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pdf Read more... - Center for Character and Citizenship
What Should Be the Role of
Community in Character Edvcation?
by Marvin W. Berkowitz, Philip Fitch Vincent and Linda McKay
Abstract
Two recent character education
initiatives that reflect an understanding of the relevance and power of the
community outside the school walls
are described In this article. Ten general recommendations for incorporating community elements into a
school-based character education Initiative are presented. The authors
conclude that character educators
should pay attention to the broad
community to increase the effectiveness of their initiatives.
education has a long and
varied history, dating to colonial
(haracter
times in the United States,’ but It
can even be traced
at least as far back as
ancient Greece.2 Wherever people have
been concerned with how formal
lessons and schooling can contribute to
the development of social, emotional
and moral characteristics in the youth
of their society, character education has
been an issue. Socrates died for his resolute dedication to “character education” of the youth of Athens.
Nevertheless, character education is
presently as popular and frequent as
4 ~ Vol. 22, No. 2
ever. It is being implemented in individual classrooms, throughout schools,
in entire school districts, and even
across large urban regions and entire
states. It is also being implemented in
varied forms and through diverse
processes.
As the research evidence comes in, it
is clear 3 that quality character
education is effective in promoting a
broad range of positive character outcomes in students.4 Quality character
education includes shared governance,
an explicit school-wide emphasis on
character, and the promotion of a positive school culture. When implemented fully, such initiatives promote prosocial attitudes and behaviors, moral
reasoning development, an avoidance
of undesirable risk behaviors, bonding
to school, and improved academic
achievement.
However, there is often the temptation to implement in a more limited
fashion, such as omitting stakeholder
participation or avoiding staff development. In such cases, the desired effects
are less likely to occur.
There is also the obvious challenge
of finding the varied resources (e.g.,
time, funding) to make such an initia-
tive work.
In this day of focus on academic
standards, many school leaders shy
away from taking on the challenge of
character education for fear that it will
detract from their academic mission.
Research, however, suggests that educators in schools and classrooms of character enhance academic motivation
and performance.
One of the common strands in character education has been community.
However, what is meant by community
and how it is incorporated in character
education is usually more limited than
what is typically meant by community
in general discussions of education.
Despite this common focus on building community in schools and classrooms in order to foster character
development in students, there has
been a substantial neglect of the broader communities in which schools are
located. If students related the positive
features of their classroom or school
was exempt from virtue because it wa
not part of the immediate school corn
munity.
Related areas of education and chih
development, such as drug prevention
have recognized the power of th
broader community context in promot
ing child and adolescent development
Interventions are designed to g
beyond the walls of the school and t
incorporate diverse communit:
resources, such as mass media and la~
enforcement. “In general, the effect
obtained from these interventions ten
to last longer than school program
alone...and, for some [drugs], they prc
duce large effects.”4
If the effects of drug prevention prc
grams are strengthened by couplln~
school-based interventions with corn
munity interventions, then it seem
likely that character education prograr
effects can be significantly magnifie
by incorporating diverse communit
communities to their neighborhood
communities, then the general neglect
of the role of the broad community in
education would not be a problem.
However, It is clear that this does not
occur. Power and his colleagues report
a
telling incident
in one Just
Community high school. In this case,
the school had developed to the point
that students had developed expectations against theft within the school,
based on expectations of trust among
school members. But they were reticent
to act against a student who was caught
breaking Into a home in the neighborhood during his lunch period because
it was not part of “the community,”
which for them was limited to their
immediate school communityt2 The
school was understood as deserving of
moral treatment, but the neighborhood
What isthorocter Education?
Character education Is the com-
posite of those aspects of schoolIng that have an impact on the
development of character In students. Character Is the set of psychological characteristics of an
individual that makes the person
better able to understand, care
about, and do that which Is
morally right.
Prominent aspects of school
that have an impact on character
are the behavior of adults in the
school, peer and adult culture, the
governance structure of the
school, the schooFs explicit missIon, the curriculum, anddiscipline policies and strateg1es.~
The School Pub~cRelations Journal ~
resources. Indeed, some character edu- with local school districts, the St. Louis
cation initiatives are already moving in Post-Dispatch, and all metropolitan
that direction.
police departments on a monthly student character award program, called
“Do the Right Thing.” To date over
6,000 young people have been nominated for this recognition.
Local businesses, such as Bank of
America and Southwestern Bell, have
a The
LouisCharacterplus
is a 12-year-old
initiative
regionalin in!St. offered financial support to establish an
tiative. The Characterplus mission academy to train school principals in
states that creating and sustaining a character education. The University of
productive approach to character edu- Missouri-St. Louis has also collaborated
cation requires a partnership between on this project, as has Webster
the home, school and the broader com- University. (The first author is the inaumunity. In the St. Louis region, more gural Sanford N. McDonnell Professor
than 30 public school districts are of Character Education at UMSL and
involved in the large-scale community- contributes much of his time to
wide response to character education. Characterplus initiatives, including
A project of the Cooperating School funding and supervising a second charDistricts of Greater St. Louis, acter education academy for princiCharacterplus integrates character edu- pals.) Between the two academies,
cation throughout the school day, about 50 principals are trained extenincluding curriculum, discipline poli- sively each year at no cost to the particcies, after-school activities, and reform ipants or their schools.
initiatives. Characterplus has longOne important goal was to find ways
standing relations with community for local businesses to raise awareness
organizations such as local media, law for employees about the importance of
enforcement, businesses, and profes- talking to young people about good
sional sports teams.
character. One school developed
They have worked for nearly a posters that demonstrated a
decade with one of the local network business/school collaboration supportTV affiliates on various projects. At first, ing character. The students took these
this station joined the initiative by pro- posters to businesses of their choice for
ducing a Saturday morning story telling display in the community. Another
program (“Gator Tales”) based on char- business emphasized a character trait
acter traits chosen by people in local each month on their employees’ payschool districts. More recently, the check stubs. Character education parsame
network
joined
with ent training was made possible through
Characterplus and the St. Louis Rams a grant from Monsanto Corporation.
football team to produce a video that
Connection to local service organizauses Rams players to promote character tions has brought another important
along with a curriculum. These have resource to help schools support charbeen supplied to all schools in the acter education. From the beginning,
Characterplus 35-district consortium. local Lions Clubs joined with schools
This TV station has also collaborated in the Lions-Quest training. This part-
Two Models of Community’
Based Character Education
A
6 ~‘ Vol. 22, No. 2
nership brought financial and community support to help many schools
begin the character education process.
In 1997, the Rotary Club joined with a
local high school to field test the
Templeton Foundation’s “Laws of Life
Essay Contest.’ Through English classes, young people wrote essays about the
laws upon which their lives should be
based. This project is now being replicated throughout the metropolitan
area.
Local chambers of commerce have
been long-standing partners in bringing “Ethical Decision-making in the
Workplace and Society”,5 a locally
developed curriculum, to area schools.
The curriculum includes a one-day
symposium for high school students
and area business representatives to
look at how decisions are made and the
importance of ethics in decision-making. This program is now available
through the National Association of
Secondary School Principals and is used
nationally.
Joining with cultural institutions
and libraries has been important in the
success of “Increase the peace,” a
school-based project to promote understanding of the importance of settling
differences peaceably. For example, students constructed “peace balls” of
string that were later displayed at the
St. Louis Science Center, where their
scientific properties of length and
weight were examined. This event
became a city-wide youth celebration
of peace. Local libraries collaborated by
distributing student-designed bookmarks which, in art and words, depicted the students’ personal heroes and
their character traits.
Characterplus is based on the
premise that values are transmitted to
children 24 hours per day. Therefore
effective character education requires
community that is united in ways thi
can pass on positive values. Parents ar
educators have consistently emph
sized the need for broader communi
partnership to be a key priority of cha
acter education in the St. Louis area,
that school and home character effor
will be reinforced throughout the dal
lives of children. This is the reason fi
such a long-standing and significai
partnership between an education
organization like Characterplus and
many disparate community organiz
tions.
A more recent community-wk
BChattanooga,
a character education initiative i
Tennessee, has similar
partnered with diverse community el
ments from its onset. The organizers
the Chattanooga character educatic
initiative have had very strong suppc
and participation from the communit
The Maclellan and Benwoc
Foundations have provided financi
support, which allowed for a full-tin
director of character education as w
as training for more than 1,000 teac~
ers and administrators (and continult
support from the second author as
outside consultant to the project). Th
initial support also allowed for the co
thw~cterEducation Infonnation
To learn of a variety of books and
materials about character education, send a request to Character
Development Publishing, P0 Box
9211, Chapel Hill, NC 27515.
919-967-2110. Email
[email protected], ~‘
The School Public Relations Journal
vening of citizens to help guide the initiative, including determining the character traits that would be emphasized
throughout the school district.
After determining those traits, the
vision
was
presented
to
the
Chattanooga Chamber of Commerce
and the Chattanooga Rotary and
Civitan Clubs. The Chamber and the
Rotary and Civitan clubs in
Chattanooga consist of community
business and social leaders. It is highly
desirable for an educational initiative
that needs the support of the community to have the school superintendent
or his/her appointee address groups of
community leaders. A meeting was
convened with these groups to express
to them the importance of character
education and the efforts the schools
were going to take to bring character
education to the forefront of the educational experience. The attendees were
told the history of character education
in the nation and why it is important
to refocus on this important objective
both in the schools and in the community. Additionally, they were presented
with studies of which character traits
employers were looking for in successful employees. They were also informed
about what is needed of our children
and adults in order to promote citizenship and civility. Finally, it was stated
that any support from them would be
greatly appreciated; however, the organizers never anticipated the level of
support to be offered.
The operators of Eller Media, a
national billboard company, agreed to
design and market billboards on the
school district’s “character trait of the
month.” These billboards were placed
Continued on page 12
8 s~’Vol. 22, No. 2
How to Foster Character
Development in Shods
e following are 10 specific
recommendations for what
people in communities and
community groups can do to sup-
port educators in fostering character
development and, in doing so, help
build healthy moral communities
for all their citizens. We encourage
communities and schools to add
new ideas to this list to even more
effectively collaborate to foster character development.
The superintendent of schools
1character
• must be an active supporter of
education. Superintendents are frequently Invited to give
talks to community groups and
audiences. Character education
should be prominently highlighted
in such presentations. When superintendents are asked to talk about
the schools, they should spend half
of their time on the importance of
schools working with communities
and families to reinforce the importance of character development.
Perhaps they could share evidence
of this effort In the schools.
Then they could turn to the academic goals of the school district.
This would send a clear message to
the educators and community
members that character development and academics are equally
important in a school environment.
The School Board must support
Z
•the character development
efforts of the schools and the cornmunity)6 The Board should treat
character education as an important
mission of the schools. This sends a
powerful message to the community.
or tutors to individual students~
The Board should also recognize the
efforts of those in the community who
service work with such organizations,
Students could become involved hi
which would strongly support both
are working to promote character and service and service learning, routinel)
civility. This can be done by recogniz- significant elements in character edu.
ing a “Citizen of the Month” from the cation. What is important is that ke)
community as well as the school dur- social groups and organizations givE
ing a School Board meeting. Members support to the character educatior
of the School Board should also be efforts of the schools and communit)
vocal about their support for character as a whole.
education throughout the community
whether they are in session or not.
2
Community service organization
‘..J,members should be educated
about the importance of character education and be invited to participate in
the initiative. The school district’s
character “point person” should speak
to all service organizations concerning
how their members can support character education in the schools as well
as the community. Members of the
School Board, staff, PTA, etc. who
belong to such organizations should
advocate for their participation in the
community-wide Initiative. In many
communities, such organizations play
important roles in developing business
and social relationships. Groups such
as these are crucial in building business
and community support for a character education initiative. Schools need
financial as well as moral support and
local businesses and philanthropists
may be attracted through these service
organizations to provide financial support for the initiative; for example, by
sponsoring a school library section on
character development and education
or providing furniture for a resource
center. Members of such organizations
might also offer to send speakers in
schools to address the importance of
good character or to serve as mentors
Community youth groups shoulc
with the schools in pro
4 •partner
moting character development. Youtl
organizations, such as the 4H Clubs
YMCA, YWCA, Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts
etc., have character development as
central and explicit part of their mis
sions. A consortium of such groups it
the Kansas City area began an initia
tive called “Building Life Skills” tha
focused on training volunteer and pro
fessional youth group leaders to b
more effective character educators
Many students already belong to suci
organizations, so the character mes
sage at school gets reinforced outsid
of school.
FaIth communities must b~
5in their
.involved In assisting the school
character efforts. Several year
ago, religious leaders in Cumberlanc
County, North Carolina agreed t
preach once a month, using thei
interpretation of their holy books, ot
the character trait that was beint
emphasized in the schools. All falt!
communities were involved. Othe
faith organizations have worked wit!
schools on how their members migh
tutor students as examples of model
HowtoFost&d~Dev~opme~itIiSth
Continuedon page
The School Public Relations Journal ~
How to Fost& ax~aderDevelopueid ~iSthoo~s
Continued from page 9
ing service as well as having students
assist faith communities in their service efforts, such as soup kitchens. For
children who have a strong faith background, the efforts of the faith communities help reinforce the school and
community efforts.
sportsmanship, as the St. Louis Rams
have done in partnering with the
Characterplus initiative.
7 Public civility and character
/ • should be endorsed and modeled.
Attendees at public meetings should
strive to model civility. County
Commissioners, City Council or
School Boards often must consider
controversial issues. Despite the controversial topics they must address,
members of public groups must work
to maintain civility in their deliberations. All members of boards must
strive to act with civility and caring
towards themselves and their fellow
citizens. They must seek to be moral
models even if those around them are
failing. In addition, they must take
time to recognize and honor community members who exhibit moral
virtue towards others. This sends a
message that virtue and standards of
excellence matter. We train and ask
students to disagree in a civil manner,
to be supportive in contentious classroom discussions, and to learn to
resolve conflicts in a respectful manner. When they see public discourse
that falls short of this, it weakens the
effectiveness of what they experience
in school. Moral discussion Is a critical
element in effective character education, but it must be done In a respectful, reflective, and civil manner. When
communities model this, children are
more likely to follow suit.
~ All community sponsored recreU ~ational opportunities must transmit the character message.
Sportsmanship at such events is often
distressing, and much of the lack of
sportsmanship is coming not from the
playing field but from the stands. As a
nation we are failing to teach the
importance of sportsmanship.’9202’
County or community recreational
associations should form committees
to determine what good sportsmanship Is and how adults can model this
to children. The list of traits and practices should be given to all coaches,
parents, and athletes. They should
hear from the recreational organization if they are modeling poor character to our young athletes, and if they
persist they should not be welcome at
such events. The message should be
clear that the character development
of our children is a higher priority
than a parent’s right or need to vent in
public. Coaches, trainers, athletic
directors, and others who work in
youth recreational activities should be
trained in character development and
Owners and managers of media
there should be a partnership between
•outlets should be encouraged to
such individuals in the community recognize acts of good character In the
and their counterparts in the schools. schools and In the community. It is a
Local professional athletic teams common criticism that managers of
should be enlisted to support a com- the media focus on bad news and
munity consensus on character and ignore good news. A balanced
8
0 ~‘ Vol. 22, No. 2
approach is needed. Reporters and editors have an obligation to report the
news, but that also should include the
good news coming from the schools
and communities. They can celebrate
good character in children, recognize
the efforts of students in service learning, and report the efforts of schools In
creating a more civil climate. They can
celebrate those in our community who
add a touch of civility to the community. This type of news reporting can
provide a balanced view of a school
and a community. Reporters can also
publicize the community-based character education effort, and they can be
a vehicle for direct education, for
example with public service announcements.
O
Business owners and leaders must
by sponsoring specific character education projects.
~ Community members must
1formed
‘J .understand that character is
first and foremost by our first
teachers our families. We must do
whatever we can to help families in
their efforts to raise children who
“know, love and do the good”22 as a
community and ultimately as a
nation. Educators can offer suggestions
on what families can do with their
children to promote respect, responsibility, and caring. As the Character
Education Partnership states in one of
its Eleven Principles of Effective
Character Education, “The school
must recruit parents and community
members as full partners in the character-building effort.”23 Community-
.J .take the time to recognize and cel- based parenting organizations that
ebrate good character among their
employees and to invest in schools
and youth character. Most employers
report that people who are respectful
of others, responsible in their work,
and caring towards others make good
employees. Intelligence is important
but intelligence without good character may result in an employee who has
the potential to do the job well, but,
because of attitude, is unable or
unwilling to do the job. To create an
attitude in the workplace that character matters we should take time to recognize this in our employees.
Reminders about the Importance of
character can appear in paychecks,
bulletins, newsletter, and during meetings. Establishing a corporate ethics
program also sends the message that
character counts. Clearly business people can also promote the school’s character mission, support employees in
doing so, and offer financial assistance
help parents prepare their children for
school and life In general should be
enlisted in the character education
effort. In St. Louis, Characterplus has
partnered with Parents as Teachers, an
International organization that trains
community members to train parents
how to more effectively influence the
character formation of their preschool
aged children. The forthcoming revision of their 3-5 currIculum is going to
highlight character development.
Schools need parents and parents need
schools to achieve the optimum In
youth character development. ~‘
The School Public Relations Journal ~ I
Continued from page 8
because the school district receives calls
from people driving through town, seein high visibility areas throughout the ing the billboards, and wanting to
county. Many businesses rented a bill- know what is occurring.
board, with some renting several. Eller
Bi-Lo Grocery and Coca-Cola sponMedia has sold and displayed on aver- sored a monthly insert the last Sunday
age 15 billboards a month promoting of each month in the local newspaper,
character over the past two years. It is The Chattanooga Times/Free Press, as
clear that they are having an impact, well as providing the inserts to all stu-
The 2nd Face of
Community in Character
Education
When discussing character education, the term community refers to
something that happens within the
walls of a school or even within an
individual classroom. There is a
long and important tradition of
educational concern for building
community within a school56 and
for examining harmful aspects 7of
flawed community in a school.
In essence, schools are (or should
be) communities in this sense. It is
clear from the research on character
education that building withinschool community is a critical catalyst for the effective promotion of
students’ character development.
Sponsors of the Child
Development Project, a wellresearched and Intensively implemented character education model,
have discovered that the desirable
effects of their intervention depend
upon students coming to perceive
their schools as “caring communities”0 A central theme of their comprehensive elementary school
reform model is building community within the individual class-
2 ~‘ Vol. 22, No. 2
room as well.9’0 Furthermore, their
research has demonstrated that class
meetings, a key ingredient in fostering classroom community, is one of
the most important variables in
effective character education. The
field of constructivist education has
also highlighted classroom atmosphere as critical to children’s social
and emotional development.”
At the secondary level, another
character education program, the
Just Community Schools, relies
heavily on building a moral atmosphere in the alternative high
schools officials have established
and mentored.’2 Their primary focus
is on school culture and collective
norms among school members. In
other words, the development of a
positive community in these alternative schools is considered the critical ingredient in promoting the
development of student moral reasoning.
Related areas of education report
a similar emphasis on community
building. For Instance, the prevention field has revealed that attachment to school is an important
deterrent
for adolescent risky behaviors.’3 ~
dents. This eight-page insert promotes
the character trait that will receive a
concentrated focus during the following month.
Through the help of The Times/Free
Press, the initiative staff has also
designed their own posters supporting
the trait of the month. During 1998-99,
they used the same posters for the elementary, middle and high schools.
During the 1999-2000 school year they
used pictures of local children for the
elementary schools and local and international heroes from present day and
the past for the middle and high
schools. The posters for the 2000-2001
school year feature district students.
Many organizations throughout the
Chattanooga area have sponsored these
posters, which are displayed in all classrooms as well as through the common
areas of the schools.’6
The faith community has also been
involved in promoting and supporting
character education. In 1998, more
than 1,000 letters were sent to ministers and religious youth leaders. These
letters invited these leaders to a meeting to learn more about the district’s
character education initiative. Close to
100 faith leaders attended the meeting.
They represented a broad variety of
denominations and viewpoints. They
all acknowledged that they had an
important role to play in helping to
forge the character of youth. Each minister, rabbi, priest, or other religious
leader was asked to use his/her interpretation of scripture to preach one sermon a month on the school district’s
character trait of the month. At the
conclusion of the presentation they
acknowledged that the schools must
also be involved in fostering youth
character. This is particularly important
given the historically adversarial rela-
tionships between churches and public
schools in America. The 96th American
Assembly report Matters of Faith:
Religion in American Public Life lists as
one of its six recommendations on education:
“local schools should develop
character education plans in
cooperation with parents and religious leaders together with teachers and school administmtors to
ensure that widely-held moral
va1u~are reflected and taught in
the mission ~ndenvironment of
the school.”
Consistent with this mandate, the
attending clergy were also asked to help
organize tutorials in the schools and
lust visit the schools and support the
children. This has proven to be a successful partnership. Educators throughout the county have reported an
increase in people coming from the
churches to the schools to tutor children.
Conduskms
Research from related discipline5
suggests that the effectiveness of char.
acter education may be increased by
broadening the conception of commu~
nity from community within the walI5
of the school to include the residen.
tial-business community elements a~
partners In the character educatior
endeavor. Indeed, this has been donE
in character education programs likE
Characterplus in St. Louis and th
recent Chattanooga initiative.
Although parents are the key tc
character development of children, w
all have a role in promoting characte
as a basis for success in the future o
our country.24 Members of every organi
zation within a community can anc
The School Public Retalions Journal ~‘
riiuiu t~ALLU(Y:L~avKIuonessy
must contribute. The goal should be to
wrap character in a community wide
package that is opened and practiced
daily and permeates throughout the
community. It must become part of the
“ethos” or life of the child, parent, and
:0. Wachingtnr, A): Die ClamOur Eduno~IonPortn,rrhip.
24. 9erfrawi~MW. (2000C. Ii,lr, nod 0mm) edonohion. nM, D,n.P,retc, S Bn,wrr, ON. Mann
)Ddc.L Rootlndgo (nt,roati000) Companion to Tderonian (pp. 9919091 LanA,,: RouI)ndge,
Marvin W. Berkowitz is the Sanford N. McDonnell
Professor of Character Education at the University of
Missouri-St. Louis. He can be reached at College of
Education 469 Marillac Hall, UMSL, St. Louis MO
community.
If we commit to such an effort, we 63121 -4499.
can surely help alter the character of Philip Fitch Vincent is Director of the Center for Ethics,
Public Polic~and Leadership at Greensboro College. He
our communities.
can be reached at [email protected] or
Greensboro College, 615 West Market Street,
Greensboro, NC 27401.
Linda Mct(ay is Director of Character Education for the
MoChilon, 9.7, f0999). M,,ol edo,oIInn Ii,Arneti,,: Sih~ohoort th,,hnpio of irorad,, horn
0
,ciirhil Iinnoo oh, pr~corrt.Ohio York: Teorhor, to°o~,
P,e,r,
Cooperating School Districts of Greater St. Louis. She
2. Corn, 0,0999, Iducotlog ho ~),tu,,:
io, etroy on ho phdcc~ph1ooIprych1)nqy ,9 9101,1
can be reached at Cooperating School Districts, 8225
doinhprnont trod ,docc,tiorn, N,,, 9,,),: lautlodie,
Florissont Road, St. Louis MO 63121.
3. Cho,ocl,r lduoot)on PetIreerehip (2900). (frorocter Ed~coho,Oooiity StandonDi. Wo,hin~to,
DC: (hound,, tdu,oYon Pontonohip.
4. 0,rknndto, MW. (In pieos(. 91,, odonroof choroctoc ,d~:oliarhoW Drocn fed.), R,c,nt
ockonce, in 913,,) eDitiOn,, Pa), Win (A:fOre Hoo~entmtlur,
S.9oyor, [A. (1995), Oh,9,rtrSrhoo): Ocornironiry9,, teornin0 Prinr,Ion, N): Di, ~
foor,da~iowtoo th, Adoono,rn,,t ,f Ieoohing.
6.Du,kh6m, ~(99699. Mot,(edo,aOnn: A ,iedy to the thoony md opphco:Inn of the rodology
of,doc,ticn. Nor’Oar),: Pt,, Point.
7, iookncn, P.O. ((TAN). tAn In t)o,cro,,ro, Onoy, MO: loft, 9n,’cod 9 Wirriton.
I. Saloon,, It., Nattidlab, V., lYntren, N., Schapt, 9~& owl,, C. (In proct).A rIedictrlnt riodyof
edlaetton,f,h,oge: Dhneot nrA mediatedeffoot, of the (hid D~,,laçnn,olPna(ert. Soot,)
P,vohologyaUduool(on.
7. DoftoDi I, & Wotoarr M. (9797). fianog fr),nd,: (faint,,,,,where aotlng and feorohig p~,
yeA. 0,Wand CA: Deve)apmetto( Studies (eatet.
19, Oentelopnr,nto) (foAl,, (yulet (9996). Way, wewant anon ole,, to ho: Claa~meeingo hot
6090 connrnihnn,nt to kIodneos and feonotng Oakland CA. Do,elaprne,tof(todI,, C,oI,n.
99. D,Otiet, 9.,& ion, 0.99994). Moral tfaor,aomo, noon,) ,h~dr,o:Ctuaoh~g nonntrocy),i,t
,t,no,ph,n, In ear)y educatIon, New A,,k: Teachera Coilog, Pteot,
92. Paw,,, P.C.,1)199100, A., & Kch(h,r 1.9)9899. towoenco flahibncg’t oppraanh to mare) edo
6
moO,,, Now 001)1: (aknnbta UnhmtoOy P,,o,.
1
(3, DemO,),. M.D., Boatman, P.S., (lure, OW., Oaunnnno, 9.9., eta . 99)97). PralnaOrgad~ioo’
neat, (a,,,, toni: flrdlngt )t~t
An, NotionalL~n 9udhna)~o~l
onAdalentonf Oenhh, Joanna) a)
heArnotkaca Medico) Meoa(ol(n,, 99, 573.737. 0
94. P~nto,Mit. (9993). Cantporatl,e eIledo ,),enararnomhty.b,oed drug ahooa pn,v,nliont. In 11.
Ba,,, (A.Modatt,& Ri, MoMohar (Cdi.), Addictive b,ha,lon,acre,, tIre hI, span: Pn,,,ntian,
t,eofn,ceot, nodpehay )t,ue, (pp. 6917). NewburyPatk, 9k Soge Pebhcotban,.
9 5,~ftfnbcaI
Deeldo, MakIngIn theWodtp!ateand(nobly Tot Ohang Adt.lte~,owotknlrep tnt.
Rettoo (VA): NotionalAttuamnt(ar ofSetoudory S,fnool Pc)nolpait. See mIce tan)1(ond, 7.6 McKay,
1(9996), ~((teoae
to tooth AMkhO, ten,) Co,tka!urn hot D~~~i3p~
Awor,,eo, at Poohlhv,
Le,denehbp andOoo(cioo ((eking InSdcuo) ,ndtemia~nnity,alto 66(57.
16. Snone a! Ace ~froconon
ha’e boon: lint1hln~,Fitat, TOtal Tennet,,, Bank, Intl Rid , flanpitol
Komalcu lnt,noafiond, SanTntot tank, l)oeCto,o/Tlu,SftlalA o))er.nentee, 705School,0 Ohm,
end DiiSepplleo, TutebollDaket)en aid the Chattanooga (on.
Il. fIne Amerlcooh,nonrtey)2000). Morton, olfohth: Ta’it):n In Annnrin~nPulhIc )ll,. tewyonk:
llre Amo,kon A,seootey, Cohrncbma Ari~enoIly.
It. Solon, (.9.((996). Chorodoc ,d~toiI~n
In the ,lcctrcarnr: II,,, tocnnrlco, irhoc) Board,or,
ptornootng ,olu,, annA ,itto,,. O)n,oidnioVA: tlotianna) Sthon)Ooordu
A,,o:lotloo,
0
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Mooalure,
20. (InlaId,, OIL, & Oredem,),,, B.J.L ff995). Chana,ter de,t)cpnto,t and phyttosl odl~ity
thcnnpolgn It: Horn,, Kt,rot)n,.
Olsen ho now ohetorter end tpantc alloy,,,) tin, 9anep(r~an)ntOtut, a) 0101cc (cportt.hirnr)
andtho o,w M,ndo(coo Cent,c for Spurt, Choroder A Colour, at oh, Anlvorciiy a) (litre Darn,,
20.tkkonn, 9)9999). (doceong fan tfcotaot,n. New Oar),: Bu~orr.
23. ((cAcao, I., Snhrcpt, 7., & tewir, C. 11996). Ok, ,),,,n pnirnlplora) ,fInnOv, ,l:unorter edino’
14 ot~’Vol. 22, No. 2
Editor’s Note
This article is one of four that were-
arranged by Judith Cochran of the
University of Missouri. The first three
appeared in Vol. 22, No. 1 of the
Journal. Because of a lack of space in
that issue, this article was held over for
this edition.
Youngpeople—advLw them to
enjoy themselves now, These are
‘thegood ole’ days’ that they’ll
talk about.40 years flvm now.
Don Vetter
TheSchool Public Relations Journal ~

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