Publication - Mathematica Policy Research

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Publication - Mathematica Policy Research
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Figure 1. Conceptual Framework: Strengthening Families
ANTECEDENTS OF
ANTECEDENTS OF
FAMILY FORMATION AND
FAMILY FORMATION AND
CHILD
CHILDWELL-BEING
WELL-BEING
PROGRAM
PROGRAM
INTERVENTIONS
INTERVENTIONS
INTERMEDIATE
INTERMEDIATE
OUTCOMES
OUTCOMES
Enhanced Child WellBeing and Development
Family Demographics
Relationship Type and
Quality
Multiple Partner Fertility
Relationship Skills,
Attitudes, Expectations
Employability
Physical and Mental Health
Parenting Behavior
Cultural Factors
Economic Conditions
Public Policies
LONG-TERM
LONG-TERM
OUTCOMES
OUTCOMES
Healthy Marriage
Program Design and Services
Stronger Mother-Father
Relationship
Relationship Skills and
Marriage Education
Services to Improve
Marriageability
Policy Changes
Improved Parent WellBeing
Reduced Out-of-Wedlock
Childbearing
Stable Family Structure
Father Involvement and
Cooperation in Childrearing
Program Implementation
Increased Family
Self-Sufficiency
Positive Parenting and
Improved Parent-Child
Relationships
Building Support
Cultural Sensitivity
Outreach & Recruitment
Assessing Couples
Improved Family Functioning
Service Delivery
Program Setting
Mode of Service Delivery
Program Intensity
Staffing
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Figure I.1 Conceptual Framework: Strengthening Families
ANTECEDENTS
ANTECEDENTSOF
OF
FAMILY FORMATION AND
FAMILY FORMATION AND
CHILD WELL-BEING
CHILD WELL-BEING
PROGRAM
PROGRAM
INTERVENTIONS
INTERVENTIONS
INTERMEDIATE
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OUTCOMES
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Family Demographics
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Relationship Skills,
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Employability
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Parenting Behavior
Cultural Factors
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OUTCOMES
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Policy Changes
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Service Delivery
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Table III.1. Characteristics of Private Marriage Education Programs
Target Population
Engaged
Couples
Program
Skills-Based Classes, Workshops, Lectures
African American Family Life
Education
Art and Science of Love
'
'
Art of Loving Well
Baby Makes Three
Becoming a Family
Becoming Parents
Catholic Engaged Encounter
'
Connections
Couple Communication
Divorce Busters
IMAGO
Marriage Alive
Marriage Encounter
'
'
'
Marriage Enrichment
PAIRS
Married
Couples
Distressed
Married
Couples
Expectant
or New
Parents
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
PREP
Relationship Enhancement
'
'
Relationship Intelligence
Survival Skills for Healthy
Families
Caring Couples Network
Marriage Savers
Retrouvaille
Saving Your Marriage Before
It Starts
Inventory-Based
FOCCUS and REFOCCUS
PREPARE/ENRICH
RELATE
'
Component
for
Emotional
Support
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
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'
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'
'
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&KDSWHU,,,$SSURDFKHVWR0DUULDJHDQG5HODWLRQVKLS(GXFDWLRQ
Multiple
Providers
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
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Seven Habits of Highly
Effective Families
Couples Mentoring
'
'
FaithBased
Elements
'
'
PARTNERS
PEERS
Single
Students/
Youth
'
'
'
'
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Table VII.1. Topics for the Description of the Intervention
FOUNDATION OF THE INTERVENTION
Goals: objectives, outcomes expected to be affected, theory underlying the intervention
Organizational Background: type of organization providing services, history of organization, decision to
provide services
Development: agencies involved in developing the intervention, whether it was based on other programs
Target Population: eligibility criteria, age of child at intervention, whether targeting first-time parents,
other demographic characteristics of target population
Funding: sources of funding for the interventions
OPERATIONS AND SERVICE DELIVERY
Recruitment and Sustaining Participation: outreach approaches, intake procedures, procedure to
encourage participation, approaches to sustaining participation
Components of Intervention: relationship skills services, policy changes, types of services provided to
improve marriageability, approach to providing those services (integrated/assessment and
referral/information sharing)
Assessments: formality of assessment, types of assessments used, actions taken as a result of
assessments
Curriculum: type of curricula used, topics covered, any modifications made
Mode of Service Delivery: whether delivered via classes/workshops, support groups, home visits, case
management
Tracking Success: how success is defined and tracked
Staffing: number, background and experience, training, turnover, ease of recruitment
Program Message: extent and content of messages to client about marriage, father involvement, and
out-of-wedlock births
COSTS
Staff Costs: wages and salaries, fringe benefits
Other Resources Used: overhead, contracted services, donations and volunteers
INTERVENTION USE
Participation: number of mothers/fathers who use interventions, characteristics of participants
Intensity of Use: average length of time participants spend in the program, frequency of interactions with
program, amount and types of services used
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Table VII.2. Minimum Impacts Detectable by Sample Size, for Key Outcomes
Sample Size
(Program/Control)
Percent
Married
Outcomes Expected in
Absence of Strategy
9%
250 (125/125)
8.1
500 (250/250)
b
Percent of
Couples Who
Maintain or
Improve
Relationship
a
Status
Percent of
Fathers Who
Believe
Marriage Is
Better for Kids
77%
13.7
12.8
11.8
4.2
5.7
9.7
9.0
8.4
3.0
1,000 (500/500)
4.0
6.9
6.4
5.9
2.1
1,500 (750/750)
3.3
5.6
5.2
4.8
1.7
2,000 (1,000/1,000)
2.9
4.9
4.5
4.2
1.5
71%
b
Child
Assessment:
Peabody Picture
Vocabulary Test
Standard Score
c
61%
b
Percent of
Biological
Fathers
Present in
Life of their
Children
81.1
c
Calculations assume: (1) an equal number of treatment and control members; (2) a 95 percent confidence
level with an 80 percent level of power; (3) a one-tail test; (4) a reduction in the variance of 20 percent from
the use of regression models; and (5) the variance of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Score is 225.
a
A relationship is viewed as “improved” if the couple moves up the ladder of relationships identified in the
Fragile Families study (McLanahan et al. 2001) and described in Section E.
b
Based on findings from the Fragile Families 12-month follow-up survey.
c
Based on findings from the Early Head Start evaluation when the child was about 36 months old (Love et
al. 2002).
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Table VII.3. Size of Programs Included in This Study
Program
Estimated Size
Other Locations of
Program
Baby Makes Three, Seattle, WA
79 couples
None
Becoming Parents Program,
Naperville, IL
50 couples annually
Curriculum used in
other states
Bienvenidos Family Services,
East Los Angeles, CA
Annually:
359 families in home visiting
programs
54 fathers in Con Los Padres
426 persons in parenting classes
None
Boot Camp for New Dads,
Denver, CO
1,500 fathers annually
128 programs in 35
states
Building Strong and Ready
Families, United States Army
435 couples total
None
Center for Fathers, Families,
and Workforce Development
(CFWD), Baltimore, MD
180 to 200 men annually
None
Children First, 77 counties in OK
3,900 to 4,000 new clients annually
state-wide
David Old’s Nurse
Home Visitation
programs also
implemented in 23
other states
Family Star, Early Head Start,
Denver, CO
75 families
644 grantees
nationwide
First Things First, CommunityWide Initiative, Chattanooga, TN
2,300 people annually attending a
variety of marriage seminars
Other communitywide initiatives
include Greater
Grand Rapids
Community
Marriage Project
Healthy Start, Heart of America
United Way, Kansas City, KS
400 clients annually
94 programs
nationwide
Healthy Start, Allegheny County,
PA
1,300 clients annually
94 programs
nationwide
Responsible Choices TANF
Agency, MD
112 families annually
None
Average Early Head Start program
serves 85 families, but size varies
from 30 to 200, with most programs
serving 60 to 100 families
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Table VII.4. Outcome Measures and Their Potential Sources
Outcome
Source
Marriage and Other Aspects of Mother-Father Relationship
-
Marital status
Survey, administrative data
-
Type of relationship, living arrangement
Survey
-
Stability, Quality
Survey, observation
-
Attitudes and expectations about marriage
Survey
Father Involvement and Cooperation in Childrearing
-
Frequency of visits, frequency of father’s involvement in different activities
Survey
-
Contributions in cash or in-kind
Trust between parents
Agreement about how to parent, father’s influence in child’s upbringing
Survey
-
Attitudes and expectations about father’s role
Survey
Survey
Survey
Parent Well-Being
-
Health status
Survey
-
Mental health and emotional well-being
Survey
-
Substance abuse
Survey
-
Criminal behavior
Survey
-
Employment, earnings
Survey, administrative data
-
Receipt of TANF, food stamps, and other public assistance
Survey, administrative data
-
Amount of child support ordered and received
Survey, administrative data
Child Well-Being and Development
-
Aggressive, hyperactive, anxious behavior
Survey, child assessment
-
Emotionality, adaptability, and sociability
Survey, child assessment
-
Cognitive and language development
Survey, child assessment
-
Reaching development milestones
Survey
-
Involvement with child welfare system
Survey, administrative data
-
Health status
Survey
Family Structure
-
Stability of relationship with other romantic partners
Survey
-
Subsequent children of parents
Survey
-
Out-of-wedlock births
Survey
-
Child’s living arrangements
Survey
Parenting, Home Environment, and Parent-Child Relationship
-
Parenting activities
Survey
-
Discipline strategies
Survey
-
Support of language and learning in home
Survey, observation
-
Physical environment of home
Survey, observation
-
Warmth and harshness of parent-child interaction
Observation
-
Child-care arrangements
Survey
-
Parent’s feelings about parenting and child
Survey
Family Functioning
-
Family organization, control, conflict
Survey
-
Domestic violence
Survey
-
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Table VII.5. Baseline Data Needs
Locating Information for Mother and Father
Family Structure
Name, address, telephone numbers, social security
number, contact information for relatives and friends
of both mother and father
Number of persons in family, ages and relationship
of persons in families, support from extended family
Mother-Father Relationship
Employment and Income
Whether married, relationship status, whether father
visited during hospital stay, living arrangements,
length of marriage and relationship, attitudes and
expectations about marriage, history of domestic
violence, paternity establishment
Whether mother/father is employed, earnings,
whether father pays child support, household
income, receipt of government assistance
Prior Marriages and Childbearing
Demographic Characteristics
Marital history, number of children with other parent,
number of children with others
Age of mother, father, and child; race/ethnicity of
father and child; country of birth of mother and
father; religion of mother and father
Child’s Characteristics
Education
Weight at birth, gender, health/disabilities
Highest grade completed by mother and father
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$33(1',;$
(;3(573$1(/0(0%(56
3
Expert Panel Members
Strengthening Families with Children Born Out-of-Wedlock
Enola Aird
Director
The Motherhood Project
Institute for American Values
New York, NY
Alan Hawkins
Associate Professor
School of Family Life
Brigham Young University
Provo, UT
Jacqueline Campbell
Anna D. Wolf Endowed Professor
Associate Dean of Research/Doctoral
Program
The Johns Hopkins University
School of Hygiene and Public Health Center
for Injury Control
Baltimore, MD
Nicholas Ialongo
Associate Professor
Department of Mental Hygiene
Bloomberg School of Mental Health
The Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, MD
Philip Cowan
Professor and Director
Institute of Human Development
University of California at Berkeley
Berkeley, CA
Frank Furstenberg
Professor and Research Associate
Population Studies Center
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
John Gottman
Co-founder and Director
The Gottman Institute, Inc.
Seattle, WA
Bernard Guerney, Jr.
Founder and Director
The National Institute of Relationship
Enhancement
Bethesda, MD
Ron Haskins
Senior Advisor for Welfare Policy
The White House
Senior Research Fellow
The Brookings Institution
Washington, DC
Lindsay Chase-Lansdale
Professor
Institute for Policy Research
Northwestern University
Evansville, IL
Steve Nock
Director of Marriage Matters
Co-director of Center for Children, Families,
and the Law
Professor of Sociology
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA
David Olds
Professor of Pediatrics, Psychiatry and
Preventive Medicine
Prevention Research Center for Family
and Child Health
University of Colorado
Denver, CO
Robert Rector
Senior Research Fellow
The Heritage Foundation
Washington, DC
$SSHQGL[$([SHUW3DQHO0HPEHUV
4 Isabel Sawhill
Senior Research Fellow
The Brookings Institution
Washington, DC
Scott Stanley
Co-director
Center for Marital and Family Studies
Adjunct Professor of Psychology
University of Denver
Denver, CO
Jerry Tello
Director
National Latino Fatherhood and Family Institute
East Los Angeles, CA
Patricia Funderburk Ware
Executive Director
Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS
The White House
Washington, DC
Barbara Dafoe Whitehead
Co-Director
National Marriage Project
Rutgers University
Piscataway, NJ
Brad Wilcox
Assistant Professor
Department of Sociology
University of Virginia
Charlottesville, VA
George Williams
Executive Director
Urban Fathering Project
National Center for Fathering
Shawnee Mission, KS
$SSHQGL[$([SHUW3DQHO0HPEHUV
$33(1',;%
6800$5<2)352*5$0&+$5$&7(5,67,&6
%
Table B.1. Summary of Program Characteristics
Program
Primary
Program Goal
Population Served
Point of Contact
Outreach/Services
Provided
African American
Family Life Education
Program
(Multiple sites)
To prevent long-term
family problems
Black couples,
married or in
committed
relationships
Varying income
levels
At any point
Some outreach
Couple relationship skills
Parenting skills
Life skills
Assessments for other
services
Referrals for other services
Baby Makes Three
(Seattle, WA)
To ease the transition
to parenthood and
prevent relationship
deterioration
Couples expecting
a child
All income levels
and
race/ethnicities
Pregnancy to 6
months after birth
Some outreach
Couple relationship skills
Parenting skills
Father involvement
Becoming Parents
Program (Longwood,
FL)
To strengthen
marriages or
relationships of
couples who are
pregnant with first
child
Primarily married,
middle-income,
white, first-time
parents
Pregnancy to
shortly after birth
Recruit mainly from one
church congregation
Couple relationships skills
Parenting skills
Referrals for other services
Becoming Parents
Program
(Naperville, IL)
To strengthen
marriages or
relationships of
couples who are
pregnant with first
child
Primarily married,
middle-income,
white, first-time
parents
Pregnancy to
shortly after birth
Recruited from hospital
Couple relationships
Parenting skills
Referrals for other services
Bienvenidos Family
Services
(East Los Angeles,
CA)
To strengthen
families, prevent child
abuse, help families
become selfsufficient, and support
stable and healthy
home environments
Low-income
Latino families
At any point
Some outreach
Couple relationship skills
Co-parenting skills
Health education
Life skills
Substance abuse
prevention and recovery
Family violence prevention
Pregnancy prevention
Assessments for other
services
Referrals for other services
Boot Camp for New
Dads
(Denver, CO)
To provide education
and support for
expectant fathers
Fathers, most
first-time
Some low-income
Some Latino and
black
When expecting
child
Some outreach
Couple relationships skills
Co-parenting skills
Father involvement
Parenting skills
Referrals for other services
$SSHQGL[%6XPPDU\RI3URJUDP&KDUDFWHULVWLFV
%
Table B.1 (continued)
Program Intensity
Extent to Which Program
is Faith Based
7 weekly classes
Program Size
Other Important Characteristics
Secular
Small, operated in only
two sites
Not currently offered on ongoing basis
1 weekend workshop, 12
support group meetings
over 6 months
Secular
Medium, program being
tested with 140 couples
at 1 hospital
Currently being evaluated in
longitudinal 3-year study
6 weekly classes
Setting is church,
participants recruited from
church congregation, and
begin classes with prayer
or scripture reading
Small, but part of
nationwide program
3 weekly classes, 2 hours
long
Secular
Small, but part of
nationwide program
Home visits: 1-4 times
per week
Secular
Large
Comprehensive approach to
strengthening couple
relationships
Secular
Large, part of nationwide
program
Low-income fathers receive
incentives for participation
Groups/classes: 2 hours
per week
One time, 3 hour class
$SSHQGL[%6XPPDU\RI3URJUDP&KDUDFWHULVWLFV %
Table B.1 (continued)
Program
Primary Program
Goal
Population Served
Point of Contact
Outreach/Services
Provided
Building Strong and
Ready Families
(Multiple sites)
To provide couples
with skills necessary
to build strong and
lasting relationships
Married enlisted
soldiers in Army
Some minority
When couple has
been in Army less
than six months
Some outreach
Couple relationship skills
Christian Family
Community Mediation
Services: Parenting
for Positive Results
and Relationship
Skills Groups
(St. Louis, MO)
To encourage more
effective parenting
and improve
relationship skills
All low-income
noncustodial
fathers, single
mothers, some
couples
Most black or
Hispanic
At any point
No outreach, all clients
referred
Relationship skills
Parenting skills
Co-parenting
Family mediation
Financial management
skills
Referrals for other services
Constructing a Godly
Home
(Braddock, PA)
To prepare couples
for stable
relationships and
marriages
Premarital middleincome couples
and singles,
unwed mothers
Many low-income
Largely black
Before marriage
Some outreach
Couple relationships skills
Co-parenting skills
Parenting skills
Financial management
skills Referrals for other
services
Couples’ Relationship
Enhancement
Program
(Multiple sites)
To teach couples
skills to create happy
and intimate
relationships
Couples
Some low-income,
African
American, Native
American
At any point
No outreach
Couple relationships skills
Referrals for other services
Family Star Early
Head Start
(Denver , CO)
To improve parents’
relationship with child,
encourage coparenting, provide
parents with
resources necessary
for this
Parents of infants
and children less
than 3 in Early
Head Start
Largely lowincome Latino
From all family
structures
While child is in
Early Head Start
Outreach only among Early
Head Start participants
Co-parenting skills
Parenting skills
Couple relationships skills
Assessments for other
services
Referrals for other services
First Things First
(Chattanooga, TN)
To reduce the divorce
rate, reduce the
number of out-ofwedlock pregnancies,
and increase father
involvement in the
community
Couples, families,
and fathers
Community-wide
At any point
Some outreach
Media campaign
Couple relationship skills
Co-parenting skills
Parenting skills
Referrals for other services
$SSHQGL[%6XPPDU\RI3URJUDP&KDUDFWHULVWLFV
%
Table B.1 (continued)
Extent to Which Program
is Faith Based
Program Size
Other Important Characteristics
Two all-day
workshops, plus
overnight retreat
Offered by Chaplain, but
otherwise secular
Medium, offered in 17
Brigades
Heavily based on PREP; also
research based
Classes: 6 weekly 2hour sessions
Mediation: 4-6
contacts per week for
1-2 years
Offered by a Christian
organization and
sometimes classes are
provided in churches,
curriculum is secular
Small
Varies, from 1 all day
class to 18-week 2-hr
classes
Faith-based curricula and
setting
Small
No established/consistent
curriculum
Varies, typically 90
min to 2 hours for 14
to 16 weeks
Some clergy provide
program
Large, nationwide
program
Research-based and evaluated
curriculum
Co-parenting: three
90 min. classes (in
planning stage)
Secular
Family Star program is
small
Program scheduled to begin
operation at beginning of
March, but not yet in operation
Varies by program
Some programs faithbased, others secular
Large, community-wide
initiative
Extensive collaboration with
community-based
organizations, including black
churches
Program Intensity
$SSHQGL[%6XPPDU\RI3URJUDP&KDUDFWHULVWLFV %
Table B.1 (continued)
Program
Primary Program
Goal
Population Served
Point of Contact
Outreach/Services
Provided
Greater Grand Rapids
Community Marriage
Project
(Grand Rapids, MI)
To increase
frequency of marriage
preparation, decrease
the divorce rate, and
reduce out-ofwedlock births
Couples and
families
Community-wide
At any point
Some outreach
Media campaign
Couple relationships skills
Referrals for other services
Healthy Start, Heart of
America United Way
(Kansas City, MO)
To decrease maternal
and child morbidity
and to improve child
and family health
Low-income
pregnant women,
infants, children
up to 2, and their
families
Fathers of babies
enrolled in Healthy
Start
Primarily black
and Hispanic
During pregnancy,
and after child’s
birth
Extensive outreach, using
community residents
Case management
Co-parenting skills
Parenting skills
Services to promote father
involvement
Employment services for
mothers
Health education
Assessments for other
services (mothers only)
Referrals (mothers only)
Healthy Start,
(Pittsburgh/
Allegheny County,
PA)
To decrease maternal
and child morbidity
and to improve child
and family health
The Male Initiative
Program designed to
increase father
involvement
Low-income
pregnant women,
infants, children
up to 2 and their
families
Also males ages
15 to 25
Primarily black
and Hispanic
During pregnancy
and after child’s
birth
Extensive outreach, using
community residents
Case management
Parenting skills
Services to encourage
father and other male
involvement
Health education
Assessments for other
services
Referrals for other services
Nurse-Family
Partnership
(Multiple sites)
To improve women’s
health during
pregnancy; improve
care of infants and
toddlers and prevent
maltreatment; prevent
unintended
pregnancy, school
dropout, welfare
dependence and
unemployment
Low-income firsttime mothers and
their babies
During and after
pregnancy, until
child is 2 yrs old
Some outreach
Couple relationships skills
Parenting skills
Co-parenting skills
Referrals for employment
services
Assessments for other
services
Research-based curriculum
Practical Application
of Intimate
Relationship Skills
(PAIRS)
(Multiple sites)
To teach couples
“emotional literacy” in
order to improve their
relationships
All couples, some
singles, usually
middle-income
At any point
Some outreach
Couple relationships skills
$SSHQGL[%6XPPDU\RI3URJUDP&KDUDFWHULVWLFV
%
Table B.1 (continued)
Extent to Which
Program is Faith Based
Program Size
Other Important Characteristics
Some programs faithbased, others secular
Large, community-wide
initiative
Extensive collaboration with
community-based organizations
Fatherhood program is 6class series
Secular
Large program with 84
sites nationwide
Lessons learned from outreach of
Healthy Start could identify
promising strategies for reaching
the target population
Male Initiative Program
involves 12 sessions
Secular
Large program with 84
sites nationwide
Has been operating longer than
the Kansas City project
Weekly, bimonthly, or
monthly home visits,
depending on mother’s
circumstances from
pregnancy until child is 2
Secular
Nationwide program
Findings from two experimental
evaluations have shown program
reduces child abuse, subsequent
pregnancy, and incidence of
behavioral problems due to
substance abuse
Varies
Includes 8-week seminar
to 120-hour seminar
Both secular and faithbased versions
Large, nationwide
program
Program Intensity
Varies
Premarital classes
include a 1-time 4-hr
class and a 3-session,
12-hr class
Also depends on partner
organizations
$SSHQGL[%6XPPDU\RI3URJUDP&KDUDFWHULVWLFV %
Table B.1 (continued)
Program
Primary Program
Goal
Population Served
Point of Contact
Outreach/Services
Provided
Prepare/Enrich and
Building Relationships
(Multiple sites)
To help couples
prepare for marriage,
help enrich marriages
of married couples
Goal of Building
Relationships is to
help develop
relationship skills of
youth
All premarital,
married, and
cohabiting
couples, and
youth
At any point
Some outreach
Couple relationship skills
General relationship skills
Prevention and
Relationship
Enhancement
Program (PREP)
(Multiple sites)
Preventing marital
dissatisfaction and
divorce
Largely white,
middle-income
committed and
married couples
At any point
Couple relationship skills
Research-based curriculum
Responsible Choices
TANF Agency
(Baltimore, MD)
To prevent
subsequent
pregnancies among
first-time parents,
increase positive
parent involvement,
support low-income
families
Unmarried
pregnant parents
or within three
months of birth of
first child Largely
low-income, black
Pregnancy or
shortly after birth
of first child
Some outreach
Couple relationship skills
Couples mediation
Co-parenting skills
Parenting skills
Services to encourage
father involvement
Employment services
Family planning services
Assessments for other
services
Referrals for other services
Torres Martinez
Desert Indian
Consortium
TANF Agency
(Los Angeles and
Riverside, CA)
To promote marriage
and encourage father
involvement
All TANF
recipients
At any point
No outreach
Premarital counseling
Couple relationship skills
Employment services
Assessments for other
services
Referrals for other services
Financial incentives for
marriage including
marriage bonus and
payment of some costs of
traditional weddings
$SSHQGL[%6XPPDU\RI3URJUDP&KDUDFWHULVWLFV
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Table B.1 (continued)
Program Intensity
Extent to Which Program
is Faith Based
Program Size
Other Important Characteristics
Adult programs vary but
recommend minimum of
6 hours of counseling
Youth program 6-8
sessions, 90 min each
Secular curriculum but
counseling often
provided by clergy
Large, nationwide
program
6 weekly 2-hour
sessions, weekend or 1day workshops
A Christian based
version of the curriculum
exists
Large, nationwide
program
Studies have shown that
program is effective, though
some methodological problems
with studies
Varies, home visits (45
min to 1 hr) once a week
at start, then less often
unless needed
Secular
Medium, local
program
We may want to consider this
TANF program for technical
assistance.
Varies
Secular
Local program
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