Avian Gross Pathology with emphasis on the diseases of poultry

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Avian Gross Pathology with emphasis on the diseases of poultry
7/11/2012
Acknowledgement
Dr. Sean Troth, Associate Director Merck and Co
Dr. H.L. Shivaprasad, CAHFS - Fresno Lab, UCD
Dr. Kristy Pabilonia, Poultry Diagnostician, CSU.
American Association of Avian Pathologists
Maine Biological Laboratory
Intervet, Schering-Plough Animal Health
Cornell University
North Carolina State University
Mississippi State University
University of Missouri
Tufts University
University of Minnesota
USDA
Sinusitis:
Hemophilus paragallinarum=infectious coryza
Bordetella avium=
turkey coryza
Mycoplasma gallisepticum= infectious sinusitis
Bacterial diseases
Poultry: Bacteria
Mycobacterium avium :(inf. by inhalation-not ingestion)
Can cause granulomas of viscera
Ddx: Avian leukosis, Marek’s,lymphoma
Arizonosis
Listeriosis
Fowl cholera
Chlamydiosis
Bordetellosis (turkey coryza)
Mycobacterisosis
Infectious coryza
Pseudomycobacteriosis
Mycoplasmosis
Clostridiosis
- Infectious sinusitis (turkey)
Necrotic enteritis (C. type A)
- Chronic respiratory disease (chicken)
Quail disease (C. colinum)
Colibacillosis
Gangernous dermatitis (C. septicum)
Colisepticemia, air sac disease (CRD),
Erysipelas
omphalitis/yolk sac infection
New duck disease
- Pullorum/typhoid
Air sacculitis:
E. coli
P. Multocida
Chlamydia spp.
(elementary bodies in macs)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Liver infarcts:
Erisipelothrix rhusiopathae
Ddx: Histomonas
Staphylococcosis
Gangrenous dermatitis of legs/ abdomen:
Clostridium septicum
Staph aureus
Sterptococcosis
- Paratyphoid
- Arizonosis (turkey)
Lungs/trachea:
E. coli
Salmonella pullorum=pullorum Dz (PD)
gallinarum=fowl typhoid
typhimurium=paratyphoid (liver, spleen , intestine)
Riemerella anatipestifer (new duck Dz):
Pericarditis, air sacculitis
Limber neck (C. botulinum)
coligranuloma, salpingitis, swollen head
Salmonellosis
Fowl Cholera:
P. multocida
Resp tract, wattle,
Eyes, CNS, middle ear
Miscellaneous
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Hepatic Granulomas:
Salmonella typhimurium
M. avium avium
E. Coli (coligranuloma=Hjare’s)
Eubacterium tortuosum
P. multocida
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis
Staph. Aureus
Listeria spp
P. aeruginosa
Erysipelas
Strep viridans
Ddx:
ParasiticAscaridia dissimilis(turkey)
Viral: Mareks, L.L.
Neoplastic: Hepatoma, carcinoma
Ulcerative enteritis of game birds (Q):
Clostridium colinum-also affects spleen and liver (focal necrosis/infarcts).
Necrotic enteritis:
Clostridium perfringens
type A,C enterotoxins
Coccidiosis commonly seen in conjunction
Ddx: Adeno, Herpes, Pox
Infectious synovitis:
Mycoplasma synoviae
Bumblefoot (+/- ascending osteomyelitis):
Staph spp.
Strep spp.
E. coli
Osteomyelitis: Arcanobacter pyogenes (T)
Mycobacterium avium avium
Erysipelothrix rhusioathae
Similarities exist betw. coligranulomas in
poultry and liver abscesses in beef cattle with grain overload.
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Viral diseases
Neoplastic diseases
West Nile Virus
Marek’s Disease
Alphaviruses
Respiratory viral diseases
Newcastle Disease
Avian Influenza (HPAI)
Infectious Laryngotracheitis
Infectious Bronchitis
Pneumovirus infection
Infectious viral diseases of ducks
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Miscellaneous viral diseases
Leukosis/sarcoma Virus Complex
Fowl Pox (Dry and Wet Forms)
Avian Encephalomyelitis
Infectious Bursal Disease
Reovirus Infection (V. Arthritis)
Malabsorption Syndrome
Infectious Anemia (Circo Virus)
Papova Virus
Adenoviral diseases
Duck Viral Hepatitis
Inclusion Body Hepatitis
Duck Plague (Viral Enteritis)
Egg Drop Syndrome (Adeno 3)
Quail bronchitis
Marek’s Dz:alpha-Herpes
Perivascular lymphocytes-no gliosis/necrosis
Newcastle: gliosis and necrosis
Avian Encephalomyelitis (AE)(Picorna)=“endemic tremor”
Recovered birds can have cataracts
Ddx: Vit E/Sel. Def. (“Crazy chick”)
Papovavirus: Squam. cell carc.
-spontaneously regress in chickens
Poultry: Viruses
Polyomavirus: of Psittacines
Herpes: Pacheco’s Dz of Psittacines
Pox (wet)
Newcastle Dz (necrosis, loss of cilia)
Renomegaly, ureteraldistention
Infectious Bronchitis-Coronavirus-nephrotropic strains.
Splenomegaly-Adeno-2(P,C)
Swollen sinus/tracheitis:
Newcastle (paramyxo)
Avian Influenza (Ortho)
Infectious Bronchitis(Corona)C
Pox (wet)
Laryngotracheitis (alpha Herpes-1)C
Marble spleen-Adeno-2(P)
Newcastle-erythrophagocytosis
(in spleen and liver)
Enteritis:
Pox-nodules,plaques, epith.IC incl.=Bollinger bodies.
Adeno-2-Turkey: Hemmorhagic enteritis
Pheasant: Marble spleen
Duck viral enteritis (Herpes)=Duck plague
hemorrhagic annular lesions (affects GALT)
Tracheitis/air sacculitis:
Quail bronchitis (Adeno-1)
Hepatomegaly:
Ddx: Incl. Body hepatitis(Adeno-1)
,(hemorrhage, necrosis)
Chicken anemia agent(circo)
Proventricular
hemmorhagenonspecific.
Ddx:
Newcastle
Influenza
Mycotoxins
Bact. Septicemia
Mishapen eggs:
Egg drop syndrome-Adeno 3(C)
Infectious bronchitis
Newcastle
Influenza
Multifocal hepatic necrosis:
Papovavirus hepatitis-also affects
spleen, kidney, cerebellum, intestine.
HPAI
Viral arthritis, tenosynovitis, gastroc.rupture:
Reovirus
Pox (dry)(C,T)
-beak, feet,eye
Marek’s Dz lymphocytic infiltr.
-peripheral nerves
-feather follicles,
-viscera
-iris
Chicken anemia agent (Circo)
-lymphoid depletion
-mm. Hemorrhage
gizzard erosion
hepatomegaly
anemia
Infectious Bursitis of Chickens
a.k.a.Gumboro Dz(Birnavirus) syn.
Osteopetrosis; avian retrovirus
Lymphoid Leukosis Virus:(Retrovirus)
Many tumors assoc. with viruses of this group
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Cryptosporidium
Aspergillus
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Poultry: Protozoa, fungi
Skin of head and neck:
Trichophyton megninii
(Favus dermatomycosis)
Oral cavity, crop:
Trichomonas gallinaediptheritic membrane, plaques
Candida albicans-thrush
Ddx:
Salmonella typhimurium (sparrows)
Chronic interstitial nephritis:
Microsporidium spp.
Eimeria truncata
renal tubular epith (goose)
-renomegaly
-pinpoint hemorrhages
Muscle: Sarcosporidiosis
Sarcocystis gallinarum
(rice-grain lesions)
Aspergillus fumigans
niger
flavus
Histamonas meleagridis
targetoid lesions
Histamonas meleagridis(blackhead)
hemorrhagic typhlitis with cecal cores
Ddx: Eimeria tenella
Salmonella (young birds)
All cause cecal cores
Intestinal Coccidiosis:
Eimeria tenella- chicken, restricted to cecum, clotted blood/caseous core
Eimeria necatrix- most severe. Mid-intest. Hemorrhage but oocysts found in ceca.
Eimeria maxima- less severe. mid-intestine, very large oocysts.
Eimeria acervulina-less hemorrhage b.c. restricted to villous tips. duodenum, transverse bands/spots.
Eimeria brunetti-affects posterior 1/3 of GI-fibrinonecrotizing +/- caseous cores.
Notes:
Commonly found together with Cl. Perfringens.
All Eimeria spp. are host specific.
Infection by ingestion of sporulated oocysts
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Poultry: Helminths, ectoparasites
Baylisascaris procyonis
Skin mites:
Dermanyssus gallinae- Red mite(C,T,P,W)
Ornithonyssus sylviarium-Northern fowl mite(C,T,W)
Knemodecoptes mutans-Scaly-leg/face mite (C,T)
Knemidocoptes gallinae-Depluming mite(C,P,Ph)
Epidermoptes bilobatus-Skin mite(C)
Dermoglyphus spp, Analges spp., Mengninia spp., Freyana spp.:
Feather/Quill mites.(C,T)
Laminosioptes cysticola-cyst mite(C,T,P,Ph,G)(skin, subcutis, mm, viscera)
Noeschonagastia americana-Chiggers (C,T)
Syngamus trachei (gapeworm)
Capillaria obsignata(watery diarrhea)
Ascarisia galli, dissimilis
Capillaria (Q*,C,T,P)
Ddx: Candida, Vit A def.
Prosthogonimus: Oviduct fluke of Ducks
Air sac mites(C,T,Ph,P,Canary)
Cyotidites nudus
Cyoleichus spp
Sternostoma spp
Filarial nematodes of air sacs:
Serratospiculum amaculata
Nematodes of glands of proventriculus:
Tetrameres spp.: Round (female)
Microtetrameres spp.: Coiled
Mucosa: Cyrnea spp.
Tapeworms:
Raillietina spp.
Davaluea spp.
Heterakis gallinarum
isolanche-sarcoma-like rxn. in pheasant
Ddx: Histomonas, Eimeria, Coligranuloma
Cestodes occur but are not important(rarely cause dz)
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Vit E/Sel def.(C): Muscular dystrohy,
Exudative diathesis, encephalomalacia (crazy
chick).
Cherry red cerebellum*
Poultry: Nutritional and Miscellaneous
Spondyloesthesis: “Kinky back”
Vertebral subluxation with spinal cord
Compression at T6- the only nonfused
joint in avian vertebral column
Pendulous crop:
Pathogenesis unknown, potential etiologies:
-crop mycosis
-Vagal n. paralysis
-Excessive H2O intake
-Abnormal bacterial fermentation
Vit. A Def.:
Hyperkeratosis
Aneurism/rupture of Aorta/coronary aa.(T)
Proventricular dilation:(C)
Poor gizzard mm. dev. d.t. finely ground feed
Macaw Wasting Dz- Pb, vagal n. paral.
Thickening of proventric:
Mucous gl hyperplasia
Mareks
Round heart Dz(T):
myocardial degeneration
with lipid-filled vacuoles within myocardial cells.
Xanthomatosis: (C, more a psittacine dz)
Yellow sq. or intracoelomic nodules
composed of granulomas with cholesterol clefts.
Gout: visceral/articular.
Birds lack carbamyl phosphate synthetase(to process ammonia)
and uricase(uric acid decarboxylation).
End product of protein metabolism:
Birds-- Uric acid, mammals-- urea
Incomplete regression of right oviduct:
Cystic right oviduct
Ascites syndrome:(C) due to R. heart
hypertrophy/passive congestion
Traumatic ventriculitis:
Chicken hardware dz
Hemochromatosis-Iron/hemosiderin
laden hepatocytes
Red blotches in sm. intest.:EMH
Liver Amyloidosisdeposits of amorphous eosinophilic
extracellular material
Infectious stunting:
Syn: Malabsorption/ maldigestion syndrome
-birds are small
-no single agent isolated/identified
-cause ubknown
Hepatic lipidosis/rupture
Coligranulomas:
-No causative agent found in majority of cases
-may be caused by larval migrans through wall
of cecum with subsequent bacterial infection.
Tibial dyschondroplasia(C,T,D)
Perosis/slipped tendon: Reovirus
Hock deformities, gastroc. rupture
(Mn/choline deficiency also implicated)
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Osteopetrosis caused by avian retrovirus
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Curly toe:(C,T,D) Vit. B2(riboflavin) deficiency:
Due to peripheral n. degeneration
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STUNTING RUNTING SYNDROME
Normal (left)
affected (right).
Runting and stunting syndrome is a condition causing growth retardation in young
broilers.
At necropsy affected broilers show proventricular enlargement, especially the isthmus
between the proventriculus and ventriculus, with mottled thickened, firm walls.
Attenuation of mucosal papilla where ductsfrom the glands open into the lumen may
be seen.
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Poultry: Toxic/Metabolic
Lead: Hyalinosis of cerebral vessels,
Demyelination, hemorrhage
Cyclopiozonic acid: Skel mm.
heart, liver, g.i. degeneration.
Ionophores:(Monensin, Lasalocid, Silinomycin, Narasin)
Degeneration of skeletal mm,
demyelination/axon degen. of peripheral n./spinal cord(Lasolocid)
Selenium: Pulmonary congestion, edema (in an ostrich chick)
Vit. A tox.:
Conjunctivitis,
Rickets,
hepatic degeneration
Organophosphates:
Delayed degeneration of peripoheral nerves, spinal cord.
Model for OPDIN**
Furazolidone: Round heart,
hepatocellular vacuolation
Zearalenone: cystic oviduct
Citrinin,Ochratoxins,Oosporein:
Tubular necrosis
Visceral urate deposition
Lead: Intranuclear inclusions in
renal tubular epith.
Gizzard erosions:
Ddx:
Cu Sulfate(antifungal agent)
Mycotoxins
Quaternary Ammonium
Trichothecenes: T2, DAS:
Radiomimetic affect-GI erosions,
lymphoid necrosis/depletion.
Zinc: Pancreatic acinar necrosis, enteritis,
nephrosis, gizzard erosion
Aflatoxins:
B1=most toxic,B2,G1,G2
Fumonisins
Moniliformin
Iron: Necrosis
Salt toxicity: R. heart hypertrophy, dilation,
Ascites, occasionaly encephalomalacia.
Fusachromanone: Tibial dyschondroplasia
Ergot: Beak and toe necrosis
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Poultry: Neoplasia
Merek’s Dz (Herpesvirus): Generally more widespread than LL
Nephroblastoma
Sertoli cell tumor:
Budgerigars
Hepatoma, Carcinoma
Ddx: Viral(Mareks, L.L.)
Parasitic: Ascaridia
Bacterial(coligranuloma, T.B.)
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Lymphoid leukosis(Retrovirus):
Affects bursa-rapidly dividing lymphoblasts,
as well as visceral organs.
Neoplasms caused by viruses of the leukosis/sarcoma group
a.Lymphoid leukosis
b.Erythroblastosis
c.Myeloblastosis
d.Myelocytomatosis
e.Epithelial tumors: Nephroblastoma, Pancreatic adenocarcinoma, hepatic
carcinoma, granulosa cell carcinoma, seminoma, etc.
f.Connective tissue tumors: fibroma, fibrosarcoma, myxosarcoma, myxoma,
chondroma, osteoma and osteogenic sarcoma, etc.
g.Endothelial tumors: Hemangioma, angiosarcoma, endothelioma,
mesothelioma
a.Related tumors: Meningioma, glioma
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Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
Page: 1 of 19
Tawfik Aboellail, B.V.Sc, M.V.Sc, Ph.D., DACVP
Wednesday, July 11, 2012
Avian Gross Pathology with Special emphasis on Poultry Diseases
C L Davis Foundation Symposium, 2012
Gross Pathology Course
Fort Collins, Colorado
Slide
NO.
Disease Name
Cause
System/organ
Gross lesion
Morphologic diagnosis
3,4
OVERALL VIEW OF
BACTERIAL DISEASES
BACTERIAL
ALL
EXUDATIVE/INF
-LAMMATORY
5
FOWL CHOLERA
Pasteurella multocida
Head/Resp
Chicken: Nasal
discharge facial
swelling
Catarrhal rhinitis/sinusitis and
conjuctivitis
(avian pasteurellosis or avian
hemorrhagic septicemia)
Septicemia
DIFFERENTIAL
LISTS
6
Acute
“
“
P. multocida
Head subcutis,
turkey
Caseous exudate
Facial cellulitis
7
Chronic
“
“
“
“
Head/wattles
Severe wattle swelling
“
“
“
“
Head/eye
Opaque eyes
Diffuse wattle edema and
heterophilic (necrolucerative)
dermatitis
Heterophilic conjunctivitis and
hypopyon
8
“
Notes
Infectious sinusitis
Infectious coryza
NCDV
HPAI
IBD
Pox
ILT
Cryptosporidiosis
Colibacillosis
HPAI
Infectious coryza
NCDV
Colibacillosis
Aizonosis
encephalomyelitis
9
10-13
14-17
“
“
“
INFECTIOUS CORYZA
(Roup)
INFECTIOUS SINUSITIS
“
“
Hemophilus paragallinarum
Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Infraorbital sinus
Caseous exudate
Head with foul
smelling caseous
exudate (plug)
swollen wattles and
face
Turkey: Head/ Infra
orbital sinus
Swollen sinuses
Heterophilic (purulent)
sinusitis
Acute sinusitis, conjunctivitis
and facial edema
Turkey coryza
Heterophilic to lymphocytic
sinusitis
Fowl cholera
Turkey coryza
Fowl cholera
Mycoplasmosis
pheasant, guinea fowl
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
(CRD in chickens)
18
TURKEY CORYZA
“
19
20
peacock, pheasant
and finches
Bordetella avium
“
INFECTIOUS CORYZA
Page: 2 of 19
“
“
H. paragallinarum
Head, turkey and
cockatiel
Swollen sinus
Acute sinusitis
Trachea
Compare normal (left)
to affected trachea
(right)
Tracheal collapse
Air sacs
Exudate fills air sacs
Exudative (heterophilic) air
sacculitis
Open mouth breathing
Fowl cholera
Infectious sinusitis
Coryza
HPAI
NCDV
Pox
Exotic NCD
HPAI
Aspergillosis
Mycoplasmosis
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FOWL CHOLERA
P. multocida
Lungs and pleura
Unilateral in turkey
Fibrinous inflammation
In parabronchi and on
the pleura
Acute-to-chronic
fibrinopurulent
pleuropneumonia
Or (pneumonia and pleuritis)
Ornithobacterium
rhinotracheale,
E. Coli
HPAI
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“
“
“
“
Spleen
Multifocal white foci
Multifocal splenic necrosis
(splenitis)
Marble spleen
(pheasant)
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“
“
“
“
Liver
White foci of necrosis
Multifocal necrotizing hepatitis
bact septicaemia:
E coli, S. pullorum/
gallinarum/typhimu
rium,,
Chlamydophila
, E. rhusipathiae,
Y.pseudotuberculos
O rhinotracheale, S
zooepidemicus
Discolored nodular
ovarian follicles
Copious fibrinous
exudate
Subacute to chronic
oophoritis
Acute serofibrinous arthritis
Mycoplasmas
Skin, synovium and
tendon
Subacute to chronic
cellulitis, tendinitis and
Mycoplasmas
Salmonellas
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FOWL CHOLERA
P. multocida
Ovary
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“
“
“
“
Leg joints
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“
“
“
“
“
“
M. synoviae
Diseases of Poultry
28
29
“
“
COLIBACILLOSIS
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
“
“
Page: 3 of 19
Coelomic cavity
Fibrinous inflamm.
E. coli
Coelomic cavity
Fibrinous inflamm.
30,31
“
“
“
Visceral organs
32
“
“
“
Trachea
33
“
“
“
Lungs
34
“ (inflammatory process)
“
“
Subcutis
Fibrinous exudate
Fibrinous cellulitis
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“ (salpingitis)
“
“
Oviducts
Caseous exudate
Fibrinopurulent salpingitis
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“ (omphalitis)
“
“
Yolk sac
Inflamed navel
Fibrinous omphalitis
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“ (endophtalmitis)
“
“
Eye
Heterophilic inf
M. gallisepticum
Air sacs
Opaque and may
contain lymphoid
follicles
Acute fibrinopurulent
endophthalmitis
Fibrinous to fibrinopurulent
airsacculitis
“
Liver, heart, air
sacs
Triad inflammation
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MYCOPLASMOSIS
“
“
“
“
synovitis
Fibrinous coelomitis
(pericarditis, perihepatitis
and air sacculitis)
Acute fibrinous coelomitis
(polyserositis)
Acute fibrinous Pericarditis,
perihepatitis and air
sacculitis or egg yolk
peritonitis
Hemorrhage and
fibrin
“
“
“
Fibrinohemorrhagic
tracheitis
Fibrinohemorrhagic
pneumonia
airsacculitis, fibrinous
perihepatitis, and adhesive
pericarditis
Colibacillosis
Pseudomonas
Aspergillosis
“ “
Fowl cholera
Mycoplasma
Chlamydiosis
Infectious
sinusitis
ILT
Syngyamiasis
IB
Exotic NCD
Fowl cholera
Ornithobacterium
HPAI
Staphylococcosis
Clostridosis
Mycoplasma
Fowl cholera
Egg binding
IB
Acute septicemia
Staphylococcosis
Salmonellosis
Pseudomonas
Septicemia
NCD
Fowl cholera
Colibacillosis
Chlamydiosis
HPAI
Exotic NCD
Fowl cholera
Colibacillosis
Chlamydiosis
HPAI, NCD
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
“
41,42
“ (turkey syndrome 65)
43
Page: 4 of 19
“
“
“
“
“
“
M. meleagridis
Abdominal air sacs
Newly hatched
poults
Caseous inflamm.
Multifocal fibrinopurulent
acute to lymphocytic air
sacculitis
M meleagridis
Legs
deformity
chondrodystrophy, or
unilateral to bilateral varus
deformities and perosis
Acute serofibrinous
synovitis
Slipped tendons
due to manganese
and vit. B defic.
Colibacillosis
Salmonellosis
Articular gout
Salmonellosis
“
“
44
“ (arthritis/synovitis or silent air
sac)
M. synoviae
Leg joints, tendons
Copious synovium
45
“
“
“
“
Foot joints
Swollen joints
Chronic arthritis
46
“
“
“
“
Multiple joints
Broiler leg joint
inflamm.
Chronic polyarthritis
47,48
SALMONELLOSIS
Fowl typhoid
Salmonella gallinarum
Liver
A bile-stained
("bronzed") enlarged
liver with or without
small necrotic foci
Multifocal
necrogranulomatous
hepatitis
Pullorum disease
Septicemias
Leukosis
Marek’s
49,50
Pullorum disease
S. pullorum
Gonads
Discolored follicles
Ovarian atrophy
(involution) with
hemorrhagic oophoritis
NCD
HPAI
Colibacillosis
O rhinotraceale
TB, leukosis,
Marek’s
Chlamydiosis
TB, Leukosis,
Marek’s
“
“
51,52
“
“
“
“
Heart
Nodules, opacity
Chronic fibrinous to
granulomatous pericarditis
53
“
“
“
“
Liver
Nodules, necrosis
54
“
“
“
“
Spleen
Nodules
Necrogranulomatous
hepatitis
Granulomatous splenitis
55
“
“
Intestines, ceca,
spleen
Necrosis, cecal cores
Necrotizing enterotyphlitis
splenomegaly
Histomoniasis
Leg joints
Swollen, inflamed
Fibrinous arthritis
S. arizonae
Head
Neurologic
symptoms
Torticollis
56,57
“
“
58
Arizonosis
“
“
59
“
“
“
Meninges
Cloudy meninges
Purulent meningitis
Infectious
synovitis
NCD
Encephalomalacia
Aspergillosis
Dactylriosis
Dactylriosis
60
“
“
“
Eyes
Lenticular opacity
Fibrinopurulent
ophthalmitis (hypopyon and
Aspergillosis
Avian
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
Page: 5 of 19
endophthalmitis)
61
CHLAMYDIOSIS
(Ornithosis, psittacosis)
”
62
63
Chlamydophila psittaci
“
AVIAN MYCOBACTERIOSIS
(Tuberculosis)
“
Mycobacterium
avium/intracellulare
complex
Water fowl, young
Multiple organs
Severe in turkey
Thickened
pericardium
Pneumonia, airsacculitis,
pericarditis, hepatitis and
splenitis, fibrinous
(polyserositis)
Subacute to chronic
fibrinous pericarditis
Chickens, game b
Tubercles
Multifocal granulomas
Multifocal granulomatous
enterotyphilitis
Granulomatous sinusitis,
hepatitis, splenitis and
osteomyelitis
Necroulcerative enteritis
64
“
“
“
“
Intestines, ceca
Yellow tubercles
65
“
“
“
“
Chronic stage
Disseminated TB
Intestines of
captive quail,
turkey and
chickens
Upper intestines
ceca and
occasionally cloaca
have “bull’s eye”
ulcers
66-70
CLOSTRIDIOSIS
Clostridium colinum
Ulcerative enteritis
Quail disease
May induce peritonitis and
involve spleen and liver
encephalomyelitis
Colibacillosis
Paratyphoid
Fowl cholera
Mycoplasmosis
Salmonellosis
New duck disease
“
Mycoplasmosis
Fowl cholera
Pullorum disease
Leukosis
Marek’s
Reticuloendotheli
osis/neoplasia
Leukosis
Marek’s
C. difficile
C. perfringens
Coccidosis
May contain blood
71
72,73
74
“
“
Necrotic enteritis
“
“
“
“
Round ulcers
C. perfringens type A or C
Intestines
Congestion/hemorr
Crumbled friable
mucosa. Foul odor
“
Liver
Necrosis
Necrotizing hepatitis
Histomoniasis
Staphylococcosis
Colibacillosis
Vit. E. deficiency
Toxicity
“
“
“
Multifocal and coalescing
ulcerative enteritis
Necrohemorrhagic enteritis
“
Intestines
75,76
Gangrenous dermatitis
Clostridia Spp. Especially
septicum, perfringens
Skin, subcutis
Gas, necrosis
Feather loss
Emphysematous and
serosanguineous cellulitis
77,78
Botulism
C. botulinum
Water fowl,
chickens
Flaccid paralysis
NO GROSS LESIONS
Difficile, colinum
Coccidosis,
viruses
Diseases of Poultry
79
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
ERYSIPELAS
80
Erysipelothrix
rhusiopathiae
Snood, dewlap,
head
Multiple infarcts
“
Spleen
“
Septicemias
Pasteurella
Staphylococcus
Streptococcus
Enlargement,
congestion
Vegetative valvular
endocarditis with
necrotizing myocarditis and
dermatitis
Marked splenomegaly and
congestion
Heart, liver
Fibrinous
inflammation
Fibrinous perihepatitis and
pericarditis
Osteomyelitis with
spondylitis
Fibrinosuppurative arthritis
Furazolidone tox.
Septiecmic
bacteria
Staphylococcosis
“
81
NEW DUCK DISEASE
Reimerella anatipestifer
Page: 6 of 19
82
“
“
“
“
“
Thoracic vertebrae
Joined vertebrae
83
“
“
“
“
“
joints
Swollen, inflamed
joints
Copious amounts of
exudate
Suppurative arthritis
Plantar surface
Foot abscess
Plantar foot abscess
84
STAPHYLOCOCCOSIS
85
Bumble foot
86
MISCELLANEOUS
BACTERIAL DISEASES
Ornithobacterium
rhinotracheale
Lungs
Fibrinous
inflammation
Fibrinopurulent pneumonia
Fowl cholera
87
“
O. rhinotracheale
Ovaries
Suppurative
inflammation
Ovarian congestion and
involution with suppurative
coelomitis
Mycoplasmosis
Colibacillosis
Fowl cholera
IB
“
Staphylococcus aureus
Septicemic
diseases
“
“
“
Turkey breeders
Congestion/hemorr
Septicemias
Infectious
synovitis
88,89
OVERALL VIEW OF
BACTERIAL DISEASES
VIRAL
ALL
NEOPLASTIC
INFILTRATIVE
90
NEOPLASTIC VIRUSES
LEUKOSIS/SARCOMA
VIRUS COMPLEX
Avian leukosis virus
- Alpharetrovirus
- Subgroup A is
most common
(ALV-A)
Long bones
“Boot” shanks
Osteopetrosis
Pathognomonic
91
Avian lymphoma (lymphoid
Liver, heart, spleen
Multiple round
neoplasia in multiple
Disseminated visceral
lymphoma (hepatic, cardiac
Marek’s
Pullorum disease
“
“
“
DIFFERNTIAL
LISTS
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
leukosis)
92
Page: 7 of 19
organs
“
“
“
“
“
ALV-J
and splenic)
Kidneys, ovaries
and bursa
“
“
“
“
Liver
Severely enlarge
liver
Hepatic myelocytomatosis
Head bones
Massive enlargement
Cranial myeloid leukosis
Erythroblastosis
Nephroblastoma
“
“
Marek’s
Amyloidosis
93
Myelocytomatosis
(myeloblastosis)
94,
95
96 100
Myeloid leukosis
Reticuloendotheliosis
Non-defective avian
retrovirus
Intestines, heart
Liver, kidneys and
rarely lungs
Chronic lymphoma
Intestinal and hepatic
disseminated lymphoma
Marek’s
Pullorum d.
101 104
MAREK’S DISEASE
Cell-associated gallid
alpha herpesvirus serotype
1 of subgroup a3.
Serotype 3 is turkey
herpesvirus
Peripheral nerves,
Asymmetric
paralysis
Sciatic nerves
Brachial and pelvic
plexi
Lymphocytic neuritis to
neural lymphoma
Leukosis
Encephalomalacia
Epidemic tremor
Splay leg
AHV-a3
Eyes
Discolored iris
Iris lymphoma
ophthalmitis
“
105
“
“
106 ,
107
“
“
“
Skin, comb
Enlarged feather
follicles
Follicular lymphoma
Pox
108,
109
“
“
“
Liver, could be
massively enlarged
Round white
neoplasia to diffuse
infiltrative disease
Hepatic lymphoma
Leukosis
“
Pullorum disease
110
“
“
“
Kidney, intestines
variable sized tan to
white nodules
Renal and intestinal
lymphoma
111
“
“
“
Heart
“
Cardiac lymphoma
112
“
“
“
Proventriculus,
intestines
Marked thickening
113
“
“
“
Ovaries
114
115,
116
New Castle Disease (NCD)
“
“
“
Avian paramyxovirus type 1
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
Alimentary lymphoma
Leukosis
Ovarian lymphoma
Nephroblastoma
Encephalomalacia
Encephalomyelitis
Fungal infections
WNV
Alpha viruses
Marek’s disease
Torticollis
Neurologic
Encepahlitis
Eyes
Cloudy cornea, edema
hemorrhages
Acute keratoconjunctivitis with
diffuse facial edema
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
117
“
“
“
“
“
“
Larynx and trachea
118
“
“
“
“
“
“
Oropharynx and
esophagus
119
“
“
“
“
“
“
Cecal tonsils
120
“
“
“
“
“
“
121
“
“
“
“
“
122
“
“
“
“
“
123126
AVIAN INFLUENZA
Highly pathogenic avian
influenza (HPAI)
Page: 8 of 19
Necrohemorrhagic
laryngeotracheitis
Necrohemorrhagic
pharyngitis and esophagitis
ILT
Syngymiasis
Wet pox
Enlarged and
reddened
Marked acute hemorrhage
and edema
HPAI
Ceca
Crumbled and friable
mucosa
Cecal mucosal necrosis and
hemorrhage
“
Proventriculus
Ulcers and
hemorrhage
Necrohemorrhagic
proventriculitis
HPAI
Coccidiosis
Histominasis
Clostridosis
Colibacillosis
HPAI
“
Ovaries
Red and small
Ovarian congestion and
involution
Head
Comb, wattle
Conjuctiva
Swelling and redness
Acute diffuse wattle and
comb edema with
congestion (cyanosis) and
hemorrhage
hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
Subcutaneous hemorrhage
and edema
Avian influenza type A
Necrosis and hemorr.
“
“
“
127
“
“
“
“
“
“ “
Shanks
Redness and swelling
128
“
“
“
“
“
“ “
Subcutis
Fluctuant
129
“
“
“
“
“
“ “
Crop
Ecchymoses
130
“
“
“
“
“
“ “
Proventriculus
131
“
“
“
“
“
“ “
132
“
“
“
“
“
“ “
Heart and great
vessels
Pancreas
“
Hemorrhages
Widened interlobular
septa
“
“
“
Marked multifocal
hemorrhages
“
“
“
Epicardial and adventitial
vascular hemorrhages
Interstitial edema and
congestion
HPAI
IB
Ornithobacterium
Colibaciloosis
and other
bacterial
septicemias
Exotic NCD
Fowl cholera
Turkey coryza
Reovirus
Inflammatory
process
Exotic NCD
”
“
“
“
NCD
Colibacillosis
Diseases of Poultry
133
134
“
“
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
“
“
INFECTIOUS
LARYNGOTRACHEITIS (ILT)
“
“ “
Gallid herpesvirus type 1
“
Mucoid to bloody
discharge
Diphthritic
membrane
Congested
Necrohemorrahgic
tracheitis
Hemorrahic cloacitis
Excessive
lacrimation
Ocular discharge
Caseous exudate
Mucopurulent conjunctivitis
with epiphora
“
“
“
“
“
“
Trachea
136
“
“
“
“
“
“
Cloaca
INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS (IB)
Avian coronavirus
138
“
“
“
“
139,
140
141
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
“
142,
143
“
“
“
“
144
AVIAN PNEUMOVIRUS
INFECTION
Eyes
Trachea, syrinx,
main bronchi
Kidneys and
ureters
Pericardium and
liver
Eggs
Avian metapneumovirus
type C
Head
Avian birnavirus
Bursa
Retention of urates
Gritty chalky plaques
Poor quality
Misshapen, soft
shells, watery
albumin
Head swelling
INFECTIOUS BURSAL
DISEASE
(IBD: GUMBORO DISEASE)
“
148
149
150
151
“
“
DUCK VIRAL HEPATITIS (DVH)
“
“
“
DUCK VIRAL ENTERITIS
“
“
Type 1 enterovirus
“
“
“
Anatid herpesvirus 1
Necropurulent
tracheobronchitis
Bilateral renomegaly with
ureteral urolithiasis
Pericardial and perihepatic
urate deposition
Egg drop and abnormalities
Encephalomyelitis
IB
NCDV
Pox
Syngymaisis
NCD
Cannabalism
Cryptosporidosis
Ammonia
Bacterial
Asperigillosis
Visceral gout
“
“
D deficiency
Ca:P imbalance
NCD
Acute locally extensive
subcutaneous edema with
conjuctivitis
Fowl cholera
Colibacillosis
Edema, enlarged
Hemorthage
Depletion
Acute diffuse bursal edema
to diffuse hemorrhage and
atrophy
Leukosis
Thigh
Hemorrhages
Newly hatched
Mortality
Muscular ecchymoses
(multifocal hemorrhage)
opisthotonus
Hemorrhagic
syndrome
NCD
Liver
Hemorrhage
Multifocal hepatic necrosis
with hemorrhage
Intestines and liver
Necrosis
Necrotizing enteritis with
Bacterial
septicemias
Histomoniasis
Clostridosis
Swollen head syndrome or
turkey rhniotracheitis
145147
Multifocal pancreatic
necrosis with hemorrhage
Mucohemorrhagic tracheitis
Extended neck
Expectoration of
blood
135
137
Red spots
Page: 9 of 19
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
Page: 10 of 19
(DVE: DUCK PLAGUE)
multifocal hepatic necrosis
152
“
“
“
“
153
“
“
“
“
Digestive tract
especially
intestines
Ovaries
154
“
“
“
“
Penis
Congested,
hemorrhagic,
involuted
Prolapse
Head, beak and
legs
Plaques, papules and
scabs
Multifocal annular intestinal
lymphoid necrosis and
hemorrhage
Ovarian congestion and
hemorrhage
Penile (phallus) prolapse
Trauma
Locally extensive
necrotizing and proliferative
dermatitis
“
“
Pathognmonic
with inclusion
bodies
”
“
155,
156
FOWL POX
157
“
“
“
“
(Wet, diphitheritic form)
Turkey pox
“
“
“
“
Pigeon pox
“
“
“
“
fowl poxvirus
(type species)
Oral cavity,
oropharynx,
esophagus,
Laryngeal aperture
Diphithretic plaques
Necrotizing and
hyperplastic inflammation
(specify orgns)
Hypovitaminosis A
Candidiasis
ILT
Trichothecene
Canker
Capillariasis
161
Water fowl dry pox
Avian pox virus
Web
PAPILLOMATOSIS
Avian pailloma virus
Web
163
Turkey viral hepatitis
Believed to be a novel
picrona virus
Liver
Necrotizing and
hyperplastic dermatitis
Multifocal dermal
papillomas
Multifocal hepatic necrosis
Papillomatosis
162
Plaques, papules and
scabs
Nodules with
hyperkeratosis
White foci and bile
staining
Picorna v.
Pancreas
White to grey spots
Multifocal pancreatic
necrosis
Quail adenovirus 1
Trachea
Thick mucus
Mucopurulent tracheitis
with focal hyperplasia
Avian
encephalomyelitis
HPAI
Pox
NCD
Asperigillosis
Vibriosis in
turkey
IBH
Fowl cholera
Clostridiosis
185
159,
160
164
165
Avian pox virus
Annular bands of
necrosis
HPAI
Coccidosis
Pathognomonic
with Inclusion
bodies
Bacterial
septicemias
(Dry, cutaneous form)
“
“
“
ADENOVIRAL INFECTIONS
Quail bronchitis (QB)
“
“
166
Inclusion Body Hepatitis
Avian (IBH) adenovirus
type I
Liver
Mottled
Multifocal hepatic necrosis
with hemorrhage
167-
Hemorrhagic enteritis (turkey)
Turkey type II adenovirus
Intestines, spleen
Hemorrhage
Segmental to diffuse
”
“
Pox
Histmoniasis
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
Page: 11 of 19
171
Marble spleen (pheasants)
Fowl adenovirus type II
172
Egg Drop Syndrome-76
(EDS-76)
Believed to be adenovirus
Type III
Eggs
Misshapen, soft
shelled
173,
174
INFECTIOUS ANEMIA
Avian circovirus
Wing
Hemorrhage and
cyanosis
Subcutaneous hemorrhage
Bone marrow
Fatty
Aplastic anemia
175
(Blue Wing Disease)
“
“
“
“
“
Splenic enlargement
hemorrhagic enteritis with
splenomegaly
De-pigmented soft shelled
eggs
Salmonellosis
D deficiency
Ca:P imbalance
Cu deficiency
IB
NCDV
HPAI
Clostridium
perfringens
176178
VIRAL ARTHRITIS
(Tenosynovitis; Ruptured
Gastrocnemius Tendon)
Reovirus type 3
Immobilization
Hock joint
Gastronemius tendon
rupture with periartciular
hemorrhage
Slipped tendon
Infectious
synovitis
179180
CORONAVIRAL ENTERITIS
(Transmissible Enteritis of
Turkeys; Blue Comb)
Turkey coronavirus
Intesine
Thin-walled
Fluid-filled
Catarrhal enteritis
Young (< 7week):
Salmonellosis
Hexamitiasis
Coccidosis
Starve outs
Water deprivation
Growing-mature:
Rota, astro, entero,
reo viruses
181,
AV. ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
(epidemic tremor)
182
“
“
Hepatovirus,
Picornaviridae family
“
“
Multiple birds are
affected
Brain
Paralysis and
prostration
Lymphocytic
encephalomyelitis
Eye
Bluish opacity
Iridocyclitis with cataract
Fowl cholera
Erysipelas
Black head
Trichominasis
Hemorrhagic
enteritis
NCDV
Encephalomalacia
Dactylariosis
Aspeigillosis
Marek’s
NCD
Arizonosis
Septicemias
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
Page: 12 of 19
183
OVERALL VIEW OF FUNGAL
AND PROTOZOAL DISEASES
FUNGI
PROTOZOA
ALL
NECROTIZING/
INFLAMMATORY
MORPHOLOGIC/
ETIOLOGIC DIAGNOSIS
DIFFERNTIAL
LISTS
184
ASPERGILLOSIS
Aspergillus fumigatus
Chicks
Open mouth
breathing and
gasping
Dyspenea with cyanosis
Mycobacteriosis
M. gallisepticum
D. gallopava
Nodules and plaques
Fibrinopurulent
tracheobronchitis
Multifocally extensive
granulomatous pneumonia
and fibrinous air sacculitis
Locally extensive
hyperkeratotic (crusting)
dermatitis
Brooder Pneumonia; Mycotic
Pneumonia; Pneumomycosis)
185
“
“
“
“
Syrinx
186189
“
“
“
“
Lungs and air sacs
“
“
“
“
“
“
190
FAVUS
(Avian ringworm, Avian
dermatophytosis)
Microsporum gallinae
M. gypseum and
Trichophyton simii
Comb and wattle
White crusting
191193
CANDIDIASIS
(Thrush; moniliasis, crop
mycosis, sour crop, muguet, soor,
levurosis)
Candida albicans
Crop
Diphthretic patches
Shallow ulcers
Multifocal and coalescing
necrotizing to proliferative
ingluvitis
Wet Pox
Hypovitaminosis A
Trichomoniasis
Capillarisis
194,
195
DACTYLARIOSIS
Dactylaria gallopava
Brain and eyes
Cloudy plaques
Cerebellum
Asperigillosis
Colibacillosis
Salmonellosis
196,
197
TRICHOMONIASIS
(Canker in pigeons and founce
raptors)
Trichomonas gallinae
Mouth, pharynx,
esophagus, crop
Plaques, nodules
Locally extensive
pyogranulomatous
encephalitis with unilateral
atrophy of optic tract and
lobe and catarct
Necrogranulomatous to
proliferative stomatitis,
esophagitis, ingluvitis
198201
HISTOMONIASIS
Histomonas meleagridis,
Ceca, liver
Targetoid lesions
Cecal cores
Erysipelas
202211
COCCIDIOSIS
(Chicken Eimeriosis)
Anterior 1/3
230, 231 Duodenum
Discolored,
thickened, white foci
Necrogranulomatous
hepatitis and fibrinonecrotic
enteritis (cecal core)
Catarrhal to fibrinonecrotic
enteritis
232, 235 - Mid gut
Bloody contents
(neurotropic in turkey)
(Blackhead disease; Enterohepatitis)
E. acervulina
E. praecox
E. mivati
Middle 1/3
E. necatrix
E. maxima
Necrohemorrhagic to
fibrinonecrotic enteritis
Pathognomonic
with
pseudohyphae
Wet pox
Hypovitaminosis
Clostridosis
Salmonellosis
Histomoniasis
Exotic NCD
HPAVI
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
Lower 1/3
Ceca
212,
2413
Turkey Eimeriosis
E. brunetti
E. mitis
E. tenella
Anterior 2/3 E meleagrimitis.
Mid gut
Distal 1/3
Page: 13 of 19
236-238 Ceca
Bloody contents,
severe necrosis
Severe diffuse hemorrhagic
and necrotizing enteritis
Anterior intestine
Diphthretic
membrane
Fibrinohemorrhagic and
necrotizing enteritis
E. dispersa.
E gallapovonis
E adenoides
Catarrhal to fibrinomucoid
enteritis
Muscular sarcocyosis
Salmonellosis
Histomoniasis
214,
215
SARCOCYTOSIS
(Sarcosporidiosis)
S. horwathi in chickens
S. anatina and S. rileyi in
ducks
Breast muscles of
wild ducks
Rice grains
Pale large sarcocysts
arranged in parallel
with muscle fibers
216,
217
OVERALL VIEW OF
ECTOPARASITIS AND
METAZOAL DISEASES
ECTOPARASITES
HELMINTHS
ALL
ANEMIA
HEMORRHAGE
MECHANICAL
OBSTRUCTIONS
218
NEMATODES
(Nematodiasis)
Ascardia galli in chickens
Small intestine
obstruction
Eosinophilic enteritis 
Intestinal obstruction
Cecal pouches
Carrier for
H. meleagridis
Mild to severe chronic
typhlohepatitis (fibrous and
granulomatous in pheasants)
Capillaria annulata in
chickens and owls
esophagus, crop
Fibrinonecrotic and
proliferative inflammation
Capillaria contorta
Wet pox
Hypovitaminosis A
Canker
Syngamus trachea
Oral cavity,
esophagus, crop
Trachea
White plaques/
thickening
Earth worms are I.H.
Hemorrhagic tracheitis
ILT
Intestinal acanthocephaliasis
Pathognomonic
Riboflavin d.
219
A. dissimilis in turkey
Hetraix gallinarum
Hetrakis isolonche
(pheasants)
220
221
DIFFERNTIAL
LISTS
222
ACNTHOCEPHELIASIS
Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus
Passerine birds
Male and female in
permanent copulation
Thorny headed worms
223
SCALY LEG MITE.
Knemidokoptes mutans
“
pilae
(psttacines)
Leg
White scales
Hyperkeratotic and
proliferative epidermitis and
dermatitis
224
CHICKEN MITE –RED MITE
Dermanyssus gallinae
0.7 mm long x 0.4 mm
Under wings,
pericloaca
Small red mites
Cuaneous acariasis with locally
exensive alopecia
appear black or gray
No reaction to the
cysts in muscles
Diseases of Poultry
225
226,
227
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
DEPLUMING MITES
Knemidokoptes gallinae
NORTHERN FOWL MITE
Ornithonyssus sylviarum
PEDICULSOSIS
Head louse
Shaft louse
Wing louse
Fluff louse
Brown Chicken louse
Culclotogaste heterographa
Menopon gallinae
Lipeurus caponis
Large turkey louse
Chelopistes meleagridis
Slender pigeon louse
Columbicola columabae
Gonicocotes gallinae
Goniodes dissimilis
Back
Feet
or red if engorged
with blood
Feathers
Breakage or feather
loss
Adult lice
Wing feather pediculosis
Eggs (nits)
Locally extensive alopecia
“
228
OVERALL VIEW OF
NUTRITIONAL AND
MISCELLANEOUS DISEASES
NUTRITIONAL
DEFICIENIEC
GENETIC/UNKNOWN
ALL
DEGENERATIVE
229 233
AVIAN ENCEPHALOMALACIA
Hypovitaaminosis E/selenium
deficiency
Paralyzed birds
Cerebellum
Sudden onset of lateral
prostration with heads
retracted, legs
oustretched and toes
flexed and contine to
eat
234
235237
238
(Crazy chick disease)
Skin
Exudative diathesis
“
“
“
“
Muscular dystrophy
HYPOVITAMONIOSIS A
Vitamin A deficiency
Page: 14 of 19
Acariasis
DIFFERENTIAL
LISTS
Cerebellar hemorrhagic
malacia with vascular necrosis
Neurologic diseases
Subcutaneous hemorrhage and
edema
HPAI
Gang. dermatitis
Skeletal muscles
Pectoral muscles and
gizzard (poults)
White pale areas
Multifocally extensive
muscular degeneration/necosis
Crop
White pustules
Glandular squamous
metaplasia and hyperkeratosis
Pox
Capillarisis
Thrush
Visceral gout
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
239
CURLED TOE PARALYSIS
Vitamin B2 deficiency
Toes
Inward curling
240,
241
242 244
BIOTIN DEFECIENCY
Vitamin B7 deficiency
Beak and legs
CHONDRODYSTROPHY
Deficiency of manganese or
one of four vitamin B
Hocks
Thickening and
cracking
Displaced, thickened
Beak
Malleable
Ribs
Racketic rosary
Long bones
Flared, irregular growth
plate
Tibia/
proximal tibiotarsus
an abnormal mass of
cartilage below the
growth plate
Slipped tendon (perosis)
Page: 15 of 19
Neural dystrophy due to
myelin degeneration
Exudative dermatitis
Tendonopathy with
displacement
Marek’s
Pantothenic acid
deficiency
Viral arthritis
biotin, folic acid,
niacin, or pyridoxine
245248
RICKETS
(Kinky back)
Developmental problem/
trauma (heavy weight)
T 4-6 thoracic
vertebra
Deformation and
displacement
Osteopenia and decreased
mineralization
Failure of endochondral
mineralization
Retention of pyhseal cartilage
with failure of endochondral
ossification
Tibial to tibiotrasal
dyschondroplasia due to failure
of cartilage ossification and
removal (decreased
chondroclasts)
Vertebral luxation/dislocation
with stenotic myelopathy
253
SCOLIOSIS
Genetic
Thoracic
Multiple veretbrae
Vertebral scoliosis
254
TIBIAL ROTATION
Unknown
90º rotation distal
tibia
Unilateral
Lateral rotation of distal tibia
Deficiency of vitamin D3,
calcium or phosphorus
(imbalance)
Decreased volume
but no loss in density
Deformed keel
Escherichia coli and
Staphylococcus aureus are
most commonly isolated;
less commonly,
Salmonella, Yersinia,
Streptococcus, Pasteurella,
and Arizona
Long bones and may
be associated with
synovitis
Sternal deformity due to
osteopenia
Cortical osteopenia with
pathologic fracture
Locally extensive
ecrosuppurative osteomyelitis
249251
TIBIAL DYSCHONDROPLASIA
Deficiency of vitamin D3
Multifcatorial? Genetic/
nutritional/mycotoxins
(fusarium toxicity)
Comparison
252,
SPONDYLOLISTHESIS
(Twisted legs)
255,
256
257,
OSTEOPOROSIS
(Cage layer fatigue or adult rickets)
OSTEOMYELITIS
Long bones brittle with
thin cortices
Femoral neck
Tibial
dyschondroplasia
Kinky back
Rickets
Slipped tendon
Rickets
Fracture due to
broken back
Rickets
Bacterial
Diseases of Poultry
258,
259
DEEP PECTORAL MYOPATHY
260
CROP DILATION
(Green muscle disease)
(Pendulous crop)
261263
264
GRAIN OVERLOAD
STUNTING AND RUNTING
SYNDROME
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
Page: 16 of 19
Mechanical (vigorous
wing beating) exertion
supracoracoideus
(deep pectoral)
muscle
Green necrosis
Ischemic muscular necrosis
Vagal nerve damage
Crop mycosis
Altered diet
Excessive water intake
Excessive intake of
carbohydrates
Crop
Markedly distended and
pendulous
Severe diffuse crop dilation
Lead poisoning
Marek’s
Crop
Distended
Crop dilation
Proventriculus
Ulcerated
Proventriculus
Enlarged
Crop dilation with grain
impaction
Ulcerative ingluvitis and
proventriculitis
Lymphocytic proventriculitis
with glandular necrosis and
ductular epithelial hyperplasia
Viral (adeno, parvo, reo…)
Bacterial?
(infectious proventriculitis)
Inclusion body
hepatitis
265
TOXICITY AND METABOLIC
DISORDERS
LEAD, MYCOTOXINS
AND CHEMICALS
ALL
DEGENERATIVE
266
LEAD TOXICITY
Lead poisoning
Heart
Brain
Distended
Hyalinosis of cerebral
vessels
Nephrosis
demyelination
Smaller and fewer
Hydropericardium with
myocardial degeneraion
Ascites syndrome
Round heart disease
Reduced abnormal feathering
Beak, oral cavity,
esophagus, gizzard
Burns
Focal to multifocal necrosis
Pox
Canker
Hypoviyaminosis A
Liver, kidneys
Pale and enlarged
Hepatic and renal fatty
degeneration with necrosis,
fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia
Fatty liver
syndrome
Heart, coelomic
cavity of young fast
growing chickens
Gelatinous fluid and
rounded heart
Right ventricular dilation and
hypertrophy
Round heart disease
in turkey
(biventricular
dilation)
TRICHOTHECENE
MYCOTOXICOSIS
(Fusariotoxicosis)
T-2 toxin produced by
toxigenic species of
Fusarium
270272
AFLATOXICOSIS
273276
ASCITES SYNDROME
aflatoxin group
(B1, B2, G1, G2)
produced by Aspergillus
flavus-Aspergillus
parasiticu
Increased hydrostatic
pressure.
Rapid growth, elevated
metabolic rate, and
therefore a high oxygen
demand impose an
267269
(pulmonary hypertension syndrome)
Kidneys
Nerves
Feathers
DIFFERENTIAL
LISTS
Diseases of Poultry
277279
ROUND HEART DISEASE
280
AORTIC RUPTURE
281
PERIRENAL HEMORRHAGE
282
AMMONIA TOXICITY
283285
AMYLOIDOIS
286
UROLITHIASIS
287
VISCERAL GOUT
288,
289
290
ARTICULAR GOUT
291
CYSTIC OVARIES
GOITER
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
increased workload on the
heart.
This, combined with the
insufficient pulmonary
capillary capacity of the
modern broiler chicken,
aggravates the pulmonary
hypertension
Possibly toxic agents in
turkeys (antitrypsin and
furazolidone) associated
with built-up litter
Nutritional deficiencies
possibly copper
Genetic
hypertension
Unknown
Page: 17 of 19
Heart
Rounded (globoid)
Biventricular dilation
Ascites syndrome
Aorta of turkeys
Massive coelomic
hemorrhage
Aortic rupture with severe
coelomoc hemorrhage
Hemorrhagic
syndrome
Both kidneys of
rapidly growing
turkeys 8-14 w
Eyes
Foacl hemorrhage
Bilateral moderate to severe
perirenal hemorrhage
Edematous, red
Keratoconjunctivitis to
ulcerative keratitis
Associated with chronic
infections
Liver, kidneys
Most common in ducks
and finches
Severe diffuse
hepatic/renalamyloidosis with
ascites
dietary protein (30-40%),
calcium excess ( > 3% ),
sodium bicarbonate
toxicity, mycotoxins
(oosporin, ochratoxin),
vitamin A deficiency,
Urters
Cloaca
Chalky, gritty white
material
Ureteral urolithiasis
Serosal surfaces
“
“
Iodine deficiency
Genetics suspected
Hormonal
Synovial
membranes
Chalky, gritty white
material
Thyroids (around
syrinx)
Ovary
Male mature Buff
Cochin
Multiple, variably sized
cysts
Diffuse serosal urate
deposition
Articular urate deposition
Bilateral diffuse thyroid
hyperplasia
”
NCD
HPAI
H. paragallinarum,
M. gallisepticum
Asperigillosis
IB
“
Arthritis
Thyroid adenoma
Internal layers
Egg binding
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
292
PROVENTRICULAR
INTUSUSSCEPTION
Incidental
293
MECKEL’S DIVERTICULUM
Congenital (embryonic)
Proventriculus
telescopes into
gizzard
Yolk sac
294
CEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA
Avian parvovirus
295
MELANOSIS
296
RENAL AGENESIS
Page: 18 of 19
Ovarian carcinoma
None
appendage of the
small intestine
Extramedullary myelopoiesis
Cerebellum
Small with less distinct
folia
Cerebellar hypoplasia
Breed genetics
Brain
Black Aracauna hen
Diffuse meningeal melanosis
Congeintal
One kidney
Absent
Unilateral renal agenesis
“
Bilateral polydactyly
“
None
Salmonella
E. coli,
P. aeruginosa,
Enterococcus
encephalomalacia
encephalocele/
exencephaly, and
pox vaccination
reaction
None
Blockage of the migration of
the mesonephric duct in Day
2 chick embryos
297
POLYDACTYLY
Hereditary
Supernumerary digits
Both feet
298
NEOPLASIA
ALL
300
OVARIAN AND OVIDUCT
CARCINOMA
MULTIFACTORIAL/
VIRAL
Hyperovulation
PROLIFERATIVE/
INFILTRATIVE
Nodular
301
GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR
Non-hormonal
302
THYMOMA
Unknown
303
NEPHROBLASTOMA
Avian alpharetrovirus
304
SQUAMOUS CELL
CARCINOMA
SERTOLI CELL TUMOR
THYROID ADENOMA
Spontaneous
Follicles of
atrophic ovaries
Thymus in young
bords
Back, kidneys,
bursa
Skin broilers
305
306
“
Iodine deficiency or excess
Ovaries 
coelomic cavity
Testicles
One thyroid gland
around syrinx or
Solitary large to
nodular
Nodular, smooth
Large variegated
mass
Yellow irregular
ulcers in broilers
Round, smooth
Large, smooth
Ovarian/oviduct carcinoma
(carcinomatosis)
Ovarian granulosa cell
tumor
Lymphocytic to epithelial
thymoma
Nephroblastoma
Dermal squamous cell
carcinoma
Sertoli cell tumor
Unilateral thyroid adenoma
DIFFERENTIAL
LISTS
Pancreatic
carcinomatosis
Leukosis
Marek’s
Ovarian
adenocarcinoma
None
Leukosis complex
Marek’s
None
Teratoma
Goiter
Diseases of Poultry
Tawfik Aboella il, CSU 2012
Page: 19 of 19
ventral column
307,
308
HEMANGIOSARCOMA
Spontatenous
309
XANTHOMATOSIS
310
MYXOMAS
RHABDOMYOSARCOMA
Uncertain etiology
(possibly toxic materials in
animal fats)
Spontaneous
Good luck! Have a nice time at Mayor!
Wing, legs
Nodular yellow skin
Cutaneous xanthomatosis
Intestine
Pectoral muscles
Multiple, mucoid
Firm
Intestinal myxomas
Pectoral muscle
rhabdomyosarcoma
Hemangiomas
caused by avian
leukosis V.
Tuton’s giant
cells
Cholesterol clefts