map)
RT: Royal Treasure
SC: Simple Campaign
STZ: Sea Trade Zone
Sp: Strength Point
Stab: Stability
TD: Three Decker Naval Technology
Ter: Tercios Land Technology
TP: Trading Post
Tr: Transport ship
Ve: Vessel Naval Technology
Vet: veteran
VP: Victory point
The 2nd Edition of Europa Universalis was published in
1995 by Azure Wish, and although inside its design
there were brilliant ideas, it had numerous faults and
unclear rules. Every group of gamers I know of has
come with their own long list of house rules. Me too,
until I realised that a complete rewrite of the rulebook
was needed.
Thus, while we wait for the 3rd Edition, I offer this work
for the community of Europa Universalis gamers. It is
based on the English 2nd Edition, and does not include
rules from the Expansion Sets. It is a substitution for
the Rulebook, part of the Annexes (Economic Events
and minor country forces), some Scenarios, and for the
Players Aides.
DISCLAIMER: Europa Universalis is a trademark of
Azure Wish Edition. Its original designer is Philippe
Thibaut.
I.2. LEXICON
A. Frequent Terms:
-. Attrition: risk of losses during movement, retreat,
supply and siege.
-. Box: section of the Diplomatic and Technology tracks,
where markers are placed.
-. Campaign: a military operation that allows movement of units. There are various types of campaigns.
-. Day: complete sequence of combat (fire, shock /
boarding, pursuit, and leader injury).
-. Land Unit: an army or land detachment.
-. Major Power: country represented by a player.
-. Military Unit: an army, fleet or detachment.
-. Minor country: country not represented by a player.
When taking part in current play, it is controlled by a
Major Power.
-. Naval Unit: a fleet or naval detachment.
-. Period: each segment of the game, comprising 6-12
turns.
-. Round: military sub-phase where each player makes
a campaign.
-. Stability: An indication of the domestic situation of
a Major Power.
-. Stack: a group of military units (including leaders)
located in the same place and acting together.
-. Strength Point: a quantity of units of a specific type.
-. Technology: the power of a country’s forces in
combat. There are 7 Land and 6 Naval technologies.
I.3. GAME COMPONENTS
I.3.1. Maps
There are 2 colour, 80x60 cm maps. One represents
Europe, North Africa and Near East (European Map).
The other the Rest of the World (RoW map). See IX for
details.
B. Abbreviations
A+: army, side (+)
A-: army, side (-)
ADM: Monarch’s Administration rating
Arq: Arquebuse Land Technology
Arty: Artillery
Bar: Baroque Land Technology
Bat: Battery Naval Technology
Car: Carack Naval Technology
Cav: Cavalry
CB: Casus Belli
Col: Colony
The maps are divided in provinces and seas. In RoW
map, provinces are regrouped in Areas (a few Areas
have only 1 province). In RoW, each island in an Area
is a different province.
A. Provinces.
Each European province contains its name, income,
fortress type (level 1 or 2) and fortress name.
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have a die roll modifier printed inside a blue circle
(which represents a malus to naval attrition).
E.2. Trade Zones are indicated by a ship inside a
square or circle, with a number printed on it (the
monopoly income). The Trade Zone covers the sea with
the symbol and all adjacent seas. Some Trade Zones
may overlap.
E.2.1. Country Trade Zones (circle) show the name of
the country they are linked to.
E.2.2. Sea Trade Zones (square), not linked to any
specific country, are identified by the sea name where
the symbol is printed.
E.3. In RoW, STZs have a Pirate symbol, with some
numbers used to determine if pirates appear in that
Trade Zone.
A.1. Major Powers have their National Provinces
delimited by border lines of the Major Power’s colour.
The provinces controlled by each country in Turn 1 are
indicated in the Annexes. Each scenario tells also any
possible variation.
A.2. Special Provinces:
-. Denmark, Baleares, Ionia, and Canarias: islands part
of these provinces are considered together as one and
single province.
-. Maroc, Ural, Nile, Arabia, and Kars: represented in
both maps, they are the same province, part of the
European Map.
-. Azores, Canarias, Persis, Ispahan, and Meched:
represented in RoW, they are in fact part of the
European Map for all purposes.
-. Irak: there are two different provinces named Irak,
one in Europe, the other in RoW. The latter Area values are 5/5/-, Natives 0. These two provinces are
adjacent.
-. Ormuz: Consider that this province is part of Europe
and part of RoW at the same time (thus all leaders may
enter it). Its Area values are 12/9/9, Natives 300.
-. Northernmost provinces of Areas Baikal, Amour and
Kamchatka are connected through a land passage,
which costs 6 MP, in addition to terrain costs.
E.4. Special Seas.
E.4.1. Sea of Azores, Sea of Canarias, Caspian Sea and
Red Sea, located in RoW, are part of Europe and RoW
at the same time, although they have to be discovered.
Thus, any leader may enter them once they are known.
E.4.2. Grand Pacific Ocean: there are 2 Grand Pacific
Oceans, each needing discovery. Exception: a stack
may declare crossing only 1 Grand Pacific, under the
following restriction: it can enter or leave the Grand
Pacific only through the Northern Pacific and NorthEastern Pacific.
B. Areas.
Each Area in RoW map shows three values: Income,
Difficulty and Tolerance. A figure next to a native’s
picture shows the number of natives. A figure inside a
square or circle indicates the Exotic Resources available.
F. Geography
The maps are divided in geographical zones, important
for placement of military leaders, events, scenarios and
special rules, although they are not marked.
Income, Difficulty, Tolerance and number of natives
apply to each province in the Area. Exotic resources
apply to the whole Area, and all may be exploited from
any province in the Area.
All seas adjacent to the concerned areas are also part
of the geogrpahical zones. Some may overlap on the
same sea.
The zone Middle East includes:
-. Areas Aden, Nefud, Oman, Bahk, Lahore, Kazakhs,
Irak. These are part of Asia as well.
-. Provinces Kars, Armenia, Kurdistan, Aleppo, Syria,
Liban, Judea, Samaria, Sinai, Jordania, Arabia, Irak,
Persis, Ispahan, Meched, Ormuz. The latter is part of
Asia.
-. Seas Caspian Sea, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Gulf of
Indus, Horn of Africa, Oman Sea. These are part of
Asia.
C. Terrain.
The terrain of a province is indicated by the filling
colour:
Clear: beige
Forest: green
Mountain: chestnut
Marsh: light green
Desert: yellow
Rivers are represented by blue lines in place of
province borders. Straits are represented by bluedotted lines. Lakes are surrounded by coastal lines.
Areas Cape Verde, St Helena, Madagascar, Seychelles
and Mascariegnes are part of Africa.
D. Fortress.
All European provinces, and a few in RoW, have a
fortress (level 1 or 2). Capitals of countries are typed in
red.
D.1. In addition, some are also ports. They allow entry
to each sea adjacent to the province, regardless of
where is the port symbol actually depicted.
D.2. Some provinces give access to seas that are not
adjacent themselves. Naval units entering the province
from a sea, cannot leave to another sea, non-adjacent
to the first. The port can be blockaded from any sea,
but it will only affect naval units that entered from that
sea, or an adjacent one. For siege purposes, to avoid
the malus for an unblockaded port, access to all
adjacent seas must be restricted.
America is subdivided in North America and South
America (south of area Sonora).
Western Indies is part of South America, and includes
the Areas Cuba, Haiti and Antilles.
Siberia includes areas Sibir, Omsk, Ienisseisk, Lena,
Baikal, Amour.
Asia includes India and part of Middle East, but
excludes Siberia.
India includes the Areas Ceylan, Carnatic, Malabar,
Mysore, Gujarat, Hyderabad, Mahrati, Orissa, Bahk,
Lahore, Punjab, Delhi, Oudh and Bengale.
E. Seas
E.1. Each sea has its name and a risk level printed
inside the cloud picture. In addition, some seas in RoW
Ireland includes provinces Connaught, Ulster, Pale,
Kildare and Monmouth.
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conquistador, explorer, pasha), turns of entry and exit,
rank (A to Z) and ratings (0 to 6) for movement, fire,
shock and siege. Other symbols indicate whether the
leader may leave Europe, has geographical constraints,
is a Monarch or is a privateer. Counters show one
leader in one side, and another in the other side.
North Africa includes provinces Maroc, Tanger, Orania,
Al-Djazair, Kabylia, Tunisia, Tripolitania, Cyrenaica,
Quattara, Cataract, Nile, Alexandria, Delta, Egypt.
Italy includes:
-. Provinces Savoy, Nice, Genoa, Milan, Mantua,
Venice, Emilia, Modena, Luca, Romagna, Firenze,
Rome, Naples, Pouilles, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily,
Messina
-. Seas Gulf of Lion, Thyrenean Sea, Ionian Sea,
Adriatic Sea.
Fortresses: small square counters, showing the level
(inside the fortress symbol) and the combat value (right
bottom). Markers with white background are used by
minor countries.
Col and TPs: large square counters, showing its
historical name, a picture of buildings, and the label
comproir (for TPs) or colonie (for Cols). Have two sides,
(+) and (-).
Germany includes provinces Bremen, Hannover,
Mecklemburg, Kiel, West-Pommern, East Pommern,
Oldenburg, Magdeburg, Brandenburg, Kustrin,
Munster, Berg, Hessen, Anhalt, Sachsen, Pfalz, Mainz,
Thuringen, Lorraine, Alsace, Baden, Wurtemberg,
Bayern, Anspach.
Trade fleets: small square counters, showing the
name of the country, a picture of ship, and an id letter
(from A to Z). Have two sides: (+) and (-).
Habsburg includes provinces Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia,
Carniola, Austria, Salzburg, Ostmarch, Erbland,
Moravia, Bohemia, Sudeten, Erz, Schlesien.
Manufactures: round-shaped counters, showing the
type of industry, the fixed income and the variable
income (percentage). On one side they represent 1
manufacture, on the other, 2.
Hungary includes provinces Magyar, Carpathia,
Ruthenia, Transylvania, Marozs, Banat, Croatia, Pecs.
Poland includes provinces West Prussia, Danzig,
Posen, Krakow, Mazovia, Podlasia, Galicja, Volhynia,
Lituania, Pripet, Ukraine, Donetsk, Kharkow, Worones,
Seweria, Bielorussia, Polotsk, Smolensk, Orel.
Diplomatic markers: small square counters showing
the name of the country, and values for diplomacy,
which may also be found in the Annexes.
Informational Markers: for usure, looting, revolt,
mines, technologies, province control, turn and Round.
Mediterranean includes seas Western Mediterranean,
Gulf of Lion, Thyrenean, Adriatic, Ionian, Aegean,
Eastern Mediterranean, Marmara, Western Black,
Eastern Black, plus all provinces adjacent to them.
B. The specific content of military units, trade fleets,
colonies and TPs is annotated on a sheet.
I.3.2. Counters
C. Armies, Fleets, TPs, Trading fleets and Colonies
have a (+) side and a (-) side. When their specific
content varies, they are flipped to the correct side.
A. The game includes 1412 counters of different sizes,
shapes and types. Except when indicated, the counters
provided are the maximum that may be used. See IX
for details. Most counters have a background colour to
identify its nationality.
I.3.3. Tables & Dice
Detachments: small square counters, showing the
name of the country, and an identification number (in
arabics). Most detachments are land (musketeer
picture) in one side, and naval (ship picture) in the
other
The game includes:
-. Two 10-sided dice. A “0” is always ten, unless specifically indicated otherwise
-. Nine Player Aides, one for each Major Power. These
include tables specific of each Major Power (costs of
purchasing and maintaining military forces, and action
limits), and generic for all players (monarch survival
and successors, administration, attrition, discovery,
conquistadors, pirates & natives attacks, interception,
repression of pirates and revolts, combat and siege).
-. Sheets for recording information: Income, Colony &
Trade Fleets, Monarch values & Administrative actions,
and contents of military units.
-. Charts for Entry and Exit turns of Leaders, and
available forces of minor countries.
Leaders: small square counters, showing the leader’s
name, a symbol to identify its type (general, admiral,
It is advised to use a new copy of the Player Aides,
Charts and record sheets for each game.
Armies: large square counters, showing the name of
the country, its flag and an identification number (in
romans). Have two sides: (+) and (-)
Fleets: large square counters, showing the name of the
country, a ship picture and an identification number
(in romans). Have two sides: (+) and (-)
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II. BASIC RULES
-. Siege
-. Fight privateers and revolts
⇒ 2nd Player (becomes Phasing player)
⇒ 3rd Player (becomes Phasing Player), and so on,
until all players have moved.
⇒ Test End of Military Phase. If Military Phase
continues, play next round.
4. Redeployment Phase
5. Interphase.
These rules allow playing the Scenarios included in the
Booklet. The Campaign games need both the Basic
Rules and the Advanced Rules. Note that many
scenarios have special rules that apply only when
playing them.
II.1. SEQUENCE OF PLAY
A. In some scenarios it is necessary to keep track of
the available money during the turn. Although the
Economic Record Sheet is used mainly with the
Advanced Rules, you may use the following lines
(according to the instructions of the scenario). They
should be self-explanatory:
(Line
(Line
(Line
(Line
(Line
(Line
(Line
(Line
II.2. MAINTENANCE AND PURCHASE
II.2.1. Content of Units
Strength points (sp) are the actual force of a military
unit. Each unit may have different quantities and
types of sp, depending on the unit type, technology and
country.
1) Treasure at start of the Turn
3) Players gifts & loans
7) Treasure at end of diplomatic Phase: 1+3
34) Net Income
35) Treasure at end of Income Phase: 7+34
36) Logistics
42) Campaigns
49) Treasure at end of Turn: 35-36-42.
Dummy units are not allowed; when a unit loses all its
sp, it is removed from the map. A unit can only have sp
of its own nationality.
A. Types of sp:
A.1. Land sp: infantry, cavalry and artillery. Each of
these may be conscript or veteran. Only countries with
Ren or better land technology may have arty. A player
may convert, at any time, arty sp into inf sp, keeping
the vet or csc status. The reverse is not allowed.
A.2. Naval sp: warship, galley, transport. There is no
csc/vet differentiation. Capacity of naval units is
indicated in warships and transports. The room of
each warship may be occupied by 3 galleys.
A.3. England, Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and
Scotland cannot have galleys in their own naval units.
B. The game consists of various Turns, depending on
the Scenario (up to 60 in the Grand Campaign Game).
During each turn, all players perform several activities
in specific Phases, in the order indicated in C below.
Then proceed to play another turn, until the game
ends.
The Military Phase consists of various Rounds, and all
players move their military units in each Round,
according to the initiative order indicated in the
Scenario.
C. At start of the Military Phase, active allied Major
Powers (those at war against the same enemy) may
decide to move together, using the lowest initiative
rank. The decision is announced in initiative order,
and applies during all rounds of the Military Phase and
the Redeployment Phase. It may be changed in
subsequent turns.
Minor countries always move when the controlling
Major Power does. The player plays them as he/she
wants.
B. Armies and Fleets
B.1. Armies and Fleets have a maximum capacity for
each type of sp, depending on the country and
technology. The capacity for each type is fixed and
non-transferable. The capacity of Major Powers’ units
is indicated in the Player Aides. That of minor
countries’ units is indicated in the Annexes.
B.2. Use the side (-) when an Army or Fleet has less
than 50% of its total capacity (all types included, but
remember a galley uses 1/3 of a warship capacity). Use
the side (+) when the content is 50% or more.
D. Sequence of a Game Turn
C. Detachments
Content of detachments is fixed for all countries and
technologies:
LD: 10 sp of any type, except arty.
ND: 5 sp of any type (each galley uses 1/3 of this
capacity).
1. Income and Diplomacy Phase
Each Scenario indicates how the players get money
and how to deal with minor countries.
2. Logistics Phase
2.1. Changes in Technology
2.2. Maintenance of existing units
2.3. Purchase and placement of new units.
2.4. Redeployment of Leaders.
3. Military Phase (2-11 Rounds)
In each round, each player, in order of initiative,
makes a campaign to move units.
⇒ 1st Player (Phasing Player)
-. Choice of Campaign
-. Movement, attrition and interception
-. Combat
II.2.2. Maintenance
Players maintain their existing military counters and
fortresses, with their current content. They may
demobilise sp, downgrade fortresses, break down units
or merge those in the same province to reduce
maintenance costs, but they must remain broken
down or merged until the start of the Military Phase.
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The F+ in Cartagena, not being at full strength, can be
broken down into an F- and a ND. Thus, the four ND
make up for one F+, and all naval units can be
maintained for free with the Basic Forces. The
maintenance costs for Spain this turn are:
1 A- in vet: 25 D$
9 fortress levels: 9 D$
Total: 34 D$
A. Basic Forces
The Player Aides indicate the Basic Force, depending
on the current Period, in terms of armies, fleets and
detachments. These counters are maintained for free
and as vet. In case the existing counters do not exactly
match the Basic Force, the following equivalencies may
be used:
A+ = 2 A- = 4 LD;
F+ = 2 F- = 4 ND;
A- = 2 LD
F- = 2 ND
II.2.3. Purchase
The detachments specified in the Basic Force may be
either naval or land, at the player’s choice.
A. Experience of Recruits
All new land sp are csc. Exceptions:
-. Switzerland and The Knights.
-. 50% of cavalry (rounded up) of Poland, Mameluks,
Persia.
-. Sweden between turns 15 and 50, both included.
-. Prussia from tun 51 (included), or Event “Prussian
Army Reform”, whichever comes first.
A.1. Choosing the experience of troops.
All land sp in a unit become vet if the unit is fully
maintained in vet. All sp become csc, if at least part of
the unit is maintained in csc.
A.2. Maintenance costs
Maintenance is paid according to the Table indicated
in the Player Aid for each unit, regardless of its specific
content (but the side, (+) or (-) does matter). Land units
may be maintained either as csc or as vet.
A.2.1. Don’t use the equivalencies indicated in II.2.2.A;
an A+ must pay as an A+, not as 4 LD.
A.2.2. Maintenance of a unit may be partially covered
by Basic Forces, and the excess be paid for. Use the
unit type that more closely matches the excess, not its
equivalency in detachments.
These sp may still become csc in subsequent turns.
B. Standard and detail purchase.
B.1. Major Powers may purchase a unit with a
standard content, as indicated in the Player Aid, using
the standard costs.
B.1.1. If the standard purchase would exceed the
limits of land sp, (see C.2 below) it cannot be used,
unless it is the first thing the Major Power buys in the
turn. Usually, buying one A+ will exceed limits; the
overcost is already included in the unit price.
B.1.2. If the standard purchase would exceed the
limits of naval sp (see C.1 below) it cannot be used.
B.2. Major Powers may purchase in detail the specific
sp wanted to reinforce an existing unit, or to create a
new one. Detailed costs are used in this case.
B.3. Both methods may be combined at the player’s
choice.
A.3. Fortresses.
Printed fortresses are maintained for free. Maintenance
costs of a fortress counter is equal to its level
A.4. Minor countries.
Minors have their own Basic Force and maintain it for
free and in vet. All their fortress counters are
maintained for free.
A.4.1. They maintain a number of detachments (using
the equivalency in II.2.2.A) equal to the Reinforcement
modifier in csc. The controlling Major Power may pay
the difference between csc and vet costs to keep them
in vet (using its own table of costs).
A.4.2. Other units are disbanded, unless the
controlling Major Power pays the full cost of maintenance (either in csc or in vet).
C. Purchase limits
C.1. Major Powers have a limit on the number of
warships they can purchase each turn (as indicated in
the Turn Limits). They are also limited in the number
of warships they can have in play at the same time (as
indicated in Period Limits). Galleys count as 1/3 for
these limits. Transports do not count. Limits for naval
units can never be exceeded.
The Period Limits for warships may decrease for some
Major Powers. If, at start of a new Period, a Major
Power has an excess of warships, it may keep them,
but cannot replace them once they are lost.
C.2. Major Powers have a limit on the number of inf,
cav and arty they can purchase each turn. Limits for
land sp may be exceeded. Each sp in excess costs the
double. Each sp in excess of the double costs the
triple. The triple is the absolute limit.
EXAMPLE of Maintenance
1585-1589
Phil plays Spain and Liz England.
Spain has the following military units placed on map:
1 F+ in Cartagena
1 A+ in Flanders, 1 A+ and 1 A- in Artois
1 ND in Cadiz
1 LD in Castille
2 ND in RoW map
3 fortresses of level 3, in Cadiz, Gerona and Artois.
D. Overcosts
Players use normal costs when they purchase units in
specific provinces (depending on the scenario). Units
purchased out of these provinces cost double. The total
cost may be 4 or 6 times the initial price, if turn limits
are exceeded.
The Spanish technologies are Mus and LS.
The Spanish Basic Forces for this Period are 1A+, 1A-,
1F+ and 1F-. Phil maintains the A+ in Flanders as part
of the Basic Forces, thus in vet status. The A+ in Artois
is partly maintained by the Basic Force, and partly (an
A-) by paying for a vet status. The LD is disbanded, as
it has only 1sp and is not worth the cost.
E. Minor countries purchases
E.1. Minor countries get new units by using the
Reinforcements Table. Some scenarios may indicate
that Major Powers use this table for additional forces
also.
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There are 4 categories of leaders:
Admiral: commands naval units.
General: commands land units.
Explorer: commands naval units, and can explore
unknown seas and coastal provinces.
Conquistador: commands land units and can explore
unknown provinces.
E.2. Each country allowed to use the Reinforcements
Table selects an attitude (Offensive, Defensive or Naval)
and rolls 1D10, using applicable modifiers.
E.3. Unless otherwise specified in the scenario, there
are 2 modifiers: a Political modifier, that applies to
specific countries, and an income modifier, that depends on the provinces owned and controlled by the
minor. Both are shown in the Reinforcements Table,
and both are added to the roll.
E.4. The result indicates the number of LD, fortress
levels and warships received. LD may be exchanged by
armies using the equivalency indicated in II.2.2.A. The
content of these units is the standard.
E.5. Each warship may be exchanged for 1 transport,
or for 3 galleys.
Except when indicated, a reference to Admirals refers
to both Admirals and Explorers, and a reference to
Generals refers to both Generals and Conquistadors.
II.3.2. Hierarchy
Each leader has a letter on its counter indicating its
hierarchical rank. “A” is the highest, and “Z” the
lowest. However, Monarchs are above all leaders, even
over A-ranked ones.
F. Placement of new units
Sp can only be built in provinces fully owned by the
country, and having neither revolts nor enemy units.
A player may destroy an existing unit to use the
counter elsewhere. Naval units must be built in
provinces with port.
Leaders command the units they are stacked with. If
several leaders are stacked together, the highest has
command over all units, and the lower ones have no
command.
Major Powers place the units whenever they bought
them. Minor countries place them in any province they
own and control in Europe. EXCEPTION: Portugal,
when a minor country, and not annexed to Spain, can
place up to 30% (round up) of reinforcing sp in its Col.
Hierarchy is considered between leaders of the same
nationality only. Generals are considered separately
from Admirals.
Size of the stack is determined in terms of detachments, using the equivalency in II.2.2.A. Consider only
units of the same nationality.
G. Fortresses
Countries may build fortresses in owned provinces or
under military occupation, except if there are enemy
units or revolts. The only limit is the technology, and
the number of counters. An existing fortress may be
destroyed to use the counter elsewhere.
A. Order of Hierarchy
When several leaders are stacked together, and for
combat and attrition purposes, it is necessary to
determine the commander of a stack. Follow these
preferences:
To reach a certain fortress level, all lower non-existent
levels must also be paid for. Exception: the level 1 does
not need to be purchased. Cost of fortresses doubles in
RoW, but is always normal in Europe.
1. Commander of the Crusade (Advanced Rules)
2. Monarch
3. Leader of the country with more detachments (II.2.2.A.)
4. Leader of the country with more sp
5. Leader with highest rank
6. Regular leader
7. Mercenary without extra payment (Advanced Rules)
8. Explorer in the role of Conquistador (Advanced Rules)
9. Player’s choice
EXAMPLE of Military Purchase
Continuing with the previous example, Spain decides
to build the following forces:
1 F+, standard price, with warships, plus 5 warships
and 5 transports, in Cadiz.
1 A-, standard price, plus 10 inf and 1 arty in Andalucia.
20 inf in Milan.
1 fortress of level 3 in Luxembourg.
B. Exclusion from Hierarchy
B.1. Admirals in the role of privateers are excluded
from hierarchy. The number of privateer units they can
command is not affected by hierarchy.
B.2. Besieged Generals and land units are excluded
from hierarchy. Blockaded Admirals and naval units
are excluded as well.
B.3. Explorers in the role of Conquistadors are not
considered Admirals, but instead are Generals with
rank Z.
The F+ costs 240 D$. The 5 n cost 40D$, the 5 nt 35D$
and they are placed in a F-, which also absorbs the
warships in the ND. As the nt do not count for Turn
Limits, these are not exceeded.
The A- costs 50 D$, the 10 inf 17.5 D$, and the arty 12
D$ (double, because the Turn Limit had been reached
with the purchase of the A-). All are absorbed in the
same army counter, which is turned to (+) side.
The 20 inf costs 42 D$ (4 are in excess of Turn Limits),
and are placed in two LD, each holding 10 inf.
The fortress in Luxembourg costs 75 D$ (both level 2
and 3 must be purchased).
The total expenditure is then 511.5, rounded to 512.
C. Enforcing Hierarchy
C.1. No leader of inferior rank may command a stack
larger than the stack a superior leader is commanding.
However, there may be stacks without leaders. Hierarchy must be enforced in both maps (Europe and
RoW) at the same time.
C.2. During the Movement Phase, a player must move
leaders to ensure hierarchy is respected, sometimes
even placing them without units to command, or
changing the role of dual leaders. The player may
move, split or merge units, or change their type to keep
II.3. LEADERS
II.3.1. Categories
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hierarchy, but is not forced to do so. However, a player
cannot voluntarily move, split or merge units, or
change types in a way that breaks hierarchy. If
attrition or combat cause a break in hierarchy, there is
no need to restore it until the next Movement Phase.
C.3. If it is impossible to restore hierarchy (because
some leaders cannot move), the player may go on,
keeping the hierarchy for the remaining leaders.
II.4.2. Overstacking
A. Reinforcements cannot be placed if they cause
overstacking.
B. Players may overstack during movement, but at the
end of the Movement Phase, overstacked units are
destroyed.
D. Leader Redeployment
After maintenance and purchase, leaders can redeploy,
regardless of distance to another province. Seas may
be crossed for this purpose.
D.1. Leaders cannot redeploy into or out of a besieged
fortress, except if there is a port in the province. A
leader may be redeployed to a province containing an
unbesieged friendly fortress or military unit, or a
friendly Col/TP (not occupied by enemy units). Leaders
cannot be redeployed to empty provinces of the RoW
map, but may be redeployed away from that province.
D.2. At this time, leaders may be placed out of the
map, but no leader of higher rank may be left out, if a
lower-ranked leader remains on the map.
C. If a stack attacks enemy units besieging friendly
units, and wins, it might end overstacked. On the next
player’s Movement Phase, the overstacking must be
resolved, or excess units will be eliminated.
D. If overstacked units enter combat, excess units (the
owner chooses) do not fight, but will suffer any adverse
result (absorbing excess losses and retreating).
II.4.3. Stacking of Units from Different Countries
A. Units from countries fighting in the same side may
stack together, but stacking limits remain the same: 2
land units and 2 naval units per province or sea.
E. Foreign Leaders
A leader may command a completely foreign stack if no
other leader is present, but he is considered as
commanding nothing for its own country hierarchy,
and is considered as the lowest leader for the foreign
forces hierarchy (even if it is a Monarch).
B. Only units of one side may remain in a province at
the end of the Combat Phase. Exception: if units of one
side besiege units of the other side (each can have up
to 2 units).
C. At sea, each side, and each neutral country can
have 2 naval units and 2 land units at any moment.
EXAMPLE of Military Hierarchy
II.5. SUPPLY
Spain has the following leaders and forces:
Ad Medina Sidonia, Ge Parma, Ge ?3, Ad ?2.
Leaders and naval units do not need supply. Land
units need supply, except if they are embarked on
naval units at sea, or are besieged inside a fortress.
F1- in Cartagena; F2+, F3- in Cadiz; A1+ in Flanders
A2+, A3- in Artois; A4+ in Andalucia; LD1, LD2 in
Milan.
II.5.1. Supply Sources
Ad ?2 is placed in Cartagena, and Medina-Sidonia in
Cadiz. Parma is placed in Flanders. The Ge ?2 cannot
be placed in Artois, because then it will command a
stack larger than Parma’s. He is placed in Milan.
-. A friendly unbesieged fortress, or
-. A friendly Col or TP not occupied by enemy units, or
-. A friendly fleet at sea, for all units in adjacent
coastal provinces, or
-. A friendly ND at sea, for up to 1 LD in adjacent
coastal provinces. 2 ND may combine to give supply to
an A-, and 4 ND to an A+. These ND may be in
different seas, as long as all are adjacent to the coastal
province.
II.4. STACKING
A stack is formed by units in the same location, that
move together. It includes both military units and
leaders.
II.4.1. Stacking Limits
A scenario may indicate that a country can use a
neutral fortress, Col or TP as a supply source.
A. 2 land units per province or sea, plus
2 naval units per province or sea, plus
any number of leaders, plus
any number of privateers, plus
1 Col/TP per province, plus
1 fortress marker per province.
A. Supply is determined at the start of the concerned
player’s Movement Phase. Any land unit unsupplied at
this moment must retreat for lack of supply.
The size, content or type of units do not matter. For
stacking purposes, a detachment is equivalent to an
Army or Fleet.
B. When moving, land units cannot enter a province
out of the supply range, even if by moving further, the
units would reach another valid province.
B. In a province, units must be arranged in 1 stack for
land units, and 1 stack for naval units.
II.5.3. Supply Path
II.5.2. Determining Supply
A. Supply is traced from the supply source to the unit.
Supply range is 5 MP, but always reaches provinces
adjacent to the source, even if they cost more than 5
MP.
In a sea, units may be arranged in 1 or 2 stacks, both
containing land and naval units, but the limit per sea
remains the same: 2 land units, and 2 naval units.
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Supply from
provinces.
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units
only
reaches
E.2. On the contrary, if the naval stack detaches units
in order to blockade several ports, or to activate several
naval combats, each stack will be activated separately.
Thus, this is not possible in a simple campaign.
E.3. Placing a stack of Privateers in a Trade Zone
counts as one activated naval stack. A stack of Privateers that enters an enemy province counts as an
activated land stack.
E.4. A besieged stack attacking the besieger counts as
an activated land stack.
coastal
B. Supply path cannot cross seas or lakes (except
through straits), provinces containing unbesieged
enemy fortresses or land units, unoccupied enemy
Col/TP, neutral provinces (unless the country has the
right of passage), and unknown provinces.
Enemy units in a province not besieging an existing
friendly fortress cannot prevent supplies from leaving
the province. However, supply cannot be traced
through a province with unbesieged enemy land units.
F. Multiple Campaign (MC)
Cost: 100D$
In addition to the “Passive Campaign”, the country may
activate any number of land and naval stacks.
II.5.4. Retreat for Lack of Supply
II.6.2. Minor Country Campaigns
A. Land units unsupplied at start of the Movement
Phase must Retreat. This movement does not need to
be made the first, but moving other units to reestablish the supply path does not prevent the retreat.
However, naval units may be moved first to embark the
unsupplied units.
A. Each minor country has a free SC each round. In
addition, MC may be obtained from the Reinforcements
Table.
B. When the unsupplied units reach a valid retreating
point, they cease movement for the Round.
C. Minor country campaigns cannot be used by the
controlling Major Power’s units. Exception: if a unit is
stacked with a minor country’s unit, and one of the
minor’s leaders commands the stack, activating the
minor’s unit will activate the whole stack. The reverse
applies also: if the commander is one of the Major
Power’s leaders, and the Major Power activates its unit,
the minor country’s unit is also activated.
B. If a Major Power pays for a MC, all minor country’s
units under its control can be included in the MC.
II.6. CAMPAIGNS
In order to move units, each country must pay for
campaigns separately, even if moving together. A
scenario may give free campaigns to some countries,
and Multiple Campaigns may be obtained from the
Reinforcements Table.
II.7. MOVEMENT
II.6.1. Types of Campaigns
II.7.1. Sequence of Movement
A. Each type of campaign allows different actions and
have different costs. The Campaign must be chosen
before any unit is moved, and cannot be changed, even
if later the player realises that stacks cannot be
activated.
Players move their units stack by stack. The owner
decides the order. A stack is moved, checked for
interception, and tested for attrition. Then, another
stack moves, and the former cannot move again (see
II.8.3.A. for an exception).
B. Activation of stacks is not announced until the
stack performs an action that needs activation.
II.7.2. Land Movement
Land units move through provinces. They cannot cross
neither coastal lines nor lakes, except through Straits
C. No Campaign (NC)
Cost: 0D$
Allows movement of leaders alone (including
embarkation and debarkation) and retreats for lack of
supply. Units at sea or besieged must still test for
attrition. Ongoing sieges must be lifted.
A. Capacity
Land units have 12 MP
Leaders have 20 MP
D. Passive Campaign (PC) Cost: 10D$
In addition to the “no campaign” actions, the country
may start and continue sieges, fight pirates and
revolts, attack natives and move units through seas
and friendly provinces. Units cannot enter enemy
provinces, unless the only enemies are Natives.
B. Friendly provinces
A country considers friendly provinces those that have
neither enemy land units, nor enemy-controlled
fortress (even besieged), nor enemy Col/TP (unless
occupied by friendly land units).
However, provinces controlled by neutral countries
cannot be entered, unless the country has the right of
passage. Empty provinces in RoW are friendly to
everybody.
E. Simple Campaign (SC) Cost: 20D$
In addition to the “Passive Campaign”, the country may
activate one naval stack and one land stack.
An activated naval stack may blockade a port, and
initiate Naval Combat (the same stack may do both).
An activated land stack may enter enemy provinces.
E.1. The land stack may enter several enemy
provinces, detaching units in each one (see II.7.5), and
all stacks created this way will be considered as one
single activated stack.
Other provinces are considered enemy. A province may
be enemy to both sides if it has a fortress of one side
and land units of the other side.
C. Costs of movement
European Clear friendly province: 1 MP
European Clear enemy province: 2 MP
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Having gained through diplomacy access to Swiss and
Lorraine provinces, he moves the LD1, LD2 and Ge ?2
in Milan through Switzerland (3 MP), Lorrai-ne (3 MP),
Free County (3 MP) and Luxem-bourg (3 MP).
European Non-clear province: 3 MP
RoW Clear friendly province: 2 MP
RoW Clear enemy province: 4 MP
RoW Non-clear province: 6 MP
They must stop there, as no more MP are available and
roll for attrition. The roll is 5, modified by –2 (leader
movement) and –1 (all provinces were friendly), with a
net result of 2. On the 7 column used for land
attrition, it indicates that another roll must be made;
this time a 10 is rolled, so 10% of the troops are lost.
River/Strait/Landing: +1MP
Naval Transport: +2 MP, regardless of number of seas.
If a land unit starts the round embarked at sea, it is
considered as having been transported this round,
even if it immediately debarks.
II.7.3. Naval Movement
RoW provinces containing either a printed fortress, or
a 6-level Col/TP, cost like an European province.
Naval units may enter seas. They may also enter
provinces containing an unblockaded friendly port.
D. Enemy presence
D.1. When land units enter a province containing
enemy land units, they must cease movement.
Exceptions:
-. the enemy units immediately retreat into the fortress
of the province.
-. The moving units overrun enemy units that
remained outside the fortress.
A. Restrictions on galleys
Galleys can only be built in ports adjacent to the
following seas: Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean Sea,
Sea of Marmara, Eastern Black Sea, Western Black Sea,
Ionian Sea, Adriatic Sea, Thyrenean Sea, Gulf of Lyon,
Western Mediterranean, Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Caspian
Sea, Gulf of Botnia, Baltic Sea.
Only moving units overrun. To do so, a player
announces the number of sp in the stack. If they are at
least 10 times the sp in the enemy stack, this stack is
destroyed. This is not a combat, no vp are gained or
lost, and leader injury is not tested. A besieged stack
can overrun the besieger, thus breaking the siege and
avoiding the special besieged attrition (E.2.).
Galleys entering a sea not indicated above are
immediately destroyed. This destruction does not
count for attrition.
B. Capacity
Naval units have unlimited capacity of movement.
C. Blockade.
C.1. An activated naval stack may blockade an enemy
port during its movement. A naval stack may also
blockade after a combat. Place the stack near the port.
The stack remains in the sea for all other purposes: its
units count for stacking limits, can intercept, transport
units and take part in any combat triggered at sea.
C.1.1. The blockade is effective against naval units and
Admirals entering or exiting the port to that sea and
other adjacent seas, but not if they do so to a nonadjacent sea. Furthermore, if a stack is blockading a
port, no other stack may blockade that port from the
same or adjacent sea.
C.1.2. When two blockading stacks, placed in nonadjacent seas as indicated above, would restrict access
to the same port from the same sea, only the one that
started the blockade first is counted for attempts to
escape or force the blockade.
C.1.3. Due to stacking limits, a side can only blockade
2 ports from the same sea.
C.1.4. Units wishing to enter or exit a blockaded port
must do so through the special procedures indicated
below, confronting the blockading stack that restricts
access to the sea from which the unit comes, or to
which the unit wants to se t sail.
D.2. When a land stack enters a province with an
unbesieged enemy fortress, it must cease movement,
unless sp are detached to siege. At least a number of
sp equal to 10 times the level of fortress are needed to
siege.
If any enemy fortress is besieged, and no enemy land
unit remains outside, the stack can continue the
movement.
E. Attrition
E.1. If a land unit spends 1-5 MP it is not tested for
attrition. If a land unit spends 6-12 MP it is tested for
attrition under Column 7 of the Attrition Table. Apply
the modifiers indicated in the Table and round up
losses.
E.2. Besieged land units always test attrition, under
Column 7 of the attrition table, but with the following
modifiers:
-3 unblockaded port
-? siege value of one (and only one) leader, not
necessarily the commander.
+1 one or two Usure (-)
+3 one or two Usure (+) , not cummulative with above.
E.2.1. When a land unit moves into a besieged fortress
through a port, and spends 6 or more MP, apply the
worst set of modifiers to the attrition roll (either
attrition for movement or attrition for siege).
E.2.2. If a land unit moves out of a besieged fortress
through a port, it is not subject to the siege attrition.
E.2.3. Besieged land units wishing to attack the
besieger, roll this attrition after deciding to attack.
C.2. Escape blockade.
A naval unit inside a blockaded port may try to evade
the blockade. Roll on the Success Table. If it fails, it
remains inside. If it rolls 5 or less, the blockading
stack may attack (or capture and admiral or explorer
trying this alone), getting the wind gauge automatically. Do not roll for attrition before combat. The
blockaded stack cannot choose to run the blockade at
all costs.
EXAMPLE of Land Movement
Phil pays for a passive campaign (10 D$).
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If the escape succeeds, the units may still be
intercepted (unless they are leaders alone) in the same
sea, even by the units blockading the port.
Exception (Advanced Rules): A Conquistador may enter
a province with enemy natives, if he is allowed to use
the Conquistador Table against them.
C.3. Force blockade.
A naval unit inside a blockaded port may try to force
the blockade by attacking the blockading stack. It
must be activated to initiate this naval combat, and the
combat is resolved when the unit is “moved”. Do not
test for attrition before combat. The blockading stack
gets the wind gauge.
B. Moving land units capture leaders alone in a
province, if they do not retreat into the fortress, or if
their units are overrun.
C. Admirals may move through seas alone, as well as
through land. They may remain at sea without risking
capture. When they enter a port, the player may decide
that they act as a “naval stack”, and thus they do not
use MP for the terrain.
If the blockaded stack loses the combat, it retreats into
the port again. However, the player may decide to Run
the Blockade at All Costs, and Retreat to another port.
The stack suffers 2 pursuit rolls (instead of 1), and still
the blockading stack may follow it and blockade again
the other port, both sides testing for attrition.
II.7.5. Detaching and Absorbing.
A. Prior movement, a stack may be split in several
units, even if it overstacks, provided that overstacking
disappears during the Movement Phase. Each unit can
move separately, and its attrition will not affect other
units.
C.4. Entering a blockaded port.
A naval unit wishing to enter a blockaded port must be
activated to initiate naval combat. Only the moving and
the blockading stacks are affected by this combat, and
it is resolved during the movement phase. The moving
stack test attrition in the usual way, but the
blockading stack does not roll. If combat is draw, or
the moving stack wins, the blockade is broken. Already
blockaded units cannot join this combat.
B. As stacks move, they may detach leaders, sp, or
already existing counters, in provinces and seas
entered. Detachments, armies or fleets may be created
when needed. These detached units cannot move
further, and they will count for the attrition of the
main stack, regardless of their particular movement.
However, losses must be taken in priority from the sp
that travelled the furthest.
C.5. A blockading stack may suffer several attacks
during the enemy’s movement, each from a different
stack trying to enter or leave the port.
C.6. If a blockaded stack detaches units prior to an
attempt of escape or force blockade, and it fails, the
detached units cannot subsequently try again during
the same round. If the blockade is broken, the
detached units can move freely, as per II.7.5.A.
C. As stacks move, they may absorb leaders, sp, or
already existing units, in provinces and seas entered,
but the stack cannot have more than 2 land/naval
units when leaving a province or finishing movement.
The absorbed units cannot have moved previously, and
they count for the attrition of the main stack,
regardless of their particular movement.
D. Attrition
Naval units moving or remaining at sea always roll for
attrition. Use the column equal to the highest risk
value the naval units find.
D. When a stack finishes movement, it may absorb
existing units in the final province, even if they have
moved previously, as long as stacking limits are
respected. They do not count for attrition.
Risk values are modified as follows,
-. Friendly unblockaded port adjacent to the sea: -3.
-. Galleys and carracks: +1
-. Vessels: -1
-. Three-Deckers: -2
E. To modify the attrition roll, a leader must end the
movement with the stack. The leader does not need to
start movement with the stack, but both must have
moved together at least 1 province or sea. The
movement of a leader before joining the stack does not
affect attrition.
If the result is 0 or less, ignore that sea for attrition. If
all seas are 0 or less, do not test for attrition.
II.8. NAVAL TRANSPORT
To benefit from technology, more than 50% of the sp
must be able to get the benefit.
Naval units may transport land units, leaders and gold
through the seas.
The % of losses affects both naval units and land units
being transported. Round up losses. If, after testing for
attrition, not enough transport capacity remains,
excess land sp are destroyed.
It is possible to embark land units and leaders from, or
debark into, a besieged fortress, if it has an unblockaded port.
II.7.4. Leader Movement
II.8.1. Capacity and Requirements
A. Leaders may move alone or with a stack. When
alone, they cannot enter provinces with enemy land
units (even another leader alone), fortresses or Col/TP,
nor force blockades nor enter blockaded ports from the
sea, nor be intercepted.
A. Capacity is measured in transport points:
1 warship: 1 point
1 galley: 1 point
1 transport: 4 points
B. Requirement for transport depends on the type of
sp:
1 inf: 1 point
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1 cav: 2 points exclusively from tr ships
1 arty: 2 points exclusively from tr ships
20 D$ of gold (or fraction): 1 point
Leader: 0 points, but at least 1 ship must be present.
If the naval stack had not moved previosly, it may
move after debarking the units in the port.
II.8.4. Landing
C. Admirals, although may move through seas alone,
cannot transport neither land units nor leaders, nor
gold.
A. If no friendly unblockaded port is available, land
units make a landing in the province. This costs 1
extra MP. Apply the rules of debarkation from the sea
(II.8.3.B), with the exception that the naval stack
cannot move after debarkation even if it had not moved
previously. However, it may blockade a port in the
landing province, but only there.
D. If capacity of transport drops below the required,
enough land sp must be destroyed to adjust to the new
capacity. If no ship remains, Generals are placed on
the nearest unblockaded port, and cannot move
further. If such port does not exist, they enter play the
next round (or turn if the Military Phase ends).
B. If a port is present, but the fortress is besieged, a
player may prefer to avoid the port and make a
landing, so the units are not immediately besieged.
E. The capacity of transport can be used only once
during the movement step of a round. Thus, if a
transport is carrying land sp up to its full capacity at
start of a round, and they disembark, the transport
cannot embark anything until the combat step, when
it could embark sp in Retreat.
C. If a friendly port is available, land units may
disembark through the port and attack enemy units in
the province, without the landing penalties for
movement and combat.
II.8.2. Embarkation
II.8.5. Transporting Allied units
Land units embark from a province into naval units
during the movement of the naval stack. Armies and
LD may be detached if only part of the force will
undergo transportation.
A. Naval units can only transport land units of the
same country, or friendly ones fighting in the same
side.
B. If naval and land units belong to different players,
moving at different times in the Round:
-. The land units may only be embarked when the
naval units are in Phase. EXCEPTION: if the land units
Retreat into the naval units (II.10.1.A)
-. The land units may only disembark or land when
they are in Phase. Thus, the naval units cannot enter
a port when transporting such units. EXCEPTION: if
the naval units Retreat (II.10.2.D).
A. Embarkation from a port: naval units may enter and
leave ports, carrying with them land units already
present there. Alternatively, a naval stack at sea may
embark land units from adjacent, friendly unblockaded
ports, as it moves through seas.
B. Embarkation from an non-port province: The naval
stack at sea embarks units from adjacent coastal
provinces, but must stop movement (unless only
leaders are embarked). The land units embarked
cannot have moved previously in the same round
(except retreats), and cannot voluntarily disembark
this round, even in a port. Leaders are not affected by
this restriction.
EXAMPLE of Naval Transport
II.8.3. Debarkation
Spain has in Andalucia 41n and 15tr, plus 24inf, 5cav
and 3arty. The cav and arty need 4 tr, and the inf
needs 6tr. There is enough room, so F2+, F3- and A4+
sail from Cadiz to Bay of Biscay, Irish Sea, English
Channel and North Sea.
Land units disembark in a province when they move.
As that will initiate the movement of the land stack,
the naval stack must cease movement if it had moved
previously. Detachments and armies may be created if
only part of the force disembarks.
There, Phil plans to embark the A1+ from Antwerp,
which has 30inf, 10cav and 4arty. The cav and arty
would require 7tr, but only 5 are still available.
However, all the infantry can be accomodated into the
warships and 4tr, leaving 11tr for the 15cav and 7arty.
Land units and leaders pay the terrain movement costs
of the province they debark, even if they enter a
besieged fortress through the port.
II.9. INTERCEPTION
When the phasing player is moving, non phasing players may intercept and engage in combat.
A. Debarkation into a port: Naval units may enter a
port and disembark units there. The land stack may
move beyond the port with remaining MP, even if it
moved previously to reach the embarkation port (an
exception to II.7.1.)
II.9.1. Restrictions
A. Only moving units may be intercepted. Units that
remain static cannot. Units Retreating from lack of
supply can be intercepted, but units Retreating from
combat cannot, even if it is an interception combat.
B. Debarkation from the sea: naval units may remain
at sea and land units disembark into adjacent, friendly
unblockaded ports. This is not possible if the land
stack has moved previously in the round, and in any
case, the land stack must stop movement at the
coastal province. Leaders are not affected by these
restrictions.
B. Each stack can make one interception attempt for
each enemy stack that comes in range. Roll on the
Success Table. Once the stack is intercepted, it cannot
be intercepted again in the same province or sea. It
may be intercepted in other provinces or seas.
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C. If the intercepting stack wins the combat, it remains
in the province (or sea), and can intercept other units
that come in range. It may also start a siege. If the
intercepting stack loses or combat is draw, it must
retreat and cannot roll again for interception.
C. Intercepting units cannot be “counterintercepted”,
and cannot Retreat before combat.
D. It is possible to intercept with only part of a stack,
creating armies, fleets or detachments if needed.
Hierarchy and stacking limits must be respected in the
destination, but if the attempt fails, units may be
reabsorbed.
C. If the intercepted stack wins, it may remain in the
province, or continue the movement. If it loses or
combat is draw, it must Retreat and cease movement.
E. Players cannot intercept into a province (or sea) if
this will cause overstacking, unless units are absorbed
(or the excess destroyed).
EXAMPLE of Interception
When the Spanish stack enters the English Channel,
Liz declares an interception with her fleet at Plymouth,
with Ad Howard in command. The roll is 8, with a net
modifier of +1 (-2 for being at port, and +3 for the
difference between leaders), and the attempt succeeds.
F. If the intercepted land units are caught overstacked,
excess units do not enter in combat but will suffer any
adverse result (even if they evade combat): any excess
loss is inflicted upon them, and must retreat if morale
is broken. This never applies to naval units.
Both players roll for attrition.
England rolls 4, modified by –4, which in the 2 column
(risk 5 with –3 for having a port) is no effect.
Spain rolls 6, modified by –1, which in the 6 column is
20% of losses).
II.9.1. Naval Interception
A. Naval interception takes place when a naval stack
enters a sea (not when it leaves). Enemy units in the
same sea, or in adjacent ports may intercept, but not
into an unknown sea.
The battle results in a draw, and both players have to
retreat. The English fleet moves to Dover (no need to
test for attrition), and the Spanish fleet to Antwerp
(rolling again for attrition).
B. If the interception is successful, the intercepting
stack attacks the intercepted stack. Roll for attrition
(except for an intercepting stack that was already at
sea) and resolve a combat immediately, before moving
other units.
II.10. RETREATS
A unit may be forced to Retreat either for lack of
supply, or after combat, or during redeployment. A
unit may also Retreat voluntarily before combat.
C. Note down the attrition roll and losses of the
intercepted stack. If it wins the combat and continues
the movement through seas of similar or worse risk,
calculate losses using the same roll, but discounting
those suffered before combat.
Leaders unable to Retreat after combat are captured by
the opposing side. Leaders do not need to Retreat for
lack of supply, but can do so to modify the attrition roll
of their forces.
However, if the stack makes a discovery, roll again, but
discount losses suffered before.
II.10.1. Retreat of Land Units
II.9.2. Land Interception
A. Land units must Retreat to any of the following
points (choice of the retreating player):
A. Land interception takes place when a land stack
enters a province (not when it leaves). Enemy unbesieged stacks in adjacent provinces may intercept,
but not into an unknown province.
-. Friendly unbesieged fortress or unoccupied Col/TP
inside the province.
-. Closest friendly unbesieged fortress or unoccupied
Col/TP outside the province (even if there is one inside
the province, the player may choose to leave).
-. Naval units at sea.
B. If the interception is successful, the intercepting
stack moves to the province. Roll for attrition (if moved
6 or more MP) and resolve a combat immediately,
before moving other units.
B. Land units have 12 MP to conduct the Retreat (no
matter how many MP they spent before). If they cannot
reach a valid point, they are destroyed. They can enter
provinces with enemy presence without stopping or
besieging. They cannot be intercepted, except when
Retreating for lack of supply (and in this case, by units
inside the province they cross and by adjacent units).
Note that if unsupplied land units are destroyed
because they cannot Retreat, their leaders remain in
the province.
If the intercepted stack wins the combat and moves to
discover, roll again, but discount attrition losses
suffered before the combat.
II.9.5. Combat Following an Interception
A. In land interceptions, units from both sides already
present in the province must take part in the combat,
up to the stacking limit. In naval interception, players
may choose to include their own units already at sea.
The intercepting stack is the attacker, unless an
unbesieged unit of the same side was already present
in the province.
C. If land units leave the province, they suffer attrition
under Column 7, regardless of MP spent. If they
embark on naval units from a province without a
friendly unblockaded port, they get a malus of +2 to
attrition roll.
B. The intercepted stack is allowed to Retreat before
combat, but the intercepting stack cannot do so.
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D. If land units overstack in the Retreating point, they
must either absorb units there, or destroy them, or
continue the Retreat to another valid point. Retreating
units get a malus of +1 to attrition roll for each
province they had to leave due to overstacking.
B. Only countries with REN or better technology roll
during Fire Phase of Land Combat. They can do that
even if Firepower is 0 (still can do moral damage).
If a MED unit is stacked with another unit with REN or
better technology, but the technology of the stack is
MED (according to II.12.4.B.), the stack still may fire,
using the REN row. However, the opponent fires as if
the stack was MED.
E. Enemy units do not block retreat. Land units may
even retreat into a province with enemy units not
besieging the fortress. In that case, the enemy units
must immediately retreat as after a draw combat.
C. Only countries with REN or better technology may
have arty sp.
II.10.2. Retreat of Naval Units
A. Naval units must Retreat to the closest friendly
unblockaded port. If none exists, they are destroyed.
D. Spain may benefit from land technology Tercios (as
indicated in the Scenario, and depending on the
composition of the land stack). This is in addition to
any land technology Spain has, and its only effect is to
increase morale of land units by 1. The Combat tables
are used with the regular technology. Tercios cease to
have any effect from Turn 29 (included).
Naval units may either ignore a port which will cause
overstacking or Retreat causing overstacking. In the
latter case, excess naval sp must be absorbed or
destroyed.
B. Retreating naval units cannot be intercepted, except
when leaving a captured port.
II.11.2. Naval Technology
C. Roll attrition if naval units cross a sea.
A. There are 6 naval technologies, from worst to best:
D. Transported land units automatically disembark in
the Retreating port. Consider as if they were Retreating
to this port (even if it is besieged). However, roll
attrition only if the MP spent during the retreat equal
or exceed 6, adding the costs of sea transport and
terrain of the province. If this Retreat took place during
the movement step (as a result of a naval interception
combat), add also the MP spent prior to embarkation.
CAR: Carrack (technology of all countries in Turn 1).
GLN: Galion
LS: Latin Sail
BAT: Battery
VES: Vessel
TD: Three Decker
B. In addition, galleys (GAL) have a technology of their
own, which never evolves, available from Turn 1.
Note: it is allowed that, adding the regular movement
and the Retreat, a land unit exceeds 12 MP, as long as
each part does not exceed 12.
II.12. COMBAT
Naval and Land Combats are quite similar, so they are
explained together, but highlighting differences
D.1. Possible overstacking may be resolved by moving
other land units already present (if it is their movement
step and still have not moved), or as in II.10.1.D.
D.2. If the port is under siege, land units still
disembark in it, and will be subject to siege attrition.
They cannot move further, and thus any overstacking
must be resolved by absorbing or destroying excess
units.
II.12.1. Initiating Combat
A. Combats are resolved one by one, at the choice of
the Phasing player. The sequence in II.12.2. must be
completed before other combat is initiated.
B. Naval Combat: When stacks of opposing sides are
in the same sea, there might be combat. The Phasing
player may activate one of its stacks to initiate Naval
Combat. All other stacks will join the combat even if
not activated.
II.11. TECHNOLOGY
Performance of military units depends on their technology, which varies from country to country. The
scenarios indicate the technology of each country, and
how it changes.
If the Phasing player does not initiate combat in a sea,
the non-phasing may initiate combat, at no cost.
However, combat cannot be initiated when another
player, without units in the sea, is in the Phase.
There are 2 types of technologies: land and naval. Land
technology affect land units; naval technology affects
naval units.
II.11.1. Land Technology
All loses inflicted to naval units, are also inflicted to
land units being transported.
A. There are 7 land technologies, from worst to best:
Naval units in port cannot be attacked, only blockaded.
MED: Medieval (technology of all countries in Turn 1)
REN: Renaissance
ARQ: Arquebus
MUS: Musket
BAR: Baroque War
MAN: War of Maneuver
LAC: War in Lace
C. Land Combat: It is mandatory when units of
opposing sides are in the same province, although
players may attempt to Retreat before combat.
Besieged units may attack the besieger, testing
attrition before combat. No other land unit can enter
the province f teh besieged do that. The combat is
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resolved in the usual way (with terrain effects), except
that if the siege is not broken, the besieged can only
Retreat into the besieged fortress, or into naval units
if the besieged fortress has an unblockaded port.
ones having more LD (using the equivalency in II.2.2.A)
determine technology. In case of ties, the worst is used.
II.12.2. Sequence of Combat
If Spain has Tercios technology, and more than 50% of
sp are Spanish inf (allies are not valid), add 1 to
morale.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
J.
K.
If more than 50% of units are vet, add 1 to morale.
Retreat before Combat.
Reveal units contents.
Determine units in First Line (Naval Combat)
Determine technology and morale.
Wind Gauge (Naval Combat)
Fire Phase
Shock Phase
Pursuit
Injury of Leaders
Retreat after combat
Chase (Naval Combat) and Siege (Land Combat).
II.12.5. Command
A. The leader with the highest rank has the command
in battle.
B. If leaders of different countries are present, that of
the country with most detachments will command
(using the equivalency in II.2.2A.). In case of ties,
count the number of sp (galleys are 1/3 of ship). In
case of ties, use the one with the highest rank. If the
ranks are the same, the player chooses. Remember
that a Monarch always commands over any leader.
II.12.3. Retreat before Combat
A. Players not willing to engage in combat may attempt
to retreat (Phasing player decides first). Some units
may Retreat, while others still engage in combat.
However, splitting or merging units is not allowed at
this time. Leaders cannot Retreat alone.
C. If no Leader is present, randomly draw a Replacement leader (those with a star). Use gray-colored for
minor countries which do not have one. The
replacement leader is removed after Pursuit.
Roll on the Success Table. If the attempt fails, or
nobody wants to retreat, proceed with the sequence of
combat. If both sides want to retreat, both automatically succeed.
II.12.6. Wind Gauge (Naval Combat)
A. Determine wind gauge, according to the technology
of the ships in first line, and the move rating of
admirals. The highest roll gets the wind. In case of ties,
nobody gets the wind.
B. Naval Combat: if the attempt is successful, the
units retreat to any friendly, unblockaded port, testing
for attrition. The other units remain at sea.
B. If both players have galleys in first line, nobody gets
the wind.
C. Land Combat: the attempt is automatically
successful if the units retreat into the fortress of the
province, without attrition. The enemy may then
besiege the fortress. If siege is not initiated, and any
land unit remains in the fortress, the enemy must
Retreat like after a draw combat.
C. The blockading stack always gets the wind gauge
against the blockaded, unless both have galleys in first
line.
II.12.7. Fire Phase
Note that if a besieged stack attacked the besieger, and
suffered heavy attrition loses, the player may
automatically retreat them back to the besieged
fortress, without fighting at all.
A. Each side calculates Firepower, using the Tables,
and rolls simultaneously 1D10 in the Combat Table,
adding modifiers. The column used depends on the
Technology of both sides.
If the units pretend to leave the province, they must
roll. If successful, they Retreat, and the enemy may
siege the fortress of the province. Besieged units
cannot leave the province.
B. The table gives results in terms of sp losses, and
morale losses. Both players apply results simultaneously. Sp losses inflicted to the opponent are a
percentage of the player’s Firepower. Each “*” means
1 point of morale is lost. In land combat, the owner
chooses losses. In naval combat, losses must be taken
in priority from ships in first line.
II.12.4. Morale
Morale losses are recovered after combat.
If a side wins (II.12.10), skip the Shock Phase and roll
for Pursuit.
A. Naval Combat: Each player declares which type of
ships will be in First Line. Transports cannot be in first
line, except if no other unit is present. The morale and
the technology of each side will be that of ships in first
line.
C. Naval Combat: Regardless of result, if transports
were in first line, they break morale.
If nobody wins, the player with the wind gauge may
retreat from combat to any friendly, unblockaded port.
The combat ends in draw, and no pursuit is made. The
other player remains at sea. Otherwise, proceed to
Shock
Ships in first line must be at least 10% of the total,
without counting transports. All ships in first line must
have the same technology. Ships in first line suffer
combat losses in priority.
B. Land Combat: Morale depends on the technology of
units. If units of different technology are present, the
II.12.8. Shock Phase
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Redeployment Phase. When they return they are
placed in a friendly unblockaded port (admirals) or
unbesieged fortress or Col/TP (generals).
A. Calculate shockpower of remaining sp and roll
1D10, in the same way as in the Fire Phase. Apply
results as in the Fire Phase. If a side wins, it rolls for
Pursuit. If nobody wins, skip Pursuit.
B. If a side lost combat and all its sp were eliminated,
surviving leaders may be captured. Roll for each one
present (even if not commanding):
1-5: escapes and retreats
6-10: captured
B. Naval Combat: The column in the Combat Table
depends on the technology of ships in first line, even if
all were destroyed during the Fire Phase.
II.12.9. Pursuit
Captured leaders are liberated during Redeployment
Phase. Place them in a friendly unblockaded port
(admirals) or unbesieged fortress or Col/TP (generals).
A. Pursuit takes place if a side (the loser) reaches
morale 0 or negative, and the other (the winner) still
has units and positive morale.
II.12.12. Retreat after Combat
The winner rolls in the E Column of the Combat Table,
regardless of technology, using its remaining shock–
power. The loser does not roll. Morale losses have no
effect, as the loser has already broken morale. Apply
losses as in the Fire Phase.
A. If combat is draw, both sides Retreat (attacker first).
If one side wins, it remains in the province or sea, and
the loser must Retreat. If a side has to interrupt a
siege or blockade, the other side may Retreat into the
now free fortress or port.
B. Naval Combat: 50% (round up) of ships lost in
Pursuit are instead captured by the winner, to a
maximum of 10. If such captured ships are in excess
of the Period Warship Limit, they are destroyed
instead. Place them in new counters (if available) and
move them to the closest friendly unblockaded port,
rolling attrition. They can move only in the next round.
Units that lost combat and broke morale cannot use a
leader’s move rating to modify the attrition roll during
retreat after combat.
B. Naval Combat: The winner may chase the loser and
blockade the port of retreat, rolling attrition.
C. Land Combat: priority of losses during pursuit:
arty, inf, cav.
C. Land Combat: The winner may lay siege to any
fortress in the province, even if the loser retreated
there, but cannot leave the province. If siege is not
initiated, and any land unit remains in the fortress, the
winner must retreat like after a draw combat.
II.12.10. Result of Combat
A. A side breaks when morale reaches 0 or less points.
EXAMPLE of Naval Combat
Gravelines, 1588
B. To determine the result of combat, follow these
priorities:
-. If both sides are eliminated, combat is draw
-. If only one side is eliminated, the other is the winner
-. If no one is eliminated, and both break morale,
combat is draw.
-. If no one is eliminated, and only one breaks, the
other is the winner
-. If no one is eliminated, and no one breaks, combat
is draw.
The Spanish F2+, F3+ (41n, 15t), with Ad MedinaSidonia were sailing through the English Channel
when the English F1+ (30n), with Ad Howard in
command, intercepted them from Plymouth.
Ships in first line: both players have warships of LS
technology in first line with morale of 2.
Wind Gauge: with the same technology, there is no
modifier to wind gauge roll, except the Leaders’ Move
rating. Liz rolls 4+3=7, and Phil 2+1=3. England gets
the wind.
Fire Phase: both players roll under B Column (LS vs
LS), with a firepower of 1 for each warship.
C. Major Victory occurs when:
-. The loser had an A+/F+, AND
-. The loser lost at least 66% of the initial force in the
Fire, Shock and Pursuit rolls, AND
-. The winner lost no more than 33% of the initial force
in the Fire and Shock rolls.
Liz rolls 3, adding +1 for having the wind gauge and
+2 for the difference between the leaders’ Fire rating,
with a total of 6 (15%). The 15% of 30 is 5, so Spain
loses 5 warships and 5 inf.
Phil rolls 3, with no modifiers, which gives no effect.
Having the wind gauge, Liz decides to retreat, and
the combat ends in draw.
Both leaders are tested for injury, Liz rolling 3 and
Phil 7. No one is injured.
II.12.11. Injury of Leaders
A. Only commanding leaders are tested for survival
after combat.
Roll 1D10, with the following modifiers:
-1 lost combat and morale broken
-5 all units eliminated (not cumulative with above)
-1 if Leader has 6 in Fire or Shock.
(EXCEPTION: English General Marlborough, and Prussian General Frederick II).
EXAMPLE of Land Combat
Lutzen, 1632
Phil plays Habsburg and Liz Sweden.
If result is 1, the leader is injured. Roll another 1D10:
Odd: leader killed.
Even: leader wounded and out of game a n. of rounds
equal to half the roll, but they always return during
Habsburg A1+ (30 inf , 8 cav and 2 arty, all vet), is
besieging Dresden in Saxony. In command are Ge
Wallenstein and Papenheim.
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II.13.2. Laying and Lifting Sieges
Swedish A1+ (25 inf, 12 cav and 4 arty, all vet) is in
Anspach, with king G Adolphe and Ge Bernard.
A. To lay siege to an enemy fortress, a side must keep
a number of land sp equal to 10 times the level of
fortress in the province.
On her round, Liz moves the Swedish A1+ to friendly
Thuringen and then to Saxony, thus entering battle with
Habsburg. Nobody tries to retreat before combat.
B. A player is never forced to start a siege. Units may
remain in a province with an unbesieged enemy
fortress, as long as they are supplied and no enemy
land unit is present.
Sweden: vet with Bar tech: morale 4. Being the king, G
Adolphe is in command.
Habsburg: vet with Mus tech: morale 4. Both leaders have
the same hierarchy, so Phil selects the best, Wallenstein, for
command.
C. Sieges can be started at these two times:
-. When moving (not retreating) into enemy provinces.
-. Immediately after combat (even interception combat),
the winner may siege the fortress in the province.
Fire Phase: Sweden rolls a 5 on Column B (Bar vs Mus),
adding +2 for the difference in Fire ratings, with a result of
5+2=7, and causing a loss of 20% of its Firepower, and 1
point of morale. That is 8 for the arty, and 25 for the inf,
with a total of 33, and the 20% (rounding up) is 7.
If a siege starts, all units in the province must siege. In
subsequent movement steps part of the force may
leave the province. If a unit finishes movement with
besieging forces, it must join the siege.
Habsburg rolls a 6 on Column D (Mus vs Bar), causing a loss
of 10% of its Firepower. That is 4 for the arty and 30 for the
inf, with a total of 34, and the 10% (rounding up) is 4. Both
players then apply the losses suffered on the infantry.
D. Sieges are lifted:
-. At the instant in which no enemy unit remains in the
province.
-. If the besieger decides so, during movement or at
start of the siege step.
-. If the besieger conducts a “No Campaign”, at start of
the siege step. If units of two countries are stacked,
both need to conduct at least a Passive Campaign to
keep the siege.
-. If at start of the player’s siege step there are not
enough sp in the province. Between siege steps, the
number of sp may drop below the requirement, but the
siege will not be considered broken as long as a land
unit is present in the province.
Shock Phase: Sweden rolls a 6 on Column F (Bar vs Mus)
and adds +2 for the difference in Shock ratings, with a
result of 6+2=8, causing a loss of 30% of its Shockpower
and 3 points of morale. That is 21 for the inf, 24 for the cav,
and 8 for the arty, with a total of 53, and the 30%
(rounding up) is 16.
Habsburg rolls a 10 on Column H (Mus vs Bar), causing a loss
of 30% of its Shockpower, and 3 points of morale. That is 23
for the inf, 16 for the cav, and 4 for the arty, with a total of
43, and the 30% (rounding up) is 13.
If the siege is lifted, all Usures, Breaches and Honors
of War results are lost. If there were besieged land
units, the former besiegers must Retreat like after
draw combat.
Both players apply their losses on the infantry.
Pursuit Phase: Habsburg has reached a morale of zero,
while Sweden is still in 1, so Habsburg breaks and Liz rolls
for Pursuit on Column E. This time it is a 4, with a bonus
of +2 for the difference of Move ratings, with a result of
4+2=6, causing a loss of 10% of its remaining Shockpower.
That is 8 for the inf, 24 for the cav, and 8 for the arty, with
a total of 40, and the 10% is 4. Habsburg loses its two arty
and 2 inf.
II.13.3. Sequence of Siege
A. Sieges are resolved one by one, at the discretion of
the Phasing player, after all combats have been
resolved. The following sequence must be completed
before other siege is initiated:
Players test for injury of leaders. Phil rolls 6, subtracting 1 for
having broken morale, for a net result of 5; Wallenstein is
safe. Liz rolls 1, subtracting 1 because the leader has a Fire
and/or Shock value of 6, for a net result of 0; G Adolphe is
injured, and a new roll is 7, odd. The king of Sweden dies.
A. Lift siege (if applicable)
B. Choose Action:
B.1. Siegeworks (assault if Breach obtained)
B.2. Assault
a. Reveal units contents (except cav)
b. Determine technology and morale
c. Fire Phase
d. Shock Phase
e. Injury of Leaders
f. Next Day of Assault (if applicable)
C. Capture fortress (if applicable)
Sweden wins. Although Liz has killed 68% of the enemy
force (27 of 40), she has lost 41% of her force (17 of 41), so
the battle does not qualify for a Major Victory.
(Historical Note: Papenheim also died in the battle).
II.13. SIEGE
B. Sometimes, countries in the same side move at
different times. Even if units of both countries are
besieging, only one action per Round (either Siegeworks or Assault) may be performed during the same
siege.
During his/her own siege step, a player decides to
Assault or do Siegeworks (but not both) against
fortresses besieged by his/her troops.
II.13.1. Fortress Level and Combat Value
II.13.4. Siegeworks
Fortress levels range from 1 to 5. Their combat value
is 20 times the level.
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A. The player rolls 1D10 in the Siegeworks Table,
applying modifiers.
D. Result of the assault.
D.1. The assault may be a failure (the besieged keeps
control of the fortress), or a success (the besieger
captures the fortress).
D.1.1. If the assault fails, the besieger does not need to
lift the siege, even if it broke morale.
D.1.2. If the assault succeeds, all units inside are
destroyed, and all surviving Generals captured. The
fortress is captured.
D.2. Follow these priorities to determine the outcome
of the assault:
One (and only one) besieger leader may add the siege
rating to the roll. This leader does not need to be the
commander.
One (and only one) besieged leader may subtract the
siege rating from the roll. This leader does not need to
be the commander.
B. Results:
Attrition: the besieger rolls attrition under a column
equal to the number of rounds elapsed from the start
of siege, including the current one. One (and only one)
besieger leader may subtract the siege rating to the
roll. This leader does not need to be the commander.
-. If all the besieger’s inf and arty are destroyed, the
assault fails.
-. If the besieger still has inf or arty, and all the
Combat Value of the fortress is destroyed, the assault
succeeds.
-. If none is destroyed, and the besieger breaks morale,
the assault fails.
-. If none is destroyed, and only the fortress breaks
morale, the assault succeeds.
-. If none is destroyed, and none breaks morale, the
Assault fails, but the besieger may decide to have
another Day of Assault.
Usure: an usure will modify subsequent Siegeworks
rolls. Only 2 usure markers may be present in each
siege, but 2 Usure (-) combine into 1 Usure (+)
Breach: the besieger may immediately launch an
Assault. Combat Value of the fortress is quartered, and
the besieger does not subtract the Fortress Level from
the roll. If the assault is not launched or the fortress is
not taken, these benefits are lost (although each
Breach gives a bonus in subsequent siegeworks rolls).
E. Injury of Generals
After each day of combat, generals are tested in the
usual way. Test also replacement leaders; if they are
injured and another day follows, randomly draw one.
If they are safe, keep them for the next day of combat.
However, their injury does not give vp.
Honors of War: the fortress garrison asks to surrender. If the besieger rejects, treat as Breach. If the
besieger accepts, leaders and units inside the fortress,
plus inf csc equal to the fortress level, Retreat out of
the province. The fortress is captured
F. Multiple Days of Assault.
If the assault is a failure, and the besieger still has
positive morale, he/she has the option to get another
Day of Assault (this is different from land and naval
combat). The besieger may have indefinite days of
combat, as long as he/she does not break morale.
F.1. Morale losses are not recovered. Roll again for the
Fire phase and the Shock Phase, using remaining
Firepower and Shockpower.
F.2. Once all days are over, the assault finishes.
Morale levels are fully restored, as well as the Fortress
Combat Value. Breach benefits are lost (but they still
affect subsequent siegeworks rolls).
Surrender: the besieger captures the city. All land
units inside the fortress are destroyed. Generals are
captured.
II.13.5. Assault
An Assault is like a Land Combat, with some differences
that are highlighted.
A. Only inf and arty take part in the assault. Cav does
not fight, and cannot absorb losses (even if the losses
excess the inf and arty). Thus, no assault may be
launched if the besieger has only cav.
II.13.6. Fortress Capture
A. If the besieger captures the fortress, all remaining
land units inside are destroyed. Generals are captured.
The fortress uses its inherent Combat Value: 20 times
the level of fortress. Besieged land units add nothing to
this, but losses inflicted to the fortress are first
absorbed by them (except cav), then by the Combat
Value.
Naval units and Admirals inside the captured port
must Retreat immediately to the nearest friendly
unblockaded port, suffering attrition. Naval units may
be intercepted durign this retreat. If the captured port
is blockaded, they must force the blockade (and run it
at all costs, if necessary). Admirals alone are captured
if the port is blockaded.
B. Morale is determined in the usual way, depending
on the technology of the fortress owner. A fortress is
always considered vet. Spanish fortresses never benefit
from Tercios.
If a friendly unblockaded port does not exist, naval
units are destroyed, and Admirals remain in an
adjacent sea.
C. Fire Phase and Shock Phase.
C.1. Terrain does not affect neither firepower, nor
shockpower, nor dice rolls. The columns used in an
Assault are different from Land Combat. See Table.
C.2. Firepower and Shockpower of the fortress depend
on its technology and Combat Value, according to the
Table.
C.3. The besieger substracts from the roll the Level of
Fortress, unless assaulting after a Breach.
C.4. There is neither Pursuit nor Retreat.
B. A captured fortress always loses 1 level. The
besieger may destroy additional levels, and must do so
if technology does not allow to keep a certain level.
However, printed levels always remain.
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the inf and 10 for the arty, for a total damage of 13.
The Venetians also lose 1 point of morale.
The besieger must lose a number of inf or arty sp equal
to the remaining levels, in order to garrison the
fortress. If he/she is unable or unwilling to do so, the
fortress is not captured at all, the besieged keeps it
and all effects of fortress capture are nullified.
Phil rolls 7 on Column A, causing a loss of 25% of his
remaining Shockpower (73), for a total damage of 19,
plus 1 point of morale.
C. If units of 2 countries took part in the siege, control
goes to the one that garrisons the fortress. If both
garrison the fortress, control goes to the country of the
commander.
Both players roll for leader loss: Liz a 5, and Phil 3, so
they go on with the same leaders.
Liz decides that she had enough and abandons the
assault. For the rest of the Military Phase she rolls for
Siegeworks, getting nothing more than Usure (-), and
has to lift the siege again.
II.13.7. Result of the Siege
A. The besieger wins if the fortress is captured. The
besieged wins if the siege is lifted.
Turn 34. Two new armies start the siege again. Later
in the turn, Liz loses a naval battle and is unable to
keep the blockade of Candia. This adds a further –2
malus to the Siegeworks, but she gets an Usure (+).
B. Siege may be laid and lifted upon the same fortress
many times. Each time will count as a lost siege for the
besieger.
Similarly, a fortress may be captured and recaptured
many times. Each time counts as a different siege.
Turn 35. As the armies in Crete start the Military
Phase out of supply, they must retreat. Liz first lands
a relieving stack, then embarks the unsupplied one. In
this way the siege is maintained.
C. At the end of the Redeployment Phase, if the
besieged still controls the fortress, he/she is
considered as having won a siege, even if it continues
during the next turn.
Turn 36. Liz follows the procedure of the previous turn
to keep the siege on. By the 5th Round, the Turks get
an Usure (+). The siegeworks roll is 8, modified as
follows:
EXAMPLE of Siege
Candia, 1648-1669
-4 fortress level
-2 non-clear terrain
-2 unblockaded port
+1 Ge siege rating
+1 artillery greater than fortress level
+2 for one Usure (+)
+2 for every 2 full rounds of siege ( a total of +8)
Phil controls Venice, with Bar tech, and Liz Turkey,
with Mus tech. On Crete is a level 4 fortress.
Turn 32. Turkish A1+ (30 inf, 10 cav, 3 arty, all vet)
and A2+ (30 inf , 2 arty, all vet), led by Ge ?3 (3.2.1-1)
disembark in Crete, and lay siege to Candia, while the
fleet blockades the port. The sp amount to 75, enough
to cover a level 4 fortress.
The net result is 12, which on the Siege Table means
Honors of War; a Venetian LD with 4 csc inf Retreats
to a Venetian fleet in the Ionian Sea, and Turkey
captures the city. The fortress level is reduced to 3,
and Turkey must lose 3 inf to garrison it.
Liz rolls 5 for Siegeworks, modified by:
–4 for the fortress level.
-2 for being a non-clear province
+1 for having more arty sp than the fortress level
+1 for the Turkish Ge siege value
II.14. END OF MILITARY PHASE TEST
After each player has taken his/her Phase, roll 1D10
to see if the Military Phase ends.
The result is -1, so Liz rolls 3 on the attrition table
under Column 1 (this is the first round of the siege),
and adding +2 because the province is non-clear. The
result of 5 gives no losses.
If result is strictly inferior to the current Round
number, the Military Phase ends. Otherwise, proceed
with next Round. Thus, a Turn will have 2-11 Rounds.
The next round Liz rolls 6, modified by –4, for a total of
2, with no effect. The Military Phase ends, and the
Turks must retreat because they have achieved neither
an Usure (+) nor a Breach. The armies embark on the
fleet and are moved into a friendly port.
II.15. REDEPLOYMENT PHASE
After the Military Phase, players relocate units at sea or
in non-friendly provinces.
Turn 33. Turkey invades again Crete, with the same
forces. This time, Liz tries an Assault.
II.15.1. Sieges
As a leader, Phil gets Replacement 2.2.1
If a besieging stack got an Usure(+), or a Breach, or
Honors of War, it has the option to remain in the
province and continue the siege during the next turn.
Fire Phase. Liz roll 6 on Column D, causing a damage
of 10% of her Firepower, which is 60 for the infantry,
and 10 for the arty (cav does not take part in assaults),
for a total damage of 7.
Phil rolls 4 on Column A, causing a loss of 5% of his
Firepower, which is 80 for a level 4 fortress, thus
causing 4 losses.
A. If the besieger continues the siege, roll attrition in
Column 5. The besieger commander may use the Move
rating to reduce attrition. One besieged leader (not
necessarily the commander) may add its Siege rating
to the roll.
Shock Phase. Liz rolls 8 on Column C, causing a loss
of 20% of her remaining Shockpower, which is 54 for
All Usure markers are removed, except for 1 Usure (-).
All breaches and Honors results are lost, and will not
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After units have been redeployed, players remove
leaders scheduled to leave the game, place new ones,
advance the Turn Marker, and start a new Game Turn.
affect subsequent siegeworks rolls, but the count of
rounds elapsed will be carried to the next turn.
B. Otherwise, the stack must Retreat, rolling attrition
in Column 7, regardless of MP spent.
II.16.1. Placement and Removal of Leaders.
A. Leaders scheduled to leave the game this turn are
removed. Leaders scheduled to enter the game next
turn are deployed now, regardless of hierarchy.
II.15.2. Other forces outside friendly provinces
A. Land stacks in provinces with an unbesieged enemy
fortress must retreat and roll attrition in Column 7,
regardless of MP spent.
B. Restrictions:
B.1. Generals must be placed on a land stack or
fortress or Col/TP that is of their own country,
unbesieged and unoccupied. Admirals must be placed
on ports of their own country, that are in provinces
free of enemy units.
B.2. Leaders allowed to leave Europe may be placed in
RoW. Conquistadors and Explorers, although only
operate in RoW, may be placed in Europe.
B.3. Leaders that cannot leave a certain region
(America, Asia or Mediterranean) must be placed in
this region.
B.4. If a leader cannot be placed now, it is delayed till
end of next turn’s Logistics Phase. If it cannot be
placed then, it is delayed till the Interphase, and so on,
until it is possible to place the leader, or he dies.
B. Land stacks in empty provinces (or provinces with
a non-friendly fortress) of the RoW must also Retreat.
But, if they are stacked with a Conquistador (or an
Explorer in a coastal province), they may choose to
remain, rolling attrition in column 5. Conquistadors
alone (and explorers in coastal provinces), may choose
between retreating or remaining in the province.
II.15.3. Return to Port.
A. After land units have retreated, naval units and
leaders at sea return to a friendly port (not necessarily
the closest one) in order of initiative, and rolling
attrition. Note that, even if land units have just
retreated into ships from a non-port province, the
naval units return to port (contrary to II.8.2.B.).
II.16.2. Minimum Leaders
A. Each Major Power has a set of minimum leaders,
indicated in the Turn Limits Table. If not enough
leaders are available for each category (because some
were killed, or left the game), the player randomly
selects enough unnamed leaders (with an “?”) and
places them in the map.
Land units already embarked will roll attrition if the
terrain of the destination port costs 6 or more MP
(counting 2 MP for sea transport), EXCEPT if they
already rolled as per II.15.1.B. or II.15.2.
If the destination port is under siege, the land units do
not suffer the siege attrition.
B. Sometimes, there are not enough unnamed leaders
to complete all the categories. In this case the player
may decide, each turn, how to distribute the unnamed
leaders. If the side of an “?” leader already on map
must be changed, the player may choose such leader.
B. All blockades must be broken, even if the land units
besieging the fortress remain in the province. Thus, all
ports are free to enter in this phase.
C. Units and leaders already in port cannot move.
II.16.3. Excess Leaders
II.15.4. Return of Leaders
A. As historical leaders appear, they are placed on
map, no matter if the minimum is exceeded.
After land and naval units are redeployed, captured
leaders and still injured leaders return to play. Place
them according to II.16.1.B.
B. However, at start of a new Period, unnamed leaders
in excess are removed (the player chooses which).
Historical leaders in excess are never removed.
II.16. INTERPHASE
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III. ADVANCED RULES
8.1. Stability actions
8.2. Peace with minors
8.3. Peace with players
9. Interphase
9.1. Prosperity and inflation
9.2. Stability loss for wars
9.3. Death and arrival of leaders
9.4. Victory points
The Advanced Rules allow to play the Campaign Games
and the Grand Campaign (1492-1792), as well as some
Scenarios that deal with Exploration and Colonisation.
Both Basic and Advanced Rules are used, but the latter
supersede the former in case of conflict. A particular
campaign may have specific rules that apply only when
playing it.
III.1. SEQUENCE OF PLAY
III.2. PERIODS
Players play simultaneously each phase, except when
it is indicated that the Initiative Order is used. During
the turn, players use the Economic Record Sheet to keep
track of available money in each Phase. When it is
necessary to record something on it, the Rules refer to
the appropriate line of the Sheet in this way: (Line ##)
The 60 game turns are distributed in several periods.
Most of the campaigns cover just one period, however.
Limits, capacities and objectives of each Major Power,
and Political Events change with Periods.
Period
Period
Period
Period
Period
Period
Period
1. Monarchs Phase
2. Events Phase
2.1. Economic Events for each player (initiative order)
2.2. Political Events
3. Diplomatic Phase
3.1. Crusade
3.2. Declaration of alliances (initiative order)
3.3. Declaration of war (initiative order)
3.4. Diplomacy with minors
3.5. Activation of minor countries
4. Income Phase.
4.1. Bids for slaves
4.2. Production and price of resources
4.3. Income calculation
4.4. Loans
5. Administrative Phase
5.1. Logistics
2.1. Changes in technology
2.2. Maintenance of existing units
2.3. Purchase and placement of new units
2.4. Redeployment of leaders
5.2. Administrative operations
5.3. Mandatory competition
6. Military Phase (2-11 Rounds)
In each round, each player, in order of initiative,
makes a campaign to move units.
⇒ 1st Player (Phasing Player)
-. Choice of campaign
-. Movement, attrition and interception
-. Retreat before combat
-. Combat
-. Siege (siegeworks or assault)
-. Fight privateers and revolts
⇒ 2nd Player (becomes Phasing Player)
⇒ 3rd Player (becomes Phasing Player) and so on,
until all players have moved
⇒ Native reaction to land units
⇒ Test End of Military Phase. If Military Phase
continues, play next round
7. Redeployment Phase
7.1. Looting and TP destruction
7.2. Pirates and privateers attacks
7.3. Natives attacks
7.4. Relocation of units, raising sieges and return to port
7.5. Stability loss for revolts. Extension of revolts
7.6. Collection of gold and payment of ransoms
8. Peace Phase
I: Turns 1-6 (1492-1519)
II: Turns 7-14 (1520-1559)
III: Turns 15-25 (1560-1614)
IV: Turns 26-35 (1615-1664)
V: Turns 36-42 (1665-1699)
VI: Turns 43-54 (1700-1759)
VII: Turns 55-60 (1760-1792)
At start of a Campaign Game, the players choose
Objectives for the first Period they will play. Once a
Period is over, Objectives for the next Period are
chosen.
At start of each Period, some Exotic Resources markers
move 1 box forward on the Price Track. Check it on the
RoW Map to see which ones advance on each Period.
III.2.1. Turn Limits
The Player Aid of each Major Power displays the Turn
limits that apply on a Period. They refer to:
-. Diplomatic and Administrative Actions: each player
can do each turn no more actions of Diplomacy, Trade
Fleet, Colonisation, TP placement and Competition
than those listed on the present Period. In addition,
each player can only do 1 manufacture action, 1
DTI/FTI improvement action, and 1 technology action.
Unused actions are not accumulated from turn to
turn.
-. Basic Forces, Forces Purchases and Minimum
Leaders. These are described in the Basic Rules.
III.2.2. Period Limits
The Period limits refer to the ceilings a player cannot
exceed during the concerned Period.
A. DTI/FTI: A player cannot exceed the values listed in
the Table.
B. MNU/COL/TP: A player cannot have, at the same
time, more counters in each category than those listed,
regardless of their side, (+) or (-). Limits for manufactures are for counters, not for actual units (each
counter may represent 1 or 2 manufacture units,
depending on its side).
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C. Warships Limits: same as in the Basic Rules.
III.5.1. Monarch Values
III.2.3. Exceeding Limits
Values of Monarchs at the start of the game are
indicated in each Scenario or Campaign. The values of
their successors will be determined when they ascend
to the throne. The values are:
A. Players can exceed the Period Limits of MNUs, DTI
and FTI, but by no more than 2.
ADM: Administrative. Used for MNU placement,
FTI/DTI improvement, Stab improvement and
Exceptional Taxes.
Furthermore, the maximum ceiling of DTI and FTI is 5.
The maximum limit of MNU is that of the countermix.
B. If an event places a revolt in a player’s province or
Col/TP (or one of its vassals), and that player has
exceeded any limit, and the result of the modified dr to
determine the intensity of the revolt is even, the player
loses 2 stability levels, 1 manufacture unit, 1 level
of FTI and 1 level of DTI. The losses apply even to
items that were not in excess. DTI and FTI cannot drop
below 1, however.
DIP: Diplomacy. Used for Diplomatic Actions with
minors.
MIL: Military. Used to improve technology and
determine the Monarch ratings as military leader.
Reign Length: how many turns the monarch is
expected to live. The monarch may die sooner if the
survival test fails. Exceptionally, the Reign Length may
increase up to 2 turns.
If the event already indicated the revolt intensity, still
do a modified dr to see if the penalty applies.
Age: if the Monarch is minor (baby, child or teenager)
the actual values will be penalised, until the Monarch
reaches adult age.
III.3. BANKRUPTCY
Players cannot do an action if they have not enough
money in their current treasure. If a Major Power has
to do a mandatory payment, and has not enough D$
(that is, the RT would go into negative), it suffers
Bankruptcy and the following effects apply:
A baby becomes child on the following turn. A child
becomes teenager on the following turn. A teenager
becomes adult on the following turn.
-. Stability drops 4 levels
-. 2 MNU units, chosen at random, are eliminated
-. 4 trade levels, chosen by the player, are lost.
-. 15 VP are lost.
-. The RT remains at zero, and the mandatory payment
is cancelled.
-. If the player is currently at war, and the bankruptcy
leaves its Stab at –3, and remains at that level in the
following Peace Phase, the player is forced to make
peace.
-. The Player suffers a –3 modifier in the Loans
Table, per bankruptcy, until the end of the current
Period.
Values for ADM, DIP and MIL range from 1 (worst) to
9 (best). They can never drop or rise out of this range,
even by events.
III.5.2. Successor Values
A. If the Monarch dies, roll for the Length of the
successor reign. If a Dynastic Crisis or Fragile Health
result is obtained, roll again to determine the length,
but ignore further Crisis or Health results. The result
gives the length of the reign in turns, and whether the
monarch is adult or minor.
B. Next, roll for each characteristic (ADM, DIP and MIL)
in the Successor Table, using the column corresponding to the value of the deceased Monarch, and applying
modifiers. The result gives the Successor value for that
characteristic.
III.4. STABILITY
Stability reflects the welfare of the Major Powers. Minors
do not have Stability. The higher, the better.
Stability levels range from –3 (worst) to +3 (best). The
level of stability modifies the income of players, as
indicated in the Stability Track. A negative Stab also
affects the Monarch survival dr.
C. The actual values may be temporarily modified by
minority, dynastic crisis or events.
III.5. MONARCH PHASE
A. If a Dynastic Crisis was obtained:
(Line 1) Record the Treasure at start of the Turn.
-. Ignore the successor table, and roll an unmodified
d10 for each characteristic. The result gives the
Successor value for that characteristic. Re-roll if 1,2 or
10 is obtained.
III.5.3. Dynastic Crisis
At start of each Turn, players simultaneously test
survival of their Monarch. If this is the last turn of the
Reign Length, the Monarch dies, and a successor is
determined. Do not roll for survival of the successor
until next turn, however.
-. Stability drops 2 levels
-. The Monarch values are divided by 2 (rounded up)
this turn. Apply any reduction before dividing.
If this is not the last turn, roll a die, apply modifiers
and consult the Survival Table in the Player Aides. If
the Monarch dies, the successor characteristics are
then determined. Ministers are removed from office
when the Monarch dies.
-. Survival test for next turn has a malus of +2, and a
malus of +1 the following turn (if the same monarch is
still ruling).
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B.4. If the box contains a number, followed by an R or
D, play the concerned event. However, if the event
cannot be played (because it has already occurred and
cannot be repeated, or because cannot still be
triggered), play the R or D event.
B.5. If the event contains only a number, but the Event
is no longer applicable, consider it as No Event.
B. A Dynastic Crisis may trigger some events, and also
a Succession War if the Player received a Dowry from
another Major Power (see IV.10).
III.5.4. Initiative
A. Add the 3 current values of each Monarch (modified
by Minority or Dynastic Crisis) to determine the order
of initiative. The player with highest total goes first,
then the next one, and so on. Use Ministers values to
determine Initiative, if they are present at this moment.
C. If an Event is not applicable, its description will
indicate what to do (re-roll for another, play R or D or
consider as No Event) and whether the box is marked
off or not. If the event indicates to re-roll, do it for both
dice and in the Table of the current Period, even if
such event was obtained in another Table.
B. This order will not change during the whole turn,
even if a Monarch dies meanwhile, or gets different
values due to Events.
D. When an event is played, only one box is marked,
even if there are several boxes with the same number.
Some events may occur more than one time (according
to their description).
III.6. EVENTS PHASE
III.6.1. Economic Events
E. If all boxes in a Table are marked off, proceed to
Table of next Period (or the preceding one, if this is
Period VII).
Each player, in order of initiative, rolls 2 dice (first and
second) in the Economic Random Events Table, refers
to the Economic Event indicated by the number
obtained, and applies the result. Most Economic
Events affect only to the player that obtained them, but
some will affect all players (like Poor Weather).
III.6.3. Revolts
Revolts are generated by R events, or by other events
that specifically mention them.
III.6.2. Political Events
A. On the Revolt Table of the current Period, roll:
1. For the country victim of the revolt
2. Province affected by revolt (modified by stability)
3. Country controlling the revolt
4. Strength of revolt
Players refer to the Political Events Table of the Period
they are playing and roll for 3 (and sometimes 4)
Events, as follows:
A. For each Event, 2 dice are rolled. The first indicates
the column of the Table. If a 0 is obtained, re-roll
again, as indicated:
B. If the Province indicated in 2 does not belong
neither to the victim, nor to its vassals, skip step 3; the
victim country controls the revolt (except in C below).
Otherwise, the victim country cannot be the controlling
country; re-roll in that case.
1-7: Play additional event this turn. If another first roll
is 0 (for this and remaining events of this turn), re-roll.
8-9: Re-roll on Table of previous Period (unless this is
Period I, in which case roll on current Period Table). If
the Table has all boxes marked, roll on the preceding
one. The column used is always the left-most one.
If the province already has 2 revolt markers (the
maximum allowed), re-roll for another province.
C. If there is already another revolt in the victim
country (or its vassals), its controller also controls the
newly generated revolt. If an event generates revolts,
and specifically states which is the controlling country,
this one gets control of all existing revolts.
10: Reroll on Table of next Period (unless this is Period
VII, in which case roll on current Period Table). If the
Table has all boxes marked, roll on the next one. The
column used is always the left-most one.
D. Whenever a revolt appears in a province, or
becomes (+), or a revolt detachment is generated, or
the fortress revolts:
B. The second roll indicates the number of boxes that
are counted, from top of the column to the bottom, and
continuing on top of the column to the right (if it is the
right-most column, continue on the left-most column),
skipping marked boxes. The box where the count ends
indicates the event. See the description of the Event in
the Annexes, and if it applies, mark the box, and play
it.
B.1. If the second roll is a 0, re-roll in the Table of next
Period (or the Previous if this is Period VII), but using
the column obtained in A above. If the re-roll is
another 0, proceed to the next table, and so on.
B.2. If the box contains a number, see the description
of the Event in the Annexes, and if it applies, mark the
box, and play it.
B.3. If the box contains only an R, play a Revolt. If the
box contains only a D, play a Diplomatic Upheaval. In
both cases, always mark off the box.
-. Land units of the victim country and its allies (except
those of the revolt controller) are immediately retreated
to nearest friendly unbesieged fortress or Col/TP (not
in revolt), without attrition.
-. Units of the enemies of the victim may remain.
-. Militias of the revolted colony are destroyed, and will
reappear only when the colony is not in revolt.
-. Naval units and admirals do not retreat unless the
fortress is in revolt. However, they have to retreat if
they are in a Col/TP in revolt and without friendly
fortress. The naval units are placed, without attrition,
in the nearest friendly port. Galleys without another
port in their allowed seas are destroyed.
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B. Alliances.
E. If the revolt has a General, use minor gray ?
counters. LDs generated have 10 inf csc. Technology of
the revolt is always one step less than that of the
victim country (but minimum is Med). Fortress in
revolt keep their level, unless this is not allowed by
technology.
Alliances must be declared to all players, in initiative
order. Any of the concerned players may announce it,
and the other has to confirm the alliance. Several
rounds of alliance declaration may be held, but when
a round has passed without a single declaration, this
phase is over.
F. Revolts keep all their forces in csc. They do not roll
for reinforcements, but instead may spread during the
Redeployment Phase. Revolts have 1 SC per Round.
There are 4 types of alliances:
B.1. Dynastic Alliance
G. A province in revolt is considered as enemy against
the victim country, even if the fortress remains loyal.
Two players celebrate a marriage between the ruling
families of their countries. It will be in effect for this
and the next turn, unless cancelled before.
III.6.4. Diplomatic Upheaval
B.1.1. As long as the Dynastic Alliance is in effect, the
players cannot declare war on each other without a
CB.
B.1.2. One of the players must offer a dowry to the
other. The dowry must be 100 ducats (minimum, more
may be offered), or 1 province or Col/TP (not in revolt
or enemy occupied). It may be a national province.
Ceding a province or Col/TP costs 1 Stab level, and
counts for VPs.
B.1.3. In addition to the dowry, each player may give
to the other a non-national province or Col/TP, also
costing 1 additional Stab level.
B.1.4. A player may voluntarily cancel the Dynastic
Alliance, losing 2 Stab levels. This loss is incurred,
even if both agreed to break it. If a war is declared
(with CB, of course), the Dynastic Alliance is cancelled.
B.1.5. If a Dynastic Alliance is celebrated between
countries of different religion, both players lose 2 Stab
levels. This applies between Catholics and Protestants
until Turn 25 (included), between Orthodox and other
Christians until Turn 35 (included), and always
between Muslims and Christians.
B.1.6. A Dynastic Alliance cannot be renewed between
the same countries before 3 turns after its cancellation.
Roll 2d10 and add them. Compare the sum with the
Fidelity value of each diplomatic marker in the
Diplomatic Track.
A. If the Fidelity is equal or less than the sum, the
marker drops a number of boxes equal to the
difference (minimum of 1 box), until it reaches the
Neutral Oval, where it stops. Ignore specific values of
each marker; each box costs 1 point for this event.
B. If the Fidelity is greater, the marker does not move.
III.7. DIPLOMATIC PHASE
(Line 2) Record the Treasure after any adjustment due
to Events.
III.7.1. Diplomacy between Players
Players may negotiate freely between them to get into
various kinds of agreements, as long as they respect
the letter and the spirit of the rules. Once negotiations
have ended, players announce alliances in initiative
order.
A. Informal Agreements
B.2. Loan Treaty
B.2.1. A player may give money to another by means
of a Loan Treaty. The minimum transfer is 50 D$, the
maximum is 200 D$. Transfers of money will occur at
the end of the diplomacy between players. Promises of
payments in future turns are mere informal agreements.
B.2.2. A player that has borrowed money, cannot lend
money to another player in the same turn (but the
player may have received a dowry).
B.2.3. Modes of payback and interest rates are left to
the discretion of players. It may be even a gift without
refund. The conditions of the loan must be announced
to all players.
B.2.4. If the borrower fails to pay the capital or
interest, the lender may denounce the treaty at the
time the money should have been received, in any turn
in which the borrower is still a defaulter. The borrower
loses 1 Stab, and will have a malus of –3 on the Loan
table until the end of the current period. The lender
has a temporary CB vs the borrower for the next 3
turns. If the borrower and lender go to war against
each other, the Treaty is broken, without penalties for
the borrower.
B.2.5. A Loan Treaty may be used to transfer
discoveries between players, as a gift, in exchange of
money, or in exchange of another discovery. The
Informal agreement may cover anything that does not
need a specific Alliance: non-aggression pacts, promise
of concluding an Alliance later in the game, share of
zones of influence, diplomatic support, etc. Informal
agreements do not need to be declared, except the
following:
A.1. Right of Passage: a player concedes another player
the right of passage of military units through provinces
of his/her country and vassals, or the right of using
ports to reduce attrition. The units, however, cannot
end the movement in such provinces. The right may be
restricted to specific provinces. This agreement may be
cancelled at any time during the Turn, without
penalty.
A.2. Supply: a player concedes another player the right
to use a supply source (fortress or Col/TP, but not
naval units) for his/her troops. This agreement may be
cancelled at any time during the Turn, without
penalty. The fortress or Col/TP may be from his/her
country or from vassals.
A.3. Permission to place trade fleets in a Trade Zone,
as explained in III.9.7.C.
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payment of money must be made at the end of the
diplomacy between players. A player may only give the
discovery of 1 province or sea per turn.
B.2.6. A Loan Treaty may be used to sell slaves to
another player. The sale will take place during the
Income phase (unless the treaty is broken before).
However, the number of slaves must be announced
during the Diplomatic Phase. The price will be
determined during the Income Phase (see III.8.1.F),
and the seller will get it like for other exploited
resources. The buyer records the expenditure in line
23.
B.2.7. A player cannot lend money during the 3 turns
prior to its transfer to another Major Power.
No CB: -2 Stab and –10 VP
CB: -1 Stab
Free CB: no penalty.
To attack several countries will require several DoWs,
and the penalties of each DoW accumulate.
B.2. Permanent CB may be invoked multiple times,
until the cause that originates them disappears. In
addition to those granted by Events or special rules,
the following Permanent CB apply:
-. After The Reform Event, and until Turn 25
(included), Catholic countries have Permanent CB
against Protestant (and vice versa).
(Line 3) Record the net effect of loans, gifts and
dowries.
-. Spain has Permanent CB against non-Christian
countries and Natives, until Turn 42 (included).
B.3. Defensive
B.3.1. Two or more players may form a Defensive
Alliance, which applies in case another country DoWs
any member of the Alliance. The Alliance lasts for this
and the next turn. However, as long as the allies are at
war against the same enemy, the Alliance is not
terminated.
B.3.2. If any member of the Alliance is DoWed, the
player may call the Allies, which will have a CB against
the attacker. If an Ally refuses to attend the call, the
Alliance is broken, he/she loses 2 Stab, and the
attacked player has a temporary CB against him/her,
valid for this and the next turn.
B.3.4. If the attacked player decides not to call Allies,
they still can enter the war, with CB. If they remain out
of war, they suffer no penalty.
B.3.5. A player may voluntarily cancel the Alliance,
announcing it during the Alliance Declaration Step,
and losing 2 Stab. If all Allies agree to cancel the
Alliance, there is no penalty. If a player DoWs an Ally,
the Alliance is broken, with the penalty of 2 Stab.
-. Turkey has Permanent CB against Christian
countries and against Persia, until Turn 42 (included).
-. Turkey has a Permanent Free CB against The
Knights.
-. If Rome is under Turkish control, all Catholic
countries have a Permanent Free CB against Turkey.
-. A country has Permanent CB against a country that
has annexed one of its National provinces (see
III.12.6.G for an exception).
-. A player has Permanent CB against a country that
has a monopoly on the player’s CTZ.
B.3. Temporary CB can be used only once. They
usually have a time limit to be used, as described in
each case.
B.4. Offensive. An Offensive Alliance operates in the
same way as the Defensive, but applies also when an
Ally DoWs another country.
C. Trade Refusal
C.1. When at peace, a player may refuse trade to
another player, losing 1 stab level. Once this refusal is
announced, it can be maintained from turn to turn
without losing additional Stab. The refusal ends when
both players are at war, in which case the rules for war
status apply, or when the refusing player decides so.
C.2. The other player receives a temporary CB, valid
for the current turn, and any other in which the
refusal is maintained. This player deducts from
European Trade a sum equal to the refusing player’s
provinces (including vassals).
III.7.2. Wars
When two countries are at war:
-. Their Alliances are broken, and no new Alliance
between them may be signed.
-. They Refuse Trade to each other.
-. They suffer a malus for Stab improvement.
A. Declarations of War
D. Minor Countries at War
After Alliances have been announced, players proceed
to do Declarations of War (DoW) and Trade Refusal, in
initiative order. Players also call allies (and allies
respond) at this time. Several rounds of declaration
may be held, but when a round has passed without a
single declaration, this phase is over.
Minor Countries are at war when an Event says so, or
when attacked by another country, or when activated
in EW or VA. Habsburg (when associated to Spain)
may also DoW a Major Power, if the Spanish player
wants.
Note: Sometimes, minor countries DoW during the
Events phase, before Alliances are formed.
An activated Minor Country in MA or EC supports the
controlling Major Power, but is not itself at war.
B. Casus Belli
D.1. Minor Control
Once the DoW phase is over, decide which player will
control each Minor (alphabetic order), following these
preferences:
B.1. DoWs cost Stab and VP to the declaring player,
depending on the type of CB he/she helds against the
attacked country.
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-.
-.
-.
-.
-.
Advanced Rules
G. Neutral Forces
Never a player at war with the minor.
As indicated in the Event.
The player controlling the minor diplomatic marker.
A player already at war with an enemy of the minor.
As indicated in the preference list in the Annexes.
G.1. Land units moving through otherwise friendly
provinces, without unbesieged enemy fortresses, may
ignore neutral land forces. When they stop at a
province with neutral forces, any side may automatically retreat before combat without rolling the dice. If
both remain, they must fight. If one side retreats into
the fortress, the other must siege (with the restrictions
indicated in F.2. above) or retreat outside the province.
Such combats or sieges count for VP, but not for Peace
purposes.
D.2. A player may refuse control of the minor, by
losing 1 Stab and the minor diplomatic marker.
Control then passes to the next eligible player. If all
players refuse, the initial player loses an additional
Stab level, and must control the minor.
D.3. The player controlling the minor places its
diplomatic marker on the RM box (but there is no
dowry), unless it is already higher, or an Event states
otherwise.
When the same Player controls both neutral forces,
he/she must avoid battle and retreat at least one of the
stacks.
E. Extension of Wars
G.2. When land units besiege a fortress with neutral
forces inside, these are free to leave the province, if
they wish so. If they are not in supply in the adjacent
province, then they must Retreat.
G.3. Land units may attempt to intercept neutral units
that, per F.1. above, invade their friendly provinces.
E.1. A DoW on a vassal may be extended to the
controlling Major Power, at the option of the defending
player, and with no cost to the attacking player. The
CB that apply are those against the vassal, not against
the Major Power.
E.2. A DoW on a country is automatically extended to
its active allies, both Major and minor, with no cost to
the attacking player.
E.3. When a minor country is activated, it does so
against all current enemies of the controlling Major
Power.
E.4. When players are at war against a common
enemy, but are not allied themselves (and thus fight
different wars), they may sign a Defensive or Offensive
alliance, and unify the wars, without further DoWs.
E.5. Similarly, when the controller of a minor DoWs
any of the minor enemies, and the Diplomatic marker
is in EW or VA (or moves to EW as per III.7.4.F.1), the
wars may be unified, at the controller’s choice.
III.7.3. Diplomacy with Minor Countries
A. Diplomatic Actions
The number of Diplomatic Actions a Major Power has
each turn is indicated in the Player Aid. They do not
accumulate from turn to turn. A Diplomatic Action
may be used to increase diplomatic control, or to
reduce diplomatic control of another player, or to
support the Diplomatic Action of another player, or to
activate a minor in war.
(Line 4) Players secretly record the minors targeted
and the intended actions, before resolving any action.
Then, all players announce their actions. The cost is
deducted from the current treasure. A player can
target the same minor to affect the diplomatic control
only once per turn. However, the same minor may be
later tested for activation in war by spending an
additional Diplomatic Action.
F. Neutral Provinces
F.1. Land units may enter neutral provinces if:
-. There are hostile land units inside, including forces
of minors activated in MA or EC, or
-. A fortress or Col/TP inside is providing supply to
hostile land forces, even if it is not the only supply
source of such force.
(Line 5) Players whose minors have been targeted by
another player announce reactions.
In case a minor suffers such invasion, its diplomatic
marker will be moved to EW status, if not already
higher.
(Line 6) Resolve actions in any order, and record the
net effect of minor Subsidies and Dowries.
F.2. Once inside the province, the land unit may
besiege a neutral fortress, but cannot assault it. Treat
any result of Breach, HW and Surrender as Usure (+).
There is no need to lift the siege when the conditions in
F.1 above no longer apply. Note that for VP purposes,
such siege would be always a failure for the besieger.
F.3. Naval units may blockade a port in a neutral
province, if there are hostile naval units inside. The
blockade does not affect neutral naval units, and is not
counted for when neutral forces besiege the fortress.
Once started, the blockade may continue until no
hostile naval unit remains inside.
F.4. When Retreating, land units may also cross
neutral provinces, but cannot use a neutral port to
Retreat into naval units. Their enemies can intercept
them in the Neutral province, but must Retreat after
combat outside the province, if no other rule allows
them to remain in the neutral province.
B. Resolution of Diplomatic Actions
B.1. The minor is neutral or controlled by the
player. The player rolls 1d10, adds modifiers
(Monarch’s DIP, investment bonus, etc) and substracts
2d10. If the result is zero or negative, nothing
happens. If the result is positive, the player gets the
difference as “progression points” to advance the
diplomatic marker on the Diplomatic Track.
B.1.1. Each box has a cost in points as indicated in
the Diplomatic Marker. Boxes Neutrals, RM and Subs
always cost 1 point. Exception: for Switzerland, costs
are 2 for RM and 3 for Subs.
B.1.2. If not enough points remain to enter a specific
box, the marker remains on the preceding box, and the
excess points are lost. The benefits that apply are only
those of the final status reached; the preceding ones
are ignored. However, a player may stop the progression at any point.
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-. Odd: the player has to pay the dowry. If the player
refuses, place the marker on the Neutrals box.
D.1.2. Do not roll for dowry if the marker was moving
back. The dowry is not rolled for in subsequent turns
(unless the marker drops to Neutrals, and is moved
again to RM).
B.1.3. Diplomatic status marked with a “*” indicate
that such status is impossible with that minor. Some
diplomatic status can only be achieved by certain
Major Powers, as indicated in the Diplomatic Markers.
B.2. Several players target the same neutral minor.
Each player rolls 1d10 and adds modifiers. The highest
result is selected to continue (solve ties by competitive
unmodified rolls). Roll 2d10 and proceed as indicated
in B.1.
D.2. Subsidies (Subs).
D.2.1. If the marker ends in the Subs box, roll 1d100
and subtract the Subs modifier indicated in the
diplomatic marker. If the result is:
-. Positive: the player receives that amount in ducats,
as subsidies from the minor (the maximum is 50D$).
-. Zero: nothing happens
-. Negative: the player has to pay that amount to the
minor. If the player refuses, place the marker on the
Neutrals box.
D.2.2. Do not roll for Subsidies if the marker was
moving back. Subsidies are not rolled for in subsequent turns (unless the marker drops to Neutrals or
RM, and is moved again to Subs).
B.3. The controlling player and other player target
the minor. Proceed as in B.2, but if the other player
prevails, the points earned are used to lower the
diplomatic marker along the track. Exiting a box costs
the same points that entering it. If not enough points
are available, the marker does not drop further. If the
Neutrals box is reached, and there are points
remaining, use them as in B.1.
B.4. The controlling player did not plan an action
on the targeted minor. The controlling player has the
option to react against the intended action, paying the
money used, but without spending a Diplomatic
Action.
B.4.1. If the controlling player reacts (paying at least
a Basic investment), roll 1d10 and add modifiers as if
it were a diplomatic action (but support from other
players is not allowed). The result is subtracted from
the attacking player roll, instead of the normal 2d10.
The points obtained are used to drop the marker as
indicated in B3. The controlling player can never
advance the diplomatic marker, even if the result is
negative.
B.4.2. If the controlling player does not react,
immediately place the marker on the Neutrals box, and
proceed as in B.1.
D.3. Military Alliance (MA).
D.3.1. If, and only if, the controlling Major Power is at
war:
-. Its troops consider the minor provinces as friendly,
for movement, supply, retreat and port control. The
player may forfeit this advantage at start of the Military
Phase.
-. The player may attempt to activate the minor in the
war. If the minor is activated, set up its Basic Forces.
The player may use up to 2 stacks outside the minor
territory (as mercenaries), but only in adjacent
provinces and seas. The minor never rolls for
reinforcements.
D.3.2. The minor won’t activate if neither the enemies
nor the controlling Major Power are in its Zone of
Operation (see G below), as indicated in the Annexes.
D.3.3. Even if activated, the minor remains neutral.
C. Diplomatic Support
A player may support the action of another player, by
spending a Basic Investment. The player receives a +1
roll modifier. This support may be sold as a result of
an informal agreement (which does not have to be
revealed until the actions are announced), at a
maximum price of 30D$. The money is transferred
once all diplomatic actions are resolved.
D.4. Expeditionary Corps (EC).
D.4.1. If, and only if, the controlling Major Power is at
war:
-. Its troops consider the minor provinces as friendly,
for movement, supply, retreat and port control. The
player may forfeit this advantage at start of the Military
Phase.
-. The player may attempt to activate the minor in the
war. If the minor is activated, set up its Basic Forces.
The player may use 1 stack outside the minor territory
(as mercenaries), anywhere in the map (note, however,
that most European minors cannot leave the European
Map). The minor never rolls for reinforcements.
D.4.2. European minors won’t activate against RoW
minors, unless they can leave Europe. RoW minors
won’t activate if neither the enemies nor the controlling
Major Power are in their Zone of Operation (see G
below), as indicated in the Annexes.
D.4.3. Even if activated the minor remains neutral.
D. Diplomatic Status
In addition to the Neutrals box, there are 7 boxes on
the track of each Major Power, corresponding to the 7
levels, or status of diplomatic control. The diplomatic
markers are moved along the track as required by the
course of the game.
Each status gives certain benefits to the controlling
player. These are not cumulative. Thus, if a minor is
in EC, the controlling player does not roll for
Subsidies, and can only use 1 stack from the minor
forces (instead of the 2 allowed in MA).
D.5. Entry in War (EW).
D.5.1. If, and only if, the controlling Major Power is at
war:
-. Its units consider the minor provinces as friendly, for
movement, supply, retreat and port control. The player
may forfeit this advantage at start of the Military
Phase.
-. The player may attempt to activate the minor in the
war. If the minor is activated, it DoWs all enemies of
the controlling Major Power. Set up its Basic Forces.
The different status are, from lowest to highest:
D.1. Royal Marriage (RM).
D.1.1. If the marker ends in the RM box, immediately
roll 1d10:
-. Even: the player receives as dowry the ducats
indicated in the diplomatic marker.
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European Group: Moldavia, Wallachia, Crimea, Astrakhan, Kazan, Steppes, and any other minor in
European Map outside North Africa and Middle East.
The player may use freely all forces of the minor, but
they cannot move outside their Zone of Operation (see
G below). The minor may roll for reinforcements each
turn, and maintains forces as described in II.2.2.A.4.
D.5.2. The minor won’t activate if neither the enemies
nor the controlling Major Power are in its Zone of
Operation, as indicated in the Annexes.
North Africa Group: Morocco, Al-Djazair, Tunisia,
Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, Mameluks.
Middle East Group: Arabia, Irak, Oman, Aden, Sudan,
Hyderabad, Mysore.
D.6. Vassalisation (VA)
D.6.1. Vassal income from provinces, Col/TP, exotic
resources and trade fleets is included in the controlling
player income. Its provinces contribute to DTI income,
and are deducted for purposes of FTI income, but are
not included in MNUs variable income.
D.6.2. The controlling Major Power considers the
vassal provinces as friendly, for movement, supply,
retreat and port control, both at wartime and
peacetime. The player may forfeit this advantage at
start of the Military Phase.
D.6.3. If, and only if, the controlling Major Power is at
war, it may attempt to activate the minor in the war,
with the same effects that those of EW, but the minor
only maintains its Basic Forces (and all fortresses
obtained).
D.6.4. A vassal never signs a separate peace, unless its
capital is under enemy control, and not besieged by
friendly forces.
Any minor not listed above must be tested separately.
C.1. A group cannot be tested if all enemies are outside
of all Zones of Operation (see G below). The border
bonus applies if at least one minor from the group and
currently controlled by Turkey, qualifies. The malus for
not having enemies in the Zone of Operation does not
apply if at least one Zone of Operation includes an
enemy, even those minors that no qualify for activation
will do if the groups activates.
C.2. Diplomatic bonuses can only be used if at least
half of the minors in the group (currently controlled by
Turkey) are at the same or higher level of diplomatic
control. Geopolitics bonuses never apply.
C.3. If admiral Barberus is in play and the NorthAfrican group failed, Al-Djazair may be tested
separately by expending an additional Diplomatic
Action.
C.4. If the group is tested, it must be as a whole,
without leaving a country out of the test.
D.7. Annexation (AN)
D.7.1. Remove all military units of the minor from the
game. Substitute fortress markers and trade fleet levels
by those of the annexing Major Power. Note that the
player cannot have more than 6 trade levels in the
same sea. If enough markers are not available, the
player may remove them from other places, or discard
them. Col/TPs remain in place, but are owned by the
Major Power. Period Limits may be exceeded this way,
but in such case, no new marker may be placed.
D.7.2. The minor provinces belong now to the Major
Power at all effects, including variable income of MNUs.
The player may build units as in other non-national
provinces. The player earns VPs for this annexation.
D.7.3. Annexation may occur as a result of diplomatic
action and through military conquest. Minors may be
de-annexed by “D” events, diplomatic actions of other
players, or military “liberation”.
D.7.4. If a country deannexes, it gains control of the
provinces and Col/TP it had before the annexation.
Trade fleet levels remain under control of the Major
Power.
D. Once all activations have been tested, each player,
in order of initiative, sets up the Basic Forces of the
controlled minors that have entered the conflict this
turn, as indicated in the Annexes. Units are placed
inside the minor provinces.
E. A minor activated in MA or EC that moves upwards
the diplomatic track, will not increase its involvement
in the war. However, it may be tested for activation in
the new status, but only if it is currently not violating
the restrictions of its current diplomatic status.
F. Diplomacy with Minor Countries at War. Only the
controlling Major Power may do diplomacy on a minor
at war, or activated in MA or EC.
F.1. If the controlling Major Power declares war on all
the countries that DoWed (and are currently at war
with) the minor, the diplomatic marker is moved to the
EW box. If a country which a minor in MA or EC was
activated against, DoWs the minor, the diplomatic
marker is moved to the EW box. If a Diplomatic marker
of a minor at war reaches the VA status, the controller
must drop it to EW, unless he/she is at war with all
enemies of the minor.
F.2. “D” events will not affect minors that are active
allies of a Major Power, or that were activated in MA or
EC. They may affect minors alone at war, but the
marker will never drop below the RM box of the
controlling Major Power.
III.7.4. Activation of Minor Countries in War.
A. After DoWs and Diplomacy with Minors, players
announce activation of Minors in War, in order of
initiative. Each activation attempt uses 1 Diplomatic
Action, but costs no money. Each minor can only be
tested once per turn, and only minors in MA, EC, EW
or VA may be activated. Roll 1d10 and consult the
table to see if the Minor activates.
B. Habsburg, when associated to Spain, cannot be
activated in this way. Instead, Habsburg DoWs during
the DoW Phase.
G. Zones of Operation. The Annexes list the Zone of
Operations in which minors can move units when at
war.
G.1. The minor can only move naval units and
transport land units across the indicated seas. If no
sea is mentioned, then units of that minor cannot be
embarked. Furthermore, when a sea is indicated, all
provinces adjacent to it are also included in the Zone.
C. Turkey has the option to activate its minors in
groups, instead of doing it individually, using 1
Diplomatic Action for the whole group.
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Players then proceed to activate minors in the war.
Spain test Genoa, rolling a 5 and adding 3 for having
it in VA and 1 for the country bonus, but subtracting
4 because Genoa and France have the same Religion.
The net result is 5, so the attempt fails.
G.2. Geographical zones, like Italy or India, are defined
in I.3.1.F. Note that these may include seas adjacent to
provinces that are, per se, not part of the geographical
zone. All of them are also included in the Zone of
Operation.
G.3. The Zone of Operation always include:
-. Any province owned by the minor, plus adjacent
provinces and seas, plus provinces adjacent to the
latter.
-. Any province listed as a possible annexation in the
Annexes.
G.4. Minors won’t activate in MA, EW or VA if neither
the controlling Major Power nor any of the enemies
have provinces or Col/TP in the Zone of Operation.
This may result even n the minor not answering a call
of Crusade.
G.5. Note that European minors may move outside this
zone when activated in EC.
III.8. INCOME PHASE
After Diplomacy, players calculate their income for the
current turn, which will be used to maintain forces and
raise new ones, perform administrative actions and
military campaigns. Players get money from various
sources: land, trade, Colonies and TPs, industries and
loans. The money obtained is recorded in the corresponding line of the Economic Record Sheet.
(Line 7) The Treasure at end of Diplomatic Phase is
2+3+4+5+6. This is the figure used to calculate bonus
for the Loan Table.
EXAMPLE of Diplomatic Actions
III.8.1. Exotic Resources
Phil plays Spain and Liz France.
Remember to check the Price Track at the start of each
Period to see which markers advance 1 box.
On Turn 7 (1520) the Diplomatic Track is set as
follows:
Spain: Genoa in VA, Papacy in RM, Habsburg in EW.
France: Savoy and Toscana in MA.
Venice: nothing.
A. Types of resources:
Fisheries (blue box)
Slaves (black circle)
Cotton (purple box)
Spices (Red circle)
Sugar (white box)
Products d'Orient (Orange circle)
Tobacco (brown box)
Furs (green circle)
A.1. The quantity of each resurce in an Area of the
RoW is indicated by the number inside the box or
circle. It applies to the Area as a whole, not to each
province. Resources are exploited using Col/TP levels.
All the quantity of an Area might be exploited from a
single province if there were enough levels. Resources
do not have to be sent to Europe to get their income; it
is enough to produce them.
A.2. Sugar and Tobacco can be exploited only since
Period IV. Cotton can only be exploited since Period VI.
A.3. Quantity of Furs drops by 1 for each Col (+) after
the first in the same Area (whether or not they exploit
the Furs), up to a minimum of 0. If the number of
Col(+) is later reduced, the number of Furs recover.
France has DoWed Spain, and uses its 3 Diplomatic
actions to secure a passage into Italy. Liz places 20D$
on Parma, 50D$ on the Papacy and 100D$ on Genoa.
Spain will try to increase its control over the Papacy
with a Basic Investment (20D$), and has obtained a
Diplomatic Support from the Venetian player. The
other 2 actions will be kept to activate minors in war.
Once the Diplomatic actions are revealed, Spain
decides to defend Genoa with a Basic Investment
(20D$).
The struggle for the Papacy is resolved as follows:
France: rolls 7 and adds 8 for his Monarch’s DIP, 2 for
the Medium Investment and 1 for having the same
Religion as the minor, for a net result of 18.
Spain: rolls 5 and adds 9 for his Monarch’s DIP, 1 for
having the same religion, 1 for having the minor in RM
and 1 for the Venetian support, for a net result of 17.
B. Production rates.
B.1. Col may produce all resources, at the following
rates:
Fisheries: 2 for each level
Furs: 6 for each level
Slaves, Spices, Products d'Orient: 1 for each level
Sugar, Tobacco, Cotton: 1 for every 2 levels (rounded
down).
B.2. Trading-Post Production
TP may produce the following resources, at the given
rates:
Furs: 2 for each level
Slaves, Spices, Products d'Orient: 1 for each level
Sugar, Tobacco, Cotton: 1 for every 2 levels (rounded
down).
In America and Africa, TPs cannot produce Sugar,
Tobacco or Cotton.
B.3. The same Col/TP can produce more than one type
of resource, but the same level cannot (that is, a Col
with a single level cannot produce 1 fishery and 3 furs,
but a Col with 2 levels can). Different Col/TP may use
France prevails, and Liz rolls 6 and 7 on two dice,
subtracting them from her result. She gets 5
progression points, that are used to drop the marker to
the Neutrals Box (1), then move it to RM (1), Subs (1),
MA (1) and EC (1).
France then tries on Parma, rolling 2 and adding 8 for
the Monarch’s DIP and 1 for having the same Religion,
for a net result of 11. The other two dice rolls are 8 and
8, so France gets nothing.
On Genoa Liz gets a 4, adding 8 for her Monarch, 5 for
the Strong Investment and 1 for having the same
Religion, for a net result of 18.
Phil rolls a 1 and adds his Monarch DIP of 9, plus 1 for
having the same Religion, 1 from the country bonus
and 3 from the control bonus, for a net result of 15.
France gets 3 progression points, but they are not
enough to move Genoa out of the VA box.
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and place it in the box “20”. Do not count the slaves
supplied by smugglers. Only resources produced by
Col/TP are counted (China or Persia do not exploit
resources but the Col and TP of Oman and Aden do).
F.4. Check variation of prices for each resource:
-. If the marker is located on a box with arrows on top,
roll 1d10 and compare it with the number on the rightbottom corner. If the roll is equal or higher, the price
marker advances a number of boxes equal to the
number of arrows.
-. If there are arrows on bottom, roll 1d10 and compare
the roll with the number on the left-bottom corner. If
the roll is equal or higher, the price marker drops a
number of boxes equal to the number of arrows.
-. If there are arrows on both top and bottom of the
box, roll two times, as indicated above, and move the
marker according to the net result.
F.5. The minimum price of a resource is either 0, or
that indicated in the Scenario or Campaign. The
maximum price is indicated in the Price Track for each
resource.
F.6. Even if a resource has a production of zero, check
for variation of prices. Exception: resources not
available (Sugar and Tobacco before Turn 26, and
Cotton before Turn 43).
their levels jointly to produce the resources, as long as
they are in the same Area.
C. Slaves
In America, production of Sugar, Cotton and Tobacco
needs slaves. Each Col (-) needs 1 slave, and each Col
(+) needs 2 slaves, regardless of the number of
resources actually exploited.
These slaves may be actually produced by the player
(who will also receive the income for producing them),
or bought from other players or smugglers (see below).
The slaves do not have to be sent to the Col; it is
enough to have them available.
D. Fisheries
D.1. To exploit Fisheries, the Col must be in a coastal
province.
D.2. Each point of Fisheries exploited raises the
player's Turn and Period Limits of warships by 1.
These extra warships must be built in National
provinces, or in Col actually exploiting Fisheries. In the
latter case, their cost is not doubled, they do not count
double for Turn Limits, and transports may be built
instead of warships, also at normal price. All the extra
ships may be built in a single Col, even if that Col does
not exploit all the player's Fisheries.
D.3. The Total Monopoly of Fisheries gives the player
a +1 to the die roll for placing trade fleets.
III.8.2. Convoys
Two convoy units, Smyrna and East Indies, are
available each turn if a player fulfils certain requisites.
A convoy contains 50 ships valued each at 1 D$. To get
the money, a player must move the convoy to a
National port during the Military Phase (suffering
attrition). The amount is recorded during the
Redeployment Phase.
E. Monopoly of Resources. A country that is the single
one exploiting a type of resource has a monopoly. The
monopoly is Partial if it exploits 1-5 units, and Total if
it exploits 6 or more units. Only resources actually
produced by Col/TP are considered for determining a
monopoly. Thus, China and Persia do not produce
resources in game terms, but the Col and TP of Oman
and Aden do.
Convoys attributed to minor countries are not placed
at all, unless the minor is a vassal, or it is Portugal
when annexed to Spain, or Dutch before the Revolt of
the United Provinces. In these cases, the controlling
Major Power holds the convoy.
F. Price of Exotic Resources. This is the first thing to
do during the Income Phase. Proceed as follows:
F.1. First, players bid for the 5 slaves provided by
smugglers. Each player annotates the quantity desired,
and the price (minimum is the current price for slaves).
The player with the highest bid (solve ties by
competitive rolls) gets the annotated quantity. If there
remain slaves, the next player gets the slaves at the
price of his/her own bid. A player pays only for the
actual slaves obtained. These slaves can only be used
to produce resources in America, they cannot be
resold, nor exchanged by their price, nor they count for
monopoly purposes.
F.2. Then, players decide which resources to exploit. If
an area does not have enough resources to satisfy all
countries, players may agree to share the existing
ones. If no agreement is reached, follow this procedure:
-. If no Col/TP with side (+) is present, resources are
distributed proportionally to the exploitation capacity
of each country.
-. If only a country has a side (+) Col/TP, that country
may use all its exploitation capacity. Other countries
share the remaining resources proportionally.
-. If two or more countries have a side (+) Col/TP, a
mandatory competition is resolved immediately (free
and without investment, as described in III.9.10), until
only one (or none) side (+) Col/TP remains in the area,
or the resources may be distributed without conflict.
F.3. Place each marker in the track indicating the
number of resources exploited this turn. If more than
20 units are exploited, flip the marker to the +20 side,
A. Smyrna convoy is available on the port holding the
Grand Orient Center. Its attribution depends on which
country controls the Grand Orient Center:
-. Mameluks: the convoy is attributed to the country
controlling the Mediterranean Center.
-. Turkey: The Turkish player may assign it during the
income phase to any player (but not Turkey itself), that
has (by itself or a vassal) either a port in the
Mediterranean region, or the Mediterranean Trade
Center. It may also be assigned to a minor country that
holds the Mediterranean Center. The convoy may be
assigned to a country at war with Turkey.
A.1. If Turkey assigns the convoy it gets 20D$. Record
this in the Trade Centers line, but this amount is never
affected by the reductions in the Grand Orient income
indicated in III.8.5.C.1.
A.2. If Turkey does not assign the convoy to anybody,
it loses 1 Stab, and the Grand Orient income is reduced
by 20D$, as indicated in III.8.5.C.1. If Turkey does not
assign the convoy to the owner of the Mediterranean
Center, that country has a Temporary CB vs Turkey,
for the next turn only.
A.3. If the province with the Grand Orient Center is in
revolt or enemy-occupied, the convoy cannot be
attributed, but Turkey does not suffer the penalties.
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partial monopoly, and gets half (rounded up) of the
printed value as a bonus.
A country having 6 levels, has a total monopoly, and
gets the full printed value. Record all the bonuses,
including those of vassals.
(Line 18) Trade Centers: there are 3 Trade Centers,
each providing 100 D$ to the country controlling them.
Control of centers is indicated at the start of each
scenario, but may change hands as indicated below:
B. East Indies Convoy is available each turn to the
country that exploits the highest quantity (but at least
10) of Spices and Products of Orient (added together).
In case of ties, it is attributed following these priorities:
-. Country controlling the Atlantic Center
-. Netherlands from Turn 1 to 42
-. England from Turn 43 to 60
-. Competitive rolls
B.1. The convoy is placed in any side (+) Col/TP that is
exploiting at least one point of Spices or Products of
Orient. If none is available, the convoy is assigned to
the next country.
B.2. If nobody exploits the necessary quantity, or does
not have a side (+) Col/TP, the convoy is unavailable.
A. The Mediterranean Center is attributed during the
Interphase to the country having the highest number
of trade fleet levels in the Zones Gulf of Lion, Ionian
Sea, Adriatic Sea, Black Sea, Turkey and Caspian Sea.
It must be placed in a National province with port (if
there is none, it remains unavailable). In case of ties,
follow these priorities to attribute it:
-. Current owner
-. Competitive rolls.
III.8.3. Gold
A. Income from European Mines is received during the
Income Phase, and noted down in the corresponding
line of the Economic Sheet. Nothing special is needed
to exploit them.
B. The Atlantic Center is attributed in the same way,
but considering all other Zones not mentioned above.
Note that after receiving the Burgundian Inheritance,
and before the Dutch revolt, the Spanish player gets
the income of any Center attributed to Dutch trade
fleets.
B. To exploit mines in RoW, a Col is needed in the
province where the "mine" symbol is located. One Col
level is enough to fully exploit all the gold in the
province. The RoW gold is produced during the income
phase, but must be repatriated to Europe (and would
be recorded in the Redeployment Phase).
C. The Grand Orient Center is controlled by the
Mameluks. On the turn this minor disappears, it is
transferred to Turkey until the end of game. Turkey
places it in the port of Smyrna, if still owned (or any
other National port, if not).
C. Col exploiting mines cannot exploit other resources,
nor generate other income, regardless of levels.
Exploiting a mine is voluntary, but once a Col starts
exploitation, it cannot stop until the mine is depleted
(by an Event), or the Col disappears. No slaves are
needed to exploit the mine.
C.1. The income of the Grand Orient Center is reduced
as follows (but never below 0, and the 20D$ for
assigning the Smyrna convoy are always safe):
D. Col under enemy occupation or revolt interrupt the
gold production, but resume it once they are free.
Looted Col may continue the gold production.
-10 for each 5 (or fraction) Col/TP belonging to
Christian countries in Asia (not Siberia).
-10 for each Christian trade fleet in the STZ Eastern
Indian Ocean and Oman Sea.
-20 for not attributing the Smyrna convoy.
-50 if Turkey is at war with Persia.
- # as indicated by events
III.8.4. Land Income
(Line 8) Players sum up all income of owned provinces.
(Line 9) Income from vassal provinces is recorded next.
(Line 10) Events on Land income (either positive or
negative) are also recorded.
(Line 11) Losses due to revolt, looting, enemy
occupation and pashas are recorded separately.
(Line 12) Net Land Income is 8+9+10-11.
D. If the province holding the Trade Center is in revolt,
or enemy-occupied, the Center does not provide
income. Looting has no effect in Trade Centers.
If the province is ceded to another country, the Center
is transferred to another National port (owner’s choice).
If there is none, the Center remains unavailable.
III.8.5. Trade Income
(Line 19) Trade Income is 13+14+15+16+17+18.
(Line 13) Domestic Trade Income: on the Domestic
Trade Table, cross-index the player’s DTI with the Net
Land Income, and record the amount indicated.
(Line 14) Foreign Trade Income: on the Foreign Trade
Table, cross-index the player’s FTI with the following
amount:
1500 - (Lines 8+9) – (Income of provinces of all
countries at war with the player, or that refuse trade,
and their vassals) – Events.
The basic value of 1500 is increased to 1700 once the
minor United States is created by an Event.
(Line 15) STZ Income: each trade fleet level on an STZ
(square-shaped) gives 1 D$ (including vassals).
(Line 16) CTZ Income: each trade fleet level on a CTZ
(circle-shaped) gives 2D$ (including vassals).
(Line 17) Monopoly bonuses: A country having a side
(+) trade fleet on a Trade Zone with 4-5 levels, has a
III.8.6. Rest-of-the-World Income
Col/TP under enemy occupation or revolt neither give
regular income, nor exploit resources, nor produce
gold. Looted Col/TP do not give regular income, but
may produce resources and gold.
(Line 20) Income of Colonies: each side (-) colony gives
(income of area) + 1 D$ per level. Each side (+) income
gives 2x(income of area) + 1 D$ per level. Exception: if
the colony exploits a mine, it gives no income.
(Line 21) Income of TP: each side (-) TP gives 1 D$.
Each side (+) TP gives 2 D$
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the loan is totally refunded, including the last turn of
payment. The interest rate is calculated on the amount
effectively borrowed by the player, and that quantity
applies for all the duration of the Loan, even if the
player has partially refunded the capital.
(Line 22) Exotic resources: multiply the quantity
exploited by the price, and sum up the income from all
resources.
(Line 23) Investment in slaves: record the amount
spent to purchase slaves, both from smugglers and
from players.
F. A player may refund the whole Loan before the
scheduled turn. It is possible to borrow a new loan to
pay an old one, even in the last turn of payment.
(Line 24) The RoW income is 20+21+21-23
G. A player may reject a National Loan, thus cancelling
it, at any turn, but must pay the interests in the
current turn, or suffer bankruptcy. The player loses 1
Stab, cannot borrow National loans until the end of the
current Period, and suffers a penalty of –3 when rolling
for an International Loan, until the end of the Period.
III.8.7. Industrial Income
MNUs and European mines in looted, revolted or
enemy-occupied provinces give no income.
(Line 25) Permanent MNU income: each income
counter shows the fixed income it provides each turn.
Note each side of the counter has different values.
H. A player unable to pay the interests or capital of an
International Loan suffers Bankruptcy, and the Loan
is cancelled. New Loans (including International) may
be borrowed, but for each bankruptcy, the player has
a malus of –3 on the Loan Table, until end of current
Period (cummulative with the penalty mentioned in G
above).
(Line 26) Variable MNU income: add the percentages
indicated in each MNU counter, and apply the sum to
Line 8. The result is the variable income.
(Line 27) European Mines: each mine gives 20 D$.
Note some provinces may have 2 mines. Gold from
RoW mines is not cashed in this Phase.
EXAMPLE of Income
(Line 28) Industrial income is 25+26+27
Sebastian plays Portugal, which at start of Turn 7 has:
III.8.8. Gross Income
RT: 250 D$
Provinces: 21 D$
Trade Fleets: 10 levels in STZ
Manufactures: 12D$ fixed income and 20% variable.
Colonies: 5 Col(-) producing 21 D$.
Trading Posts: 5 TP(-) and 1 TP(+) producing 7D$.
Resources: 8 slaves, 5 spices, 4 products of orient.
DTI / FTI: 3 / 3
Stability: +3
(Line 29) Gross Income is 12+19+24+28
(Line 30) Apply the bonus/malus percentages
indicated in the Stab track (according to the current
Stab of each player).
(Line 31) Adjusted Gross Income is 29 +/- 30
III.8.9. Loans
Prices of exotic resources are calculated in this way:
(Line 34) Net Income: add the amount of new Loans to
the Adjusted Gross Income and deduct the amount of
Loans and interests paid for.
Slaves
Initial price: 2 (right box)
Total production: 10 (1 arrow on top and 1 on bottom)
Roll to increase price: 4, no effect
Roll to decrease price: 5, takes effect
Net result: marker drops 1 box to 2 (left box)
(Line 35) RT at end of Income Phase is 7+34
A. Players may borrow money from the game system,
using the Loan Table. Each player can subscribe only
1 loan per turn (not including those from other
players), but several loans may accumulate from turn
to turn.
Spices
Initial price: 5 (left box)
Total production: 8 (1 arrow on top and 1 on bottom)
Roll to increase price: 8, takes effect
Roll to decrease price: 9, takes effect
Net result: marker does not move
B. There are 2 types of Loans, National and International. A player may roll once for each type of loan and
decide which one (if any) he/she prefers. A player may
take less money than the amount indicated.
Products of Orient
Initial price: 7 (left box)
Total production: 4 (2 arrows on top)
Roll to increase price: 6, takes effect
Roll to increase price: 10, takes effect
Net result: marker moves 2 boxes to 8 (left box)
C. To determine the conditions of a National Loan, roll
3 times, one for the amount, one for the interest rate,
and one for the length, and apply modifiers. For
International Loans, roll only 2 times, as the length is
fixed at 3 Turns.
Portugal has to reimburse a National Loan this turn,
which amounts to 110 D$ plus 12D$ of interests.
D. For the Treasure modifier, consider the Treasure at
the end of the Diplomatic Phase (Line 7). But for
paying loans, a player may use both the Treasure after
Diplomatic Phase, and the money obtained during the
Income Phase.
Sebastian tests for a new National Loan, rolling 3,7,4
modified by +4 (+3 for Stab and +1 for each 200D$ in
TR), for a net result of 7,11,8. The market offers 80D$
at 4% of interest, to be returned in 3 turns.
The test for an International Loan, gives 8,2 modified
to 12,6. The market offers 200D$ at 10% of interest, to
E. Interests are not paid in the same turn the Loan is
taken, but must be paid each subsequent turn, until
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be returned in 3 turns. The player takes this Loan, but
only 150D$. The interests will be then 15D$ per turn.
C. Actions for placement of MNUs, trade fleets and
Col/TP, for competition, and for raising FTI/DTI use
the Administrative Actions Table.
C.1. First, determine the differential Column you will
roll on, according to the description of each action.
Differentials of less than –4 roll on the –4 Column, and
differentials of more than +4 roll on the +4 Column,
without any special modifier.
C.2. Roll 1d10 and add the indicated modifiers, as long
as they were in effect at the start of the Administrative
Phase.
C.3. The modifiers of 1st, 2nd and 3rd colonisation
attempts refer to attempts made in the whole game,
not just in a specific Area or Colony.
C.4. Results are explained in the Table.
For each “F*” result during a Col/TP attempt, resolve
a native attack at the end of the Administrative Phase
in the concerned province (see III.10.7.B.4). However,
the Natives remain peaceful at start of the Military
Phase. Note that leaders cannot be injured by this
attack, so if no land unit or Col/TP was already
present in the province, there is no need to play the
attack.
The Economic Record Sheet shows these figures:
7. RT at end of Diplomatic Phase: 250
8. Income of provinces: 21
12. Land income: 21
13. Domestic trade: 3
14. Foreign trade: 80
15. STZ income: 10
19. Trade income: 93
20. Colonies: 21
21. Trading Posts: 7
22. Exotic resources: 73
24. RoW income: 101
25. Manufactures fixed: 12
26. Manufactures variable: 5
28. Industrial Income: 17
29. GROSS INCOME: 232
30. Stability Bonus/Malus: 24
31. ADJUSTED GROSS INCOME: 256
32. Loans and interest payment: -122
33. New Loans: 150
34. Net Income: 284
35. TR at end of Income Phase: 534
Use the level of FTI at start of the Administrative Phase
to solve “½” results. Always use FTI, even for MNU and
DTI actions.
III.9. ADMINISTRATIVE PHASE
Players use their money to improve military technologies, maintain and build military units, and develop
their economies.
D. The controlling Major Power may spend its own
actions to place trade fleet and Col/TPs levels of a
vassal (or annexed Portugal), even beyond the 1492
status.
D.1. Trade fleet levels of a vassal may be placed only in
the Zones where they were located in 1492. This
restriction does not apply to annexed Portugal.
D.2. In no case an existing Col/TP or fleet of a vassal
(or annexed Portugal) may be voluntarily destroyed,
even if no counter remains available to use elsewhere.
III.9.1. Sequence of Play and Procedure
A.1. The first Administrative Action to be made is to
invest in Technology. All players simultaneously write
down the type of technology (Naval or Land) and
(Line 39) the amount invested.
A.2. Once the technology is resolved, all players
simultaneously maintain, build forces and write down
the intended reinforcements for minor countries at
war. New units are placed on the map in initiative
order. Then, players roll for minor reinforcements and
place them in initiative order.
III.9.2 Technology
A. Players and minor countries have technology
markers (one for Land and other for Naval) that are
moved along the Technology Track. The campaign will
indicate their starting positions.
Mobile markers (those representing a specific
technology, Land or Naval) are initially placed on the
boxes indicated in the Technology Track (unless
otherwise indicated in the campaign). There is no
Mobile Marker for Med and Car technologies, as they
are available to everybody in Turn 1, nor for galleys, as
they never evolve.
A.1. For technology purposes, minors are grouped in
4 groups: Latin, Orthodox, Muslim and China. All
minors in the group have the same technology, except
as indicated in F below. The Annexes indicate which
group a minor belongs to. Most Natives are always
Med.
The China group has only a land marker, as these
minors do not have naval units.
A.2. Major Powers are linked to a minor group:
Latin: France, England, Spain, Venice, Portugal,
Netherlands, Russia after Peter the Great (see below),
Sweden, Prussia, Austria.
Orthodox: Russia before Peter the Great.
Muslim: Turkey.
(Line 36) Record all Logistics expenses (maintenance
and build of new forces).
A.3. Once Logistics are finished, all players simultaneously write down the administrative actions they
pretend to do, and then reveal them.
(Line 37) Record the amount invested in all actions.
(Line 38) Players subject to competition may pay for
defensive investments (decide in initiative order).
Solve all actions (in no particular order) and adjust
markers.
A.4. The last thing to do is to check if a Mandatory
Competition has to take place. Resolve it without
investments.
B. Technology actions are resolved by rolling 1d10,
adding modifiers, and moving the technology marker
the indicated number of boxes (0 to 3).
B. Whenever a Land marker reaches the same box of
a Land Mobile Marker, that player (or group of minor
countries) gets the corresponding technology, and
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his/her technology marker is advanced one box
further. The same occurs when a Naval marker reaches
a Naval Mobile Marker.
EXAMPLE of Technology Actions
C. Procedure for Technology actions:
C.1. Each player can only invest in one type of
technology per turn (either Naval or Land).
C.2. Simultaneously, each player that invested in
technology rolls 1d10, adds modifiers and moves the
indicated boxes. Bonuses for MNUs always apply, even
if the province is looted, in revolt or enemy-occupied.
C.3. Once all players have resolved their technology
operations, the Mobile Markers that have been reached
are dropped to the box in front of the next technology
marker of the same type (land or naval).
C.4. Check on the Game Turn Track whether minor
country markers move this turn. An “L” is for Latins,
an “M” for Muslims, an “O” for Orthodox, and a “C” for
China. If the indicated letter is present, move both
markers (land and naval) 1 box.
C.5. Check if a minor marker is 6 or more boxes below
the corresponding marker (land or naval) of any Major
Power linked to the group. If this is the case, advance
the minor marker so that the distance is 5 boxes
(however, if a mobile marker is reached in this way, the
minor marker will move 1 box further).
C.6. Check if the current Game Turn is greater than
the available turn of Mobile Markers. If this is the case,
drop the mobile marker a number of boxes equal to the
difference, but stop in front of the next technology
marker of the same type (naval or land).
Mobile Markers: REN (6), Tercios (18), GLN (17)
On Turn 7, the Tech markers are placed as follows:
Countries: England (L12, N14), Portugal (L12, N16),
Turkey (L13, N12), Orthodox (L5, N5), Muslim (L8, N7),
China ( L1)
The players simultaneously write down their
investments in Technology, reveal them, and solve
them in this way:
Portugal: Strong Investment (100 D$) in Naval. Roll of
5, +4 (Monarch’s MIL) +3 (investment) +1 (Instrument
MNU). The total of 13 gives an advancement of 1 box.
Turkey: Medium Investment (50D$) in Land. Roll of 8,
+8 (Monarch’s MIL) +1 (investment) +2 (Metal MNU).
The total of 19 gives an advancement of 3 boxes.
The Turkish land marker advances to box 16. The
Portuguese naval marker goes to box 17. As it reaches
the naval marker GLN, (which has become available in
this very turn) Portugal gets that technology and its
marker advances one box further to 18. The Mobile
Marker is placed in front of the next naval marker
(England), in box 15.
As it is indicated in the Turn Track, the Orthodox
group advances 1 box both markers, to 6. In doing so,
these minors reach the REN Mobile Marker, and thus
the land marker advances further to box 7. The REN
marker drops in front of the next marker (China), in
box 2.
D. A Technology marker cannot reach a mobile marker
of the same type (naval or land) that is not available
(according to the Turn number indicated in the mobile
marker). The technology marker stops its advance just
in front of the mobile marker.
III.9.3. Logistics
Major Powers maintain and purchase forces as
indicated in the Basic Rules, with the following
additions.
E. A Major Power whose technology marker is 6 boxes
below the corresponding (land or naval) group marker
it is linked to, gets a bonus of +1 on the roll to improve
that technology. The bonus is +2 for a distance of 7
boxes, +3 for 8 boxes, etc.
A. Privateers
A.1. Major Powers may maintain and purchase
privateers. These units are used to attack the enemy’s
trade fleets and loot provinces. When purchased,
privateers are placed in a port. If purchased outside a
National province, the cost doubles. They cannot be
purchased in a TP.
A.2. After Logistics, a Major Power can only have 1
privateer unit, unless an Admiral with the privateer
symbol is in play. In this case, the limit is the
countermix.
A.3. During Logistics, 2 side (-) privateers stacked
together may be exchanged for 1 side (+) unit. A
privateer (-) may also be upgraded to (+) by paying the
cost of a side (-) unit.
F. Special technology variations.
F.1. At start of Turn 29, Sweden gets the Land
Technology Baroque. Consider that Sweden is located
1 box further, but the mobile marker does not drop at
all. Once the Latin marker reaches this box, Sweden is
reincorporated into the group.
F.2. In turn 31 and after Technology has been
resolved, Latins reach the Baroque mobile marker (if
they didn’t do already).
F.3. At start of Turn 51, Prussia gets the Land
Technology Lace. Proceed as in F.1. above.
F.4. In turn 52, and after Technology has been
resolved, Latins reach the Lace mobile marker (if they
didn’t do already).
B. Minor countries.
B.1. Minors maintain forces as indicated in II.2.2.A.4.
Note, however, that Vassals do not maintain LDs in
excess of the Basic Forces. The controlling Major Power
may pay the maintenance of excess forces, even if it is
not itself at war.
B.2. Minors activated in MA or EC do not roll for
reinforcements. If, after activation, the diplomatic
control has increased, they do not change their
involvement in war, but another activation “test” may
be made in later turns to see if they increase their
involvement.
B.3. Each Major Power may roll reinforcements for the
following minors under its control:
G. There is no mobile marker for Tercios. Make one of
your own, and place it in the corresponding box. It
functions like other mobile markers, but affects only
Spain. Other countries ignore it for all purposes.
G.1. Spain will have to stop in front of it, if Tercios is
not available in the current turn, but other markers do
not have to stop.
G.2. On the other hand, if Spain reaches this mobile
marker, its technology advances 1 box further, but
other markers do not get this bonus.
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counters may be placed in the capital province, and 1
in each other provinces.
-. All that are fighting alone, plus
-. All that were activated by an Event, as indicated in
the description, plus
-. Habsburg, plus
-. Poland, when a named Polish king is in play (e.g.
Sobiesky), plus
-. Al-Djazair, when Barberus is in play, plus
-. 2 other minors, at the choice of the player.
Rolling for Reinforcements is never mandatory, unless
an Event indicates otherwise.
III.9.5. Exceptional Taxes
A. Players can raise Exceptional Taxes during any
turn, provided their Stab is not at –3. It costs nothing
to try, but a player may actually lose money when
trying to raise the taxes.
B. A player loses 1 Stab level when raising Exceptional
Taxes, unless a National province is enemy-occupied
(something that will occur often during a Civil War).
B.4. The controlling player decides which attitude will
follow each minor (Offensive, Defensive, or Naval), and
rolls in the corresponding column of the Reinforcements Table. A Naval attitude can only be chosen if the
minor has naval units available. During the Military
Phase, the minor is restricted as follows:
C. Roll 1d10, and add:
-. The Monarch’s ADM, plus
-. 3xStab level (may be negative)
(Line 40) The result multiplied by 10 is the amount
obtained. If it is negative, the player must pay or suffer
bankruptcy. This money becomes available only at the
start of the Military Phase.
Offensive: minor land forces must make at least 1
attack against enemy provinces during Rounds 1 or 2,
if it is possible to reach them. The minor is not forced
to position its forces during Round 1, in order to attack
in Round 2. If an attack cannot be made, nothing
happens.
III.9.6. Improvement of FTI/DTI
Only one investment per turn is allowed (either FTI or
DTI, not both). If successful, the level of the index
raises by 1.
Defensive: the minor cannot move land forces outside
its politically owned provinces (even by interception). It
cannot blockade ports not located in such provinces.
Note the minor may try to recover enemy-occupied
provinces, or engage in naval combat in any sea.
III.9.7. Trade Fleets
A. For each successful action, raise the fleet levels by
1. If there was none, place a new counter (the
maximum fleets for each player are those of the
countermix). It is possible to do many actions in one
Trade Zone, but the maximum levels are 6.
Naval: During Round 1 or 2, minor naval forces must
do at least 1 of the following actions: activate a naval
combat, or blockade an enemy port, or transport land
units into enemy territory.
A minor that does not roll for reinforcements, or rolls
in more than one attitude (allowed in some Events),
has no restrictions.
B. All players may place trade fleets in all European
Trade Zones, except the Caspian Sea.
To place trade fleets in the Caspian Sea, a player must
have discovered this sea, and have a port touching it (a
port of a vassal is enough).
B.5. When calculating the income modifier for
reinforcements, exclude looted provinces, but include
trade fleets, Trade Centers, Col/TP and any other
income indicated in the Annexes.
C. To place a trade fleet in a Trade Zone in RoW, a
player must fulfil the following requisites:
-. Have discovered a path of adjacent seas from an
European Sea to one sea part of the Zone, AND
-. There is a port touching the Zone (belonging to
anyone, even Natives), AND
-. Either have a Col/TP touching the Zone, or have
discovered all seas part of the Zone, or have obtained
permission from a player that has a Col/TP touching
the Zone. Once granted, this permission cannot be
revocated.
C. Purchases in RoW
C.1. Players may build up to 10 inf in each Col that
has less than 6 levels. At Col with 6 levels, there is no
restriction.
C.2. Naval units may be purchased at a coastal Col,
but they count double for the Turn Limits.
C.3. Note all of these purchases cost double, as they
are made outside the regular building provinces.
C.4. Any Fortress level may be placed on a Col. The
maximum Fortress levels allowed on a TP are 1 less
than the TP levels (but level 1 Fortresses may be placed
on Level 1 TPs). Building Fortresses in RoW costs
double.
D. If, for any reason, a country loses the right to place
trade fleets in a Zone, the existing levels remain in
place, but they cannot be replaced if lost, nor new ones
added.
III.9.4. Manufactures
III.9.8. Placement of Colonies and TPs
A. Only 1 MNU investment is allowed per turn. The
player chooses which type of MNU he/she wants to
develop. If successful, a new marker is placed, or an
existing one is flipped to the “2” side.
A. For each successful action, raise the Col/TP levels
by 1. If there was none, place a new counter (the
maximum counters for each player are indicated in the
Player Aides). It is possible to do many actions in one
province, but the maximum levels are 6.
B. MNUs may be placed in any owned European
Province, without revolt or enemy units. Up to 3 MNU
B. Restrictions to place new Col/TP:
-. The province must have been discovered.
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competition actions succeed than the number of
existing levels.
-. No foreign counters may be in the province (even
leaders alone and counters of an ally prevent the
placement of Col/TPs).
-. The player must be able to trace a path of discovered
provinces and seas from the province to the European
Map. These provinces do not need to be friendly,
however.
-. The first colony that a country places in an Area
must be in a coastal province, if there is one empty.
This restriction does not apply to TPs, nor to Areas
without empty coastal provinces. A colony of another
country does not lift this requisite. If the coastal colony
is lost, already existing inland colonies are not affected
and may receive new levels. But if a new colony is
placed in the Area, it must be in a coastal province, if
possible.
-. To place a Colony, the player must control the
printed fortress of the province (if any). To place a TP,
it si enough that the fortress is not controlled by a
Major Power.
F. To solve competitions against Minor countries, use
the following values for both FTI and DTI
-. 3 for Genoa, Sweden, Netherlands, Venice and
Portugal, unless they had a higher level when the
player transferred to another Major Power.
-. 2 for all others
However, vassals and annexed Portugal use values of
the controlling Major Power.
III.9.10. Mandatory Competition
A. Mandatory competition occurs in the following
cases:
-. 2 or more side (+) trade fleets are present in the
same Trade Zone. Competition affects the side (+)
fleets, and will continue until only 1 (or none) remains
at (+) side.
-. A trade fleet with 6 levels is present in a Trade Zone
with other fleets, either (+) or (-). Competition affects
everybody in the Zone, and will continue until the 6level fleet loses 1 level, or all other fleets disappear (or
both).
-. 2 or more side (+) Col/TP are in the same Area, and
there is no agreement on how to distribute exotic
resources. Competition affects the side (+) Col/TP, and
will continue until only 1 (or none) remains at (+) side,
or the resources may be distributed without conflict.
-. 2 or more players succeeded in placing Col/TP levels
in the same empty province. If a player placed both Col
and TP, he/she must decide which one to keep, before
starting the Competition. Competition affects the new
Col/TP, and will continue until only one player (or
none) has levels.
B.1. To place Col/TP in a coastal province of Asia, an
adjacent sea must have been discovered.
C. A player may substitute an existing TP for a Colony
(or vice versa) if the administrative action is successful.
However, all existing levels are lost. A player may also
try both a TP action and a colony action in the same
province. If both succeed, the player chooses which
one to place.
D. A Col/TP counter may be voluntarily eliminated
only to substitute it as in C above, or when not enough
counters are available to place new ones.
E. A Col/TP in revolt or enemy-occupied cannot receive
new levels, nor can it be eliminated to use the counter
elsewhere.
B. Mandatory competition is free, no investment is
allowed, and does not count against turn limits.
F. If several players succeed in placing a new Col/TP
in an empty province, decide which one will prevail by
mandatory competitions, until only one (or none)
remains.
C. Each affected country rolls 1d10 in the Administrative Actions Table, as if doing a voluntary competition.
However, if an “F” is obtained, the country loses 1
level. If an “S” is obtained, the country keeps its levels.
This is repeated until the cause for the mandatory
competition disappears.
III.9.9. Voluntary Competition
A. Competitions are aimed at specific trade fleets or
TPs of other countries. For each action than succeeds,
the target fleet or TP loses 1 level. If it reaches zero
levels, remove the counter.
III.9.11. Recovery of lost levels
A. Players that lost trade fleet levels due to privateer or
pirate activity, recover them at the rate of 2 per fleet
action (not necessarily in the same Trade Zone). The
actions are free and automatically successful, but they
count against the turn limits. If a trade fleet is restored
to its former level by other means, this type of action is
not allowed.
B. The target player may try to defend with a medium
or strong investment. Minor countries always defend
with a medium investment (including Dutch fleets
before the Dutch Revolt), except vassals and annexed
Portugal, whose defensive actions are paid by the
controlling Major Power.
B. Minor countries that lost levels due to voluntary
competition, pirates or privateers, recover 1 level per
trade fleet, per turn, until the fleet is restored to its
status in 1492.
B.1. Fleet levels lost due to Mandatory Competition are
never recovered.
B.2. TP levels are never recovered.
B.3. Vassals (and annexed Portugal) never recover
levels. The controlling Major Power may restore levels
lost due to pirates or privateers, spending its own fleet
actions, as in A above.
C. To target a trade fleet, the player must have a trade
fleet in the same Trade Zone at start of the Administrative Phase (owned or from a vassal, or from annexed
Portugal for Spain).
D. To target a TP, the player must have a TP in the
same Area at start of the Administrative Phase (owned
or from a vassal, or from annexed Portugal for Spain).
E. Only levels existing at the start of the Administrative
Phase may be affected by voluntary competition. Newly
placed levels are never affected, even if more
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EXAMPLE of Administrative Actions
The gold may be intercepted by enemy land units when
moving. If the intercepting stack wins the combat, it
captures all the gold. The capturing player must
immediately move it to a Colony within 12 MP (as
indicated above), or the gold is lost.
In Turn 7, Sebastian plays Portugal. During the
Administrative Phase his expenditures are as follows:
-. 60 D$ in 2 Basic Col Actions on the existing Colony
in Cape Verde Area. According to a specific Scenario
Rule, the Portuguese FTI is 5 for actions in RoW, and
with the Area Difficulty of 3 Sebastian rolls a 3 and a
6 on the “+2” Column. The results are modified by +2
for already having a Col in the province. Thus, he gets
a success and a ½ success. A new roll of 4, under the
FTI, means the ½ becomes a full success. The Col
gains 2 new levels.
B. Naval transportation: once the gold has reached a
port, it may be embarked in naval units, even in the
same round, and moved through the seas (see II.8.1.
for transport capacity). TPs cannot be used to load gold
onto ships.
Spain has the special counter Flota de Oro. It has
unlimited capacity, but can only transport gold. It
functions exactly like convoys (see III.10.2.), with a
number of ships equal to the D$ transported.
-. 10 D$ in a voluntary competition against Dutch
trade fleet in the Irish STZ. Dutch FTI is 3 and it
defends with a Medium Investment. Sebastian rolls a
2 under Column “-1”, modified by –3 for the presence
of other fleets. The result is a failure.
If naval units transporting gold lose a combat, the
winner gets a percentage of the gold equal to the
Pursuit result, and the loser gets the remaining gold
he/she may still carry. The rest is lost. To credit the
money captured, the naval units have to return to a
National port.
During this turn, the Dutch trade fleet in Irish STZ has
reached 6 levels, thus forcing a Mandatory Competition
against the other 4 fleets. Each player rolls against the
Dutch FTI of 3, and the Dutch against the highest
opposing FTI (3):
Note that if the Flota de Oro is attacked alone, all the
gold is captured (see III.10.2.C).
Portugal rolls 9 on Column “0”, modified by –3 for the
presence of other fleets, and gets a ½ success. With
another roll of 2, the player passes the test and keeps
his trade levels.
C. Transportation through trade fleets: during the
Redeployment Phase, trade fleets may send gold
accumulated in ports touching the Trade Zone to the
player’s TR. This gold, however, may be seized by
privateers operating in the Trade Zone.
England, France and Spain fail the test and lose each
one a fleet level.
Holland rolls 5 on Column “0” modified by –3. The
result of Failure means it loses 1 level. As the fleet is
now under 6 levels, no more rounds of mandatory
competition are needed.
D. Alternatively, gold may be accumulated in a Colony
or European province from turn to turn (a TP is not
valid). The gold itself cannot shelter inside a fortress,
but it can only be captured during the Redeployment
Phase.
III.10. MILITARY PHASE
III.10.2. Convoys
The Military Phase is conducted in the same way as in
the Basic Rules. There are specific rules for handling
convoys, privateers, militias, revolts, Pashas, natives,
exploration of unknown seas and provinces, the
transportation of gold and Major Battles.
A. Convoys are moved during the Military Phase,
requiring at least a Passive Campaign (10D$). They
suffer sea attrition, but the percentage is applied (and
rounded up) separately from the other ships (galleys,
warships and transports).
(Line 41) Treasure at Start of Military Phase is
35+36+37+38+39+40.
B. Convoys do not count for stacking. An admiral may
stack with a convoy, but it counts as nothing for
hierarchy purposes.
(Line 42) Once the Military Phase is over, record all
the Campaign expenses.
C. If a convoy is attacked alone, the attacker
immediately captures all the ships. If the convoy is
escorted by other naval units and the attacker wins the
battle he/she captures a percentage of the surviving
convoy ships, equal to that obtained in the Pursuit roll.
To credit the money captured, the naval units have to
return to a National port.
III.10.1. Transportation of Gold
The gold produced in RoW mines is not included
directly in the player’s income. Instead, it must be sent
to a friendly National province during either the
Military Phase, or the Redeployment Phase (or both).
Alternatively, gold may be accumulated in a Colony or
European province from turn to turn.
D.1. In order to blockade the Smyrna convoy at its
starting port, a country must be at war with both
Turkey and the convoy owner. Turkey must let the
convoy to leave the port, even if at war with the owner,
but may immediately intercept it at sea.
D.2. The owner of the convoy cannot move naval units
or leaders into the starting port to help the convoy,
unless Turkey gives the right of passage, or they are
active allies.
D.3. These rules apply also with the Mameluks, when
they control the Grand Orient Center.
A. Land transportation: the gold moves from the
producing colony, to another friendly colony or
European province within 12 MPs (TPs are not
enough). During the same round, the gold may pass
through several colonies and European provinces, with
unlimited MPs, but the distance from one to the next
cannot exceed 12 MP. The gold does not suffer land
attrition. Land units may escort the gold.
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A. Pashas are both a General and a military unit. For
each force point, they have 5 inf and 5 cav (all csc).
They can be used to absorb losses up to their strength,
but if they take at least 1 loss, they are killed and
removed from play. For other game purposes, each
pasha is equivalent to a LD, regardless of its force
points (note some pashas have 0 strength).
A.1. Each Pasha inf sp never has a firepower greater
than 0.5, and each Pasha cav sp has always firepower
of 0 and shockpower of 1, regardless of technology.
A.2. Pashas have only 5 MP with good weather, and 2
MP with bad weather. They can enter only European
provinces. They cannot be transported by sea (al–
though they may be relocated to overseas European
provinces). They can neither attack nor start sieges
when not accompanied with regular troops.
III.10.3. Privateers and Pirates
A. Privateers/pirates may enter seas and coastal
provinces (except those unknown), but cannot move
directly from a province to another province; they must
first enter a sea. They do no count for stacking, never
suffer attrition, do not trigger Native attacks, cannot
explore, nor intercept nor be intercepted, nor siege nor
be besieged, nor blockade, but may be blockaded. They
cannot engage in naval combat except when trying to
escape or force a blockade.
B. An Admiral with the privateer symbol may
command a stack of privateers. If engaged in land
combat with the privateers, the Admiral values are
halved, and its rank becomes “Z” (but when deciding
between admirals, use the normal rank). However, in
no case the Admiral may have the command when a
friendly land unit (detachment, army or colony militia)
is in the province; draw a replacement leader if
necessary.
B. Up to 2 Pashas may stack in a province, in addition
to regular stacking limits. If a Pasha is present, the
whole stack is considered conscript, even if vet sp are
a majority.
As Pashas are Generals, hierarchy rules must be
respected with them (see II.3.2) in conjunction with the
other Turkish Generals, but the Pasha inherent force
is never counted for hierarchy. The Turkish player is
not forced to conduct a campaign to relocate forces due
to hierarchy constraints.
C. A passive campaign is necessary to move privateers
across the map. To enter an enemy province, or to
attack trade fleets, or to force a blockade, a simple
campaign is needed.
D. In order to attack trade fleets, privateers are moved
into the Trade Zone, when they reach a sea part of the
Zone. They must be placed in a specific Zone, even if
several overlap. If the privateer is still present during
the Redeployment Phase, it can attack the trade fleets,
provided they are at war with the owner. Privateers
may also loot an enemy province, if they are still
present during the Redeployment Phase.
C. Pashas are neither purchased nor maintained. At
the end of a Peace Phase in which Turkey is at peace,
the Turkish player relocates its Pashas, following these
restrictions: only 1 Pasha is allowed in each province,
but none in Thrace nor in provinces in Revolt, and a
Pasha cannot be adjacent to another Pasha.
If there is room for more Pashas, the player randomly
draws those needed and places them on map. If there
are Pashas in excess, the Turkish player decides which
ones are removed from the game.
E. In case of combat, a side (+) privateer/pirate counts
as 2 warships, or 5 vet inf. A side (-) privateer/pirate
counts as 1 warship, or 2 vet inf. If the privateer/pirate
loses 1 warship, it suffers a step reduction (from (+) to
(-), and from (-) to eliminated).
Similarly, for every 2 inf lost, it suffers a step
reduction.
During peacetime, Pashas may be moved, but the
above restriction must be respected at the end of the
movement. If as a result of a Revolt, a Pasha has to
leave a province and cannot fulfil the above restriction,
it is removed from play.
If Pirates/Privateers Retreat after a Land Combat, they
must do so to an adjacent Sea (without attrition).
Pirates are returned to the STZ.
D. Pashas reduce the Turkish land income as indicated
by the red figure. During the Income Phase, sum up
the cost of all in-game Pashas and note it in Line 11 of
the Income sheet.
F. Naval units present at any sea part of a Trade Zone
may attack privateers/pirates operating in it, at the
end of the player’s round, provided they are at war. At
least a Passive Campaign is needed to do this. Roll
1d10 and consult the Success Table. If successful, the
privateer/pirate loses 1 step. If an admiral is left
without privateers, it is not affected, and can remain at
sea.
E. Corruption of Pashas. Check for Pasha corruption
at these points:
-. When indicated by Events.
-. When Turkish Stab drops from positive (or zero) to
negative.
-. During Logistics, when at Peace, Turkey maintains
Land forces in excess of Basic Forces.
-. During Administrative Phase, when Turkey raises
War Taxes, or increases FTI/DTI/MNUs above Period
Limits (roll only once, even if Turkey does all of these
things).
-. Each time Turkey suffers Bankruptcy.
Only one stack per player, per Trade Zone, per round,
may attack the privateers/pirates, and this stack can
only attack 1 privateer/pirate unit per round. The
same privateer unit can only be attacked once per
Round, but a pirate may be attacked by every player.
III.10.4. Pashas
Roll 1d10 to determine the number of Pashas affected,
and another 1d10 in the Revolt Table to determine the
country that chooses the Pashas (may be Turkey itself).
Pasha units represent the feudal armies levied by
Turkish provincial governors.
Flip the selected Pashas to show the corrupted side
(with more cost, or less force, or both). Only non-
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these sp in inf and cav is indicated in the Annexes,
under the headings Aden, Africa, America, Asia, China,
Hyderabad, Japan, Mogol, Mysore, Nefud, Ohio, Oman,
Persia (for the province of Ormuz), Siberia, Sibir and
Sudan.
corrupted pashas may be chosen, but those which
show no difference between sides may be always
selected for “nominal” corruption.
F. Dimissal of Pashas. When at Peace, Turkey may
remove 1 Pasha during the Redeployment Phase and
randomly draw another. 1 Stab level is lost. Additional
Pashas may be dismissed in the same Redeployment
Phase, at the cost of 1 Stab level for every 2 Pashas
removed (rounding up).
B. Natives react against Europeans in four ways:
B.1. As indicated by Events or Special rules.
B.2. A Major Power declares war to Natives. One DoW
is needed for each Area (which will cost Stab and VP,
depending on the CB used against them). When the
player moves land forces into the province and declares
an attack during the Combat Phase, the Natives of the
province will activate (Natives in other provinces
remain peaceful until attacked). Wars with Natives end
after the Redeployment Phase, if the concerned player
wishes, but no Stab is gained for this peace Note that
if the player DoWs a country with both regular forces
and Natives (like Ohio), those will be deployed in the
usual way.
Dismissal is not allowed when at war, or when Stab is
at –3. Also, additional Pashas cannot be removed if the
Stab has already reached –3.
III.10.5. Militias
A. Colonies have intrinsic militias that join a fight if
there is combat in the province. They are not
represented by counters, and do not trigger Native
attacks. Their force is as follows:
Col (-): 5 inf csc
Col (+): 10 inf csc
Exception: French militias are vet.
B.3. Natives reaction to military presence. At the end
of a Military Round (after all players have moved),
roll1d10 for each province with land units (not
counting those of Natives of the same Area). If the
result is less than the Tolerance of the Area (3rd
number), Natives react as if attacked by the player,
and a combat is immediately solved (in Initiative order).
Note that fortresses, leaders or naval units cannot
trigger this attack by themselves, and that Natives in
Areas with Tolerance of 1 or “-” won’t react to military
presence.
B. Sp lost by militias are recovered at start of next
turn, provided no enemy unit occupies the colony.
Militias that break morale are destroyed if the enemy
remains on the colony after combat.
C. Militias enter combat at the owner’s choice.
However, if the enemy remains in the colony after the
combat, and the militias didn’t take part in it, they are
considered destroyed.
III.10.6. Revolts
B.4. Failure of a Colonisation or TP placement attempt,
with a “*” result. Immediately solve an attack in the
Natives Attacks Table in that province, unless the
number of Natives is zero. However, Natives remain
peaceful for the rest of the turn. Note that if neither
Col/TP nor land forces are present, the attack wouldn’t
have any effect.
A. To destroy a revolt, a player has to send land units
into the province, maintain them until after the Siege
Phase, and roll on the Success Table. A leader alone
cannot attempt suppression, but a Pasha may do that
(each Pasha counts as 1 LD). Only one Suppression
test is allowed in each province, per round.
C. Natives cannot leave their province and do not need
supply. If the Natives do not own an unbesieged
fortress inside the province and have to retreat, they
deactivate and won’t react to military presence for the
rest of the turn (but aren’t killed, and do not roll for
attrition). They may still be attacked if a player DoWed
them. If the Natives have such a fortress, they retreat
inside.
B. If the test is successful, a Revolt (+) is turned on the
(-) side, and a Revolt (-) is removed. Any revolt General
which is left without revolts, while not being inside a
fortress, is killed.
C. As the revolted province is unfriendly, the player
needs a Simple Campaign to enter it, but once there,
it may attempt suppression in the following rounds
with a Passive Campaign.
D. Leaders captured by Natives are killed.
D. Only land units and leaders of the affected country
may attempt the suppresion of revolts, with these two
exceptions:
-. The Emperor may use the HRE units (if available).
-. A Major Power may use its units to suppress revolts
inside a Vassal minor (but the reverse is not allowed).
E. Just before land combat with Natives (but not in an
assault during a siege), a Conquistador (or an Explorer
in coastal provinces) may use the Conquistador Table
to reduce the Natives strength and have some of them
defect to his side, in the following Zones:
-. America, except Areas Ohio and Amazonia.
-. Siberia, but only by Russian and Turkish Conquistadors.
-. Specific zones of Asia, only by Special Leaders (see
IV.1.5).
III.10.7. Natives
Natives are forces hostile to Europeans in the RoW. They
are different from the regular forces deployed by RoW
minors, like Ohio, Mysore or Aden, even though they
also have ‘Natives’.
E.1. Natives that defect will count for stacking
purposes (and technology) on the side of the
Conquistador, and thus excess units have to be
destroyed before the combat. A Conquistador may
A. The Native strength of an Area applies to each and
every province inside the Area. The distribution of
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Each Campaign indicates which seas and provinces in
the RoW are known to each player. All the European
map is known to all countries, with the possible
exception of the Caspian Sea.
reject some or all defecting Natives (treat them as
killed). Defecting natives will remain in play (but
remember they cannot leave the province) until the end
of the turn, when they are destroyed. If they are forced
to retreat and no fortress or Col/TP is available inside
the province, they are destroyed.
A. To discover seas, Explorers and naval units are
used, either combined or alone. To discover provinces,
Conquistadors and land units are used, also combined
or alone.
A.1. Minor countries and Natives NEVER explore, nor
transfer their own discoveries, nor can enter provinces
or seas unknown to them.
A.2. Explorers may act as Conquistadors in a coastal
province, but have the values halved (rounding up).
However, if the Explorer has to do a survival test, use
his unmodified Move value.
A.3. Generals, Admirals, Conquistadors and land units
cannot enter unknown seas. Generals and Admirals
cannot enter unknown provinces. Naval units can
neither enter nor blockade a port located in an
unknown province. Explorers can enter (and try to
discover) unknown coastal provinces, but not noncoastal unknown provinces.
F. Natives regain full strength at start of each Turn.
EXCEPTION: Natives of Siberia and America (except
Ohio and Amazonia) in provinces in which they have
been completely destroyed (if at least one sp survived,
they are restored to full strength). Keep track of
provinces without Natives.
G. When at least half of the provinces of an Area are
without Natives at start of a Turn, the whole Area
becomes subjugated and all Natives are destroyed.
Note this may only occur in America (except Ohio and
Amazonia) and Siberia. Provinces whose Natives have
been destroyed reduce the Difficulty value by 2, and
the Tolerance value is set to 1. EXCEPTION: the
Tolerance remains as printed in Area Sibir against
Christian countries.
H. To subjugate Areas Azteca and Inca (in the way
indicated in G above), the fortresses of Tenochtitlan
and Cuzco (respectively) must have been conquered by
an European country. Once the fortress is conquered,
Native strength is reduced to 30 (instead of 300) for
each province in the Area.
B. To explore, a player moves a stack into the
unknown sea or province, spending the necessary
Movement Points. A stack can only explore one sea, or
one province, in the same Round, unless it is led by an
Explorer (for seas) or a Conquistador (for provinces,
and also an Explorer for coastal provinces).
B.1. Once a stack has entered an unknown sea or
province, it cannot return to known territory this
Round.
B.2. The exploring stack does not roll for attrition.
Instead, it rolls on the Discovery Table, which will
indicate whether the exploration was successful or not,
the attrition losses, and whether the Explorers/Conquistadors present have to do a survival test.
If it is the case, all leaders have to do the test, even if
they are not in command.
I. Armies of RoW Empires.
I.1. When a combat occurs with Natives of the
countries China, Mogul and Japan, but such countries
are not at war, roll 1d10. On a result of 3 or more, the
respective army joins the fight. The content of these
armies is indicated on the Annexes. Intervention is
automatic in the provinces containing the cities Peking,
Delhi and Kyoto.
All leaders must do a survival test when exploring
without military units, if the Discovery Table indicates
an attrition percentage of 30% or more.
Once the fight (and any possible retreat) is over,
remove the army from the map (unless besieged), but
keep track of its remaining strength, for possible
intervention in the next Round.
B.3. If the Exploration is a Failure, the stack must
Retreat.
B.4. In the same Round, an Explorer may try to
discover one or more seas, and if successful,
disembark to discover one (and only one) coastal
province. Note the Explorer has to disembark alone, as
land troops could not have entered the unknown seas.
I.2. The army cannot effectively join a fight more than
once per round. Do not test it if it has already fought
this round. It cannot intervene if it is besieged. The
army does not need supply to intervene, but if unable
to retreat after the combat, it is destroyed.
I.3. At start of each Turn, the army regains full
strength and is no longer besieged (if it was at the end
of the previous Turn).
I.4. If the country is at war, the army is deployed, and
moves, fights and checks for supply regularly.
C. The discovery must be reported to have any effect.
On subsequent Rounds (or the Redeployment Phase),
at least one sp or leader that took part in the discovery
has to reach a friendly Col/TP or European province.
The reporting stack must end its movement in such
Col/TP or province, and any leader used to modify the
attrition roll of this movement, must also end his
movement there. If all the discoverers are killed
(whether doing the discovery or when reporting it), the
discovery is lost.
C.1. Once a discoverer reaches a valid province to
report the discovery, knowledge of the province or sea
immediately spreads to all units of the player (but not
his/her allies), which may enter it even in the same
Round.
C.2. Before the reporting, stacks cannot transfer
knowledge to other stacks. EXCEPTION: a stack in a
J. Fortress and Ports in RoW
J.1. A printed fortress may coexist in the same
province with a TP belonging to a different country.
However, after combat, if a land stack retreats into the
printed fortress, the enemy cannot Retreat into the TP,
even if the TP has a fortress.
J.2. A TP in a coastal province replaces any printed
port in such province.
III.10.8. Exploration
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A. First, remove Pillage (-) markers, and flip (+)
markers to side (-). Next, place a Pillage (+) marker in
each province looted.
coastal province may transfer knowledge of all its
discoveries (whether coastal or inland) to a naval stack
on an adjacent sea (but not to units being transported
by the naval stack, nor even to Explorers), which in
turn may return to a friendly port to report the
discovery.
B. The player looting gets the income of the looted
province, plus all the accumulated gold (which must be
immediately forwarded to a Colony or European
Province, as in III.10.1.) For Col/TPs, this income is
the standard, excluding exotic resources. Minors may
loot, but the controlling Major Power gets only the
looting income of its vassals. An already looted
province may be looted again to keep it devastated, but
that gives no income.
EXAMPLE of Discovery
Columbus, 1492
Phil plays Spain, which on Turn 1 has naval
technology CAR.
Phil has in Cadiz one ND with 3n and Exp Columbus
(6.1.1). During the first round, this stack moves to Bay
of Biscay, Sea of Canarias, Palma, Southern Atlantic
Ocean,
Winward Islands and Sea of Puerto Rico.
C. A privateer looting gets double income, plus the
accumulated gold.
D. As long as a Pillage marker remains in a province,
no land or Col/TP income is received. MNUs do not
give income, but a looted province is not excluded from
the variable income of other MNUs. Looting does not
affect neither Centers of Trade nor exotic resources.
As the stack has explored 3 unknown seas, the
discovery roll of 5 is modified by –3 (-6 for Columbus
move, +2 for extra seas and +1 for CAR tech), for a
total of 2. A success with 10% of losses (1 warship).
Columbus immediately disembarks on Haiti Eastern
province. Phil checks again for discovery, but this time
using only half of the explorer move rating (3). A roll of
7 is modified to 4. Another success, but Columbus
must test for survival, using his umodified move
rating. A roll of 5 determines that he survives. Note
that the Naval stack also learns the discovery of the
province.
E. In addition to looting, an enemy TP may be
destroyed if an LD or army occupies it during the
Redeployment Phase. Colonies cannot be destroyed in
this way.
III.11.2. Pirate and Privateer attacks
A. Pirates appear by event, and are placed in the
indicated Trade Zone, where they remain until
destroyed. They are active every turn. Privateers are
bought and activated by players (and some minor
countries).
During the next round, Columbus embarks on the
naval stack and returns to Spain, following the same
path. Phil test for attrition under Column 7 (6 +1 for
CAR tech), and rolls 7, modified by –6 for a total of 1.
No losses.
B. Pirate attacks are solved first, then privateer
attacks, in order of initiative.
Columbus then reaches Cadiz and remains there for
the rest of the round. Now Spain has full knowledge of
the 3 seas and the province discovered.
C. Pirates attack everybody. Each country with trade
fleets in the Trade Zone rolls on the Table and applies
the result.
III.10.9. Major Battles
A. Major Powers that had forces on the winning side of
a Major Battle gain 1 Stab (the mere presence of a
leader is not enough, even if he is the commander).
B. In the same way, Major Powers on the losing side of
a Major Battle lose 1 Stab.
C. Major Battles won or lost by minor countries do not
affect the controlling player’s Stab.
D. Privateers can only attack trade fleets belonging to
countries they are at war with. Each player rolls only
once for each Trade Zone in which he has privateers,
and distributes the losses as he/she wishes.
E. Each trade fleet destroyed by Privateers gives 2 D$.
If the trade fleet was transporting gold, add 8 D$ for
each level as captured gold (but these additions cannot
exceed the total gold being transported). The privateer
would have to return to an European or Colony port to
drop the gold.
III.11. REDEPLOYMENT PHASE
The Redeployment Phase is played as in the Basic
Game, with the addition of looting, Pirate/Privateer
attacks, extension of revolts and collection of gold.
(Line 43) Record all gains from Looting and Privateers.
Vassals give the income to the controlling Major Power,
but other minors don't do that. Pirates capture gold,
but obviously nobody gets it.
III.11.1. Looting and TP Destruction
III.11.3. Natives Attacks
Land units and Privateers (and Pirates following an
event) can loot an enemy province or Col/TP (but a
leader alone cannot), regardless of fortress control.
Friendly, Neutral or revolted Provinces cannot be
looted. During Civil Wars, a side cannot loot the other
side provinces.
Activated Natives that are still in play attack Col/TP
and land units in their province. Roll 1d10 for each
province and apply the result indicated in the Natives
Attacks Table.
III.11.4. Relocation of Land units and Return to Port
Proceed as in the Basic Rules (II.15), except that Naval
units return to port first, and Privateers second.
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-. DTI is reduced by one (but minimum is 1).
-. 3 trade fleets on the player’s CTZ are eliminated,
chosen at random (might be from other countries).
-. Stab drops by 2 levels
-. Next turn, during the Monarch Phase, the Monarch
is automatically killed and the successor suffers a
Dynastic Crisis.
III.11.5. Collection of Gold
(Line 44) Record all the gold that has reached Europe,
plus gains from convoys. It may be used from now on.
III.11.6. Extension of Revolts
B. If half (rounded up) of the 1492 provinces of a
Vassal are in revolt (with a Revolt marker or a fortress
controlled by revolted units, but do not count
provinces annexed by other countries), the Diplomatic
counter drops to EW, unless the vassalisation was
permanent (as indicated in an Event or a Special Rule).
A. Players affected by revolts lose Stab as follows:
-. 1 Stab level for each Revolt (+).
-. 1 additional Stab level for all Revolt (-)
The maximum loss of Stab from revolts is 3 levels.
B. After adjusting Stab levels, Revolts proliferate:
-. All Revolt (-) become (+)
-. Unbesieged fortresses in revolt generate one Revolt
(-) in their province, but only if no revolt marker (of any
type) is present.
-. All Revolt (+) generates a Revolt (-) in an adjacent
province belonging to the victim country. If this is not
possible (no adjacent province available or all already
have 2 revolts), a revolt detachment is generated (or its
content added to an existing revolt land unit), and the
revolt takes immediate control of the fortress in the
province.
III.12.2. Stability Improvement
A. Players may invest money to raise the Stab level.
Roll 1d10 and consult the Administrative Table. If a
Monarch has been killed in combat, still use his/her
ADM rating.
As indicated in the table, the roll is modified by –5 if an
enemy army (not a detachment) is in a National
province and the fortress is in enemy hands. This is
applied even if such National province has been
annexed by another country.
Note that a previously revolt (-) that becomes (+) does
not generate a revolt (-) in the same turn.
B. If a Player is at –3 Stab when at war for two
consecutive turns with the same enemy and in the
same war, he/she must sue for peace. This is checked
after the Stab improvement.
B.1. Against a Major Power, the player must accept to
make peace, if asked to, and accept the type of Peace
(whether formal or informal). The enemies are not
forced to offer peace, however.
B.2. Against a minor country the player must roll for
a Peace level that has a chance to be accepted, but
never on his/her favour.
C. When all provinces bordering all the seas attached
to a particular Trade Zone are in revolt, place one
Pirate (-) in the Trade Zone. For the RoW, count only
those provinces with Col/TP.
III.11.7. Return of Leaders
A. Leaders captured or injured during the Redeployment Phase return to play now, even if injured for
several Rounds.
III.12.3. War Points
B. A ransom of 100 D$ for captured Monarchs has to
be paid to the captor. Minor countries pay for their
monarchs and receive payment for those they capture,
but the controlling player never gives nor gets the
money, even from Vassals.
B.1. If the ransom is not paid, the player suffers
Bankruptcy, but the Monarch still returns. The player
must have the required money just before the Peace
Phase to avoid the effects of Bankruptcy, even if it
comes from other ransoms.
B.2. Other captured leaders return without the need of
a ransom.
A. When making a formal Peace, the concessions
depend on the results of the war. Each side gets “war
points” as follows:
+2 for each Major Victory in battle
+1 for each normal victory in battle
B. From turn to turn, a side can keep an advantage of
up to +4 war points. It is convenient to keep track of all
battles fought, because a separate peace may occur in
later turns.
III.12. PEACE PHASE
C. In addition, each side gets war points for conquered
provinces (the fortress, if any, must be controlled),
including Col/TP:
During this Phase, players may try to raise the Stab
levels and negotiate to end wars. Some Events may
indicate special ways to end the wars they trigger. Wars
that are carried to the next turn cause a loss in Stab.
+3 for each capital province (red city).
+2 for other provinces
III.12.1. Execution of Monarchs
D. The maximum advantage a side can have in war
points is:
a) +4 when making peace between Major Powers
b) +10 when making peace with a minor country.
A. If half (rounded up) of the National provinces of a
player are in revolt (with a Revolt marker or a fortress
controlled by revolted units, but do not count
provinces annexed by other countries), the regime is
overthrown. Apply the following effects:
III.12.4. Peace with Minor Countries
-. Remove all revolts and revolt units.
-. Half (rounded down) of the Royal Treasure is lost.
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Before negotiating peace with a Major Power, a player
may try to do peace with minors. The player selects the
level of Peace, and rolls 1d10 with these modifiers:
a) The Stab difference between the victor and the loser.
In case of Allies, take the average (rounded down). If
the loser has higher Stab, the difference is zero.
+# the player’s War Points
-# the minor country’s War Points
-2 Separate Peace (don’t apply with a minor that
DoWed by Event)
-# the Nationality Modifier
+/- # the Peace Level Modifier
b) The War Points, which cannot be neither more than
+4 (in favour of the victor), nor less than –4 (in favour
of the loser).
If the result is zero or negative, it is a White Peace. If
the result 5 or more, it is an Unconditional Surrender.
Nationality Modifier:
-2 Persia, Mameluks, Russia, United States, China,
Mogol, Japan, Sweden (before 1760), Prussia (after
1700), Venice, Poland, Austria/Habsburg
-1 Sweden (after 1760), Portugal (before 1615)
SPECIAL CASE: If a player has accepted to sign a
formal peace as the loser, and half of his/her National
provinces have been conquered (rounding up and
counting even annexed provinces), including the
capital, he/she suffers an Unconditional Surrender
(Level 5), without the need of calculating the Peace
Level. This does not apply to minor countries (see
III.12.4 on how to force an Unconditional Surrender on
a minor).
Peace Level modifier:
-2xLevel if it is in favour of the player
+3xLevel if it is in favour of the minor.
On a result of 6 or more, the minor accepts the Peace.
Otherwise, war continues.
EXCEPTION 1: a minor always accept a Peace of Level
5 in its favour, if it can annex 3 provinces adjacent to
its territory, and it is not a separate Peace, and no
Event prohibits such Peace.
EXCEPTION 2: Habsburg, when associated to Spain,
may accept any favourable Peace (at least Level 1), if
the Spanish player wishes, and no Event prohibits
such Peace.
EXCEPTION 3: a minor always accept a Peace of Level
5 in favour of the player, if all its territories are
conquered, including any Colonies (TP are not needed),
and none of the occupied fortresses is besieged by
friendly forces.
B.4. The Levels and the terms they involve are as
follows:
Level 0 (White Peace)
The war ends in a draw. No province is ceded, but the
players may agree to exchange 1 province between
them.
Level 1
The victor receives 1 province of the loser’s choice.
Level 2
The victor receives 1 province of his/her choice.
Level 3
The victor receives 2 provinces, one of the loser’s
choice, and one of the victor’s choice.
A player can only attempt peace with the minors that
occupy one of his/her provinces, or which have a
province occupied by the player. However, the player
may attempt peace with at least 1 minor per turn, even
if no provinces are occupied.
Level 4
The victor receives 3 provinces, one of the loser’s
choice, and two of the victor’s choice. The victor has a
bonus of +5 in diplomacy on one of the loser’s vassals,
for the next turn only. The victor secretly chooses the
vassal at the moment of signing the Peace.
III.12.5. Peace between Major Powers
Major Powers may sign two types of Peace, formal or
informal. All players at war must agree with the type of
Peace; otherwise Peace cannot be signed and war
continues to the next turn.
Level 5 (Unconditional Surrender)
The victor receives 3 provinces, all of his/her choice.
The victor has a bonus of +5 in diplomacy on one of
the loser’s vassals, for the next turn only. The victor
secretly chooses the vassal at the moment of signing
the Peace. The loser cannot DoW the victor on the next
turn, except with a CB given by an Event.
A. Informal Peace
This Peace sets things to the statu quo ante bellum.
Provinces cannot change hands, no player wins the
war, and nobody gets VPs. All CB remain.
If the loser is a minor, the diplomatic marker drops to
the Neutrals Box, and during the next turn, it can only
be activated against the victor if an Event mentions
such activation.
B. Formal Peace
B.1. All players at war must agree which side is the
victor and which is the loser; otherwise Peace cannot
be signed and war continues to the next turn. Players
do not negotiate the Peace terms, but instead calculate
the Peace Level to see how many provinces (if any) the
victor may take on the loser.
B.2. Once a Formal Peace is accepted, it cannot be
refused even if later the player realises that the Level
will be unfavourable. All Temporary CB are cancelled,
but permanent CB are preserved.
B.3. The Level of Peace ranges from 0 (White Peace) to
5 (Unconditional Surrender). To calculate it, sum up:
III.12.6. Consequences of Peace
A. All players gain 1 Stab level when concluding Peace
with another player, but not when making Peace with
a minor (EXCEPTION: when the minor DoWed the
player by an Event).
No more than 1 Stab level is gained per turn, even if a
player concludes several Peaces with different players.
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G. If a winning Major Power refuses the return of one
of its National Provinces, even if it has not been
occupied, then that Province will no longer provide a
Permanent CB vs the owner (as described in
III.7.2.B.2), until the Major Power regains it.
B. All activated minors whose controller makes peace,
sign an informal peace, except those that DoWed by an
Event.
C. The maximum number of provinces a side may cede
through a Peace are 3. A country may be forced to cede
more than 3 provinces if it signs more than one Peace
in a single turn.
(Line 47) The Treasure at End of Peace Phase is
41+42+43+44+45+46.
III.12.7. Separate Peace
D. To select provinces, follow these guidelines:
-. Capital provinces (with the city name printed in red)
cannot be annexed, except by a Special Rule or an
Event.
-. The victor may choose to receive War Indemnities
instead of provinces. The value is 50D$ for each
province not annexed.
-. All provinces must be selected between those
conquered by the victor, unless the victor and the loser
agree on ceding another, still not conquered province.
-. If players on the same side do not agree on selecting
a province, the other side chooses. If players on the
other side do not agree, the Initiative player chooses it.
-. For Peace terms purposes, 1 province = 1 Col = 1 TP
(+) = 2 TP (-).
-. If the loser selects a province from a minor when
his/her own could have been selected, the diplomatic
marker drops to the Neutrals box, and these provinces
count as the player’s one for VP. These penalties do not
apply if it is the winner that selects the province.
A country may sign peace, even though its active allies
are still warring. The “War Points” used are only those
concerning the countries signing the peace, and will be
ignored when the rest of the allies sign peace.
A. Players that sign a separate Peace break their
Alliances with the Active Allied Major Powers that are
still at war, and thus lose 2 Stab. The betrayed Major
Powers have a Temporary CB against him/her, for use
only during the next DoW Phase. A player that is
forced to sign peace for being at –3 Stab, is not
considered as breaking the Alliance, and thus is not
penalized.
B. To sign a separate peace with a minor country, the
player rolls the die and applies the modifiers listed in
III.12.4. If successful, the minor cannot be activated
next turn against him, except by an Event.
D.1. Minor countries have preferences in the provinces
they want to keep or annex:
a) The former capital province (with the city name
printed in red).
b) The provinces owned in 1492.
c) Provinces listed in the Annexes as possible
annexations, and in the order they appear.
d) Provinces adjacent to owned territory.
e) Minors will never accept a Col or TP, if they don’t
have spare counters to use.
C. To sign a separate peace with a vassal, its capital
must be occupied, unless the minor was activated in
MA or EC (and later raised to VA status).
EXAMPLE of Peace
Peace of the Pyrennes, 1659
Phil plays Spain, which is at war with France (played
by Louis) and England (played by Liz) since Turn 33.
During the Peace Phase of Turn 34, Phil offers Louise
to sign a separate peace, with Spain as the loser, and
he accepts.
D.2. Minors always want to annex provinces, instead
of getting War Indemnities. But if the province offered
is neither adjacent to its present territory (and will not
become so by other annexations in the same Peace) nor
a coastal province that may be reached with its own
naval units, and is not in its preferences, the minor
chooses Indemnities.
D.3. A losing Minor always offers to return a National
Province to the Major Power it belonged, even if that
province has not been occupied.
Spanish Stab is –3, and French is –1, so France gets 2
points for Stab difference.
From Turn 33, Phil had 1 point on his favour. But on
Turn 34 he has suffered a Major Defeat, and France is
occupying Artois and Rousillon. The war points are
then +3 for France.
The Peace Level is thus 2 + 3 = 5, an Unconditional
Surrender. France may choose three provinces, but as
only two are occupied and Spain refuses to cede
another not occupied, Louis gets indemnities instead.
E. Indemnities are paid and received. If a player does
not have enough Treasure to pay, he/she suffers
Bankruptcy, and the other player receives only what
was available in the Treasure. The money received from
indemnities may be used to pay indemnities derived
from a different war.
As a result, France annexes Artois and Rousillon, gets
50D$ from Spain and reduces its Stab to –2 (+1 level
for signing peace and –2 levels for breaking the alliance
with England). Spain raises its Stab to –2.
(Line 46) The net effect of Indemnities and Ransoms is
recorded at the end of the Peace Phase.
III.13. INTERPHASE
F. Remove leaders and land and naval units of minors
that become inactive as a result of Peace. Fortresses
are kept on map. Land units and leaders in provinces
that are foreign and neutral, must be relocated to the
nearest Col/TP or unbesieged friendly fortress,
without suffering attrition.
Follow the Basic Rules for the Interphase, but after
placing and removing leaders, resolve Inflation,
Prosperity and Stability Adjustment in that order.
III.13.1. Inflation
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The Gold counter placed on the Prices track indicates
the percentage of inflation currently in effect. Inflation
reduces the players’ treasures at the end of the turn,
depending on how many gold has been repatriated this
turn from the RoW.
A. Roll 1d10:
1-6. No changes in Inflation rate.
7-10. Inflation marker moves to the right 1 box (if less
than 100 D$ have been repatriated) or 2 boxes (if 100
or more D$ have been repatriated).
(Line 48) Apply the resulting Inflation rate to Line 47.
Players that repatriated gold apply the actual Inflation
rate; other players apply the rate in the previous box (it
might be the same rate). For all players, the minimum
inflation rate is 5%, and the maximum 33%.
(Line 49) The Treasure at end of Turn is 47-48. This
figure is carried over to Line 1 of next Turn.
B. The Inflation Rate may be reduced by the Economic
Event Deflation.
III.13.2. Prosperity
There is no Prosperity check in the first two turns of a
game.
Players check the Gross Income (Line 29) for this and
the two previous turns:
-. If it has increased for two consecutive turns, the
player raises his/her Stab 1 level.
-. If it has decreased for two consecutive turns, the
player drops his/her Stab 1 level.
-. In any other case, the Stab level is unaffected.
III.13.3. Stability Adjustment
Stab of players at war (against a minor country or
Major Power), no matter who declared war, is reduced
as follows:
-. If this is the first turn of this war: 1 level
-. If this is the second turn: 2 levels
-. If this is the third turn: 3 levels
-. If this is the fourth turn or more: 4 levels.
III.13.4. Victory Points.
A. Each player calculates and records all the VP gained
or lost during this turn, as indicated in Chapter V, and
adds them to the accumulated score from previous
turns. It is possible to be in negative VP.
B. If this was the last turn of a Period, players reveal
their Objectives and calculate the Period Objectives,
adding them to their accumulated score. Before
proceeding further, players have to secretly select
Objectives for the next Period.
C. If this was the last turn of the game, calculate the
Final Game Victory Points, adding them to the
accumulated score. The winner is the player with the
highest score.
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IV. SPECIAL RULES
A.3. If the nominated player is actually attacked,
he/she has a CB against England, for the next turn
only.
These rules deal with specific situations when playing
campaign games (and more rarely scenarios). They are
not optional, but rather must be used with the Advanced
Rules.
B. Drake and Hawkins may be used as Explorers, but
they count for turn limits on leaders only as Admirals.
IV.1. SPECIAL LEADERS
IV.1.1. Portuguese Dual Leaders
IV.1.4. Henry IV, Wallenstein, Cromwell, Rupert,
Akbar
Portuguese Leaders Da Gama, Almeida and Albuquerque have two different sides on their counters: one is
a Conquistador and the other either an Admiral or a
General.
A. Leaders Henry IV (France), Wallenstein (Habsburg)
and Cromwell (England) only appear when the events
War of Religion in France (5th time), The Thirty Years
War and The English Civil War occur, respectively. Ignore the turns printed on the counters. Henry IV and
Cromwell will last for 6 turns, including the time when
they are rulers. Wallenstein is removed from game once
the event is over. Note that Wallenstein is a Habsburg
leader for all purposes.
A. The Portuguese player may use them in either role
(but not both roles at the same time), and may even
change the role during a movement phase or a combat.
B. They count on both roles for Turn Limits on leaders.
IV.1.2. Other Dual Leaders
B. The English leader Rupert enters and leaves the
game as indicated on the counter, but if he is
contemporary of the English Civil War event, he
immediately joins the Royalist side.
The Spanish leader Don Juan, the English leaders
Blake, Monk and Rupert, the Venetian leaders
Barbarigo/Bragadin, and the French leader Bussy,
having two different sides on their counters are
considered dual leaders.
C. The Mogol General Akbar appears every turn in
which the event Extension of Mogol Empire occurs, and
is removed at the end of the turn. He is always stacked
with the Mogol army.
A. They can serve as Generals and/or Admirals,
according to the turn numbers printed on both sides of
the counter. It is possible that, for a few turns, only
one role is available. In any case, they can have only
one role in a round (no change within the same round),
the controlling player choosing it when he/she
becomes the phasing player.
IV.1.5. Clive, Dupleix, Bussy, Coen.
A. Conq Clive (England), Dupleix and Bussy (France)
are the only leaders that may use the Conquistador
Table in India. In addition, stacks they command in
India do not trigger a Native Reaction.
B. When the two roles are available, the leader counts
on both for Turn Limits.
B. Conq Coen (Netherlands) is the only leader that may
use the Conquistador Table in the Areas Java,
Sorebaja, Sumatra, Malaya and Borneo. In addition,
stacks he commands in such Areas do not trigger a
Native Reaction.
C. Bragadin and Barbarigo are Venetian leaders
sharing the same counter, and for game purposes are
considered a single dual leader. If one of them dies, the
counter is removed from play.
IV.1.6. Eugene, Saxe.
IV.1.3. English Sea Hounds
These leaders may be attributed to France, Habsburg
or a minor country (Savoy for Eugene, and Saxony for
Saxe).
The English Admirals Drake and Hawkins, and the
Explorers Cavendish and Frobisher are the Sea
Hounds.
A. When these Generals appear, roll 1d10 and apply
these modifiers:
+4 French monarch has a nominal MIL (regardless of
minority, crisis, events or ministers) of 7 or more.
-4 French monarch has a nominal MIL (regardless of
minority, crisis, events or ministers) of 5 or less.
+1 Eugene
-2 Saxe
A. During the DoW Phase, England may declare that
the Sea Hounds will attack one (and only one) player
(including annexed Portugal in the case of Spain). This
is not a DoW and does not cost Stab.
A.1. During the Military and Redeployment Phases, the
Sea Hounds (and privateers they lead) may attack and
loot Col/TPs and Trade Fleets owned by the nominated
player (and annexed Portugal in case of Spain).
Col/TPs in revolt or enemy occupied cannot be
attacked.
A.2. The nominated player may defend, attack the
privateers when they are occupying his/her Col/TP
and hunt them on Trade Zones.
B. Depending on the result, they are attributed to a
specific country:
3 or less: France
4: Savoy / Saxony
5 or more: Habsburg
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IV.1.7. Guise, Hetman.
IV.1.11. Arabs
As indicated in their counters, these leaders enter and
leave the game two times. Each time one of them
enters, consider him a different personality. If he dies
the first time, the second personality may still enter
the game on the second date.
Oman, Aden and Al-Djazair use the leader Arabs when
they obtain an Admiral in the Reinforcement Table, if
still available. However, this leader cannot be used
during turns 20-26 (both included).
IV.1.12. Kuprulu and Potemkine
IV.1.8. Willem Nassau, Gustav Adolphus, Frederick II,
Carl XII
A. If the events Kuprulu / Potemkine occur before the
leader is in the game, he immediately enters play and
lasts as many turns as indicated in the event. He will
never enter play again. If, for some reason, he dies
before the scheduled time, the event ceases.
A. These leaders are in fact Monarchs. When they
enter play, they immediately substitute the current
Monarch (even in the case of a Dutch player still
subjugated to Spain).
B. If the events Kuprulu / Potemkine didn’t take place
when that leader enters play, it must be played during
next turn (roll for one less Political Event). Do not roll
for the duration of the event; it will last as long as the
leader is alive.
B. They start with adult age, never roll for Monarch
survival, and die at start of the turn following their
departure (but may be killed in combat earlier). The
event Death of a Military Leader does not affect them;
choose another leader.
C. The event Death of a Military Leader does not affect
neither Kuprulu nor Potemkine; choose another leader
if possible.
C. They have the following ratings:
Willem Nassau (Netherlands): ADM: 7; DIP: 8; MIL: 8
Gustav Adolphus (Sweden): ADM: 9; DIP: 8; MIL: 9
Frederick II (Prussia): ADM: 9; DIP: 8; MIL: 9
Carl XII (Sweden): ADM: 5; DIP: 6; MIL: 9
IV.1.13. Souwarov
This General may enter play from Turn 57 (instead of
Turn 60, as indicated on the counter), when a Russian
General dies or is injured in the course of a combat.
Sowarov replaces this General, but is considered as
having rank Z until turn 60.
D. Dutch units stacked with Willem Nassau are
considered vet.
IV.1.9. York and Cumberland
IV.1.14. The Knights Grand Master
A.1. If the English Monarch dies when the Admiral
York is in play, this leader becomes the king James II
and cannot take the role of admiral again.
A.2. As a Monarch, his values are: ADM: 6; DIP: 5;
MIL: 5. Determine his reign length randomly, but reroll any result not being adult (however, a Dynastic
Crisis or Fragile Health may still result). His military
ratings as a General have to be determined in the
usual way.
A. The Knights have permanently the leader Grand
Maitre. If he is injured, killed or captured, another
Grand Master is elected and immediately substitutes
the former. The death or capture of each Grand Master
will count for VP, however.
B. The Grand Master is a dual leader, like those
described in IV.1.2, that can take the role of General or
Privateer Admiral.
B. If the English Monarch dies when the Ge Cumberland is in play, this leader becomes the king George III.
His values are ADM: 8; DIP: 6; MIL: 7. Determine his
reign length randomly, but re-roll any result not being
adult (however, a Dynastic Crisis or Fragile Health may
still result). His military ratings are those of the
counter.
C. La Valette becomes the Grand Master on turn 13,
and until turn 17. He can only take the role of General.
If he is injured or captured, the Knights will await his
return, instead of electing another Grand Master.
When he dies, the Knights immediately elect a
standard Grand Master.
IV.1.10. Dimitri and Godunov
IV.1.15. Mercenaries.
A. When the event The Time of Troubles in Russia is in
effect, and Godunov is in play, he becomes the Russian
Monarch (ADM: 5; DIP: 8; MIL: 4). The Russian player
must deploy him on the map as long as that event
lasts.
A. Players at war, and only those at war (including
Civil Wars, but not revolts) may purchase mercenary
leaders. Minor countries never buy mercenaries. At
start of Logistics Phase, roll on the Mercenary Table to
see how many are available.
B. At the end of the event, if Russia collapses, Dimitri
becomes the Monarch (ADM: 3; DIP: 4; MIL: 5) if he is
still in play. If the event ends without the collapse of
Russia, Dimitri is removed from play.
B. Each player wishing to buy a mercenary secretly
writes down the number of mercenaries wanted and
the bid for each one (minimum 10 D$). The player with
the highest bid gets the mercenary, and chooses it at
random from the countermix.
C. During the event, if any of these leaders is captured
by the opposing faction, he is immediately killed.
C. Mercenaries have rank Z, unless the player pays an
additional 10D$. In this case, use the printed rank.
D. When these leaders are Monarchs, apply the rules
in IV.1.8.B
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IV.1.16. Monarchs as Leaders
Sweden and Denmark are linked by the Union of
Kalmar. This link disappears with the event End of the
Union of Kalmar, or with any Sweden-Denmark War
event, or when the Swedish leader Gustav Adolphus
enters play.
A. Players may decide to use Monarchs as leaders.
Only teenagers and adults may be used in such role.
Monarchs are Generals, except the Venetians, who are
Admirals.
B. Monarchs never count for Turn Limits on leaders. A
player decides to use the Monarch during the Logistics
Phase, when redistributing the leaders.
B.1. If it is the first time it would be used, roll on the
Monarch in Combat Table to determine the Fire, Move,
Shock and Siege values, using the nominal MIL rating
(regardless of minority, crisis, events or ministers).
B.2. These values are retained until the Monarch dies,
no matter if the MIL rating changes. Teenagers have
their values reduced by 1 (minimum is 0), until they
become adults.
While the Union of Kalmar is in effect:
A. Diplomatic actions have always to be negotiated
separately.
C. A player is not forced to use the Monarch as a
leader, even for those Monarchs who have their own
counter (like Willem N), and even though Monarchs are
the highest in hierarchy. But once a player has decided
to use the Monarch, it must remain on map for the
whole turn, as any other leader. However, minor
country monarchs must be always deployed.
C. To activate in a war, they are rolled for separately,
but to activate one in EC or EW, the other must be also
at the same or higher level. In MA, a country will never
activate against a side that has the other country
already activated.
IV.2. SPECIAL MINOR COUNTRIES
A. Turkey cannot make diplomacy on The Knights.
IV.2.1. Hungary
B. The Knights have in their Basic Force a Privateer (+)
that is rebuilt to full force every turn.
B.1. On the first round of each Military Phase, the
privateer must be activated against any Turkish Trade
Fleet in the Mediterranean (excluding the Caspian
Sea), even when the Knights are at peace. As a
privateer admiral, The Grand Master may lead the
privateer. The controlling player decides which trade
fleet to attack (Spain in case the Knights are neutral).
B.2. The privateer may only leave the trade zone to be
placed on another trade zone with Turkish trade fleets.
However, during peacetime The Knights have only 1
simple campaign for the whole Military Phase. If the
privateer is blockaded, it may wait until the blockade
is lifted or try to escape, at the choice of the controlling
player.
B.3. Turkey may hunt the privateer, even when at
peace with The Knights. If The Knights privateer
causes Turkey to lose at least 1 trade fleet during
peacetime, Turkey loses 1 Stab. If Turkey is at war
with any country (not necessarily The Knights) this
loss does not occur. Turkey may also avoid the Stab
loss by sacrificing warships to protect the trade fleets.
B.4. If Turkey has no trade fleets on the Mediterranean, the privateer must attack the Turkish CTZ.
Turkey will still lose 1 Stab if the privateer destroys
nominal trade levels.
B.5. If there is an unblockaded Christian port (no
matter which Christian country it belongs to) touching
the Eastern Mediterranean or Aegean Seas, modify the
Knights privateer roll by -2.
B. DoW on either country extends to the other country,
and forces of both countries are deployed. They are
controlled by whoever has the most advanced
diplomatic marker (or the controller of Denmark if that
cannot apply). Any diplomatic marker not controlled by
that player is placed on the RM box. For peace
purposes, consider them as a single country.
IV.2.3. The Knights
A. Before Turn 10, Habsburg and Turkey may conquer
Hungary if they capture Buda and control it during a
Peace Phase.
The conqueror gains a Level 5 Peace from Hungary and
annexes all Hungarian provinces, but receives no
indemnities.
The Hungarian diplomatic marker is removed from
play, this country disappears forever, and Buda is not
considered a capital for the rest of the game.
B. If the event Habsburg Inheritance of Hungary
occurs, while not being conquered, and before Turn 10,
Habsburg annexes all Hungarian provinces at start of
Turn 10, provided it has not been conquered as
described in A above. The Hungarian diplomatic
marker is removed from play, this country disappears
forever, and Buda is not considered a capital for the
rest of the game. Habsburg may use the Hungarian
army and detachment counters as if they were its own,
and adds the Hungarian Basic Forces to its own, as
indicated in the Annexes.
C. If the event occurs before Turn 10, but when
Hungary has been already conquered by Turkey,
Habsburg may annex the Hungarian provinces (those
belonged to Hungary in 1492) it occupies during a
Peace Phase, even if Peace is not signed with the
nominal owner. This may only occur after Turn 9
(excluded). If Habsburg conquered Hungary, this rule
does not apply.
C. Turkey has a Free CB against The Knights. If the
Turkish player controls Rhodes during a Peace Phase,
The Knights suffer a level 5 peace and Turkey annexes
Rhodes (but no indemnities are gained).
C.1. If The Knights lose Rhodes, Spain may cede them
the province of Malta in exchange of a permanent
vassalization. Do not count this cession for VP. No
further diplomacy will be allowed on The Knights
(except for Spain). However, Spain may los this special
D. Hungary is member of the Orthodox group until
Turn 9. On Turn 10 it becomes part of the Latins group
and gets any technology the Latins currently have.
E. After Turn 10, Hungary is considered a normal
minor country.
IV.2.2. Union of Kalmar
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A.2. The Emperor has a Permanent Free CB against a
country that occupies or annexes the MAINZ province
(with the city of Frankfurt, which is the imperial
capital), other than the minor country Pfalz. Note that
the Pfalz capital is the province of PFALZ. Although
Frankfurt is printed in red, it may be annexed
normally, without further consequences.
diplomatic status if a Crusade is called and Spain does
not participate, but other Major Power does. If Spain
does not control Malta, or does not wish to cede it, or
Spain is Protestant, The Knights disappear from the
game.
C.2. Turkey may conquer Malta in the same way as
Rhodes, and in this case, The Knights are permanently
destroyed.
B. Military Units of the HRE.
B.1. The HRE has one army and two LD. Their content
is listed in the Annexes and is independent of the
content of the Emperor’s units. Their technology is that
of Latins. HRE units are never counted for Tercios
technology, even if Spain has filled them with its own
sp.
B.2. They are available to the Emperor when he/she
declares war on a country that has DoWed a member
of the HRE (as per the CB in A.1.). If Habsburg is the
Emperor, the units also become available when it is
attacked by a non-HRE country.
B.3. After the DoW, set up one LD with vet sp on any
of the following locations (Emperor’s choice): the city of
Frankfurt, the Emperor’s capital, or any province of the
attacked country.
B.4. During Logistics, the other LD and the army may
be filled with sp from the basic forces of HRE minors
that the Emperor controls in EC or higher, and which
are not already activated. If the Habsburg is the
Emperor and is associated to Spain, count those
minors controlled by Spain. These units are placed as
indicated in B.3. In addition, the Emperor may include
its own sp (already placed or newly bought) in the HRE
units, provided these units are placed in the Emperor’s
provinces.
B.5. If the Emperor (or Spain if associated to an
Habsburg Emperor) pays 10 D$, he receives additional
imperial forces. Roll once on the Reinforcements Table
in Defensive posture, and without modifiers. The forces
obtained may be placed in the provinces indicated in
B.3. (the fortresses have to be placed in HRE countries
only, giving priority to the attacked country).
B.6. The Emperor pays for the campaigns of HRE units
as if they were his/her own. The campaigns obtained
through the Reinforcements Table may be used to
move exclusively HRE units. HRE units may enter only
provinces of Italy, HRE countries, and the Emperor
European provinces. Note that if the Emperor decides
to roll for Reinforcements, the HRE units will be
restricted to a Defensive attitude.
B.7. The Emperor may use the HRE units against
revolts or in a Civil War, if they have become available.
If the emperor DoWs an HRE country, he/she cannot
use the HRE units (if they are on play, they are
removed from the map). However, they may be still
used if a HRE country has been activated against the
Emperor, without the Emperor DoWing such country.
B.8. Maintenance of HRE fortresses and units is free.
The HRE units remain in play until eliminated or the
end of the war. They are removed after the Peace,
including all sp placed by the Emperor in HRE units.
However, fortresses remain on the map.
D. Any Christian player that declares war to The
Knights loses 4 Stab levels and 10 VP, no matter if
there is a CB.
E. The Knights will never activate in a war if, by doing
so, they become allies of Turkey.
F. The Knights never annex provinces; they always
demand indemnities.
IV.2.4. Habsburg / Austria
Depending on the scenario, this country may be
associated to Spain, or be a normal minor country, or
even a Major Power.
A. When this minor country is associated to Spain:
A.1. Its Diplomatic Marker is placed permanently on
the EW box of Spain.
A.2. Any DoW against Habsburg extends to Spain (with
no extra cost in VP or Stab for the attacker) if the
Spanish player wishes. The reverse is not true.
A.3. Spain activates Habsburg during the DoW Phase,
by having Habsburg DoW the Spanish enemies. Spain
pays the necessary Stab and VPs. Note that any CB
must be actually held by Habsburg, not Spain.
A.4. It may attack Major Powers (the Spanish player
pays the Stab and VP) without Spain being involved,
but not minor countries, unless an Event allows it.
A.5. It may accept a Separate Peace.
B. Habsburg dissociates from Spain when Spain
becomes Protestant (it won’t associate again if Spain
becomes Catholic later), or when indicated by an
Event. When dissociated, Habsburg becomes a normal
minor country.
C. Habsburg has the following Free CB:
C.1. Permanent against Turkey, if Turkey controls any
Hungarian province after the event Habsburg
Inheritance of Hungary (unless Habsburg conquered
Hungary as per IV.2.1.A).
C.2. Temporary (1 turn) against any country DoWing
any member of the HRE (even if Habsburg is not the
Emperor).
C.3. Permanent against any current enemy of Spain,
but only when associated to Spain, and when the
Spanish player is the Emperor (not Habsburg).
IV.2.5. Holy Roman Empire
The HRE is a political entity that includes most German
minor countries, including the Habsburg. These minors
have the letters HRE next to their name in the list of
countries of the Annexes.
C. Moving through the HRE
When the Emperor is at war, his units and those of his
active allies and enemies may enter provinces of nonactivated HRE countries, without the need of a DoW.
This does not apply to Russia or Turkey. The fortresses
of such minors do not supply, nor block supply, nor
serve as a retreating point.
A. The Emperor
The scenario or campaign will indicate which country
is the Emperor (usually Habsburg). Some Events may
make other players Emperors.
A.1. The Emperor has a temporary (1 turn) CB against
a country that DoWs any member of the HRE.
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A. Each of these countries have a Privateer marker.
These are named as Barbary Privateers.
A.1. The Barbary Privateers may attack any trade fleet
belonging to Christian countries, even if not at war
with such country. At peace, each country has 1
Simple Campaign each Turn. Similarly, any Christian
naval unit may hunt down the Barbary Privateers and
protect the trade fleets.
A.2. When these countries are not activated in a war,
Turkey manages the Barbary Privateers, regardless of
which player actually controls the diplomatic markers.
When activated in a war, the Barbary Privateers are
managed by the player controlling the diplomatic
marker, but they can never attack Turkish trade fleets.
A.3. Al-Djazair privateer can only operate on the STZ
Gulf of Lion. Tunis, Tripoly and Cyrenaica privateers
can only operate on STZ Ionian Sea.
A.4. Al-Djazair privateer recovers 1 level on every
Logistics Phase. Tunis, Tripoli and Cyrenaica
privateers each recover 1 level every 2 Logistic Phases.
The latter three cannot reach the (+) side except by
receiving reinforcements.
A.5. These countries may exchange 5 warships
received as reinforcements, for an increase in the level
of the Privateer. Note that if Tunis, Tripoli or Cyrenaica
privateers are raised to (+) side, they will drop to (-)
side once peace is concluded, as their Basic Force only
lists a Privateer (-). Furthermore, at war the controlling
player has to pay the maintenance of the excess.
IV.2.6. Lorraine
A. Certain Events may give France the option to annex
provinces of this minor. When its last province is
annexed, this minor disappears forever and ceases to
be a member of the HRE.
B. In case of war, Lorraine may use the HRE units in
addition to its own counters. If the Emperor later
claims the use of the HRE units, its current sp are
destroyed.
C. A DoW on Lorraine extends to the Emperor, if he
wishes.
IV.2.7. Mameluks
A. The Mameluks have two capitals, Cairo and Damas.
None of them may be annexed, except as indicated
below. The Mameluks control the Trade Center Grand
Orient, until Turkey annexes them.
B. Turkey may annex the Mameluks if the player
controls both capitals during a Peace Phase, or if the
player controls one, but the Mameluk army has not
entered combat against Turkey (or Turkish allies)
during the whole Turn.
C. If the requisites for annexation are achieved, Turkey
gains a Level 5 Peace from the Mameluks and annexes
all their provinces, but receives no indemnities. The
Mameluk diplomatic marker is removed from play, this
country disappears forever, and Cairo and Damas are
not considered capitals for the rest of the game.
B.1. As soon as Al-Djazair is a Turkish vassal,
Barberus, if still in play, becomes a Turkish admiral.
B.2. Any activation roll for Al-Djazair is automatically
successful when it is in Turkish EW or VA boxes, and
Barberus is still in play.
IV.2.8. Switzerland
IV.2.10. Poland
A. During the 2nd occurrence of the event War in Italy
(1st Period), France may obtain a Perpetual Peace from
Switzerland in any of the following cases:
-. France wins a Major Battle in which the Swiss army
was present.
-. France destroys the Swiss army in battle.
-. France captures Milan before entering battle with the
Swiss army, even if Milan is lost later.
A. Polish technology is Latins during turns 1-42. On
Turn 43 it becomes attached to Orthodox technology,
but retains any superior Technology it had until the
Orthodox get it. For other purposes (including
interception modifiers) its technology box is that of the
Orthodox.
B. Units of Prussia, Russia and Habsburg/Austria may
cross Polish-owned provinces, without the need of a
DoW, when they are at war against any of the two
other. The Polish fortresses do not supply, nor block
supply, nor serve as a retreating point, nor there is
need to cover them.
B. The Perpetual Peace is signed during the next Peace
Phase and entails the following consequences.
-. France and Switzerland sign a separate White Peace.
-. Swiss diplomatic marker returns to Neutrals, and
can never reach the EC box.
-. France may never DoW Switzerland.
-. Switzerland cannot be activated against France.
-. France gains 1 Stab, in addition to any other gain for
doing Peaces in this Turn.
-. Up to the end of the game, France may buy 10 inf sp
above its normal limits, but at normal price. These sp
are automatically vet.
IV.2.11. United States
A. This minor country may be created by the event
Revolt of the English Colonies. Units of this minor treat
provinces where it has its own Col/TP as European
provinces for movement purposes, even if they don't
have 6 levels.
C. Swiss religion is both Catholic and Protestant (after
the Reform) at the same time.
C.1. The activation malus for having the same religion
as the enemy, will apply if the enemy is Catholic or
Protestant.
C.2. The Religion modifier for Diplomacy with
Switzerland does not apply to Christian players, even
before the Reform.
B. When this minor is created the European Trade
rises to 1700.
IV.2.12. Minor Countries of the RoW
A. These minors are Oman, Aden, Sudan, Hyderabad,
Mysore, Ohio, China, Japan, Mogol and Sibir.
A.1. To attack the Natives or the cities inside these
countries, a player has to DoW them, and in fact start
IV.2.9. Al-Djazair, Tunis, Tripoli, Cyrenaica
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C. Persia always receives a minimum of 1 A(-) in reinforcements.
a war that will end only as per the regular Peace
procedure.
A.2. When at war, or when activated in MA or EC, their
regular forces are set up in any province of their Area,
regardless of the presence of enemy Col/TP and land
forces. In the latter case, the enemy land forces must
immediately relocate to the nearest unbesieged fortress
or friendly Col/TP, without attrition.
A.3. The regular forces of these countries are in supply
while inside their Area. To leave their Area, they need
a regular supply source. They also need a valid Retreat
point when forced to do so, or would be destroyed.
A.4. For Peace purposes, Ohio, Hyderabad, Mysore,
Sudan and Sibir do not have provinces that would
count for War Points, nor that may be annexed.
Regardless of the Peace level, these countries never pay
indemnities, and always demand indemnities instead
of provinces. Making Peace with them never gives nor
costs VP.
A.5. Oman, Aden, China, Japan and Mogol are subject
to the normal Peace rules, except that Oman can only
cede its TP, and Aden has nothing to cede. China,
Japan and Mogol can cede only those provinces with
printed fortress. The provinces containing the cities of
Aden, Mascate, Peking and Kyoto cannot be annexed.
The province of Delhi cannot be annexed as long as the
Mogol Empire exists.
IV.2.15. Irak
A player that has Irak in VA or AN status may place a
Col/TP in the Irak province of the RoW. If the
diplomatic status is lost, the Col/TP remains, but
cannot receive new levels.
IV.2.16. Genoa
Venice cannot do Diplomacy with Genoa.
IV.3. RUSSIA
IV.3.1. Underdevelopment
A. From Turn 1 to Turn 42:
A.1. The following provinces cost 6 MP (instead of 3),
except for units of Russia, Kazan, Astrakhan and
Steppes: Newa, Novgorod, Moscow, Pskow, Welikia,
Tula, Ural.
A.2. Russia must sue for peace only when having a
Stab of -3 for 3 consecutive turns (instead of 2).
B. From Turn 43 to the end of game, the above rules
no longer apply.
B. Oman, Aden, Sudan. No diplomacy is allowed on
these countries until Turkey annexes the Mameluks.
IV.3.2. Peter the Great
If the Russian player gets a Monarch whose characteristics sum up 22 or more, with ADM of 8 or more, this
Monarch is Peter the Great. Consider the nominal
values of the characteristics, without counting
minority, crisis, ministers or events.
C. Hyderabad, Mysore, Ohio. Players can do diplomacy
with these countries only if they have discovered at
least one province of the concerned Area, and have a
Col/TP inside the Area, or in a province adjacent to
that Area. If such Col/TP is lost later, the diplomatic
marker can still remain in the player’s track, but no
further diplomatic actions are allowed on the country,
even for activating it in a war, or for defending it
against another player’s diplomacy.
Peter the Great may also appear as per a Political
Event, if the Russian player didn't get him yet. Note
there may be only one "Peter the Great" Monarch in the
whole game.
D. Sibir. No diplomacy is allowed with Sibir during
Periods I and II. Sibir disappears when there are at
least 10 Col levels inside the Area Sibir, or when 3
provinces have 0 Natives.
A. Military leader
A.1. Military ratings for Peter the Great are not
calculated in the regular way. Use these, instead:
First combat: 2.1.2
Second combat: 3.2.3
Third combat: 3.3.3
Fourth and subsequent combats: 4.4.4.-1
A.2. After the third combat, Peter the Great may also
serve as an Admiral, with ratings 3.3.4. The rules for
Dual Leaders apply to him.
A.3. Minority may affect the military ratings of Peter
the Great.
E. Ohio regular forces (not Natives) have a +3 bonus
for Retreat before combat rolls.
IV.2.13. Papacy
A. The Papacy gives 50D$ at the end of the Diplomatic
Phase to a Catholic player controlling its Diplomatic
marker in MA or higher, except if there is a Crusade.
B. Saint Petersburg
B.1. If Peter the Great is the current Monarch, the
Russian player may start building the city of Saint
Petersburg in the province of NEWA, if that province is
controlled (military occupation will suffice, but a revolt
will prevent it).
B.2. Saint Petersburg costs 300 D$ and takes 5 turns
to build. The payment may be distributed in any way
during the 5 turns (but at least 1 D$ must be payed
during the first turn), the construction cannot be
accelerated, and the payment must be complete at the
5th turn, or the money will be lost.
B.3. If, at start of an Administrative Phase, the
province is enemy-occupied or in revolt, the construction is canceled and the money lost. The building of
B. Turkey cannot do Diplomacy with the Papacy for the
whole game, and Protestants during Periods I, II and
III.
IV.2.14. Persia
A. Turkey cannot do Diplomacy with Persia.
B. A TP may be placed in the Persian province of
Ormuz, as long as it remains Persian. If another
country annexes it, only that country may place the
TP, and any TP from other country is destroyed. Note,
however, that units and leaders (including Conquistadors and Explorers) would not be able to enter this
province, unless Persia is an active ally or enemy.
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Saint Petersburg may be finished by any Russian
Monarch, but if canceled, it can only be restarted by
Peter the Great.
B.4. Once the payment is complete:
-. Saint Petersburg replaces the other city in Newa and
becomes a port. Use the fortress marker labelled "Saint
Petersburg".
-. Saint Petersburg is a level-4 fortress, or the
maximum level allowed by Russian technology,
whichever is less. But if there was a level-5 fortress on
the province, keep it. Maintenance of the level-4
fortress is free, and Saint Petersburg cannot be
reduced to less than 4 levels.
-. Newa becomes a Russian National province, and is
immediately annexed to Russia. Its income is
multiplied by the level of the fortress.
-. Saint Petersburg becomes a capital of Russia.
Neither Newa nor Moscow may be annexed, and both
have to be occupied to force Russia into an Unconditional Surrender, as per the special case mentioned in
III.12.5.B.3.
Petersburg is completed, these values are 10 D$ and 5
D$.
C. Russian Army Reform
C.1. Before Peter the Great:
-. Russia is linked to Orthodox technology.
-. Russian Tech marker cannot exceed the box where
the Orthodox marker is located.
-. Russia can only use 1 fleet counter and 5 army
counters.
C.2. Once Peter the Great appears, Russia becomes
linked to Latin technology and the above restrictions
are lifted.
B. Russia may build naval units at TPs in Amour and
Kamchatka (while other countries can only build naval
units at Col).
IV.3.4 Cossacks
If the Russian player controls one or more of the
following provinces: Ukranya, Kharkow, Donetsk or
Bessarabia:
A. Russia receives during each Logistics Phase 5 csc
cav sp, in any European city, or Col in Siberia.
B. Russia may move one stack for free, per turn, into
any province of Siberia adjacent to an already
discovered province.
C. Russia can maintain for free 2 LD located in Siberia,
in csc, and having only cav sp.
IV.3.5. Colonial Policies
A. Russia may build cav sp in Col with less than 6
levels (while other countries can only build inf sp).
IV.3.6. Russian Conquests
A. Russia may annex the capital of a minor country
(not of a Major Power), provided that:
-. The capital is adjacent to an already annexed
Russian province
-. The capital is occupied by Russia (not Russian allies
or vassals)
D. River Fleet
D.1. When Peter the Great is the Monarch, Russian
naval units may be built in, and enter, the provinces of
Kharkow, Donetsk, Ukranya, Volhynia, Worones and
Seweria, provided that these provinces are annexed by
Russia, even though these provinces do not have a
port.
B. The controlling player selects a new capital for the
minor. The minor must always hold at least one
province, except if Annexation of this minor is possible
for Russia (as indicated in the Diplomatic marker). If
Russia conquers the last province, place the
Diplomatic marker in the Annexation box of the
Diplomatic track. It might drop from that level due to
Events, or diplomatic actions of other players.
The naval units in Worones and Kharkow have direct
access to the Eastern Black Sea. Those in Donetsk,
Ukranya, Volhynia and Seweria have direct access to
the Western Black Sea.
IV.4. TURKEY
IV.4.1. Turkish conquests
D.2. The naval units on these provinces cannot be
blockaded, but if the city is besieged, no naval unit can
neither enter nor exit. If the city is captured, the naval
units are destroyed.
Turkey may annex capitals of minor countries in the
same way as Russia does. In addition, Turkey may
annex Vienna even when Austria is a Major Power, but
not the new Austrian capital.
D.3. When Peter the Great dies, naval units on these
inland provinces must relocate to a Russian-controlled
port on the Eastern or Western Black Seas, or be
destroyed.
IV.4.2. Turkish Army Reform
A. When Turkish Land Tech marker reaches Baroque,
it cannot advance further, unless the Turkish army is
reformed. To reform the army, the Turkish player
announces it during an Administrative Phase and rolls
for success during the Interphase. Turkey must have
0 or positive Stab to announce the attempt.
IV.3.3 Arkhangelsk
A. The port of Arkhangelsk is built by a Political Event,
or at start of Turn 26, if the relevant Event didn't
occur. It is off-map and unplayable.
A.1. If the Turkish Monarch has MIL of 8 or more
(counting minority, Dynastic crisis, ministers and
Events), the attempt automatically succeeds.
A.2. If the Turkish Monarch has MIL of 7 or less, roll
for monarch survival with a +5 modifier.
-. If the Monarch dies, the reform fails. During the
Monarch Phase of next turn, determine the successor
B. Only after this port is created can Russia build
trade fleets and naval units.
C. The Russian CTZ does not exist before the creation
of Arkhangelsk. Once it is built, the total monopoly
gives 5 D$, and the partial 3 D$. When Saint
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characteristics with a -3 modifier to the die roll. Reign
length is rolled normally.
-. If the Monarch survives, the reform succeeds.
IV.5.2. The Revolt of the United Provinces
When this Event takes place:
B. Consequences:
B.1. Whether or not the reform succeeds, Turkey loses
3 Stab and rolls for 2 revolts (these revolts can only
affect Turkish-owned provinces; re-roll otherwise).
B.2. If the reform succeeds, remove all Pashas for the
rest of the game. Turkish Land Tech marker can
advance again, and Turkish Basic Forces are reduced
by one A(+) until the end of game. Once successful, the
reform cannot be reverted.
A.1. The restrictions in IV.5.1. no longer apply.
A.2. The Reform Event is played to its full effect, if that
has still not occurred.
A.3. Spain can no longer tax Holland.
A.4. Dutch Tech markers are placed with the Latins
markers.
A.5. Netherlands may take over the Trade Centers,
provided requirements are met, and displace them to
Dutch-owned ports.
IV.4.3. Turkish capture of Vienna
B.1. All non-Dutch units in Dutch national provinces
must relocate to nearest friendly fortress (or port),
without suffering attrition. Netherlands annexes such
provinces, no matter who owns them, and any revolt
(and revolt land forces) on them are removed. However,
neither Netherlands gains VP nor Spain or other
country loses them for such annexation.
B.2. Roll 1d10 and add the number of Turns Spain has
been taxing Holland.
A. If Turkey captures Vienna (not necessarily annexing
it) and holds it at the end of the turn, Venice, France
and England lose 1 Stab, and Spain and Austria lose
2 Stab, provided they are Catholic.
This loss occurs only once in the whole game, even if
Turkey loses and captures again Vienna. However,
Catholic Spain (or Austria if it is a Major Power, but
not both) loses 1 Stab for each next turn in which
Turkey still holds Vienna.
9 or less. No further effects
10-14. Place Revolt (-) in Flanders and Hainaut.
15-19. Place Revolt (+) in Flanders, and (-) in Artois,
Hainaut and Luxemburg.
20-24. Place Revolt (+) in Flanders, Hainaut, Luxemburg and Artois, and (-) in Nord.
25 or more. Netherlands annexes Flanders. Place Revolt (+) in Hainaut, Nord, Artois and Luxemburg.
If Vienna is ceded to Turkey, another Habsburg
province becomes the capital, and the Stab loss ceases.
If the new capital is captured, these Special rules do
not apply.
B. At start of each turn in which Turkey holds Vienna
(even if it has been ceded), Catholic Spain (or Austria
if it is a Major Power, but not both), gets a bonus of +3
on diplomatic actions and activation tests with minor
countries that have a common border with Habsburgannexed provinces. This bonus is +4 in the case of
Poland, whether or not Poland has a common border
with Habsburg.
Revolts are placed only in Spanish-owned provinces.
Netherlands may annex Flanders only if it is Spanishowned, and this annexation will count for VP. Any nonDutch unit there must relocate as described in B.1.
above.
C. During the Logistics Phase of the Revolt Turn,
Netherlands may buy land forces up to the triple of its
Turn limits, without paying overcosts, and naval units
up to the Period limit.
IV.4.4. Turkish discoveries
When Turkey controls the Diplomatic marker of either
Oman or Aden, it acquires knowledge of the following
seas: Horn of Africa, Coast of Malabar and Straits of
Mozambia.
D. Spain and Netherlands are at war, although nobody
has made a DoW. No other country may neither take
part in this war, nor DoW Netherlands.
IV.5. NETHERLANDS
The Stab loss for this war is limited to 1, regardless of
the number of turns it is lasting (note however, that
Spain or Netherlands may be involved in other wars
that cause a greater loss). For Spain, the limit goes to
2 during Period IV, and to 3 during Periods V, VI and
VII.
The country Netherlands is also referred in the rules as
Holland, the United Provinces or The Dutch.
IV.5.1. Holland before the Revolt
A. Dutch Monarch is determined as in the case of a
Dynastic Crisis, but without suffering its penalties.
B. The player receives income exclusively from MNU
(fixed only), trade fleets and trade monopolies.
However, the Spanish Tax must be deducted (see
IV.6.1.C.5).
C. Holland does not have neither units nor leaders, nor
can bid for mercenaries.
D. Holland cannot do Col/TP actions.
E. Holland can do Diplomatic actions, but neither with
Spain nor against Spain, and cannot control minors
beyond the Subsidies level.
F. Holland cannot DoW, nor be Dowed, and the only
alliance allowed is the Dynastic Alliance (except with
Spain). Holland cannot purchase discoveries.
E. During the war, both players annex at the Peace
Phase the following provinces if they control the
fortress (gaining and losing VPs in the process): all
Dutch national provinces, plus Flanders, Hainaut,
Nord, Artois and Luxemburg. If Spain conquers the
Dutch capital, the Dutch player selects other national
province as its capital.
F. If the Dutch player conquers any of the provinces
mentioned in E with revolts, the revolts inside it are
removed. The revolts proliferate on these provinces,
but do not generate land units. Furthermore, when a
revolt would normally take control of the fortress, it in
fact pass to Dutch control, and thus the revolt will be
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From Turn 33 (included) to the end of game,
Netherlands cannot sell, give, trade or voluntarily cede
any of its discoveries or Col/TP.
removed as Netherlands will annex the province. The
revolts that proliferate into other adjacent Spanish
provinces may generate units and take over fortresses
in the usual way.
IV.6. SPAIN
G. The war lasts until Spain recognises the Dutch
Independence, or Spain controls all the Dutch national
provinces.
G.1. Spain recognises the independence during a
Peace Phase, but cannot do so in the same turn in
which the Revolt takes place. By recognising the
independence, Spain has to cede Den Haag to Holland,
but the other provinces mentioned in E go to the player
controlling the fortress. Other provinces or Col/TP
return to the nominal owner. For other effects, the
Peace is considered informal, and thus each player
gains 1 Stab.
G.2. The Truce. Spain and Holland cannot DoW each
other, nor their vassals, for the next 3 turns, unless an
Event provides a CB. In that case, if the war is actually
declared, the Truce ends.
G.3. As long as the Truce lasts, Holland may attack
annexed Portuguese Col/TP in RoW, without a DoW.
Spanish and Portuguese units may defend themselves
and attack the Dutch units that are attacking,
besieging, blockading or occupying Portuguese Col/TP.
G.4. If Spain conquers all the Dutch provinces, the
player may reconvert Holland to Catholicism. Both
Spain and Holland gain 1 Stab for ending the war with
an informal peace. The Dutch player returns to the
state prior of the Revolt, with the exception that
he/she keeps the Col/TPs, units and leaders that were
in RoW at that time. The Dutch player receives the
income from such Col/TP, can move its units inside
the RoW, and build them as per the regular rules.
Spain may attack such units and establishments
without a DoW.
G.5. The revolts remain on-map, but now can generate
land units, and the Dutch no longer annex the revoltcontrolled fortresses.
IV.6.1. The Burgundian Inheritance
A. When Spain is Catholic, the Spanish player can
never lose the Habsburg Diplomatic marker, until
Habsburg disassociates from Spain.
B. In 1492, the minor country Habsburg controls the
provinces that form Burgundy: Nord, Flanders,
Hainaut, Artois, Luxemburg, Franche Comte, Gueldre,
Brabant, Zeeland, Holland, Den Haag and Friesen,
plus the Atlantic Trade Center.
C. As soon as the first Spanish Monarch dies, Spain
receives the Burgundian Inherintance:
C.1. Spain annexes the provinces mentioned in B, that
are still owned by Habsburg, without receiving VP for
that. Note that Spain will lose VP if the player cedes
them. Units on these provinces belonging to countries
that are neither active allies nor enemies of Spain must
relocate to the nearest friendly fortress, without
attrition.
C.2. Spain has a Free CB against any country that has
annexed any of the provinces of the Inheritance, and a
CB against any country currently at war with
Habsburg (the latter only if Spain is Catholic).
C.3. If Spain is Catholic, the Habsburg becomes
associated to Spain and its marker is placed
permanently on the Spanish EW box, until disassociated.
C.4. Spain gets the income of the annexed provinces in
the usual way, plus the income of any Trade Center on
them, but not the income of Dutch trade fleets or
monopolies (except as indicated in C.5 below).
C.5. From now, and until the Revolt of the United
Provinces, Spain may announce each turn the Tax of
Holland during a Diplomatic Phase, and receive the
income of the Dutch trade fleets and monopolies, up to
a maximum of 50D$. Note the money on Line 3, as if
it were a gift.
H. If at start of Turn 21 the Event has not occurred, or
Spain has conquered Holland, roll 1d10 every Turn
after the Events Phase. On a result of 3 or more, the
Revolt of the United Provinces occurs, in addition to
other events.
D. The Event Election to HRE cannot occur until Spain
receives the Inheritance.
IV.5.3. Dutch Flood
IV.6.2. Viceroys
When enemy land units enter Dutch-controlled
Zeeland, Brabant, Holland or Den Haag, the Dutch
player may immediately flood any or all of these
provinces.
A. When a province is flooded, place a Pillage (+)
marker. All non-Dutch land units must immediately
Retreat. Flooded provinces cost 6 MP to Dutch land
units. Non-Dutch land units cannot enter flooded
provinces.
A. This rule applies only when Spain is Catholic.
B. During the Administrative Phase, Spain may
appoint an Historical Conquistador (not an Explorer)
Viceroy of an Area in America, provided the leader is
currently in the Area. There may be only one Viceroy in
an Area at the same time. The Viceroy can no longer
leave the Area (but if the Area has islands, he may
embark to travel to the island).
B. At start of the Redeployment Phase, the Dutch
player loses 1 Stab and 5 VP for each flooded province.
For income purposes, the province is considered
looted.
C. Spain has one extra Col attempt, free of charge and
at full investment, in an Area where there is a Viceroy.
Spain can only gain one free attempt per turn, no
matter how many Viceroys the player has.
C. The flood ends when the Pillage marker is removed
as per the Looting rules.
D. A Historical Conquistador that captures Tenochtitlan or Cuzco must be named Viceroy of Azteca or Inca,
respectively, during the next Administrative Phase, if
he is still alive. Furthermore, no Viceroy can be
IV.5.4. Secret Monopoly of Discoveries
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-. Being Catholic (Counter-Reform if The Reform
occurred two times), AND
-. Being the only Catholic of the three (Counter-Reform
if The Reform occurred two times), OR both control the
Papacy diplomatic marker (currently and during at
least half of the already played turns of the present
Period) and participate in all Crusades called by the
Papacy, with conducting at least a SC against Turkey
per round and not signing a Separate Peace with
Turkey.
appointed for those Areas before the fortress is
captured.
E. For the Viceroy rule, the Azteca Area includes also
Sonora, and Sonora can never have an independent
Viceroy.
IV.6.3. Restrictions on Spanish Colonies
A. This restriction applies only if Spain is Catholic, and
is lifted at start of Period IV.
B. In America, Spain may only attempt placement of
Col/TP in the following Areas: California, Nevada,
Texas, Florida, Sonora, Cuba, Haiti, Antilles, Azteca,
Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Orenoque, Guyana,
Inca, Amazonia, Belem, Recife, Bahia, Rio, Recife,
Paraguay, La Plata and Chile.
C. In other parts of the RoW, Spain is not restricted.
B. The title of Sole Defender may remain unassigned.
IV.8.2. Religious Wars
A. Counter-Reform players that obtain an Unconditional Surrender from a Protestant country may
renounce to any provinces/indemnities, and call
instead for the Restoration of Catholic Faith. This is
mandatory for Spain.
IV.6.4. Asiento
A. During Periods V, VI and VII, the Spanish player
may grant the Asiento (monopoly of slave trade) to any
player (not him/herself). The player must provide
Spain each Turn at least 4 free slaves for exploiting
resources that need slaves. The player still gets the
regular income for exploiting the Slaves resource. Once
granted, the Asiento cannot be revoked except by an
Event or as indicated in B below.
B. Minor countries remain Catholic for the next turn,
and then revert to Protestantism.
C. A Major Power must remain Catholic for the next
turn (the player may choose to be Counter-Reform or
Conciliatory) and then decide:
-. If it remains Catholic, it loses 1 Stab at start of each
turn, and every even-numbered turn rolls for 1 Revolt
(which can affect only provinces owned by the player),
until the player decides to return to Protestantism.
-. If it returns to Protestantism (decided at start of a
turn), it loses 1 Stab at start of this turn, but is no
longer affected by this rule.
B. The player loses the Asiento when he/she does not
provide the 4 slaves, or is at war with Spain. Once
peace is made, the Asiento may be given again to the
same player.
IV.7. PORTUGAL
D. Rules A, B and C no longer apply at start of Period
IV, but a player that was converted to Catholicism still
loses 1 Stab when he/she decides to change religion.
Portugal cannot sell, give, trade or voluntary cede any
of its discoveries or Col/TP, except those that may be
concerned by the Tordesillas Treaty Event.
E. Turkey may also force the conversion of Shiite
minors to Sunni, as per A and B above, during the
whole game.
Similarly, the Spanish player that controls Portugal
after the Annexation Event, cannot sell, give, trade or
voluntary cede the Portuguese discoveries and Col/TP.
IV.8.3. Crusade
IV.8. RELIGION
A. During Periods I, II and III, and after the Events
Phase, the Papacy may call for a Crusade in the
following cases:
There are three Religions in the game: Christian, Muslim
and Pagan (other different from the first two). In
addition, Christians may be Orthodox or Catholics, and
after the Reform, Protestants. Muslims may be Sunni or
Shiite. In game terms, having the same religion includes
not being heretics (i.e. Orthodox and Catholics do not
have the same religion).
-. During the previous Turn, Turkey has annexed the
capital of a Christian country.
-. Rome is under Turkish control. In this case, the Call
of Crusade is automatic without the need of a die roll.
Roll 1d10, with the following modifiers (maximum +5):
After the Reform has occurred two times, Catholic
players may have two different attitudes: Conciliatory
or Counter-Reform. This distinction does not apply to
minor countries. Players with different attitude still have
the same religion.
+1 for each Christian province occupied by Turkey, or
annexed during the current Period, except Vienna.
+5 If Turkey controls Vienna.
-2 For each Catholic player at war against another
country (Turkey excepted).
-3 If the Event The Reform has occured at least once.
The Religion of players is indicated in the Scenario or
Campaign, and that of minor countries in the Annexes.
B. On a modified roll of 8 or more, or unmodified roll of
10, there is a Call of Crusade.
B.1. All Catholic Players have a Free CB against
Turkey, for this turn only. Each Catholic player that
does not DoW Turkey, loses 2 Stab (3 for the Sole
Defender), and the Diplomatic marker of the Papacy.
IV.8.1. The Sole Defender of the Catholic Faith
A. Only England, France and Spain may be the Sole
Defender, by fulfilling these requisites:
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a leader of the same player with higher hierarchy
arrives, he replaces the former as the Commander.
The first player that DoWs Turkey (as per the Initiative)
is the Leader of the Crusade.
B.2. Catholic players may immediately obtain, if they
wish so, a White Peace from any Catholic enemy,
provided that they DoW Turkey. Catholic minor
countries always accept such peace. Catholic players
that refuse the peace lose 1 Stab and the diplomatic
marker of the Papacy. In addition, other players that
participate in the Crusade have a Temporary CB (for
the next turn only) against the refusing player. A
player that did not obtain a peace does not lose Stab
for not DoWing Turkey.
B.3. Crusaders cannot call a non-Catholic ally to DoW
Turkey.
The Commander of the Crusade has the highest
hierarchy among all the Crusaders, even above
Monarchs, and thus no other Crusader leader can lead
a stack larger than his own. The Commander may lead
a totally foreign stack.
G. A crusader player that makes a Separate Peace with
Turkey loses 3 Stab, and the other Crusaders have a
Temporary CB against the player, valid until the end of
the Crusade.
Catholic minor countries always refuse to make peace
with Turkey, except in the following cases:
-. The minor has been totally conquered.
-. A Catholic Major Power has signed a Separate Peace
with Turkey.
-. Venice, if no Venetian territory is presently occupied
by Turkey and any province ceded by Turkey is a
former Venetian province (in the case Turkey had
annexed such provinces).
C. Minors in the Crusade:
C.1. If no player participates in the Crusade, no minor
participates either.
C.2. The following minors always participate in a
Crusade: Papacy, Genoa, Knights, Toscana and Parma,
provided that their Zones of Operation allow it. If
currently controlled by a Crusading player, they are
moved up to EW (unless already higher). If not
controlled by a Crusader, the Leader of the Crusade
controls them in EW (but they will return to Neutrals
box when the Crusade ends).
C.3. Roll 1d10 for each of Venice, Habsburg (when
minors), Hungary and Poland, adding +1 for each
1492-status province that each have ceded to Turkey.
On a result of 8 or more, they DoW Turkey, provided
that their Zones of Operation allow it. Control goes as
per the above rule. Habsburg always participate if it is
the Emperor, or if it has inherited Hungary, without
the need of a roll.
C.4. Crusaders may activate other Catholic minors, as
per the standard rules. Non-Catholic minors cannot be
activated against Turkey during a Crusade.
C.5. Turkey cannot activate a Catholic country against
the Crusaders.
If the Reform occurs when a Crusade is being fought,
Protestant players may do a Separate peace with
Turkey without special penalties, and Protestant minor
countries offer Turkey a separate informal peace.
H. Provinces recovered by victorious Crusaders must
be chosen from those formerly Christian, and in the
inverse order in which they were ceded to Turkey. They
must be given to the original owner, if such country
still exists. If not, Hungarian provinces go to Habsburg,
and Knights provinces to Spain, provided that they
took part in the Crusade. In all other cases, each
Crusader can claim a province, in the order in which
they DoWed Turkey.
If there is a surplus in the provinces obtained, follow
this order: Rhodes, Ionia, Morea, Hellas, Samaria,
Judea, Lebanon, Aleppo.
D. Crusader players receive from the Papacy, at the
end of each Diplomatic Phase, 150 D$ to be shared
between them in fractions of 25D$. The surplus are
distributed following the order in which they DoWed
Turkey. During a Crusade, the usual 50D$ bonus from
the Papacy is not available, and the Papacy Subs
modifier becomes -150.
IV.9. CIVIL WARS
Civil Wars are triggered by Events. The event will
mention if it is a Civil War.
IV.9.1. Restrictions on a Player with a Civil War
E. Crusaders are considered as allies, may move and
stack together, and supply each other.
A. The player suffering a Civil War cannot DoW, nor be
DoWed, nor sign defensive/offensive alliances, as long
as the Civil War rages. Any defensive/offensive alliance
the player had signed is cancelled without penalties.
At least half of the Crusader activations during a
Round must be directed against the following
provinces: former Christian provinces ceded to Turkey,
Christian provinces occupied by Turkey, Thrace,
Judea, Samaria, Crete and Cyprus. Sending land units
into the enemy province, or blockading the enemy port
will suffice as an activation. Attacks to Natives do not
count as activations, and thus are not restricted by
this rule.
B. If the player is at war when the Event occurs,
he/she must immediately offer an Informal Peace to all
enemies. Minor countries fighting alone will always
accept such peace, except if they entered the war by an
Event. In the latter case, the player must immediately
test a Separate Peace, offering at least a White Peace to
the minor.
F. The Leader of the Crusade has to choose one of
his/her military leaders as the Commander of the
Crusade. It must be the one with the highest hierarchy
(be it Admiral or General) that can operate in Europe.
If there is more than one leader with the highest
hierarchy, the player chooses. If the player deploys
his/her Monarch, that leader becomes the Commander
of the Crusade and the player must deploy the
Monarch until the end of the Crusade. If in a later turn
C. If the player cannot end all of its current wars, the
Event is held until the start of a turn in which the
player is not at war.
IV.9.2. Foreign Intervention
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A. Some Events allow other players to intervene in the
Civil War, without declaring war, in support of one of
the two sides. The intervention has to be announced
during the DoW Phase every turn in which the player
wishes to support a side. However, a player has to
break any defensive/offensive alliance with another
player that has previously declared a support of the
opposing side (as per the Initiative order).
B. If the player in Crisis wins the war against the
player that triggered the War of Succession, the latter
cannot DoW him/her until the end of the current
period, except with a CB given by an Event.
B. If, from one turn to another, the intervention is
interrupted, land stacks inside the country at war
must relocate to nearest unbesieged fortress, without
suffering attrition.
A. Only Russia and Turkey may have Col/TP in
Siberia, and only if:
-. For Russia, the player controls the fortress in Ural.
-. For Turkey, the player controls the fortress in Ural,
and at least two fortresses in the following provinces:
Kazan, Steppes, Astrakhan.
IV.11. SIBERIA
IV.11.1. Colonisation
C. Each intervening player cannot have more than one
land stack inside the country suffering the Civil War,
plus one naval stack that blockades an enemy port.
C.1. As long as it is inside the country suffering the
Civil War, the land stack treats provinces controlled by
the supported side as friendly (and others as enemy),
may attack and be attacked by the opposing side
(including intervening stacks of players supporting
that side), and can draw supply from the sources of the
side it is supporting (or the player's own supply
sources). On the contrary, the units of the supported
side cannot draw supply from the intervening player's
sources. Only European provinces/ports may be
entered/blockaded.
C.2. The opposing side cannot attack the player's own
supply sources, even if they are supplying the intervening land stack (an exception to III.7.2.F), except
if it is a naval stack that is also blockading an
opposing side's port.
C.3. The naval stack that blockades a port of the
opposing side may be attacked by that side's naval
units, but not by players supporting that side (even
with their intervening naval stack). In no case the
naval units may enter the ports, or use them to reduce
attrition.
B. If conditions in A above cease to be valid, existing
Col/TP may still increase their levels, but new ones
cannot be placed.
IV.11.2. Access
A. No unit or leader may enter Siberia during Periods
I and II. After that, the only accesible Area of Siberia is
Sibir, until the minor country of the same name is
destroyed. Once Sibir disappears, the whole Siberia is
open.
IV.12. TORDESILLAS TREATY
The event Tordesillas Treaty cannot occur until
America has been discovered. Once the event has
occured, and until the end of Period III or the event
Annexation of Portugal (whichever comes first) the
following rules apply.
IV.12.1 Zones of Influence
A. With the Treaty, Spain and Portugal share the world
in two zones:
Spain: All areas of America, except Belem, Recife,
Bahia, Amazonia and Rio.
Portugal: All areas of Africa and Asia, except Luzon,
plus areas Belem, Recife, Bahia, Amazonia and Rio.
D. Minor countries cannot intervene in the Civil War,
except as indicated in the Event. However, if the
Emperor is suffering a Civil War, and HRE land units
are available, he may use them.
B. Spain cannot move units and leaders, nor place
Col/TP in the Portuguese Zone of Influence, and
viceversa.
IV.10. WARS OF SUCCESSION
IV.10.1. Conditions of Triggering.
C. If there are Spanish Col/TP in the Portuguese Zone
of Influence when the event occurs, they are
immediately annexed by Portugal, and viceversa. VPs
are gained and lost for these annexations. A player
may refuse to annex any or all, and in this case they
are destroyed.
If a player has received a Dowry in a Dynastic Alliance,
and suffers a Dynastic Crisis when the Alliance is still
in effect, the player that gave the Dowry may trigger a
War of Succession by doing one of the following (with
Free CB):
-. DoW the player in Crisis, or
-. DoW all the current enemies of the player in Crisis,
and thus forming an alliance with him/her. The player
in Crisis cannot refuse such alliance.
IV.12.2. Effects on Other Players
These rules apply when the Tordesillas Treaty is in
effect, but only until Turn 14 (included).
IV.10.2. Consequences of the War
A. Any Catholic country apart of Portugal and Spain,
that moves one stack into the RoW loses 1 Stab level.
The loss is for each time a stack leaves the European
Map, but once in the RoW, that stack may move freely
without additional losses. If the stack returns to
Europe and then leaves again, another Stab level is
lost. This penaly applies even if the country is at war
with Spain or Portugal.
A. If the player that triggered the War of Succession
wins the war (with at least a conditional peace in
his/her favour against all enemies), the player in Crisis
cannot DoW him/her until the end of the current
period, except with a CB given by an Event (regardless
of whether they were allies or enemies).
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B. For each Col/TP placement attempt
not) by a Catholic country, except Spain
1 Stab level is lost. If that country
diplomatic counter of the Papacy, it
Neutrals Box.
Special Rules
those of non-Catholic countries. They may also
destroy establishments, including colonies, during
the Redeployment Phase (see III.11.1.E).
(succesful or
and Portugal,
controls the
goes to the
C. Spain and Portugal may attack any stack in their
respective Zones of Influence, without a DoW, even
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Victory Rules
V. VICTORY
Victory is determined as indicated in the Scenario or
Campaign description, usually through calculating the
Victory Points that each player has earned up to the end
of the game. The player with the highest total is the
winner. If two or more players have the same amount,
then the game is a draw.
+1 for signing a White Peace
+ # / - # two times the level of Peace, for the victor /
loser
+20 for forcing a Major Power to change religion under
Peace conditions
-20 for a player that changes religion under Peace
conditions
+# / -# Income of each annexed / ceded province
+# / -# levels of each annexed / ceded Col/TP
+10 for France, for signing the Perpetual Peace with
Switzerland
V.1. GENERAL VICTORY POINTS
If a winner in a Scenario or Campaign is determined by
VP, players should refer to the following list, unless the
Scenario indicates otherwise.
V.1.1. Wars
Conquest of provinces in RoW, which are integrated in
an Area, does not give VP, EXCEPT the following:
-10 for each DoW without a CB
+10 each province in Areas Japan, Corea, Manchu,
Pekin, Shangai, Canton.
+5 each province with the cities of Cuzco and
Tenochtitlan
V.1.2. Administration
+1 for each Monopoly of exotic resources, exploiting 15 units
+3 for each Monopoly of exotic resources, exploiting 6
or more units.
+1 for each newly created, or turned from (-) to (+) side,
Col/TP.
V.1.6. End of Turn
+ # current Stab (may be negative)
+1 per trade fleet with 4-5 levels
+3 per trade fleet with 6 levels
+1 per Diplomatic marker that reaches MA status or
higher (but not for remaining in or above MA). Do not
count changes caused by Events.
-1 per Diplomatic marker that drops below MA status
(but not for remaining below MA). Do not count
changes caused by Events.
-5 per province for Holland, each turn the province
remains flooded.
-15 per Bankruptcy
+20/-20 getting / losing Asiento from Spain
+1 Each turn Asiento is kept.
-# Half of all VPs gained with Asiento (as per the above
line), when it is lost.
V.1.3. Discoveries
VP go to the player that first reports the discovery.
+1 each discovered sea or province, EXCEPT the
following:
+75 first discovered province in Asia.
+50 first discovered province in America (Newfoundland excluded)
+10 Cape Horn Sea
+10 Cape of Storms Sea
+5 Kamchatka
+5 first province of Alaska
+5 first province of Panama
+3 first province of Quebec
+3 first province of Rocky Mountains
+2 first province of Great Lakes
V.1.7. Minor countries
A. The controlling player sums up the VP gained by
his/her minor countries, as described in V.1.4. and
V.1.5, and adds 1 per minor, per round of the Military
Phase in which the player was controlling its forces.
The total is halved, rounded up, and added to the
player’s VP.
V.1.4. Battles and Sieges
Against Natives, these VP are neither gained nor lost.
+1 /-1 each battle won/lost in which the loser had
only detachments.
+2/-2 each battle won/lost, per loser’s army (or fleet)
present.
+5/-5 each Major Battle won/lost, per loser’s army (or
fleet) present.
+1/-1 each siege won/lost.
+1/-1 each leader killed in battle or captured.
+50 for Turkey for the capture or annexation of Vienna
(only once)
-25 for Spain (or Austria if Major Power) for the
Turkish capture or annexation of Vienna (only once)
B. The controlling player of Revolts also gains and
loses VP this way, but Rounds are counted only as
long as the revolt exists (there is a revolt marker in the
country, or the revolt controls a fortress or a military
unit).
C. If a player selects to cede a province from a minor
when his/her own could have been selected, the loss
of VP is not halved.
D. Vassal trade fleets, newly created or turned to (+)
side Col/TP of vassals, and resources exploited by
vassals are counted for VP as if they were of the
controlling player.
V.1.5. Conquests and Peace
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C. At the end of the Period, the Objectives are revealed,
and their achievement checked. Players will earn VP
for achieving the selected objectives, according to how
they rated them (“A” will give more, and “D” less).
Players may be penalised, losing VP, for not achieving
the objectives.
E. The player controlling Natives neither gains nor
loses VP for the Natives actions, including for ceding
provinces and for Rounds of the Military Phase. This
applies to the regular forces of China, Mogul and
Japan, but not to the regular forces of Ohio,
Hyderabad, Mysore, Oman, Aden and Sudan.
D. Objectives not selected give no VP if achieved, but
cause the loss of half of the penalty if not achieved.
V.2. SPECIFIC VICTORY POINTS
If a Scenario, Campaign or Event indicates how to earn
victory points, players should count them in addition
to the General Victory Points, unless otherwise
specified.
E. If an objective gives VP for controlling provinces, the
following rules apply, unless otherwise specified:
-. Provinces owned at start of the Period are not
counted.
-. The province must have been annexed, and not
being under enemy occupation or revolt.
V.3. PERIOD OBJECTIVES
A. At start of a Campaign, and at start of each Period
during the Grand Campaign, each player must secretly
select his/her objectives for the Period.
F. If objectives demand a certain requisite to apply (for
example, having a particular Religion):
-. The objectives cannot be selected if the requisite is
not met at start of the Period.
-. The objectives VP and penalty do not apply if the
requisite is not met at the end of the Period.
B. The annexes list the Period Objectives for each
Major Power. Each player selects four and rates them
A, B, C and D.
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Optional Rules
VI. OPTIONAL RULES
VI.1. BASIC GAME
VI.1.4. Privateer restrictions
VI.1.1. Fireships
This rule is not recommended, as players will end up
with continuous hierarchy conflicts.
A. Blockading fleets/ND, commanded by an admiral
with a Boarding value of 4 or higher, can throw a
fireship against the blockaded fleet/ND. To do so, the
player uses 1 warship (neither a galley nor a transport
are valid) and rolls 1d10 on the Success Table.
A. Those admirals with white © symbol are, in fact,
privateers, and cannot command fleet counters. They
can command ND.
B. The warship is destroyed in the process, whether it
succeeds or fails. If it succeeds, roll 1d10 to determine
the number of blockaded ships that are destroyed,
chosen by the owner.
B. Admirals with yellow © symbol are not restricted.
VI.1.5. Modified leader injury test
The purpose of this rule is to prevent players from
sending suicide detachments into combat, with the
intention of forcing a leader injury test.
C. Leaders are never tested for injury after a fireship
attack.
VI.1.2. Galleys vs. Warships
A leader is tested for injury only if at least 10% of the
sp he commands is lost in the combat.
A. During Periods I, II and III, a naval stack with
galleys, but without a single warship (transports have
no effect), has a bonus of +1 in Fire and Boarding
against a naval stack without a single galley.
VI.1.6. Cavalry Superiority
During Renaissance, cavalry changed tactics. Charges
gave way to volleys of pistol fire, which were less
effective. The old tradition was kept in Poland, and
Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden brought it back to the
West during the XVII century.
B. During Period IV, there is no bonus.
C. During Periods V, VI and VII, a naval stack with
galleys, but without a single warship (transports have
no effect), has a malus of –2 in Fire and Boarding
against a naval stack with at least 1 warship.
A. When determining cavalry superiority in land
combat, halve the cav sp belonging to Latin countries
with the following technologies: Ren, Arq, Mus. Keep
fractions. Exceptions: Poland, Hungary, Latvija,
Russia.
VI.1.3. Venetian Galleasses
A. Venice may build Galleasses from Turn 13
(included), but no more than 10 may be present at the
same time.
B. The rule above applies to Pashas also, regardless of
their technology.
B. When Venice is a Major Power, the player builds
them at double the cost of a galley; when Venice is a
minor country, the controlling player may get them
instead of galleys, either in the Basic Force or as
Reinforcements, at the rate of 1 galleass for each 2
galleys.
VI.2. ADVANCED GAME
VI.2.1. Presidios
A. Christian players may build a Presidio in the
following provinces: the European map African coast,
the islands of the Mediterranean, HELLAS and
MOREA, provided that they control the port in the
province. Presidios are built and maintained during the
Logistics Phase, like any other fortress.
C. Except for D below, a galleass is just like a galley.
Note that for determining the ships which are in first
line, galleasses are the same class of galleys, thus if
galleys are in first line, so are galleasses.
B. The Presidio is a fortress, separate from that
inherent to the Province. Place a fortress marker, of the
appropiate level, in front of the port. If control of the
port goes to another country, the Presidio may remain.
The Presidio may be besieged like any other fortress,
but is destroyed upon capture.
D. When Venetian galleasses are in first line, and the
enemy stack has galleys in first line, the Naval Combat
is modified as follows:
D.1. Galleasses conduct Fire and inflict losses first,
using the A column (regardless of the enemy’s
technology), and with a Firepower of 5. However, the
morale loss can never exceed 1. Then, both players roll
simultaneously for Fire.
D.2. Galleasses conduct Boarding and inflict losses
first, using the A column (regardless of the enemy’s
technology), and with a Boarding-power of 1. However,
no morale loss is applied. Then, both players roll
simultaneously for Boarding.
C. The Presidio is not itself a port, nor a supply source,
nor a valid retreating point, and cannot shelter neither
land units nor leaders.
D. The Presidio blockades the port, as long as the latter
is enemy-held. Any enemy naval stack (including
privateers) attempting to enter or exit, may be subject
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to Fire from the Presidio. The owner of the Presidio rolls
on B Column, without any modifiers, and with a
Firepower equal to double the fortress level. If the
naval stack suffers a Morale loss, it must stop its
movement without entering (or exiting) the port. The
naval stack does not return fire.
VI.2.5. Trade Companies
A. Players may create Trade Companies during Period
III, by paying 200 D$ during an Administrative Phase.
B. The Trade Company and its advantages, disappear
at start of Period IV, or if the Stab is at –3 during an
Income Phase.
E. The Presidio never fires during the Return to Port.
F. The Presidio may fire at Barbary Privateers (IV.2.9)
even if its owner is not at war with the country of the
privateer.
C. If England or Holland build a Trade Company before
a specific Political Event creates it, such Event can
never take place.
VI.2.2. Turkish Diplomacy
VI.2.6. Extension of Religious Conflicts
This rule is recommended for historical accuracy.
This rule is recommended for historical accuracy.
Turkey cannot conclude a Dynastic Alliance with other
players.
Rules IV.8.2.A, B & C are restored (if they ever ceased
to apply) during the Event Thirty Years War.
VI.2.3. Turkish Instability
VI.2.7. Bids on Eugene and Saxe
This rule is not recommended if you want a competitive
Turkey throughout the game.
A. The rolls for Eugene and Saxe can be modified by a
secret bid of both the French and Habsburg (Spain if
not dissociated) players. Modify the result by +1 for
each full 10 D$ Habsburg spends, and -l for each full
10 D$ France spends. The maximum placement is 100
D$. All money is lost, whatever the final result.
These rules apply from the start of Period III to the end
of game. The nominal value of a Monarch characteristic is the value without counting minority, crisis,
sickness, ministers and events.
A. Turkish roll for Monarch survival is modified as
follows, except if the Monarch has nominal MIL of 7 or
higher:
B. If Habsburg is a minor country dissociated from
Spain, no bids are allowed.
VI.2.8. Alternative Initiative
Period
Period
Period
Period
Period
III: +1
IV: 0
V: +1
VI: +2
VII: +3
To keep play balance throughout the game, have the
worst Monarch go first, then the second worst, and so
on.
VI.2.9. Dardanelles and Bosporus Straits
Add +1 if any Sultan in the current Period had nominal
ADM of 8 or higher.
A. Any enemy naval stack (including privateers)
attempting to enter or exit the Sea of Marmara, may be
subject to Fire from the fortress in Thrace. The owner
of the fortress rolls on B Column, without any
modifiers, and with a Firepower equal to double the
fortress level. If the naval stack suffers a Morale loss,
it must stop its movement without entering (or exiting)
the sea. The naval stack does not return fire.
B. When a new Sultan appears, roll first for its nominal
MIL. If it is 7 or higher, nothing happens. If it is 6 or
less:
B.1. Consider that the roll was made with a –1, and
take the new MIL value (except if the predecessor had
nominal MIL of 7 or higher).
B.2. Get ADM and DIP with a –1 to the roll (except if
the predecessor had nominal MIL of 7 or higher).
B.3. Get Reign Length with the following modifiers to
the roll (regardless of predecessor MIL value):
B. Turkey may use the fortress to fire against the
Knights privateer, even if not at war with them.
C. If the fortress prevents a stack from Returning to
Port, the naval units must return to a port without
crossing the Straits, or they will be destroyed.
Period III: -1
Period IV: -2
Periods V & VI: -3
Period VII: -2
VI.3. SIMULTANEOUS MOVEMENT
These rules are best used in play-by-mail games, when
everything has to been written down. In face-to-face
games they might be cumbersome.
VI.2.4. Fear of Ottomans
A. During Periods I and II, any country entering
combat for the first time (on land or at sea) against
Turkish units (not Turkish vassals alone) suffers a
malus of -1 to his shock / boarding rolls.
VI.3.1. Orders
At start of each round, players write down the
campaign intended and the orders they give to each
unit. Then, they are revealed and executed simultaneously.
B. The following countries are immune to this malus:
Venice, Mameluks, Genoa and The Knights. However,
the malus applies if they are stacked with units that
are not immune.
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D. Except for VI.3.3. below, naval movement is not
related to land movement.
A. Type of orders:
MOVE: specify the path that the stack will follow, and
if the unit embarks or disembarks. If ordered to move,
blockaded naval stacks will attempt to escape and
units entering a port will force blockade (except admirals alone), unless otherwise specified.
E. Contrary to the normal rules, a stack retreating for
lack of supply must stop when it finds an enemy stack
in its way. However, a player may order his stacks to
let pass retreating forces.
E.1. After combat it must continue the retreat, even if
it wins. If the retreating stack violates stacking limits
in a province where combat is triggered, excess units
do not take part in the combat, but suffer any adverse
result.
E.2. Retreating stacks always let pass other retreating
stacks, and always shelter in the fortress. Between
fortresses at the same distance, they select one without
enemies in the province, if possible.
F. Stacks of two players at peace can cross not-owned
RotW provinces at the same time, but cannot end their
movement in the same province. The player that
reaches the province last will remain out, unable to
ever test discovery.
DETACH: specify the newly created unit.
ABSORB: specify which unit will absorb which one.
SIEGE/ LIFT SIEGE: HoW are always granted unless
otherwise specified. Besieger does not assault after
Breach unless otherwise specified.
ATTACK: (needed for naval units only)
PURSUIT & BLOCKADE (to be carried after naval
combat)
ESCAPE BLOCKADE
VI.3.3. Naval Transport
FORCE BLOCKADE
A. Before sailing with land stacks, a naval stack must
already have spent as many MPs as the land stack has
already spent. If this is not the case, it will spend the
necessary ones at the port or sea, without moving. If
the land stack does not reach the embarkation point,
the naval stack does not move further. Note that a
retreating stack cannot embark once it reaches a safe
fortress.
SORTIE: for a besieged force that wants to attack the
besieger. It is assumed that this takes 1 MP, although
it is not strictly movement.
ASSAULT: specify the number of attempts.
ATTACK NATIVES
B. The reverse is not true. A land stack does not spend
MPs waiting for a naval stack to enter the embarkation
port or sea.
RETREAT BEFORE COMBAT: both attacker and
defender may try this.
RETREAT AFTER FIRE PHASE (for naval stack with
windgauge).
C. If a land stack was going to disembark in a port that
is currently blockaded, it may land in the province
instead, if the player indicates so.
INTERCEPT
D. Whatever the number of seas travelled, only 2 MPs
have elapsed for a land stack being transported.
PIRATE/PRIVATEER HUNT
REVOLT SUPRESSION
B. Orders may be combined, but land stacks cannot
combine INTERCEPT with MOVE or ATTACK NATIVES.
E. A naval stack embarking land units from a non-port
province must spend 2 additional MPs in the adjacent
sea after doing so.
VI.3.2. Movement
VI.3.4. Privateers
A. For supply, cost of campaigns and move points
purposes, changes in military control only apply at
start of next round. Campaign costs are fully paid,
even if a player is unable to complete movements. Note
that if you make no campaign, you still may give
orders to units, like intercept or retreat before combat.
A. Privateer movement is conducted the last, after
Players Hunting.
B. A privateer that was ordered to set sail can be
blockaded in its starting port only by an initiative naval
unit, whose only movement is from the adjacent sea to
the port.
B. Movement orders cannot be conditional, except for
naval units facing a blockade, and transported units
going to disembark into a blockaded port.
C. A privateer leader may move at the same time as the
privateer counter, if the owning player wishes so (in
order to apply his modifier to the hunting die roll).
C. Movement is conducted at once for all stacks, move
point by move point. However, Naval units spend a
move point each time they enter a sea or enter, exit or
blockade a port. In case of ties, the initiative player is
considered to have moved first. Conflicts between
stacks of the same player are solved by following the
sequence of orders issued.
VI.3.5. Interception
A. If interception occurs, the intercepting stack is
moved to the concerned province or sea at the same
time as the intercepted stack, and combat resolved
before any other stack resumes movement.
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move.
-. Both stacks cross the same border by spending the
same ordinal move point in opposite directions.
Combat takes place in the province the initiative player
was going to enter.
-. A stack successfully intercepts.
B. The intercepting stack is always the attacker, no
matter how many MPs it spends, or who has the
initiative.
C. If the intercepting stack wins, it cannot intercept
again until the MPs that cost the province entered have
elapsed. If it losses, it is retreated after spending the
MP cost of the province entered.
B. Naval interception will be triggered in the above
situations, if at least one stack was ordered to
INTERCEPT. Naval combat will be triggered when
enemy stacks end their move in the same sea, and if at
least one was ordered to attack. In all naval combats,
first line ships will be the most numerous, unless
otherwise specified.
D. Retreat after interception combat is conducted in
the same way as retreat for lack of supply.
E. A naval stack chasing another after interception will
not try any other interception this round. It cannot be
intercepted during the chase.
C. Stacks cannot go forward after the combat, except
after interception or if one stack was overran. The
stack that entered first is the one that has spent less
move points (the initiative player in case of ties). If
another stack was ordered to cross the province after
the combat has been triggered, it is forced to stop there
(this does not apply to interceptions). If it violates
stacking limits, it cannot enter (this in turn may trigger
further combats or stacking limits violations).
F. If two naval stacks with interception orders meet,
there will be two interception rolls, the initiative player
going first.
VI.3.6. Blockade
A. Naval stacks may condition entry or exit of ports to
whether they are blockaded or not. If the port results
to be blockaded, they may remain at sea (or at port),
escape blockade, or force blockade, but cannot go to
another port or sea.
D. Order of combat resolution (including retreats) will
be according to who is the attacker, by initiative.
Random between attacks of the same player.
B. However, Admirals alone will not proceed if the port
is blockaded.
VI.3.8. Losses
Losses are applied in the following order, unless
otherwise specified.
Land units: csc infantry, vet infantry, csc cavalry, vet
cavalry, cscs artillery, vet artillery.
Naval units: galleys, warships, transports.
VI.3.7. Combat
A. Land Combat takes place when two stacks meet in
the same province. This occurs when:
-. They spend in a province the same ordinal move
point.
-. A stack finds in its way another that has finished its
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Designer’s Notes
VII. DESIGNER’S NOTES
The main goal of this work has been to clarify the rules
an make the game playable, by eliminating contradictions and holes in the rulebook. For the most part I
have taken the rules as they were written, trying to
remain as most faithful as possible to the original, but
I had to change several parts to make the whole game
enjoyable.
during the Italian wars are no longer needed, as
France has only two places to attack: either Italy itself
or Spain. But I have preferred not to deal with the
Political Events, because other people have already do
it, and probably much better than I could do. However,
I have changed the conditions for the Perpetual Peace
with Switzerland, linking them to the Italian wars.
The booklet has been reorganised, and several
chapters that were grouped at the end of the original
one, have been moved to the section which they
belong: the Advanced Rules. Players should deal with
them as integral parts of the game system, and not as
special cases. They need to master them in order to
succeed in the game. The rules that were scattered
thorugh the Annexes have been regrouped in the
Special Rules chapter.
The long rules for playing the Grand Campaign with
four or five players are intended to be of real worth for
a group unable to find enough people for the game.
Those included in the Extension never fully convinced
me.
The Player Aides have been substantially modified. I
have revised prices for standard purchases and
content of armies, and the latter are now linked to the
technology, just like the minor countries. I have also
allowed to place as many cavaly points in an army as
in a detachment. The table for determining monarch
values has been changed, and now getting an awful
monarch is more difficult. This was a major imbalance
of the original game; having a rating of 3 in any
characteristic was too common and could doom a
player for too many turns.
Optional rules have been grouped in a single section,
and a few rules that never convinced me, like presidios
and privateer admirals have been placed there.
I have also changed those rules that several campaigns
have revealed of being of poor design.
One of these, and probably the most important
modification, is the Combat Chart. Now battles are
more likely to end with a winner, and there is always
a possibility of defeating the enemy, even if it is
entrenched in a mountain and behind a river. Still,
draws can happen occasionally.
The Period Objectives have been revised to exclude
those that were of nearly impossible fulfilment, like the
monopoly of resources.
I couldn’t resist the temptation to include my rules for
Simultaneous Movement. They have been tested
during a Campaign played through electronic mail, and
worked fairly well. However, you will need a referee to
solve possible conflicts, and have in mind that the
game plays completely different.
Some inconsistencies have been removed, for instance,
cases in which attempting a discovery was better for
attrition than regular navigation. Technology actions
have been moved to the Logistics Phase, so now when
a player changes its technology, all the maintenance
and purchase is made with the new prices and
conversion costs are no longer needed.
Other minor changes are too numerous to be listed
here. Anyway, what the game needs is a third edition,
written in clear English and geared towards a
simplified game that remains focused on the strategic
decisions to be taken throughout the game. Certain
cumbersome rules, like the Pashas or the privateers
could be abstracted, the number of leaders reduced,
leaving only the most important ones, and the Political
Events simplified.
I have added rules to cover certain situations that
caused problems during gameplay. Controlled minors
that are not activated are no longer heavens to retreat
or draw supply; if a player benefits for them, they can
be invaded. Other rules have been extended to
eliminate any possible doubt, like naval transport,
hierarchy and command, convoys or the Peace
procedure.
I wouldn’t like to end this work without thanking the
people that have helped me in some way with this
project: the designer Philippe Thibaut, for making a
game so rich and with so much potential; my friends at
the Club Dragon in Madrid for testing many of the
alternative rules and the people of the mailing list of
Europa Universalis, which have been always a source
of new and brilliant ideas.
Regarding the scenarios, the most dramatic change
has been the elimination of Spanish control over
Burgundy in 1492. Even considering the effects on
play balance, which are difficult to evaluate in any
case, such a major deviation from the historical
situation is unacceptable. Without Burgundy in
Spanish hands, the restrictions on the operations
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Complete Example of Game Turn
VIII. COMPLETE EXAMPLE OF GAME TURN
dr4,1; #1 Treaty of Tordesillas. Doesn’t apply so
event is rerolled: dr7,4; Revolt. Victim dr5 Turkey,
dr7+3 = 10 Adana. Controller dr6 Venice, strength
dr1, Revolt(-). All Turkish units there are relocated to
Cilicia.
Campaign Game 1492-1519 - Turn 1 1492-94
SETUP
The players first secretly select objectives for this
Period as follows:
England: Liz
A. Scotland vassal.
B. 4 MNUs.
C. Calais English.
D. No revolt in Ireland.
France: Louis
A. Provinces in Italy.
B. Minor vassals.
C. Calais French.
D. Artois French.
Portugal: Sebastian
A. Each Col/TP.
B. Col in Goa.
C. Tanger Portuguese.
D. Morocco vassal.
Spain: Phil
A. Col in America.
B. No French vassals in Italy.
C. Vassals in Europe.
D. Defender of Catholic Faith.
Turkey: Fatima
A. Mameluks conquered.
B. Rhodes conquered.
C. Each Muslim vassal.
D. Each Persian Province.
Venice: Marco
A. Trade fleets.
B. Provinces in Italy.
C. Mameluks not conquered.
D. Each vassal.
dr9,7; #9 Turkish diplomatic pressure. Bonus of +3
on Algeria.
dr5,2; #4 War in Italy. France has CB vs Spain.
DIPLOMATIC PHASE
Alliances
Spain signs a Defensive Alliance and a Loan Treaty
with Venice. Spain gives 100D$ to Venice.
Declarations of War
France DoWs Spain with CB (-1 Stab).
Phil calls his ally Venice, who DoWs France with CB
(-1 Stab).
Diplomacy with minors
Spain: Papacy (50)
Player roll: 5+12 = 17; opposing rolls: 2+6 = 8
Progression points: 9, up to EW. Spain gets 50D$.
France: Toscana (50)
Player roll: 4+12 = 16; opposing rolls: 5+5 = 10
Progression points: 6, up to EC.
Turkey: Algeria (100)
Player roll: 4+19 = 23; opposing rolls: 2+3 = 5
Progression points: 18, up to VA.
Venice: supports Spain on Papacy (20).
England: Scotland (50)
Player roll: 2+10 = 12; opposing rolls: 6+9=15, no points.
The initial setup of the forces indicated in the
Scenarios Booklet is as follows:
Spain: A1+, F1+, Ge?1, Adm?2 in Catalonia; Nd1,
Nd2, Columbus, Conq?1 in Andalucia.
France: A1+, A2-, Ge?2, Ge?3 in Dauphine; Nd1 in
Bretagne, Nd2 in Provence.
Turkey: A1+, A2+, F1-, Ge?1, Adm?3 in Adana; Ld1,
Ld2, Ge?2 in Macedonia. Pashas Adnan (corrupt) in
Bug, Ali in Serbia, Amar in Rumelia, Ismail in
Macedonia, Israf in Morea, Selim in Nicea, Tarek in
Adana, Yasser in Trapzon.
Portugal: A-, F-, Ld1, Ge?1, Adm?2, Conq?1, Diaz in Tago.
England: A-, F-, 1Ld, Ge?1, Adm?2 in Kent; Nd1, Nd2,
Adm?3 in Cornwall.
Venice: A1-, F1(+), Ge?2, Adm?1 in Venice.
Activation in war
Spain: Papacy dr6-1=5 fails.
France: Toscana dr4-1=3 fails.
INCOME PHASE
Price of Resources
3 spices and 4 slaves are produced.
Product of Orient: dr4, no change
Spice: dr3, no change
Slaves: dr9, moves 2 boxes, up to 3 (R)
Furs: dr1, no change
Fisheries: dr6, moves 2 boxes, up to 2 (L)
MONARCH PHASE
Monarch survival test
Spain: dr4; France: dr2; Turkey: dr6; Portugal:
dr4; England: dr1, the Monarch gets 1 extra turn;
Venice: dr6+1 = 7.
Initiative (sum of Monarch’s characteristics and roll in
case of ties): Spain (22), France (20 dr9), Turkey (20
dr5), Portugal (20 dr4), Venice (20 dr1), England (18).
Corrected Gross Income
Spain: 162
Turkey: 159+16 = 175
Venice: 260-130 = 130
EVENTS PHASE
France: 268
Portugal: 85+9 = 94
England: 201
Spain tests for a loan
National: dr6+3 = 9, 4+3 = 7, 6+3 = 9; 100D$, 8% , 3T.
International: dr2+3 = 5, dr8+3 = 11; 50D$, 4% , 3T.
Spain gets the National loan.
Economic events
Spain: dr4,5 #50 No event.
France: dr4,7 #9 Technological advance, chooses
land, dr7 +2 boxes, +1 for reaching REN, to box 12.
REN marker drops to box 8.
Turkey: dr8,8 #27 New ally, chooses Algeria for a +3
bonus.
Portugal: dr6,4 #7 Fiscal evasion, loses 78D$.
Venice: dr8,2 #24 Poor weather.
England: dr2,5 #34 Independence of a vassal.
Scotland drops to MA.
Treasures
Spain: 462; France: 318; Turkey: 425
Portugal: 484; Venice: 240; England: 201
LOGISTICS
Technology
Spain: Land (100), dr4+12=16 gets REN, up to box 10.
Political events
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Complete Example of Game Turn
Turkey: Land (100), dr7+12=19 gets REN, up to box 12.
Portugal: Naval (50), dr4+9=13, up to box 11.
England: Naval (30), dr1+8=9 no effect.
Portugal: 226; Venice: 224; England: 147
Players maintain all their on-map forces in vet,
except Turkey, that disbands 2 Ld, and England,
that keeps an Ld in csc.
Spain and Venice will move separately.
MILITARY PHASE
Round 1
Weather: dr4 good weather.
Purchases
Spain: Fortress 2 (25), A2- (25) in Naples.
France: A3- (24), Nd3 with galleys (35) in Provence;
1 arty into A1+ (5).
Turkey: A3+ (60) in Thrace.
Portugal: Nd1 (30), Ld2 (8) in Oporto.
Spain: passive campaign (10)
All forces in Catalonia sail to Naples.
Attrition: Column 5-2=3; dr4-1=3 no effect.
Nd3 detaches from Nd2 with 3n.
Columbus and Nd3 sail to Southern Atlantic,
Winward Islands, Sea of Puerto Rico.
Discovery: dr5-3 = 2 success with 10% of losses. For
3n that means 1 is lost.
Columbus disembarks in Haiti West.
Discovery: dr8-3 = 5 half success, dr9 success, test
for leader dr4 alive.
The Knights privateer and the Grand Master sail to
the CTZ Turkey
Leader Redeployment
Portugal: Conq?1 to TP Elmina, Diaz to Col La Praya.
Turkey: Ge?2 to Thrace.
France: King Charles VIII takes the field. His values
are dr5, dr4 dr2, dr7; 4.3.2.-1. He is placed in
Dauphine; Ge?2 and Ge?3 are moved to Provence.
ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS
France: simple campaign (20)
All forces in Dauphine move across Italy, thanks to
the special rule in the Event War in Italy, into
Naples. Firenze is a supply source because Toscana
is in the French EC box.
Attrition: dr5-4 = 1 no effect.
Spain:
Exceptional Tax: dr4+13 = 17; 170 D$, Stab drops 1.
MNU (50): Column 9-9 = 0; dr4+2 = 6, half success,
dr4 failure.
Trade fleet in CTZ Spain (30): Column 3-1 = +2; dr8
success, up to level 3.
France:
Exceptional Tax: dr6+11 = 17; 170 D$, Stab drops 1
DTI (50): Column 6-9=-3; dr6+2=8, half success, dr8
failure.
Turkey:
Trade fleet in CTZ Turkey (10): Column 5-1 = +4;
dr10 success, up to level 3
MNU (30): Column 9-9 = 0; dr1+2=3, half success,
dr3 failure.
Portugal:
TP in Elmina (50): Column 8-7 = +1; dr2+3 = 5 half
success, dr4 success.
TP in Elmina (50): Column 8-7 = +1; dr1+3 = 4 half
success, dr8 failure.
TP Elmina gains 1 level, up to 4 and turns to (+) side.
Col in La Praya (30): Column 5-3 = +2; dr4+5=8
success.
Col in La Praya (30): Column 5-3 = +2; dr8+5=13
success.
La Praya gains 2 levels, up to 5 and turns to (+) side.
Trade Fleet in STZ Gulf of Guinea (10): Column +4;
dr1 failure.
Venice:
Trade Fleet in STZ Adriatic (10): Column +3; dr9
success, up to level 4 and turns to (+) side.
England:
Trade fleet in CTZ England (10): Column 4-1=3 dr3,
half success, dr7 failure.
Battle in Naples
France: Henry VIII (4.3.2.-1), 28 inf, 15 cav, 2 arty
Spain: Ge?1 (2.3.3), 21 inf, 15 cav, 1 arty
Both are REN and vet, and have a morale of 3.
Fire Phase
France: dr10, 30% of 4 (2 losses) and morale 3.
Spain: dr4, no effect.
Spain breaks.
Pursuit: dr5+2 = 7, 10% of 62 (7 losses, first arty).
Spain decides to retreat to Romagna, because the
fortress there is friendly.
Attrition: dr7-1 = 6, 40% of 28 (12 losses). Spanish
A+ becomes (-).
France besieges Naples: dr6–3 = 3 no effect.
Turkey: simple campaign (20)
All land forces in Cilicia move into Adana to supress
the revolt there. The naval forces sail to the Eastern
Mediterranean to hunt the privateers.
Attrition: impossible.
Revolt supression: dr10 automatic success.
Privateer hunt: dr6+2 = 8 success, privateer turned
to (-) side.
Portugal: passive campaign (10)
Diaz moves to Oporto, takes Nd1 and both sail to
Cape of Storms.
Discovery: dr2-3 success, no losses.
Venice places new Dutch trade fleets: dr5, one
additional level, placed in STZ Irish Sea.
Venice: simple campaign (20)
All land forces in Venice move to Luca and lay siege,
as the fortress is supplying the French troops.
The naval forces in Venice sail to the Thyrenean Sea.
Attrition: Column 5-2=3 dr2-1=1 no effect.
The Diplomatic counter of Toscana immediately
moves to the French EW Box.
Siege: dr4-1=3 no effect.
Competitions
Turkey vs Venice in CTZ Turkey (10):
Venice does not invest in defence.
Column 5-3 = 2; dr5, half success, dr2 success,
Venetian drops to level 1.
England vs Dutch in CTZ England (10):
The Dutch defend with 30.
Column 4-4 = 0; dr10 success. Dutch drop to level 2.
England: pass
Round 2
Weather: dr5 bad weather.
Treasures
Spain: 352; France: 362; Turkey: 215
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Complete Example of Game Turn
Spain: simple campaign (20)
Columbus embarks on Nd3 and sails to Andalucia.
Attrition: Column 6+1=7; dr9-3= 6, 40% of 2n (1 lost).
America has been discovered. Nd3 absorbs Nd2.
The siege of Firenze must be lifted. Spanish troops
retreat to Naples. Attrition: dr8-3 = 5, 30% of 16 (5
losses).
Spanish forces in Romagna move to Firenze and lay
siege. French units in Naples try to intercept that
move, but fail (dr1).
Columbus and Nd3 return to Andalucia. Attrition:
Column 6+1 = 7, dr8-5 = 3, 10% of 2 (1 loss).
Diaz and Nd1 return to Oporto. Attrition: Column
7+1 = 8, dr4-3 = 1, dr6, 6% of 3 (1 loss).
Attrition: dr3-2=1, no effect.
Siege: dr2-4=-2 attrition on Column 1, dr4+2 = 6,
nothing.
Turkish forces in Eastern Mediterranean return to
Adana.
France: passive campaign (10)
Forces in Naples are unsupplied, so they must
retreat to the closest friendly unbesieged fortress,
which is Torino.
Attrition: dr10-5 = 5, 30% of 45 (14 losses). French
A1+ becomes (-).
Venetian forces in Thyrenean Sea return to Venice.
Attrition: Column 5-2 = 3, dr7-1 = 6, dr1, 1% of 76 (1
loss).
PEACE PHASE
Turkey: passive campaign (10)
Naval forces in Eastern Mediterranean try to hunt
privateers.
Attrition: impossible.
Hunt: dr6+4=10, success. Privateer is eliminated.
Stability improvement
Spain (100): dr1+11 = 12, up to +2
France (100): dr7+7 = 14, up to +2
Venice (100): dr4+10 = 14, up to -2
England (50): dr8+9 = 17, up to +3
Portugal: passive campaign (10)
Diaz and Nd1 move to Oporto
Attrition: Column: 7+1 = 8; dr8-4 = 4, 30% of 5 (2
losses). Cape of Storms has been discovered.
Spain, France and Venice agree to sign an informal
peace and return to the statu quo ante belllum. Each
gains 1 stab. Venetian troops in Emilia are relocated
to Mantua.
Venice: passive campaign (10)
Siege of Pisa: dr6-1=5 Usure (-)
Attrition of forces in Thyrenean Sea: Column 5-2 = 3,
dr8-2 = 6, dr4, 4% of 80 (4 losses).
INTERPHASE
New leaders
Portugal: Da Gama, Cabral; Spain: Ojeda, Cordoba
England: E. Cabot; France: Gonneville, Bayard
Turkey: Ibrahim
England: pass.
Inflation
Portugal has brought 40 D$ of gold to Europe.
Inflation: dr8, move 1 box to the left, but still is 5%.
End of Military Phase test: dr4, continues.
Round 3
Weather: dr10 good weather.
Prosperity
There is no prosperity in the first turn of the game.
Spain: passive campaign (10)
Nd3, Columbus and Conq?1 sail to Sea of Puerto
Rico. Attrition: Column 6+1=7 dr5-5=0 nothing.
Conqu?1 lands on Haiti West.
Victory Points
Spain: Stab (+2), discoveries (+53), diplomacy (+1),
battles (-4) = +52
Portugal: Stab (+3), discoveries (+11), colonization
(+2) = +16
England: Stab (+3) = +3
France: Stab (+2), battles (+4), diplomacy (+1) = +7
Turkey: Stab (+3), diplomacy (+1) = +4
Venice: Stab (-2), revolt control (+1), sieges (-1) = -2
Siege of Firenze: dr6-4=2 nothing.
France: simple campaign (20)
Forces in Savoy move into Luca to attack the
Venetian. They attempt to retreat before combat and
succeed (dr9), moving into Emilia. Attrition: dr6-2 =
4, 20% of 11 (3 losses). The siege is lifted.
Treasures
Spain: 212-11 = 201; France: 212-11 = 201
Turkey: 185-10 = 175; Portugal: 196-10 = 186
Venice: 94-5 = 89; England: 97-5 = 92
Turkey: pass
Attrition of forces in Eastern Mediterranean is
impossible.
Portugal: passive campaign (10)
Diaz and Nd1 move to Western Indian Ocean.
Discovery: dr7-3 = 4 success, 40% of 3 (2 losses).
Leader test dr2, survives.
Venice: pass
Attrition of forces in Thyrenean Sea: Column 5-2 = 3,
dr3-2 = 1, nothing.
England: pass.
End of Military Phase test: dr2, ends.
REDEPLOYMENT PHASE
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Index
IX. INDEX
revolt, 24; maintenance, 6; placement in RoW, 35;
purchase, 7
Africa, 3
America, 3
Annexation, 28
Arkhangelsk, 53
Asia, 3
Asiento, 56
Atlantic: trade zones part of, 31
Attrition: besieged, 10; besieger, 18; during
interception, 13; in a discovery, 41; land, 10; land
units, during Retreat, 14; naval, 11; Redeployment
phase, besieger, 20; Redeployment phase, for
remaining in empty province of RoW, 20;
requisites for leader modifier, 11
Azteca: area for viceroy purposes, 56; subjugation,
40
Galleass (optional), 62
Galley: as technology, 14; restrictions, 10; risk value
modifier. See Risk values; vs warship (optional),
62; warship equivalency, 7
Genoa, 52; FTI value, 36; participation in crusade,
57
Germany, 4
Gold, 31, 42; transportation, 37
Habsburg, 50; DoW by, 26, 28; inheritance of
Hungary, 49; participation in crusade, 57; peace,
43; provinces part of, 4; roll for reinforcements, 35
Hierarchy, 7; during interception, 13; leaders of
different countries, 15
Holy Roman Empire, 50
Hungary, 49; participation in crusade, 57; provinces
part of, 4
Bankruptcy, 22; effect on Pasha corruption, 39;
unpaid indemnities, 45; unpaid ransom, 42
Basic Force: equivalencies, 6
Blockade, 10; during civil war, 58; of a neutral port,
26; port in unkown province, 41; run at all costs,
11
Burgundy: provinces part of the inheritance, 55
Inca: subjugation, 40
India, 3
Inflation, 45
Interception, 12; of retreating naval units, 14
Irak, 52
Ireland, 3
Italy, 4
Campaign, 9; of minor country, use by Major Power,
9
Casus belli, 25; Burgundian inheritance, 55;
crusade, 57; defensive alliance, 25; Emperor, 50;
Habsburg, 50; loan treaty failure, 25; losing for
refusing return of national province, 45; separate
peace, 45; trade refusal, 26; Turkey vs Knights,
50; war of succession, 58
China: technology group, 34
Colony: counters, 4; restrictions on placement, 36
Combat: land, started by besieged units, 15; naval,
ships captured in Pursuit, 16; naval, ships in first
line, 15; sequence, 15
Competition, 36; mandatory, 37; mandatory, for
exploiting resources, 30
Conquistador: table, 40
Convoy, 31; movement, 38
Cossacks, 53
Kamchatka: land passage to mainland, 3
Knights, 49; participation in crusade, 57
Latin: technology group, 34
Leader, 7; Akbar, 47; Arabs, 48; Barberus, 28, 35,
51; Bussy, 47; capture, after siege, 18; capture,
for losing all sp in combat, 16; capture, liberation,
16; Clive, 47; Coen, 47; commander of the
crusade, 57; Cromwell, 47; dual, 47; Dupleix, 47;
English Sea Hounds, 47; Eugene, 47, 63;
Frederick II, 16; Guise, 48; Henry IV, 47; Hetman,
48; historical ministers, 48; historical monarchs,
48; injury, 16; Knigths Grand Master, 48; La
Valette, 48; Marlborough, 16; mercenaries, 48;
modified injury test (optional), 62; monarch as,
49; Peter the Great, 52; placement, 20; Polish
kings, 35; redeployment, 8; Rupert, 47; Saxe, 47,
63; Souwarov, 48; Wallenstein, 47
Loan, 32; bankruptcy, effect on, 22; treaty, 24
Lorraine, 51
Declaration of war, 25; minor country, 28; on a
vassal, 26; on an active ally, 26; on Lorraine, 51;
on natives, 40
Denmark: Union of Kalmar, 49
Diplomatic action: for activation of minors, 28
Diplomatic upheaval, 23, 24; deannexation, 28; on
minors at war, 29
Discovery: transfer between players, 25
Dowry: minor country, 27
Mameluks, 51
Manufacture, 35; counters, 4
Mediterranean: seas part of, 4; Trade zones part of,
31
Middle East, 3
Military alliance, 27
Militia, 39; in revolt, 24
Movement, 9; capacity, 9; costs, 10
Muslim: technology group, 34
Economic Record Sheet: use with Basic Rules, 5
Entry in War, 28
Exotic resources, 29; monopoly, 30; price, 30;
production, 30
Expeditionary corps, 28
Experience: of recruits, exceptions to being csc, 6
Explorer: in the role of conquistador, 7, 41
Natives, 39; attacks, 42; reaction, 40
Naval transport, 11; capacity, 12; requirements, 12
Netherlands, 54; FTI/DTI values when minor, 36;
Tax of Holland, 55
North Africa, 4
Fidelity, 24
Fire phase, 15; technology allowing, 14
Fireship (optional), 62
Fisheries, 30
Flota de oro, 38
Fortress, 3; capture, 19; combat value, 18; combat
value, during Breach, 18; counters, 4; detaching
sp to cover, 10; experience, 18; garrison, 19; in
Ormuz: Area values, 3
Orthodox: technology group, 34
Overrun, 10; capture of leaders, 11
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Index
Turkey, 57; DoW, 25; during Dutch revolt, 55;
Dutch flood, 55; Dynastic alliance, 24; dynastic
crisis, 22; effect on income, 32; effect on Pasha
corruption, 39; effect on trade company (optional),
63; exceptional taxes, 35; improvement, 43; loan
treaty failure, 25; major battle, 41; monarch
execution, 43; Pasha dismissal, 39; peace, 44;
peace differential, 44; Perpetual Peace, 51;
prosperity, 45; refuse control of minor, 26; revolts,
42; separate peace, 45; Tordesillas treaty, 59;
trade refusal, 25; Turkish army reform, 54;
Turkish capture of Vienna, 54; Turkish loss due to
Knights privateer, 49; war, 46
Straits (optional), 63
Strength point, 5; privateer equivalence, 38
Subsidies, 27
Supply, 8; informal agreement to, 24; lack of, 9;
natives, 40; range, 9
Sweden: FTI value, 36; Union of Kalmar, 49
Switzerland, 51; costs of diplomatic track, 27
Papacy, 52; donation for crusade, 57; participation
in crusade, 57
Parma: participation in crusade, 57
Pasha, 38
Peace: bankruptcy, forced by, 22; levels, 44;
separate, 45; with Major Power, 44; with minor
country, 43; with minors of the RoW, 52
Persia, 52
Pirate, 42
Poland, 51; participation in crusade, 57; provinces
part of, 4; roll for reinforcements, 35
Portugal, 56; FTI value when minor, 36; placement of
reinforcements as minor, 7
Presidio (optional), 62
Privateer, 42; activation, 9; Barbary, 51; commander,
38; looting, 42; maintenance and purchase, 35;
movement, 38; restrictions (optional), 62; return
to port, 42; The Knigths, 49
Pursuit, 16
Retreat, 13; across neutral provinces, 26; after
combat, 16; before combat, 15; before combat,
during interception, 13; bonus for Ohio regular
forces, 52; during exploration, 41; lack of supply,
9
Revolt, 23; effect with exceeded Period Limits, 22;
extension, 42; in a vassal, 43; supression, 39;
technology, 24
Right of passage, 24
Risk values: modifiers, 11
River fleet, 53
Royal marriage, 27
Russia, 52
Technology, 14, 34; effect on naval attrition, 11; HRE
units, 50; Hungary, 49; Poland, 51; Russia, 53
Tercios, 14
Toscana: participation in crusade, 57
Trade company (optional), 63
Trade fleet, 36; counters, 4; placement requisites, 36
Trade refusal, 25
Trade zone, 3
Trading post: restrictions on placement, 36
Turkey, 53; activation of minors in groups, 28;
conquest of Hungary, 49
United States, 52
Ural, 58, 59
Saint Petersburgh, 53
Sequence of play: advanced game, 21; basic game, 5
Shock phase, 16
Siberia, 3, 58
Sibir, 52, 58
Siege, 17; of neutral fortress, 26; requisites, 17;
sequence, 18
Slaves, 30; selling between players, 25
Sole Defender of Catholic Faith, 56
Spain, 55
Stability, 22; bankruptcy, 22; breaking alliance, 25;
Christian DoW on Knights, 50; conversion to
another religion, 56; crusader separate peace with
Vassal, 28
Venice: FTI value when minor, 36; participation in
crusade, 57
Viceroy, 56
Vienna: Turkish capture, 54
Western Indies, 3
Wind gauge, 15; in blockade, 15
Zone of operation, 29; restriction on minor
activation, 28
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Map and Counters Key
X. MAP AND COUNTERS KEY
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Map and Counters Key
72
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ALTERNATIVE ANNEXES BOOKLET
Alvaro Prada
January 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I . ECONOMIC RANDOM EVENTS...................2
II. MINOR COUNTRIES DESCRIPTION.............5
Aden to Bayern............................................5
Berg to Hansa..............................................6
Hessen to Latvija..........................................7
Lorraine to Netherlands...............................8
Nefud to Portugal.........................................9
Prussia to Sudan........................................10
Sweden to Wallachia...................................11
Wurtemberg................................................12
Europa Universalis
Alternative Annexes Booklet
Economic Random Events
Mountain, Forest, Clear. If only Marsh or Desert provinces are available, treat as No Event.
I. ECONOMIC RANDOM EVENTS
1. Crisis of Madness.
Reduce all Monarch’s characteristic to half for this turn
only (rounded down, but minimum is 1). Modify next
survival roll of this Monarch by +1.
11. Wave of Obscurantism.
All players lose 2 Stab levels, except Protestants, that
lose only one.
2. Excellent Ministers.
Roll 1d10 for each Monarch’s characteristic, and compare it to the current value. A dr of (1) is “7”, (2) is “8”
and (0) is “9”; all other results are unmodified.
If the result is strictly superior to the nominal characteristic, use it as the new value until the Monarch’s death,
and use it to determine the values of the successor. If the
Monarch value was modified for some reason (minority,
Crisis), recalculate the modifications again.
12. Pirates.
Roll 1d10 for each STZ in RoW with a Col/TP touching it.
Place a Pirate (-) if the roll is sitrictly superior to the figure besides the Pirate symbol. If there was already a Pirate (-), turn it to (+) side. However, if the result is 10,
place a Pirate (+)
If there are more than one figure, use the second one
when at least two countries (not necessarily Major Powers) have Col/TP touching the Trade Zone, and the third
one when at least three countries have Col/TP.
If a characteristic increased by two or more, determine
the successor’s characteristic with a malus of –2 to the
dr.
If there was already a Pirate (+) when a new Pirate appears, all of them may attack a Col/TP. At start of Military Phase, roll 1d10, adding +1 for each Pirate (-) and +2
for each Pirate (+), in addition to the first Pirate (+). On a
result of 8 or more, all Pirates of that STZ are stacked together on a Col/TP touching that STZ chosen at random.
The Pirates will Loot tha Col/TP if they are still present at
the Redeployment Phase, and then return to the STZ.
Only one Event of “Excellent Ministers” may be applied
on the same Monarch. Treat further occurences as No
Event.
3. Serious Sickness.
Roll 1d10. If the result is 10, the Monarch dies immediately and the player must roll to get another Monarch.
If the Monarch survives, reduce each characteristic by 3
(minimum is 1), and modify next survival roll of this
Monarch by +1.
13. Development of Warships.
The player advances the Naval Tech Marker 1 box.
14. Military Leader.
Roll 1d10. If the result is even, draw a Ge?, if odd draw
an Ad? Take this leader at random from the unnamed
counters of the player. If none is available, treat as No
Event.
4. Agricultural Crisis.
The player loses 50% (rounded up) of his/her provinces
this turn (excluding Vassals). Record the loss on Line 10
of the Economic Record Sheet.
5. Naval losses.
Roll 2d10 and add up them. The result is the number of
warships or transports destroyed, at the choice of the
player. 3 galleys may be destroyed instead of each warship or transport.
If the roll was 1-5, the leader is available for 1 Turn. If it
was 6-10, it is available for 2 turns. The leader is not
counted for the player's Turn Limits.
15. Drought.
The player loses 30% (rounded up) of his/her provinces
this turn (excluding Vassals). Record the loss on Line 10
of the Economic Record Sheet.
6. Looting and Insecurity.
The player loses 10% (rounded up) of his/her provinces
this turn (including Vassals). Record the loss on Line 10
of the Economic Record Sheet. Place one Pirate (-) in the
Player's CTZ, or in Adriatic STZ in case of Venice, or in
Irish Sea STZ in case of Portugal. In case of Russia still
without its CTZ, do not place a Pirate.
16. Exceptional Year.
This turn, increase the Gross Income by 10% (rounded
up). This affects Prosperity.
17. Sales of Honorary Titles.
Roll 1d100 and add the result to the Royal Treasure
7. Fiscal Evasion.
The player loses 20% of the current Royal Treasure
(rounded up). In case of Turkey, check for Corruption of
Pashas (Rulebook III.10.4.E).
18. Epidemics.
This turn, reduce the Gross Income by 20% (rounded
up). This affects Prosperity.
8. Corruption.
This turn, maintenance of military units and fortresses
are increased by 10% (round up the total). All military
purchases and campaigns cost double. In case of Turkey,
check for Corruption of Pashas (Rulebook III.10.4.E).
19. Rush of Colonists.
Treat as No Event if the player does not have any Colony
on the map. Otherwise, the player gets:
-. Bonus of +3 to dr for Colonization attempts, for this
turn only.
-. One free, strong investment in Colonization, usable up
to the end of the Period.
9. Technological Advance.
The player may advance one Tech Marker a number of
boxes indicated by a dr (choose before rolling):
1-5: 1 box; 6-8: 2 boxes; 9-10: 3 boxes
20. Refugees.
The player gets:
-. One free, strong investment in Trade Fleet.
-. If he/she has any TP on the map, a bonus of +2 to dr
for TP attempts, for this turn only, plus one free, strong
10. Discovery of Mines.
Place a mine counter in one of the player's National
Provinces that is still owned, following these priorities:
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Economic Random Events
31. Dynastic Inheritance.
This turn, the player has a bonus of +5 for a Diplomatic
action on aminor country of his/her choice, provided
that the minor is currently on his/her Diplomatic Track
and may become a Vassal. The minor must be selected
now and in secret.
investment in TP placement, usable up to the end of the
Period.
21. No Event.
22. Scandal at Court.
This turn, the Monarch's Diplomatic value is reduced by
3 (to a minimum of 1). The player must pay immediately
50 D$ or suffer Bankruptcy.
32. Offer of Marriage.
A minor in the Neutrals Box chosen at random offers a
Royal Marriage to the Player (automatic if the religion is
the same, and on a roll of 7 or more if it is different).
23. Plots at Court.
This turn, the Monarch'sDiplomatic value is reduced to
1. Modify next survival roll of this Monarch by +2.
Determine the Dowry in the usual way. If the player has
to pay it but refuses, the minor remains in the Neutrals
Box.
24. Poor Weather.
Roll 1d10 at start of each Round of the Military Phase. If
the result is Even, nothing happens. If it is Odd, add a
malus of +2 to sea attrition rolls. Land attrition will take
place when at least 3 MP are spent.
33. No Event.
34. Independence of a Vassal.
A minor vassal, chosen at random is moved to the AM
Box. The player has a Temporary CB which expires with
the end of the Period, or when the minor becomes a Vassal again.
Only one Poor Weather Event may apply each turn. Treat
further occurences as No Event.
25. Death of the Heir to the Throne.
The next Monarch will roll for its characteristics with a
malus of -1. The malus remains the same, no matter how
many “Death of the Heir” events the player gets before
getting his/her new Monarch.
35. Enthusiasm for the Army.
The player may either receive 15 inf and 5 cav, or increase Land Tech by 1 Box.
36. Renewal of Popularity.
The player receives 20D$ in the Royal Treasure.
This turn, the following Administrative Actions have a
bonus of +2 to the dr: Trade Fleet, Col/TP, Manufacture
and DTI/FTI.
The Exceptional Tax receives a malus of -10 to the dr.
26. Depletion of Mine.
Check if a Mine currently under exploitation in America
is depleted by rolling 1d10 for each mine. When you get
the first “1”, that mine is the depleted one. Roll in this order:
-. The 50 mine in Inca Area, if currently under exploitation.
-. The 40 mine in Azteca Area, if currently under exploitation.
-. Any mine of the country currently exploiting more
mines (excluding the Inca and Azteca), in the order the
controlling player wishes. If two or more players exploit
the same number, the Initiative player goes first.
37. Enthusiasm for the Navy.
The player may either receive 10 warships (or it equivalency in galleys), or increase Naval Tech by 1 Box.
38. Agricultural Development.
This turn, each of the player's provinces increase their
income by 2 D$, excluding vassals, and the player has a
bonus of +3 to the dr for actions of DTI improvement and
placement of “Cereal” and “Wine” manufactures.
If no mine in America is depleted, then the player that
got this Event must deplete one Mine he/she is currently
exploiting outside America (his/her choice). If the player
does not exploit mines, treat as No Event.
39. Reorganization of the Army or Navy.
The player may select, immediately and in secret, one
Tech, which will receive a bonus of +2 for improvement
actions made this turn.
27. New Ally.
This turn, the player has a bonus of +3 for a Diplomatic
action on aminor country of his/her choice. The minor
must be selected now and in secret.
40. Conquistador.
The player receives a Conquistador chosen from the unnamed counters. It is removed at the end of the Redeployment Phase. If none is available, treat as No Event.
28. Defection of an Ally.
This turn, the player has a malus of -4 in diplomacy on a
minor country chosen at random among those currently
on his/her Diplomatic Track. If there is none, treat as No
Event.
41. Explorer.
The player receives an Explorer chosen from the unnamed counters. It is removed at the end of the Redeployment Phase. If none is available, treat as No Event.
29. Desertions.
Roll two D10 and add them. The player loses inf sp equal
to the result, plus cav sp equal to one third of the result
(rounded down), plus arty equal to one fifth of the result
(rounded down).
42. Governor.
The player receives a Conquistador chosen from the unnamed counters, and places it on a Col/TP. He will give a
bonus of +3 to the dr for Colonization attemps, but only
in the province in which he appears.
30. Death of Military Leader.
A leader of the player (except a Monarch) chosen at random is removed from the game. If the leader is unnamed,
he will return during the Redeployment Phase, otherwise
he is gone forever.
The leader is removed at the end of the Redeployment
Phase. If none is available, or the player does not have
Col/TP on map, treat as No Event.
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Economic Random Events
43. Diplomatic Preeminence.
This turn, the player has a +1 on all Diplomatic actions,
and a bonus of one Column shift on Colonization and TP
actions.
44. Cultural Expansion.
The player receives the benefits of the Economic Event
43 “Diplomatic Preeminence”. In addition, the results of
subsidies obtained this turn are increased by 20 D$, and
the player will always get a minimum of 20 D$.
45. Deflation.
The Inflation marker drops 1 Box. Only one Deflation
event may occur each turn. Treat others as No Event.
46. Economic Crisis.
Prices of Exotic Resources are adjusted as follows:
Sugar, Cotton, Furs: drop 1 Box.
Slaves, Spices, Tobacco: drop 2 Boxes.
Products of Orient: drops 3 Boxes.
However, those resources not still available are not affected.
47. Economic Boom.
Prices of Exotic Resources are adjusted as follows:
Sugar, Cotton, Furs: advance 1 Box.
Slaves, Spices, Tobacco: advance 2 Boxes.
Products of Orient: advances 3 Boxes.
However, those resources not still available are not affected.
48. Rectification.
The player may choose, immediately and in secret, one of
the following benefits for this turn:
-. Buy without overcosts land forces up to the triple of
the Turn Limit.
-. Increase Turn Limits for warships by 50% (rounded
up).
-. Get a bonus of +5 to rolls for actions of Stab improvement.
49. Treachery.
The player benefits from treachery against a country
which he/she is currently at war with. The player can
choose, immediatel and in secret, one of the following options:
-. Immediately capture a fortress he/she is currently besieging, or get a bonus of +4 for one Siegeworks action
made during this turn.
-. Move one enemy land stack during his own Phase, free
of charge. The stack cannot attack anyone except
his/her own forces nor being forced to suffer attrition,
nor drop units in its way, nor overstack. Its content does
not have to be revealed.
-. Get a bonus of +5 for a Diplomatic action on a minor
country on his/her enemy's Diplomatic Track. The minor
must be selected now and in secret.
50. No Event.
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Minor Countries Description
II. MINOR COUNTRIES DESCRIPTION
ASTRAKHAN
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, Portugal, England,
Venice, Netherlands, Russia
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Astrakhan (10) = 10
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1 LD
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
A(+): 20/30
Zone of Operation: Caspian Sea and up to 3 provinces
away from Astrakhan (only European Map).
ADEN
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, Portugal, Venice, France, Spain,
England, Russia, Netherlands
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Area ADEN
Colony Aden (+) with 4 levels, exploiting 1 Spice
Trade Fleet (-) with 3 levels in Oman Sea
Income is fixed at 15D$. Do not recalculate
Basic Forces: 1ND, 1 LD
Force Content:
LD: 8/2
Natives: 66% inf (round up); 33% cav (round down)
Zone of Operation: Middle East, India (and adjacent
seas), Africa East of Cape Area and Cape of Storms Sea
(both excluded).
AUSTRIA / HABSBURG (HRE)
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences:
Before Turn 55:
Spain, England, Portugal, Venice,
France, Russia, Netherlands, Turkey
Turn 55 and after: France, Spain, Russia, England, Netherlands, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Tyrol (5), Salzburg (8), Ostmarch (5), Austria (9),
Styria (6+40), Carinthia (4+20), Carniola (3), Erbland (3),
Moravia (5), Schlesien (10) = 118
Annexations: Bohemia (12), Sudeten (2), Erz (2), Magyar
(10), Pecs(6), Carpathia (3), Transylvania (5), Ruthenia
(2), Banat (3), Marozs (2), Krakow (8), Galicja (7), Podlasia
(5), Vohynia (3), Milan (12), Flanders (9), Hainaut (10),
Luxemburg (5)
Basic Forces:
- Before the end of the War of Spanish Succession:
1 A(+), 2 LD, 2 Ge?, 1 Fortress level.
Add 1 A(-) if Hungary is annexed militarily.
Add 1 A(+), 2 LD if Hungary is annexed politically.
- After the end of the War of Spanish Succession:
2 A(+), 1 A(-), 2 LD, 2 Ge?, 2 Fortress levels.
Force Content:
LD: 8/2
A(+): Med: 19/10; Ren 19/10/3; Arq: 26/10/4; Mus:
35/10/4; Bar: 40/10/4; Mov to Den: 50/14/6
Zone of Operation: European map, excluding North
Africa and Middle East.
AL DJAZAIR
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, Portugal, Russia,
England, Venice, Netherlands
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Orania (4), Al-Djazair (5), Kabylia (4) = 13
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1 F(-), 1 Privateer (+)
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
A(+): Med 20/20; Ren to Den 25/25/2
F(+): 20/5
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean.
AFRICA (excluding Sudan)
Religion: Pagan
Technology: Medieval
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, England, Venice,
Netherlands, Portugal, Russia
Force Content:
Natives: 100% inf
AMERICA (excluding Ohio)
Religion: Pagan
Technology: Medieval
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, England, Venice,
Netherlands, Portugal, Russia
Force Content:
Natives: 100% inf
BADEN (HRE)
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, France, Netherlands, Venice, Portugal, England, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Baden (6) = 6
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
ARABIA
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, Portugal, Russia,
England, Venice, Netherlands
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Jordania (3), Arabia (3) = 6
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 0/10
Zone of Operation: Middle East (European Map only).
BAYERN (HRE)
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, France, Netherlands, Venice, Portugal, England, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Bayern (10), Anspach (6) = 16
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med 15/10; Ren 20/10/2; Arq to Bar 25/10/2;
Move to Den 40/10/4
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
ASIA (excluding Siberia, Nefud, China, Japan, Mogol, Mysore,
Hyderabad, Ormuz, Aden, Oman)
Religion: Pagan
Technology: Medieval
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, England, Venice,
Netherlands, Portugal, Russia
Force Content:
Natives: 75% inf (round up) 25% cav (round down)
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Minor Countries Description
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
owned in 1492, Western Black Sea, Eastern Black Sea.
BERG (HRE)
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Netherlands, France, Venice, Portugal,
England, Russia, Turkey, Spain
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Berg (4) = 4
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
CYRENAICA
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, Portugal, Russia,
England, Venice, Netherlands
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Cyrenaica (2) = 2
Basic Forces: 1ND, 1 Priv(-)
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean.
DENMARK
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: England, Netherlands, Russia, France,
Spain, Turkey, Venice, Portugal
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Jutland (7), Denmark (12), Malmo (4), Vastergotaland (5), Telemark (5), Bergen (1)
Trade Fleet (-) with 3 levels in North Sea (3) = 37
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1F(-), 2LD, 2 fortress levels, 1 King
Ge?
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 15/10; Ren: 20/10/2; Arq to Bar: 25/10/2;
Mov to Den: 40/10/4
F(+): Car to Gln: 20/5; LS to Batt: 30/5; Vais to T-D:
40/5
Zone of Operation: Gulf of Botnia, Baltic Sea, North
Sea, Norwegian Sea, Channel, Germany, Habsburg.
BOHEMIA (HRE)
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: England, Netherlands, France, Venice, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Bohemia (12), Sudeten (2), Erz (2) = 16
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
CHINA
Religion: Pagan
Technology: China
Preferences: Turkey, Venice, France, Spain, England,
Russia, Nderland, Portugal
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Areas MANCHU, KOREA, PEKIN, SHANGHAI,
CANTON
Trade Fleet (-) with 3 levels in Straits of Formosa
Annexations: Area FORMOSA
Income is fixed at 200D$. Do not recalculate
Basic Forces: 1A(+)
Force Content:
A(+): Med: 400/200; Ren to Den: 400/200/6
Natives: 50% inf (round up); 50% cav (round down)
Zone of Operation: Areas Manchu, Korea, Pekin, Shanghai, Canton, Formosa, Amour, Baikal, Annam.
GENOA
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, France, Portugal, England, Venice,
Netherlands, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Genoa (6), Corsica (3)
2 Trade Fleets (-) with 3 levels each in Gulf of Lion (3)
and Ionian Sea (3) = 15
Basic Forces: 1F(-), 1LD, 1 fortress level in Genoa and
other in Bastia, 1 Adm?
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
F(+): Car to Gln: 20/5; LS to Batt: 30/5; Vais to T-D:
40/5
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean.
CORSICA
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: France, Netherlands, Turkey, England,
Russia, Spain
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: none
Annexations: Corsica (3)
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 10/0
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean.
HANNOVER (HRE)
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: England, Netherlands, France, Russia, Portugal, Venice, Spain, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Hannover (11), Oldenburg (4) = 15
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1LD, 1 Ge?
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 15/10; Ren: 20/10/2; Arq to Bar: 25/10/2;
Mov: 40/10/4; Den: 50/10/6
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
CRIMEA
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, Portugal, England,
Venice, Netherlands, Russia
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Crimea (4), Kaffa (4), Kerch (4), Azow (3) = 15
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1LD, 1 Khan Ge?
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
A(+): 20/30
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from those
HANSA (HRE)
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Netherlands, England, France, Venice, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Turkey
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Minor Countries Description
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
Zone of Operation: Middle East (European map only).
JAPAN
Religion: Pagan
Technology: China
Preferences: Turkey, Venice, France, Spain, England,
Russia, Netherlands, Portugal
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Area NIPPON
Trade Fleet (-) with 3 levels in Straits of Formosa
Income is fixed at 100D$. Do not recalculate
Basic Forces: 1A(+), 1Ge?
Force Content:
A(+): Med: 400/200; Ren to Den: 400/200/6
Natives: 66% inf (round up); 33% cav (round down)
Zone of Operation: area Japan exclusively.
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Bremen (5), Mecklemburg (6), Kiel (5), West
Pommern (6) East Pommern (5), Memel (4)
Basic Forces: 1ND
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
HESSEN (HRE)
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Netherlands, England, France, Spain, Russia, Portugal, Venice, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Hessen (10), Munster (6)
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 15/10; Ren: 20/10/2; Arq to Bar: 25/10/2;
Mov: 40/10/4; Den: 50/10/6
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
KAZAN
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, England, France, Spain, Netherlands, Venice, Portugal, Russia
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Kazan (9) = 9
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
A(+): Med: 20/20; Ren to Den: 25/25/2
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from Kazan
(European map only).
HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE (HRE)
Technology: Latin
Basic Forces: 1 LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 15/10; Ren: 20/10/2; Arq to Bar: 25/10/2;
Mov: 40/10/4; Den: 50/10/6
HUNGARY
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Orthodox during Turns 1-9; Latin from
Turn 10
Preferences: Spain, Venice, Russia, Portugal, France,
England, Netherlands, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Croatia (2), Magyar (10), Pecs (6), Banat (3),
Transylvania (5), Marozs (2), Carpathia (3), Ruthenia (2) =
33
Basic Forces: 1A(+), 2LD, 1 Ge?
Force Content:
LD: 7/3
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from
provinces owned in 1492.
KNIGHTS
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, France, Venice, Portugal, England,
Netherlands, Russia
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Rhodes (2)
Annexations: Malta (2)
Basic Forces: 1ND, 1 Grand Master
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
ND: 15g (warships and transports not allowed)
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean.
KOLN (HRE)
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, France, Netherlands, England,
Venice, Portugal, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Koln (4) = 4
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
HYDERABAD
Religion: Pagan
Technology: China
Preferences: France, Netherlands, Portugal, England,
Russia, Turkey, Venice, Spain
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Area HYDERABAD
Income is fixed at 16D$. Do not recalculate
Basic Forces: 1A(+), 1Ge?
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 100/50; Ren to Den: 100/50/2
Natives: 66% inf (round up); 33% cav (round down)
Zone of Operation: Hyderabad and adjacent areas.
LATVIJA
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: England, Netherlands, France, Venice, Turkey, Spain, Russia, Portugal
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Courland (6), Estonia (4), Livonia (5) = 15
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1LD, 1Ge?, 2 fortress levels
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
A(+): Med: 20/20; Ren to Den: 25/25/3
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from those
IRAK
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Irak
Preferences: France, Turkey, Spain, England, Netherlands, Russia, Portugal, Venice
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Irak (5), area IRAK = 5
Basic Forces: 1LD
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Minor Countries Description
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Moldavia (5) = 5
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from Moldavia.
owned in 1492, Gulf of Botnia, Baltic Sea.
LORRAINE (HRE)
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, France, Netherlands, England,
Venice, Portugal, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Lorraine (7), Alsace (8) = 15
Basic Forces: 1LD per province, 1Ge?
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 15/10; Ren: 20/10/2; Arq to Bar: 25/10/2;
Mov: 40/10/4; Den: 50/10/6
Lorraine may use the HRE army and detachment counters.
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
MOROCCO
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: France, Turkey, Spain, England, Venice,
Netherlands, Russia, Portugal
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Morocco (6) = 6
Annexations: Tanger (2)
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
A(+): Med: 20/20; Ren to Den: 25/25/2
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean.
MAMELUKS
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, Venice, Spain, England, Portugal,
France, Russia, Netherlands
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Aleppo (4), Syria (7), Lebanon (4), Judea (4),
Samaria (4), Sinai (0), Delta (3), Egypt (7), Alexandria (6),
Cataract (1), Nile (1), Quattara (1)
50% of Grand Orient Center (50) = 92
Basic Forces: 1A(+), 1A(-), 1LD, 1Calif?, 1Ge?
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
A(+): Med: 25/25; Ren to Den: 25/25/2
Zone of Operation: North Africa, Middle East (European
Map only).
MYSORE
Religion: Pagan
Technology: China
Preferences: France, Spain, Russia, Venice, England,
Netherlands, Turkey, Portugal
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Area MYSORE
Income is fixed at 12D$. Do not recalculate.
Basic Forces: 1A(+), 1Ge?
Force Content:
A(+): Med: 100/50; Ren to Den: 100/50/2
Natives: 66% inf (round up); 33% cav (round down)
Zone of Operation: Mysore and adjacent areas.
MILAN
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, Netherlands, France, Venice, Portugal, Russia, England, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Milan (12) = 12
Basic Forces: 1LD, plus 1 fortress level from T7 (included)
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: Italy and adjacent provinces.
NAPLES
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Austria, Spain, England, France, Russia,
Netherlands, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: none
Annexations: Naples (11), Pouilles (3), Sicilia (5), Messina
(3)
Basic Forces: 2LD, 1ND, 1 fortress level
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean.
MOGOL
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, England, Venice,
Netherlands, Portugal, Russia
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Area DELHI
Income is fixed at 20D$, plus 10 for each area annexed
Annexations: Areas OUDH, BENGALE, ORISSA, GUJARAT, PUNJAB, MAHRATI, CARNATIC, plus Trade Fleet (-)
with 3 levels in Eastern Indian Ocean
Basic Forces: 1A(+)
Force Content:
A(+): Med: 200/100; Ren to Den: 200/100/3
Natives: 50% inf (round up); 50% cav (round down)
Zone of Operation: India.
NETHERLANDS
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Turkey, Russia, France, Spain, England,
Austria
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: none
Annexations: Den Haag (16), Zeeland (9), Brabant (14),
Holland (16), Friesen (7), Gueldre (9) = 67, plus Col, TP,
trading fleets and trade centers
Basic Forces: 1A(+), 1F(+), 5 fortress levels in Europe,
plus 1F(-), 3LD, 2 fortress levels in Col and TP in the
RoW.
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 14/10; Ren: 15/10/3; Arq: 22/10/3; Mus:
30/10/4; Bar: 35/10/5; Mov: 40/10/5; Den: 40/10/6
F(+): Car to Gln: 24/5; LS: 28/5; Bat: 30/5; Ves: 32/10;
T-D: 40/10
Zone of Operation: unlimited.
MOLDAVIA
Religion: Orthodox
Technology: Orthodox
Preferences: Russia, Spain, France, England, Portugal,
Venice, Netherlands, Turkey
8
Europa Universalis
Alternative Annexes Booklet
Minor Countries Description
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Georgia (4), Azerbaidjan (2), Armenia (3+20),
Kurdistan (4), Kars (10), Persis (12), Ispahan (11),
Meched (8), Ormuz (12)
Income is fixed at 100D$. Do not recalculate
Basic Forces: 1A(+), 1A(-), 1LD, 1Shah? Always receive a
minimum of 1A(-) in reinforcements
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
A(+): Med: 20/25; Ren to Den: 25/25/2
Natives of Ormuz: 50% inf (round up); 50% cav (round
down)
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from those
owned in 1492 (European map only).
NEFUD
Religion: Islam
Technology: Medieval
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, England, Venice,
Netherlands, Portugal, Russia
Force Content:
Natives: 100% cav
OHIO
Religion: Pagan
Technology: always Med
Preferences: England, France, Netherlands, Spain, Russia, Portugial, Venice, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: area OHIO
Income is fixed at 3D$. Do not recalculate.
Basic Forces: 3LD, 1Chef?
Force Content:
LD: 10/0
Natives: 100% inf
Zone of Operation: Ohio and adjacent areas.
PFALZ (HRE)
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, France, Netherlands, England,
Venice, Portugal, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Pfalz (7), Mainz (6) = 13
Basic Forces: 1A(-)
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 20/10; Ren: 20/10/2; Arq to Bar: 25/10/2;
Mov to Den: 40/10/4
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
OMAN
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, Venice, Russia, Spain, Portugal,
Frnace, England, Netherlands
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: area OMAN
Colony Oman (+) with 4 levels, exploiting 1 Spice
Trading Post (-) Zanzibar with 2 levels, exploiting 2 slaves
Trade Fleet (-) with 3 levels in Oman Sea
Income is fixed at 20D$. Do not recalculate
Basic Forces: 1ND, 1LD, 1Ge?
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
F(+): Car to Gln: 20/5; LS to T-D: 30/5
Natives: 50% inf (round up); 50% cav (round down)
Zone of Operation: Middle East, India (and adjacent
seas), Africa East of Cape Area and Cape of Storms Sea
(both excluded).
POLAND
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin on Turns 1-42; Orthodox later
Preferences: France, Venice, Spain, England, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: West Prussia (5), Posen (7), Krakow (6), Mazovia
(8), Podlasia (5), Galicja (7), Volhynia (3), Bessarabia (4),
Ukranya (10), Donetsk (6), Pripet (2), Lituania (7), Seweria (4), Bielorussia (7), Polotsk (4), Orel (4), Worones (9),
Smolensk (5), Danzig (6), Kharkow (8) = 115
Basic Forces:
Turns 1-42: 2A(+), 1A(-), 2LD, 2 fortress levels (1 per city), 1 King, 1 Ge?
Turns: 43-60: 1A(+), 1A(-), 1LD, 1King
Add 1A(-) from Saxony when the Event Saxon King in Poland applies.
Force Content:
LD: 7/3
A(+): Med: 30/25; Ren to Bar: 30/25/2; Mov: 30/25/4;
Den: 40/25/4
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from those
owned in 1492.
PAPACY
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, France, Portugal, England, Venice,
Russia, Netherlands
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Rome (7), Romagna (4), Emilia (4) = 15
Basic Forces: 1LD or 1ND
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean and Italy.
PARMA
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: France, Spain, Venice, Portugal, Russia,
Netherlands, England, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Modena (6) = 6
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean and Italy.
PORTUGAL
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Russia, England, Frnace, Spain, Netherlands, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Oporto (5), Tago (9), Algarve (3), Tanger (2),
Azores (2)
Trade Fleet (-) with 1 level in Gulf of Guinea (1)
Trade Fleet (-) with 2 levels in in Irish Sea (2)
Colony (-) La Praya with 3 levels (4)
TP (-) Elmina with 3 levels, exploiting 3 slaves
(1+40+slaves) = 69 + slaves
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1F(+) in Europe, plus 2LD, 1ND in
the RoW
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
PERSIA
Religion: Muslim Shiite
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Venice, France, England, Netherlands,
Spain, Portugal, Russia
9
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Alternative Annexes Booklet
Minor Countries Description
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Saxony (10), Anhalt (8) = 18
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1LD, 1Ge?
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 20/15; Ren: 20/15/2; Arq to Bar: 25/15/2;
Mov to Den: 40/15/2
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
A(+): Med: 17/10; Ren: 1710/3; Arq to Bar: 25/10/3;
Mov to Den: 40/10/4;
F(+): Car to Gln: 25/5; LS to Bat: 30/5; Ves to T-D: 40/5
Zone of Operation: unlimited.
PRUSSIA (HRE)
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: England, France, Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Venice, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Magdeburg (9), Brandenburg (11), Kustrin (3),
East Prussia (6) = 29
Annexations: East Pommern (5), Memel (4), Berg (5),
Schlesien (10), West Prussia (5), Danzig (6), Posen (7),
Mazovia (8)
Basic Forces:
Before T42 and Army Reform Event: A(-), 1LD, 1Ge?
From T43 or Army Reform Event: 2A(+), 1Ge?, 3 fortress
levels
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 20/10; Ren: 20/10/2; Arq to Bar: 25/10/2;
Mov: 40/10/4; Den: 50/10/6
Zone of Operation: European map, excluding Mediterranean.
SCOTLAND
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: England, France, Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Venice, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Solvay (7), Tyne (5), Inverness (4), Hebrides (3) =
19
Trade Fleet(-) with 3 levels in North Sea
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 20/10; Ren: 20/10/2; Arq to Bar: 25/10/2;
Mov to Den: 40/10/4
Zone of Operation: North Sea, Channel, Iris Sea, Western Approaches, Norwegian Sea, Midlands.
RUSSIA
Religion: Orthodox
Technology: Orthodox before Peter the Great; Latin after
Preferences: Portugal, England, France, Netherlands,
Austria, Sweden, Spain, Turkey.
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Newa (3), Novgorod (8), Pskow (4), Welikia (4),
Tula (6), Moscow (14), Ural (6) = 47
Annexations: Orel (4), Worones (9), Smolensk (5), Kazan
(9), Astrakhan (10), Steppes (4), Polotsk (4), Bielorussia
(7), Lituania (7), Pripet (2), Kharkow (8), Donetsk (6),
Seweria (4), Ukraine (10), Azow (4), Kouban (2), Estonia
(4), Livonia (5), Courland (6)
Basic Forces: 2A(+), 1A(-), 2LD, 2Ge?. From T43 (included) add 1F(-) and 2 fortress levels
Force Content:
LD: 7/3
A(+): Med: 30/20; Ren: 30/20/1; Arq to Mus: 30/20/2;
Bar: 33/20/3; Mov: 40/20/6; Den: 50/20/6
F(+): Car to Gln: 20/5; LS: 30/5; Bat: 30/10; Ve: 35/10;
TD: 40/10
Zone of Operation: unlimited.
SIBERIA (excluding Sibir)
Religion: Pagan
Technology: Medieval
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, England, Venice,
Netherlands, Portugal, Russia
Force Content:
100% cav
SAVOY
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: France, Spain, England, Netherlands, Russia, Portugal, Venice, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Savoy (9), Nice (3) = 12
Annexations: Sardinia (3)
Basic Forces: 2LD, or 1LD and 1ND
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 20/15; Ren: 20/15/2; Arq to Bar: 25/15/2;
Mov to Den: 40/15/2
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from those
owned in 1492, plus Italy.
STEPPES
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, England, Spain, Netherlands,
France, Venice, Portugal, Russia
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Steppes (4) = 4
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 0/10
Zone of Operation: Caspian Sea and up to 3 provinces
away from Steppes (European Map only).
SIBIR
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, England, France, Spain, Netherlands, Venice, Portugal, Russia
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Area SIBIR
Income fixed at 12D$. Do not recalculate
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1LD, 1Chef?
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
A(+): Med: 10/40; Ren to Den: 10/40/2
Natives: 100% cav
Zone of Operation: area Sibir exclusively.
SUDAN
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, France, Spain, Venice, England,
Netherlands, Portugal, Russia
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Area SUDAN
Basic Forces: 1A(+), 1Ge?
SAXONY (HRE)
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: France, England, Netherlands, Russia,
Venice, Portugal, Spain, Turkey
10
Europa Universalis
Alternative Annexes Booklet
Minor Countries Description
Preferences: Turkey, Venice, France, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, England
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Tripolitania (2) = 2
Basic Forces: 1ND, 1Priv(-)
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean.
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
A(+): 30/15/0
Natives: 66% inf (round up); 33% cav (round down)
Zone of Operation: Areas Sudan and Ethiopia.
SWEDEN
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: France, Turkey, England, Netherlands,
Venice, Spain, Portugal, Russia
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Scania (5), Gotland (1), Ostragotaland (10),
Nordland (4), Abo (3), Finland (5)
Trade fleet (-) with 3 levels in Baltic Sea = 31
Annexations: Malmo (4), Vastergotaland (5), Estonia (4),
Livonia (5), Courland (6), Bremen (5), West Pommern (6)
Basic Forces: 1A(-), 1F(-), 2LD, 1King, 1 fortress level.
When Latvija is annexed, add 1A(-), 1LD, 1Ge?, 2 fortress
levels.
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 15/10; Ren: 20/10/2; Arq to Mus: 25/10/2;
Bar: 25/12/4; Mov to Den: 40/12/4
F(+): Car to Gln: 20/5; LS: 30/5; Bat: 30/10; Ve to TD:
40/10
Zone of Operation: European Map, excluding Mediterranean, Caspian Sea and Middle East.
TUNISIA
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
Preferences: Turkey, Venice, France, Spain, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, England
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Tunisia (5)
Basic Forces: 1ND, 1Priv(-)
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean.
UNITED STATES
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: France, Turkey, Russia, Netherlands, Austria, Spain, England
If France has a Col in North America, switch its position
with England
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: none
Income fixed at 100D$. Do not recalculate.
Annexations: as per the Event Independence of English
Colonies, plus Trade Fleet(+) with 4 levels in the closest
STZ.
Basic Forces: 1A(+), 2LD, 1ND, 1Ge?
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 13/10; Ren: 13/10/2; Arq: 20/10/4; Mus:
25/10/4; Bar: 30/10/4; Mov: 40/10/6; Den: 50/10/6
Zone of Operation: areas with owned Col/TP and adjacent seas and areas.
SWITZERLAND
Religion: Protestant and Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: England, Netherlands, Russia, France,
Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Venice
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Helvetia (8) = 8
Basic Forces: 1A(+)
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 15/10; Ren: 20/10/2; Arq to Bar: 25/10/2;
Mov: 40/10/4; Den: 50/10/6
Zone of Operation: European Map.
VENICE
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: France, England, Netherlands, Spain, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Venice (12), Mantua (10), Istria (4), Illyria (3),
Raguse (2), Corfu (2), Crete (3), Cyprus (4)
3 Trade Fleets(-) with 3 levels each in Adriatic Sea (3), Ionian Sea (3), Western Black Sea (3)
1 Trade Fleet(-) with 2 levels in CTZ Turkey (4)
Mediterranean Trade Center (100)
Grand Orient Trade Center (50) = 203
Basic Forces:
T1 to T14: 1F(+), 3LD 1Ge?, 1Ad?
From T15: 1F(-), 1LD, 1Ad?, 4 fortress levels
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
A(+): Med: 16/10; Ren: 17/10/3; Arq to Bar: 25/10/3;
Mov to Den: 40/10/4
F(+): Car to Gln: 20/5; LS: 30/5; Bat: 30/10; Ve to TD:
40/10
Zone of Operation: Mediterranean and Italy.
THURINGEN (HRE)
Religion: Protestant
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, Netherlands, England, Venice,
France, Portugal, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492:Thuringen (9) = 9
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
TOSCANA
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: France, Spain, Venice, England, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Firenze (6), Luca (6) = 12
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: Italy.
WALLACHIA
Religion: Orthodox
Technology: Orthodox
Preferences: Russia, Spain, France, England, Portugal,
Venice Netherlands, Turkey
TRIPOLI
Religion: Muslim
Technology: Islam
11
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Alternative Annexes Booklet
Minor Countries Description
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Wallachia (6) = 6
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 5/5
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from Wallachia.
WURTEMBERG (HRE)
Religion: Catholic
Technology: Latin
Preferences: Spain, France, Netherlands, Venice, England, Portugal, Russia, Turkey
Provinces and Income:
In 1492: Wurtemberg (7) = 7
Basic Forces: 1LD
Force Content:
LD: 9/1
Zone of Operation: up to 3 provinces away from any
member of HRE, North Sea, Baltic Sea.
12
Europa Universalis
ALTERNATIVE SCENARIOS BOOKLET
Alvaro Prada
January 2005
TABLE OF CONTENTS
I . BATTLE SCENARIOS
I.1. The Thirty Years War: 1618-1648........2
II. CAMPAIGN SCENARIOS
II.1. Campaign 1492-1519.........................4
II.2. Grand Campaign 1492-1792..............6
Europa Universalis
Alternative Scenarios Booklet
I. BATTLE SCENARIOS
I.1. The Thirty Years War: 1618-1648
Unrest for violation of Bohemian privileges by the Habsburg Emperor turned into a religious revolt in 1618. The
Bohemians offered the crown to the Elector of Pfalz, but
with the help of Spain and Bavaria, the Emperor was able
to crush the rebellion and conquer Pfalz. However, other
powers joined the war to contest the Habsburg preeminence in Europe.
Length: 6 turns (T27-T32)
Players: 2; Habsburg and Spain vs Netherlands, Sweden
and France.
A. Major Powers
HABSBURG
Controlled provinces: National provinces except Bohemia, plus Carintia and Carniola.
Treasure: 100D$
Income:
T28: 100 D$
T29: 150 D$ plus income of controlled provinces.
T30-32: 250D$ plus income of controlled provinces.
Forces: 1 A(+), Kaiser counter (Ferdinand 2.2.2), Ge?3,
Papenheim, Ge?2, fortress #3 in Austria; 1 Ld, 1 fortress
#3 in Erbland; 1 Ld in Carniola; fortress #3 in Moravia.
Reinforcements: Wallenstein in T28.
Allied minors:
BAYERN: 1 A(-), Ge minor ?5 in Bayern. Rolls for Reinforcements in each Turn. Gets Tilly in T28 and Mercy in
T32.
NETHERLANDS
Controlled provinces: National provinces.
Treasure: 200D$
Income:
T28: 200 D$
T29: 300 D$
T30-32: 350D$ plus income of controlled provinces.
Forces: 2 A(+), De Witt, 6 fortresses #3 in National
provinces.
Allied minors:
PFALZ: 1 A(-), Ge minor ?3 in Pfalz. Rolls for Reinforcements in each Turn.
BOHEMIAN REBELS (control Bohemia): 2 revolt LD,
Mansfeld in Bohemia. Never rolls for Reinforcements.
DENMARK (controls Denmark): 1 A(+), Christian IV in
Denmark. Rolls for Reinforcements in T29-32.
SWEDEN
Controlled provinces: Ostragotaland, Scania.
Treasure: 200D$
Income:
T29: 200 D$
T30: 150 D$
T31-32: 100 D$
Forces: 2 A(+) in Ostragotaland
Reinforcements: Gustav Adolphe in T29, Bernard in
T30, Baner and Horn in T6.
SPAIN
Controlled provinces: National provinces, plus Hainaut,
Flanders, Luxemburg, Nord, Artois, Franche-Comte,
Roussillon, Milan.
Treasure: 500D$
Income:
T27-28: 250 D$
T29: 300 D$
T30-32: 250 D$
Battle Scenarios
Forces: 1 A(+), Spinola, fortress #3 in Hainaut; 1 A(+),
fortress #3 in Flanders; 1 Ld, fortress #3 in Luxemburg;
2 Ld, Ge?3, fortress #3 in Milan.
Reinforcements: C. Infant in T28.
FRANCE
Controlled provinces: National provinces plus Calais.
Treasure: 50D$
Income:
T27: 250 D$
T28: 300 D$
T29: 350 D$
T30: 400 D$
T31: 300 D$
Forces: 1A(+), Ge?1, fortress #2 in Ile de France; 1 A(-),
Ge?2, fortress #2 in Lyonnais; 1 A(-), Ge?3, fortress #3 in
Picardie.
Reinforcements: Condé in T31.
B. Special Rules
B.1. Provinces of play
All provinces listed as controlled by a Major Power, plus
all of Germany are playable. The rest of the map is unplayable.
Only units of the minor Denmark may enter the province
of Denmark.
B.2. Sides
There are two sides in the scenario: Catholics (Spain and
Habsburg) and Protestants (Netherland, Sweden and
France). All countries in the same side move together.
The Catholic side moves first in all turns.
B.3. Sea Transport
This scenario does not have naval units. However, when
Sweden is at war, it may transport, each round, up to 4
Ld (or their equivalent in A- or A+) from Scania or Ostragotaland to any controlled port in Germany.
B.4. Lending Money
A Major Power may give another on the same side up to
100 D$ per turn during the income phase.
B.5. Technology
All countries have technology Arq at start of T27 and get
Bar during T31, except Sweden, which gets Bar at start
of T29.
Spanish Tercios apply only during T27.
B.6. Participation in the War
During the first Round of T27, only units of Habsburg,
Bayern, Bohemia and Pfalz may move. Then, units of
Spain and Netherlands may move. The other countries
enter the war as follows:
-. Denmark enters the war on the Protestant side on T28.
If the Danish Army suffers a Major Defeat or is destroyed
in combat, Denmark leaves the war forever.
-. Sweden enters the war on the Protestant side on T29.
During the Protestant movement phase of Round 1, Sweden gets control of the province of West Pommern, and
any enemy unit there must Retreat. At that moment, The
Hansa, Saxony and Prussia minors join the Protestant
side, provided that they have not been conquered before.
-. France enters the war on the Protestant side on T30.
Europa Universalis
Alternative Scenarios Booklet
-. Players may declare war to any German minor during
the Income Phase, which results in the minor joining the
opposite side. Their Basic Forces are deployed according
to the Annexes Booklet.
While neutral, the minors Wurtemberg, Baden, Alsace,
Lorraine, Koln and Saxony (even if it will later join the
Protestants) are considered as controlled by the Catholic
side for movement, supply and victory purposes.
Similarly, the minors Thuringen, Prussia, Hessen,
Hansa, Hannover and Berg are considered controlled by
the Protestants while neutral.
Of these minors, only Saxony will roll for Reinforcements
on each Turn when it is at war.
A minor is conquered when at the end of a Turn, all the
provinces it owned in 1492 (as listed in the Annexes
booklet) are enemy-controlled. A conquered minor loses
all its land units and will never get new ones, even if it is
liberated.
B.7. Victory
The Catholics win at the end of any turn in which they
control all German provinces and Habsburg national provinces. At the end of the game, they win if they control all
Habsburg national provinces and at least 13 German
provinces.
The Protestants win at the end of the game if they control
at least 13 German provinces and 3 of the following: Austria, Bohemia, Flanders, Hainaut.
Other result is a draw.
Battle Scenarios
Europa Universalis
Alternative Scenarios Booklet
II. CAMPAIGN SCENARIOS
II.1. Campaign 1492-1519
Length: 6 turns (T1-T6)
Players: 6, one per Major Power.
A. Major Powers
SPAIN
Monarch: Isabella and Ferdinand (7.7.8, dies T6)
Religion: Catholic
Stability: +2
Technology: Land 7, Naval 9
Diplomacy: Papacy and Habsburg in RM.
Treasure: 350 D$
DTI/FTI: 1/1
MNU: 1 Metal in Toledo, 2 Tissu in Andalucia.
Trade Fleets: CTZ Spain (2), STZ Irish Sea (1), STZ Gulf
of Lion (2).
Forces: 1 A(+), 1 F(+) (72g, 5t) in a Mediterranean port; 2
ND (4n, 1t each), Columbus, Conq?1, Ge?1, Adm?2 in Europe.
Controlled Provinces: National Provinces, plus Canarias, Sardinia, Sicilia, Malta, Messina, Naples, Pouilles,
Roussillon.
Discoveries: Sea of Canarias, Sea of Azores.
FRANCE
Monarch: Charles VIII (5.6.9, dies T2)
Religion: Catholic
Stability: +3
Technology: Land 9, Naval 7
Diplomacy: Savoy in MA
Treasure: 100 D$
DTI/FTI: 1/1
MNU: 1 Metal in Champagne, 2 Wine in Gascogne
Trade Fleets: CTZ France (2), STZ Ionian Sea (1), STZ
Gulf of Lion (1), STZ Irish Sea (1).
Forces: 1 A(+), 1 A(-), 1 ND (4n, 1t), 1 ND (15g), Ge?2,
Ge?3 in Europe.
Controlled Provinces: National provinces
Discoveries: Sea of Canarias, Sea of Azores.
TURKEY
Monarch: Bayezid II (6.6.8 dies T6)
Religion: Muslim (Sunni)
Stability: +3
Technology: Land 8, Naval 8
Diplomacy: Moldavia and Wallachia in VA
Treasure: 350 D$
DTI/FTI: 3/2
MNU: 2 Tissu in Smyrna, 1 Metal in Angora
Trade Fleets: CTZ Turkey (2), STZ Western Black Sea
(2).
Forces: 2 A(+), 1 F(-) (30g, 2t), 2Ld, Ge?1, Ge?2, Adm?3
Pashas: 8, 1 corrupted (selected at random). Best placement: Bug, Serbia, Rumelia, Macedonia, Morea, Nicea,
Adana, Trapzon.
Controlled Provinces: National provinces plus Hellas,
Morea, Bug,
Discoveries: Red Sea, Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf, Sea of
Oman. When Oman or Aden are under Turkish Diplomatic Control, add Horn of Africa, Straits of Mozambia,
Coast of Malabar.
PORTUGAL
Monarch: John II (8.5.7 dies T2)
Religion: Catholic
Stability: +3
Technology: Land 6, Naval 10
Diplomacy: none
Treasure: 390 D$
DTI/FTI: 3/2
Campaign Scenarios
MNU: 1 Instrument in Tago, 2 Wine in Oporto.
Trade Fleets: STZ Gulf of Guinea (1), STZ Irish Sea (2).
Forces: 1 A(-), 1 F(-), 1 Ld, Ge?1, Adm?2, Conq?1, Diaz.
Controlled Provinces: National provinces plus Tanger,
Azores.
Col/TP: Col La Praya (3) in Cape Verde, TP Elmina (3)
and fortress #1 in Gold Coast (South Province)
Discoveries: Sea of Canarias, Sea of Azores, Arguin
Bank, Bay of Gambia, Gulf of Guinea, Coast of Angola,
Cape of Good Hope, Area Cape Verde, Area Gold Coast,
Area Camerun.
ENGLAND
Monarch: Henry VII (7.5.6, dies T5)
Religion: Catholic
Stability:+1
Technology: Land 5, Naval 9
Diplomacy: Scotland in Vassal
Treasure: 50 D$
DTI/FTI: 2/2
MNU: 1 Metal in Midlands, 2 Tissu in Anglia
Trade Fleets: CTZ England (2), STZ North Sea (2), STZ
Baltic Sea (2), STZ Irish Sea (2).
Forces: 1 A(-), 1 F(-), 1Ld, 2 Nd (4n, 1t each), Ge?1,
Adm?2, Adm?3.
Controlled Provinces: National provinces plus Calais,
Ulster, Connaught, Pale, Kildare, Monmouth.
VENICE
Monarch: Veniero (8.6.6, dies T4)
Religion: Catholic
Stability: -2
Technology: Land 4, Naval 9
Diplomacy: none
Treasure: 30D$
DTI/FTI: 3/3
MNU: 1 Art, 2 Wine in Venice
Trade Fleets: STZ Adriatic (3), CTZ Turkey (2), STZ Ionian Sea (3), STZ Western Black Sea (3).
Forces: 1 A(-), 1 F(+), Ge?2, Adm?1.
Controlled Provinces: National provinces plus Illyria,
Raguse, Corfu, Crete, Ionia, Cyprus.
Trade Center: Mediterranean in Venice.
Optional rule: Presidio #2 in Morea.
B. Minor Countries
Trade Fleets:
CTZ Netherland: Dutch (4).
CTZ Spain: Dutch (2).
CTZ England: Dutch (3).
CTZ France: Dutch (5).
STZ Oman Sea: Oman (2), Aden (3).
STZ North Sea: Denmark (3), Scotland (3), Dutch (4).
STZ Gulf of Lion: Genoa (3), Dutch (1).
STZ Ionian Sea: Genoa (2), Dutch (3).
STZ Baltic Sea: Sweden (3), Dutch (4).
STZ Irish Sea: Dutch (3).
STZ Straits of Formosa: China (3), Japan (3).
Col/TP:
OMAN: Col Oman (4) in Oman (mountain province), TP
Zanzibar (2) in Tanganika (isle province).
ADEN: Col Aden (4) in Aden (mountain province).
Technology:
Latin: Land 7, Naval 9.
Orthodox: Land 4, Naval 4.
Islam: Land 4, Naval 5.
China: Land 1.
Trade Center: Grand Orient in Alexandria, Atlantic in
Flanders.
C. Exotic Resources and Inflation
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Alternative Scenarios Booklet
Campaign Scenarios
Prices: Cotton 0 (L), Tobacco 0 (L), Sugar 0 (R), Slaves 2
(R), Fish 1 (L), Furs 2 (R), Spices 4 (L), Orient 6 (L).
Inflation: 5% (box 0 L)
-1 There is already a Col/TP in America.
-1 Either Spain or Portugal control the Papacy diplomatic
counter.
D. Special Rules
D.7. Victory.
During play, each player gets the VP described in Chapter V of the rulebook, including VP for Period Objectives.
D.1. Initiative.
The Spanish player has the Initiative during T1, regardless of the Monarchs' values.
D.2. New Monarchs.
After the Spanish Monarch dies, the successor is Philip I
(6.5.8 dies T7), and when he dies, the successor is
Charles I (6.9.8, dies T13).
After the French Monarch dies, the successor is Louis XII
(6.5.8, dies T6).
After the Portuguese Monarch dies, the successor is Manoel I (8.6.8, dies T7).
D.3. Portuguese Colony in Goa.
Portugal has already made 3 colony attempts.
As long as Da Gama or Albuquerque are in play, Portugal
may convert one owned TP in the province with the city
of Goa into a Col with 3 levels, getting also a fortress of
the maximum level allowed. This is made during an Administrative Phase, costs 100 D$ and 1 Col action. Portugal gets immediate control of the city of Goa, but the
natives in the province activate.
D.4. Portuguese Goldmine in Elmina.
Place two goldmine counters on the TP Elmina in Area
Gold Coast. Portugal receives this gold during the Income
Phase, without the need to transport it to Europe. However, it counts for Inflation. This is the only case in which
a TP may exploit a goldmine. Furthermore, the TP gives
the regular income and can exploit also the Exotic Resources.
If the TP is destroyed or annexed by another country, the
mines disappear. The mines cease to produce during enemy occupation, but in no case any country apart of Portugal can get this gold.
D.5. Dutch trade fleets.
During Periods I and II, at the Administrative Phase of
each turn, roll to see how many Dutch trade levels are
placed, in addition to any level replaced according to
Rule III.9.11.B:
1-2: nothing
3-5: 1 level
6-8: 2 levels
9-10: 3 levels
The Venetian player places the new levels into any existing Dutch trade marker. If none exists or all are full, they
can be placed in any European Trade Zone except the
Caspian Sea.
This rule continues to apply even after Spain inherites
Burgundy.
For competition purposes, Dutch DTI and FTI are 3.
Dutch fleets defend with a medium investment.
D.6. Events Modifier.
During Period I, once America has been discovered, and
until event Treaty of Tordesillas occurs, both die rolls for
each Political Event are modified as follows (cummulative):
-1 The Reform has occured twice and Spain is CounterReform.
The player with more VP at the end of the last turn is the
winner. If two or more players have the same amount,
the game is a draw.
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II.2. Grand Campaign 1492-1792
Length: 60 turns (T1-T60)
Players: 6, one per Major Power.
Campaign Scenarios
less Portugal is at war), but keep fortresses, Col/TP and
Trade Fleets.
B.1.3. Transfer from Venice to Netherlands:
A. Major Powers, Minors, Resources, Inflation
Setup for Netherlands in T15:
Use the setup of the Campaign 1492-1519.
Monarch: Roll as in a Dynastic Crisis.
Religion: Protestant
Stability: +2
Technology: none
Treasure: 30D$
DTI/FTI: 3/3
MNU: 1 Instrument in Den Haag, 1 Tissu in Brabant.
Trade Fleets: according to Rule D.5 of the 1492-1519
Campaign.
Forces: none
Controlled Provinces: none
B. Special Rules
Use all the Special Rules of the Campaign 1492-1519,
plus the following.
B.1. Transfer of Major Powers.
B.1.1. Conditions for Transfer:
The Portuguese player becomes Russia and the Venetian
player becomes Dutch at start of Period III. Later, the
Dutch player may become Austrian. Upon transfer, Portugal and Venice (and later Netherlands) become minor
countries.
Portugal and Venice cannot lend money to other players
during T12-14.
On the Peace Phase of T14, Portugal and Venice must offer at least a White Peace to all countries they are at war
with. Minor countries fighting alone and not activated by
an event will automatically accept such peace.
In order to transfer to Austria, the Dutch player must annonce it during a Peace Phase in which Habsburg is not
associated to Spain, then offer a White Peace to all enemies, as described above. This can be made even in the
same Peace Phase in which the dissociation takes place.
The transfer will occur at start of the next Turn. Furthermore, Netherlands cannot have lent money to other players during the 3 preceding Turns.
The Dutch player can only transfer to Austria during Periods VI and VII. At start of these, the Dutch player must
select Period Objectives for both Netherlands and Austria. Only those referring to the Major Power he/she is
playing at the end of Period will apply.
Once they change Major Powers, the players keep their
accumulated VP, but lose VP equal to the amount of
loans they have pending (either to players or to the game
system).
B.1.2. Transfer from Portugal to Russia:
Setup for Russia in T15:
Monarch: Ivan IV “Grozny” (8.4.9, dies T20)
Religion: Orthodox
Stability: +3
Technology: Land 8, Naval 7
Treasure: 300 D$
DTI/FTI: 1/1
MNU: 2 Cereal in Moscow, 1 Metal in Ural (if any of these
provinces are not controlled by Russia, place them elsewhere).
Forces:
At peace: 2 A(+), Kourbski, Ge?1, Ge?2, Conq?1
At war: those already on map, with the leaders indicated
above.
Controlled Provinces: National provinces plus Newa.
These might be modified according to the development of
the game.
Remove all Portuguese MNU and the gold counters in
Elmina. Remove also all leaders and military units (un-
Remove all Venetian MNU. Remove also all leaders and
military units (unless Venice is at war). Trade Fleets remain on map, but lose 1 level each. Fortresses remain,
but 2 levels (chosen by the Dutch player) are lost.
See Rule IV.5.1 of the Rulebook on how to play Holland
before the Revolt.
If after T21 (included) no Dutch Revolt has occurred, or
Spain has conquered Netherlands, roll 1d10 after each
Events Phase. On a result of 3 or more, an additional
Event, the Dutch Revolt, takes place.
B.1.4. Transfer from Netherlands to Austria:
Setup for Austria:
Monarch: Roll as in a Dynastic Crisis
Religion: Catholic
Stability: +3
Technology: Land: same as Latins; Naval: none.
Diplomacy: Hessen and Thuringen in MA, unless controlled by other players.
Treasure: 450 D$
DTI/FTI: 4/2
MNU: 2 Metal in Salzburg, 2 Metal in Styria, 2 Tissu in
Bohemia, 2 Instrument in Austria, 1 Cereal in Magyar (if
any of these provinces are not controlled by Austria,
place them elsewhere).
Forces:
At peace: 2 A(+), 1 A(-), 1 Ld, plus available leaders, and
at least 14 fortress levels.
At war: those already on map, but at least 14 fortress
levels.
Controlled Provinces: National provinces plus Carniola
and Carinthia. These might be modified according to the
development of the game.
Remove all Dutch MNU. Remove also all leaders and military units (unless Netherlands is at war). Trade Fleets
remain on map, but those in STZ lose 1 level each, and
those in CTZ lose 2 levels. Fortresses remain, but 7 levels from at least 5 provinces (of which provinces 3 must
be European), chosen by the Austrian player, are lost.
B.2. Victory.
During play, each player gets the VP described in Chapter V of the rulebook, including VP for Period Objectives.
At the end of the Grand Campaign add the End Game
VP.
The player with more VP at the end of the last turn is the
winner. If two or more players have the same amount,
the game is a draw.
Europa Universalis
Alternative Scenarios Booklet
B.3. Optional: Habsburg Endogamy.
After the Events Habsburg Inheritance of Milan and Habsburg inheritance of Bohemia have taken place, the roll
for Reign Length of Spanish Monarchs is modified as follows:
Period
Period
Period
Period
Period
III (1560-1614): -1
IV (1615-1664): -2
V (1665-1699): -3
VI (1700-1759): -5
VII (1760-1792): -6
However, if the result is not a Dynastic Crisis, ignore the
modifier.
This rule applies only when Habsburg is associated to
Spain.
B.4. Playing with 4 or 5 players.
When playing with only 5 players, we suggest leaving
Venice, Netherlands and Austria as permanent minor
countries. With only 4 players, Portugal and Russia will
also be minors.
The following rules describe how to play during the Periods in which these countries were supposed to have the
status of Major Power.
B.4.1. Venice
MINIMUM FORCES
At start of Period I, setup Venetian trade fleets as indicated in the 1492-1519 Campaign.
At start of Period II, Venice must have at least the following trade fleets: CTZ Turkey (3), STZ Adriatic Sea (4), STZ
Ionian Sea (4), STZ Western Black Sea (3). Place the necessary levels and run immediately any mandatory competition that arises.
EVENTS
-. “Veneto/Turkish Commercial Conflict”. When the
Event is in effect, and provided that conditions for a
Venetian CB are met, Venice DoWs Turkey on a roll of 6
or more in 1d10, unless Venice is already engaged in another war.
REINFORCEMENTS
During Periods I and II, Venice always rolls for Reinforcements when at war, even if the controlling player rolled
for other minors.
B.4.2. Netherlands
MINIMUM FORCES:
At start of each Period, check if Netherlands has the indicated items. If not, the controlling player places them
and runs any mandatory competition that arises. For
Period II, the controlling player is the one indicated in
the Preferences (see the Annexes).
Col/TP are placed in any free coastal province of the indicated area. If there is a Portuguese establishment, it is
destroyed and replaced by the Dutch on a roll of 6 or
more in 1d10, even if there are free provinces. If no
coastal province is available, the Col/TP is not placed at
all.
If the named establishment has been placed in the
second or further preferred area, and in a later Period
Campaign Scenarios
one with higher priority becomes available, leave it where
it is.
Period II:
Trade Fleets: CTZ Netherlands (4), plus 10 levels distributed in other 3 non-Mediterranean CTZ, 11 levels distributed in 3 non-Mediterranean European STZ, and 4
levels in 2 Mediterranean STZ (excluding the Caspian
Sea).
Period III:
Trade Fleets: CTZ Netherlands (5), plus 10 levels distributed in other 3 CTZ, 13 levels distributed in 3 non-Mediterranean European STZ, and 4 levels in 2
Mediterranean STZ (excluding the Caspian Sea).
Period IV:
Trade Fleets: CTZ Netherlands (6), plus 11 levels distributed in other 4 CTZ, 13 levels distributed in 3 non-Mediterranean European STZ, 5 levels in 2 Mediterranean
STZ (excluding the Caspian Sea), and 9 levels in 4 RoW
STZ.
Col: Batavia (1) in Java, Surabaya or Sumatra.
TP: Amboina (2) in Amboina, Ternate or Celebes.
Discoveries: Sea of Canarias, Sea of Azores, Windward Islands, Straits of Florida, Bermuda Triangle, Southern Atlantic Ocean, Sea of Natal, Gulf of Amazon, Sea of Recife,
Sea of Bahia, Rio de la Plata, all seas adjacent to Africa
and India, Western Indian Ocean, Eastern Indian Ocean,
Straits of Malaca, Southern China Sea, Straits of Formosa, Straits of Sunda, Sea of Java, Australian Sea, Sea
of Timor, Areas Java, Surabaya, Sumatra, Amboina,
Ternate, Celebes.
Period V:
Trade Fleets: CTZ Netherlands (6), plus 12 levels distributed in other 4 CTZ, 13 levels distributed in 3 non-Mediterranean European STZ, 6 levels in 2 Mediterranean
STZ (excluding the Caspian Sea), and 14 levels in 4 RoW
STZ.
Col: Batavia (3) in Java, Surabaya or Sumatra.
New Amsterdam (2) in America, Carolina or Maine.
Curaçao (1): Guiana or Belem.
St Marten (2): Antilles, Haiti, Cuba, Costa Rica.
Kaapstadt (1): Cap, Namib, Mozambica.
Mauritius (1): Mascareignes, Seychelles, Madagascar.
TP: Goree (3) in Senegal or Gold Coast.
Fort Breda (2) in Ivory Coast or Cameroun.
Fort van Wyck (1) in St Helena.
Mahe (1) in Malabar or Gujarat.
Fort Oranje (1) in Bengale or Orissa.
Trincomalee (5) in Ceylan or Carnatic.
Tindore (1) in Ternate, Amboina or Celebes.
Amboina (2) in Amboina, Ternate or Celebes.
Fort Amstel (4) in Malaya or Siam.
Makassar (2) in Celebes, Amboina or Ternate.
Padang (2) in Ajeh.
Zeelandia (1) in Formosa or Shangai (unless Events
Closure of China, and Occupation of Formosa by
China prevent the placement).
Discoveries: all seas except Sea of Alaska, Areas Java,
Surabaya, Sumatra, Amboina, Ternate, Celebes, Senegal,
Gold Coast, Ivory Coast, Cameroun, St Helena, Formosa.
Period VI:
Trade Fleets: CTZ Netherlands (6).
Col: Batavia (5) in Java, Surabaya or Sumatra.
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Alternative Scenarios Booklet
EVENTS
-. “Revolt of the United Provinces”. Prior to this Event,
the country Netherlands does not exist. When it occurs,
follow the usual rules to decide who controls this country. The Truce does not allow this minor to attack Portuguese Col/TP.
-. “Veerenigte Ooostindische Company”: no effect.
-. “Creation of the Amsterdam Stock Exchange”: no effect.
-. “The Thirty Years War”: Netherlands DoWs Spain on a
roll of 6 or more on 1d10.
-. “Act of Navigation”: if Dutch trade fleets are eliminated,
Netherlands DoWs England immediately if it is at peace,
or on a roll of 6 or more in 1d10 in any subsequent turn
in which it is not engaged in another war, until the end of
the Period.
-. “Closure of Japan”: place immediately the Dutch TP
Deshima (3) in a free province in Japan (if one is available). The Dutch bid is 10 x 2d10; roll after all players
have made their bids.
-. “Dutch Colonial Dynamism”: no effect.
-. “The War of Devolution”: If England DoWs France,
Netherlands automatically activate as an English ally,
and is placed in its EW box. England receives the +5
bonus for Sweden.
-. “Chambers of Reunion”: place Netherlands in the English EW box.
-. “The War of the League of Augsburg”: place Netherlands and Sweden in the English EW box.
-. “De Witt”: no effect.
-. “War of the Spanish Succession”: Netherlands DoWs
Spain if at least other player does. It is placed in the English EW box, or in French EW box if England didn't DoW.
-. “Heinsius / Kaunitz”: no effect.
REINFORCEMENTS
During the Logistics Phase of the Revolt Turn, Netherlands rolls for Reinforcements once in each attitude (Offensive, Defensive and Naval), with an extra modifier of
+3, in addition to the income modifier.
For the rest of Periods III, IV and V, Netherlands always
rolls for Reinforcements, even if the controlling player
rolled for other minors. It does so in Naval, in addition to
any other attitude the controlling player chooses, with a
modifier of +2, plus the income modifier. It is possible to
roll two times in Naval.
OTHER RULES
At start of the Redeployment Phase, the player that decided to start a flood loses 5 VP for each Dutch flooded
province.
If Dutch Col/TP are annexed by another country, Netherlands will still replace them if they are listed on the Minimum Forces in later Periods.
B.4.3. Portugal
MINIMUM FORCES
At start of each Period, check if Netherlands has the indicated items. If not, the controlling player places them
and runs any mandatory competition that arises.
Col/TP are placed in any free coastal province of the indicated area. If no coastal province is available, the
Col/TP is not placed at all.
If the named establishment has been placed in the
second or further preferred area, and in a later Period
one with higher priority becomes available, leave it where
it is.
Campaign Scenarios
At start of Period I, setup Portuguese trade fleets and
Col/TP as indicated in the 1492-1519 Campaign.
Period II
Trade Fleets: STZ Irish Sea (2), STZ Gulf of Guinea (3),
STZ Sea of Oman (2), STZ Eastern Indian Ocean (2), STZ
Straits of Formosa (1).
Col: La Praya (3) in Cape Verde.
Natal (1) in Recife, Belem or Bahia.
Luanda (1) in Angola, Congo or Gabon.
Beira (1) in Mozambica or Tanganica.
Goa (3) in Malabar (in province with city of Goa).
TP: Elmina (6) in Gold Coast.
Sofala (1) in Sofala.
Timor (1) in Amboina, Celebes or Ternate.
Ternate (1) in Ternate, Celebes or Amboina.
Malacca (2) in Malaya or Siam.
Ormuz (1) in Persian province Ormuz.
Discoveries: Sea of Canarias, Sea of Azores, Sea of Natal,
Sea of Recife, Sea of Bahia, South Central Atlantic
Ocean, Southern Atlantic Ocean, all seas adjacent to
Africa and India, Persian Gulf, Straits of Malacca, Straits
of Sunda, Sea of Java, Sea of Timor, Southern China
Sea, Straits of Formosa, Northern China Sea, Areas Cape
Verde, Belem, Recife, Bahia, Rio, Gold Coast, Cameroun,
Gabon, Congo, Angola, Mozambica, Tanganica, Sofala,
Malaya, Siam, Celebes, Ternate, Amboina.
Period III
Trade Fleets: STZ Irish Sea (2), STZ Gulf of Guinea (3),
STZ Sea of Oman (3), STZ Eastern Indian Ocean (4), STZ
Straits of Formosa (3).
Col: La Praya (3) in Cape Verde.
Natal (5) in Recife, Belem or Bahia.
Luanda (4) in Angola, Congo or Gabon.
Beira (3) in Mozambica or Tanganica.
Goa (4) in Malabar (province with Goa city)
Belem (5) in Belem, Recife or Bahia.
Salvador (6) in Bahia, Recife or Belem.
Rio de Janeiro (6) in Rio, Bahia or Recife.
TP: Elmina (6) in Gold Coast.
Sofala (3) in Sofala.
Timor (3) in Amboina, Celebes or Ternate.
Ternate (3) in Ternate, Celebes or Amboina.
Malacca (3) in Malaya or Siam.
Macao (6) in Canton or Shangai.
Colombo (6) in Ceylan.
Diu (3) in Punjab or Gujarat.
Discoveries: the same as in Period II.
EVENTS
-. “Conflict in the Indian Ocean”: as long as Turkey does
not attack Portuguese units and provinces in the European Map, Portugal would do the same.
-. “Portuguese Colonial Dynamism”: no effect.
REINFORCEMENTS
During Periods I and II, Portugal always rolls for Reinforcements when at war, even if the controlling player
rolled for other minors.
OTHER RULES
Do not place the glodmines in Elmina.
There is no VP award for discovering any sea or province
listed in the Discoveries made by Portugal at start of Period II. There is no award for discovering the first
province of Asia.
Europa Universalis
Alternative Scenarios Booklet
If Portuguese Col/TP are annexed by another country,
Netherlands will still replace them if they are listed on
the Minimum Forces in later Periods.
B.4.4. Russia
MINIMUM FORCES
At start of each Period, check if Russia has the indicated
items. If not, the controlling player places them and runs
any mandatory competition that arises.
Campaign Scenarios
Provinces: Ural, Tula, Newa, Orel, Smolensk, Worones,
Kazan, Astrakhan, Steppes, Kharkow, Azow, Kouban.
Period VII
Trade Fleets: CTZ Russia (3), STZ Baltic (3), STZ Black
Sea (3), STZ Straits of Formosa (1), STZ Caspian Sea (5).
Col/TP are placed in any free province of the indicated
area. If no province is available, the Col/TP is not placed
at all.
Col: Perm (6) in Sibir.
Omsk (6) in Omsk.
Tomsk (4) in Ienisseisk.
Krasnoyarsk (3) in Lena.
Irkoutsk (3) in Baikal.
Yakoutsk (2) in Baikal.
Novosibirsk (1) in Amour.
If the named establishment has been placed in the
second or further preferred area, and in a later Period
one with higher priority becomes available, leave it where
it is.
TP: Tobolsk (2) in Lena.
Nerchiinsk (4) in Baikal.
Petropavlosk (2) in Kamchatka.
Sitka (2) in Alaska.
Provinces will be immediately annexed provided that they
do not belong to a Major Power, that no land or naval
unit is present, and that Russia will form a continuous
territory.
Discoveries: Areas Sibir, Omsk, Ienisseisk, Lena, Baikal,
Kamchatka, Amour, Alaska, Sea of Okhotsk, Northern
Pacific Ocean, Caspian Sea, Grand Pacific Ocean (both
seas), North Eastern Pacific Ocean, Sea of Alaska, Northern China Sea, Straits of Formosa, Sea of Philippines,
Southern China Sea.
Period IV
Col: Perm (4) in Sibir.
Omsk (2) in Omsk.
Tomsk (2) in Ienisseisk.
Krasnoyarsk (1) in Lena.
Provinces: same as Period VI.
TP: Tobolsk (2) in Lena.
Nerchiinsk (4) in Baikal.
Petropavlosk (2) in Kamchatka.
EVENTS
-. “Poland/Russia War”: If Poland is at peace, it attacks
Russia. Otherwise, re-roll. If Russia is at war against another player, he/she will control Poland. Otherwise, the
diplomatic counters of both countries are placed in the
Neutrals box and no diplomacy is allowed with them during 1 Turn.
-. “War in Siberia”: no effect.
-. “The Time of Troubles in Russia”: Russia offers immediately a White Peace to all its enemies and its Diplomatic marker is moved to the Neutrals Box. No diplomacy is
allowed with Russia for 5 Turns.
-. “Peter the Great”: St Petersburg will be built 5 turns
later.
-. “Treaty of Nertchiinsk”: Russia accepts the treaty.
-. “The Great Northern War”: The event lasts 4 Turns.
Russia is controlled by England. No diplomacy is allowed
with Russia, Sweden, Poland, Saxony and Denmark. At
the end of the war, Russia annexes Estonia, Livonia and
Courlande, provided that it controls the fortress. For
each one, England receives 10 VP. If Turkey enters the
war, it can always try a separate peace with Russia, even
in the 4th Turn of war. In any case, Turkey will always get
a White Peace at the end of the 4th turn if the player does
not want to continue the war.
-. “The War of Polish Succession”: Saxony and Russia are
played by Austria. If there is no Austrian player, England
controls all of them and VP awards for Russia are given
to the English player instead.
-. “The Seven Years War”: Russia enters the war on the
3rd Round of the first Turn. At the Peace Phase of the
second Turn, Russia offers a Separate White Peace.
-. “Revolt of Pougatchev”: no effect.
-. “First Division of Poland”: Russia is controlled by England, and it always DoWs if it has a CB.
-. “Second Division of Poland”: same as above.
-. “The Confederation of Bar in Poland”: in case of war,
Russia, Austria and Prussia are controlled by England.
-. “Potemkine”: no effect.
Discoveries: Areas Sibir, Omsk, Ienisseisk, Lena, Baikal,
Kamchatka, Amour, Sea of Okhotsk, Northern Pacific
Ocean, Caspian Sea, Grand Pacific Ocean (both seas),
North Eastern Pacific Ocean.
REINFORCEMENTS
During Periods III to VII, Russia always rolls for reinforcements, even if the controlling player rolled for other
minors.
TP: Tobolsk (2) in Lena.
Discoveries: Areas Sibir, Omsk, Ienisseisk, Lena.
Provinces: Ural, Tula, Newa, Orel, Smolensk, Worones,
Kazan, Astrakhan, Steppes, Kharkow.
Period V
Col: Perm (6) in Sibir.
Omsk (4) in Omsk.
Tomsk (3) in Ienisseisk.
Krasnoyarsk (2) in Lena.
Irkoutsk (2) in Baikal.
TP: Tobolsk (2) in Lena.
Nerchiinsk (2) in Baikal.
Petropavlosk (2) in Kamchatka.
Discoveries: Areas Sibir, Omsk, Ienisseisk, Lena, Baikal,
Kamchatka, Sea of Okhotsk, Northern Pacific Ocean,
Caspian Sea.
Provinces: same as Period IV.
Period VI
Trade Fleets: CTZ Russia (1)
Col: Perm (6) in Sibir.
Omsk (6) in Omsk.
Tomsk (3) in Ienisseisk.
Krasnoyarsk (3) in Lena.
Irkoutsk (3) in Baikal.
Yakoutsk (2) in Baikal.
Novosibirsk (1) in Amour.
Europa Universalis
Alternative Scenarios Booklet
Roll with a modifier of +1 during Period IV, +2 during Period V, and +3 during Periods VI and VII, in addition to
income modifier.
OTHER RULES
There is no VP award for discovering Siberian provinces,
including Kamchatka.
The Event “Peter the Great” will take effect at start of Period VI, if it didn't take place before.
Optional: allow Diplomacy with Russia for Periods III to
VII, using the following values: RM: 3, Subs: -70, MA: 2,
EC: 3, EW: 4, VA & AN: Impossible, Fidelity: 9.
Russia will never cede voluntarily the provinces Newa
and Urals. Turkey cannot conquer its capital.
Sibir minor is destroyed at end of Period III.
Campaign Scenarios
ENGLAND - PLAYER’S OBJECTIVES
PERIOD I – 1492-1519
Scotland Vassal half of turns of this Period (start/end turn in Vassal)
Calais still English at end of Period
Gascogne English at end of Period
Guyenne English at end of Period
Each other vassal minor or other new province in continental Europe
4 manufactures
No revolt in Ireland at end of Period
PERIOD II – 1520-1559
Scotland Vassal half of turns of this Period (start/end turn in Vassal)
Calais English at end of Period
Each other vassal minor or other new province in continental Europe
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x 2
Each Colony or TP. Protestant: x 2
6 manufactures
No revolt in Ireland at end of Period
PERIOD III – 1560-1614
Scotland Vassal half of turns of this Period (start/end turn in Vassal)
Each other vassal minor or new province in continental Europe
England not forced to change religion during current Period
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x 2
Each Colony or TP. Protestant: x 2
6 manufactures including 1 Cereal
Netherlands not reconverted by Spain in this Period (NA if Spain is
Protestant)
PERIOD IV– 1615-1664
Scotland Vassal half of turns of this Period (start/end turn in Vassal)
Each other vassal minor or new province in continental Europe
England not forced to change religion during current Period
Total Monopoly of CTZ England
Each Colony or TP. In India, TPs x 2
8 manufactures including 1 Art and 2 Cereal
Atlantic Trade Center
PERIOD V– 1665-1699
Scotland Vassal half of turns of this Period (start/end turn in Vassal)
Monopoly of Fisheries
England not forced to change religion during current Period
Total Monopoly of CTZ England
Each Colony or TP. In India, TPs x 2
9 manufactures including 2 Art and 2 Cereal
Atlantic Trade Center
PERIOD VI – 1700-1759
Scotland in Annexation and Hannover in Vassal at end of Period
Each monopoly of Fisheries and Tobacco. Penalty if none
England not forced to change religion by Jacobite Rebellion. NA if event
never happens
Each new province in Europe. Gibraltar x4, Baleares x3
Each Colony or TP. In India, TPs x 2 if no more than 3 non-English TPs.
10 manufactures including 4 Metal and 2 Cereal
Victory in War of Spanish Succession (+25 if Asiento obtained). VPs given
when Event ends, even in other Period. NA if Event never happens
PERIOD VII – 1760-1792
Scotland in Annexation and Hannover in Vassal at end of Period
Each Monopoly of Fisheries, Tobacco, Cotton and Sugar
Victory in War of Independency of the Colonies. NA if Event never happens
Each province in Europe. Gibraltar x4, Baleares x3
Each Colony or TP. In India, TPs x 2 if no more than 3 non-English TPs.
12 manufactures including 2 Instruments
Atlantic Trade Center
A
15
5
20
25
10
15
5
A
15
10
10
3
5
15
5
A
15
10
20
3
5
15
25
B
10
3
10
20
5
10
3
B
10
5
7
2
3
10
3
B
10
5
15
2
3
10
20
C
5
2
50
15
3
5
2
C
5
3
5
1
2
5
2
C
5
3
10
1
2
5
15
D
3
1
3
10
2
3
1
D
3
2
3
0
1
3
1
D
3
2
5
0
1
3
10
Penalty
-10
-5
-10
-20
-2
0
0
Penalty
-10
-5
0
0
0
0
0
Penalty
-10
-5
-10
0
0
0
-30
A
15
10
20
25
5
15
25
A
15
20
20
25
5
15
25
A
25
20
50
B
10
5
15
15
3
10
20
B
10
15
15
15
3
10
20
B
20
15
40
C
5
3
10
10
2
5
15
C
5
10
10
10
2
5
15
C
15
10
30
D
3
2
5
5
1
3
10
D
3
5
5
5
1
3
10
D
10
5
20
Penalty
-10
-5
-10
-20
0
0
-30
Penalty
-10
-5
-10
-20
0
0
-30
Penalty
-30
-5
-30
10
3
15
25
5
2
10
20
3
1
5
15
2
0
3
10
0
0
0
-30
A
25
20
50
5
3
15
25
B
20
15
40
3
2
10
20
C
15
10
30
2
1
5
15
D
10
5
20
1
0
3
10
Penalty
-30
-5
-30
0
0
0
-30
END GAME VICTORY POINTS
I. Negative if not achieved:
-. Largest number of warships: 150
-. Income x5: Tyne (5), Solvay (7), Highlands (4),
-. Defensive or Offensive Alliance with Austrian
Hebrides (3)
Player: 30
-. Income x2 (vassal or annexed): Calais (4), Baleares
-. Prussia in Military Alliance or higher: 20
(3), Bremen (5), Corfu (2), Hannover (11), Oldenburg
-. 4 Colonies with 6 lvls each in adjacent provinces of
(4)
America, with no revolt: 150
-. Gibraltar: 50
-. Atlantic Trade Center: 100
II. No VP cost if not achieved:
-. Income value of Colonies and TPs (resources
included, gold excluded), and other provinces in
European Map (excluding National and those
mentioned above).
-. Each group of 10 levels of Trade Fleets: 10
FRANCE - PLAYER’S OBJECTIVES
PERIOD I – 1492-1519
Each new province annexed in Italy. NA if Protestant
Each minor Vassal in Europe. In Italy x2 unless Protestant
Each new province , except Calais and Artois
Calais French
Artois French
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x 2
Sole Defender of Catholic Faith. NA if Protestant
PERIOD II – 1520-1559
Each new province annexed in Italy. NA if Protestant
Each Vassal in Europe. In Italy x2 unless Protestant
Each new province , except Calais
Calais French
Each Colony or TP. Protestant: x2
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x 2
Win an Election to HRE this Period. NA if event never happens
PERIOD III – 1560-1614
Each new province in Europe. Italy x2 unless Protestant. Calais x3.
Each Vassal in Europe. In Italy x2.
No French 1492 National province lost in 1614
2 Art manufacture units
Each Colony or TP. Protestant: x3
Each new side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x 2
Each French War of Religion won. Protestant: x2. Penalty for each defeat
PERIOD IV – 1615-1664
Each new province in Europe. Germany x2, Nord x3.
HRE not controlled by Habsburg after 30 Years War. NA if event does not
end this Period
No French 1492 National province lost in 1664
8 manufactures, including 2 Wine
Each Colony or TP. Protestant: x2. America: x2 (cummulative)
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x 2
Each French War of Religion won. Protestant: x2. Penalty for each defeat
PERIOD V – 1665-1699
Each new province in Europe. If Spanish at start of Period: x3
Versailles Palace built before 1699. NA if Protestant or Event never happens
Mediterranean Trade Center
10 manufactures, including 3 Arts
Each Colony or TP. Protestant: x2. America: x2 (cummulative)
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x 2
Each new province adjacent to Dutch nationals or French 1665 border. Penalty if none
PERIOD VI – 1700-1759
Each new province in Europe. If Spanish at start of Period: x3
Victory in War of Spanish Succession (+25 if Asiento obtained). VPs assigned
when Event ends, even if in other Period. NA if Event never happens
Mediterranean Trade Center
12 manufactures, including 2 Metal
Each Colony or TP. India: x3. America: x2
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x 2
Each new province adjacent to Dutch nationals or French 1665 border. Penalty if none
PERIOD VII – 1760-1792
Each new province in Europe
Victory in War of Polish Succession. NA if Protestant or event never happens
Mediterranean Trade Center
14 manufactures, including 4 Metal
Each Colony or TP. India: x3. America: x2
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x 2
Regime not overthrown by French Revolution. NA if Event never happens
A
20
5
10
20
15
3
25
A
20
5
10
20
5
3
35
A
10
5
40
20
5
3
15
A
10
B
10
3
5
15
10
2
20
B
10
3
5
15
4
2
25
B
5
3
20
15
4
2
10
B
5
C
6
2
3
10
5
1
15
C
6
2
3
10
3
1
20
C
3
2
10
10
3
1
5
C
3
D
4
1
2
5
3
0
10
D
4
1
2
5
2
0
15
D
2
1
5
5
2
0
3
D
2
Penalty
0
0
0
-15
-10
0
-10
Penalty
0
0
0
-15
0
0
-15
Penalty
0
0
-10
-15
0
0
-5
Penalty
0
40
35
30
25
-50
15
10
5
3
15
A
5
40
30
10
3
3
25
A
5
10
5
4
2
10
B
3
35
20
5
2
2
20
B
3
5
3
3
1
5
C
2
30
10
3
1
1
15
C
2
3
2
2
0
3
D
1
25
5
2
0
0
10
D
1
-20
0
0
0
-5
Penalty
0
-50
-20
0
0
0
-15
Penalty
0
50
40
30
20
-30
30
10
3
3
25
A
5
40
30
10
5
3
30
20
5
2
2
20
B
3
30
20
5
4
2
25
10
3
1
1
15
C
2
20
10
3
3
1
20
5
2
0
0
10
D
1
10
5
20
2
0
10
-20
0
0
0
-15
Penalty
0
-20
-20
0
0
0
-15
END GAME VICTORY POINTS
-. Largest number of warships: 100
I. Negative if not achieved:
-. Largest number of Vet land SPs: 50
-. Five times income of province: Hainaut (10),
-. Defensive or Offensive Alliance with Austrian
Flanders (9), Luxemburg (6), Catalonia (6), Milan
Player: 30
(12), Gueldre (9), Nice (3)
-. Prussia in Military Alliance or higher: 20
-. Two times income of province: Lorraine (7), Alsace
-. 4 Colonies with 6 lvls each in adjacent Areas of
(9), Artois (6), Nord (5), Corsica (3), Franche-Comte
America or India, with no revolt: 100
(5), Roussillon (4), Calais (4).
-. Atlantic Trade Center: 100. Mediterranean Trade
II. No VP cost if not achieved:
Center: 100.
-. Income value of Colonies and TPs (resources
included, gold excluded), and other provinces in
European Map (excluding National and those
mentioned above).
-. Each group of 10 levels of Trade Fleets: 10
VENICE, NETHERLANDS - PLAYER’S OBJECTIVES
PERIOD I – 1492-1519 VENICE
Each province in Italy, including nationals
Each Vassal in Europe. Italy: x2
Each new province, except Italy, Hellas and Albania
Hellas Venetian
Albania Venetian
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)]
Mameluks minor not conquered by Turkey
PERIOD II – 1520-1559 VENICE
Each province in Italy, including nationals
Each Vassal in Europe. Italy: x2
Monopoly in CTZ Turkey
No Portuguese TP in India
Morea Venetian
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)]
Mameluks minor not conquered by Turkey. NA if Mameluks disappeared in Period I
PERIOD III – 1560-1614 NETHERLANDS
6 manufactures, including 2 Instruments
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] RoW: x2
Each Colony or TP. Asia: x2
Recognition from Spain. NA if no United Provinces Revolt occurs
England is Protestant in 1614
Each province in Europe, including nationals. Flanders, Hainaut x3
Protestant Victory in Wars of Religion in France or Spain at end of Period. NA if
event never happens
PERIOD IV– 1615-1664 NETHERLANDS
7 manufactures, including 2 Instruments
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] RoW: x2
Each Colony or TP. Asia: x2
Recognition from Spain. NA if no United Provinces Revolt was in effect this Period
English “Navigation Act” is abolished. NA if never in effect this Period
Each new province in Europe. Flanders, Hainaut x3
Largest producer of Spices and No-non Dutch TP in India
PERIOD V– 1665-1699 NETHERLANDS
8 manufactures, including 2 Instruments
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] RoW: x2
Each Colony or TP. Asia: x2, America: x3
No French province adjacent to Netherlands national provinces
English “Navigation Act” is abolished. NA if never in effect this Period
Atlantic Trade Center
Largest producer of Spices and No-non Dutch TP in India
PERIOD VI – 1700-1759 NETHERLANDS
11 manufactures, including 2 Instruments and 2 Arts
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] RoW: x2
Each Colony or TP. Asia, America: x2
No French province adjacent to Netherlands national provinces
Victory in War of Spanish Succession (+25 if Asiento obtained). VPs assigned when
Event ends, even if in other Period. NA if Event never happens
Atlantic Trade Center
Largest producer of Spices, Slaves and Products of Orient (each one)
PERIOD VII – 1760-1792 NETHERLANDS
12 manufactures, including 2 Tissu and 2 Metal
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] RoW: x2
Each Colony or TP. Asia: x2, America: x3
No French province adjacent to Netherlands national provinces
Habsburg dissociated from Spain, and Flanders and Hainaut are Austrian or
Dutch. NA if War of Spanish Succession never occurs
Atlantic Trade Center
Largest producer of Spices, Slaves and Products of Orient (each one)
A
10
5
15
20
15
2
20
A
10
5
15
20
15
2
20
A
10
5
10
30
40
5
B
5
3
10
15
10
1
15
B
5
3
10
15
10
1
15
B
5
3
5
25
30
3
C
3
2
5
10
5
0
10
C
3
2
5
10
5
0
10
C
3
2
3
20
20
2
D
2
1
3
5
3
0
5
D
2
1
3
5
3
0
5
D
2
1
2
10
10
1
Penalty
0
0
0
-15
-10
0
-10
Penalty
0
0
0
-15
-10
0
-10
Penalty
0
0
0
-15
-30
0
20
15
10
5
-10
A
10
5
7
30
40
5
50
A
10
5
5
30
40
50
50
A
15
5
5
30
B
5
3
5
25
30
3
40
B
5
3
4
25
30
40
40
B
10
3
4
25
C
3
2
3
20
20
2
30
C
3
2
3
20
20
30
30
C
5
2
3
20
D
2
1
2
10
10
1
20
D
2
1
2
10
10
20
20
D
3
1
2
10
Penalty
0
0
0
-15
-30
0
-40
Penalty
0
0
0
-15
-30
-15
-40
Penalty
0
0
0
-15
40
30
20
10
-30
50
15
A
15
5
5
30
40
10
B
10
3
4
25
30
5
C
5
2
3
20
20
3
D
3
1
2
10
-15
0
Penalty
0
0
0
-15
40
30
20
10
-30
50
15
40
10
30
5
20
3
-15
0
NETHERLAND END GAME VICTORY POINTS
(Only if Netherlands not transferred to Austria)
-. Largest or second largest number of warships: 150
I. Negative if not achieved:
-. Largest or second largest number of land SPs: 20
-. Income x5: Hainaut (10), Flanders (9), Luxemburg (6),
-. Control of 10 European minors in Military Alliance or
Nord (5). Bonus +100 if all controlled.
higher: 20
-. Income x2: Artois (6), Oldenburg (4), Munster (6),
-. 4 Colonies with 6 lvls each in adjacent Areas of America,
Bremen (5)
India or Asia with no revolt: 150
II. No VP cost if not achieved:
-. Atlantic Trade Center: 100.
-. Income value of Colonies and TPs (resources included,
gold excluded), and other provinces in European Map
(excluding National and those mentioned above).
-. Each group of 10 levels of Trade Fleets: 10
AUSTRIA - PLAYER’S OBJECTIVES
PERIOD VI – 1700-1759 AUSTRIA
5 manufactures at end of Period, including 2 Metal
Magyar and Serbia Austrian
Schliesen Austrian
Each of Napoli, Luxemburg, Sicilia and Pouilles
Victory in War of Spanish Succession. VPs assigned when Event ends, even if in
other Period. NA if Event never happens
Istria Austrian and Venice in MA or higher
Offensive and Defensive Alliance with France or England from 1730 to end of Period
(an alliance must be in effect at end of each Diplomatic Phase)
PERIOD VII – 1760-1792 AUSTRIA
8 manufactures, including 4 Metal
Magyar, Moldavia, Wallachia and Serbia Austrian
Schliesen Austrian
Each of Napoli, Luxemburg, Sicilia and Pouilles, unless already controlled in 1700
Bayern in MA or higher
Istria Austrian and Venice in MA or higher
Each new province taken on Poland. Majority of Polish provinces (at start of Period)
are Austrian: x2
AUSTRIA END GAME VICTORY POINTS
I. Negative if not achieved:
-. Income x10: Magyar (10), Pecs (6), Transylvania (5),
Carpathia (3), Ruthenia (2), Marozs (2), Banat (3). Bonus
of +200 if all controlled.
-. Income x5: Hainaut (10), Flanders (9), Luxemburg (6),
Serbia (4), Milan (12), Gueldre (9), Wallachia (6), Krakow
(6), Galicja (7), Moldavia (5), Volhynia (3), Bosnia (3).
Bonus of +100 if all controlled.
-. Income x2 (annexed or vassal): Lorraine (7), Alsace (8),
Artois (6), Nord (5), Illyria (3), Styria (3), Raguse (2),
Kossovo (3).
II. No VP cost if not achieved:
-. Income value of other provinces in European Map
(excluding National and those mentioned above).
-. Largest number of land SP: 20
-. Defensive or Offensive Alliance with French Player: 30
-. Defensive or Offensive Alliance with Russian Player: 50
-. Prussia in MA or higher: 20
A
20
40
15
15
B
15
30
10
10
C
10
20
5
5
D
5
10
2
2
Penalty
-10
-30
0
0
50
35
20
10
-15
15
10
5
3
0
10
5
3
2
-5
A
20
40
15
10
10
15
B
15
30
10
5
5
10
C
10
20
5
3
3
5
D
5
10
2
2
2
3
Penalty
-10
-30
0
0
0
0
10
7
5
3
0
PORTUGAL, RUSSIA - PLAYER’S OBJECTIVES
PERIOD I – 1492-1519 PORTUGAL
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)]
Each Colony or TP except in Goa
Colony in Goa
Tanger Portuguese
Morocco Vassal half of turns of this Period (start/end turn in Vassal)
Monopoly in STZ Irish Sea
Be the first player to discover a province in non-continental Asia
PERIOD II – 1520-1559 PORTUGAL
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)]
Each Colony or TP in Africa and Asia
Each Colony in America. If there are 3 or more, x2
Tanger not annexed by other country
Morocco Vassal half of turns of this Period (start/end turn in Vassal)
Monopoly in STZ Irish Sea
No non-Portuguese TP in Asia (except Luzon)
PERIOD III – 1560-1614 RUSSIA
“Time of Troubles” lasts 3 or less turns, and is over before 1614. NA if event
never happens
Largest producer of Furs, with at least 8
Arquebuse Land Technology before 1600
Minor country Latvija annexed by Russia
Each new province (negative each province lost to Poland)
Minor country SIBIR conquered by Russia (at least 10 Russian colony levels)
Each Colony or TP
PERIOD IV – 1615-1664 RUSSIA
Lost no more than 1 Russian national province this Period
Largest producer of Furs, with at least 14
Guerre Baroque Land Technology before 1660
Minor country Latvija annexed by Russia
Each new province (negative each province lost to Poland)
Azow Russian
Each Colony or TP
PERIOD V – 1665-1699 RUSSIA
St Petersbourg built before 1700
Largest producer of Furs, with at least 17
Vessel Naval Technology before 1695
Reform of Russian Army before 1690
Each new province (negative each province lost to Poland or Sweden)
Crimea Russian.
Each Colony or TP. Alaska: x2
PERIOD VI – 1700-1759 RUSSIA
St Petersbourg built before 1715
Largest producer of Furs, with at least 20
Vessel Naval Technology before 1720
Reform of Russian Army before 1710
Each new province (negative each province lost to Poland or Sweden)
Crimea and Moldavia Russian
Each Colony or TP. Alaska: x2
PERIOD VII – 1760-1792 RUSSIA
Each new province taken on Poland. Majority of Polish provinces Russian: x2
Largest producer of Furs, with at least 26
Three Deckers Naval Technology before 1770
12 manufactures, including 2 Tissu and 2 Metal
Each new province (negative each province lost to Turkey or Sweden)
Each new province taken on China. Penalty if none
Each Colony or TP. Alaska: x2. California: x3
A
3
5
15
10
20
25
10
A
3
5
5
10
20
25
40
A
B
2
4
10
5
15
20
5
B
2
4
4
5
15
20
30
B
C
1
3
5
3
10
15
3
C
1
3
3
3
10
15
20
C
D
0
2
2
2
5
10
2
D
0
2
2
2
5
10
10
D
Penalty
0
0
-5
-10
-10
-20
-5
Penalty
0
0
0
-10
-10
-20
-30
Penalty
15
30
25
30
5
10
3
A
15
30
25
30
5
10
3
A
30
30
25
30
5
10
3
A
30
30
25
30
5
10
3
A
15
30
25
30
5
10
3
10
5
3
-10
20
20
20
3
5
2
B
10
20
20
20
3
5
2
B
20
20
20
20
3
5
2
B
20
20
20
20
3
5
2
B
10
20
20
20
3
5
2
10
15
15
2
3
1
C
5
10
15
15
2
3
1
C
15
10
15
15
2
3
1
C
15
10
15
15
2
3
1
C
7
10
15
15
2
3
1
5
10
10
1
2
0
D
3
5
10
10
1
2
0
D
10
5
10
10
1
2
0
D
10
5
10
10
1
2
0
D
5
5
10
10
1
2
0
-5
-20
-10
0
-10
0
Penalty
-10
-5
-20
-10
0
-10
0
Penalty
-10
-5
-20
-10
0
-10
0
Penalty
-10
-5
-20
-10
0
-10
0
Penalty
0
-5
-20
-10
0
-10
0
END GAME VICTORY POINTS
I. Negative if not achieved:
-. Income value of Colonies and TPs (resources included,
-. Income x5: Finland (5), Abo (3), Georgia (4), Azerbaijan (2),
gold excluded), and other provinces in European Map
Kouban (2), Armenia (3), Mazovia (8), Posen (7). Bonus +100
(excluding National and those mentioned above).
for all provinces.
-. Largest or second largest number of warships: 150
-. Income x2: Lithuania (7), Pripet (2), Seweria (4), Bielorussia
-. Largest number of land SPs: 20
(7), Moldavia (5), Bessarabia (4), Bug (4), Wallachia (6),
-. Defensive or Offensive Alliance with Austrian Player: 30
Estonia (4), Livonia (5), Courlande (6), Memel (4), Corfu (2),
-. Prussia in Military Alliance or higher: 20
Malta (2), Kerch (4), Azow (3), Donetsk (6), Crimea (4), Kaffa
-. 4 Colonies with 6 lvls each in adjacent areas of Siberia,
(4), Volhynia (3).
with no revolt: 150
II. No VP cost if not achieved:
-. 12 manufactures: 100
-. Each group of 10 lvls of Trade Fleets: 10
-. St Petersbourg is lvl 5: 50
-. Each province taken on China: 30
SPAIN - PLAYER’S OBJECTIVES
PERIOD I – 1492-1519
Each new province in Italy
Each Vassal in Europe. Italy: x2. Papacy: x3
No French Vassal or annexation in Italy
Each new province in North Africa
Each colony in America. Goldmine in colony: x2
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x2
Sole Defender of Catholic Faith. NA if protestant
PERIOD II – 1520-1559
Each new province in Italy
Each Vassal in Europe. Italy: x2. Papacy: x3. Knights: x4
No French Vassal or annexation in Italy
Each new province in North Africa
Eac colony in America. Goldmine in colony: x3
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x2
Sole Defender and France never wins an HRE Election this Period. NA if protestant
PERIOD III – 1560-1614
Each new province. Italy: x2, Portugal: x3
Each Vassal or Annexation in Europe. Italy: x2. Papacy: x3. Knights: x4
Habsburg controls capital and half of Hungary 1492 provinces. NA if
Inheritance never occurs
Each Dutch National province controlled. Penalty if none
Each colony in America. Goldmine in colony: x3
Each side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x2
Sole Defender and France never wins an HRE Election this Period. NA if protestant
PERIOD IV – 1615-1664
Each new province. Germany: x2, Portugal: x3
Each Vassal or Annexation in Europe. Germany: x2. Portugal: x4
Habsburg controls capital and half Hungarian 1492 provinces. NA if no Inheritance
HRE is vassal of Habsburg after 30 Years War. NA if event didn’t end this period
Each colony in America. Goldmine in colony: x3
Keep Portugal in Annexation in 1664
Each Dutch National province controlled. Penalty if none
PERIOD V – 1665-1699
Each non-natonal province of 1665 still controlled. Artois, Nord: x2
Each Vassal or Annexation in Europe. Germany: x2. Portugal: x4. Lorraine: x5
Habsburg controls capital and half Hungarian 1492 provinces. NA if no Inheritance
HRE is vassal of Habsburg after 30 Years War. NA if event never happens
Each colony in America. Goldmine in colony: x3
Each new province captured on France or Nederland. Penalty if none
No Colony in America South of Sonora (included) apart of Portuguese and Spanish
PERIOD VI – 1700-1759
Each province of 1700 still controlled. Flanders: x2. Naples: x3
Victory in War of Spanish Succession (Habsburg Heir: +25). NA if event never happens
Habsburg control of Magyar and Serbia. NA if dissociated
Monopoly in CTZ Spain, and Asiento not granted this Period
Each colony in America. Goldmine in colony: x3
6 manufactures, including 2 Art
No Colony in America South of Costa Rica, Cuba, Haiti, Antilles (excluded)
apart of Portuguese and Spanish
PERIOD VII – 1760-1792
Each province of 1760 still controlled. Flanders: x2. Naples: x3
Habsburg not dissociated from Spain. NA if War of Spanish Succession never occurs
Habsburg control of Magyar and Serbia. NA if dissociated
Monopoly in CTZ Spain, and Asiento not granted this Period
Each colony in America. North America: x3. California: x4
6 manufactures, icnluding 2 Cereal
Each new side (-) Trade Fleet [1 (+) = 2 (-)] Protestant: x2
END GAME VICTORY POINTS
I. Negative if not achieved:
-. Income x5: Zeeland (9), Brabant (14), Holland (16),
Friesen (7), Hainaut (10), Luxemburg (6), FrancheComte (5), Artois (6), Milano (12), Napoli (11), Sicilia
(6), Messina (3)
-. Income x2: Nord (5), Tunisia (5), Al-Djazair (5),
Orania (4), Roussillon (4), Pouilles (3).
II. No VP cost if not achieved:
-. Each group of 10 lvls of Trade Fleets: 10
-. Income value of Colonies and TPs (resources
included, gold excluded), and other provinces in
A
10
5
20
15
4
3
25
A
10
5
20
15
4
3
30
A
5
5
B
5
3
15
10
3
2
20
B
5
3
15
10
3
2
20
B
3
3
C
3
2
10
5
2
1
15
C
3
2
10
5
2
1
15
C
2
2
D
2
1
5
3
1
0
10
D
2
1
5
3
1
0
10
D
1
1
Penalty
0
0
-15
0
0
0
-10
Penalty
0
0
-15
0
0
0
-30
Penalty
0
0
30
25
20
10
-20
25
2
3
15
A
5
5
30
75
2
30
15
A
5
5
40
75
2
30
75
A
5
50
40
10
2
15
20
1
2
10
B
3
3
25
50
1
20
10
B
3
3
30
50
1
20
50
B
3
40
30
5
1
10
10
0
1
5
C
2
2
20
30
0
10
5
C
2
2
25
30
0
10
30
C
2
30
25
3
0
7
5
0
0
2
D
1
1
10
20
0
5
3
D
1
1
15
20
0
5
25
D
1
20
15
2
0
5
-20
0
0
-10
Penalty
0
0
-20
-50
0
-15
-10
Penalty
0
0
-20
-50
0
-15
-15
Penalty
0
-50
-20
0
0
-15
75
50
30
25
-15
A
5
75
40
10
2
25
3
B
3
50
30
5
1
20
2
C
2
30
25
3
0
15
1
D
1
20
15
2
0
10
0
Penalty
0
-50
-20
0
0
-15
0
European Map (excluding National and those
mentioned above).
-. Largest number of warships: 150
-. Largest number of land SP: 100
-. Defensive or Ofensive Alliance with Austrian
Player: 100
-. Habsburg/Austria minor in EW or higher: 100
-.Venice in MA or higher: 20
-. 4 Colonies with 6 lvls each, in adjacent provinces
of America, with no revolt: 150
-. No colony in America apart of Portuguese and
Spanish: 500
TURKEY - PLAYER’S OBJECTIVES
PERIOD I – 1492-1519
Each Muslim Vassal
Minor country Mameluks conquered
Monopoly in CTZ Turkey
Each Vassal in Europe. Hungary: x2. North Africa: x3
Each new province conquered to Persia
Each alliance with other player
Knights removed from Rhodes and conquest of this province
PERIOD II – 1520-1559
Each Muslim Vassal
Minor Country Hungary conquered
Control of Vienna at any time during current Period
Each Vassal. North Africa: x3. Oman and Aden: x4
Each new province (negative each province lost to Persia)
Astrakhan not conquered by Russia. NA if already conquered in 1520
Rhodes is Turkish
PERIOD III – 1560-1614
Each Muslim Vassal
Malta and Cyprus Turkish
Control of Vienna at any time during current Period
Each Vassal. North Africa: x3. Oman and Aden: x4
Each new province (negative each province lost to Persia)
Astrakhan not conquered by Russia. NA if already conquered in 1560
Each colony or TP. Asia: x2
PERIOD IV – 1615-1664
Each Muslim Vassal
Crete Turkish
Control of Vienna during current Period
Each Vassal. North Africa: x3. Oman and Aden: x4
Each new province (negative each province lost to Persia)
Crimea not conquered by Russia. NA if already conquered in 1615
Each colony or TP. Asia: x2
PERIOD V – 1665-1699
6 manufactures, including 1 Art, 1 Cereal
Crete Turkish
Control of Vienna during current Period
Each Vassal. North Africa: x3. Europe: x4
Each new province (negative each province lost to Persia)
Crimea not conquered by Russia. NA if already conquered in 1665
Each colony or TP. Asia: x2. Africa: x3
PERIOD VI – 1700-1759
8 manufactures, including 2 Metal, 2 Cereal
Corfu, Illyria and Dalmatia Turkish
Reform of Turkish Army done by 1730
Each Vassal. North Africa: x3. Europe: x4
Each new province (negative each province lost to Persia)
Crimea not conquered by Russia. NA if already conquered in 1700
Each colony or TP. Asia: x2. Africa: x3
PERIOD VII – 1760-1792
10 manufactures, including 3 Metal, 2 Art
Corfu, Illyria and Dalmatia Turkish
Reform of Turkish Army done by 1770
Each Vassal. North Africa: x3. Europe: x4. Egypt: x5
Each new province (negative each province lost to Persia)
Crimea not conquered by Russia. NA if already conquered in 1760
Each colony or TP. Asia: x2. Africa: x3
END GAME VICTORY POINTS
I. Negative if not achieved:
-. Income x10: Andalucia (7), Sierra Nevada (3), Tanger (2),
Gibraltar (1). Bonus +200 if all controlled.
-. Income x5: Malta (2), Sicilia (5), Messina (3), Corfu (2),
Rhodes (2), Crete (3), Cyprus (4), Alexandria (6)
-. Income x2 (annexed or vassal): Baleares (3), Sardinia (3),
Orania (3), Al-Djazair (5), Kabylia (4), Tunisia (5), Pecs (6),
Magyar (10), Transylvania (5), Carpathia (3), Galicja (7),
Krakow (6), Armenia (3), Kars (12), Kurdistan (4), Iraq (5),
Serbia (4), Croatia (2), Carinthia (4), Carniola (3), Erbland
(3), Bessarabia (4), Donetsk (6), Crimea (4), Azow (3),
Kouban (2), Arabia (3), Egypt (7). Bonus +100 if all
controlled.
A
20
30
15
5
10
3
15
A
20
30
15
5
10
20
15
A
20
25
15
5
3
20
5
A
20
25
15
5
3
20
5
A
15
25
15
5
15
20
5
A
20
25
30
5
15
20
5
A
20
25
30
5
15
20
5
B
15
20
10
3
7
2
10
B
15
20
10
3
7
15
10
B
15
15
10
3
2
15
4
B
15
15
10
3
2
15
4
B
10
15
10
3
10
15
4
B
15
15
20
3
10
15
4
B
15
15
20
3
10
15
4
C
10
15
5
2
5
1
7
C
10
15
5
2
5
10
7
C
10
10
5
2
1
10
3
C
10
10
5
2
1
10
3
C
5
10
5
2
5
10
3
C
10
10
15
2
5
10
3
C
10
10
15
2
5
10
3
D
5
10
3
1
3
0
5
D
5
10
3
1
3
5
5
D
5
5
3
1
0
5
2
D
5
5
3
1
0
5
2
D
3
5
3
1
3
5
2
D
5
5
10
1
3
5
2
D
5
5
10
1
3
5
2
Penalty
0
-20
-5
0
0
0
-15
Penalty
0
-20
-5
0
0
-10
-15
Penalty
0
-5
-5
0
0
-20
0
Penalty
0
-5
-10
0
0
-20
0
Penalty
-10
-5
-10
0
0
-20
0
Penalty
-10
-5
-30
0
0
-20
0
Penalty
-10
-5
-30
0
0
-20
0
II. No VP cost if not achieved:
-. Each group of 10 lvls of Trade Fleets: 10
-. Income value of Colonies and TPs (resources included,
gold excluded), and other provinces in European Map
(excluding National and those mentioned above).
-. Largest or second largest number of warships: 150
-. Largest number of land SP: 20
-. Defensive or Ofensive Alliance with Austrian Player: 30
-.Prussia in MA or higher: 20
-. 4 Colonies (+), in adjacent areas of Africa or Asia, with no
revolt: 150
-. Dentelles and Three-Deckers: 100
-. 10 manufactures: 100
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Europa Universalis
COMBAT VALUE & MORALE
Fire
Morale -1 forest, marsh, desert
Technology
Inf
Cav
Art
Frt
Inf
Cav
Art
Frt Vet +1 +#positive Fire difference
MEDIEVAL
0
0
na
0
1
2
na
cv
RENAISSANCE
Alternative
Combat Charts
Fire Phase:-1 attacker: mountain, river/landing
Shock/Board
1
LEADER INJURY
+1 Wind Gauge
0
0
2
lvl
1
2
2
cv
2
Optional: +1/-2 galley vs warship before 1615/after 1664
ARQUEBUSE
0,5
0
2
cv/2
1
2
2
cv
3
Shock/Board Phase:-1 attacker: mountain
MOUSQUET
1
0
2
cv
1
2
2
cv
3
-2 attacker: river/landing
BAR/MAN
1
0
2
cv
1
2
2
cv
3
-1 forest, marsh, desert
DENTELLES
1
0,5
2
cv
1
2
2
cv
3
+1 twice cavalry (clear or desert, no river/landing)
1st DR 2nd DR
Odd: Dead
1-
Even: Injured 2nd dr/2 rounds
2-10 Safe
Modifiers:
-1/-5 Break Morale / all units eliminated
TERCIOS
As per regular technology
+1
+# positive Shock/Board difference
TRANSPORT
0
1
--
+1 Wind Gauge
GALLEY
0,5
1
2
Optional: +1/-2 galley vs warship before 1615/after 1664
CARACK
1
1
1
Optional: -1 first combat vs Turkey before 1560
GAL/LS
1
1
2
(not Venice, Mmlk, Genoa, Knights)
BATT/VESSEL
1
1
3
Pursuit:roll on E column
THREE-DECK
1
1
4
-1 forest, marsh, desert
Roll when all units eliminated
Pasha Cav: always 0 Fire, 1 Shock
-1 attacker: mountain
Always captured after fortress surrender
Firepower:art halved in forest, marsh
-2 attacker: river/landing
-1 Fire or Board/Shock is 6
(except Marlborough and Friedrich II)
LEADER CAPTURE
1-5
Captured
6-10
Escape
Attacker art halved in mountain
+1 Wind Gauge
Captured king must be ransomed
Shockpower:Cav halved in forest, marsh, mountain
+# positive Move Difference
Captured leader return at Interphase
WIND GAUGE TABLE: dr + Move + Tech
LAND FIRE TABLE
Player
Player
Opponent Technology
Opponent Technology
Technology
GA
CAR
GLN
LS
BA
VE
T-D
GALLEY
na
+2
+1
0
0
-1
-2
CARACK
-2
0
0
-1
-1
-2
-3
GALLEON
-1
0
0
-1
-1
-1
-2
LATIN SAIL
0
+1
+1
0
0
-1
-2
Technology
MED
REN
ARQ
MOU
BAR
MAN
DEN
MEDIEVAL
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
RENAISSANCE
C
C
C
D
E
E
E
ARQUEBUSE
B
B
C
D
E
E
E
MOUSQUETS
A
B
B
C
D
E
E
BATTERY
0
+1
+1
0
0
0
-1
BAROQUE
A
B
B
B
B
D
D
VESSEL
+1
+2
+1
0
0
0
0
MANOEUVRE
A
A
A
B
B
B
C
THREE-DECK
+2
+3
+2
+1
+1
0
0
DENTELLES
A
A
A
A
A
B
B
Tech marker is 6 or more boxes ahead: +1
LAND SHOCK TABLE
Player
NAVAL FIRE TABLE
Opponent Technology
Player
Technology
MED
REN
ARQ
MOU
BAR
MAN
DEN
MEDIEVAL
H
H
H
H
I
J
J
RENAISSANCE
G
G
G
H
I
J
ARQUEBUSE
F
F
F
G
H
MOUSQUETS
F
F
F
F
BAROQUE
F
F
F
F
Opponent Technology
Technology
GA
CAR
GLN
LS
BA
VE
T-D
GALLEY
E
E
E
E
E
na
na
J
CARACK
E
C
D
E
E
E
na
I
J
GALLEON
B
A
B
B
C
D
E
H
I
J
LATIN SAIL
B
A
B
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
BATTERY
B
A
A
B
B
C
D
MANOEUVRE
F
F
F
F
F
F
G
VESSEL
B
A
A
B
B
C
C
DENTELLES
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
THREE-DECK
A
A
A
A
A
B
C
ASSAULT TABLE
NAVAL BOARDING TABLE
Opponent Technology
Attacker
FIRE
Technology
MED
REN
MEDIEVAL
na
na
REN+
B
C
Defender
SHOCK
ARQ+
MED
REN
na
B
B
C
D
A
B
C
FIRE
Technology
MED
REN
MEDIEVAL
na
na
REN+
A
A
Player
ARQ+
SHOCK
ARQ+
Opponent Technology
Technology
ARQ+
GA
CAR
GLN
LS
BA
VE
T-D
GALLEY
A
A
B
C
D
E
E
CARACK
E
B
C
D
D
E
E
GALLEON
B
A
B
B
C
D
E
LATIN SAIL
B
A
B
B
C
C
D
BATTERY
B
A
B
B
B
C
D
MED
REN
na
A
A
A
VESSEL
B
A
A
B
B
C
C
A
A
A
A
THREE-DECK
A
A
A
A
A
B
C
SIEGE TABLE
COMBAT RESULT TABLE
Die
Opponent Losses
Roll
A
3-
B
-
C
E
-
-
-
-
-
-
10%
5%
5%
15%
10%
10%
25%*
20%*
15%*
15%
8
30%*
25%*
20%*
9
40%**
30%**
25%**
10
50%***
40%***
11
60%***
12
70%***
13
14+
90%**** 80%**** 70%**** 60%***
4
5%
5
10%
6
20%*
7
-
D
5%
F
G
-
H
-
I
DR
RESULT
Modifiers:
Roll
0-
Attrition
-# lvl
1-3
--
4-6
Usure (-)
-2 unblock port
7-9
Usure (+)
-# Siege of a besieged leader
-
-
3-
-
-
4
5%
5%
5%
5
10%*
10%
10%
6
20%**
15%*
15%
10%
7
30%***
25%**
20%**
20%*
20%
8
40%***
30%***
25%**
20%*
20%
9
30%***
25%**
25%*
10
Attrition
+1 per besieged LD
30%*
60%**** 50%**** 40%***
30%**
30%*
11
Column: # rounds
+2 per besieged Army
40%**
30%**
70%**** 60%**** 50%**** 40%***
40%**
12
dr modifiers:
+1 besieger art more than lvl
50%***
40%**
80%**** 70%**** 60%**** 50%***
50%**
13
+2 non clear terrain
+1 besieger art double lvl
50%***
90%**** 80%**** 70%**** 60%**** 50%***
14+
-# besieger leader
+# Siege of a besieger leader
5%
5%
5%
10%*
10%
10%
20%**
15%*
10%
25%***
20%
15%
20%*
20%
30%***
25%*
25%
50%**** 40%***
50%***
40%***
30%**
60%***
50%***
80%**** 70%***
60%***
-
J
Die
5%
-2 non clear terrain
10-11
Breach
+2 per previous breach
12
Honors
+1 per Usure (-)
13+
Surrender
+2 per Usure (+)
INVESTMENT TABLE
COST/BONUS
ACTION
Passive Campaign
10
Simple Campaign
20 MEDIUM STRONG
Multiple Campaign
100 INVEST INVEST
Diplomacy
20 50/+2
100/+5
Create Manufacture
Improve DTI/FTI
30 50/+1
100/+3
Improve Tech
Colony
Trading Post
10 30/+1
50/+3
Trading Fleet
Competition
Improve Stability
30 50/+2
100/+5
DIE ROLL
12
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11+
AMOUNT
10
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
150
200
Alternative Administration Charts
LOAN TABLE
LENGTH National: Roll 1 die per column
1T
International: roll for Amount and Rate
1T
Length of International is fixed at 3T
1T
2T
Modfiers
2T
+# Stability
2T
+1 per 200$ in treasure
2T
-2 per bankrupcy in current period
3T
-3 per unpaid loan in current period
3T
+# DTI for England and Nederland
4T
after Creation of Stock Exchange
5T
(Amount and Rate only)
DOMESTIC TRADE INCOME TABLE
DTI
DOMESTIC
TRADE LEVEL 1
2
3
4
0-40
1
2
3
4
41-80
3
6
9
12
81-100
5
9
15
20
101-140
6
12
20
25
141-190
9
20
30
35
191-220
12
25
35
50
221-240
15
31
50
60
241-250
18
35
55
65
251+
20
40
60
80
Trade Level: own & vassal province income
minus pillage, pashas, events
FOREIGN TRADE INCOME TABLE
FTI
FOREIGN
TRADE LEVEL 1
2
3
4
0-200
1
2
3
4
201-400
3
6
9
12
401-600
5
10
15
20
601-800
7
15
20
30
801-100
10
20
30
40
1001-1200
12
25
35
50
1201-1300
15
30
50
60
1301-1400
20
40
60
80
1401+
30
50
80 100
Trade Level: 1500 - own & vassal province
income, trade denial, events
ACTIONS RESULT TABLE
DIFFERENTIAL
Result
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4+
F* Failure. Natives attack in case
F*
F*
F*
F*
F*
F*
F
F
F
of colony or TP placement attempt
F*
F*
F*
F*
F
F
1/2
1/2
1/2
F*
F*
F*
F
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
F Failure
F*
F*
F
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
F*
F
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
S
1/2 Roll unmodified die:
F
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
S
S
Less or equal than FTIp: Success
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
S
S
S
S
More than FTIp: Failure
1/2
1/2
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
1/2
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S Success
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
DIFFERENTIAL CALCULATION
DIE ROLL MODIFIERS
Trading Fleet Placement
-1 per pirate counter in Trade Zone
STZ: FTIp + INVp (+1 or +3) - 1 per other fleet
-1 naval combat in Trade Zone previous Turn
CTZp: FTIp + DTIp + INVp (+1 or +3) -1 per other fleet
+1 Player Trading Fleet is (+)
CTZo: FTIp + INVp (+1 or +3) - DTIo -1 per other fleet
+1 Total Monopoly of Fisheries
Competition vs Trade Fleet
-1 per other trading fleet (other than target fleet)
STZ: FTIp + INVp (+1 or +3) - FTIo - INVo (-1 or -3)
-1 naval combat in Trade Zone previous Turn
CTZp: FTIp + DTIp + INVp (+1 or +3) - FTIo - INVo (-1 or -3)
CTZo: FTIp + INVp (+1 or +3) - FTIo - DTIo -INVo (-1 or -3)
Trading-Post Placement
-1 per other TP or colony in Area
FTIp + INVp (+1 or +3) - Tolerance (3rd value, 1 minimum)
-1 land combat in Area previous Turn
+# M of one Conq in target province
Competition vs Trading-Post
-1 per other TP (other than target TP)
FTIp + INVp (+1 or +3) - FTIo - INVo (+1 or +3)
-1 land combat in Area previous Turn
Colony Placement
+# M of one Conq in target province
FTIp + INVp (+1 or +3) - Difficulty (2nd value)
-1 land combat in Area previous Turn
-3, -2, -1 first, second, third attempt to colonize (in whole game)
+2 on already existing colony
Increase DTI or FTI (only one per turn)
-1 Turkey and Russia
ADM + INVp (+1 or +3) - 9
+# Stability
+2 England after 1700
Create Manufacture (only one per turn)
-1 Turkey, Russia before Peter the Great, Spain if Infl. 10% or +
ADM + DTIp + INVp (+1 or +3) - 9
+# Stability
+2 England after 1700
Minor Activation in War: free, but uses 1 dipl action. 7 or less: Failure; 8 or more: Success. 1 dr + modifiers:
+ Country bonus + Control bonus +2 enemy common border with Minor -2 Poland (not for France if victorious in War of Polish Succession
-4 all enemies and minor have same religion -4 no enemy province in Zone of Operation -4 Minor already in different war
Diplomacy: mod. player dr - 2 dr OR mod. player dr - mod. reaction dr. Result: Points to move marker through Diplomatic Track
Modifiers: + DIP + INV (+2 or +5) +1 same religion (until 1614) +1 per supporting player + Country bonus + Control bonus
-4 different religion (until 1614) -2 Christians-Islam (from 1615) -3 at war against minor last Turn -3 Poland after 1700
Improve Tech (only one per Turn): 1 dr. Result: 11-: nothing; 12-15: +1 box; 16-18: +2 boxes; 19+: +3 boxes
Modifiers: + MIL + INV (+1 or +3) +1 per Metal (land tech only, +2 max.) +1 per Tissu or Instrument (naval tech only, +2 max)
Exceptional Tax: 1 dr + ADM + Stabilityx3
Result x10 is amount of money obtained or lost. Stability drops 1, except if a national province is enemy occupied
Improve Stability: 1 dr + modifers:
+ADM +INV (+2 or +5) +2 victim of DoW this turn -5 enemy army in national province and enemy control of the fortress -3 at war
Result: 4-: -1 level; 5-9: nothing; 10-14: +1 level; 15-17: +2 levels; 18+: +3 levels
Mandatory Competition: simultaneous for all fleets and TPs involved. Use column corresponding to a Competition Action, no invest.
Result: F, player loses 1 lvl; S, nothing
DIE
ROLL
12
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10+
Europa Universalis
RATE
50%
40%
20%
15%
12%
10%
8%
7%
6%
5%
4%
INCOME SUMMARY TABLE
European Province Income owned & vassal value
Domestic Trade DTI/modified province income
Foreign Trade FTI/1500-modified province income
Manufacture fixed income + % owned province income
Colony (-) 1 per lvl + income (1st value) TP (-) 1
Colony (+) 1 per lvl + 2 x income (1st value) TP (+) 2
Trading Fleet 1 per STZ lvl, 2 per CTZ lvl
Monopoly bonus 50% for fleet (+), 100% for 6 lvl fleet
Trade Center 100 Mine 20 except indicated
Exotic Res. quantity x price Pillage 1 or 2 x income
Privateer 1 per fleet lvl destroyed, +8 if carried gold
Exceptional Tax as per dr Loan as per Loan Table
Ransom 200 Tax Holland (Spain only) 50
5
5
15
25
30
45
60
75
80
100
5
5
15
25
35
50
60
75
100
150
Europa Universalis
Alternative Miscellaneous Charts
ATTRITION Round up losses
RISK VALUE -3 friendly port; +1 CAR/GA; -1 VE; -2 T-D
DR
12
3
4
5
6
7
8
-1
--------0
--------1
-------dr%
2
------dr% 10%
3
-----dr% 10% 20%
4
----dr% 10% 20% 30%
5
---dr% 10% 20% 30% 40%
6
--dr% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50%
7
-dr% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60%
8
dr% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%
9
10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80%
10+ 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%
Sea: roll always on column of highest Sea Risk
Land: roll on C7 when moving 6 MP (3 with PW), retreating or routing
Siege: besieger rolls on C5 during Redep. Phase
Modifiers:
-1 All crossed provinces friendly
+1 per extra sea of same Risk
+# Malus of sea zones (blue circle)
-# Leader Move (except Rout)
+2 Poor Weather for Sea attrition
+# Besieged Leader Siege
+1 per supply source/port surpassed in retreat or rout due to stacking
Besieged Attrition: roll on C7 with these modifiers:
-3 unblock. port; -# One Siege Ldr; +1/+3 Usure (-)/(+) not cumm.
PIRATE, PRIVATEER AND NATIVE ATTACK
DR
LVL LOSSES UNITS LOSSES
6
100%
1-7
4
100%
8-9
3
75%
10-11
2
50%
12-13
1
33%
14-15
0
25%
16-17
0
10%
18-21
0
0%
22+
Round up units losses
Pirate and Privateer Attack Modifiers
+1 one or more attacked player ND in Zone
+2/+4 per attacked player F-/F+ in Zone
+# Move value of attacked player Admiral
-1/-3 pirate or privateer (-)/(+) not cumm.
-# Move of Privateer Admiral
-2 Christian port (Knights vs Turkey only)
-1 Naval combat in Trade Zone this turn
Native Attack Modifiers:
+1 one or + attacked player Land D. in Province
+2/+4 per attacked player A-/A+ in Province
+# Move of attacked player Ldr in Province
-1 per every 20 natives (round down)
-# Move of Native Ldr
-1 per Col or TP in Area of another country
DISCOVERIES Round up losses
Result
Losses
DR
S
-0Result:
S
dr%
1
F** Failure, test for Leaders
S
10%
2
F* Failure, test for Leaders if
S**
20%
exploring without sp
3
S**
30%
4
F Failure
1/2
40%
5
1/2 Reroll unmodified die
1/2
50%
1-3: F**
6
F*
60%
4-5: F*
7
F*
70%
6-8: S**
8
F**
80%
9-10: S*
9
F**
90%
10
S** Success, test for Leaders
F**
100%
11+
S* Success, test for Leaders if
exploring without sp
Modifiers:
+1 per extra province or sea
S Success
+2 Poor Weather
Leader test: if roll is greater
+# Malus of sea zones (blue circle)
-# Leader Move
than Move rating, leader dies
+1 Carack or Galley
9
-dr%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Transport
Galley
Warship
Transport
Transport
Infantry
Cavalry
Artillery
Leader
20 ducats
Move Costs
Friendly Clear
Enemy Clear
Non Clear
River/Landing
Sea Transport
Move Allow
Land Unit
Naval Unit
Leader
Capacity
1
1
4
Requisite
1
2, NT
2, NT
-1
CONQUISTADOR TABLE
CONQUISTADOR STRENGTH (Move + Fire + Shock)
DR
67-12
13-15
16+
E33/D33/R33 E50/D25/R25
E75/D25
E100
1
E25/D25/R50 E33/D33/R33 E75/D10/R15
E80/R20
2
E10/D20/R70 E25/D25/R50 E50/D25/R25
E75/D25
3
D20/R80
E10/D20/R70 E33/D33/R33 E75/D10/R15
4
D10/R90
D20/R80
E25/D25/R50 E50/D25/R25
5
R100
D10/R90
E10/D20/R70 E33/D33/R33
6
R100
R100
D20/R80
E25/D25/R50
7
R100
R100
D10/R90
E10/D20/R70
8
R100
R100
R100
D20/R80
9
R100
R100
R100
D10/R90
10
R100
R100
R100
R100
11+
Results:
E % eliminated natives (round up)
R % resisting natives (round up)
D % deserting natives (round down)
Modifiers:
+1 each additional use of table in any province of same area
+2 Explorer
Europe RoW
1
2
2
4
3
6
+1
+1
+2
+2
Move Supply
12
5/adj.
unlim
-20
--
REINFORCEMENTS TABLE
MINOR COUNTRY REACTION
COUNTRY MODIFIER
DR
LDR
OFFENSIVE DEFENSIVE
NAVAL
N. AFRICA
+1 before 1570
11D
1D
2N
1 BAYERN
+1 before 1700
2
2D
1D/1F
3N
1 DENMARK
+1 before 1660
3
2D
1D/1F
1D/3N
2 HANNOVER +1 after 1719
4
2D/1MC
2D/1F
1D/4N
2 HELVETIA
+2 before 1580
5
3D/1MC
2D/1F
1D/5N
2 LATVIJA
+1 before Sw. annex.
6
3D/1MC
2D/1F
1D/10N/1MC
3 PERSIA
+2 before 1640
7
4D/1MC
2D/1F/1MC 2D/10N/1MC
3 POLAND
+2 before 1615
8
4D/1MC
3D/1F/1MC 2D/15N/1MC
4
+1 1615-1699
9
5D/2MC
3D/2F/1MC 3D/15N/1MC
4
-3 after 1699
10
5D/2MC
4D/2F/1MC 4D/15N/1MC
5 PORTUGAL +3 1560-1580
11
6D/2MC
4D/2F/1MC 4D/15N/1MC
6 PRUSSIA
+3 ater Army Reform
12
6D/2MC
4D/2F/1MC 4D/15N/2MC
7 SAVOY
+2 1665-1699
13
7D/2MC
5D/3F/1MC 4D/20N/2MC
7 SAXONY
+2 before 1665
14
7D/2MC
5D/3F/2MC 4D/20N/2MC
8 SWEDEN
+3 1620-1720
15+
8D/2MC
6D/3F/2MC 5D/30N/2MC
9
+1 otherwise
Results:
VENICE
+3 before 1620
D
One full LD
2D = A(-)
4D = A(+)
+1 1620-1720
INCOME MODIFIER
N
One warship, or transport or 3 galleys
F
One fortress level
0-5
-1
MC One multiple campaign
6-15
0
LDR One leader if unmod. dr is less or equal than
16-30
+1
number indicated
31+
+2
SUCCESS TABLE
DR
Result
5Failure. Blockading stack may atttack
6-7
Failure
8+
Success. Fireship sunks dr warships
Interception
+# Intercepting–Intercepted Leaders Move even if negative
+1 Intercepting country has Tech 6 or + boxes ahead
+1 Interception in province containing friendly city or stack.
-1 Intercepting stack did siege/blockade this or prev. round
-2 Intercepting naval stack is in port
-2 Intercepting stack is in province with enemy units
-2 Poor Weather
Escape from Blockade
+# Escaping –Blockading Admirals Move, positive only
+1 Escaping stack has more ships than Blockading (all types)
Retreat before Combat
+# Retreating– Opponent Leaders Move, positive only
Fireships Attack: Only by Admiral with Boarding of 4+
Pirate and Privateers Elimination
+2 Each player´s F(-). F(+)= 2 F(-), not cumm with below
+1 A naval unit of any country is present (pirates only)
+# Player–Privateer Adm. Move, even negative, not vs pirate
1-/-3 Side (-)/(+) pirate or privateer unit present
Revolt Suppression: 1 is always failure, 10 is always success
+1 Each loyal Detachment in province (not Pashas)
+2 Each loyal Army (-) in province
+4 Each loyal Army (+) in province
+# Loyal – Rebel Generals Move (may be negative)
-3 Non Clear terrain
-2 Revolt is Strong
-1 France during “War of Religion in France”
-1 England during “Civil War in England”
-1 Spain during “United-Provinces Revolt” or Prot. Spain
during “War of Religion in Spain”, not cummulative.