Research Journal - Philippine State College of Aeronautics

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Research Journal - Philippine State College of Aeronautics
Philippine State College of Aeronautics
Villamor Air Base, Pasay City
Research Journal
VOLUME 3
2012
ISSN 2094-7828
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Learning Style Profile of BS Aeronautical Engineering Students of the
Philippine State College of Aeronautics
Rodante Granfil Flores, Ph. D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
People of Palañac’s Resistance against Limahong
Hindering His Conquest of Manila as Observed
by the Leading Spanish Chroniclers
Mr. Victor P. Estrella
Mr. Patrick John F. Mansujeto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Heritage Education Among Manila Schools
as a Reflection of the City Government of
Manila’s Pursuit of Heritage Conservation
Mr. Patrick John F. Mansujeto
Mr. Victor P. Estrella . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Inobasyon ng Wika sa Cyberspace:
Pamamanaag sa Diskurso ng Filipino
Bilang Cyberlanguage
Mr. Gerard P. Concepcion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Computer-Based Learning Method in
Passenger Handling Procedures in the
Philippine State College of Aeronautics
Mr. Bely A. Apostol
Engr. Mary Ann A. Vista
Mrs. Cielito Caguia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Customer Satisfaction Survey
for Canteen Services
Dwight Kit M. Almonidovar
Joseph Christian Barrientos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
RESEARCH ABSTRACTS
Library Resources and Services of Selected
Aeronautical Institutions in Metro Manila:
Prospects for Resources and Services Sharing
Estrella E. Yago, MPA
Doctor of Public Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Effectiveness of the Flight Safety Program at the
505th and Rescue Group of the Philippine Air Force
Edmar L. Tipan
Master of Public Administration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
The Effects of School Activities to the
Academic Performance of Freshmen AMT Students
at the Philippine State College of Aeronautics
Melvin Ver P. Escaño . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
A Tracer Study of Bachelor of Science in
Aircraft Maintenance Technology Graduates
of Philippine State College of Aeronautics
Batch 2011
Alvin H. Pagayon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
The Operation of the Philippine State College
of Aeronautics’ Flying School Department:
Creating An Effective Model
Daryl C. Bersamina, Jay Vee N. Keng
Rogelio R. Pabingwit Jr.,
Emmanuel P. Vytiaco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
The Aircraft Maintenance Technology
Curriculum and On-The-Job Training Program
of the Philippine State College of Aeronautics
Joseph Lawrence C. Dela Cruz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
The Level of Satisfaction of the Participants on
the Extension Services Conducted by
Philippine State College of Aeronautics
at Barangay 183, Villamor, Pasay City
Don Albert B. Espiritu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
ABOUT THE AUTHORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Learning Style Profile of BS Aeronautical Engineering
Students of the Philippine State College of
Aeronautics
Rodante Granfil Flores, Ph D
ABSTRACT
Determination and comparison of the learning preferences of
freshmen BS Aeronautical Engineering AY 2006-2007 and AY 20112012 using the Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory revealed that both
batches predominantly belong to the Divergent types of learner
followed by the Accommodative types. Very few students were
classified as Convergent type of learners. Statistical analysis showed
no significant difference in the learning styles of the two groups.
Analysis of the types of learners facilitates preparation and design of
strategies and techniques to ensure students’ maximum learning
experiences.
Keywords:
learning style profile, experiential learning theory,
divergent, convergent, assimilative, accommodative
Introduction
An effective teaching-learning experience always start with a
comprehensive teaching strategy which involves analysis of key
elements in the learning environment such as the congruence
between the teaching and learning styles vis-à-vis the course
objectives, and the constraints imposed by time, space, and
resources on these key elements. Decisions based on these analyses
impinge upon course organization, pedagogical methods, and
assessment (llt.mit, 2011).
1
I always believe that teaching style must at least approximate, if it is
not possible to perfectly match, the students’ learning styles. As a
neophyte instructor in an aviation institution in 2006, I wanted to
determine the learning styles of my students to enable me to design
learning activities that will cater to their specific learning styles. Five
years later, I wanted to find out if there is a shift in the learning style
profile of freshmen BS Aeronautical Engineering students, in order to
make appropriate adjustments in my teaching strategies if needed.
Theoretical Framework
Kolb (1984) defined learning as the process by which knowledge is
created through the transformation of experience. His experiential
learning style theory is anchored on two levels; the four-stage
learning cycle and the four distinct learning styles (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Kolb’s Theory of Experiential Learning.
Experiential Learning Style Theory by David Kolb (Clark, 2011) is
typically presented as having two bisecting axes that form a
quadrant, the vertical axis representing the Perception Continuum,
while the horizontal axis represents the Processing Continuum.
Opposite ends of each continuum represents opposing modes of
2
learning; processing continuum describes how we approach a task,
i.e., preferring to learn either by doing or watching, while perception
continuum describes our emotional response by preferring to learn
either by thinking or feeling. Each ends of the continuums provide a
step in the learning process as follows:
Table 1. The Four Modes of Learning.
End of Continuum Learning Mode
Feeling
Concrete
Experience
(CE)
Thinking
Abstract
Conceptualization
(AC)
Watching
Reflective
Observation
(RO)
Doing
Active
Experimentation
(AE)
Learning Process
Learning from specific
experiences and relating
to people; being sensitive
to other’s feelings
Analysing ideas logically
and acting on intellectual
understanding of a
situation
Making judgement after
observing the
environment from
different perspectives
trying to look at the
meaning f things
Getting things done by
influencing people and
events through action
even if it includes risktaking
According to Kolb (in McLeod, 2010), effective learning occurs when
a learner passes through a cycle of four stages consisting of concrete
experiencing, followed by observing and reflecting that leads to the
formation of abstract concepts and generalizations, which are used
in testing hypothesis in new situations resulting in new experiences.
Effective learning thus occurs only when a learner completes all four
stages since each is mutually supportive of and feeding into the next
creating an integrated learning process.
This four-stage learning cycle gives rise to four distinct learning styles
which can be best visualized as a two-by-two matrix resulting from
the combination of two modes of learning. The resulting four
3
combinations of perceiving and processing determine one of the four
learning styles we prefer to learn according to Kolb (in Clark, 2011).
Table 2. Learning Styles from the combination of Modes of Learning.
Doing
Watching
ACCOMODATING
DIVERGING
CONVERGING
ASSIMILATING
Active Experimentation
Feeling
Concrete
Experience
Thinking
Abstract
Conceptualisation
Reflective
Observation
He further theorized that learning styles are not fixed personality
traits but stable patterns of behaviours based on one’s background
and experiences. Preference for a particular learning style is thus
influenced by one’s environment, social interactions, and the basic
cognitive structure of an individual.
Kolb’s Learning Styles which is are anchored on his Experiential
Learning Theory serves as the basic framework of this study. There
are however various learning style models in educational and
psychological literature such as Myers-Briggs Type Indicator which is
anchored on Jung’s archetype concept wherein a person’s
personality profile is identified along four dichotomised dimensions;
orientation to life: [introverted/extroverted]; decision making:
[thinking/feeling]; perception: [sensing/ intuition]; and attitude to
outside world: [judgement/perception] (Montgomery and Groat,
1998).
The Felder-Silverman Learning Style is another model which
incorporates five dimensions, two of which overlaps with Kolb’s and
Myers-Briggs’ models. The Perception Dimension (sensing/intuition)
is similar with Kolb’s and Myers-Briggs’ Perception, while Processing
Dimension (active/reflective) is also present in the Kolb’s model.
Three additional dimensions are posited in the Felder-Silverman
4
classification scheme: Input Dimension (visual/ verbal), Organization
Dimension (inductive/ deductive), and Understanding Dimension
(global/sequential). (Montgomery and Groat, 1998).
Teaching to an individual’s learning strength is the basic tenet of the
Dunn and Dunn Productivity Learning Style Model which is based on
five different categories: environmental, emotional, sociological,
physiological, and psychological (Larkin-Hein and Budny, 2000).
The most unique learning typology is offered by the GrashaReichmann Learning Styles wherein the categories are not anchored
on any theory of learning or personality types but instead anchored
on students’ responses to actual classroom situations and unlike the
other learning styles models, it does not assume bipolarity of the
scales (Montgomery and Groat, 1998). The Grasha-Reichman
Typology includes Competitive, Collaborative, Avoidant, Participant,
Dependent, and Independent types of learners.
Various researches have been conducted over the years relating
and/or unifying these different learning styles. Several areas of
overlap have been reported that in recent papers, discussion of
learning styles normally entails simultaneous reference to the
various models when describing a particular type. Studies done by
Kolb and Kolb (2005) Sutliff, R.I., Baldwin, V. (2001), Larkin-Hein and
Budny (2000), and Montgomery and Groat (1998) present thorough
discussions on the relational aspects or areas of overlaps among the
different typologies.
Methodology
This study made use of the Learning Style Inventory (LSI) developed
by David Kolb in 1976. The LSI description and theoretical construct
is discussed by Koob and Funk (2002). The instrument consists of 12item self-assessment intended to evaluate individual preferences to
a specific learning style using a forced scaling technique where
respondents are made to choose between two opposing abilities.
Each of the 12-items form rows of four statements describing
5
specific learning process. Choices made are presumed to reflect the
preferred learning abilities in each learning situations described by
the items. Respondents are to rank each statement from 4 (most like
you) to 1 (least like you). Scoring is done by taking the sum for each
column that represents the four learning abilities. Column 1 contains
items that indicate CE approaches to learning; column 2 indicates
RO, while columns 3 and 4 represent AC and AE respectively. Scores
are subtracted (AC- CE and AE-RO) and are plotted over the learning
style grid created by intersecting the two learning continuums.
Difference between AC-CE is plotted on the y-axis while difference
between AE-RO plotted on the x-axis. Point of intersection between
the two points on the four-quadrant graph represents the learning
style. Quadrant I are the Divergers that learn by concrete experience
and reflective observation. Assimilators are on quadrant II and learn
by reflective observation and abstract conceptualization. Quadrant
III are the Convergers and learn by abstract conceptualisation and
active experimentation, while Accommodators on quadrant IV learn
by active experimentation and concrete experience (Kolb, 1984;
Willcoxson, L. and Prosser, M. 1996; Koob and Funk, 2002; Honey
and Mumford, 2006)
A total of 83 Bachelor of Aeronautical Engineering students, all the
44 freshmen from AY 2006-2007 but only 39 of 72 freshmen from
2011-2012, served as respondents from this study taken five years
apart. Selection of respondents during the 2011 survey can be
classified as opportunistic sampling.
Only the data derived from the LSI by Kolb was utilized in this study.
No other parameters were surveyed or tested. No correlation with
the respondents’ profile was done. Only the learning style profile for
each batch was determined and compared. Simple descriptive
statistics such as Frequency distribution, and percentage was used
while chi-square analysis was performed to test the null hypothesis
that there is no significant difference in the learning style profile
between the two groups of BS Aeronautical Engineering freshmen.
6
Data and Results
While there are only four Learning Styles identified in the Kolb’s LSI, I
categorised each group of respondents into five groups. The fifth
group which I call “Mixed Learners”, are those students whose
composite points did not fall into any of the four learning styles but
fell right on either the x- or y-axis, i.e., having combination of two
learning styles. Subsequent studies made by Kolb in 1985 (Healy and
Jenkins, 2000) specified range of mean values for each of the
learning continuums which will allow intersecting points to fall on a
specified quadrant.
IV
18%
III
7%
V
14%
I
47%
II
14%
Figure 2. Learning style profile of freshmen BS Aeronautical
Engineering AY 2006-2007.
Data from figure 2 shows that Quadrant I, the Divergent learners,
composing almost half of the respondents is the most dominant
learning style, with only three students (7%) belonging to the
category of Convergent learners.
Six students (14%) were
categorised as “mixed learners”.
7
V
3%
III
0%
IV
23%
I
64%
II
10%
Figure 3. Learning style profile of freshmen BS Aeronautical
Engineering AY 2011-2012.
There is a slight shift in the Learning Style Profile of Freshman BS
Aeronautical Engineering AY 2011-2012 as shown in Figure 3.
Similarly, Divergent learners, those from Quadrant I, dominate the
class, comprising almost two-thirds (64%) of the students. No one
was categorized under Quadrant III or the Convergent learners, while
only one (3%) student was classified as “mixed learner”.
3
5
14
4
3
2
1
18
0
23
2011
2006
7
10
14
48
64
Figure 4. Comparative Percentage Distribution of Learning Style
Profiles among freshmen BS Aeronautical Engineering students from
AY 2006-2007 and AY 2011-2012.
8
Comparative analysis reveals that both groups are predominantly
composed of Quadrant I or Divergent learners, followed by Quadrant
IV or the Accommodators. Least represented in both groups are the
Convergent learners, in fact there is a conspicuous absence of this
type of learners in the second group. Chi-square analysis validated
the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the
learning styles between the two groups of freshman BS Aeronautical
Engineering students,
X2(4,N= 83) =7.11,p= 9.49 at
0.05α. Absence of statistically significant difference in the learning
styles between the two groups may probably suggests that we are
getting fairly consistent groupings of students with a clear bias
towards the divergers.
Discussion of Results
Divergers learn by reliance on apprehension transformed by
intention, Assimilators learn by comprehension transformed by
intention, Convergers learn through extensive transformation of
comprehension, and accommodators learn through extensive
transformation of apprehension (Kolb, 1984).
The most dominant style of learning in both the AY 2006-2007 and
AY 2011-2012 BS Aeronautical Engineering freshmen is the Divergent
type of learners. These types of learners emphasize concrete
experience and reflective observation (Kolb, 1984, 1985). They use
their highly creative imagination in viewing concrete situations from
a variety of perspective and form relationships into a meaningful
whole (Larkin-Hein and Budny, 2000). McCarthy (1990) prefers to call
these learners as Imaginative Learners, who perceive information
concretely and process it reflectively. They learn by expressing
feelings and integrating experiences with the self and by answering
the question, why. They hunger for personal meaning as they learn
and struggle to connect the content of the curriculum with their
need to grow and understand the world (McCarthy, 1990;
Montgomery and Groat, 1998; Larkin-Hein and Budny, 2000; Kolb,
2005).
9
Most educational psychologists now associate learning styles with
career preferences and aptitudes, management styles, and other
behavioural tendencies. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator™ and the Kolb
LSI have been widely used to classify students’ learning style vis-à-vis
academic disciplines and career preferences (Montgomery and
Groat, 1998, Larkin-Hein and Budny, 2001, and Kolb and Kolb, 2005).
Alternative description of the types of learners can be superimposed
on the quadrant developed by Kolb (McCarthy, 1990) and is
presented in the table below.
Table 3. Kolb’s (1984) and McCarthy’s (1990) Typology of Learners
ACCOMODATOR
Dynamic Learner
WHAT IF 4
DIVERGER
Imaginative Learner
1 WHY
HOW 3
Commonsense
CONVERGER
2 WHAT
Analytic Learner
ASSIMILATOR
Based on these studies, Divergers are suited for students in the
social sciences and the humanities! Ironically still is the fact that the
least number of learners, three in the first group and zero in the
second group, were classified under quadrant III or the Convergers,
who tend to be dominant among professionals in the technologyintensive fields such as engineering, medicine, and other technical
jobs such as bench engineering and production which require
technical and problem-solving skills. These findings suggest an
apparent mismatch between the course and the learning style of
most of the freshmen BS Aeronautical Engineering respondents.
Convergers perceive information through abstract conceptualization
and process them through active experimentation. This type of
learners tends to converge or move quickly to make a decision, and
do best in situations where there is only a single correct answer or
10
solution to a problem. The integrate theories with practice, learning
by testing theories and applying commonsense. Being down-to-earth
problem solvers, they dislike being given answers, they value
strategic thinking. Their greatest strength is in the practical
application of ideas, in trying out new things, taking things apart and
seeing how it works, in answering the question how, and they learn
best by doing. In a study conducted by Montgomery and Groat
(1998), they reported that engineers are more active, sensing, verbal,
and sequential. Similar finding was reported by Dunn and Carbo
(1981 in Felder and Silverman, 1988) that there are indications that
engineers are more likely to be active learners.
The dominance of Divergers over the Convergers among the two
groups of freshmen BS Aeronautical Engineering students can
probably be attributed to their chronological age, where average age
is 16 years old, whereas the population by which the LSI was
validated involve more mature students since there is a difference in
the college-age entry level between the Philippine and American
educational systems. There are studies that suggest that maturity of
respondents may affect their learning style preference, which is
corroborated by studies of Montgomery and Groat (1998) in which
they reported that advance students were more likely than novice
students to have learning style profiles similar to studio faculty and
by Felder and Silverman (1988) where they noted that engineering
graduate students and faculty are more intuitive, inductive and
reflective than engineering undergraduate students. Dunn (1982,
1986 in Larkin-Hein and Budny, 2001) noted that learning style is as
unique as a person’s fingerprint, however, person’s style changes
over time due to maturation.
Montgomery and Groat (1998) concluding from an aspect of Kolb’s
research suggested the potential of the educational process to
accentuate the gap in capabilities between groups of students. This
was borne out of the observation that over time, students tend to
acquire the characteristic learning style common to faculty and
practitioners in the field, an idea consistent with the commonsense
notion of expert competence. These imply that while the learning
style of the respondents does not seem fit the conventional or
11
expected typology, they may change over time as they interact more
with their faculty and field practitioners. Grasha’s (1996 in
Montgomery and Groat, 1998) report opposed Kolb’s findings that
there is a consistent relationship between academic major and
learning style typology, which may imply that our divergent
engineering students are not misplaced after all.
A more important implication of the findings of this study is that
there is clear diversity of students in terms of their learning style
irrespective of the batch. Relating this finding with the premise I
mentioned earlier regarding congruence of the teaching and learning
style that may lead to improved student attitudes and higher
academic achievement, i.e., curriculum and instruction should be
designed with students’ learning style as one of the primary
considerations, it becomes incumbent upon all faculty of the BS
Aeronautical Engineering, in particular, and the entire college in
general, to employ teaching styles that will cater to all the different
learning styles. This does not mean typology-specific learning
activities should be conducted each and every meeting, but rather,
the semestral activities and strategies should be diverse enough to
ensure that no learning style is left unaddressed. We should not only
be concerned with the coverage of the subject matter that we take
for granted how much of the material really gets conveyed through
our inconsiderate teaching styles. We need to address the mismatch
between our teaching styles with the students’ learning styles.
Incongruence between teaching and learning styles exists even in
engineering education. Most engineering instructors place premium
over concepts rather than facts and primarily use lectures and
readings to convey information, thus favouring intuitive learners.
Data from this study show that they comprise only about 10-14% of
the total population, implying that lecture method compromises the
learning style of the 90% of the respondents.
Felder and Silverman (1988) presented two more mismatch in
engineering education, i.e, between the preferred input modality of
students and presentation mode of the instructor, and in terms of
the reasoning progression. The way we receive information is known
12
as input modality, wherein most individuals from college age
onwards are visual, i.e., through pictures, diagrams, and symbols.
College teaching however is predominantly verbal, i.e., lessons
presented through lectures (auditory) or through visual
representation of auditory information (words and mathematical
symbols written in textbooks, hand-outs, transparencies,
chalkboards).
In terms of reasoning progression, two opposing styles are know:
induction, which is the default human learning style, where one
infers principles by reasoning from particulars (observations, data) to
generalizations (laws, theories), whereas deduction, which is the
default teaching style, where one deduces consequences by
proceeding the opposite direction, from general to specific. In a
survey conducted by Felder and Silverman (1988), engineering
students consider themselves inductive learners while a group of
engineering professors agreed that their teaching style is purely
deductive. They further noted that an element of inductive teaching
is necessary for the instructor to be able to diminish the students’
awe and increase their realistic perceptions of problem-solving. Many
studies have shown that inductive teaching promotes effective
learning as it tends to result in increased academic achievement and
enhanced abstract reasoning skills, longer retention of information,
improved ability to apply principles, confidence in problem-solving
skills, and increased capability for inventive thought.
A summary table of suggested activities for each of the Kolb’s
Learning Style and the corresponding role of Teachers is given the
Table 4 (adapted from Montgomery and Groat, 1998)
13
Table 4. Activities and role of faculty for each Learning Style.
Field Trips
Student Presentations
Investigatory Projects
Simulations
Story-telling
Panel Discussions
Group Projects
Debates
ACCOMODATOR
Faculty as Evaluator
WHAT IF 4
DIVERGER
Faculty as Motivator
2 WHY
HOW 3
Faculty as Coach
CONVERGER
3 WHAT
Faculty as Expert
ASSIMILATOR
Activity Sheets
Computer Simulations
Individual Reports
Demonstrations
Lectures
Textbook Readings
Demonstration by Faculty
Independent Research
Conclusion
Each classroom environment is as unique as the learners themselves.
This study supports the premise that diversity of learning styles exist
in each classroom, that there is similar distribution of learning styles
between groups of respondents and it also validated the null
hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the learning
styles between freshmen students from AY 2006-2007 and AY 20112012. The expected learning style for engineering students was not
seen to predominate in this study, i.e., more divergers instead of
convergers, which could probably be attributed to various
interacting factors such as the respondents’ chronological age, level
of maturity, and length of interaction with the practitioners of the
discipline, among others.
Different learning styles call for appropriate varying teaching styles.
This requires faculty members to make self-reflection and be mindful
of the role of learning style in crafting their pedagogy, a mismatch in
14
the learning and teaching style is not only detrimental to the
students learning process as it can also be a cause of faculty’s
frustration if attainment of course objectives continue to be below
expectations.
Matching teaching with learning style is a dynamic process, no set of
techniques will ever be effective in all classes, we need to keep on
looking for feasible methods and experiment on them until we get
comfortable with varied techniques that are appropriate to each
learning styles. We need to keep in mind however, that congruence
of teaching and learning styles is not a panacea or universal remedy
for all pedagogical issues, numerous intervening factors affect the
total quality of classroom learning, but acknowledging individual
learning styles is a crucial step towards ensuring delivery of an
effective and quality instruction as well as a gratifying teachinglearning process.
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Accessed: February 16, 2012
16
People of Palañac’s Resistance against Limahong,
Hindering his Conquest of Manila as Observed
by the Leading Spanish Chroniclers
Victor P. Estrella
Patrick John F. Mansujeto
ABSTRACT
The paper is basically a historiographical study which aims to
revisit the accounts of the leading Spanish chroniclers about the initial
assaults of notorious Chinese corsair Limahong in Manila during the time of
the former’s arrival in the Philippine archipelago. The study nevertheless
explores possible inconsistencies, misinterpretations and unwise
conclusions about the people of Palañac’s resistance, who were the very
first group of people encountered by Limahong’s fleets in their attempt to
conquer Manila. We argue that Spanish chroniclers were biased with their
records, relations and accounts that they miscontextualized the people of
Palañac’s resistance against Chinese corsair Limahong hindering his
conquest of Manila and therefore neglected the idea that the resistance is
brought about the need to protect and preserve their kinship as well as
properties alike –being an elementary form of Nationalism of the group.
Key Words: People of Palañac, Resistance, Early Spanish Conquest, Spanish
Chronilcers, Nationalism, Historiography
The Dawn of the Spanish Conquest
At a dawn, Martin de Goiti and his men, set out for the town called
Menilla, noting many bays and ports. There are some towns along the
shore, whose inhabitants and citizens had sought shelter. Here, they met
some small boats, which the natives call tapaques. They were laden with
provisions, rice, and salted sardines without the heads, resembling those
17
which are found in España. (Fray Diego de Herrera, 1570, quoted in Blair &
Robertson, 1909).
When the Conquistadores of the Most Holy Catholic Monarch of
the Kingdom of Spain first reached the shore of Manila bay they saw
settlements thriving in the area. These settlements lined along coastal areas
and the mouth of big rivers or their tributaries, there are also natives
settled in the higher portion of the land and in the shore of Laguna Lake
(Festin-Baybay, 2001). This community along the banks is evident, that even
in before the coming of the colonizers, the area is fairly populated. Portion
of which, lies the enriched river of Palañac.
According to folk history, Parañaque or Palañac then, was once
part of a barangay Namayan. It is headed by a legendary Lakan Tangkan and
his wife Buwan. It includes
present day Pasay, Parañaque, Malate,
Pandacan, Quiapo, Sampaloc, San Miguel, San Juan and some areas of the
province of Rizal. This region is popularly called sapa because of its
proximity and seasonal flooding of Laguna Lake, and Sta. Ana was the seat
of the government. (Festin-Baybay, 2001).
Nevertheless, historians like Agoncillo (1975) consider that when
Miguel Lopez de Legazpi arrived in the coastal area of the Manila Bay it was
divided into three barangaic kingdoms. Located in the north side of the
Pasig River, was the barangay of Tondo with Rajah Lakandula as the head.
South of which ruled by Rajah Soleiman’s kingdom. Adjacent to Rajah
Suleiman’s barangay was that of his uncle, Rajah Ache, known also as Rajah
Matanda. The center then was situated in Malate and Ermita. FestinBaybay (2001) adds that Palañac was a vassal to the Kingdom, and the
ruling class came from the same lineage that of Rajah Ache and Rajah
Suleiman.
The harmonious existence of the three barangay in the present
day Manila was concluded during the arrival of the Spaniards. The first
group Spaniards according to Mallat (1846), to set sail in 1569 to Manila
was headed by Martin De Goiti. When he arrived in Manila, Agoncillo (1984)
emphasizes that De Goiti showed homage towards the three reigning chiefs
but insisted that the Monarch is of highest praise, thus should be paid with
right esteem and tribute. Repulsive events followed, Suleiman retaliate a
thought attempt to attack from de Goiti’s survey of the area. In the
skirmishes Suleiman was forced to take shelter on neighbouring district
including Palañac, since De Goiti’s men started to torch the houses (FestinBaybay, 2001).
Upon knowing what happened to Manila, Legazpi decided to lead a
second expedition to Manila. This time according to Mallat (1846), Rajah
18
Suleiman with Rajah Lakandula gather once again all their forces to repulse
any invaders attempting to take away their freedom. Subsequently, “the
[natives] were completely defeated; their chief, the bravest of them all was
killed by a handgun and the son of Lakandula was made a prisoner”, Mallat
(1846). From the ashes of Rajah Suleiman’s kingdom rose the capital of the
new colony of Spain. Legazpi then in 1571, ordered his nephew Juan de
Salcedo to survey the settlement around the new capital. “He came upon
the area of Palañac, among many others, and saw it as a future political
unit, or town” (Festin-Baybay 2001).
Across the South China Sea, during the time of the conquest, sea
routes of trade and culture began to materialize. It connects the main
entrepôt of trade like Manila, Macau and Moluccas (Iaccarino, 2008).
Spanish, Portuguese and Chinese alike were participants in this lucrative
trade. Ruiz-Stovel (2009) illustrates that between 1565 and 1815, silver
laden galleons made their way through the Pacific Ocean and South China
Sea annually into the Chinese province of Fujian.
But before arriving to Fujian from Acapulco it will inevitably pass to
Manila. Manila, therefore, in the words of Monfalcon (quoted in Callanta,
1979) “as the mistress of so many seas and capital of so many
archipelagos”, served as a center not only for the colonial Spain but also of
th
trade in the orient. It became a crossroad of trade during the 16 century
for sustainable reasons. It is located in one of the finest natural harbour,
since Baie de Manila faces the South China Sea (Callanta, 1979). Moreover,
the land is located in the center of Tagalog settlement which enabled
bountiful exchange. Also, majority of the Spaniards in the Philippines
settled in Manila which supplied the supports for merchants and their ships.
Such merchant ship crossing from Manila to Macau was, so to
speak, poorly armed and overloaded with goods (Lyon, 1990). This
amounted for the foremost prey of the Chinese pirates. Piracy on the 16th
century China become a rewarding business because of the weakness of
Ming Dynasty’s navy to get rid of them (Villiers, 1980). This was China’s
golden age of piracy” (Antony, 2005). According to him, through light and
fast travel in junks and in platoons, Chinese pirates could intercept large
ships at the same time sheltered on the most treacherous harbours. Looting
the ships’ goods and killing all aboard. Their camps were mostly found along
the southern coast from Zhejiang province to Hainan Island. This kind of
business gave rise to one of the most notorious and feared Chinese corsair
during the Ming Dynasty –Lam Feng, or as recognized in the Philippines as
Limahong. Sung Huk P’ang (1935) describes him as a native of Yiu Ping
District in China, and was born in the “second year of Lung Hing”. In 1568,
he took 62 battleships with 2000 sea-soldiers, 1500 women and a large
19
store of foods to prepare an attack and ambitiously establish his kingdom in
one of the most affluent land in the center of 16th Century economy
(Gaspar de San Agustin, 1698).
Limahong, sought by the Imperial China had escaped to search for
a new base far away from the claws of the Empire’s Navy. He initially hid in
a small island named Taaotikan in the South China Sea (Mallat, 1846).
During this time he captured a junk, and the merchants informed them that
they came from Manila, which Joaquin (1999) described as “a rich city
weakly held by a handful of Spaniards. Knowingly, he prepared his troops to
attack the city. Joaquin said that Limahong first raid in the Philippines was
in Ilocos Sur. Skirting along the coastline of Luzon he landed in Mariveles for
repairs (Sande, 1576, quoted in Alip, 1950). Wasting no time, in November
30, 1574 he sent his best Lieutenant, the Japanese pirate Sioco to lead the
first attack to Manila but was repulsed by the bravery of the Spaniards.
During the fight according to Noone (1986) Limahong conveyed to Cavite
which he thought was now under his rule. On December 3, 1574 he
renewed the attack to Manila with himself leading the troops but for the
second time he was defeated. Furthermore, Constantino (1975), having
considered reading San Agustin’s account, adds that he sailed to Pangasinan
and established a colony there but was driven out by Spanish Captain Juan
de Salcedo. No account, however, presents where Limahong went after his
exhilarating venture in the islands of the Philippines.
As offered, Limahong’s quest with the Philippine Islands speaks
about a handful and mostly nonspecific places and events that tend to
overlook early Filipino participation in the vibrant events in the history of
the Philippines. Moreover, discussion of Limahong’s invasion of Manila was
overlooked in most of the Philippine colonial history books much more with
the people of Palanyag’s resistance against the corsair, hindering the
Chinese colonization of Manila, where in fact, the resistance of the Palañac
people played a very important role in the success of Limahong’s expulsion
in the colonial capital. Finally, inclusion and acknowledgement of the event
greatly relied on the colonial perspectives of the leading Spanish Chroniclers
of the time.
Over and above, this history regarding this generalized account of
the Limahong invasion of Manila, being the first of all the challenges on the
Spanish colonial power, is the very impasse the research brought about as
the object of the study. People of Palañac’s resistance against Limahong
have been very so often heeded justly, much more with these people’s
contribution to the growth of consciousness as one people, since the
accounts were lifted, without thoroughgoing enquiry on the nature of how
it was articulated.
20
Spanish Chroniclers and their Accounts
Through the archival research conducted, valuable manuscripts
and documents have been retrieved. Three, out of a handful of archival
materials were considered due to the relatedness of the accounts to the
object of the study.
First of which, is the closest account to the event that happened.
Fray Gaspar de San Agustin, O.S.A., being one of the Augustinian
missionary-friar accompanying Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi,
recorded and described the natives’ ways, most importantly the events in
the islands. The original papers belong to the San Agustin Museum, and in
1998, Fr. Pedro G. Gallende, O.S.A., produced, through the institution, a
transcription, side by side with its translation of the original Spanish text to
English.
The reference to the occurrences of the Limahong invasion is
discussed through chapters 16-20 of San Agustin’s Conquistas de las islas
poniente llamadas Philippinas, subsequently, the account of the Limahongs
appearances in what is now Parañaque is related on the chapter 17 and 18.
San Agustin (1698) clearly accounted the events that happened in
Palañac in the chapters entitled De como Limahon llego a la bahia de
Manila y del primer as alto que dio a la ciudad. Muerte del Maestre de
Campo, y otras cosas que sucedieron con su venida; and De los sucesos
hasta la retirada de Limahon a Dongalo; de su ida a Pangasinan donde
poblo y se intitulo rey de aquella provincial, dandole los naturales la
obediencia. The former only mentions the arrival of the corsair and the
initial plans, strategies and activities of Limahong. These plans were made
executed through his Japanese lieutenant Sioco, and San Agustin (1698)
emphasizes further the halt of Limahong in his flagship away from the land.
The latter chapter evidently, probe deeper into the second coming of
Limahong and how he was stopped by the resistance of the natives of the
area beside what he referred to as the Dongalo River. This resistance,
further, contributed to the delay of the pirate to enter the colonial capital
(San Agustin, 1698).
Governador-General Francisco de Sande’s account is basically a
letter, a report, to the Royal Catholic Majesty addressed to King Philip II. In
these letters, the Governor- General, here describes the latter years of his
temporary predecessor. Actually, there are two epistles from Sande, one
th
th
dated 7 of June, 1576 and one dated the 8 . The former, describes events
and generally accounted for what he had observed when he arrived in the
21
island. Sande (1576) adds that he “found Manila in great part burned and
destroyed”. This document according to Blair and Roberson (1909) which is
separated from the preceding one in the archives at Seville in Spain is,
although dated on the 8th of June, 1577, partly a “duplicate” of Sande’s first
report, dated on the 7th, which immediately precedes this one in the
present volume. The second letter, though, describes the culture and ways
of the native inhabitants of the island. While the earlier letter is more on
the succession of the events and quite a journal of his experiences going
towards the Philippines from Mexico, on the other hand, the latest is more
of a cultural illustration of the Philippines.
The object of the study reflected on the first letter. The effects of
the Limahong conquest in manila was the opening report at the event of his
arrival in the colonial capital. Thus, the first part of Sande’s report discussed
a comprehensive account of the incident. Though, not very particular with
the details of the event, there are valuable data and informations that the
study could construed.
Another valuable document, the study has considered is the
recognized work of the then oidor, the highest office of the Spanish Royal
Audencia in the Philippines, Doctor Antonio de Morga. From his Sucesos de
las Islas Filipinas, though quite trivial, significant relations on the Limahong
conquest of Manila could be deduced. Morga (1609), as part of his interest
on the events of the colonial Philippines, wrote about the events according
to the phases of the Governor-Generals that handled the islands,
particularly on how they have ruled the colony over. Consequently,
Limahong’s assault in the colonial capital was regarded to the rule of the
temporary Governor-General Guido de Labazarris, but included in the last
portion of the first chapter. In this last portion of the chapter, the death of
the Mater of the Camp, Martin de Gioti, was emphisized as brought about
by the hands of the dreaded Chinese corsair, Limahong.
Another remark on the event was in the part towards the end of
the Sucesos, in his Relacion de las islas Filipinas y sus naturales, antiguedad,
costumbres y gobierno, asi en tiempo de su gentilidad, como despues que
los españoles las conquistaron, con otras particulariades. As part of the
natives’ observances, the thirtieth of November was very important to
them, since it is the day when they won victorious over Limahong. Morga
(1609) adds that the city “takes out on procession” in gratitude to Saint
Andrew the Apsotle’s help.
22
Accounts of the Resistance
When Limahong was on the sea of Luzon, Sande (1576) and San
Agustin (1698) both tell about the misfortune of a Spanish Ship. The attack
on the ship on the other hand gave signal to Salcedo about the danger.
Because the Spaniards are new in the region in the South China Sea they
are not familiar with the people inhabiting the area. It is San Agustin that
stated solely that the Spaniards mistaken the pirate as Portuguese “because
the moon was out he was able to see many heavy artillery on the ships
trapdoor, seeing them in an excellent formation” (San Agustin, 1698)
After the attack on the galliot, Sande (1576) said that the corsair
proceeded immediately to Manila. This was contradicted by San Agustin
saying that Limahong skirted the coast of northwestern part of Luzon
raiding and robbing settlements:
“….the natives informing him [Salcedo] very agitated
saying they belong to him and bonafide payers of the
tributes, thus the Spaniards should defend them from
some foreigner who landed along the coast, robbed them
of their belonging and burned their houses” (San Agustin,
1698).
According to Sande (1576) and San Agustin (1698), Limahong
th
stopped at Mariveles to regroup his troop on eve of the 29 of November,
Monday. Limahong sent his best Lieutenant Sioco to lead 600 men to
capture Manila, “during the time of [Governor-General] Guido de
Lavazarris,” (Morga, 1609).
The troops lead by Sioco, in the 30th day of November, Tuesday,
landed in Palañac. While Sande (1576) said it was chosen by Limahong since
there is a river good for sheltering their boat and due to its proximity to the
city, San Agustin (1698) disagreed and stated that “because of the strong
wind he [Sioco] was almost lost, but finally after losing three ships he
landed in Palañac thinking it was Manila”. He further specified that when he
realized his mistakes he marched along the beach towards the colonial
capital, killing everyone he encountered.
It is clearly indicated that even though the people of Palañac were
overpowered by the pirates it provided them ample time, for the Spaniards
to prepare impending attacks. Sioco reached Manila and killed Master of
the Camp, Martin de Goiti but was repulsed by the Spaniards. This time
23
Limahong, transferred his base on Cavite where Sioco met him and told
what happened.
On the 3rd day of December, Friday, the second attack of the
pirates and this time led by Limahong himself. Was met by another stiff
resistance from the people of Palañac, as solely chronicled:
“Thus he [Limahong] set sail and he landed league away
from Manila in a river called Don Galo. He landed and
sacked the town called Palañac found next to the river. He
killed the natives [people of Palañac] because they
resisted him” San Agustin (1698).
In this attack, Limahong, though killed the natives, suffered terrible
casualties and eventually been drawn away from attacking Manila in the
third time. In the end, San Agustin (1698) ends the incident in observing
“the lights came from the native who were walking along the beaches
despoiling the bodies of the Chinese enemies”.
San Agustin (1698) conclusively suggests that the reason why
Salcedo was so scared is that, Salcedo aware of his manpower and
ammunition, could not withstand another result. Thus, “he did not deem it
is possible to defend the fort of the few men that were not wounded, since
many were hurt due to the barrel of gunpowder that caught fire” (San
Agustin, 1698)
The resistance of the people of Palañac against Limahong resulted
to the total discouragement of the corsair to attack Manila on the third
time. San Agustin (1698) predicted that if Limahong attack for the third time
he will surely defeat the Spanish colonial gallantry as conveyed by the relief:
“Later a sentry arrived saying how Limahong had set sail at midnight after
having inflicted damaged in Dongalo and seemed to be heading in the open
sea” (San Agustin, 1678). This ends the threat of Limahong in conquering
Manila. It was in due time before the Spaniards discover that the corsair
established a Kingdom in Lingayen, Pangasinan.
Moreover, altogether, the chroniclers itemized that the
Archdiocese of Manila declared St. Andrew the Apostle as the patron saint
of the city then, because the day Sioco attacked Manila it had been
repulsed miraculously, which they attributed, by the intercession of the
th
Saint. Thus, “St. Andre’s Day, November the 30 , when they won victory
24
and drove away Limahong the corsair on this day the city takes on
procession” (Morga,1609).
Resistance beyond Loyalty
Fray Gaspar de San Agustin OSA, hardly mentioned about his
personal view on the events much more with the people involved.
Nevertheless, conception of such view that’s loyalty- could be reflected on
how he referred to those people. He made references to them through
various labels such as natives Moors of Manila, instead of categorizing them
as one of the colonial subjects. However it could be deduced from the
naming of whose the enemy and who is not. As he observed after the
battle.
“The lights came from the natives Moors of Manila, who
were walking about the beach despoiling the bodies of
the Chinese enemy” San Agustin (1698)
Obviously, the native Moors of Manila” despoils the bodies of the
“Chinese enemy” San Agustin consider the Chinese as enemy while
conclusively the native Moors as neither an enemy nor a subject. Also, as he
described what happened would also exhibit unattached relationship
among the natives and the Spanish religion. Sande as the succeeding
Governor-General of the Philippines, so to speak, might have the authority
to present a new beneficial to the colonial master. Definitely Sande rejects
the idea of loyalty as he described:
“Salcedo ordered two of the principal Moors to be
arrested and imprisoned saying that by means of them,
the Moors would supply him [Limahong] with food” Sande
(1677)
The new colonial capital was on the test, when Limahong’s troops
landed on the bay and started his attempt to conquer Manila. The
inhabitants being too early to suppose belongingness to the colony, has a
very hazy and unclear manifestation of loyalty. The chroniclers hardly
mentioned or at least manifested their perception towards the natives,
being loyal to them in times of such difficulty and crisis. Foremost, these
25
chronicles referred to the natives as Moros. Needless to say, there is
delineation between the native Moors and then Spaniards. Aside from that,
Sande (1576) managed to characterize, at least, the occupation of these
natives. According to him, they are “fisherman who are going and coming
out of the river”.
One of the clear mentions that could be related to the loyalty
concept is also Sande’s observations while the new maestro de campo
arrived to rescue Manila: “…people enjoyed to see him [Juan de Salcedo]
and his soldiers and that night assisted in the work of the fortification”.
Obviously, the natives would express enjoyment, only if they could vision
hope in the personality of Salcedo. Further to support, assisting to fortify
the city to hold succeeding attacks from the corsair clearly dictates
fellowship to the ideals of the Spaniards.
Another chronicle that would show elements of loyalty among
natives is from San Agustin (1698). In his own words “he [Limahong] killed
the native because they resisted him”. Resistance therefore, became the
reason why Limahong had killed the people of Palañac, and this resistance
to Limahong could be associated to the allegiance to the Spaniards. Yet,
Sande (1576) disagreed and contends that because of those native’s
unfaithfulness, Salcedo “ordered that the two of the principal Moors be
arrested and imprisoned saying that by means of them, the Moors could
supply him [Limahong] with food”. In fact, San Agustin (1698) had also
mentioned somewhat like this but refused to elaborate. He states that
Limahong planned to “take on refreshment before coming back” to the
capital. As relevant problem arises, on the contradictions as to whether
loyal were the natives or not, conceptions on the terms is still in the brink of
deliberation.
In the contrary with the scarce statements that would attest to the
natives loyalty, references to the fealty to the church is nevertheless much
emphasizes, except for Sande, San Agustin, Morga and account from the
Archdiocese of Manila clearly recalls the events in regards to the native’s
religiosity:
“they [the natives] gave thanks to God for the blessing of
having been freed them from such evident risk attributing
the goods event to the protection of St. Andrew, the
Apostle”. (San Agustin, 1680)
26
This account of San Agustin has been supported by Morga’s
observation on the latter practices which resulted from the incident: “Saint
Andrew’s day November the 30th when they won victory and drove away
Limahon, the corsair on this day the city takes out on processions” (Morga,
1609). Consequently the natives attributed the victory with the help of
Saint Andrew the Apostle, patron saint of the fishermen. But each has been
mentioned about the Spaniards calling these natives Moros or Moors, labels
usually for the Muslims of the land.
The resistance clearly, did not exhibit loyalty to the colonial Spain
and/ or its faith. As Ms. Belarmino inquired “would the people of Palañac
pay fealty to the persons whom at first commanded them submission
unwillingly to the sword and to the cross?” indeed, loyalty isn’t the motives
of the natives of Palañac to resist against Limahong. In any of the sources
gathered, there is no mention of a direct or indirect command to resist
Limahong in response to his assaults, from the Spanish military or governing
units. The initiatives solely came from the natives of Palañac, given the fact
that their kin and properties alike were threatened. Apparently, anybody
would agree to retaliate in the event that these precious belongings were at
the rim of disappearance.
Festin-Baybay (2001) referred to the people of Palañac as
“defenders”. The unanticipated courage of the natives, according to her, so
enraged the corsair that he guides and pilots of his ships be killed for
misinforming him that Manila was defenceless. This depiction would
contradict to the idea never indicated in the documents. The people of
Palañac, based on the gathered data, never explicitly defended the colonial
Manila. The defense, clearly, is what the discourse would lead us to the
protection and preservation of anything the natives have built and lived by.
Beyond loyalty to the colony and to the church, people of Palañac’s
resistance against Limahong could be seen as early stage on the
development of nationalism. As the analysis would tell us, far from
allegiance to the colony, or to the church, there is still an essential nature to
this resistance. Resistance as Constantino (1975) would suggest antiimposing struggle against a foreign force. This resistance became a struggle
for freedom that the native inhabitants of the area became conscious of
their identity as one group of people. Further, the nature of these
responses must therefore be viewed within the context of the society of
both the oppressor and the oppressed (Constantino, 1975). And, for this
reasons, people of Palañac’s resistance should be viewed accordingly with
the society of these oppressed.
27
Further than loyalty, the resistance could be viewed as an early
sign of nationalism. The formation of political communities and
consciousness of oneness as nation based on local, ethnic or native groups
is the achievement of nationalist movements seeking to overthrow colonial
masters or threats (Hogan, 2006). In our case, the people of Palañac’s
resistance could be part of the formation of a consciousness of singleness
among them as settlers of the land. The curator and unit coordinator of the
Museo de Palanyag, Ms. Lorna Belarmino supports the idea of an early
mark of nationalism; early signs, in terms of an initial pace of nationbuilding or at least consciousness as a single entity. According to her, there
is no concept of nationalism then, since the idea of Philippines as a whole
nation is not even widely recognized. Even the “love” for the country idea is
not clear to them. This elementary initial phase therefore, is simply the
attachment of this people to the way they lived in the area of Palañac,
together with the activities they have been used to, that they did not want
these to be taken away by the Chinese corsair. Needless to say, it is their
innate and immediate concerns that they wanted to protect that gave rise
into a resistance against Limahong. As to the development and further
expanse of this elementary nationalist episode is another object of
scholarship to deal with.
Conclusion
All the chroniclers agreed that it was under the time of Giudo de
Lavizarris, the corsair Limahong came to the Philippines. Majority of the
Spaniards are scattered in archipelago like Salcedo who was in Vigan that
time, thus Manila was poorly defended. Both Sande and San Agustin stated
that Limahong landed on the island of Corregidor regroup his troop and
immediately send his best captaion Sioco to conquer Manila. Sande and San
Agustin differ on the reason why Limahong’s man landed on Palañac before
going to Manila. Although Sande and San Agustin disagree on the reason
how Limahong’s man landed on Palañac both overlooked the resistance of
the natives. In the first attack of Limahong’s men lead by Sioco all the
chroniclers agreed that the maestro de campo Martin de Goiti was killed. It
is only San Agustin who chronicled about the second attacked of Limahong
to Palañac when he retreated after attacking Manila. After his defeat in
Manila the Sande and San Agustin claim that Limahong settled in Lingayen
and install himself as the King of the region. While in Manila the Spaniards
declares Saint Andrew as their patron saint.
The chroniclers claimed that the resistance was indirectly an
expression of loyalty of the natives of Palañac towards the colony and to
28
the church. Yet, as the data contests, the native inhabitants resisted on
their own without being referred to the colony and most importantly to the
church, since yet, until 1575 a need to establish a congregation was
considered (Festin-Baybay & Allanigue, 1994). Loyalty is not the prime
motive of the people of Palañac to resist Chinese corsair Limahong. Instead,
the resistance was a result of the need of the natives to protect and
preserve everything they built and lived on being susceptible. Beyond
loyalty, the resistance could be viewed as an early sign of developing
nationalism, being the formation of a consciousness of oneness among
people of Palañac.
Through the analysis of the documents by which considerable data
was deduced, the research has come up with a fascinating conclusion.
Through the use of Foucauldian Discursive Analysis and Formation the study
conclusively shares that the Spanish chroniclers are biased with their
records relations and accounts that they miscontextualized the people of
Palañac’s resistance against Chinese corsair Limahong hindering his
conquest of Manila and therefore neglected the idea that the resistance is
brought about the need to protect and preserve their kinship as well as
properties alike –being an elementary form of Nationalism. In comparing
the three chroniclers there are contradictions between Sande and San
Agustin about dates and reasons of the events. San Agustin (1698), based
on his account knows very well of the geography of the Philippine Islands
during that time. He could name even the not so important places, while
Sande (1576) always referred to these places according to the directions,
such as “southwest of Manila”. Nevertheless, only, Fray Gaspar de San
Agustin gave a much detailed account, Sande’s letters might be as detailed
as San Agustin, yet, his had this tendency to be inaccurate. Altogether, the
chronicles had depicted the events in their accounts according to their
perspective as subjects to the Monarchy of Spain and believers of the
Catholic faith. Through their accounts, we could see that there was no
attempt to relate the events in the perspectives of the people immediate to
the attack of Limahong –that is the natives of the land.
Moreover, Sande and San Agustin both saw the resistance of the
native as loyalty to their Spanish colonizer and their faith. The two
chroniclers, aside from that, wanted to show the ignorance of the Indio for
mistaken the Pirates as Borneans. Exemplified in referring to the Filipinos
then as “natives”, they also used the term “Moors” which shows their
Moslem past, which contradicts to the idea of fidelity to the Catholic
church. Indeed, they are very biased emphasizing that the bravery and
gallantry of the Spaniards saved the day without recognising the native’s
participation in the defence of the city. Morga (1609) plainly supported the
29
ideas of the authorities and had given a very brief account if not negligence
of the events, that clearly shows unimportant treatment to the people of
Palañac. The chronicles on their accounts also, presented these occurrences
as loyalty to the colony and to the church, which in a deeper analysis, this
could not be. Beyond loyalty to the land and to the church, there is an
elementary form of development in the nationalistic sense of the natives of
the Palañac.
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east_asian_history/115902/2
Presented during the 2nd PhilSCA Research Colloquium dated December 7, 2012
32
Heritage Education among Manila Schools as a
Reflection of the City Government of Manila’s
Pursuit of Heritage Conservation
Patrick John F. Manujeto
Victor P. Estrella
Introduction
UNESCO (2008) articulated that heritage is our legacy from the
past, what we live today is what we pass on to the future. This introduction
from the UNESCO World Heritage Centre presents a simple rationalization
on the need to conserve our heritage. UNESCO (2008) adds that heritage is
our “touch stones, our point of reference, and our identity” which should
be cared and preserved for generations to come.
The World Heritage Conservation Committee identifies and
nominated places on earth that would be declared as a World Heritage. This
world heritage would belong to all the people of the world irrespective of
the territory on which they are located. Further, the 1972 Convention
Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, by
which countries recognize thatthe sites located on their national territory,
and whichhave been inscribed on the World Heritage List,without prejudice
to national sovereignty or ownership,constitute a world heritage ‘for whose
protection it is the duty of the international community as a whole to
cooperate’.
Heritage conservation started as a phenomenon in Europe as a
reaction to the destructiveness brought about by the two World Wars. The
destruction on physical landscape was unprecedented in scope, Wright
(1968) describes that in Russia seventeen hundred cities and towns was
devastated along with their Orthodox wood-carve churches, in other
cultural centre like Paris, Athens, London and Prague many of its historical
buildings are subjected to atrocities in the same way that Berlin with its
proud buildings are reduced to rubble by the Allied bombings and invasion.
Many European castles, churches and palaces were also destroyed or partly
damaged, and national government tried their best in restoring this
building. Even in the Philippines, as Mata (2008) and Gatbonton (1993)
33
assert, much has been lost due to the devastation of the last wars. UNESCO
in 1962 presented the Recommendation on the Safeguarding of the Beauty
and Character of Landscaped and Sites. According to UNESCO (2008) the
objective is to conserve and restore the aspect of urban and rural landscape
of the sites, whether it is a natural wonder or human ingenuity. In 1968 the
International Union for the Conservation of Nature developed a similar
proposal like the World Heritage sites for its member. In 1972 came the
monumental breakthrough following the United Nation Conference on
Human Environment on Stockholm, Sweden and the work of international
group came together in the Convention Concerning the Protection of the
World Cultural and Natural Heritage which was adapted by the general
conference of UNESCO in Paris. This proposal led the way in 1978 to
proclaim the first twelve sites inscribed as World Heritage.
To maximize the participation of youth in heritage preservation,
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization with
the World Committee on Heritage Education launched the Young People
World Heritage Programme. The heritage education approach is intended
to strengthen youth understanding of concepts and principles about history
and culture and to enrich their appreciation for the artistic achievements,
technological advancement, and social and economic contributions of other
people from diverse groups (Hunter, 1988). Hunter (1988) added that
Heritage education nourishes a sense of continuity and connectedness with
our historical and cultural experience; encourages citizens to consider their
historical and cultural experiences in planning for the future; and fosters
stewardship towards the legacies of our local, regional, and national
heritage.
Conceptual Framework
Hari Srinivas (2010) of the Global Development Research Center
made mention cases about urban heritage conservation situations, steps
and insights on the role of the local government units in different places in
Asia. Such important lessons generally constitutes Srinivas’ Urban Heritage
Conservation Framework, thus the “three-pronged approach” to heritage
conservation was developed.
Heritage conservation encompasses the identification, protection
and promotion of things that are important in our culture and history. And,
in doing so, the role of the youth especially of students is very important.
The student should learn lessons not only inside the classroom but more
importantly actively participates in the community.
34
In addition, students should develop both cognitive and affective
skills in order to actively partake in the pursuit of the country towards
heritage conservation, cognitive skills that would enable them to think
critically about issues concerning our cultural and historical heritage, and
affective skills to develop unto themselves advocacies to protect or
heritage.
Significance of the Study
The study attempts to explore the City Government of Manila’s
perseverance of Heritage Education in light of the country’s pursuit of
heritage conservation, in which the study could be a noteworthy
involvement.
Since Heritage Education is a relatively new concept, primarily the
study could be a primer in the field of study that could brought about
introduction to the nature of heritage, heritage conservation and the role of
education thus, further researches about how education could be an
important part in Heritage conservation can be aided by the research.
While the research is educational in nature, the study could
become a basis to help in the development of new curricula as well as
teaching and learning plans that involve action-oriented and dynamic
learners-participation towards sustainable heritage and development. The
research could also be a valuable literature that could be considered in
revising, and improving existing curricula and designs, through which it
presents a reflective study on the way student-learners behave and learn
during Heritage Eduaction programs and activities.
Further, the research will help in the dynamic implementation and
elaboration or improvement of the newly passed Republic Act 10066 of
popularly known as the National Cultural Heritage Act of 2009, through its
findings, other provisions could be revisited, say for an instance in the
Article X of the law, where integration of Heritage Education in the
classroom level might not be implicated, this could help for further
integration of the role of education in conserving for our heritage.
Undeniably, the study could serve as a report of compliance of the
Philippines as well as the City Government of Manila’s pursuit of the policy
implementation with regards to initiatives presented by UNESCO and the
World Heritage Center. Through the data presented in the research,
valuable insights could be brought up in the global level on how the country
is observing international conferences and conventions.
35
Design and Methodology
The research explores the role of Heritage Education, a relatively
contemporary notion through the City Government of Manila’s pursuit of
Heritage Conservation. The research is basically an educational research, in
the sense Degenhardt (1984) contends that it does take many forms
“though the label is often confined to rigorously specified kinds of inquiry”.
In addition, the inquiry looked on the ways heritage conservation is learned
by students; consequently, the paper is loosely qualitative in nature. In
order to address the queries posed, the research attempted to adapt Urban
Heritage Conservation framework of analysis of the Global Development
Research Centre, since Heritage Conservation is neither a naive problem,
nor a local concern.
Locale
The city of Manila, known as Maynila for the Filipinos, is the capital
city of the Philippines and one of the cities that make up the greater
metropolitan area of Metro Manila. Manila is the centre of government in
the country and one of the central hubs of a thriving metropolitan area
home to over 14 million people. It is located on the shores of Manila Bay
just west of the geographical centre of Metro Manila, also known as the
National Capital Region (NCR), which lies on an isthmus between Manila
Bay and Laguna de Bay in southern Luzon. The city is one of 17 cities and
municipalities which form the metropolitan area (City of Manila, 2007)
Participants of the Studies
Participants in the study consist of experts in the field and the
objects of the study. The experts include practitioners and specialists in the
field of Heritage and Heritage Conservation while the objects include both
the student-learners and their teacher-coordinators who attended such
activities and programs. Authorities in the field are initially identified below.
One of the field-expert being consulted in the study is Gemma
Cruz- Araneta. She is known to most Filipinos more as a beauty queen than
as a living descendant of Jose Rizal Gemma is the grand-niece of Rizal
through his sister Maria. In 2003, She was elected director/trustee and
president of Heritage Conservation Society of the Philippines (HCSP) and
was re-elected in February 2006. Like her mother, Gemma has distinguished
herself too in writing.
On the other hand, for the participating secondary schools, six high
36
schools in represent of the six districts of the Division of City Schools in
Manila are chosen to be the research participants. This is done, so that the
entire districts under the Division are well denoted. For District I, Tondo
High School was chosen likewise with Torres High School for District II, and
Jose Abad Santos High School for the third District. These three secondary
schools are all located in the northern part of Manila thus under a separate
Assistant Superintendent. For District IV is Ramon Magsaysay while District
V is represented by Manila High School and Victorino Mapa High School is
chosen for District VI. The last three schools are situated in the southern
part of the city and consequently under another Assistant Superintendent.
Techniques
Initially, attendance to conferences and seminars were given
attention, this further let the researchers gather information regarding
Heritage, Heritage Conservation, History and Culture. Observation to
heritage education activity was also considered and basically it required the
researches to attend and participate in such programs.
In-depth interviews with experts like Ms. Gemma Cruz Araneta of
the Heritage Conservation Society, Mr. Nicanor A. Legazpi Jr. of the National
Museum and Ms. Maria Victoria F. Punay of the UNESCO Commission for
the Philippines, were then employed geared up through the proficiency of
the subject matter. With the use of the interview guide, the interviews
were facilitated, soliciting information relevant to the study.
In addition, a descriptive, which is very vital to the research, was
then actualized. With the help of the teacher-coordinators, students
belonging to a single class from different schools were given survey
questionnaires.
Finally, a focused-group discussion was mounted in order to deeply
delve into what students learned from the Heritage Education programs
and activities. A class, who collectively participated in a Heritage Education
program commenced by the City Government of Manila, was discussed
through with Heritage, History and Culture and the role of Education in its
conservation.
Used Instruments
The research employed varied types of instruments to maximize
gathering and analyzing data. The different Instruments blow presented
significantly adheres themselves to the conceptual framework and the
37
research problem in order to facilitate expedient data gathering.
At the outset, an observation guide was formulated in order to
document Heritage Education program observed.
One of the
accommodating steps in conducting an interview with experts regarding the
study is to prepare an interview guide. The researchers had prepared two
(2) sets of interview guide; one for the experts on Heritage Education and
one for educators, respectively. The two interview guide prepared are
checked and approved by the research adviser.
Further, to gather information about the different programs and
activities concerning Heritage Education a Descriptive Survey Questionnaire
for the student and teacher-coordinators who attended such Heritage
Education programs.Finally the last instrument prepared and utilized in the
study is the Discussion Guide, appropriately for the Focused Group
Discussion method.
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
A Glimpse on the National Cultural Heritage Act
In the third regular session of the Fourteenth Congress of the
Philippines, the Republic Act 10066 was enacted which provides “for the
protection and conservation of the National Cultural Heritage,
strengthening the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA) and
its affiliated cultural agencies”. The prior Heritage Bill and now an act was
th
principally authored by Senator Edgardo J. Angara and signed on the 26 of
March, 2010 by the former President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo (Henares,
2010).
Heritage Education Programs and Activities
According toNasution (1997), there is a need to impart knowledge
of conservation attitudes and approaches to all those who may have a
direct or indirect impact on cultural property. Education and sensitization
for conservation should begin in schools and continue beyond (Nasution,
1997). Therefore heritage education through varying programs and
activities should be well-thought-out. In the study, programs and activities
relating to Heritage Education within the academic year 2010-2011 are
hereby considered. Such programs and activities basically uses cultural
heritage as an instructional materials in order to convey the lessons and
38
subject matters. Below is the presentation of the Heritage Education
programs and activities delved into in the study.
Cultural Heritage as Primary Instructional Sources
To see the ingenuity of the Filipino people and to preserve our
material and non-material heritage is what Mr. Legazpi claims to be the
prime objective of Heritage Education program and activities. As Ms.
Araneta contends,
Mayor Alfredo S. Lim stresses the importance of
Philippine history by commemorating the anniversaries
and patriotic deeds of Filipino heroes and by celebrating
historical events that occurred in Manila. These are
implemented by the Manila Historical and Heritage
Commission and Manila Tourism and Cultural Affairs
Bureau. Public school students, principals, teachers,
barangay officials and department head attend the
ceremonies; the Philippine Army is the military host for
the wreath-laying ceremonies; Mayor Lim delivers as wellresearched speech about the legacy of Filipino heroes,
how they sacrificed their lives for the country and why the
young people should emulate them. The above activities
are didactic in nature and educate the audience about
Philippine history.
From these programs and activities of Heritage Education that
aims towards Heritage Conservation, material culture, or those part of our
cultural heritage that is tangible are most of the time utilized as directly or
indirectly an instructional source. Based from the information gathered
primarily from the teacher-coordinators, movable and immovable cultural
heritages are the most common type of sources utilized in conveying
lessons from the Heritage Education programs and activities, and above all,
immovable cultural heritages are every so often being employed.
The reason behind this frequent use, according also to the data
gathered is because it greatly helps the teacher (or in most cases, the
facilitator) in presenting lessons in history accurately, and through the use
of this artefacts, students can able to visualize what happened in the past
realistically, and further, appreciate our heritage. Another reason concerns
39
the use of the senses in greatly engrossing the lessons of the subject
matter. In other words, the students are into the “first-hand experience”
that let them learn better. Most significantly, tedious barren, sometimes
expensive and dry visual aids are replaced instead with a three-dimensional,
full-colour and real-size objects that effectively delivers real-life
actualizations and lessons.
Competencies Learned by the Student-Learners
While Ms. Araneta emphasized the importance of the role of the
youth, especially the student-learners towards Heritage Conservation, Mr.
Legazpi complements that “as the primary guardian, safe-keeper, custodian
of our national heritage and as the next leader who will lead in the
conservation and preservation of our heritage our youth, especially our
student-learners should be informed well enough since they are the ones
who will transfer the knowledge to the next generation and ensure Heritage
sustainability”.
The responses are categorized according to Robert Marzano’s
Dimensions of Learning. Marzano (1992) and his fellow educators present
an instructional framework that incorporates five major categories of the
types of thinking that is important to the success of teaching and learning.
Its major components include extending and refining knowledge which
involves comparing, classifying, inducting, deduction, analysing,
perspectives. Also, the framework consists of thinking that uses knowledge
meaningfully that involves decision making, investigation, problem-solving,
experimental inquiry, and invention (Marzano, 1992).
Cognitive Competencies Gained
from the Heritage Education Programs and Activities
I. First Dimension:Positive Attitudes and Perceptions about Learning
nabatid ang mga bagay na ‘di pa nababatid understood
the incomprehensible
mas napalawak ang kaalamanfurther broaden
knowledge
ang mga kaalamna ay naitanim sa puso’t-isipan
knowledge is instilled in the heart and mind
40
II. Second Dimension: Acquire and Refine Knowledge
katutubong pag-aariindigenous artifacts
mahahahalagang bagay na iniingatan at
pinahahalagahan important objects that are
being preserved and valued
Intramuros bilang lungsod na naliligiran ng
paderIntramuros as the city surrounded by walls
Intramuros bilang dating kapital ng bansaIntramuros as
the old capital of the country
III. Third Dimension:Extend and Refine Knowledge
mahahalagang pangyayari significant events (in World
War of 1940’s)
kabayanihan ni Rizalheroism of Rizal
iba pang bayani sa kasaysayan tulad nila Antonio Luna at
Andres Bonifacioother heroes like Antonio Luna
and Andres Bonifacio
huwag maging corrupt ayon kay Cory don’t be corrupt
according to Cory
kagitingan at katapangan ng mga Pilipinovalor and
bravery of the Filipinos
San Agustin Church ang pinakamatandang simbahanSan
Agustin Church the oldest church
IV. Fourth Dimension:Using Knowledge Meaningfully
nagagaya ang kabayanihan at katapangan ni Antonio
Lunacould imitate the heroism and bravery of
Luna in life
ang kasaysayan ay dapat pag-ingatan upang makita pa
ng ibang generasyon history should be
preserved to be seen by other generations
maibahagi sa susunod na henerasyoncould beshared to
the succeeding generations
41
pamumuno kahit sa maliit na paraan leadership even in
the smallest way
pag-aralan para sa susunod na makagagawa tayo ng
mabubuting solusyon study in order for us to
come up with good decisions
V. Fifth Dimension: Productive Habits of the Mind
mayaman ang Pilipinas sa kasaysayan at kultura the
Philippines has a rich history and culture
maraming makasaysayang pook at tanawin sa Pilipinas
the Philippines has a lot of historical places and
sceneries
mahalagang bumisita sa mga makasaysayang pookit is
important to visit historical places
Following the sought for knowledge, students were also consulted
on what behaviour, attitudes and/or values were developed after they have
involved themselves in the Heritage Education programs and activities. For
the purpose of categorizing the student’s responses, two categories were
utilized in the light to further analyse the reactions. The study chose use
such frameworks for categorization and further of analysis since the study
of Pearce (2000) delves into the motivational values of the relationship
between the people and the material culture. Also, because conservation is
in many ways an advocacy and at the same time Pearce’s frame coincides
with Gordon’s (2002) advocacy frame, the study considered to borrowed &
utilized the two.
Affective Competencies Gained
from the Heritage Education Programs and Activities
I. Level of the Individual
pagtitiis at katapangan patience and bravery
mas maging responsible become more responsible
huwag hawakan ang mga bagay baka masira refrain
42
from touching objects
pagkamasigasig, pagkamamasunurin, palakaibigan
patience, obedience, amity
maging mabuting tao become a good person
matatag sa pagsubok facing challenges strongly
good listener mabuting makikinig
II. Level of the Family
huwag maging makasarili don’t be selfish
mahusay na pakikilahok sa mga gawain ng samahan
participation to the group’s activities/works
mahusay at aktibong na pakikiisa sa gawain good and
active involvement in the activity
III. Level of the Ethnic Group
mahalin ang mga gawang sariling atin we shouldpatronizing our
own products
IV. Level of the Local Community
paggalang sa monumentrespect for the monuments
dapat pahalagahan, ingatan, pagyamanin at huwag
sirainshould be treasured, protected, developed
ad never to destroy
maging bayani kahit sa maliit na bagaybe a hero even in
the smallest way
maging mulatbe aware
V. Level of Nation/ Sovereign State
ipagmalaking isang Pilipino be proud to be a Filipino
43
mabuti at responsableng mamamayan ng bansa good and
responsible citizen
makabayan nationalistic
makabansa patriotistic
VI. Level of the World
mapag-alaga sa kapwa care for others
pag-alaga sa mundocare for the world
The Role of Education towards Heritage Conservation
As substantial information is presented through the data gathered,
education is an enormous venue for the student-learners to develop to
themselves knowledge and values that would eventually lead to active
participation towards Heritage Conservation. As we could deduce from the
levels attained by the students through their reflections on what cognitive
competencies they gained from attending heritage education programs and
activities, though a large part is composed of competencies under the
lowest dimension, which is the developed positive attitudes and
perceptions about learning, acquire and integrate as well as extending and
refining knowledge, considerable number of responses fall under the
dimension of the productive habits of the mind. This is the highest level
according to Marzano’s Dimensions of Learning (1992) that generally
suggests that the students are being clear if not seeking clarity on what is
their role in Heritage Conservation, though the productive habits of the
mind level as well as the positive attitudes and perceptions about learning
according to Marzano (1992) is concerned with the affect. In addition,
notable responses constitute entries under the fourth dimension namely,
the use of knowledge meaningfully. In this stage decision-making among
themselves which involves investigation and problem solving is reflective of
their responses.
On the other hand, the level of affective competency attained by
the students is notably categorized much with lower levels according to the
categorization frame posted both of Pearce’s Frame (2000) and Gordon’s
Advocacy (2002). With much on the lowest level which are values on the
level of individuality, it suggests that the attitudes and behaviours
developed to themselves brought about the programs and activities are
mostly towards one’s self only, though we could not separate the fact that
44
such values compete with the values under the levels of the nation or
sovereign state which definitely is towards our nation, the Philippines, and
for the future generations of our country.
Generally, we could say that in terms of competencies, the level of
knowledge they gained is way much higher than the level of values they
developed to themselves from attending and participating Heritage
Education programs and activities.
In supposition, through education, students will definitely learn
and develop knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and values towards
appreciation of our culture, a very integral part for them to preserve, and
conserve our material cultural heritage, since it is the part of our culture
that is very vulnerable to change. Moreover, education opens the mind of
our students as well the all of the people to conserve and preserve our
cultural heritage because that is part of our history and our way of life
which forms the basis of our national identity.
REFERENCES
Books
Burcaw, G. E.. (1990). Introduction to Museum Work.
Nashville: The American Association for State and
Local History, pp. 142-144
Childe, G. (1942) What Happened in History. Harmondsworth:
Penguin Books, Ltd, pp. 27 – 28
Erder, C. (1986). Our Architectural Heritage: From
Consciousness to Conservation. Paris: United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Macionis, J. J. (2004). Society: the Basics. New Jersey: Pearson
Education, Inc. p. 35
Marzano, R. J. (1992). A Different Kind of Classroom: Teaching
with Dimensional Learning. Virginia: Association for
Supervision and Curriculum Development
Nasution, K. S. (1997) Heritage Habitat: A Source Book of
Urban Conservation Movement in Asia and the
Pacific. Penang: Asia & West Pacific Network for
Urban Conservation, pp 100-102
45
Perry, M. et.al. (2003). Sources of the Western Tradition.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, pp
Wright, G. (1968). The Ordeal of Total War: 1939-1945. New
York: harper and Row, Publishers, Incorporated, pp.
264 – 265
Yang, M. & Doggett, G. (2001) World Heritage: Ours Forever?
Treasures of the Asia Pacific Region. Paris: United
Nations Educational , Scientific and Cultural Organization
Zamora, M. D. (1972). Cultural Anthropology: Its Dimensions,
Its Limitations, Its Applications. Manila: MCS
Enterprises, Inc.
Zialcita, F. (2007). Balangkas: A resource Book on the Care of
Built Heritage in the Philippines. Manila: National
Commission on Culture and the Arts. pp. 1 – 13
Pertinent Documents
The Congress of the Philippines. (2009). Republic Act 10066
National Culural Heritage Act of 2009 . Manila: The
Fourteenth Congress of the Philippines
Papers, Brochures and Pamphlets
Gordon, G. (2002). Advocacy Toolkit: Understanding
Advocacy. Teddington: Tearfung Roots Resources
UNESCO (2011). World Heritagein Young Hands: An
Educational Resource Kit for Teachers. Paris:
UNESCO World Heritage Center
UNESCO & ASPnet(2002). International Conference on World
Heritage in Young Hands – A Dialogue among
Civilizations. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Center
UNESCO World Heritage Center(2008). World Heritage
Information Kit. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage
Center
UNESCO World Heritage Center(2005). World Heritage: Today
and Tomorrow with Young People. Paris: UNESCO
World Heritage Center
46
Periodicals and Journals
Antarika (1998). The Participation of Students in Architectural
Conservation: Using Educational Media to Understand
the Cultural Heritage
Atkinson, R. & Idid, S. Z. A. (1998). Will our Students be Heritage
Revivers or Heritages Embalmers? Subversion of
Modernist Paradigm of Disconnection
Avrami, E., et.al. (2000). Values and Heritage Conservation. The
Getty Conservation Institute, pp. 3 -12
Bakilan, D. (September-October, 2010). Dayaw Festival 2010.
Agung, p.8
Bluestone, D. (2000). Heritage Conservation and the Role of
Research on Values. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation
Institute, pp.3 – 12
Cernea, M.M. (2001). Cultural Heritage and Development: A
Framework for Action in the Middle East and North
Africa. Washington DC: The International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development/ The World Bank
Degenhardt, M.A.B. (1984). Educational Research as a Source of
Educational Harm. Universities Quarterly(Culture,
Education and Society), p 232
Galla, A. (1993). Training as Access: Guidelines for the
Development of Heritage Curricula and Cultural
Diversity. Canberra: Australian Government
Publishing Service
Gatbonton, E. B. (1993). Identifying Manila’s Material Culture.
Manila Studies Association, pp 6 – 17
Lowenthal, D. (2000). Stewarding the past in Perflexing
Present.Getty Conservation Institute,pp. 18 – 25
Mata, R. L. S. (2008 August). Intarmuros Administration:
Philippine Architectural Conservation in Transition.
Manila Studies Association, Inc., pp. 85 – 101
Ozaeta, E. U. (2008 August). Revisioning the Spirit of Place of
Quiapo. Manila Studies Association, Inc., pp. 103 –
118
47
Pearce, S. (2000). The Making of Cultural Heritage. Getty
Conservation Institute, pp. 59 – 64
Yap, J. P. (June, 2007) Laws and Will Needed to Protect
Heritage. Fourthnightly Tulay: Filipino-Chinese
Digest, p.24
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January, 2010 from the World Wide
Web:http://www.manila.gov.ph/localgovt.htm#
localgovt
City Government of Manila (2010) Map of Manila Retrieved 2nd of
February, 2011 from the World Wide Web:
http://www.manila.gov.ph/localgovt.htm& imgurl =http:
//www.manila.gov.ph/Images/manila_ map.jpg&ei=Gp1h
TbC0 JMn
KrAe_muCtAQ&zoom=1&w=700&h=784&iact=hc&oei=Gp
1hTb
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rt=0&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0&biw=1024&bih=4
Henares, I. A. (2010) Republic Act No. 10066 - National
th
Cultural Heritage Act of 2009. Retrieved 28 of
November, 2010 from the World Wide Web:
http://www.ivanhenares.com/2010/04/republicact-no-10066-national-cultural.html
Henares, I. (2010) International Day for Monuments and
Sites 2010 celebrates the heritage of
agricultureRetrieved 28th of November, 2010
from the World Wide Web: http://www.
ivanhenares. com/2010/04/international-dayfor-monuments-and.html
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Studies. ERIC DigestRetrieved 29th of November,
2010 from the World Wide
Web:http://cool.conservationus.org/bytopic/misc/heritedu.html
Life (2011) Ruins of Bombed Out City Hall, Part of the
Result. Retrieved 2nd of January, 2011 from the
48
World Wide Web: http://www .life.com/
image/53376383
Srinivas, H. (2010) Prioritizing Cultural Heritage in the
Asia-Pacific Region: Role of City
Government.Retrieved 1st of December, 2010
from the World Wide
Web:http://www.gdrc.org/heritage/ tab2.html
UNESCO (1995) International “Patrimonito” Storyboard
Contest to Promote World Heritage Education.
Retrieved from the World Wide Web:
http://portal.unesco.org/ geography /en/
ev.php-url_id=12837 &url_do=do_topic&
url_section =201.html
(2006) Gemma Cruz-Araneta, A Descendant of Rizal.
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Wide Web: http://kaanak1896gallery.
tripod.com/htm/gemmacru.htm
Presented during the 2nd PhilSCA Research Colloquium dated December 7, 2012
49
Inobasyon ng Wika sa Cyberspace:
Pamamanaag sa Diskurso ng Filipino Bilang
Cyberlanguage
Gerard Panggat Concepcion
Bagaman nitong pagtatapos ng milenyo lamang naging popular ang
internet sa Pilipinas, ay siya namang bilis at karipas nito bilang teknolohiya
sa pagbubukas ng bagong milenyo. Taong 2000 nang mamayagpag ito
kasabay ang “bagsak-presyong” teknolohiya gaya ng mobile phones,
computers, at cable TV’s sa Pilipinas, ay naging bahagi na ng mga
ordinaryong Pilipino ang mga produktong ito na hatid ng Globalisasyon.
Nabago at patuloy na binabago ng mga teknolohiyang ito ang kultura ng
mga Pilipino. Kung kultural na impluwensiya din lamang ang pag-uusapan,
matingkad na nangunguna ang mobile phones at ang internet bilang mga
produktong nakapagpabago kung sino at ano ang mga Pilipino sa
kasalukuyan.
Sa kaso ng internet, naging maluwag ang pagpapalitan at
pagbibigayan ng impormasyon – naging isang komunidad na lamang ang
buong Mundo. Dahil sa binubuo ang internet ng mga tao na mismong
nakikipagkomunikasyon sa isa’t isa, ginagamit nila ang mga serbisyong
handog ng internet upang makapag-usap, makipagpalitan ng impormasyon,
hanggang sa pagbubuo ng mga bagong relasyon at ugnayan sa iba pang mga
nasyon. Mula sa mga ito, isang espasyo ng internet ang nabuo – ang
Cyberspace. (Okin 2005)
Noong Dekada ’70 at ’80 sa Pilipinas, masasabing mayaman na ang
pamilyang nagmamay-ari ng isang kumpletong volume ng Encyclopedia.
Ngayong 2010, tila obsolete na ang pagsangguni sa mga ito – sapagkat sa
panahon ng bagong milenyo, ang unang pupuntahan ng estudyante ay ang
harapan ng computer, at sa isang click lang, maaari na niyang makuha ang
impormasyon na hinahanap sa malawak na pook ng cyberspace. Ika nga ng
mga (tamad/maparaang) estudyante: “kung may tanong, itanong kay
Google.” Kaya’t sa isang click nga lang naman, sangkatutak na impormasyon
na kaagad ang kanilang makukuha.
50
Sa isang banda, HINDI lang sa pagsasaliksik ginagamit ng mga
Pilipino ang internet sa kasalukuyan. Sila ay nahuhumaling din sa chatting,
surfing, cybergames, social networking, tweeting, blogging, instant
messaging, at iba pa. May pag-uulat pa na hindi lamang sa Kalakhang
Maynila nakasentro ang mga gumagamit ng internet sa Pilipinas. Maging sa
mga karatig nitong probinsya, ay marami rin naman ang gumagamit ng
internet. (Ho 2009)
Tunay ngang dahil sa palasak na paggamit ng mga Pilipino sa
internet, hindi mapapasubaliang bahagi sila ng cyberspace. Nagkaroon pa
nga ng tala na ang Pilipinas ang tinaguriang “social networking capital of the
World” (Liao 2008; Universal McCann 2008). Anon’g ibig sabihin nito? Sa
nabubuong komunidad/mundo ng cyberspace, marami sa mga mamamayan
nito’y Pilipino. At dahil sa ang isang komunidad ay nararapat lamang na
magkaintindihan at magkaunawaan, masasabing may natatanging paggamit
ng wika dito upang magkaintindihan ang mga taong nabibilang sa
magkakaiba-ibang nasyon at nasyunalidad.
Dagling Pagpapakahulugan sa Cyberspace
Bagaman maliklikang salaysay/sanaysay ang maaaring maiukol sa
pag-unlad ng internet at Cyberspace, ay hindi na ito susuungin ng pag-aaral.
Sa halip, ay ipakikita lamang ng papel na ito ang pagkakaiba,
pagkakapareho, pagkakaugnay ng dalawang konsepto, at ang ugnay ng mga
ito sa diskurso ng wika at komunikasyon.
Sa dalawang mga konseptong nabanggit na, mas naunang
maimbento ang internet. Taong 1966 nang likhain ito ng Advanced
Research Projects Agency (ARPA) sa ilalim ng US Department of Defense
bilang ARPANET, upang mapagbuklod ang mga mananaliksik sa iba’t ibang
institusyong Amerikano sa konteksto ng Cold War (Abbate 1999). Ngunit
noon lamang 1989 iminungkahi ng Ingles na si Sir Tim Berners–Lee ng
European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN, Geneva) na ilabas mula sa
pamahalaan tungo sa malaganap na paggamit ang internet sa pamamagitan
ng World Wide Web na unang lumabas noong tag-init ng 1991. Siya rin ang
nagdalumat ng coding system na naging wika ng web (World Wide Web),
ang HTML (HyperText Mark-up Language); ang paraan ng pagbibigay ng
address sa bawat website, ang URL (Universal Resource Locator); at ang
pamamaraan upang mai-ugnay sa iba’t ibang kompyuter na naka-internet,
ang HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol). Patuloy siyang nakibaka upang
maging libre para sa lahat ang teknolohiyang kanyang nilikha. (Quittner
1999)
51
Samantalang noong Marso 1994, ang University of the Philippines
Diliman, Ateneo De Manila University, De La Salle University at ang
Unibersidad ng San Carlos sa Cebu ay naging bahagi ng network na unang
nakonekta sa internet sa pamamagitan ng CISCO 7000 sa Makati. Noong
Marso 29, 1994, ang pinakaunang link ng Pilipinas sa internet sa Unang
Pandaigdigang E-mail Conference sa USC Cebu. Ito ang sinasabing pagsilang
ng internet sa Pilipinas. (Smbea 1999)
Kung kaya naman, mababanaag mula sa kasaysayang ito ng
internet, na ito ay “network ng mga computer:”
The internet is the World’s largest computer network...a
bunch of computers that communicate with each other… a
network of networks all freely exchanging information… (Gralla
1998)
Sa kabilang banda naman, kaiba ang konspeto ng Cyberspace. Tila
mas masalimuot ang kahulugan nito. Unang ginamit ni William Gibson ang
salitang Cyberspace noong 1984 sa kanyang nobelang “Neuromancer:”
Cyberspace. A consensual hallucination experienced daily
by billions of legitimate operators, in every nation, by children
being taught mathematical concepts... A graphic representation of
data abstracted from banks of every computer in the human
system. Unthinkable complexity. Lines of light ranged in the
nonspace of the mind, clusters and constellations of data. Like city
lights, receding.
Dagdag naman niya noong taong 2000 sa isang interbyu:
All I knew about the word “cyberspace” when I coined it,
was that it seemed like an effective buzzword. It seemed evocative
and essentially meaningless. It was suggestive of something, but
had no real semantic meaning, even for me, as I saw it emerge on
the page. (Gibson 2004)
Kung si Gibson ay tila “nabigla, namangha, at nag-alangan” sa
kahulugan ng cyberspace, marami-rami na ring mga iskolar ang “sumubok,
nagsikap, at sumuong” upang unawain ang salimuot, lawak, at lalim ng
konsepto nito. Ilan sa mga ito ay sina Benedikt (1991); Koepsell (2000);
Rheingold (1994); Heim (1993); Wolly (1992).
52
Sa pagsisikap ng mga iskolar na ito, natalakay sa kauna-unahang
pagkakataon ang ideya at konsepto ng salitang space na nabuksan gamit
ang mga dalumat na walang kaugnayan sa Matematika. Kung maaalala,
lagi’t laging may kahulugan at implikasyon sa Geomentry ang salitang space
– maari itong dalumatin gamit ang Euclidean, Isotropic, o kaya nama’y
Infinite. Maaaring maging pisikal (cosmos), mental (lohikal at formal na
abstraksyon), o sosyal (interaksyong panlipunan) ang salitang space. Kung
kaya’t kapag sinabi na ang social space, tila kakaiba nga naman ito sa mga
nakagawiang gamit ng salitang space (Lefebvre 1991). Kung sisipatin naman
ang usapin ng space sa pagdalumat ni Popper (1972), lumalabas na may 3
domain ang mundo (sa kanyang termino’y world):
World 1; the objective world of material, of physics, of
natural things. Energy, motion and state change can be included
here. This can be associated with physical space. World 2;
consciousness, thoughts, intentions, memory, dreams, are part of
this world. This can be associated with mental space. World 3; the
results of interactions of humankind, public structures, and also
non-intentional products of the above mentioned interactions.
This can be eventually compared to social space.
Mula sa mga pagdalumat nina Lefebvre at Popper, maaaring
mahinuha na ang cyberspace ay sumusunod din naman sa ganitong mga
domain ng perskpektibo. O kaya nama’y maaari ring mahinuha na ang
cyberspace ay ika-4 na partisyon?
1
2
3
Lefebvre
Physical
Mental
Social
Popper
Physical Space
Mental Space
Social Space
Bagaman wala pang kongkreto at pinal na depinisyon ang
cyberspace, maaaring bigyan ito ng mga kahulugang:
(1) a globally networked, computer-sustained, computeraccessed, and computer-generated, multidimensional, artificial, or
virtual reality. (Benedikt 1991); …
(2) a world of information present or possible in digital
form. (Crystal 2006:3)
53
(3) Space perceived as such by an observer but generated
by a computer and having no real existence. (Oxford English
Dictionary)
Maaaring masabi na isang penomenon ang cyberspace. Lagpas pa
ang kahulugan at konsepto nito base lamang sa etimolohiya ng salitang ito:
‘Cyber’ taken here, to mean ’computer processed,’
conjoins the suffix ‘space,’ and in doing so propagates the idea of
digitally represented realms, at once both realistic and
paradoxically elusive. To the observer, these realms may be
perceived as tangible (real) or intoxically intangible (virtual). (Burry
2000:7)
Mula sa suroy-suroy na mga kahulugan at pagpapakahulugan para
sa Cyberspace, nananatili pa rin itong konseptwal – isang espasyo/lugar na
kung saan litaw ang manipestasyon ng mga salita (wika), ugnayan ng mga
tao, impormasyon, ekonomikong kalakaran, ay nagiging posible dahil sa
komunikasyong nagaganap gamit ang mga computer (Rheingold 1994).
Kung may komunikasyong nagaganap sa cyberspace (gamit ang
mga computer at internet), tunay ngang may papel ang wika sa
pagsuong/pagpasok sa Cyberspace. At dahil sa ugnayang ito ng wika at
Cyberspace, maaaring makadungaw sa isang diskursong batbat ng mga
katanungan at pagninilay: Ano ba ang nagaganap sa wika kung ang mga
taong nabibilang sa iba’t ibang kultura ay “mag-uusap” gamit ang internet?
Mayroon kayang mga problemang pangwika silang kinakaharap? May
pagbabago kayang nagaganap sa wika kung ginagamit ito ng/sa
Cyberspace? Mayroon kayang bagong varayti ng wikang nabubuo dito?
Maaari kayang madiskurso ang Cyberspace bilang wika mismo?
Wika at/ng/sa Cyberspace
Sinasabing imateryal ang Cyberspace. Isang penomenon na buhay
at nagaganap ngunit hindi ito maikakahon sa mga “pisikal na parametro.”
May halaga ang pagtingin at pag-aaral sa wika sapagkat ang Cyberspace ay
maaaring mailarawan sa pamamaraan ng pag-aaral ng wka nito/dito. Sa
bisa rin ng ganitong pamamaraan, ay maaari rin namang mabigyangkahulugan ang phenomenon ng Cyberspace. (Cicognani 1998)
54
Sa teoretikal na level, masisinop na ang ilang mga pag-aaral hinggil
sa wika ng Cyberspace na maaaring maging gabay bilang balangkas para sa
mga susunod pang mga pag-aaral. Ilan sa mga ito ay ang mga sumusunod:
1. Collot at Belmore (1996) – assessment sa pasulat at pasalitang
wika (English Language) gamit ang computer, gamit ang anim na
dimensyon nito – informativity, narrativity, explicitness,
persuasion, abstraction, elaboration.
2. Mar (2000) – gamit ang Register Theory sa pag-aanalisa ng mga
lingguisitc pattern sa mga “chatroom,” sa aspeto ng field, tenor, at
mode.
3. Yates (1996) – assessment sa textual, interpersonal, at ideational
na gamit ng wika ds ineternet (isang Halliday approach).
4. Douglas (2000) – paglalarawan ng hypertexts gamit ang
constructivist at determinist approach.
5. Negretti (1999) – paggamit ng conversation analysis approach sa
pagdidiskurso ng wika sa cyberspace dahil mailalarawan nito ang
nagaganap na social action sa mga komunikasyong nagaganap sa
cyberspace.
Pinatutunayan ng mga pag-aaral na ito, na isang lehitimong larang
ng pag-aaral ang wika sa Cyberspace. Hindi na lamang maikakahon ngayon
ang wika sa pumpon ng mga salita’t kahulugan, bagkus binubuksan ng
ganitong larang gamit ang tradisyunal at kinagisnang mga aspeto ng wika
(pasulat at pasalita), na ang wika ngayo’y may drastikong pagbabagong
naganap at magaganap pa. Bunsod ng teknolohiya ng internet, ang wika
ng/sa Cyberspace ay isang panibagong larang ng pag-aaral na maaaring
magpakita na ang tradisyunal at kinagisnang wika’y maaari rin palang
madagdagan/maiugnay sa mga imahe’t larawan, pagpapaikli ng mga salita,
paggamit ng mga talinghaga, paggamit ng mga samu’t saring simbolo, at
pag-imbento ng mga bagong termino’t kahulugan, ng sa gayo’y upang
maging madali, madulas, at napapanahon ang usapan at pakikipag-ugnayan.
Kung tinatanggap na dinamiko ang wika, mahalagang lunsaran at
panandang-bato ang wika ng/sa Cyberspace. Kasimbilis ng pagbabago sa
teknolohiya ang pagbabagong nagaganap sa wikang ito. Popular ang
paggamit ng mga salitang internet slang, netspeak, webbish, leet,
chatspeak, internet short-hand para sa wikang itong/sa Cyberspace.
Maraming mga bagong salita, ekspresyon, linggwistikang penomenon ang
umusbong ugnay ng teknolohiya. Sinasabing ang mga ito ang mismong
bumubuo sa konsepto ng salitang Cyberlanguage. (Gibbs 2006)
55
Bago pa man naging accessible ang mga computer at internet sa
masa, may premyadong level ang ikinakabit sa Cyberlanguage. Ang siste,
noo’y mga teknikal na mga tao (nerd at geek) lamang ang may access sa
ganitong teknoloihya. Ngunit sa kasalukuyang mga panahon, ang
Cyberlanguage ay ginagamit na ng halos lahat ng taong may access sa
internet, bagaman hindi sila nabibilang sa mga propesyong teknikal. Kung
susuriin, napasok na ng Cyberlanguage ang mismong kamalayan ng mga
tao, na bagaman hindi na sila nakakunekta sa internet (at wala na sa mundo
ng Cyberspace), ay ginagamit pa rin nila ang mga jargon nito maging sa
kanilang pang-araw-araw na pamumuhay.
Mula sa dalumat nina Sapir at Whorf, mababanaag na ang wika ay
nakalaan para sa komunikasyon. Umiinog ang wika sa tunog, salita, at iba
pang mga linggwistikong manipestasyon ng komunikasyon, na nabubuo sa
isang kumbensyunal na proseso. May pagkakasundo ang sinumang mga
taong gagamit at gumagamit nito. Kung kaya naman, ang wika ay nagiging
isang sistema ng pagpapakahulugan, hindi lamang basta daluyan ng
komunikasyon (Fermin 2005). Ganito ang makikita sa hulagway ng
Cyberlanguage – ang mga salita, ekspresyon, at anumang linggwistikong
manipestasyon nito ay maaaring hiniram o dili kaya’y inimbento mula sa
ordinaryong (mga) wika. Sa usapin ng Cyberlanguage, may ibang
semantikong pagpapakahulugan ang salitang surfing. Bagaman ugnay ang
lantay na kahulugan nito sa surfboard at dagat, may panibagong
pagpapakahulugan nito bilang salita ng Cyberlanguage – kunektado at
ugnay na ang kahulugan nito sa pagbisita/pagpunta/pamamanaag sa iba’t
ibang mga website sa internet. At kung dati-rati’y sa “nakakapagod” na
sports/recreational hobby lang ginagamit ang salitang surfing, ngayon ay sa
proseso ng “hindi nakakapagod” na “pamamasyal” sa loob ng Cyberspace
gamit ang internet. Gaya din naman ng mga salitang homepage, log-in/logout, virus, address, icon, crash, bookmark, bug, trash, ay nagkaroon na ng
mga bagong semantikong pagpapakahulugan sa konteksto ng Cyberspace.
Sa isang banda, maaaring tingnan ang Cyberlanguage bilang
manipestasyon ng hypertext – pundamental na “wikang nakasulat” pa din
naman gamit ang limitasyon ng computer at internet. Wika nga ni Kaplan
(1995):
…offer readers multiple trajectories through the textual
domain…each choice of direction a reader makes in her encounter
with the emerging text, in effect, produces the next.
56
Idinagdag naman ni Douglas (2000) na maaring magkapagbigay ang
hypertext sa mga mambabasa nito ng panibagong anyo ng komunikasyon
kumpara sa mga “paper-based text” gaya sa mga aklatan. Ang siste,
masasabing isang digital na wika ang Cyberlanguage – idinadaan sa
teknolohiya ng computer at internet ang manipestasyon ng anumang uri at
anyo ng linggwistikong komunikasyon. (Macfadyen 2004)
Samantala, sa pangunguna ni Saussure, maaari rin namang
malentehan ang Cyberlanguage sa usapin ng mga senyas (sign) at simbolo
(symbols). Sinasabing, may nagaganap na elaborasyon sa paggamit ng wika
sa mga e-mail, chat, at forum. Marami sa mga salitang ginagamit sa
penomenon ng Cyberspace ay may mga kahulugang malayo at/o iba na sa
nakagawiang kahulugan nito. Halimbawa, ang salitang spam,
nangangahulugan na ito ng mga e-mail na ginagamit pang-anunsyo. Dagdag
pa dito’y ang textwal at grafikal na mga simbolong ginagamit ng
Cyberlanguage. Gaya ng mga emoticons (emotion + icon) na karaniwang
ginagamit sa chat (maging sa mga cellphone) sa pagpapahayag ng nais
“sabihin” o kaya’y ng kasalukuyang “nararamdaman” ng mga nag-uusap. Ito
na ang ginagamit ng mga tao, sa halip na sabihin ng buo ang nais nilang
sabihin/ipahayag/nararamdaman. May bisa ang ganitong anyo ng
elaborasyon sa mga nakagawiang simbolo, sapagkat mas lalo pa nitong
napapabilis ang komunikasyon sa Cyberspace. Ilang halimbawa nito’y ang
mga sumusunod:
:-)
:-(
O:-)
*-*
^_^
:-o
|-O
masaya o kontento
malungkot o hindi kontento
anghel o mabait
nahihilo
sobrang kagalakan
pagkagulat
naghihikab o inaantok
Sa pagkakaroon ng isang “kasunduan” sa pagitan ng mga taong
gumagamit ng Cyberlanguage, nabubuo ang kahulugan ng mga “bagong”
anyo ng simbolong ito sa pagitan ng mga taong “nagkakaunawaan” sa loob
ng Cyberspace. Tila mayroong namamayaning abstraktong pagkakaisa kung
papaano gagamitin ang anumang simbolo upang magkaroon ng kahulugan.
Mahalaga rin namang makita na napakaraming mga pamamaraan kung
papaano tinanggap at tinatanggap ang mga “nakagisnang” simbolo at/o
salitang ginagamit sa Cyberspace bilang “bagong” wika. Ilan sa mga salita ng
Cyberlanguage ay kinuha/hiniram dahil sa pagkakapareho nito sa
nakagawiang kahulugan. Ang “mouse” na ginagamit sa computer ay hindi
57
mailalayo sa itsura ng daga (magkahugis at pareho rin namang may
buntot!); ang “thumb drive” na kahugis din naman ng hinlalaki. Ang ilang
mga salita naman ay may pagkakatulad sa gamit nito. Ang “bookmark” na
opsyon sa internet (upang maaalala ng web browser ang mga internet site
na nabisita na), ay kahintulad ng mismong bookmark na iniiipit sa pahina ng
librong binabasa. Sa lawak ng Cyberspace, maraming mabubuo at
maiimbentong mga salita: garena, e-zine, DOTA, AVI, RPG, MMORPG, at iba
pa.
Tunay ngang siksik, at umaapaw sa mga talinghaga ang wika ng/sa
Cyberspace. Mababanaag na ang mga talinghagang ito na pumapatungkol
sa salasalabid na aspeto ng teknolohiya, ay nagmumula din naman sa
wikang nakagiwaan. Makikita ang mga salita mula sa mga pang-araw-araw
na mga bagay, at gawain, hanggang sa mga salitang teknikal, abstrakto, at
ideyal, bilang mga piraso ng Cyberlanguage. Ilan sa mga popular na mga
talinghagang ito ay mula sa aspekto ng urbaninad – net traffic, bus,
information superhighway, overspeed; mga salita mula sa teknolohiya ng
networking – links, connections, LAN, modem, networks; sa espasyo ng
opisina – mailbox, records, file, folder; maging sa espasyo ng tahanan –
homepage, trashbin, cybernanny; mga hayop – bug, spider, mouse; makina
– robots, avatar, search engine; at marami pang iba. (Gibbs 2006) Bagaman
maaaring makategorya ang mga talinghagang ito ng Cyberlanguage,
masyadong “bukas” at “malawak” pa rin naman ang pagkakaroon ng mga
imbentong salita (nomenclature). Ganunpaman, makikita na ang
pinagmumulan ng mga talinghaga ng wika sa Cyberspace ay mula sa
pamilyar na mga salita, o dili kaya’y mga pamilyar na simbolo, na dumaan sa
proseso ng inobasyon: ang pagkakaroon ng pagbabago o alterasyon sa level
ng kahulugan o/at gamit.
Nagiging posible ang inobasyon sa Cyberlanguage sa pamamagitan
muna ng imahinatibong kuneksyon sa pagitan ng mga bagay/ideya, na naguugnay sa mga bagong kahulugan na maaaring masapol ng wika. Maaaring
makapagdulot ang pagbabagong ito ng mga bagong karanasan, o ng mga
panibagong ideya pa, na hindi pa nalelente sa panibagong mga paraan. Sa
elektronikong mundo ng Cyberspace, ang inobasyon ng/sa wika ay
masasabing isang prosesong imahinatibo; sapagkat halos lahat ng mga
ideyang nabubuo ay abstrakto, di nahahawakan, di nakikita. Binibigyangdaan ng prosesong ito ng pagkakataon ang pamilyar na wika upang
maisalarawan, mailahad, maipakita, at mabigyang-kahulugan ang mismong
mga nilalaman ng Cyberspace. Binibigyang-daan din ng prosesong ito na
maging pamilyar sa mga bagong konsepto, makabuo ng isang “realidad,”
maranasan ang ideyal at abstraktong karanasan, makabuo ng mga
58
panibagong konsepto, at higit sa lahat, ay makapagpahayag ng saloobin at
emosyon sa interpersonal at impersonal na kalikasan ng Cyberspace.
Iminumungkahi ng prosesong inobasyon ang palagiang pagbabago.
Pilosopong sabihin ang katotohanan na kapag tumigil ang pagbabago at
alterasyon sa konsepto ng inobasyon, HINDI na ito inobasyong matatawag.
Ang mga taong gumagamit ng internet (surfers, researchers, chatters,
bloggers, tweeters, advertisers, game developers, at iba pa) upang makipagugnayan, ay sila ring may pasya sa inobasyong nagaganap at magaganap pa
sa cyberlanguage, gaya ng inobasyong nagaganap at magaganap pa sa
Cyberspace.
Karanasang Pilipino sa Cyberspace: Ang Filipino Bilang Cyberlanguage
May nasimulan nang mga pag-aaral na ukol sa karanasang Pilipino
sa Cyberspace. Ilan sa mga disiplinang nagbigay-pansin sa paksang ito ay
ang linggwistiks, sikolohiya, sosyolohiya, at antropolohiya. Patunay dito ang
International Conference on Philippine Studies (ICOPHIL) nitong 23-26
Hulyo 2008 sa PSSC, Lungsod Quezon; dahil 5 sa mahigit na 200 papel na
binasa ay may paksang kaugnay ng Cyberspace. Kabilang dito ang papel ni
Raul Pertierra na masasabing isa sa mga pinakaproduktibo sa larangang ito
ng Araling Pilipino (Pertierra 2008). Ilan pa sa mga Pilipinong iskolar na
naging tagapanguna ng pag-aaral ng Cyberspace sa kanilang mga larangan
ay si Isagani Cruz para sa Wikang Filipino, at Cherrie Joy Billedo para
Sikolohiya.
Noong 2009, sinasabing humigit-kumulang na sa 24 Milyong mga
Pilipino ang gumagamit ng internet. Naging ika-10 pa nga ang Pilipinas
noong 2008 sa 10 mga bansa sa Asya na mayroong pinakamaraming
gumagamit ng internet. Sinasabi pa sa ulat ng Yahoo Nielsen, na 71% sa
mga Pilipino ay gumagamit ng internet sa mga internet café, 51% sa mga
Pilipino ay gumagamit ng Social Networking sites (Friendster, Multiply,
Facebook), 33% ng mga Pilipino ay may blogs, at 53% ay naglalaro ng mga
online game (Ople 2009). Kapansin-pansin sa datos na ito, na kung di man
bago, ay halos isang kultura na para sa mga Pilipino ang paggamit ng
internet sa kasalukuyan. Kasing bilis ng teknolohiya ng internet ang mabilis
na adaptasyon ng mga Pilipinong gumagamit nito. Kung tatanungin, ano nga
kaya ang mayroon sa penomenon ng Cyberspace bakit ito naging popular sa
mga Pilipino? Bilang pagpapalagay, binuksan ng Cyberspace ang isang
espasyo ng kung saan ang wika at komunikasyon ay napakabilis (super
speed at high speed), hindi na alintana ang anumang tuntunin sa pagsasabi
ng anumang bagay/impormasoyon. Ayon sa pangulo ng Multipy.com na si
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Pezaris, ito ay dahil sa malakas na diin natin sa pamilya at samahan (Dizon
2008). Hindi mapasusubaliang ang mga Pilipino’y mga mamamayan na
ngayon ng Cyberspace.
Kamakailan, nakilala at sumikat si Lola Techie – ang “cool” na
lolang commercial model ng Bayantel para kanilang DSL internet. Ginamit
ng Bayantel ang isang lola upang maipahayag ang “madaling” serbisyo ng
internet, maging ang pagiging user-friendly nito kahit sa matatanda. Maaari
rin namang ipahiwatig ng commercial na ito ng Bayantel na tunay ngang
accessible na ang internet para sa mga Pilipino (Bayantel: install agad, ang
dali™). Ang mahalaga ring makita mula sa commercial na ito ay ang
“pagkikita” ni Lola Techie at ng kanyang apo sa Cyberspace. Kahit pa malayo
sila sa isa’t isa, ay nagawa pa nilang mag-usap:
Video 1: “JR, nakakalimutan mo na ang lola mo. Mga pinsan mo sa
States kahit papano, nakakapagforward ng videos sa YouTube. Eh ikaw?
Ilang ulit na akong nagsuper poke sa ’yo sa Facebook, di ka man magpoke
back. Kakausapin mo lang ako pag may kailangan ka sa computer. I-da drop
kick na kita!”
Video 2: “JR, kinakausap mo lang ako pag kailangan mo ng tulong
sa computer. Hindi na ikaw ang paborito kong apo, at i-tiTweeter ko yan!
Video 3: “Hmmm, yung sniper?! E point nga ako e, M60 yung akin!
Flash Bang! Flash bang! Teka, nakaharap pa ko. Hintayin mo naman akong
makalampas! O! Puro abangers na naman dito e. Bwisit. Bwisit.
(ang mga video ni Lola Techie ay maaaring mapanood sa
http://citadel.seitoukai.net/2009/07/06/bayantels-lola-techie/)
Depinisyon ng www.Webopedia.com para sa salitang Real time:
“events simulated by a computer at the same speed that they would occur
in real life.” Marahil ito na ang pinakamalapit na paglalarawan sa tatlong
mga video sa itaas. Real time ang pag-uusap nina Lola Techie at ng kanyang
apo, na bagaman malayo sa isa’t isa’y nagkatagpo sa Cyberspace. Pinagugnay sila ng internet upang makapag-usap na parang magkatabi lang. Higit
pang pinatutunayan nito, na tunay ngang ginagamit ang Filipino bilang isang
Cyberlanguage ng mga Pilipino. Sa Video 1 at 2, litaw na litaw ang paggamit
ng mga salitang inobatibo upang maisalarawan ang karanasang Pilipino sa
Cyberspace gaya ng forward, super poke, poke back, drop kick, Tweeter.
Patunay ang mga salitang ito na naiinternalisa na ni Lola Techie at ng
kanyang apo ang mga kahulugan ng kanilang usapan. Bagaman sa konteksto
60
ng networking sites matatagpuan ang mga salitang ito, nagamit na nila ang
esensya’t kahulugan ng mga salitang ito sa loob ng karaniwang
usapang/komunikasyong Filipino. Samantala, nasa konteksto ng online
game ang mga salita sa Video 3: sniper, point, M60, Flash Bang, abangers.
Karaniwang mga salita ang nauunang apat sa usaping ng digmaan. Naging
inobatibo ang mga salitang ito sa usapin ng Cyberspace dahil naging digital
na ang wika, maging ang karanasang idinudulot ng mga larong digmaan.
Ngayon, dahil sa pagiging digital ng wika, wala ng masasaktan at
mamamatay sa digmaan, sa konteksto ng isang online game. Nakakatuwang
bigyan ng pansin ang huling salita, abangers – mula sa abang + suffix er(s).
Isang taal na salitang Pilipino na nilagyang ng suffix na er, upang ipahayag
ang mga taong mahilig mag-abang. Maaaring walang saysay ang salitang ito
sa labas ng online game; ngunit sa loob ng konteksto nito, ito ay ang mga
“manlalarong (game players) maparaan na hindi nagpapagod maghanap ng
kalaban, sa halip nag-aabang lamang ng mahina at madaling mapapatay.”
Naisaloob ng salitang abangers ang mahabang kahulugan nito, bilang isang
inobatibong salita sa Cyberspace.
Samantala, buhay na buhay ang wikang Filipino sa iba’t ibang mga
blog, website, forum at chatroom, maging sa mga e-mail (Cruz 1997).
Ganagamit ng mga Pilipino ang wikang Filipino sa Cyberspace upang
makasali sa iba’t ibang mga paksa’t usapan, saan mang panig ng Mundo sila
naroroon. Maraming mga website naman ang nakasulat sa Filipino, na
magpapatunay na hindi lamang pang impormal na usapan, jokes, at mga
showbiz tsismis ang Wikang Pambansa. Halimbawa ay ang
www.bagongkasaysayan.multiply.comna tumatalakay sa mga Akedemikong
larangan, espesipiko sa Kasaysayang Pilipino at Pantayong Pananaw.
Ayon kay Crystal (2006), may 7 pangunahing mga “internet
situation,” na bagaman ay magkakaiba, ay magkakatulad sa natatanging
gamit ng wika para sa pakikipagkomunikasyon. Ayon sa kanya, ang mga ito
ay ang: electronic mail o e-mail, chatgroups, virtual worlds, world wide web
(WWW), instant messaging, at blogging. Dagdag pa niya, maaaring
masulyapan ang ilang mga aspeto ng wika sa mga nabanggit na sitwasyon
tulad ng: graphic features, orthographic features,(graphological)
grammatical features, lexical features, discourse features, phonetic
features, at phonological features. Ganunpaman, maaaring mailarawan din
naman ang wikang Filipino sa tanglaw ng uri ng sosyal at kultural na aspeto
ng pakikipagkomunikasyon. Sa sitwasyon halimbawa ng mga chatgroup at
virtual world, may aspeto ng “anonymity” sa pagitan ng mga tao.
Halimbawa’y posible nilang paglaruan/baguhin ang kani-kanilang mga
identidad. Isang komunikasyon ang maaaring mabuo kahit na walang pisikal
61
na presensya ng mga nag-uusap. Bilang isang chatter at gamer, naranasan
ng mag-aaral ang inobasyon ng wikang Filipino – nariyan ang mga
pagkakaltas, pagpapaiksi, pagpapahaba ng mga salita, talamak na paggamit
ng code mixing at code switching, lexical borrowing at/o adaptasyon,
maging ang paggamit ng maliliit at malalaking titik sa mga espesipikong
sitwasyon ng usapan. Malaki ang impluwensiya ng kalikasan ng Cyberspace,
kung bakit may ganitong mga pagbabago sa wikang Filipino. Sa sitwasyon ng
chatgroup halimbawa, kinakailangang maging mabilis ang pagpindot sa
keyboard dahil sa dami ng kausap; o dili kaya’y dahil sa nararapat na maging
mabilis ang pagsagot (reply) sa mga kausap. Isang inobasyong masasabi rin
naman ang paggamit ng mga simbolo (na limitado sa maaaring malikha ng
keyboard) uapng masabi/maiparating ang nais sabihin. Ang siste, hindi
lamang ang wika ang naging inobatibo, bagkus pati na rin ang mga chatter
na nakabuo ng isang kultura sa loob ng Cyberspace. Nakapag-adapt ang
Pilipinong chatter sa mga alternatibo at inobatibong paraan na angkop sa
kalikasan ng chatgroups upang matugunan ang sosyal at kultural na
pangangailangan ng komunikasyon. Sa ganitong anyo ng proseso, nagiging
mahalaga ang pagkakaroon ng kasunduan upang makabuo ng isang
kumbensyon at/o inobasyon na maaaring mapagkasunduan. Ilang
halimbawa sa mga inobasyong ito ay:
k o q (ko)
aq o me (ako)
m (mo)
d (di, o hindi)
my (may)
nman (naman)
bkt (bakit)
u o kaw (ikaw)
xa (sya)
r (are)
u (you)
y (why)
c (si)
4 (for)
gd am (good morning)
4evr (forever)
cge (sige)
gus2 (gusto)
e2 (ito)
w8 (wait)
brb (be right back)
lol (laughing out loud)
mwah (halik)
mmmmmmmph (yakap)
hmp o tse (ismid)
haha o hehe o hihi
(pagtawa)
huhuhu (pag-iyak)
pst (pisssst, pagtawag)
Bagaman malawak pa ang maaaring mabanaag pa sa inobasyong
ito ng wikang Filipino sa aspeto ng anyong pasulat, totoong naririto na ang
malaki at malawakang pagbabago sa Wikang Pambansa. Sa isang banda,
ang paggamit ng mga Pilipino sa Filipino sa pakikipag-ugnayan sa internet at
62
sa Cyberspace, ay mahusay na pagpapatunay na ang wikang Filipino ay
maituturing na ring isang Cyberlanguage. Sa ganitong pagsulyap,
mababanaag na may proseso ng revitalization sa wikang Pambansa. Hindi
na ito maikakahon bilang wikang ginagamit lamang sa palengke, sa
telebisyon, o dili kaya’y sa mga impormal na usapan lang. Kakikitaan ng
panibagong pagsigla ang wikang Filipino bilang isang wika ng makabagong
komunidad ng mga Pilipino sa Cyberspace. Patunay naman ang mga popular
na mga website tulad ng Google.com at Yahoo.com na gumagamit na ng
wikang Filipino (bagaman Pilipino ang taguri dito) bilang pangunahing
wikang pagpipilian ng mga gumagamit nito. Sa ganito namang pagtingin,
maaari ring mabanaag ang proseso ng demokratisasyon ng wikang Filipino,
na magpapatunay na kaya nitong makipagsabayan sa mga “inaakalang” mas
magagandang wika sa kanluran – lalo na ang wikang Inggles. Isa itong
magandang pag-aaral na maaaring tunguhin sa hinaharap. Ilan sa mga
aspeto ng Filipino bilang Cyberlanguage ang maaaring diskursuhin sa
hinaharap: maaaring sipatin ang proseso ng digitalisasyon ng wikang
Filipino sa Internet; naririyan pa ang agenda sa pagsipat sa proseso ng
hypertextualisasyon ng wikang Filipino – kung papaano nagiging
“salasalabid” at “inter-konektado” ang wika sa konteksto ng internet at
cyberspace. Lalo na ang teknolohisasyon ng wikang Filipino – kung papaano
nagkakaroon ng panibagong mga bokabularyo, semantikal na mga
pagpapakahulugan sa usapin ng teknolohikal na aspeto ng karanasang
Pilipino. Tunay ngang NAPAKARAMI ng maaaring madiskurso sa proseso ng
inobasyon ng wikang Filipino sa Cyberspace.
Sa panahon ng “information age,” makikitang nag-uunahanng
“humagibis” sa malawak na kalsada ang mga wika sa Mundo sa tinatawag
na “information highway” ng Cyberspace. Ang wikang Filipino bilang Wikang
Pambansa, ay hindi na lamang nalilimita sa nakagawiang mga larang na
pinaggagamitan nito – bagkus realidad na sa kasalukuyan ang wikang
Filipino bilang isang Cyberlanguage.Ang diskurso ng Filipino bilang isang
cyberlanguage ay marahil MAS MAUUNAWAAN sa usapin ng kung papaano
nagagamit, ginagamit, at gagamitin ang wikang ito sa Cyberspace.
Samakatuwid, ang bagong “anyo” ng Wikang Pambansa ay maaari pa rin
namang suriin sa anumang manipestasyong linggwistika (pang-wika) at
manipestasyong sosyo-kultural (pang-komunikasyon) na pinagdaraan nito.
Masasabing ang Filipino bilang isang cyberlanguage ay BAGONG WIKA, na
mayroong sariling ayos at lohika, na nagbabago ng sobrang bilis, kasabay ng
mabilis na pagbabago ng kultura (at teknolohiya) ng mga Pilipino. Bagaman
maaaring sabihing isang kumbensyon sa kasalukuyan ang mga simbolo,
salita, at kahulugan ng BAGONG WIKANG ito, NAPAKARAMI ng maaari pang
mangyari at magbago sa loob ng limang taon.
63
Ang Filipino bilang Cyberlanguage ay naririto na. Nakalilikha ito ng
mas masalimuot na usapin dahil naaapektuhan nito ang napakalawak na
larang ng karanasang Pilipino sa usapin ng sosyal, pulitikal, ekonomikal, at
Kultural na mga dimensyon; habang nagiging isang instrumento ito ng
malawakang pagbabago sa pagkakaroon ng panibagong anyo ng Filipino
bilang wika ng komunikasyon, at bilang wika ng teknolohikal na koneksyon.
Mga Sanggunian:
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Institute of Technology.
Benedikt, Michael (ed) (1991). Cyberspace: First Steps. Cambridge: MIT
University Press.
Burry, Mark. (2000). Introduksyon sa Cyberspace: The World of Digital
Architecture. Australia: Images Publishing.
Cicognani, Anna. (1998). “On The Linguistic Nature of Cyberspace and
Virtual Communities.” Virtual Reality Society Journal. Vol. 3 (1), 2533.
Collot, M. at Belmore, N. (1996). “Electronic Language: A New Variety of
English.” sa S. C. Herring (ed.), Computer-Mediated
Communication: Linguistic, Social, and Cross-Cultural Perspectives.
13-28. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
Cruz, Isagani. (1997). “Ang Filipino sa Internet,” sa Daluyan 8:1-2, Lungsod
Quezon: UP-SWF. 69-74.
Crystal, David. (2006). Language in The Internet 2nd Edition. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Dizon, David. (2008). “Filipinos are top Multiply users,” Abs-cbnNEWS.com.
Masisipat sa: http://www.abscbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryID=122302
Douglas, Jane. (2000). The End of Books – Or Books Without End?: Reading
Interactive Narratives. Michigan: Ann Arbor.
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Fermin, Edizon. (2005). “Mga Varayti at Varyasyong Antropolohiko: Pagsilip
sa mga Hibla’t Habi ng Wika , Kultura, at Lipunan.” Peregrino, Jovy
at mga kasama (mga ed.). Minanga: Mga Babasahin sa Varayti at
Varyasypon ng Filipino. Lungsod Quezon: UP-SWF. 90-101.
Gibbs, Donna. (2006). “Cyberlanguage: What it is and What it does.” Gibbs,
Donna at Krause, Kerri-Lee (mga ed.). Cyberlines 2.0: Languages
and Cultures in The Internet. Australia: James Nicholas. 11-34.
Gibson, William (2004). Neuromancer: 20th Anniversary Edition. New York:
Ace Books.
Gralla, Preston (1998). How the Internet Works. USA: Que Corporation.
Ho, Abigail (2009, Abril 12). “Filipinos Get Sucked into Worldwide Web.”
Inquirer.Net. Masisipat sa:
http://technology.inquirer.net/infotech/infotech/view/20090412198910/Filipinos-get-sucked-into-worldwide-web
Kaplan, Nancy. (1995). E-Literacies (online e-book). Masisipat sa:
http://raven.ubalt.edu/Kaplan/hit/Hypertexts_601.html
Koepsell, David (2000). The Ontology of Cyberspace, Chicago: Open Court.
Lefebvre, Henri (1991). The Construction of Space. Salin ni Donald
Nicholson-Smith, Oxford: Blackwell.
Liao, Jerry (2008, 20 Mayo). “The Philippines – Social Networking Capital of
the World.” Manila Bulletin.
Macfadyen, Leah et al. (2004). Communicating Across Cultures in The
Cyberspace. Munster: Die Deutsche Bibliothek.
Mar, Juliet. (2000). “Online on Time: The Language of Internet Relay Chat.”
sa Gibbs, Donna at Kerri-Lee Kraus (mga ed.) Cyberlines: Languages
and Cultures of The Iternet. Australia: James Nicholas. 149-174.
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Okin, J. R. (2005). The Technology Revolution: The Not-for-Dummies Guide
to The Impact, Perils, and Promise of The Internet. Winter Harbor:
Ironbound Press.
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http://www.newmedia.com.ph/philippines-internet-users
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www.Webopedia.com
66
Computer-Based Learning Method in
Passenger Handling Procedures in the
Philippine State College of Aeronautics
Bely A. Apostol, Mary Ann A. Vista, Cielito Caguia
Introduction
Information and communication technology (ICT) has been used in
schools since the 1980s, but the advent of the World Wide Web, along with
the increase in computing power in low cost and portable forms has made
the use of ICT much more prominent for learning. ICT is being used to
support teaching, learning, and assessment. Current trends in technology
with the goal to further change learning practices include the increasing
availability of open-source course content on the Internet; the rise of
collaborative, user-generated content; and immersive, multi-user games
with highly realistic dynamic graphics. Coupled with the rise of young
people's access to technology outside of school, these trends are likely to
make ICT an increasingly important factor in learning.
Today, the Philippine State College of Aeronautics is using
traditional methods of teaching. As a contribution to the school in
upgrading the learning process, we proposed to use new technology in
teaching Passenger Handling. The module will help instructors teach and
encourage student's interaction that can be presented through computer in
the form of text or multimedia formats which includes photographs, videos
and speech.
Passenger handling as defined in Aviation is the servicing of
passengers in an airline before and after the flight. This subject will improve
students’ technical and customer service skills to assist passengers
according to industry standards. Those students who will take this course
will have an edge in the field of airline servicing compared to others.
No one knows exactly what the future holds, but there is little
doubt that computing technology will be a large part of it. Young people will
take their places in working environments that need independent thinkers
67
who have skills in problem solving, analysis, communication, and teamwork.
Some of them will be using technology directly as a basic part of their
employment. Beyond the workplace and as citizens, they will need to
understand technology, interpret information, and choose ideas that can
make life less complicated. Skilled use of technology is an important part of
their future. However, the skillful use of their minds is far more important.
Statement of the Problem
The Philippine State College of Aeronautics is the number one
aeronautical school in the country. It has an estimated 3,000 enrolled
students. Its mission is to train students to be excellent in their field of
studies. As to do it we thought of proposing a Computer-based Learning of
Passenger Handling in our school. This study sought answers to the
following questions:
1. What is the profile of the respondent in terms of:
1.1Age;
1.2 Gender;
1.3 Employment Status;
1.4 Computer Ownership;
1.5 Frequency in Using Computers; and
1.6 Purpose in Using Computer?
2. What are the characteristics of Computer-based learning that
should beconsidered specifically in terms of the following:
2.1 Accessibility;
2.2 Accuracy;
2.3 Effectiveness;
2.4 Reliability; and
2.5 Currentness?
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3. What are the factors to be considered in the development of
Computer-Basedin terms of the following:
3.1 The module should be based in a traditional hand-out;
3.2 Multimedia should be added;
3.3 Hyperlinks and additional materials should be
provided;
3.4 Instructor-led discussion in classroom, and
3.5 Instructors should undergo training for an effective
use of thetechnology?
Significance of the Study
The study aimed to develop a module in Passenger Handling
through Computer-Based Learning. The result of this study will help
instructors and professors in teaching Passenger Handling to students. The
module has up-to date lessons and information that would help instructors
easily discuss the subject matter. Moreover, multimedia is added in the
module to further enhance the teaching-learning process and to have more
meaningful discussion in the classroom.
Students would have enormous benefit in this technology. They
can have thecopy of the module in their flash drive, CD, or any memory
card. Whenever thestudents would like to review or to study their lessons
in advance, they can easilyaccess the module anytime anywhere. Having
multimedia added to the module would also gain their interest in learning
the subject therefore making them knowledgeableand competitive students
of Philippine State College of Aeronautics.
These are some benefits of Computer-Based Learning (CBL):
(a)there is the ability to pause or revisit areas of the session, (b) the CBL
have more learner led interaction, (c)hyperlinks and additional materials
can be provided instantly for the learner, and, (d)the Computer-Based
Learning addresses the issue of standardizing the quality ofteaching
materials across a region.
69
Scope and Delimitation
The research is bound by the following limitations; (a) a focus on
computer-based learning in Passenger Handling at Philippine State College
of Aeronautics; (b) the study is based on the latest existing process
ofteaching method of PassengerHandling in Philippine State College of
Aeronautics.
Methods of Research
The researchers use purposive sampling, this design is based on
choosingindividuals as samples according to the purposes of the
researchers as his control. Anindividual is chosen as a part of the sample
because of good evidence that he is arepresentative of the total population.
Population and Samples
The respondents were the selected faculty from ILAS, INET as well
as ICS of the Philippine State College of Aeronautics.
Data Collection Instrument
The research instrument used in this research is a survey
questionnaire method. The questionnaire is divided into two (2) parts
namely the profile of the respondentsand frequency and percentage
distribution.
The profile of the respondent contains the personal profile of the
respondentsthat includes age, gender, employment status, computer
ownership, frequency of use, and purpose in using computer.
The second part contains the frequency and percentage
distribution of thefollowing: the characteristics of computer-based learning
that is considered and thefactors to consider in the development of the said
learning method.
70
Presentation of Data
1. Profile of the Respondents
1.1 Age
Table 1. Frequency and Percentage Distribution
of RespondentsAccording to Age
Age
Frequency Percentage
18 – 24
9
18%
25 – 30
12
24%
31 – 35
7
14%
36 and above
22
44%
Total
50
100%
Table 1 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of
respondents according to age. It indicates that 22 or 44% of the total
respondents were in the age bracket of 36 years and above, 12 respondents
or 24% are in the age bracket of 25 to 30 years old, 9 respondents or 18%
are in the age bracket of 18 to 24 years old, and 7 respondents or 14% are
in the age bracket of 31 to 35 years old. In terms of age, the age bracket of
36 and above predominates.
1.2 Gender
Table 2. Frequency and Percentage Distribtition
of RespondentsAccording to Gender
Gender Frequency Percentage
Male
33
66%
Female
17
34%
Total
50
100%
71
Table 2 shows the frequency and percentage distribution according
to gender. It indicates that 33 or 66% of our total respondents were Male
while 17 respondents or 34% were Female.
1.3 Employment Status
Table 3. Frequency and Percentage Distribution
of RespondentsAccording to Employment Status
Emloyment Frequency Percentage
Part-time
31
62%
Full time
19
38%
Total
50
100%
Table 3 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of
respondentsaccording to employment status. It indicates that 31 or 62% of
the total respondentsare Part-time instructors and 19 respondents or 38%
are Full time Professors.
1.4 Computer Ownership
Table 4. Frequency and PercentageDistribution
of Respondent’s Computer Ownership
Computer Ownership Frequency Percentage
Part-time
31
94%
Full time
19
6%
Total
50
100%
Table 4 the frequency and percentage distribution of the
respondent’s computer ownership. It indicates that 47 or 94% of the
respondents owns a computer or laptopand3 respondents or 6% do not
own computer.
72
1.5 Regularity of Computer Use
Table 5. Frequency and PercentageDistribution
of Respondent’s Regulatoryof Computer Use
Regulatory of Use Frequency Percentage
Frequent
34
68%
Normal
14
28%
Seldom
2
4%
Total
50
100%
Table 5 shows the frequency and percentage distribution of the
respondent’s regularity of computer use. It indicates that 34 or 68% of the
respondents who are computer owners frequently use computer, 14
respondents or 28% normally use it and 2 respondents or 4% seldom uses
computers.
1.6 Purpose in Using Computer
Table 6. Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondent’s
Turpose in Using Computer
Purpose of Use
Frequency Percentage
Educational purposes/research
35
70%
Playing Games
2
4%
Social Networking
13
26%
Total
50
100%
Table 6 indicates the frequency and percentage distribution of the
respondent’s purpose in using a computer. It indicates that 35 or 70% of the
respondents use computer for their research and other educational
purposes, 13 respondents or 26% uses computer for social networking and
the other 2 respondents or 4% uses it for playing games.
73
2. Average Mean of the characteristics and Factors to be considered for
Computer -based Learning
Table 8. Average Mean of Characteristic of Computer-Based
Learning that Should be Considered
5
4
3
2
1
Total
Weighted
Mean
1. Accessibility
41
7
2
0
0
50
4.78
Very
Important
2. Accuracy
45
4
1
0
0
50
4.88
Very
Important
3. Effectiveness
46
2
2
0
0
50
4.88
Very
Important
4. Reliability
45
3
2
0
0
50
4.86
Very
Important
5. Currentness
42
6
2
0
0
50
4.80
Very
Important
4.84
Very
Important
Average Weighted Mean
Interpretation
Table 8 shows the evaluation of the respondents on how
important the given characteristics of Computer-based learning module
should be considered. The given characteristics: (1) Accessibility which
means that the hardware or software to beused should be easy to navigate
and operate, got the weighted mean of 4.78, interpreted as "Very
Important." (2) Accuracy which the content should be accurateand precise,
got the weighted mean of 4.88, interpreted as "Very Important."
(3)Effectiveness which the proposed technology should produce desired
results andfavorable impression to users, got the weighted mean of 4.88,
interpreted "Very Important." (4) Reliability which the module should be a
dependable source ofinformation, got the weighted mean of 4.86,
interpreted as "Very Important." (5) Currentness which the content should
74
be valid and up-to-date, got the weighted meanof 4.8, interpreted as "Very
Important."
The table shows the average weighted mean is 4.84 which can be
interpreted that the given characteristics are "Very Important." In order
that the Computer-based Learning Method be an effective
teaching/learning medium, the module should be accessible to both
students and instructors. Its content must be precise. The module must be a
dependable source of information and its content must be up-to-date.
Table 9. Average Mean of Factors to be Considered in the Development of
Computer-Based Technology
1. Module
should be
based in a
traditional
handout
2. Multimedia
should be
added
3. Hyperlinks
and additional
materials
should be
provided
4. Instructor
led discussion
in classroom
5. Instructor
should
undergo
training
5
4
3
2
1
Total
Weighted
Mean
Interpretation
19
13
12
3
3
50
3.84
Moderately
Important
40
5
5
0
0
50
4.70
Very
Important
29
13
5
1
2
50
4.32
Very
Important
38
9
3
0
0
50
4.70
Very
Important
35
9
5
1
0
50
4.56
Very
Important
4.42
Very
Important
Average Weighted Mean
Table 9 shows the evaluation of the respondents on how
important the given factors should be considered in the development and
implementation of Computer-Based Learning module.
75
The given factors: (1) the module should be based in a traditional
handout, got a weighted mean of 3.84, interpreted as "Moderately
Important”. (2) The multimedia should be added, got weighted mean of 4.7,
interpreted as “Very Important.” (3) The hyperlinks and additional materials
should be provided, got weighted mean of 4.32, interpreted as "Very
Important." (4) The instructor led discussion in classroom, got weighted
mean of 4.7, interpreted as "Very Important." (5) The instructor should
undergo training got the weighted mean of 4.56, interpreted as "Very
Important.”
The table shows the average weighted mean is 4.42 which can be
interpretedthat the given factors are "Very Important." These given factors
should be consideredin the development of Computer-Based Learning.
The module should be based in a traditional handout to ensure
accuracy in its content and to standardize the quality of learning.
Multimedia should be added toincrease the interest of students in the said
subject. Hyperlinks and additional materials need to be added for additional
references. Instructor led discussion in classroom is also necessity for more
interactivity. Instructors should also undergo training for them to master
and maximize the use of the said learning method. These factors are
important and should be considered in developing a Computer-based
Learning so that desired results will be achieved.
Conclusion
The findings of this study led to a number of well thought
conclusions. The researchers conclude that computer-based learning is a
necessity for the improvement of learning. It will have immediate impact to
professors and especially to the students.
Accessibility, accuracy, reliability, effectiveness and currentness
are the characteristics of computer-based learning that should be
considered for the module to be an effective medium of learning.
The module should be based on a traditional handout; Multimedia
should beadded; Hyperlinks and additional materials should be provided;
Instructor led discussion in classroom are recommended; and Instructors
should undergo training tomaster the use d the module; these are the
76
factors to be considered in thedevelopment of the computer-based learning
module in passenger Handling Procedures.
Recommendation
Based on the results of the study, the following are recommended
for future enhancement of the module.
1. Develop software for the said module and further enhance for
more interactivity.
2. The modules should be of primal basis for the means of
instruction, yet stillshould be well blended with the
conventional methods but with only of minimaluse.
3. Further research in this study should be conducted to check,
support anddevelop the findings of the study.
Presented during the 2nd PhilSCA Research Colloquium dated December 7, 2012
77
Customer Satisfaction Survey
for Canteen Services
Dwight Kit M. Almonidovar and Joseph Christian Barrientos
Satisfaction is an overall psychological state that reflects the
relationship between the customer and a product/service that are based on
the fulfillment of preconceived expectations. Satisfaction can be measured
in terms of the cognitive, affective, and behavioral domains. Liking or
disliking of a product/service is an affective measure of customer’s
satisfaction. Cognitive measure involves appraisal of the usefulness of the
product/service linked with the intended re-use or re-purchase. Behavioral
measure of customer’s satisfaction normally involves experiences with
individuals associated with the product, i.e., sales representative, and the
intention to repeat the experience.
In order to determine the satisfaction level of clients in our
canteen services in general, a survey questionnaire was constructed which
focused on the following aspects: quality of service, reasonableness of
price, cleanliness, courtesy, ambiance, and overall satisfaction. Reliability of
the five-point Likert Scale instrument was established using Cronbach’s
alpha. Results revealed a value of 0.858 which suggests high internal
consistency of items.
In general, the survey aimed to determine the satisfaction level of
the students in our canteen services. Specifically, it sought to answer the
following questions:
78
1.
What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:
a. Course
b. Department
c. Gender
d. Frequency of Patronage
2.
What is the level of satisfaction of the respondents in terms of:
a. Over-all satisfaction
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Quality of service
Reasonableness of price
Cleanliness
Courtesy
Ambiance
3.
What are the factors that affect the clients’ level of
satisfaction?
4.
What issues/areas of concerns do they think need
improvement?
5.
Is there a significant difference in the satisfaction level of the
respondents when grouped according to profile?
A total of one hundred students were asked to accomplish the
questionnaires. Respondents were selected using simple random sampling
method for a period of one week. Responses were tabulated using
Microsoft Excel and analyzed using SPSS version 16. Descriptive statistics
using frequency table and simple percentage for the presentation of profile
and level of satisfaction were used. For the comparison of means, students’
t-test was used for gender, while one way analysis of variance was used for
course, department, and frequency of patronage vis-à-vis the level of
satisfaction in terms of quality of service, reasonableness of price,
cleanliness, courtesy, ambiance, and over-all satisfaction.
DATA ANALYSIS
1.
Profile of Respondents:
a. Course
Table 1. Profile of respondents based on course of study.
COURSE
FREQUENCY
PERCENT
BS Aeronautical Engineering
13
13
BS Air Transportation/Traffic Control
6
6
BS/A Aircraft Maintenance Technology
44
44
79
BS/A Aviation Electronics Technology
19
19
BS/A Aviation Information Technology
3
3
BS/A Aviation Information Technology
14
14
Bachelor of Arts
1
1
TOTAL
100
100
AB 1%
AIT 3%
Aero 13%
AT/ATC
6%
AIM 14%
AVT 19%
AMT 44%
Figure 1. Profile of respondents based on Course.
AMT students predominate the respondents comprising 44%, while
only 1% of the respondents are from the Bachelor of Arts (AB). The
sampling method did not take into consideration the proportionate size of
each course in relation to the entire population.
b.
Department
Table 2. Profile of respondents based on department.
80
DEPARTMENT
FREQUENCY
PERCENT
Institute of Computer Studies
17
17
Institute of Engineering and
Technology
82
82
Institute of Liberal Arts & Sciences
1
1
TOTAL
100
100
ILAS
1%
ICS
17%
InET
82%
Figure 2. Profile of respondents based on Institutes.
Data for the Institutes reveal that 82% of the respondents are from
the Institute of Engineering and Technology.
c.
Gender
Table 3. Profile of respondents based on gender.
GENDER
FREQUENCY
PERCENT
Male
70
70
Female
30
30
TOTAL
100
100
Female
30%
Male
70%
Figure 3. Profile of respondents based on gender
81
d.
Frequency of Patronage
Table 4. Profile of respondents based on frequency of
patronage.
FREQUENCY
PERCENT
Everyday
7
7
Once a week
26
26
Seldom
54
54
Never
13
13
TOTAL
100
100
Frequency of Patronage
Never
13%
Everyday
7%
Once a Week
26%
Seldom
54%
Figure 4. Profile of respondents based on frequency of patronage.
Frequency of patronage can be both a profile of respondents as
well as a direct measure of customer’s satisfaction. More than fifty per cent
of the respondents patronize the College canteen with a frequency of less
than once a week, regular customers account for only seven per cent, while
thirteen per cent of those surveyed never patronized the college canteen.
Frequency of use of a given product or services is perhaps the simplest
single determinant of customer’s satisfaction. If we are to adhere to this
82
theory, and considering the data generated on the frequency of patronage,
we can say that students’ satisfaction of the canteen services is indeed low.
2.
Level of Satisfaction
Table 5.Summary of means on the aspects of canteen services.
ASPECTS OF CANTEEN
MEAN
ADJECTIVAL DESCRIPTION
2.77
Neither Satisfied Nor
SERVICES
Quality of Service
Dissatisfied
Reasonableness of Price
2.60
Neither Satisfied Nor
Dissatisfied
Cleanliness
2.48
Somewhat Dissatisfied
Courtesy
2.79
Neither Satisfied Nor
Dissatisfied
Ambiance
2.28
Somewhat Dissatisfied
Over-all Satisfaction
2.75
Neither Satisfied Nor
Dissatisfied
1.00-1.49=Very Dissatisfied;
1.50-2.49=Somewhat Dissatisfied;
2.50-3.49=Neither Satisfied Nor Dissatisfied;
3.50-4.49=Somewhat Satisfied;
4.50-5.00=Very Satisfied
Mean values for the satisfaction level on canteen services as
shown on Table 5 reveal that cleanliness and ambiance got the lowest
ratings of 2.48 and 2.28 respectively with an adjectival description of
83
somewhat dissatisfied. All the other aspects of services surveyed got a
mean range from 2.60-2.79 all having an adjectival description of neither
satisfied nor dissatisfied. The over-all satisfaction rating for the canteen
services is at 2.75 also with an adjectival description of neither satisfied nor
dissatisfied.
To determine if male and female respondents differ in their
appraisal of the aspects of canteen services evaluated, a student t-test was
performed and is shown in Table 6 below.
Table 6. T-Test for the Difference in Means between Gender.
Levene's Test
for Equality
of Variances
F
Overall
.618
Satisfaction
Quality of
.068
of Price
Cleanliness
Courtesy
Ambiance
84
t
.434 .713
.268
Std.
Error
(2Difference
tailed)
Difference
95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Lower
Upper
.17483
-.2223 .47161
.787 66.0 .434
.1246
.15841
-.1916 .44090
.015
.4458
.17922
.0901
.80151
2.38 47.9 .021
.4458
.18705
.0697
.82193
.086
.3493
.20139
-.0504 .74897
1.70 50.3 .095
.3493
.20527
-.0629 .76151
.372
-.1636
.18244
-.5256 .19854
-.962 61.7 .340
-.1636
.16999
-.5034 .17630
.847
.0355
.18313
-.3280 .39892
.195 53.2 .846
.0355
.18174
-.3290 .39994
.337
-.2054
.21277
-.6277 .21687
-.998 56.4 .323
-.2054
.20587
-.6178 .20693
.795 1.73
.754 .194
.606 -.965
97
Mean
.1246
1.690 .197 -.896
.099
df
Sig.
.478
3.062 .083 2.49
Service
Reasonableness
Sig.
t-test for Equality of Means
97
97
97
97
97
An equal variances t-test failed to reveal a statistically reliable
difference in the mean scores for the over-all satisfaction between males
(M=2.81, s= 0.84) and females (M=2.69,s=0.66) t(97)=0.713, p = 0.478,α =
0.05.
An equal variances t-test revealed a statistically reliable difference
in the mean scores for the quality of service between males (M=2.93, s=
0.79) and females (M=2.48,s=0.87) t(97)=2.488, p = 0.015,α = 0.05.
An equal variances t-test failed to reveal a statistically reliable
difference in the mean scores for the reasonableness of price between
males (M=2.73, s= 0.90) and females (M=2.38,s=0.94) t(97)=1.734, p =
0.086,α = 0.05.
An equal variances t-test failed to reveal a statistically reliable
difference in the mean scores for the cleanliness between males (M=2.46,
s= 0.86) and females (M=2.62,s=0.73) t(97)=-0.896, p = 0.372,α = 0.05.
An equal variances t-test failed to reveal a statistically reliable
difference in the mean scores for the courtesy between males (M=2.83, s=
0.83) and females (M=2.79,s=0.82) t(97)= 0.194, p = 0.847,α = 0.05.
An equal variances t-test failed to reveal a statistically reliable
difference in the mean scores for the ambiance between males (M=2.23, s=
0.98) and females (M=2.45,s=0.91) t(97)=-0.965, p = 0.337,α = 0.05.
Five of the six aspects of customers satisfaction surveyed revealed
no significant difference in the meanscores between male and female. This
implies that both genders agree on their evaluation of the reasonableness
of price, cleanliness, courtesy, ambiance, as well as on the over-all
satisfaction on the canteen services. Male and female students however
differ in their satisfaction level on the quality of canteen services, with
female (M=2.48) respondents being more scrutinizing than males (M=2.93).
Respondents were also grouped based on their course of study as
shown in Table 1 and Figure 1 wherein, seven groups were represented. To
determine if there is any difference in the perception of the respondents
based on their course of study, a one-way analysis of variance was
performed and is shown in Table 7 on the following page.
85
Table 7. One-way Analysis of Variance between course of study on
various aspects of canteen services.
Overall Satisfaction
Quality of Services
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
Between
Groups
12.567
8
1.571
Within Groups
56.184
92
.611
Total
68.750
100
Between
Groups
12.161
8
1.520
Within Groups
63.549
92
.691
Total
75.710
100
8.662
8
1.083
Within Groups
81.339
92
.884
Total
90.001
100
Between
Groups
11.725
8
1.466
Within Groups
61.235
92
.666
Total
72.960
100
Between
Groups
11.905
8
1.488
Within Groups
62.686
92
.681
Total
74.590
100
Between
Groups
24.371
8
3.046
Within Groups
71.790
92
.780
Total
96.161
100
Reasonableness of Price Between
Groups
Cleanliness
Courtesy
Ambiance
86
F
Sig.
2.572 .014
2.201 .034
1.225 .294
2.202 .034
2.184 .036
3.904 .001
The one-way between course of study analysis of variance failed to
reveal a significant difference in the over-all satisfaction on canteen
services, F(8,92)=2.572, p = 0.014, MSerror = 0.611,α = 0.05.
The one-way between course of study analysis of variance failed to
reveal a significant difference in the quality of service on canteen services,
F(8,92)=2.201, p = 0.034, MSerror = 0.691,α = 0.05.
The one-way between course of study analysis of variance
revealed a significant difference in the reasonableness of price,
F(8,92)=1.225, p = 0.294, MSerror = 0.884,α = 0.05.
The one-way between course of study analysis of variance failed to
reveal a significant difference in the cleanliness of the canteen,
F(8,92)=2.202, p = 0.034, MSerror = 0.666,α = 0.05.
The one-way between course of study analysis of variance failed to
reveal a significant difference in the courtesy of canteen service providers,
F(8,92)=2.184, p = 0.036, MSerror = 0.681,α = 0.05.
The one-way between course of study analysis of variance failed to
reveal a significant difference in the ambiance of the canteen,
F(8,92)=3.904, p = 0.001, MSerror = 0.780,α = 0.05.
The data simply tells us that the respondents from the different
course are not unanimous in their appraisal of the reasonableness of price
of the products sold in our canteen. This means that while the average
value for reasonableness of price is 2.60, a significant number of
respondents could have appraised in either of the extreme.While it should
have been advisable to do a post hoc analysis of the data to find out which
specific differences in the means among the different courses but since the
AB group has only one entry, multiple comparisons cannot be performed.
There is however no significant difference in their responses with
regards the aspects of over-all satisfaction, quality of service, cleanliness,
courtesy, and ambiance.
87
Table 8. One-way Analysis of Variance between Department and Various
Aspects of Canteen Services.
Sum of
Overall Satisfaction
Quality of Services
Reasonableness of Price
Cleanliness
Courtesy
Ambiance
Mean
Squares
df
Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
11.266
4
2.817
4.704
.002
Within Groups
57.484
96
.599
Total
68.750
100
Between Groups
9.606
4
2.401
3.487
.011
Within Groups
66.105
96
.689
Total
75.710
100
Between Groups
6.994
4
1.749
2.022
.097
Within Groups
83.007
96
.865
Total
90.001
100
Between Groups
8.503
4
2.126
3.166
.017
Within Groups
64.458
96
.671
Total
72.960
100
Between Groups
8.217
4
2.054
2.971
.023
Within Groups
66.373
96
.691
Total
74.590
100
Between Groups
14.997
4
3.749
4.435
.002
Within Groups
81.163
96
.845
Total
96.161
100
The one-way between department analysis of variance failed to
reveal a significant difference in the over-all satisfaction on canteen
services, F(4,96)=4.704, p = 0.002, MSerror = 0.599,α = 0.05.
88
The one-way between department analysis of variance failed to
reveal a significant difference in the quality of canteen services,
F(4,96)=2.401, p = 0.011, MSerror = 0.689,α = 0.05.
The one-way between department analysis of variance revealed a
significant difference in the reasonableness of price, F(4,96)=2.022, p =
0.097, MSerror = 0.865,α = 0.05.
The one-way between department analysis of variance failed to
reveal a significant difference in the cleanliness of the canteen,
F(4,96)=3.166, p = 0.017, MSerror = 0.671,α = 0.05.
The one-way between department analysis of variance failed to
reveal a significant difference in the courtesy of canteen service provider,
F(4,96)=2.971, p = 0.023, MSerror = 0.691,α = 0.05.
The one-way between department analysis of variance failed to
reveal a significant difference in the ambiance on canteen, F(4,96)=3.749, p
= 0.002, MSerror = 0.845,α = 0.05.
A similar general result is shown in the anova between the three
departments of the college, i.e., there is no reliable difference in the mean
scores among the three departments in all aspects of customers satisfaction
evaluated except for the reasonableness of price. This means that while one
department thinks that the pricing of meals is reasonable, other
departments think otherwise.
Table 9. One-way Analysis of Variance between Frequency of Patronage
and Various Aspects of Canteen Services.
Overall Satisfaction
Quality of Services
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
16.681
5
3.336
6.087
.000
Within Groups
52.070
95
.548
Total
68.750
100
Between Groups
9.489
5
1.898
2.723
.024
Within Groups
66.221
95
.697
Total
75.710
100
89
Reasonableness of Price
Cleanliness
Courtesy
Ambiance
Between Groups
9.193
5
1.839
Within Groups
80.808
95
.851
Total
90.001
100
Between Groups
12.801
5
2.560
Within Groups
60.159
95
.633
Total
72.960
100
Between Groups
10.680
5
2.136
Within Groups
63.911
95
.673
Total
74.590
100
Between Groups
10.205
5
2.041
Within Groups
85.956
95
.905
Total
96.161
100
2.162
.065
4.043
.002
3.175
.011
2.256
.055
The one-way between frequency of patronage analysis of variance
failed to reveal a significant difference in the over-all satisfaction on
canteen services, F(5,95)=6.087, p = 0.000, MSerror = 0.548,α = 0.05.
The one-way between frequency of patronage analysis of variance
failed to reveal a significant difference in the quality of canteen services,
F(5,95)=2.723, p = 0.024, MSerror = 0.697,α = 0.05.
The one-way between frequency of patronage analysis of variance
revealed a significant difference in the reasonableness of price,
F(5,95)=2.162, p = 0.065, MSerror = 0.851,α = 0.05.
The one-way between frequency of patronage analysis of variance
failed to reveal a significant difference in the cleanliness of the canteen,
F(5,95)=4.043, p = 0.002, MSerror = 0.633,α = 0.05.
The one-way between frequency of patronage analysis of variance
failed to reveal a significant difference in the courtesy of canteen service
provider, F(5,95)=3.175, p = 0.011, MSerror = 0.673,α = 0.05.
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The one-way between frequency of patronage analysis of variance
revealed a significant difference in the ambiance of the canteen,
F(5,95)=2.256, p = 0.055, MSerror = 0.905,α = 0.05.
Analysis of variance between frequency of patronage and the
different aspects of customer satisfaction reveal that there is no significant
difference in the means for the overall satisfaction, quality of service,
cleanliness, and courtesy, while a reliable difference exists in the
reasonableness of price and ambiance. Post hoc analysis for ambiance using
Tukey HSD and Scheffe revealed that the difference in means is significant
between respondents that patronize our canteen once a week and those
that eat in the canteen on a daily basis.
Table 10. Frequency Table of Respondents’ Issues and Concerns
Frequency
Percent
Additional Space
47
47.0
More Variety
12
12.0
Lower Price
23
23.0
18
18.0
100
100.0
Improved Services
Total
Improved
Services
18%
Lower
Price
23%
Additional
Space
47%
More
Variety
12%
Figure 5.Percentage Distribution of Issues and Concerns Regarding
Canteen Dervices.
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Table 10 and Figure 5 on the previous page shows the percentage
distribution of issues and concerns regarding canteen services as identified
by the respondents. We can clearly see here the consistency of these issues
with the different statistics presented above. In the mean scores for the
various aspects of canteen services, ambiance, cleanliness and
reasonableness of price were the bottom three scores (Table 5). Ambiance
and cleanliness relates to the issue of additional space while
reasonableness of price relates to the issue of lower price.
It is evident that the recurrent issue is the reasonableness of price,
followed by the physical space. Respondents suggest that price of meals
offered in the canteen is prohibitive or not commensurate to the value of
merchandise (food) sold. Respondents also find the physical space still
wanting despite the provision of additional tables in the Student Center.
It is thus, recommended that the Committee on Student Services
and the Director for Auxiliary Services look further into this report in order
to better serve the students. Creation of a Canteen Committee to monitor
canteen services is highly suggested. It is also recommended that the School
Medical Team be part of this monitoring committee to look into the issues
of cleanliness and health & safety concerns.
Presented during the 1st PhilSCA Research Colloquium dated March 16, 2012
92
.
Research Abstracts
93
Library Resources and Services of Selected
Aeronautical Institutions in Metro Manila:
Prospects for Resources and Services Sharing
Estrella E. Yago, MPA
Doctor of Public Administration
The high cost of library materials and the decline of financial
resources that supports the needs and improvement of the library
resources and services resulted among the librarians in resource sharing.
The idea of resource sharing that involves two basic services such as making
the library holdings is the subject which the researcher intended to study to
determine the status of the libraries of the three aeronautical institutions in
Metro Manila.
The study dealt with the critical analysis of the present status of the
library and services of the three leading aeronautical institution in Metro
Manila, namely: Philippine State College of Aeronautics, PATTS School of
Aeronautics, and Air Link International Aviation College.
The respondents were the students taking up Bachelor of Science in
nd
Aircraft Maintenance Technology for the 2 semester of AY 2010-2011 and
the faculty members of the three aeronautical institutions.
The study focused entirely on the institutional library of the
respondents to generate data and information on the status of the libraries
for the development of library resources and services sharing program.
The descriptive survey was used in this study. It was used to
describe, compare, and explain the respondent’s perception of their
respective library resources and services for a prospect on resource sharing
and services with other aviation library.
The researcher used the sampling procedures as the most
convenient and fastest way to immediately get the perceptions of the
respondents regarding their library services and resources for the purpose
of developing the library resources and services sharing program.
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The researcher used a locally constructed questionnaire as means of
gathering data. The contents of the questionnaire basically incorporated
questions that were most relevant to the study, specifically to the set of
standards design by the Philippine Association of Research and Academic
Libraries (PAARL), AACUP, PAASCU and the Civil Aviation Authority of the
Philippines. All questions dealt with the present library resources and
services rendered by the respondent institutions and the extent of
students’ need of these services. Structured interview was conducted for
clarification and validation of the responses of the respondents to the
questionnaire. Response from the group of faculty, and students
determined the extent of the library resources and services.
The finalization of the questionnaire was made by the researcher
with the conformity of the adviser. The questionnaire was then subjected
for content validation by the Head Librarians of the three institutions
namely the Philippine State College of Aeronautics, PATTS, and Air Link. The
Head Librarians were selected for the content validation of the
questionnaire because they are well verse of the obtaining situation and
current condition of the libraries in their respective institutions.
Summary of Findings:
The findings of the study on the status of the library resources and
services of the three aeronautical institutions, to wit: PhilSCA, PATTS,
and AIRLINK as assessed and evaluated by the Bachelor of Science of
Aircraft Maintenance students and technical instructors are as follows:
1. As to the Demographic Profile of the Respondents
Majority of the 370 student respondents from
PHILSCA,PATTS and AIRLINK with 270 or 72.97%
representation belonged to age brackets of 19-23 years old;
As a whole the age profile of the faculty respondents of
the three aeronautical institutions is dominated by those
belonging to the age brackets of 24-28,34-38 and up years of
age with a total of 35 or 71.43%.
Out of the 370 student respondents from three
aeronautical institution, 357 or 96.49% are male and 13 or
3.51% are female. As to the faculty respondents., majority of
them are male representing 40 or 81.61% while nine or
18.37% are female.
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Majority of the faculty respondents are Instructors
representing 45 or 91.84%; two or 4.08 Assistant Professors;
and two Professors.
Most of the faculty respondents representing 28 or
57.14% are Bachelors’ degree holders are 21 or 42.86% are
Master’s degree holders.
From among the 49 faculty responders, 18 36.73% are on
Permanent status; 17 r 3.70% are Job Order or Contractual;
nine or 18.37% are Part-time; and five or 10.20% are
Temporary.
Majority of the faculty responders with 21 or 42.86% are
already teaching between 4 years to 6 years;18 or 36.73% are
within 1 year to 3 years; sis or 12.24% and four or 8.16% are
within 10 years up and 7 years to 9 years, respectively.
2. Status of the Library Resources
2.1 Collection Arrangement
Overall results showed that both respondents of
PHISCA and PATTS with a general weighted mean of
3.84 and 4.00 respectively, “Agree” on the status of
the library resources of their respective library in
terms of collection arrangement, while respondents of
AIRLINK “Minimally Agree” with a general weighted
mean of 3.30.
Since F calculation is 4.90, it is concluded that the
assessment of the student and faculty respondents of
PhilSCA,PATTS and AIRLINK are significantly different,
it means that the three aeronautical libraries have
their own respective ways of arranging their library
collections.
2.2 Library Collection
The student and faculty respondent of PATTS and
AIRLINK and faculty respondent of PhilSCA with an
average weighted mean of 3.14,2.85,2.46 and 3.35,
respectively “Minimally Disagree” on the library
collections of their library; and the student
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respondents of PhilSCA with average weighted mean
of 3.58 “Agree” on the library collection that they
have.
There was no significant statisticaldifference
between and among the perception of the
respondents of three aeronautical institutions with
regard to library collection. It resulted to F tabular> F
calculation as shown in table 12. The result means that
the current library collections of the three aeronautical
institutions are below the expectation of their
respective students and faculty respondents as shown
on the results of their perceptions.
2.3 Library Staff
The overall assessment of the respondents
showed a general weighted mean of 3.46 from PhilSCA
respondents with a scale response of “Agree”, 3.465
and 3.45 from PATTS and AIRLINK respectively, with
scale response of “Minimally Agree” on the status of
library resources in terms of library staff.
F calculation 2.48 is within the non rejection area
and the F tabular > F calculation therefore there is no
significant difference that exist on the perceptions
between and among the respondents of the three
aeronautical institutions with regards to their library
staff. It showed that the services rendered by the
library staff of the three institutions still needs to be
improved. This result came about maybe because of
the less number of staff in the library.
2.4 Physical Facilities
The respondents of PhilSCA, PATTS, and AIRLINK
“Minimally Agree” with a general weighted mean of
3.33, 3.05, and 2.06 respectively, on the status of the
library resources of their respective libraries in terms
of physical facilities that covers the area of location,
technology, furniture and equipment, and security.
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The respondents’ F calculation 2.08 is within the
non-rejection region, therefore it is “Accepted” at 5%
significant level and since F tabular > F calculation
therefore there is no significant difference on the
library resources of the three aeronautical institutions
in terms of physical facilities. The result meant that the
respondents fall short of their expectations in their
respective library physical facilities that covered the
location, technology, security and furniture and
equipment.
3. The library services in terms of instruction, research, linkages, and
accreditation.
3.1 Instruction
The students and faculty respondents of PATTS
and AIRLINK “Minimally Agree” with an average
weighted mean 3.30, 3.15, 3.02 and 2.86,respectively,
while students and faculty respondents of PhilSCA with
average weighted mean of 3.17, 3.06 “Agree” that the
library services is in support of the instruction in their
respective libraries.
The general weighted mean of the three groups
distributed as follows:PhilSCA with 3.65; PATTS with
3.22; and AIRLINK with 2.94, which meant that the
library services of their library is in support to
instruction.
There is a significant difference on the perception
of the respondents of PhilSCA, PATTS, and AIRLINK
that resulted for to F calculation 12.82 which is more
than F tabular 2.82.It also showed that the strength of
the library services in support to instructions of their
respective library differs from one another.
3.2 Research
The respondents from the three aeronautical
institutions “Minimally Agree” that their library
services supportresearch. The three aeronautical
institutions, namely: PhilSCA, PATTS and AIRLINK
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garnered a general weighted mean of 3.27, 2.96, and
3.11, respectively.
The respondents resulted to F calculation 5.28
which is more than F tabular 2.82, which means that
there is a significant difference on the perceptions of
the respondents. It also means that the respective
libraries namely; PhilSCA, PATTS and AIRLINK differ in
rending library services in support to research.
3.3 Linkages
The respondents from the three aeronautical
institutions have the same degree of agreement that
they “Minimally Agree” on the five indicators
supporting the library services in support to linkage
with 3.47, 3.05 and 2.70 general weighted mean.
There is a significant difference that exists in the
perception of the respondents with regards to the
library services in support to linkage. It resulted to F
calculation 11.72 that is more than the F tabular,
which means that it is within the rejection region
therefore at 0.05 significant level, there is a significant
difference in the perceptions of the respondents. The
three aeronautical libraries must strengthentheir
linkages to other organizations and associations to
develop institutional tie-up that will benefit book
donations and other supports that will develop their
respective libraries.
3.4 Accreditation
The respondents from PhilSCA and PATTS have
the same degree of agreement with regards to library
services in support to accreditation. PhilSCA and PATTS
respondents both “Minimally Agree” on the five
indications presented with general weighted mean of
3.47 and 3.08 respectively, while respondents from
AIRLINK “Disagree” that their library services in
support to accreditation.
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It resulted to F calculation 33.77 > F tabular 2.82
therefore significant difference exist, which means
three institutions must make consideration of
prioritizing the accreditation program of their library
to comply on the library standards set by any
accrediting agency.
4. Factors to consider for library resource sharing
4.1 Technology
The respondents from the three aeronautical
institutions namely: PhilSCA, PATTS and AIRLINK,
“Agree” to the five indicators on factors to consider for
library resource sharing in terms of technology with a
general weighted mean of 3.61, 3.62 and 3.84,
respectively.
It resulted to F calculation 3.08 which is more
than F tabular 2.82, since F calculation > F tabular
there is significant difference exist on the perceptions
of the respondents. It means that technology be
considered to be able to have access to all the
electronic resource in all formats that the libraries be
adopting.
4.2 Equipment and Facilities
All respondents from the three Aeronautical
institutions are all “Agree” to the five indicators
presented above to consider for library resource
sharing in terms of equipment and facilities.
The respondents from the three aeronautical
institutions perceived differently on the factors to
consider for library resource sharing in terms of
equipment and facilities. It resulted to F calculation
3.36 which is more than the F tabular 2.82. This means
that the respondents have different views on what to
prioritize in acquiring equipment and facilities for the
implementation of library resource sharing.
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4.3 Collection
It shows vividly that all of the respondents from
the three aeronautical institutions are “Agree” on the
five indicators presented above as the factors to
consider for library resource sharing in terms of
collection.
The F calculation > tabular, therefore there is
significant difference exists on their perceptions. It
means that the respondents base their perceptions on
the existing status of their library resources in terms of
collection. They gave emphasis on the area that needs
to be improved to strengthen the library resources
sharing.
4.4 Library Staff
All the respondents from PhilSCA and AIRLINK
with a general weighted mean of 3.70 and 3.86
respectively, “Agree” on the five indicators presented
for factors to consider for library resource sharing in
terms of library staff but respondents from PATTS with
general weighted mean of 3.28 shows that they
“Minimally Agree” on same the indicators presented.
F calculation > F tabular, then therefore there is
significant difference exists between and among the
perceptions with regards to the factors to consider for
library resource sharing in terms of library staff. They
perceived on the basis of what to consider most on
whether the educational or professional attitude and
behavior of the library staff. The respondents had
different views as shown on the results of their
perceptions.
4.5 Environment
All the respondents from the three aeronautical
institutions show same level of agreement on the five
presented indicators on the factors to consider for
library resource sharing in terms of environment. It
resulted to a general weighted mean distribution of
3.69 for PhilSCA, 3.25 for PATTS and 3.54 fo AIRLINK.
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There is a significant difference on the perception
of the respondents of PhilSCA, PATTS and AIRLINK
resulted to F calculation 3.25 which is more than F
tabular 2.82. It also shows that they on differ on views
to consider for library resource in terms of
environment. It means that they give emphasis on the
areas they likely to be consider environment.
5. The significant difference in the assessment of the respondents
with regard to the status of their library resources.
The F Calculation 1.80 is within the non-rejection. The 1st
null hypothesis is “Accepted” at 0.05 significant level.
Therefore, there is no significant in the library resources of the
three aeronautical institutions in terms of their collection
arrangement, library collection, library staff, and physical
facilities.
Since F tabular > F calculation, the null hypothesis is
“Accepted”. Therefore, there is no significant difference in the
library resources of the three aeronautical institutions.
6. The significant difference in the evaluation of three respondents
with regard to the status of the library services.
The F calculation 3.68 is within the rejection region, the
2nd null hypothesis is “Rejected” at 0.05 significant level.
Therefore, there is a significant difference as to the status of
the library services of PhilSCA, AIRLINK and PATTS libraries in
support to instruction, research, linkages, and accreditation
as resulted in the assessment of the respondents.
Since the tabular < F calculation, the null hypothesis is
“Rejected”. Therefore, there is a significant difference in the
library services of the three aeronautical institutions.
7. Suggestions and recommendations for the improvement of the
library resources and services as basis for establishing resources
and service sharing program.
An overall majority result on the suggestions of the
respondents of the three aeronautical institutions showed that
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the top three most ranking suggestions and recommendations
to improve the library resources and services as basis for
establishing resources and services sharing program are the
following:
1. To improve the library facilities
2. To improve the quality of library collections
3. To strengthen linkages for library sharing
The other suggestions which in one way or the other help
in the improvement of the library resources and services:
1. To provide adequate communication facilities
2. To expand the space of the library fund.
3. To increase the library fund
4. To enhance administrative support
5. To strengthen library collections
6. To Enhance organizational policy in support to
library services
7. Additional staff
Conclusions
Based on the foregoing findings, the following conclusions were
derived:
1. Majority of the student respondent belonged to age brackets
19-23 years old and faculty respondents belonged to age
brackets 24-28 years old.
2. Male dominated the respondents in both student and faculty.
3. Most of the faculty respondents hold a position as instructor.
4. All of the faculty respondents are qualified to the position being
a Bachelor’s and Master’s degree holders.
5. Most of the faculty respondents are Permanent and Job
Order/Contractual status.
6. Majority of the faculty respondents are still in their early stage
of teaching being in service for only 1 to 3 years and 4 to 6
years.
104
7. Both respondents of PhilSCA and PATTS “Agree” on the
collection arrangement of their respective libraries, while
respondents of AIRLINK “Minimally Agree”.
8. The three aeronautical libraries have their own respective ways
of arranging their library collections.
9. The current library collection of the three aeronautical
institutions is still below the expectations of its student and
faculty respondents as revealed by the responses registering
“Minimally Agree” RESULT.
10.The student and faculty respondents of PATTS “Agree” on the
present library resources in terms of library staff of their
library.
11. The services render by the library staff of the three institutions
still needs to be improved this resulted maybe because of the
less number of staff in the library.
12. The respondents “Minimally Agree” on the status of the library
resources in terms of physical facilities of their respective
libraries. It means that the respondents fall short of their
expectations in the library resources of their institution.
13. The respondents from PATTS and AIRLINK “Minimally Agree”
and respondents from PhilSCA “Agree” that the library
services of the institutions is in support to instruction.
14. The strength of the library services in support to instructions of
their respective libraries differ from one another.
15. The respondents from three aeronautical institutions
“Minimally Agree” that their library services is in support to
research.
16.The respective libraries namely; PhilSCA, PATTS and AIRLINK
differ in rendering library services in support to research.
17. The three aeronautical libraries must strengthen their linkages
to other organizations and associations to develop
institutional tie up that will benefit book donation and other
supports that will develop their respective libraries.
18. The respondents from the three aeronautical institutions have
the same degree of agreement that they “Minimally Agree” on
the five indicators supporting the library services in support to
linkages.
105
19. The respondents “Minimally Agree” that the library services in
support of accreditation. The result shows that the three
institutions are still preparing for accreditation.
20.
All the respondents from the three aeronautical
institutions“Agree” to five areas concern such as technology,
equipment and facilities, collection, library staff, and
environment as the factors to consider for library resource
sharing.
21. Technology must be considered to be able to have access to all
the electronics resources in all formats that the libraries are
adopting.
22. The respondents base their perceptions on the existing status
of their library resources in terms of collections. They gave
emphasis on the area that need to be improved to strengthen
the library resources sharing.
23. They perceived on the basis of what to consider most on
whether the educational or professional attitude and behavior
of the library staff. The respondents had different view.
24. They give emphasis on the areas they link most likely to be
consider in environment.
25. No significant difference exists as to the status of the library
resources of PhilSCA, PATTS, and AIRLINK in terms of
collection arrangement, library collection, library staff and
physical facilities.
26. There is significant difference exists as to the status of the
library services of PhilSCA, PATTS, and AIRLINK libraries in
support to instruction, research, linkages, and accreditation.
27.
The top three or most ranking suggestions and
recommendations to improve the library resources and
services as basis for establishing resources and services
sharing program are the following:
1. To improve the library facilities
2. To improve the quality of library collections
3. To strengthen linkages for library sharing
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Recommendations
Anchored on the foregoing findings and conclusions, the following
are hereby recommended.
1. The library resources of the three institutions be improved in
terms of its collections and physical facilities.
2.More internet services were recommended to enhance the
research environment of the libraries of the three aeronautical
institutions as clamored by both the faculty and student
respondents.
3.The library services be enhance in support to instruction,
research, linkage and accreditation.
4.The library of the three aeronautical institutions must provide
on-line public assistance catalog (OPAC) necessary for the
library resources and services sharing.
5. The three aeronautical institutions libraries must have a
provision for the simultaneous use of its on-line resources.
6. While the three aeronautical institutions is the process of
preparing for accreditation it is necessary that provision and
requirements necessary as required by accrediting agencies be
complied.
7. Further studies be conducted on to come up with a model
program on library resources and services sharing.
107
Effectiveness of the Flight Safety Program
at the 505thSearch and Rescue Group
of the Philippine Air Force
Edmar Lina Tipan
Master in Public Administration
The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the
flight safety program employed at the 505th Search and Rescue of the
Philippine Air Force. There were two (2) groups of respondents for this
study; the military personnel and the civilian employees. The sample size
taken was based on theSlovin’s formula on sampling. These respondents
have the actual knowledge and experience on the in’s and out’s of the unit,
most particular of which is the safety and maintenance of the aircraft and
the facilities used therein.
The researcher used locally structured close-ended questionnaire
that used the Likert point scale as the data gathering device. Prior to
distribution, the questionnaire was subjected for content validation by
selected personnel having particular expertise in the field of aviation safety.
These included the pilot Examiner of licensing and Certification Department
of the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines (CAAP), a Professor from
the Institution of Engineering and Technology at PhilSCA, the Commander
of the unit involved, its safety administrative officers, and security officer;
this is to ensure that no classified information will be divulged or exploited
in the conduct of the study. The content validation of the questionnaire was
necessary to make sure that it covered the necessary information needed
to determine the effectiveness of the unit’s safety program.
The statistical tools that were utilized to analyze the data collected
are the percentage, weighted mean, Pearson product and the Chi-square
distribution method. Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis if there is a
significant difference on the perception of the respondents in terms of the
five (5) variables of safety program. On the other hand, Pearson product or
the Moment Correlation Coefficient was utilized in the testing of the
108
hypothesis if there is a significant correlation in the indoctrination of the
personnel vis-à-vis the implementation of the safety program.
Findings of the Study
1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents
Most of the respondents are within the age bracket of thirty to
40 years old. This comprises most of the civilian employees who are
mostly permanent in their respective directorates. Majorities are
male and more than half of the sample size had served for more
than a decade. Most of the respondents had finished their
respective college degrees; of these, the civilian respondents are
the majority. For the military respondents, most are college
undergraduates or had finished technical/vocational courses; this is
so because recruitment requires only a minimum of seventy-two
(72) units or within the second year level in college. Respondents
have undergone several training and schooling locally. Others like
seminars, conferences, and workshops are regularly attended since
these are inherent in the daily operations of the unit. The Airmen
Qualifying examination tops the list of exams. There are
respondents who have background in aircraft maintenance and
license from the ATO/CAAP. Most civilian employees have taken
their career service exams.
2. The following are the perception of the respondents with regard to the
th
safety program of the 505 Search and rescue Group of the Philippine
Air Force:
a. Personnel Awareness
A composite mean of 4.55 indicated a strong approval rating
for the personnel’s awareness on the safety program which
means that the personnel of the unit are properly indoctrinated
on the said program. This was further substantiated by the high
results of the safety orientation and indoctrination of the
personnel of the unit.
b. Policy/Method
The two (2) groups of respondents (military and civilian)
perceived an effective implementation of safety program as far
as a policy/method is concerned. This is shown by the
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composite mean of 4.37 which indicted an “effective”
implementation of safety program.
c. Administration and Management
There is a high level support from the respondents on the
two statements stated. It shows that the unit is indeed
implementing a reward and punishment system in cases of
breech of safety program. This is validated by the 4.44
composite mean that indicates a great extent of
implementation. This means that the administration and
management the unit is effective.
d. Training and Development
A composite mean of 4.35 indicted high level of approval
from the respondents. This means that as far as training and
development concerned, the safety program is being realized
by the personnel.
e. Facilities and Equipment
Many safety signs and precautions are posted at the
different areas of the unit. This is the evaluation from the 4.36
composite mean obtained from the table. But although this
area fell within the acceptance region, it should be noticed that
it has a very low mean which indicated that most of the
facilities and equipment have already exceeded their limits of
usage, hence, are in the verge of downturn.
3. It was found out that there is no significant difference on the perception
of the respondents in terms of awareness, policy/method,
administration and management, training and development, and
facilities and equipment.
4.
The study showed that the indoctrination of safety program to
personnel is proven effective with its implementation in the different
aspects of the program.
5.
The study showed that there is a high positive relationship between the
indoctrination of personnel of the unit and the implementation of its
safety program.
110
Conclusions:
From the findings of the study, the researcher arrived at the
following conclusions:
1. The personnel of the 505th Search and rescue Group of the
Philippine Air Force are generally well oriented in safety
program.
2. There is no significant difference on the perception of the
respondents in terms of awareness, policy/method,
administration and management, training and development,
and facilities and equipment.
3. The indoctrination of safety program to the personnel is proven
effective with its implementation in the different aspects of the
program.
4. There is a significant relationship between the indoctrination
of personnel of the unit and the implementation of its safety
program.
th
5. The flight safety program at the 505 Search and Rescue Group
is effective.
Recommendations:
In view of the findings and conclusions drawn from the study the
following recommendations were made:
th
1. The personnel of the 505 Search and Rescue Group must be
indoctrinated on the continuous improvement of its safety
equipment, tools and facilities in every directorate and offices.
Continuous use of obsolete equipment must be given close
attention since most of them have already exceeded their limits
of operational efficiency. The unit must also be updated in the
latest innovation of the facilities, equipment, manuals,
emergency procedures and safety rules and instructions and
made these available in the working area so that personnel will
make full use f them anytime.
2.
The unit should strengthen their training program not only
locally but also internationally so that they can be at par with
111
other countries and be updated in the latest trends in global
safety programs.
112
3.
The personnel of the 505th Search and Rescue Group should
always consider that accidents might and will happen anytime.
Thus having this in mind, plans should be continuously updated
to prevent the occurrence of these accidents that can cause the
loss of lives and unit resources. It is important to remember
that an ounce of prevention is worth more than a pound of
cure. Be pro-active rather than re-active.
4.
The units must always conduct a thorough investigation and
inspection of all incidents/accidents and safety violations and
strengthen the rewards and punishment system. All personnel
th
in 505 Search and Rescue Group must coordinate and
communicate to the management with regard to flight safety.
5.
Additional troop information and education should be
conducted to ensure that all personnel are well of the current
safety procedures.
6.
Further studies be conducted relative to the safety program of
other units of the Philippine Air Force.
The Effects of School Activities to the
Academic Performance of Freshmen AMT Students
at the Philippine State College of Aeronautics
Melvin Ver P. Escaño
The research focuses on the determination of the effects of school
activities to the academic performance of freshmen AMT students who are
officially enrolled during the second semester of school year 2011-2012 at
the main campus of the Philippine State College of Aeronautics located at
Piccio Garden, Villamor, Pasay City. The respondents of the study are
composed of freshmen AMT students and AMT faculty members.
The research instrument used in study is a survey questionnaire.
The first part is about the basic profile of the respondents while the second
part presents the indicators used for academic performance. The
researcher prepared three questions for each indicator which are limited
only to the study habits, skills performance, score during the examination
and attendance and punctuality. The objective of the questionnaire is to
determine the effects of school activities to the academic performance of
the freshmen AMT student
Summary of Findings
The study delved to determine whether school activities affect the
nd
academic performance of the AMT students during the 2 semester of the
school year 2010-2011.
The researcher used to gather data from 50 AMT students and 19
AMT faculty members who were selected purposively to answer the survey
questionnaire. The following are the findings of the study:
1.
Demographical Profile of the Respondents
1.1 Age
Almost 76% of the total number of respondents or 38 out of
50 student respondents is between 16 and 17 years old. There are
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10 out of 50 respondents or 20% of the population ages between
18 and 19 years old. On the other hand, there are 8 out of 19
faculty respondents that age above 34 years old which represented
42.10% of the total number of faculty respondents. There are 6 out
of 19 faculty respondents or 31.57% of the total number of faculty
respondents age between 28-30 years old.
1.2 Gender
Male student respondents are composed of 47 out of 50 or
94% of the population while there are only 3 out of 50 respondents
or 6% of the population is female. It also shows that 17 out of 19 or
89.47% of the faculty respondent population is male while only 2
out of 19 faculty respondents or 10.52% of the total number
faculty respondents is female.
1.3 Civil Status
All or 100% of the student respondents are single individuals
while 9 out of 19 faculty respondents are single which represents
47.36% of the faculty respondent population. Married faculty
represents 47.36% of the faculty respondents’ population and only
1 or 5.26% of 19 is widowed.
1.4 Highest Educational Attainment
There are 47.36% (9 of 19 faculty respondents) of the total
number of faculty respondents have Master’s unit while those with
Doctor’s unit and Doctoral graduate represent 36.84% and 15.78%,
respectively.
1.5 Employment Status
There are 10 of 19 faculty respondents are classified as regular
faculty members of the college which represents 52.64% of the
faculty respondents population while only 47.36% are under joborder status. None among the 19 faculty respondents are in a parttime status.
1.6 Number of Years of Employment in PhilSCA
There are 7 of 19 faculty respondents or 36.84% of the total
number of the faculty respondents are teaching in PhilSCA in the
period of 1-3 years’ time. On the other hand, there are 6 of 19
faculty respondents, which cover 31.57% of the faculty
respondents population are teaching for more than 16 years
already. There are only 15.78% and 10.52% of the faculty
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respondent’s population are teaching in PhilSCA in the period of 46 years and 13-15 years, respectively.
1.7 Students’ attendance to different school activities
Among the different school activities, the most attended
activity is the PhilSCA Charter Day celebration wherein 84% of the
total respondents’ population attended the said event, followed by
the InET week which was attended by 82% of the total number of
respondents. The least attended by the respondents is the
Educator’s Week which was only attended by 32% of the
respondents’ population, followed by ICT fair which was attended
only by 42% of the total number of respondents.
2.
The Effects of School Activities to the Academic performance of the
AMT students in terms of:
2.1 Study Habits
Students’ respondents believed that school activities
haveminimally positive effects on their academic performance but
for the faculty respondents they have no effects at all.
2.2 Skills Performance
Both the students and faculty respondents believed that
school activities have no effect on the academic performance of
the students in terms of skills performance.
2.3 Score in Examination
For the students and faculty respondents, the three indicators
for the students’ score in examination are not affected at all by the
school activities
2.4 Punctuality and attendance
Both for the student and faculty respondents, the tree
indicators for attendance and punctuality are not affected by the
school activities as revealed by 2.51 and 3.44 average weighted
means respectively.
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Conclusions
In view of the findings, the researcher concludes the following:
1.
It was revealed by the study that school activities does not affect
the student’s habit of visiting the library, making advance study and
reviewing notes from classroom lectures as perceived by the
students. But for the faculty respondents, thesewere minimally
affected.
2.
The study also found that school activities have no effect on the
students’ skills performance particularly in the mastery to operate
or to use aircraft instruments in the laboratory, ability to perform
laboratory tasks with ease, and the ability to follow laboratory
procedures unsupervised by their instructors. Thus, based from
these findings, school activities have no effect on the academic
performance of the students in the area of skills performance.
3.
The study also revealed that school activities do not affect the
students’ score in the examination particularly on their seat works,
quizzes and major examinations. Thus, based from these findings,
school activities have no effect on the academic performance of
the students’ score in examination.
4.
The study also found out that school activities does not affect the
academic performance of the students in their attendance and
punctuality specifically in attending their classes regularly,
attending their class on-time regularly, and their punctuality in
submitting their school projects/assignments on time.
Recommendations
Based from the findings revealed in this study that school activities
have no effect to the academic performance, the researcher would like to
recommend the following:
1.
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Although the study reveals that study habits are independent to
the school activities, it recommended that the students should
develop more their study habits in making advance studies since it
was revealed by the study that this area got the lowest mean score.
2.
It is also recommended that the students should develop their
skills performance because it was found out that the students rate
their skills performance relatively low. Students shoulddevelop
their mastery to operate aircraft tools, ability to perform laboratory
task with ease, and their ability to follow laboratory procedure
unsupervised.
3.
The study revealed that among the three indicators under
academic performance in score in examination, it was found out
that the students have the lowest scores in their quizzes, therefore
the researcher recommends the students to study harder to have a
satisfactory score, if not excellent, in their quizzes.
4.
It was revealed that the students rated themselves relatively low
when it comes to their academic performance in terms of
attendance and punctuality, thus, the researcher recommends that
the students should consider developing the habit of attending
their classes and submitting their reports or assignments on time.
117
A Tracer Study on Bachelor of Science in Aircraft
Maintenance Technology Graduates
Batch 2004
Alvin H. Pagayon
This tracer study about batch 2004 Bachelor of Science in Aircraft
Maintenance Technology (BSAMT) of the Philippine State College of
Aeronautics (PhilSCA) – Villamor Campus enables the institution to get
information from the graduates, which could serve as a gauge of the
institution’s competence in providing their students quality education and
as basis of such institution’s future planning activities. This study also
gathers data on the present status – significantly on the employment,
whether it would be in aviation industry or not– of the 2004 PhilSCA BSAMT
graduates. Furthermore, it includes the number of license issued by the Civil
Aviation Authority of the Philippines from 2004 to 2012.
Summary Findings
The study revealed that out of the forty-two graduates of BSAMT
in 2004, the researcher had been able to trace and survey 38 of the
alumni, which makes up 90.50% of the group.
1.
Concerning the profile of the respondents, the researcher
found out that all of them are male, with most of them are 25-30
years old and makes up the 65.80 % of the total respondents. The
31-35 age group follows with 31.60 %, and the third, the 41 years
old and above group which makes up 2.60 %.
Among the 18 respondents who already have AMT licenses,
12 of them are currently working in the aviation industry while
the 6 are in non-aviation industries. For those 20 respondents
who don’t have AMT licenses, 7 are in the aviation industry while
the remaining 13 are in non-aviation industries. Therefore, of the
38 respondents 19 are in the aviation industry while the other 19
are non-aviation industry. In addition, 81.60% or 31 of the
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surveyed respondents are married, while the rest of them are still
single at present.
2.
As what the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines
reported about the AMT license status survey on the
respondents, only 47.40% or 18 out of the 38 surveyed graduates
have AMT license at this time. The other 20 respondents or
52.60% still don’t have AMT licenses. Thus for batch 2004 BSAMT
students, less than half of the surveyed alumni, according to
CAAP, had been able to obtain AMT Licenses.
The ratings of licenses issued by CAAP to the 18 AMTlicensed respondents are Airframe and Power Plant rated
technicians. Majority or 94.5%of them are Airframe and PowerPlant – rated, only one (5.5%) out of the 18 license holders is
power plant – rated most of these 18 licensed alumni got their
AMT licenses the year 2004- backwards, comprising 50% (9),
while there are 6 or 33.30 percent who got this license between
years 2005-2006, and the 16.70 percent (3) for years 2009-2010.
Ten have their license expiry on the years 2012-2013
making up 55.50 %, for those that expired years 2006-2007 makes
up 27.70 % or 5 out of 18, while the year 2010-2011 had one
graduate’s license (5.60%) that expired. There has been no license
with the current year expiry for the years 2004-2005 and one
(5.60%) for 2014 – onwards. And about the number of times
these license holders had been able to renew their AMT licenses,
9 out of the 18 respondents never renewed their licenses. One
(5.60%) had renewed four times or more and eight (44.40%) had
renewed only once.
3.
The gathered data on the present educational and
employment status of the batch 2004 BSAMT graduates confirms
that 97.40% or 37 respondents attained Bachelor’s Degree as
their Highest Educational Attainment, while only one or 2.60% is a
Master’s Degree holder.
All 38 respondents (100%) are employed, mostly 33
(82.10%) on the private sector while the remaining 5 (17.90%) are
in the government sector. Of these employed respondents, 16
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(42.10%) are working locally, while the rest, 22 (57.90%) are
employed abroad.According to their working experience, 17 out
of the 38 or 44.80% of the respondents have been working for 6
years or more, while 14 or 36.80% have working experiences
between 4-5 years and the last 7 or 18.40% have been working
for 2-3 years.
In terms of Aviation Company employment, Lufthansa
Technik Philippines, has 3 (8%) of the respondents employed. For
Cebu Pacific, Aviation School and Philippine Air Force, one
respondent (2.6%) for each, while another 12 (31.6%) of the
respondents work at other aviation companies, and 19 (50%) are
employed at non-aviation companies.
Fourteen (36.80%) of the respondents wage monthly
between PHP 16,000- PHP 30,000, while the other 20 (50.70%)
earn between PHP 31,000-above. And four (10.50%) earn PHP
11,000- 15,000 every month.
4.
The calculatedChi-squarevalue of 3.80appears to be lower
than the tabulated value of 3.84.Thus, the null hypothesis that
there is no significant difference amonglicensed and unlicensed
BSAMT graduates of PhilSCA – VAB in terms of employability in
the aviation industry, is accepted.
Conclusion
The information gathered in the study provided significant data to
the school’s database considering the 90.48% turn-out of the response from
the total number of respondents. However, there are gaps to be filled to
complete the database in terms of acquisition of licenses and the school’s
quality of education in relation with the graduates’ skill and capabilities for
employment.
1. About the profile of the respondents:
1.1 All Batch 2004 BSAMT Graduates of PhilSCA-Villamor
Campus is male.
1.2 Majority are presently married.
1.3 Most of them are between 25-30 years of age.
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2. Less than half only of the surveyed respondents, according to
the verification from CAAP, are presently holding Aviation
Maintenance Technician Licenses, with majority have never
renewed.
3. All of the said 38 traced graduates are employed mostly
abroad with the majority on non-aviation industries. As the
study hypothesis had been tested using the Chi-square test
of independence, the researcher’s null hypothesis was
accepted after the computation. The calculated value of
3.80, which is less than the tabulated value of 8.84, shows
that there is no significant difference betweenlicensed and
unlicensed Batch 2004 BSAMT Graduate in terms of
employability in the aviation industry.
Recommendations
From this study’s results the researcher had come up to these noteworthy
recommendations:
1.
For Philippine State College of Aeronautics to exert more effort in
keeping in touch with its graduates concerning the latest
educational and employment status, and also in having CAAP
aviation Maintenance Technician licenses. The result of licensure
examination might give a hint, though not as a whole, about the
performance of the school with regards to its AMT graduates.
2. For the Institute of Engineering and Technology:
2.1 Further assist its Aircraft Maintenance Technology graduates
(either Associate or Bachelor’s Degree), most especially in
conducting intensive reviews and proper orientation before
letting their graduates takethe licensure examination at
CAAP.
2.2 To thoroughly prepare its students through actual hands-on
learning and laboratory instruction aside solely from the
compulsory On-the–Job trainings for the graduates to be
prepared for the real works in the aviation industry, not only
for the practical exam at CAAP.
121
2.3 To prove its AMT laboratory with all necessary materials and
equipment (e.g. tools, actual aircraft engine, etc) to make
such proper and thorough laboratory instruction to be more
practical.
3.
For the future researchers to either repeat this tracer study to the
same batch to monitor its development, or to broaden the extent
of this research like, the perception of each of the Batch 2004
BSAMT alumni of PhilSCA- Villamor Campus concerning the
classroom and laboratory instruction of the college instructors as
a significant factor in the AMT licensure examination at CAAP and
aviation skills development.
Future researchers can also trace these graduates regarding other
types of Aviation Licenses issued by either local or
international;or as to why the unlicensed graduates did not get
their licenses;or why licensed holders did not renew their
licenses; and relative to the quality of the programs school, their
observation and comments on the school’s curriculum.
4. To determine the contributing factors behind:
4.1 The employability in the aviation industry of an alumnus
without any aviation license from CAAP.
4.2 The employment in non-aviation industries of AMT-licensed
BSAMT graduates.
122
The Operation of the Philippine State College of
Aeronautics’ Flying School Department:
Creating an Effective Model
Daryl C. Bersamina, Jay Vee N. Keng
Rogelio R. Pabingwit Jr., Emmanuel P. Vytiaco
Flying schools are venues for teaching an individual the science and
arts of flying an aircraft. It is where the dream of having a professional
career in the field of aviation starts. Today, every individual is required to
complete required flight trainings at flying schools before they would be
called a pilot and therefore be allowed to fly an aircraft. Effectiveness of the
flying school is vital in the creation of world-class qualified pilots.
The Philippine State College of Aeronautics (PhilSCA) is learning
institution committed to the scientific and technological advancement of
aviation and is one of the few schools in the Philippines that offer this kind
of training. Through its departments including the Flying School, PhilSCA
envisions to produce world-class professionals.
However, that vision is yet to be achieved, and that’s what
prompted the researchers to make a study of the Flying School Department.
The study aimed to identify the possible problems and then create a model
that might be useful as reference for future enhancements of the Flying
School. Enhancing the identified concerns will help the Flying School
increase its effectiveness in producing pilots.
The researchers, after gathering the accomplished data from the
respondents made use of Frequency Distribution to determine the
percentage of the respondents with regards to their age, gender, civil
status, and year level. The weighted mean was used to measure the
respondents’ perception on the level of effectiveness with regards to the
questions provided by the survey questionnaire. Chi square was also used in
this study to identify whether there is a significant difference with regards
to the perception of the two groups of respondents.
123
Findings of the Study
1. The Demographic Profile of the two groups of respondents.
1.1. Age of the respondents.
Majority or 61% of the student respondents came
from the age range of 16-18 years while majority or 72%
from the faculty instructor respondents came from the age
range of 22-24 years old.
1.2. Gender of the respondents.
Student respondents are 90% male and 10% female.
Meanwhile, 86% of the faculty instructors are male and
14% are female. Overall, the male respondents shares 88%
of the total population of the respondents.
1.3. Civil Status of the respondents.
The student andfaculty instructorrespondents are
mostly single, havin96% and 86% respectively. The overall
population of the respondents is made up of individuals
with the civil status of single, which shares 91% of the
population.
1.4. Year level of the student respondents.
Student respondents coming from the 1st year level
having a population of 30 with a percentage of 51%, 2nd
year level having a population of 13% with a percentage of
22%, 3rd year level student respondents having a
population of 13 with a percentage of 22% and lastly, 4th
year student respondents having a population of 3
respondents with a percentage of 5%. This shows that for
every year the BSAT student reaches another year level,
the population decreases. This might involve some things
like financial status or shifting to other course whether
aviation related or not.
1.5. Academic Status of the respondents.
Majority of the respondents were students with 59
out of 66, or 89% of the total respondents. The remaining
11% were respondents from the faculty.
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2. The Perception of the Two Groups of Respondents on the
Responsiveness of BSAT Curriculum to PhilSCA’s Vision / Mission.
The data collected from the respondents shows a favorable
result that showed an overall interpretation of “Good” coming from
the two groups of respondents. This means that both the
respondents see the responsiveness of the BSAT curriculum in terms
of the Vision and Mission of the institution but not to the extent that
the curriculum exceeds beyond their expectation.
2.1. It is concluded that the needs of the students are
given attention by the college officials as well as the faculty
members of the department. The demands are given attention
and actions are done, well enough, but not to the full extent
that most respondents didn’t give an outstanding rating.
2.2. Both the student-respondents and the facultyrespondents agreed that PhilSCA is good enough and capable of
producing world class qualified pilots.
2.3. The result from the answers shows a favorable result
that it is believed that there is a good chance that BSAT
students will graduate carrying the traits envisioned by PhilSCA
which are commitment, excellence, responsibility, and
integrity.
3. The perception of the two groups of respondents on BSAT students’
capability in passing the pilot qualification and requirements.
From the data gathered from the student respondents, all
questions with regards to the BSAT’s capability in passing the pilot
qualifications and requirements got an overall rating as “Good”.
Meanwhile, the data gathered from the faculty instructor
respondents, all questions with regards to the BSAT’s capability in
passing the pilot qualifications and requirements is rated with an
overall grade of “Very Good”. This shows a different perception
coming from the two groups of respondents but with a positive
feedback that both of the respondents believe in the BSAT’s capability
in passing the pilot qualifications and requirements.
3.1. The students from the Flying School Department
would not be able to enroll in the B.S.A.T. course if they are not
125
medically fit. Medically fit in terms of physical (especially
vision), mental and other health related concerns. The BSAT
students are confident that they will graduate capable of
passing the medical examinations. The faculty strongly affirms
the statement.
3.2. Both student-respondents and faculty-respondents
highly agree that the graduates are proficient in the English
language and therefore will easily pass the English Proficiency
Examinations.
3.3. B.S.A.T students passing the private pilot licensure
exam are likely to pass the succeeding examinations like the
Commercial Pilot Licensure Examinations.
3.4. Having different perception but both are positive
responses, both student-respondents and faculty-respondents
agreed that under the Flying School, B.S.A.T students will pass
the commercial examination.
3.5 Different in perception but both resulted a high rating
from both students and faculty that B.S.A.T students will
graduate with sufficient aviation knowledge.
4. The student respondents and faculty respondents on how the
Flying phase of BSAT students can best be accomplished.
From the data collected. Sub-question no. 4.1 got a rating of “Needs
Improvement” from the student respondents while a “Good” rating
from the faculty instructor respondents. For sub-question no. 4.2 the
both respondents rated with “Good”. From the overall data
computed with regards to the Flying Phase of the BSAT students,
both rated with a “Good” rating.
4.1. The results from the student respondents clearly
states that they feel that there are lots of improvements that
the Flying School Dept. will have to do for them to gain
confidence with the trainings and the aircraft provided for the
training. Results from the faculty states that the training and
the aircraft provided for the training is good enough, but there
are still some rooms for further enhancements.
126
4.2. Both students and faculty members think that
outsourcing is a good option to provide training.
5. The perception of the two groups of respondents on the effectiveness
and efficiency of the aforementioned variables.
From the overall data gathered from the student
respondents, it gave a total rating of “Needs Improvement”
meanwhile from the data gathered from the faculty instructor
respondents; it gave a total rating of “Good”. This shows difference
in perception of the two groups of respondents. From what the
students think, the effectiveness and efficiency of the flying school of
PhilSCA in the aforementioned variables needs improvement.
Meanwhile, from the faculty instructor respondents’ perception, the
aforementioned variables with regards to their effectiveness and
efficiency are good. This shows a slightly favorable result coming
from the faculty instructor respondents saying that the expectations
coming from them are being given met appropriately.
5.1. The faculty-respondents say that the aircraft in
possession is in good condition but still had a lot of
improvements to make to gain confidence from the students.
5.2. The interpretation says that for the students: the
ground training needs improvements. While the faculty’s mean
score indicates enough efficiency in the ground training
provided by the PhilSCA flying school.
5.3. From the results gained from the answers, it is clearly
evident that both students and faculty respondents agreed that
the flight training to be provided by the flying school needs
improvements.
5.4. The findings shows that both student respondents
and faculty respondents agreed that the flying school really
needs improvements in the aspect of providing trainings
through a flight simulator.
5.5. The findings states that the student respondents
believes that the current curriculum needs improvements while
the faculty respondents’ mean score says that the curriculum is
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good enough to effectively guide the students into becoming a
qualified pilot.
5.6. Having both groups giving a rating of “Good”, the
respondents agree that the effectiveness and officials of the
flying school and its staff is just enough to effectively achieve its
goals.
5.7. Similar interpretation of the mean scores from both
groups of respondents suggests that maintenance and supplies
of the possessed aircraft needs improvements.
5.8. The student respondents’ suggests that the facilities
of the flying school need improvements. The faculty suggests
that the facilities are good enough to be the venue of learning
for the aspiring pilots.
6. Difference between the perception of the student respondents and
faculty respondents on how the Flying phase of BSAT students can best be
accomplished.
The data gathered and computed both got the same
result accepting the null hypothesis stating that there is no significant
difference between the student respondents and the faculty
instructor respondents with regards to their perception on how the
flying phase of BSAT students can be best accomplished.
7. Difference between the perceptions of the two groups of respondents on
the aforementioned variables.
From the data collected by using Chi-Square Test of
Independence, having a computed value of 10.67 with a .05 level of
significance having a tabulated value of 9.48773, question no. 5.1
showed that there is a significant difference between the
perceptions of the two groups of respondents thus the null
hypothesis is rejected.
Having a computed value of 9.12 with a .05 level of
significance having a tabulated value of 9.48773, question no. 5.2
accepts the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference
between the perceptions of the two groups of respondents with
regards to ground training.
128
Using Chi Square Test of Independence, having a
computed value of 1.97 with a .05 level of significance having a
tabulated value of 9.48773, question no. 5.3 accepts the null
hypothesis that there is no significant difference between the
perceptions of the two groups of respondents with regards to the
actual flying phase.
With a computed value of 0.46 having a .05 level of
significance with a tabulated value of 9.48773 by using Chi Square
Test of Independence, the null hypothesis is thus accepted that there
is no significant difference between the perceptions of the two
groups of respondents with regards to the operational flight
simulator.
Question no. 5.5 shows the data that there is no
significant difference between the perceptions of the two groups of
respondents with regards to an updated and relevant curriculum. By
using Chi Square Test of Independence,
having a computed value of 6.22 with a .05 level of
significance having a tabulated value of 9.48773, the null hypothesis
is accepted.
Showing the computed value of 2.06 with a .05 level of
significance having a tabulated value of 9.48773, question no. 5.6
accepts the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference
between the perceptions of the two groups of respondents with
regards to the department staff and officials of the flying school
department of PhilSCA.
With regards to the Aircraft Maintenance Supplies,
question no. 5.7 accepts the null hypothesis with a computed value
of 4.86 having a .05 level of significance having a tabulated value of
9.48773, thus there is no significant difference between the
perceptions of the two groups of respondents with regards to the
aforementioned variable.
Question no. 5.8 shows clearly that there is a significant
difference between the perceptions of the two groups of
respondents with regards to the Physical Facilities of the Flying
School Department by having a computed value of 21.86 and a
tabulated value of 9.48773 with a .05 level of significance. The
129
computed value is greater than the tabulated value thus
disconfirming the null hypothesis.
Conclusion
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were made:
1. Demographic Profile
1.1.
Most of the student respondents were in the age range of 1618 years old, while the faculty respondents are mostly made
up of individuals with ages ranging from 22-24.
1.2.
The overall population of the respondents was dominated by
males which shares 88%, while the remaining 12% is made up
of the female respondents.
1.3.
The overall population of the respondents is made up of
individuals with the civil status of single, which shares 91% of
the population.
1.4.
The population of the BSAT students dramatically decreases
as they approach the next year level.
1.5.
The student respondents dominate the overall population of
the respondents. Hence, the faculty members are greatly
outnumbered even to the less than a hundred population of
the BSAT.
2.
Both the respondents see the responsiveness of the BSAT curriculum
in terms of the Vision and Mission of the institution but not to the
extent that the curriculum exceeds beyond their expectation. Hence,
the BSAT curriculum still needs more improvements.
3.
The two groups of respondents differ in perception but both gave a
positive response, therefore affirming that BSAT students are highly
capable of passing the pilot qualifications and requirements.
4.
Both groups of respondents gave a favorable answer that both
options for the flying phase, whether inside or outsourced are good
options to provide trainings. Hence, outsourcing is an option that can
130
be given consideration asides from the trainings provided by the
school itself.
5.
The two groups of respondents differ in their perception of the Flying
School Department’s effectiveness with regards to the
aforementioned variables. This shows satisfaction from the faculty
group of respondents while the student group of respondents
indicates that the said variables need improvements. Therefore, the
two groups differ on their perception of the effectiveness of the Flying
School Department.
6.
Having both questions accepting the null hypothesis, it is therefore
concluded that there is no significant difference with regards to the
perception of the two groups of respondents on how the flying phase
can be best accomplished.
7.
Having six out of eight questions accepting the null hypothesis, it is
therefore clear that there is no difference in their perceptions on
those six variables, which are: Ground Training, Actual Flying Phase,
Operational Flight Simulator, Updated and relevant Curriculum,
Department Staff and Officials, and Aircraft Maintenance and
Supplies. Hence, for Airworthy Aircraft and Physical Facilities, there is
a significant difference between the perceptions of the two groups of
respondents.
Recommendations
The following recommendations were formulated based on the
findings of the study:
1. Additional budget allocation is highly recommended.
Providing flight trainings is proven to be very expensive in every
aspect. The Flying School needs to be funded adequately in order to
be able to acquire the necessary equipments that will facilitate a more
effective means of productivity.
2. Added focus on the targeted goals of the curriculum by
exerting more effort towards its attainment. Intensify the basic
preparatory courses.
3. It is strongly recommended that the school acquires the
purchase of more brand new airworthy aircrafts.
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4. Continue professional teaching habits of the faculty members.
Provision of additional trainings will help to further enhance the
already effective mode of instruction.
5. Create or construct a learning resource center that should be
regularly upgraded to keep up with the current trends in aviation
education.
6. Acquisition of equipments that is necessary for the effective
learning and instruction. Ensure that there is adequacy in terms of the
equipment and materials needed both by learners and teachers.
7. A possibility of enhancing the Science, Technology, English,
and Mathematics (STEM) System in curriculum of the department for
student enhancement.
8. The faculty member instructors should be made aware of
their role in ensuring the level of effectiveness of teaching in
preparing students in their fields of specialization.
9. Greater focus must be done on the following areas affecting
the level of effectiveness: updating teaching methodologies,
enrichment of laboratory facilities and equipment; and updating
curriculum, textbooks and syllabi, as well as Quality Instructors.
10. To enhance the strengths of the curriculum, the following
factors should be seriously considered: additional competency of
mentors; adequacy of the facilities; supportive administration and
more effective sequencing of preparatory subjects for the flying
phase.
11. Further studies must be done to be able to understand even
further the situation of the Flying School Department.
12. For the future development and enhancement of the Flying
School the researchers have come up with a designed model to help
identify areas that need attention and as well provide effective means
of enhancements (see figure on the next page).
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133
The Aircraft Maintenance Technology Curriculum
and On-The Job Training Program of the Philippine
State College of Aeronautics
Joseph Lawrence C. Dela Cruz
The objective of the study is to determine the perception of the 3rd
and 4 year respondents on the Aircraft Maintenance Technology
Curriculum and On-the-Job Training Program of the Philippine State College
of Aeronautics, Villamor Campus. Descriptive and historical methods of
research were used since there is a need to gather precise data. The
constructed questionnaire was subjected for content validation by the
Aircraft Maintenance Technology instructors of the same College. The
questionnaires were then finalized and distributed to the respondents. The
data gathered were tallied and tabulated according to frequency of items
answered by the respondents and interpreted using various statistical tools.
Percentage was used to determine the number of frequency of respondents
or perception assessment. Weighted mean is the formula used to
determine the total scores given by respondents and translated by the
Likert Scale. Chi-Square was used to determine the significant difference
between the perceptions of the respondents.
th
Summary of Findings
1.
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Demographic Profile of the Respondents
1.1
The respondents consist of 10% female and 90% male. It
shows that male respondents dominate their female
counterparts considering the fact that the college where
the survey was conducted is a technical school.
1.2
rd
The respondents were dominated by 3 Year students
with 55% while the remaining 45% were 4th Year
students.
2.
Perception of respondents about the present Aircraft Maintenance
Technology Curriculum and On-the–Job Training.
Based on the findings, the “Providing Adequate
technical skills in the laboratory class” has a weighted mean
of 2.87 for 3rd Year students and 2.82 for the 4th Year
students which is interpreted as “agree”; “Providing basic
knowledge and theories about the course” has a weighted
mean of 3.20 for 3rd Year students and 3.31 for 4th Year
students which is interpreted as “agree”; and “Maximizing
the technical skills of the students related to their
specialization” has a weighted mean of 2.89 for 3rd Year
students and 3.07 for the 4th Year which can be interpreted
as “agree”.
3.
Perception of the respondents on how On-the-Job training
enhances students learning.
The item “Is required by the companies in
accordance of Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines
rd
(CAAP)” has a weighted mean of 3.46 and 3.44 for the 3
Year and 4th Year students respectively, which can be
interpreted as “agree”;while “Provides channel for
networking and linkages for purposes of future employment”
has a weighted mean of 3.51 for the 3rd Year students which
can be interpreted as “strongly agree” and 3.32 for the 4th
Year students which is interpreted as “agree”; and lastly
“Allows students to gain actual/hands-on experiences in the
occupation itself” has a weighted mean of 3.36 and 3.50 for
the 3rd Year and 4th Year respectively which can be
interpreted as “strongly agree”.
4.
Perception of the respondent on the proposed inclusion of On-theJob Training in the aircraft Maintenance technology Curriculum.
It shows that “Tools familiarization, technical
procedures and documentations familiarization” has
rd
weighted mean of 3.62 for the 3 Year students, which can
be interpreted as “strongly agree” and 3.26 for the 4th Year
students, which can be interpreted as “agree”; “Enhancing
technical skills of students” has a weighted mean 3.51 for the
3rd Year students, which can be interpreted as “strongly
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agree” and 3.32 for the 4th Year students of which can be
interpreted as “agree”; and “Motivating the students interest
to pursue their goal” has weighted mean 3.52 for the 3rd Year
students, which is interpreted as “strongly agree” and 3.29
for the 4th Year students which can be interpreted as “agree”.
5.
Using the chi-square test at 0.05 level of significance, the
computed value of 2.14, which is less than the critical value of
7.82,proves that the null hypothesis is accepted that there is no
significant difference between the respondents in the present
aircraft maintenance technology curriculum.
6.
The result on how the On-the-Job training enhances the students
learning with the value of 8.91 is greater than the critical value of
7.82, proves that the null hypothesis is rejected that there is a
significant difference between the responses of the respondents.
7.
The computed value for the inclusion of On-the-Job training in the
aircraft maintenance technology curriculum was 5.61,which is less
than the critical value 7.82. This proves that the hypothesis is
accepted and that there is no significant difference between the
perceptions of the respondents on the inclusions of on-the-job
training in aircraft maintenance technology curriculum.
Conclusions:
Based on the findings, the following conclusions are formulated.
1.
Demographic Profile
1.1 Male respondents dominate the number of respondents. Out
of 187 respondents, 19 or 10% were females and the
remaining 168 or 90% were males.
rd
rd
1.2 Majority of the respondents are 3 Year students. The 3 year
th
respondents were 103 or 55% and the 4 year respondents
were 84 or 45%.
2.
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The 3rd Year and 4th Year Students agreed that the school provide
adequate technical skill on the laboratory class that will help them
in their career.
3.
According to 3rd Year and 4th Year students, the school provide
basic knowledge and theories about the course and it satisfactory
meet the demands of the aviation industry.
4.
In maximizing the technical skills of the students related to their
specialization, both 3rd Year and 4th Year respondents agreed that it
meets the demands of aviation industry.
5.
Both 3rd Year and 4th Year agreed that the on-the-job training must
be included because it is required by the Civil Aviation Authority of
the Philippines (CAAP).
6.
The 3rd Year and 4th Year students both agreed that the on-the-job
training provides channels for networking and linkages for future
employment.
7.
On-the-Job training allow students to gain actual/hands-on
experiences in the occupation itself.
8.
Tools familiarization, technical procedures and documentations
familiarizations can be enhance by the on-the-job training.
9.
According to 3rd Year and 4th Year students,on-the-job training can
enhance their technical skills with the latest technologies and
innovation of the industry.
10. 3rd Year and 4th Year students agreed that on-the-job training
motivates them to pursue their interest on the endeavor they have
chosen.
11. Using the chi-square test at 0.05 level of significance, the
computed value of 2.14, which is less than the critical value of7.82,
proves that the null hypothesis is accepted that there is no
significant difference between the respondents in the present
aircraft maintenance technology curriculum.
12. On “how on-the-job training enhances the student learning”, the
computed value of 8.91 isless than the critical value of 7.82, which
means that the null hypothesis is rejected that there is significant
difference between the respondents.
13. The computed value for the inclusion of on-the-job training in the
aircraft maintenance technology curriculum is 5.61, less than the
critical value of 7.82, proves that the hypothesis is accepted. This
means that there is no significant difference between the
respondents’ perceptions.
137
Recommendations
138
1.
To the faculty of Institute of Engineering and Technology, they
should maintain providing laboratory hours for the students
for them to learn not only in theoretical and to help them
familiarize with the tools and procedures.
2.
To the faculty of Institute of Engineering Technology, keep up
in providing the basic knowledge for the students to become a
key for the satisfactory work in the industry for them to
determine and enhance their skills which will help them in the
demanding world of aviation.
3.
To the office of College Registrar, the curriculum must provide
the on-the-job training within at least a month after asemester
for the students to concentrate on their study with the subject
they were enrolled.
4.
To the office of the Dean of engineering technology to have
linkage with the aviation industry providing on-the-job
training.
5.
To the aviation industry providing on-the-job training to allow
the students to have an exposure with the work related to the
course with the proper guidance of the licensed mechanic and
let the students to have an actual or provide additional
learning on the tools and documentation which can enhance
their skills in their chosen field and to improve their skills with
the use of the latest tools and trends in the field of aviation.
The Level of Satisfaction of the Participants on the
Extension Services Conducted by Philippine State
College of Aeronautics at Barangay 183,
Villamor, Pasay City
Don Albert B. Espiritu
The objective of this study was to determine the level of
satisfaction of the participants on the extension services conducted by
Philippine State College of Aeronautics at Barangay 183, Villamor, Pasay
City as assessed and evaluated by the respondents of the extension
services. The researcher used a locally-made questionnaire device. The
questionnaire underwent content validation done by selected expert faculty
members of the Philippine State College of Aeronautics. The researcher
used the percentage formula and weighted mean as statistical tools and
treatment to analyse the data.The study revealed that the level of
satisfaction of the respondents is statistically and significantly high in terms
of training methodologies, training facilities and equipment and personality
of the trainers.
Summary of Findings
1.
Demographic Profile of the Respondents
As a whole, majority of the respondents who age above 31
years old represents 80% of the sample population. Female
respondends comprise19 out of 25 or 76% while males comprise
6 out of 25 or 24% of the sample population. Majority of the
respondents are married representing 60% and most of them
attained college level which comprises 20 out of 25 respondents
or 80%. In terms of employment status 10 or 40% of them are
unemployed. Based on the programs they had attended, 13
respondents out of 25 respondents are attended in basic and
advance computer literacy.
139
2.
Training Methodologies
As a whole, the result showed that the respondents are
satisfied with the teaching methodologies used by their trainers
throughout the entire training sessions with an average weighted
mean of 4.47.
3.
Training Facilities
The result showed that the respondents are neither satisfied
nor dissatisfied with the training facilities used in extension
services which suggested by the average weighted mean of 3.20.
4.
Qualification of Professionalism of trainers
As a whole, the respondents are very satisfied with the
qualification and personal traits of the trainers in the extension
services computed by the average weighted mean of 4.41.
5.
Significant difference on the perception of the participants
The study revealed that there is no significant difference
between the perception of the perception of the participants on
their level of satisfaction on the extension services conducted by
PhilSCA VAB at Barangay 183, Villamor, Pasay City.
The most ranking suggestions given by the respondents’ the
next extension services of the PhilSCA are as follows:
1.
2.
3.
More number of computers
Proper room ventilation
More Extension program
The other suggestions of the respondents that need to be
considered also are:
4.
5.
6.
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Longer period of time
Wider room
Want strict trainers
Conclusions
Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were derived:
1.
As to the demographic profile of the respondents. Majority of the
respondents belong to the age bracket of 31 years old and above
and mostly are female. Most of them are married, college
graduate, employed, and took basic and advanced computer
literacy.
2.
The respondents are satisfied with the training methodologies the
qualification and professionalism of the trainers. The respondents
are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied also with the conditions of the
facilities used by the trainers in the extension services.
3.
There is no significant difference that exists between the
perception of the participants on their level of satisfaction on the
extension services conducted by PhilSCA VAB at Barangay 183,
Villamor, Pasay City in terms of training methodologies, training
facilities and equipment, and qualification and professionalism of
the trainers
4.
In summary, the respondents are satisfied with extension services
conducted by the College in terms of training facilities and with the
qualification and professionalism of the trainers.
Recommendations
In view of the findings and conclusions drawn from the study, the
following recommendations were made:
1.
The number of the computer should be increased in order to
accommodate more trainees.
2.
The room must be well ventilated to make it more comfortable
especially to those elder trainees.
3.
Bigger training room is necessary to promote a more
conducive studying environment.
4.
More extension programs should be conducted to gain more
knowledge about new courses.
5.
The duration of the training program should be extended so
the trainees could learn more.
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Dr. Rodante G. Flores is currently the Dean of the Institute of Liberal Arts and
Sciences and at the same time, the Director for Research of the Philippine State
College of Aeronautics. He obtained his M.Sc. and Ph. D. in Biology at the De Lasalle
University.
Mr. Victor P. Estrella is currently finishing his Master of Arts in Archaeology at the
University of the Philippines, Diliman. He is an instructor at the Philippine State
College of Aeronautics where he teaches History and Social Sciences.
Mr. Patrick John F. Mansujeto is currently finishing his Master of Arts in History at
the University of the Philippines, Diliman. He is an instructor at the Philippine State
College of Aeronautics where he teaches History and Social Sciences.
Mr. Gerard P. Concepcion finished his Master of Arts in Philippine Studies at the
University of the Philippines and is currently finishing his Doctor of Philisophy in
Filipino (Language Planning) at the same university. He is a part-time instructor of
the Philippine State College of Aeronautics where he teaches Filipino subjects.
Mr. Belly B. Apostol finished his Master of Education in Aeronautical Management
at the Philippine State College of Aeronautics. He teaches Computer Subjects and is
currently the coordinator of Information Mangement Major in Airline Operation and
Procedures. He teaches Computer and Airline Operation subjects.
Engr. Mary Ann A. Vista is the current Information Technology Coordinator and the
coordinator of the Cultural Affairs Unit of PhilSCA-VAB. She finished her Master of
Education in Aeronautical Management at the same College. She is an advocate of
Gender and Development of the College and teaches Computer Subjects. She is also
the author of the Data Structure Manual and Multimedia Systems Manual.
Ms. Cielito Caguia is finishing her Master of Education in Aeronautical Management
at the Philippine State College of Aeronautics. She teaches Airline Operation
subjects in the same College.
Mr. Dwight Kit M. Almonidovar is currently the President of PhilSCA – VAB Supreme
Student Council. He is taking up Bachelor of Science in Aeronautical Engineering in
the same College.
Mr. Christian Barrientos is currently the Secretary of PhilSCA – VAB Supreme
Student Council. He is taking up Bachelor of Science in Aeronautical Engineering in
the same College.
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