Megalopolis and Transportation Corridors: What it Means for our

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Megalopolis and Transportation Corridors: What it Means for our
Megalopolis and
Transportation
Corridors:
What It Means For Our UDUTC
Michelle Oswald
Rebekah Gayley
Sue McNeil
David Ames
University Transportation Center
1
Overview
Purpose
Research Questions
Transportation Planning for mega-regions
– Northeast transportation corridor
Background on Megalopolis
Significance of Megalopolis
Definition of Resiliency
Resiliency Measurements
Mapping Resiliency of Megalopolis
Transportation Networks from 1890-2006
Future Tasks
2
Purpose
UTC’s focus: resiliency of transportation corridors
Project goal: to understand the current
transportation characteristics of the BosWash
corridor and to research its resiliency and
responsiveness to external changes.
Final result: to build a strategic database for
future research and identify the key factors in
resiliency analysis and modeling for transportation
corridors.
3
Research Questions
Current:
– What is the BosWash Megalopolis corridor and why is it
significant?
– How can transportation planning for mega-regions such
as Megalopolis be improved?
– How has the Megalopolis transportation networks (rail,
auto) adapted over time?
Future:
– How resilient are the Megalopolis corridor transportation
networks to internal and external changes?
– How will this information benefit our UDUTC
transportation corridor research?
4
Transportation Planning for
mega-regions
Dilemma- how to effectively manage
mega-regions from a transportation
network perspective?
Results of failure due to lack of
collaboration:
–
–
–
–
Traffic Congestion
Environmental Degradation
Structural Impairment
Social Injustices due to Limited Mobility
5
Transportation Impacts
Rail
companies formed the initial “spine”
of the Northeast corridor
Highway networks formed the “skeleton”
of the corridor
Urban sprawl led to overlapping suburban
areas
6
Northeastern Corridor
Commutersheds
(Miller, 1975)
7
Duration of Northeastern Corridor
Commutes
(Regional Plan Association, 2007)
8
Socioeconomic Clustering within
the Northeastern Corridor
(Short, 2006)
9
Background on Mega-regions
Jean Gottmann (1961)
– Megalopolis: “large city”
– Based on overlapping
suburban clusters
– “string of cities”
– 455 miles
(Short, 2007)
10
Megalopolis: No longer unique
Researchers
extend
Megalopolis
thinking to other
regions of the
country.
– 10 Megapolitan
areas will grow to
20 in the next two
decades
(Dhavale and Lang, 2005)
11
Background on Mega-regions
Regional Plan
Assoc. 1967
Report
– Atlantic Urban
Region
– “New fact of life for
planners and policy
makers”
Richard Morrill
– Update to
Gottmann’s maps
on population growth
Robert Lang
– Presently 10
regions in US
– 20 regions in 2040
(Morrill, 2006)
12
US Census Statistical Designations
Metropolitan statistical area (MetroSA’s)
Micropolitan statistical area (MicroSA’s)
Combined Statistical Area (CSA)
Megapolitan Region:
–
–
–
–
–
–
At least two, contiguous CSA’s
“Organic” cultural region - distinct history and identity.
Similar physical environment.
Linkages through major transportation infrastructure.
Functional urban network via goods and service flows.
Usable geography that is suitable for large-scale regional planning.
13
Combined Statistical Areas
(US Census, 2004)
14
National Megapolitan Regions
(Dhavale and Lang, 2005)
15
Significance of Mega-regions
Interconnectivity
between metropolitan areas
(Dhavale and Lang, 2005)
16
Background on Megapolitans
Projected
National Growth vs. Projected
Megapolitan Growth
(Dhavale and Lang, 2005)
17
Background on Mega-regions:
Northeast Corridor
Historical
(Dhavale and Lang, 2005)
Population Change from
1950 to 2000
18
Definition of Resiliency
What is resiliency??
Adaptability of a system to adjust under stress
Responsiveness to internal and external changes
Measure of persistence and sustainability of systems and
relationships between
– Land use
– Environmental changes
– Unexpected events
– Transportation
Short and Long
Term
Disturbances
ADAPT
SYSTEM
RESPOND
RECOVER
19
Resiliency Measurements
Traffic
oriented measurements
– Episodic
Traffic accidents
Construction
Weather
– Continual
Traffic congestion
Travel time reliability
Route redundancy
Irreversibility
Connectivity
Continuity
20
Mapping Resiliency of
Transportation Networks
– Four Time Periods
Pre 1900
1920
1947
2006
– Analysis of resiliency
Urbanized growth- increased population throughout corridor
Redundancy in routes- line density
– 3 Steps:
Population Density
Network Density (railway and highway)
Comparison between population and network
21
Population Growth
1890
RAILWAY
NETWORK
2006
HIGHWAY
NETWORK
22
Rail Line Density
1890
2006
23
Highway Density
1920
2006
24
Comparison
1890
2006
25
Future Tasks
Complete the Discussion Paper: Background of
the BosWash Megalopolis Corridor
Research the topic of “resiliency” and how it
relates to the Megalopolis corridor
Focus on land use changes within the corridor
Evaluate future projections (+2040) in
population, employment, and affects on
transportation for the corridor
26
References
DeCerreno, Alison L. C. (2007) The Future of Transportation in the Northeast
Corridor, 2007-2025: Rail Transportation. New York: NYU Wagner Rudin Center.
Dhavale, Dawn and Robert E. Lang. (2005). Beyond Megalopolis: Exploring America’s
New “Megapolitan” Geography. Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech Census Report
05:01.
Gottmann, Jean. (1961) Megalopolis: the Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the
US. Cambridge: MIT P.
Houk, Randy. (2006). Railroad History. Retrieved on November 4, 2007 from
http://www.sdrm.org/history/timeline/.
Lang, Robert E. and Arthur C. Nelson. (2007) Beyond the Metroplex: Examining
Commuter Patterns at the “Megapolitan” Scale. Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.
Morrill Richard. (2006). "Classic map revisited: The growth of Megalopolis."
Professional Geographer. 58.2 155-160.
Regional Plan Association. Northeast Megaregion: 2050. Retrieved on December 15,
2007 from http://www.rpa.org/pdf/NortheastReport.sm.pf
Short, John Rennie, Bernadette Hanlon and Thomas J. Vincino. (2007) Megalopolis 50
Years On: The Transformation of a City Region. International Journal of Urban and
Regional Research 31.2 344-367.
27
Questions??
How does the concept of Mega-regions as a
unique urban form stimulate new perspectives
when viewing your own research, especially
when pertaining to the BosWash Corridor?
In reality, what is the potential of mega-region
planning to reorganize governance structures,
private-sector involvement, and/or grass-roots
action in the future?
How does one define and measure resiliency in
a way that has meaningful implementation for
researchers?
28

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