sessi 8 - Organisasi..

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sessi 8 - Organisasi..
Organisasi Digital
Materi Kuliah Sessi ke-8
Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi
Program Pasca Sarjana, Magister Ilmu Komunikasi
Universitas Prof. Dr. Moestopo (Beragama)
Dosen: Ir. Mas Wigrantoro Roes Setiyadi, SE, MSi., MPP
Topik Pembahasan
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•
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Organisasi Digital
Electronic Business
Electronic Commerce
Electronic Government
Electronic Governance
Organisasi Digital
Proses Transformasi Dokumen
Transformasi Digital
(dokumen kertas dokumen digital)
• Adalah proses mentransformasikan data dari bentuk nondigital menjadi bentuk digital
• Scanning : suatu cara yang digunakan untuk menangkap
dan mentransformasikan beberapa bentuk format kedalam
bentuk citra yang dapat diedit, display, dan disimpan
dalam bentuk digital pada komputer.
• Resolusi scaning yang digunakan harus sesuai :
• Tingkat akurasi yang dibutuhkan
• Kemampuan resolusi scanner
• Media penyimpanan data yang disediakan
Penandaan Digital
• Objektif memastikan bahwa e-record :
• Otentik
e-record diterima dari sumber/asal yang
benar
• Memiliki integritas
isinya tidak pernah dirubah, dihapus, serta
memiliki akurasi dan waktu berlaku yang valid
• Handal
mampu menyampaikan isinya kepada pihak
yang bersesuaian dengan melakukan
pengidentifikasian tanda
Penandaan Digital (lanjutan)
• Resiko yang dapat ditimbulkan :
• Kerugian finansial
• Kerugian reputasi
• Kerugian produktifitas
• Level Resiko :
• Standar
memiliki daya tarik penyelewengan rendah
• Medium
memiliki daya tarik penyelewengan cukup besar
• Tinggi
ancaman pada e-record jenis ini sangat tinggi, atau
memiliki konsekuensi yang cukup besar jika terjadi
penyelewengan
Penandaan Digital (lanjutan)
• Metode penandaan dapat menggunakan salah satu atau
kombinasi dari :
– Pengaman “what you know”
menggunakan informasi rahasia seperti PIN, password,
atau kunci kriptografik
– Pengaman “what you have”
menggunakan token seperti smart card, ATM card, dan
sejenisnya
– Pengaman “what you are”
menggunakan karakteristik biometrik seperti pola
suara, retina, finger print, pola tulisan tangan, dll.
Electronic Business
The Future of Money (or)
Physical
Electronic Currency
Investor
Funds
Deposits
Bank
Bank
Back
Back Office
Office
Bank
Bank
Distribution
Distribution
Channels
Channels
Merchants
Consumers
Asset Access
or
Line of Credit
Merchants
Consumers
Network Internet
Economy Cable TV
Accounts
and
Authentication
Actuarial
Risk
Models
Set-top box
Manfaat Internet Terhadap
Layanan Bisnis
• Mengatasi masalah ketimpangan informasi
(information asymmetry)
• Meningkatkan kekayaan informasi (richness of
information)
• Meningkatkan jangkauan kepada sasaran (reach to
target audience)
• Mengubah keterbatasan lingkungan penawaran
dan penerimaan (offer and acceptance)
Model Bisnis Internet -1
• Access provider: ISP, NAP, Carier. Contoh: cbn
• Virtual Storefront, menjual barang dan jasa langsung kepada
konsumen. Contoh: amazon.com
• Information broker, menyediakan informasi tentang produk, harga dan
ketersediaan barang, memperoleh penghasilan dari iklan atau jasa
mengarahkan pembeli kepada penjual. Contoh: industrialmall.com
• Transaction broker, menghemat biaya transaksi melalui transaksi
online. Memperoleh penghasilan dari fee. Contoh: E*TRADE.com,
expedia.com
• Online Marketplace, menyediakan “pasar” virtual di mana penjual dan
pembeli dapat berinteraksi membuat transaksi. Contoh: eBay.com,
priceline.com
Model Bisnis Internet -2
• Content provider, menyediakan konten digital seperti digital
news, musik, photo, video melalui web. Contoh: detik.com,
cnn.com, mp3.com
• Online service provider, menyediakan jenis layanan tertentu
kepada individu atau perusahaan. Contoh: jobsdb.com
salesforce.com
• Virtual community, menyediakan sarana pertemuan virtual
antar-anggota yang memiliki kesamaan kepentingan.Contoh:
ivillage.com, fortunecity.com
• Portal, menyediakan layanan awal (pintu masuk) untuk
memperoleh berbagai macam informasi dan transaksi. Contoh:
yahoo.com, msn.com
Electronic Commerce
Electronic Commerce
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•
•
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Transaksi bisnis yang dilakukan melalui Internet.
Click & Mortar dan Brick & Mortar
B2C, B2B, C2C
Manfaat:
– Memperluas jangkauan pasar
– Memotong rantai distribusi
– Menurunkan biaya investasi dan operasional
• Peluang bisnis baru, dapat diterapkan untuk berbagai jenis komoditi
• Perlu jasa lembaga keuangan dalam mekanisme pembayaran
What is Electronic Commerce?
• Internet enables new kind of behavior,
applications, etc.
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Instant response: e-mail, automatic interactive apps.
Automation: Enterprise Resource Planning
Streamlining/Integration: Just In Time
Publishing: Electronic Catalogs
Interaction: Electronic Data Interchange
Transaction: Electronic Payment
All but “e”
Jenis layanan E-Commerce
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Sale and delivery of products
Online ordering
Electronic services
Online advertising
Product information
Online auctions
Share trading
Etc.
E-Commerce Membutuhkan
• Konektivitas ke jalur lebar (broadband), yang
terpercaya (reliable), cepat (fast) and hemat biaya
(cost-effective),
• Software and hardware yang mudah
dikembangkan (scalable),
• Standarisasi Data Umum,
• Proses integrasi,
• Acuan untuk penatapan keamanan dan
kepercayaan (security and trust).
Why Electronic Commerce?
•
•
•
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•
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New revenue stream
Wider market exposure → Global reach
Reduce Transaction Costs
Shorten product life cycle
Increase customer loyalty
Increase value chain
The Varieties of E-Commerce
• B2B, B2C, C2C
• Simple point-to-point exchanges with one or more preestablished trading partners
• Opportunistic procurement through a simple connection
to one or more trading exchanges
• As a member of a group of companies forming tighter
trading relationships for mutual business advantage,
using common document standards and messaging
formats
• As a member of a sophisticated trading network where
B2B relationships are formalized, documented as
common business processes and automated.
The Core Of
Electronic
Commerce
Electronic
Commerce
Area
Virtual
Product
Pure EC
Digital
Product
Traditional E-Commerce
Virtual Process
Physical
Product
Digital Process
Physical Process
Physical
Agent
Digital
Agent
Virtual
player
Type of ecommerce
Level
Traditional
Pure
Player
Physical
Process
Physical
Product
Physical
Digital
Digital
Digital
Virtual
Virtual
Virtual
Ecommerce in Indonesia
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Just selling and buying
Omzet US$ 100 Juta ( 0,026%)
Only 0.07 % from total user using ecommerce
Trust society
Estimates Total User 8 million?
Technical problem
Non technical problem
Who are they
(indocentre.com)
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Art & Culture
Business
Computing
Educating
Entertainment
Food & Beverages
Shopping
3222
11725
4475
4526
3991
797
1863
Problems in Indonesia
Case of yogyakarta and central java
• Low understanding about e-commerce
– Image that e-commerce is an emerging business
– Image that e-commerce is solution of traditional
business
– Image that once the homepage ready the market
will response directly
– Image that one can develop the business easily
Fact shows that
• The market not ready to accept the new concept
yet.
• Many company concentrate on technology not the
business
• Market can’t be force to move to the new business
easily
• Traditional distribution
• Financial payment
• Low trust the society
• Human resources problem (many start from
the hobby)
• The traditional market still has the
“old”problem and not ready to enter the
cyber market
• The advance of technology
• Life cycle of technology
Technical Problem in E-commerce
• Fraud
• Traditional way of buying ( see, touch and
bargain )
• Geographical problem
• Billing system (Credit card, cash, bank
Transfer money etc.)
• Rupiah and dollar
This is why
• Many DotCom Business fail to serve the
market
• B2C business fail to serve the market
• Some B2B’s “succeed” in the business
• Ecommerce is not a priority
• Some says high investment but low profit
A Typical Supply Chain of
E-Commerce
Source: CSIRO
Integrated business-to-business
e-commerce
Source: CSIRO
A Complete Integration
Solution Requires
• Broad, reliable, fast and cost-effective
connectivity,
• A scalable software and hardware platform,
• Common data standards,
• Reusable integration processes,
• A framework to establish security and trust.
Typical requirement
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•
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Vision in senior leadership
Very fast decisions
Decentralized structures
Radical thinking → New Business Model
Scenario planning
Technology Features
• Infrastructure to support communication, both
within an organization and across the Internet
• Data transformation between applications
• Supporting services such as security and
directories
• Higher-level business processes and workflow
automation
• Mechanisms that provide gateways to other
technologies.
Hierarchy of E-Commerce
Technology
Services (e.g. Directories Security,
Persistence Events)
Distributed Midleware (e.g. CORBA, DICOM,
SOAP, MQ Series, XML)
Operating System (e.g. NT, UNIX, AS400, OS/2)
Platforms (e.g. Mainframe, Workstations, PCs)
Network Infrastructure
Households with Internet Access
Economy
% households with Internet access
Hong Kong
49.5%
Singapore
48.4%
Korea
45.5%
Chinese Taipei
42.9%
Australia
40.0%
New Zealand
39.9%
Japan
24.1%
Source: Nielsen//NetRatings Global Internet Index
Key Issues for International
Agreement
• Customs and taxation
• Electronic payment
• Uniform commercial
code
• Intellectual Property
Protection
• Privacy
• Security
• Telecommunications
infrastructure
• Content regulation
• Technical Standard
• Consumer protection
• Jurisdiction
• Alternative Dispute
Resolution
• Cybercrime
Some -e- Principles
• Distances Meaningless
• Objects Meaningless
• e-Commerce
Accelerates Growth
• People are Everything
• One-on-one
Customization
• Real Transparency
• Time is Collapsing
• Markets a Click Away
• Exponential Value
with Market-share
• The MIDDLEMAN is
Alive and Well
• Fast Buying Decisions
•
Source - Adapted from Business 2.0 8/98
Traditional
Middlemen ?
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Travel Agents
Wholesalers - Distributors
Insurance Brokers
Stores - Branches
Liaisons - Expediters
Stock Brokers
VARS - Traders
etc.
Past the Middleman to the
Source?
• The Road Ahead , Bill Gates
• Being Digital , Negroponte
• Their Models Eliminate the Intermediary
• Examples of Skipping the Middleman:
– Dell Computer
– Amazon Books
– Cisco Systems
– NEI 2000
– etc.
Past the Middleman to the
Source?
• The Road Ahead , Bill Gates
• Being Digital , Negroponte
• Reality: New Middlemen = POWER
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Power of Net and Underlying Information
Immediate Comparison Powers
Buyers Empowered & Informed
Does NOT Protect from Competition
Adds Transparency Where Needed
How eProcurement Works
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Set up a WEB Site for your Product/Service
Subscribe: Online Credit Card Authorizer
Only Transact with Authorized Charges
For High Value Transactions, Establish
Relationship with a Trade Finance Provider
• What is the Bank’s Role?
Buyers
Government
Business
Groups
Companies
E-Procurement
Central
Servers
•Quotations
Catalogs
•Contracts
•Purchase Order
•Auctions
•Shipping Tracking
•Payments
Company
A
Company
B
Company
C
Company
Individuals
DLL
Vendors
D
Financial
Institutions
- Banks
- DLL
• Transactional
• Trade Finance
• Credit Lines
• Security
Company
X
Payments in e-Commerce
• Banks want to “Stay in Charge”
• Local Banks not Responding
• Need a Progression of Acceptance for
– MTs /GYRO toward Credit/Debit Cards
– eWallets and/or Smart Cards
– eChecks
– microPayments
– eBill Presentment
eWallets & microPayments
• MTs and Checks - still 50% world-wide
• Credit/Debit Card Outside Indonesia
• eWallets with Digital ID “certificates”
– SET… GlobeSet, VariFone, etc
• eChecks via eMail - trials now in USA
• microPayments for Small Click Rate Fees
• eBill Presentment - trials now in USA
eBanking
• Well Established in Most Countries
• Banks Papan & Lippo in Indonesia
– Papan - 3rd Pty Transfers within Indonesia
– Lippo - Payments to Lippo Account Holders
• Other Local Banks only Provide Info Sites
Reasons for not Shopping
Online
Internet security remains to be the biggest concern by online
users about online shopping.
Legal & Jurisdictional Issues
• Current laws may not adequately cover
situations that arise in e-commerce
• Legal systems around the world are having
difficulty in keeping pace with the rate of
technological change
• In cross-border trading, the question arises:
which law applies – local or foreign?
Contracts and Digital
Signatures
• "most e-commerce contracts ... do not have
to be signed, or even in writing, to be
enforceable"
• Malaysian Digital Signature Act (1997)
states that: Digitally signed document
deemed to be written document.
Dispute Resolution
• Should the dispute arise across borders,
– can the initiating party afford to take action in another economy?
– Does relevant national law of the other party even permit legal action to
be taken?
• The use of neutral dispute resolution providers,
• A range of options and cost-effective methods to resolve
disputes at the earliest possible stage,
• An emphasis on continuity of business through isolating
disputes and resolving them with minimal disruption to
other transactions, and
• A commitment to use appropriate technology to aid
dispute resolution
Electronic Government
Transactions
Business
B2C
G2B
G2G
C2C
G2C
Citizen
Government
Stages of E-Government
Information publishing
Government department websites, information about services
Two-way transactions
Submit personal information to individual departments
Multi-purpose portals
Access a variety of services at a single web site
Portals personalisation
Customise portals with their desired features
Clustering of common services
Group of transactions rather than group of agencies
Full integration & Enterprise transformation
Full service centre with integration of front and back office
Benefits of E-Government
Digital Democracy
Benefits to the citizen
Benefits to the businesses
Benefits to the government
Achieving E-Government
Government on Web since 1996
Downloadable Application forms available
Government Email System of Public officers
Training of Public Officers
E-government masterplan and e-business plan for
Ministries/Departments
45 major projects operational and 20 major projects
under implementation
Tradenet and Contributions Network Project
Citizens & Businesses
Delivery Channels
Counter Call Centre
Internet Interactive-TV Mail
Kiosk
Government
Online Centre
Government
Network / Intranet
Departments
Ministries
Parastatals
Local
Government
Government Online Centre
Secure, reliable and high availability infrastructure provider
for services offered by Government
Key Services
Internet access and e-mail to Government Officers
Government Portal and web hosting
Online Services
Hosting of horizontal applications and selected
backend applications for Government organisations.
Government Intranet System
Objectives
To establish the
Ministries
infrastructure for a joined-up
Departments
Government built around the
Government Online
Government Online Centre
Centre
(GOC)
To support the EGovernment initiative
To improve electronic
Local Government
Parastatals
communication capability of
the Public Service
Public Access Points
Channels using ICT as an enabling tool for
delivering government services to citizens
Examples of PAPs
Self-service kiosks
Manned counter services
The MSC Flagship Applications
Smart Schools
Telehealth
Electronic Government
Multipurpose Card
E-Business
R&D Cluster
Technopreneur
Development
Vision & Objectives of E-Govt
Government to
Citizens/ Business
• easy access, single window
• improved services quality
• multi-channel service delivery
Intra Agency
ToVISION
transform
administrative process
and service delivery
through the
use of IT and
Inter Agency
multimedia • Interconnectivity/
• process improvements
• people development
• better processed
interoperability
• smooth information flow
• best practices in interactive
multimedia information
• enhanced information analysis
The E-Government Model
Business
Government
Citizen
(G2B)
Business
Domain
Govt
Domain
(G2G)
Then…
Now…
Citizen
Domain
(G2C)
Stove-pipe view of Government
DIV D
DIV A
DIV G
DIV E
DIV B
DIV C
DIV F
DIV H
•Multiple divisions needed for complete solution
•Departments not willing to share or exchange data between each
other
Towards a citizen-centric Government
Dept. Y
Dept. X
Dept. Z
Dept X.
Dept Y.
Customerfocused
Services
?
?
?
?
Moving towards…
Dept Z.
The Projects in E-Government
Treasury
GOE – Prime
Minister Dept
Imp. Coordination Unit
Lead agency:
Road Transport Dept
MAMPU
eSyariah
JKSM
ELX
Public Service Dept
Min Human Resource
E-Services
Road & Transport Dept.
(JPJ)
Driver& Vehicle
Registration, Licensing
and Summons Services
(including Test Scheduling
& Test Taking)
Tenaga Nasional
Berhad (TNB)
Ministry of Health (MOH)
Electronic Delivery of
Driver & Vehicle Registration,
Licensing and Summons
Services, Utility Payments,
Ministry of Health
On-line Information
MOH On-line
Information
Telekom Malaysia
Berhad (TM)
Utility Bills Payment
Utility Bill Payment
Electronic Procurement (EP)
Buying and Selling via the Internet
Phase 1
Supplier Registration/
Central Contract
Suppliers publish Catalogues on EP
Suppliers receive orders from Government
Government Users browse catalogues
& place orders online
Government publishes Request For Tender on EP
for new supplies
Government awards contract to Suppliers
Electronic Procurement
Suppliers submit
quotations
Direct Purchase,
Quotation, Tendering
Phase 2
Generic Office Environment (GOE)
An electronic office environment to enhance
productivity through better information management,
communications and collaboration
1
Enterprise-wide Information
Management System (EIMS)
2
Enterprise-wide
Communication Management
System (EComMS)
• Check electronic mail, meeting
schedule, and filtered news
• Accessing documents online
• Assigning tasks electronically
3
Enterprise-wide Collaboration
Management System
(ECollMS)
Human Resources Management Information
System (HRMIS)
A system providing full HRM functionality for the
Government to develop and manage its human
STRATEGY
capital.
STRATEGYFORMULATION
FORMULATION
AND
ANDREVIEW
REVIEW
CAREER
CAREER
MANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENT
RESOURCING
RESOURCING
REMUNERATION
REMUNERATION
&&BENEFITS
BENEFITS
COMPETENCY
ASSESSMENT
Competency forms
the core of the HR
processes
Supporting
Functions
PERSONAL
PERSONAL&&ESTABLISHMENT
ESTABLISHMENT
RECORDS
RECORDSMANAGEMENT,
MANAGEMENT,JPA
JPA
CIRCULARS
PUBLICATION
CIRCULARS PUBLICATION
PERFORMANCE
PERFORMANCE
MANAGEMENT
MANAGEMENT
DEVELOPMENT
DEVELOPMENT
EMPLOYEE COMMUNICATIONS &
EMPLOYEE COMMUNICATIONS &
BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT
BEHAVIORAL MANAGEMENT
Project Monitoring System (PMS)
An on-line end-to-end project monitoring system creating a collaborative
environment for better management of development projects
Consistent
and timely
information
from
centralised
databases
Information
can be
retrieved by
agencies at
any time
PMS
Graphical
and
multimedia
features and
functions
Standardisation
of project codes
for consistency
Socioeconomic
impact analysis
capability with
simulation &
forecasting in
Phase 2 of the
project
Flexibility to
produce
reports
according to
requirements
1223-0556811706
Sending of real
time online
information
electronically
Electronic Governance
Why get into IT Governance?
“Due diligence”
IT is critical to the business
IT is strategic to the business
Expectations and reality don’t match
IT hasn’t gotten the attention it deserves
IT involves huge investments and large risks
E-Governance
E-governance is not just about government web site
and e-mail. It is not just about service delivery over
the Internet. It is not just about digital access to
government information or electronic payments. It
will change how citizens relate to governments as
much as it changes how citizens relate to each
other. It will bring forth new concepts of
citizenship, both in terms of needs and
responsibilities.
Ruang Lingkup IT &
Governance
IT Governance
IT & Governance
IT ScoreCard
Private Sectors
Corporate
Governance
Public Sectors
Public
Governance
IT for Govervance
IT Balanced Score Card
IT Goals and Measures
Financial
Goals Measures
Customer
Goals Measures
Process
Information
Learning
Goals Measures
Goals Measures
Hubungan IT Governance dan
IT for Governance
IT merupakan bagian integral
dari organisasi
IT governance merupakan
bagian integral dari corporate
dan public governance
Makna Pemerintah (?)
• adanya keharusan menunjukkan kewajiban
untuk melaksanakan apa yang diperintahkan;
• adanya dua pihak, yaitu yang memberi dan
yang menerima perintah;
• adanya hubungan fungsional antara yang
memberi dan yang menerima perintah;
• adanya wewenang atau kekuasaan untuk memberi
perintah
Relasi Antara IT &
Governance
IT
Governance
Available 24/7
Inovasi Informasi
Keunggulan bersaing
Pertumbuhan
Fisilitator Akurat
Less Transaction Cost
Akses Global
Participatory
Equity
Efisien
Sustainable
Efektif
Tanggung jawab
Taat azas
partisipasi masyarakat
Enabling Equality
Legitimate Demokratis
Desentralistis
Respect, Trust, Accountable
Transparan Profesional Kompeten
Otomatisasi
Responsif
Kemitraan
Pro pasar
Customer Satisfaction
Supremasi Hukum
Alat manajemen
lingkungan hidup
Implementasi IT for
Governance
• Parameter Public Governance
• Pembuatan Kebijakan di bidang ICT
• Penyediaan Sarana Layanan Publik (egovernment)
• Kemitraan dengan Sektor Swasta
Parameter Public Governance
• Dibuat parameter untuk mengukur tingkat
governance bagi tiap instansi pemerintah
• Parameter tersebut antara lain:
– Pemahaman aparat tentang prinsip tata pemerintahan
yang baik
– Ketaatan pada prosedur dan anggaran
– Tingkat partisipasi publik dalam proses kebijakan
– Tingkat kepuasan dan kesejahteraan masyarakat
– Efisiensi dan efektivitas penggunaan sumber daya
publik
– Kemudahan masyarakat memperoleh informasi publik.

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