Aspects of Herbie Hancock`s pre-electric improvisational language

Comments

Transcription

Aspects of Herbie Hancock`s pre-electric improvisational language
Aspects of Herbie Hancock’s Pre-Electric
Improvisational Language and Their Application In
Contemporary Jazz Performance: A portfolio of
recorded performances and exegesis
David McEvoy
B.Mus. (Hons) 1995
Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements
for the degree of
Master of Philosophy
Elder Conservatorium of Music
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
The University of Adelaide
February 2014
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract...................................................................................................................iii
Declaration ............................................................................................................. iv
Acknowledgements ................................................................................................. v
List of Figures......................................................................................................... vi
List of Tables.........................................................................................................vii
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................... 1
2. IDENTIFYING THE ELEMENTS: RECITAL ONE......................................... 3
3. THE PROCESS OF ASSIMILATION: RECITAL TWO ................................ 12
4. CONCLUSION ................................................................................................. 23
Appendices
A. Overview of Recital Recordings................................................................... 25
B. Taxonomy of Hancock’s Pre-Electric Improvisational Language ............... 26
C. Exercises for Assimilation and Extension of Hancock’s Language ............. 34
D. Charts............................................................................................................ 43
Bibliography and Discography.............................................................................. 59
Recital Recordings
CD 1 First Recital
CD 2 Second Recital
ii ABSTRACT
Herbie Hancock’s influential recordings from his pre-electric era, 1961-1968,
display a jazz piano style that contains a unique combination of musical elements.
This submission for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Music Performance
investigates the ways in which Hancock’s improvisational language of this era can
successfully be employed in performance by the modern jazz pianist.
The project identifies melodic, harmonic and rhythmic traits from Hancock’s
solos and presents prominent examples of each. It outlines how these are then
assimilated through a practice regime that employs a series of twelve-key
exercises. The musical elements are further developed to create more
opportunities for their execution in a variety of musical situations. Two recitals
are presented, one of Hancock’s pre-electric music specifically, and one
encompassing a broader repertoire. Each recital demonstrates the application of
these aspects of Hancock’s improvisational vocabulary in contemporary jazz
performance. An explanation of this process of application is given, and specific
examples from the recital recordings are used to illustrate that process.
The submission consists of CD recordings of the two 60-minute public recitals
and a 7500 word exegesis. This project highlights the process used by the modern
jazz pianist to assimilate new improvisational techniques and apply these in
performance.
iii DECLARATION
I certify that this work contains no material which has been accepted for the
award of any other degree or diploma in any university or other tertiary institution
and, to the best of my knowledge and belief, contains no material previously
published or written by another person, except where due reference has been
made in the text. In addition, I certify that no part of this work will, in the future,
be used in a submission for any other degree or diploma in any university or other
tertiary institution without the prior approval of the University of Adelaide and
where applicable, any partner institution responsible for the joint-award of this
degree.
I give consent to this copy of my thesis, when deposited in the University Library,
being made available for loan and photocopying, subject to the provisions of the
Copyright Act 1968.
I also give permission for the digital version of my thesis to be made available on
the web, via the University’s digital research repository, the Library catalogue and
also through web search engines, unless permission has been granted by the
University to restrict access for a period of time.
David McEvoy
10 February 2014
iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The author wishes to acknowledge the support of the following:
Supervisors Professor Mark Carroll and Mr. Bruce Hancock for their invaluable
advice and mentorship. Mark’s assistance with the editing of the current
dissertation is also acknowledged.
Head of Postgraduate Studies, Associate Professor Kimi Coaldrake for her input
and encouragement.
Associate artists Tom Pulford, David Phillips and Blake Hammat for their
wonderful musicianship.
Recording engineers Jamie Mensforth and Jarrad Payne for their expertise and
attention to detail.
My wonderful family for their constant love, guidance and perspective.
v LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Bebop and Hard-bop Language, CD 1, Track 1, 1:49 – 2:00 .................. 5
Figure 2: Melodic Minor Modes, CD 1 – track 2, 5:35 – 5:41................................ 7
Figure 3: Motivic Development, CD 1 – track 1, at 0:53, 1:21, 1:36 and 4:19....... 8
Figure 4: Polyharmony, CD 1 – track 6, 3:21 – 3:45 ............................................ 10
Figure 5: Accentual Shift, CD 1 – track 3, 1:00 – 1:06......................................... 10
Figure 6: Displaced Motivic Repetition, CD 1 – track 1, 2:15 – 2:32 .................. 11
Figure 7: Polymeter, CD 1 – track 6, 3:48 – 3:58 ................................................. 12
Figure 8: Bars 15-16, Hancock’s solo on ‘Dolphin Dance’, from
Maiden Voyage ...................................................................................... 14
Figure 9: Transferral to new harmonic situations.................................................. 14
Figure 10: Rhythmic and phrasing adaptations of the original phrase.................. 14
Figure 11: Pitch alteration of original phrase (E-naturals to E-flats) .................... 15
Figure 12: Bars 25-27, Hancock’s solo on ‘The Maze’, from Takin’ Off ............. 16
Figure 13: Adapted phrase, Displaced Motivic Repetition ................................... 16
Figure 14: Displaced Motivic Repetition, adapted to 12-bar blues....................... 17
Figure 15: Examples of triad exercises over ‘Step’............................................... 20
Figure 16: Examples of triad use over ‘Dienda’ ................................................... 20
Figure 17: Examples of perfect fourth exercises for ‘Short Story’ ....................... 20
Figure 18: Accentual Shift, CD 2 – track 1, 5:17 – 5:27....................................... 22
vi Figure 19: Polymeter, CD 2 – track 4, at 1:10 and 2:17........................................ 22
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Identified Aspects of Hancock’s Pre-Electric Improvisational Language 4
Table 2: Primary Devices for Recital Two............................................................ 18
vii Music CDs are included with the print copy
held in the University of Adelaide Library.
1. INTRODUCTION
Herbie Hancock was born in Chicago in 1940 and has had a career that spans
more than five decades. Dobbins writes that he is ‘certainly one of the most
influential jazz pianists of the second half of the twentieth century’.1 During the
1960s he made a number of important recordings which attracted critical acclaim.
He recorded as both leader and sideman for the Blue Note label, and was a
member of Miles Davis’ quintet from 1963-1968, pushing the musical boundaries
of small-group jazz.2 Coolman argues that the performances of this Miles Davis
quintet involved ‘a creative process that has rarely been equaled in jazz’.3
Hancock’s improvisations use a unique combination of musical elements. On a
foundation of vocabulary from the bebop and hard-bop eras, he adds sounds such
as diminished patterns and upper structure triads, combining all this with a rich
knowledge of harmony and a sophisticated sense of rhythm and phrasing.4
This project investigates the ways in which Hancock’s improvisational language
of the pre-electric era can be successfully employed in performance by the
modern jazz pianist. It looks at his work from 1961-1968, up to the time of his
first recorded use of a Fender Rhodes electric piano.5 The project is broadly
divided into three stages of study. Firstly the language and devices used in
Hancock’s solos are identified. Secondly this newly identified musical vocabulary
is assimilated and applied in two recital performances. The final stage involves
the analysis and assessment of these performances.
The primary research question to be answered is: How can Herbie Hancock’s
improvisational language of the pre-electric era be employed by the modern jazz
pianist? Secondary research questions are: What are the details of the
improvisational language used in Hancock’s piano solos of the pre-electric era?
1
Herbie Hancock, Classic jazz compositions and piano solos / Herbie Hancock; transcribed by
Bill Dobbins (Rottenburg N., Germany: Advance Music, 1992), 5. Print.
2
Bill Dobbins, ‘Hancock, Herbie.’ Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University
Press [accessed 6 December 2013].
3
Todd F. Coolman, ‘The Miles Davis Quintet of the Mid-1960s: Synthesis of Improvisational and
Compositional Elements’, PhD thesis, New York University (1997), 154. Print.
4
David Morgan, ‘Superimposition in the improvisations of Herbie Hancock’, Annual Review of
Jazz Studies 11 (2000), 69-90. Print.
5
Miles Davis, Miles in the Sky, Miles Davis with other musicians. (Columbia COL 472209 2),
1968. CD.
1 What are the most effective methods for absorbing this vocabulary and
successfully incorporating it into the performances? Are there ways in which the
elements and/or methods used in his music can be extended upon and employed
by the contemporary jazz pianist? How does the study and application of
Hancock’s improvisational language affect performances throughout the project?
To gain an understanding of the important musical elements used in Hancock’s
improvisations, the first stage of this project involves extensive listening and
analysis of his pre-electric recordings. Melodic, harmonic and rhythmic aspects
are identified so as to give a well-rounded view of his musical style. As examples
of each of these musical traits are discovered in the recordings, they are
transcribed and compiled for inclusion in a taxonomy.
The second stage of the project is the assimilation and application of this newly
identified musical language. Various practice methods are tried and tested. The
process of assimilation involves the creation of exercises that are used as part of a
practice regime to give the performer technical control and twelve-key facility.
The musical elements and methods found in Hancock’s music are often developed
further to create variations on the underlying principles of the chosen aspects. The
improvisations of the performer are musically enhanced by the addition of these
traits of Hancock’s improvisational language. Put simply, the musical equation is:
Performer + Hancock = Something New. This newly assimilated musical
vocabulary is applied through performance in two 60-minute public recitals
(included in this submission as CD 1 and CD 2). The first recital looks at
compositions from Hancock’s pre-electric era and gives the performer the
opportunity to demonstrate facility with this music. The second recital takes the
chosen aspects of Hancock’s improvisational style and applies them to a broader
range of compositions, including some originals. The first recital is the formative
part, the journey, and the second recital is the summative part, the destination.
The final stage of the research is the analysis of the recorded performances. These
are critically assessed in terms of the technical ability of the performer and the
musicality of the performance. The CD recordings of the two recitals are dissected
to give examples of the various musical elements being employed in performance.
2 This exegesis outlines the key conceptual issues that underpin these recorded
works. Chapter Two, ‘Identifying The Elements: Recital One’, outlines in detail
each of the chosen aspects of Hancock’s music. It identifies the elements under
the broad categories of melody, harmony and rhythm. It speaks to the first recital,
discussing the ways in which these traits have been applied in performance,
referencing particular examples within the recorded tracks.
Chapter Three, ‘The Process Of Assimilation: Recital Two’, discusses a series of
exercises and practice regime that were devised by the performer to assimilate the
chosen musical elements. It looks at the ways in which these musical aspects have
been transferred to a wider repertoire in the second recital, giving particular
examples from CD 2. It details how the traits have been extended upon to create
performances with a more individualised artistic expression.
2. IDENTIFYING THE ELEMENTS: RECITAL ONE
To determine the musical traits that are the defining features of Hancock’s
improvisational style, firstly an analysis is made of his recordings from the preelectric era and portions of his solos are transcribed. Journal articles and books are
also used as a source to gain further insights into the technical details of his
music. Through this process, a total of thirteen aspects are chosen that are
considered to be the essential musical elements of his improvisational language.
These are grouped as sub-headings under three main areas of melody, harmony
and rhythm as outlined in Table 1, overleaf.
A total of twenty-four transcribed excerpts are selected from Hancock’s solos that
are considered salient examples of each of the identified aspects. These are
compiled as a ‘Taxonomy Of Hancock’s Pre-Electric Improvisational Language’
(included here at Appendix B).
The current chapter looks at each of these aspects in turn. It refers to the excerpts
in the taxonomy and gives examples from the first recital that illustrate use of the
musical elements in performance.
3 Melodic Elements:
Bebop and Hard-Bop Language
The Blues
Diminished Modes
Melodic Minor Modes
Upper Structure Triads
Use of Fourths
Motivic Development
Harmonic Elements:
Reharmonisation
Polyharmony
Rhythmic Elements:
Metric Displacement: Accentual Shift
Metric Displacement: Displaced Motivic Repetition
Metric Displacement: Polymeter
Variation in Phrasing
Table 1: Identified Aspects of Hancock’s Pre-Electric Improvisational Language
Recital One focuses on compositions from Hancock’s recordings of the preelectric era. The program includes six of Hancock’s compositions: ‘The
Sorcerer’6, ‘The Maze’ (see Appendix D), ‘Driftin’’ (see Appendix D), ‘Onefinger Snap’7, ‘Dolphin Dance’8 and ‘Empty Pockets’ (see Appendix D); and two
compositions by Wayne Shorter: ‘Wildflower’9 and ‘E.S.P.’10
2.1 Melodic Elements
2.1.1 Bebop And Hard-Bop Language
David Morgan writes that the playing of Hancock’s predecessors, especially Red
Garland and Wynton Kelly, ‘provides a context for Hancock’s melodic
vocabulary and its comprehension’.11 Excerpts 1-4 of the taxonomy (see
Appendix B) are examples of Hancock using some of the features of bebop and
hard-bop language such as chord arpeggiation, scale runs with chromatic passing
6
Hancock, Herbie, Classic jazz compositions and piano solos, 22.
Chuck Sher, ed., The New Real Book, Volume 3 (Petaluma, CA: Sher Music, 1995), 280. Print.
8
Chuck Sher, ed., The New Real Book, Volume 3, 108.
9
Chuck Sher, ed., The New Real Book (Petaluma, CA: Sher Music, 1988), 405. Print.
10
Chuck Sher, ed., The New Real Book, 90.
11
David Morgan, 69.
7
4 notes, chord tones commonly landing on the beat with non-chord tones off the
beat, and chromatic approach notes.
Use of this element of Hancock’s style can be heard throughout the first recital,
sometimes quoted literally and sometimes paraphrased. For example, on CD 1 –
Track 7, 2:15 – 2:22 and track 5, at 1:37, direct use of excerpts 3 and 4 can be
heard. Track 1, 1:49 – 2:00 demonstrates indirect use of this language in a longer
phrase, as shown in figure 1 below. There are ascending and descending
arpeggios of seventh chords, chromatic approach notes, and indirect use of
excerpt 4 in the third bar.
D7alt
5
G = 5 E5 5 5 E5 5
G
5E5 5!5 5 5 5
Dm9
Ab13sus
5 5 5 5 5 !5
5
5
5
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 E5 5 5 5 5 5
5
Abm9
Gm9
5
4
5 5E5 55 5 5 5 5 5 5!5 5 55 5E5 5 5E5 5 5 !5E5 5
55
5 E5 5 5 5
Cm9
C13/A
A9sus
Abdim7
Figure 1: Bebop and Hard-bop Language, CD 1, Track 1, 1:49 – 2:00
2.1.2 The Blues
A distinctive sound in Hancock’s playing is his use of melodies employing
flattened thirds and sevenths, often harmonised with one or two other notes in the
right hand. Excerpt 5 (see Appendix B) shows Hancock’s use of this technique in
the key-centre of F. He also employs blues scales in his melodies, as illustrated in
his composition ‘Driftin’’ (see Appendix D; refer CD 1 – track 4) where he uses
the E-flat blues scale in bars 1-2 and 4-6, and the G blues scale in bars 22-23.
The piano solo on ‘Empty Pockets’ (refer CD 1 – track 8) demonstrates use of this
blues language, interspersed with other improvisational devices. Examples can be
heard in the opening 8 bars (2:44 – 2:57) and then at 3:19, 3:43 and 4:05.
The improvised piano solo on ‘Driftin’’ (refer CD 1 – track 4) also employs this
vocabulary, this time in the key of E-flat. Short blues phrases are used in the first
chorus of the solo (at 1:22 and 1:34), and most of the second chorus uses blues
5 language (2:02 – 3:00) sometimes in a ‘block chord’ manner, and sometimes as
stand-alone right hand melodies.
2.1.3 Diminished Modes
Hancock’s use of diminished modes is another distinguishing feature of his
improvisations. He demonstrates use of diminished patterns, made by parallel
minor third movement within the scale, in excerpts 7 and 8 (see Appendix B). In
excerpt 6 he uses a G 8-note dominant scale (mode of F diminished scale)
followed by a C 8-note dominant scale (mode of Bb diminished scale) over a G7 –
C7 – Fm chord structure, without resolving to the F minor tonality.
‘Wildflower’ (refer CD 1 – track 2) gives the performer the opportunity to
demonstrate the D 8-note dominant scale (mode of C diminished scale) in bars 89, 23-24 and 31-32 of the 32-bar form. Due to the parallel tone-semitone structure
of the diminished mode, there is no strong point of resolution within the scale, and
therefore it can be used to create harmonic tension. In the opening chorus, patterns
moving by parallel minor thirds are used as left hand chords at 0:14, and then as a
right-hand melodic fill at 0:51. Further examples of diminished mode use can be
heard in this track at 5:09, 6:21 and 8:11.
2.1.4 Melodic Minor Modes
Examples of the use of melodic minor modes can be found in much of Hancock’s
music of the 1960s. Excerpt 9 (see Appendix B) comes from his solo on the uptempo ‘Eye of the Hurricane’12 and shows use of the G altered scale (mode of the
A-flat melodic minor scale) and F melodic minor scale. Excerpt 3 also employs
the G altered scale, this time with some added chromatic passing notes.
The piano solo on ‘E.S.P.’, a 32-bar Wayne Shorter composition, (refer CD 1 –
track 7, 1:49 – 3:08) features use of melodic minor modes, as an E altered scale
(mode of F melodic minor) in bars 1-2, 5-6 and 11 of the form, D altered scale
(mode of E-flat melodic minor) in bar 9 of the form, and D-flat lydian dominant
scale (mode of A-flat melodic minor) in bar 29 of the form.
12
Herbie Hancock, Maiden Voyage, Herbie Hancock with other musicians. (Blue Note CDP 7
46339 2), 1965. CD.
6 The following example (see figure 2 below) demonstrates melodic minor use from
the piano solo on ‘Wildflower’ (refer CD 1 – track 2, 5:35). The A altered scale
(mode of B-flat melodic minor) is used in bar 1, paraphrased from excerpt 3, and
the C melodic minor scale is used in bars 2-3. (There are some added chromatic
passing notes in the example: A-flat and G-flat in bar 1, E-natural in bar 2, and Fsharps in bar 3.)
D7(b9)sus
D7(b9)sus
55555
5
5
5
5
E
5
5
5 5
4
G ?: 4 E5 555555 55555555 5 5 =4 5 5 5 555E55 55
55 5
5
Abm9
A7alt
Figure 2: Melodic Minor Modes, CD 1 – track 2, 5:35 – 5:41
2.1.5 Upper Structure Triads
Another feature of Hancock’s improvisations is his use of triad arpeggiation in his
right-hand melodies, outlining the upper extensions of the chords, such as ninths
and thirteenths. Excerpts 10 and 11 (see Appendix B) illustrate this. For example,
in excerpt 10, Hancock plays an E-flat major triad against the G7 harmony. The
E-flat major triad produces the root, sharpened-fifth and sharpened-ninth of the
G7 chord.
Examples of the use of upper structure triads can be found in the performance of
‘Dolphin Dance’ in recital one. The bridge of this song uses harmony built on
pedal points of G and F, and the piano improvisation makes use of the following
upper structure triads: F major triad over G13sus; A major triad over A/G; G
major triad over Ebmaj7(b5)/G; E-flat major triad over F13sus; and D major triad
over F13(b9) (refer CD 1 – track 6, 1:36 – 1:52 and 2:41 – 2:59).
Other more fleeting examples of upper structure triad use can be found throughout
the first recital. For example on CD 1 – track 3, the F# major triad (at 0:46) and B
major triad (at 1:53) are used to create harmonic interest over the E minor
harmony.
7 2.1.6 Use Of Fourths
Melodies using perfect fourth intervals are a part of Hancock’s improvisational
language, as illustrated by excerpts 12 and 13 (see Appendix B). In both excerpts
he plays perfect-fourths in two or three-note structures, and also shifts them
chromatically, creating dissonance against the underlying harmony. The use of
fourths is employed in performance in the second recital and examples of their use
are given under ‘3.2.1 Application of Melodic Elements’.
2.1.7 Motivic Development
Hancock repeats and develops motives in many of his solos of the pre-electric era.
Excerpt 14 (see Appendix B) shows his development of a two-note motive and
then a four-note motive. In excerpt 15 he develops an ascending three-note motive
in the right hand, making pitch adjustments on each repeat to accommodate the
ever-changing underlying harmony.
‘The Sorcerer’ (refer CD 1 – track 1) is a sixteen-bar composition with harmonic
shifts in every bar.13 Motivic development was used in the performance of this
piece to help create cohesion in the solo, enabling longer phrases to be played
‘across the barlines’ that accommodate the harmonic changes while also having a
strong melodic structure of their own. Rather than directly quoting Hancock,
motives were created and developed spontaneously. Figure 3, below, shows four
of the motives that are developed in the improvised solo (refer CD 1 – track 1).
Theses can be heard at 0:53, 1:21, 1:36, and 4:19.
1)
G 5 5 5
5
5 5
3
3
5 5 4
2)
3
?
4
= 5 5 5 4
5
3
G 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
4)
4
3)
3
= 5
5 5 5
5 5 5
5 5
Figure 3: Motivic Development, CD 1 – track 1, at 0:53, 1:21, 1:36 and 4:19
13
Herbie Hancock, Classic jazz compositions and piano solos, 22.
8 2.2 Harmonic Elements
2.2.1 Reharmonisation
Examples of the use of alternate harmony can be found in Hancock’s
improvisations. There are instances where newly imposed chords create a
different form of harmonic consonance. Excerpt 16 (see Appendix B) is an
illustration of this. The root notes remain the same, but instead of the dominant
seventh chords usually played at that point in the song, Hancock plays suspended
dominant thirteenth chords.
Examples of the use of this type of reharmonisation can be found in the
performance of ‘The Maze’ in recital one (refer CD 1 – track 3). This song has an
eight bar structure: Em7 (4 bars) – Am7 – G7 – F#m7(b5) – F7 (refer Appendix
D). Due to the repetitive nature of the harmony, reharmonisations were created
that used the existing root notes to give the improvisation more harmonic interest.
For example, at 1:53 the following chord sequence was applied: Em(maj7) (4
bars) – Am(maj7) - Gm(maj7) - F#m(maj7) - Fm(maj7). In the next chorus (at
2:11) another variation of bars 5-8 can be heard: Am11 – Gm11 – F#m11 – Fm11.
2.2.2 Polyharmony
There are instances in Hancock’s improvisations where he outlines alternate
chords that result in two harmonies being played simultaneously, one by the
double bass and another by the piano, thereby creating harmonic dissonance. An
example of Hancock’s use of this can be found in excerpt 17 (see Appendix B)
where his improvised melody uses arpeggios of C#m7 and F#7 chords against the
underlying harmony of F minor. Excerpt 13 also illustrates his use of this device
in the fourth and eighth bars, with right-hand melodies shifted a semitone away
from the tonal centre.
This type of polyharmony has been used in the performance of ‘Dolphin Dance’,
as shown in figure 4 overleaf (superimposed chords are written in brackets). It can
be heard in the third chorus of the improvised piano solo (refer CD 1 – track 6, at
3:21), where the minor 7 chords are shifted a semitone higher, creating temporary
harmonic dissonance against the root notes of the original chords.
9 Cm7
G 4
Abm7
5 5 55
5:
Abmaj9(#11)
=
[C#m9] [Cm9] [Am9]
Am7
D7
5 E 5 ! 5 ! 5 5: 5 5 Gmaj7
5
5 5 E5 5 5 5
5
4 5
=
5
Cm7
?
3
3
[Am9] [Abm9]
5 5 5 ! 5 5 5
5 5 !5 5 5
G
Fm11
3
3
[F#m9]
3
[F#m9]
Fm11
3
[Fm9]
E 5 5 E5 ! 5 5 E5 E5
3
3
E5 5 E5 E5 !5 !5
5
4
3
3
Figure 4: Polyharmony, CD 1 – track 6, 3:21 – 3:45
2.3 Rhythmic Elements
2.3.1 Metric Displacement: Accentual Shift
Keith Waters writes that ‘one high point of metric sophistication and subtlety
within the traditional jazz framework may be found in the piano solos of Herbie
Hancock’.14 Hancock uses rhythmic displacement in such a way that his melodies
seem to float over the underlying metric structure, disguising the pulse and form
of the song. Waters outlines three metric displacement techniques used by
Hancock: accentual shift, displaced motivic repetition, and polymeter.15
Hancock’s use of accentual shift can be seen in excerpts 18 and 19 (see Appendix
B) where he moves the accents to 2 + 4, and then back to 1 + 3.
This form of accentual shift can be heard in the first recital on ‘Dolphin Dance’
(refer CD 1 – track 6). The piano improvisation, in conjunction with the bass
pedal point, creates this shift of accents at the end of the first chorus of the solo
(2:02 – 2:10) and in the last eight bars of the song (5:15 – 5:30). Another example
of this is shown in figure 5 below. This comes from the piano improvisation on
‘The Maze’ (refer CD 1 – track 3, at 1:00).
E
G ?
Am7
5
= 5 5
[Gm7]
G7
5
5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5
[F#m7]
F#m7(b5)
5 E5 5 5 5
5 E5 F7
5 5 !5
E5 5 5 E 5 5
Figure 5: Accentual Shift, CD 1 – track 3, 1:00 – 1:06
14
Keith Waters, ‘Blurring the barline: Metric displacement in the piano solos of Herbie Hancock’,
Annual Review of Jazz Studies 8 (1996), 19. Print.
15
Keith Waters, 19-37.
10 2.3.2 Metric Displacement: Displaced Motivic Repetition
A noticeable element of Hancock’s improvisations is his use of repeated motives
that are rhythmically displaced. In excerpt 20 (see Appendix B) he plays a phrase,
repeats it with the same rhythm, then repeats it again but shifts it forward by one
beat. Excerpts 21 and 22 are longer examples that show Hancock using a greater
range of rhythmic displacements.
Displaced motivic repetition can be heard a number of times in the piano
improvisation on ‘The Sorcerer’ (refer CD 1 – track 1). The motive that begins in
bar 11 of the piano solo (at 0:53) is repeated rhythmically identically five times
before it is displaced by one beat. A longer example can be heard in the fifth
chorus of the piano solo (at 2:15) where a five-note motive (indicated by a square
bracket in figure 6 below) is played and displaced rhythmically over fourteen
bars. The melodic contour of the motive is maintained while pitch adjustments are
made to accommodate the underlying harmony.
Gm%/A
Cm9
G 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 E5 5 5 5 5 5 5
4 5!5 5 5
!5
5
A7sus
EI5M 5 5 3E5 5 I5ME5 3 5 B
5 5
!5E5
5
4
5
!
5
4
5
!
5
55
G
5
5
E5
Db%
D%
Em%
Dm%
Abdim7
4 5 5 5 5 5 5
5M 55 5 5
4
5
Db%
3
5 E 5M 5 55 5 5 5 5 5 555 5 5 55 5 55 5 5 5 5
! 5M E5
!
5
B
!5!5
!55 5 5 5 5
=
=
=
G
D%
A7
3
D7alt
3
Abm9
Gm9
3
Figure 6: Displaced Motivic Repetition, CD 1 – track 1, 2:15 – 2:32
2.3.3 Metric Displacement: Polymeter
Hancock also created metric displacement by imposing an alternate metre over the
existing one. In excerpt 23 (see Appendix B) he plays a 3/4 motive across the
underlying 4/4 metric structure. This type of polymeter ‘crosses the barlines’, in
that each time it repeats it begins on a different beat of the bar. Excerpt 24 is an
example of a different type of polymeter that uses quaver triplets. The 12 quaver
11 triplets from a bar of 4/4 are accented in groups of four, rather than three, to
produce three superimposed beats of equal value across the bar.
Examples of polymeter using 3/4 over 4/4 can be heard in CD 1 – track 5, at 1:52,
and track 7, at 2:41. Each example uses a slightly different 3/4 phrase. Polymeter
using quaver triplets grouped in fours can be heard in CD 1 – track 6, at 2:48, and
track 8, at 3:54. It can also heard in ‘Dolphin Dance’ (refer CD 1 – track 6, at
3:48), where the first quaver triplet in each group of four is actually a rest,
resulting in the rhythm below:
3
3
3
3= =
=
G 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
3
3
3
3
= 2 2 2 = 2 2 2 = 2 2 2
Figure 7: Polymeter, CD 1 – track 6, 3:48 – 3:58
2.3.4 Variation in Phrasing
Hancock’s improvisational style employs a range of phrase lengths, and a variety
of space left between phrases. The phrasing used in his solo on ‘Driftin’’16 is
emulated in the first recital (refer CD 1 – track 4). The second 32-bar chorus of
the piano solo (2:11 – 3:14) uses a difference of phrasing between the ‘A’ sections
and the bridge. Longer, more dense phrasing can be heard in bars 1-16 and 25-32,
with shorter phrases in bars 17-24 that have a greater gap between each phrase.
This provides an effective contrast within the solo and helps create a better sense
of structure and forward motion.
3. THE PROCESS OF ASSIMILATION: RECITAL TWO
This chapter takes the traits that were identified in Hancock’s music and outlines
the methods used by the performer to assimilate them. It also discusses some
extensions and extrapolations of the chosen elements. The process of absorbing
this language into one’s own, to the point where it can be used spontaneously, is
16
Herbie Hancock, Takin’ Off, Herbie Hancock with other musicians. (Blue Note CDP 7 46506 2),
1962. CD.
12 reliant upon twelve-key facility. The intent is to enable successful and seamless
incorporation of the new language in improvised solos.
This chapter speaks to the second recital, giving examples from CD 2 where the
language can be heard. Recital two takes aspects of Hancock’s language and
applies it to a broader range of jazz repertoire, including three of the performer’s
original compositions.
3.1 The Process of Assimilation
The assimilation of Hancock’s improvisational language has been achieved
through a pedagogical approach, taking examples from the taxonomy to devise a
practice regime that uses twelve-key exercises to gain technical control of the new
material while covering various melodic, harmonic and rhythmic possibilities.
The excerpts from the taxonomy (see Appendix B) form the basis of these
exercises and practice regime. The following paragraphs detail the assimilation of
the melodic, harmonic and rhythmic elements.
3.1.1 Assimilation of Melodic Elements
The formulation of exercises used to assimilate melodic elements commonly
involves a five-step process where small adjustments are made to the original
excerpt to increase the options of application while still maintaining its melodic
integrity: step one is learning to play the melodic element in twelve keys; step two
is applying it to other harmonies; step three involves making adaptations for other
rhythmic situations; step four is making pitch adjustments to open up more
harmonic possibilities; step five is applying it to the pieces that are to be
performed. The case study below will illuminate this five-step process.
This case study begins with a phrase from excerpt 1 (shown in figure 8 overleaf).
The first step is to learn the phrase in all twelve keys on the piano, resolving any
technical issues as they arise. At this stage, the left hand can simply be playing the
root note of the chord, or a voicing such as the 4-note left-hand voicing found in
excerpt 2.
13 D7
Am7
3
5 5
G = 5 5 5 5
3
3
5
5
5
5 5 5
3
5
5
5
5
4
Figure 8: Bars 15-16, Hancock’s solo on ‘Dolphin Dance’, from Maiden Voyage17
The second step involves making a theoretical analysis of the phrase to determine
if it can be used in a broader range of harmonic situations. In this case, the phrase
is based on a major mode (of either C major or G major) and other harmonic
possibilities are Am11, Cmaj9, Fmaj13(#11), D13sus, D13, Dm13, and G13sus.
The phrase is again practised in twelve keys, this time with the new harmony in
the left hand. Two examples of this are given below:
1) Cmaj9
3
5 5 55 5 5 55
5
5
4
G = 5 5 5 5 5 5
3
3
(taken through 12 keys)
3
5 5 55 5 5 55
5
5
= 555 5 5
4
3
5
2) D13sus
3
3
3
(taken through 12 keys)
Figure 9: Transferral to new harmonic situations
The third step is to investigate other rhythmic and phrasing adaptations of the
original excerpt. Examples of these are given in figure 10 below:
1) Shortened to 1-bar phrase:
555
G = 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
3
3
3
3
2) Shortened to half-bar phrase:
=
55?
555
3
3) Lengthened to 4-octave phrase:
555
5
5
5
3
3
3
555 5
5
5
=
5
5
G
5
55555 3
3
3
3
5
3
5
5
5 5 55
5
5
5
5
G 5 5 5 5
= ?
4) Adapted to regular quavers:
G
5 5 5 5 5
5
5
5
5) Regular quaver adaptation shortened:
5 5 = 4
5 5 5
5
5 5
5 5 5 5 5
6) Regular quaver adaptation lengthened to 4 octaves:
3
5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5
Figure 10: Rhythmic and phrasing adaptations of the original phrase
17
Herbie Hancock, Maiden Voyage
14 The fourth step involves exploring the possibilities of adapting the note-pitches
within the phrase. In this case, by changing the E-naturals to E-flats, as illustrated
in figure 11, the newly adapted phrase uses the notes of C melodic minor scale,
and can be applied over chords such as: Cmin(maj9), B7alt, F13(#11) and
Am11(b5). Steps one to three, as outlined above, are then repeated using this
pitch-altered phrase.
3
5 5
G = 5 5 5 !5
3
3
!5
5 5 5
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
?
New Harmonic Possibilities: Cmin(maj9), B7alt, F13(#11), Am11(b5), Ebmaj7(#5), D13sus(b9) ...
Figure 11: Pitch alteration of original phrase (E-naturals to E-flats)
The fifth and final step is to take this newly acquired language and apply it to the
pieces that are to be performed. Now that virtually every chord is accounted for
and there are a range of rhythmic and phrasing options available, improvisations
can be created that use this new phrase and its adaptations in every bar of the
piece.
A more detailed version of this case study has been included in Appendix C as
‘Study #1’ and ‘Study #2’. This five-step process is applied in a similar way to
each of the melodic excerpts in the taxonomy.
3.1.2 Assimilation of Harmonic Elements
The two harmonic elements identified in this study are reharmonisation and
polyharmony. The process of assimilating and applying reharmonisation in
performance is brought about by taking the harmonic techniques used by Hancock
and, through a process of trial and error, using these in place of the given
harmonies of the pieces to be performed. In the second recital, this is used in
‘Moment’s Notice’ and ‘O Grande Amor’ (refer CD 2 – tracks 1 and 3). In
‘Moment’s Notice’ the reharmonisation is pre-arranged and the new harmonic
structure is used throughout the entire piece. In ‘O Grande Amor’, although prearranged, it is only used in the second half of the piano solo. It uses existing bass
notes and applies new chords that are designed to work with them.
15 Polyharmony is used in the piano improvisation on ‘Short Story’ in the second
recital (refer CD 2 – track 6). The use of polyharmony is assimilated through a
technique very similar to that described under ‘3.1.1 Assimilation of Melodic
Elements’, above. Initially, a phrase is chosen from the taxonomy and practiced in
all twelve keys to ensure that it is under technical control. Then the phrase is
theoretically analysed and other harmonic contexts explored. Variations of
melody, rhythm and phrasing are then explored, and finally the concept is
practised over the chord structure of the piece.
3.1.3 Assimilation of Rhythmic Elements
The process of assimilating the rhythmic elements of Hancock’s improvisational
language also involves devising exercises that are intended to give the performer
controlled use of these elements in a variety of musical situations. The following
case study will be used to illustrate this process.
This case study outlines a series of exercises that are designed to absorb and then
apply Hancock’s use of displaced motivic repetition. A more detailed version is
included as ‘Study #4’ in Appendix C. First, a phrase is taken from excerpt 20 that
demonstrates Hancock’s use of displaced motivic repetition:
Em7
G 5 5M 4
5I 4
5 5M 4
I5 5 E5M 4
5I 5 5M 4
5 5 5
5 5 5 = [Bb7]
Figure 12: Bars 25-27, Hancock’s solo on ‘The Maze’, from Takin’ Off
The last bar is then altered to keep the study manageable while still maintaining
the rhythmic device, and this phrase is practised through twelve keys:
Em7
G 5 5M 4
5I
4
5 5M 4
5I
5 5M
4
I5
5 E5M 4
E5
4
?
Figure 13: Adapted phrase, Displaced Motivic Repetition
The excerpt is then extended to create eight and twelve-bar exercises that take
Hancock’s concept of displaced motivic repetition and extend it further (see
‘Study #4’, Appendix C). Next, the twelve-bar exercise is adapted for use as a
16 blues to give it more musical relevance for the performer, and again practised in
twelve keys (see figure 14 below).
Fm
G 5 5M 4
Bbm
G 4 5I
G7alt
G 5I
5I
4
4 5 5M
4 5 5M 4
5 5M 4
I5
5 5M
Fm
4 I5 5 5M 4
C7alt
I5 5 5M 4
5I
4
5I
I5
5 5M
4
5 5M
4
5 5M
4
Fm
5
5
5
4
?
5 5M
4
5 5M 4
4
0
Figure 14: Displaced Motivic Repetition, adapted to 12-bar blues
By this point, the performer has a good command of this technique and is able to
use it securely in improvisation. The final stage is to replace the original melodic
cell from Hancock’s solo with new melodic material of the same rhythmic value
and repeat the steps above. This final stage is practised with a variety of melodic
cells to give the performer much greater ability and freedom in applying this
rhythmic technique in performance. An example of this is shown in the last page
of ‘Study #4’ (see Appendix C).
3.2 Recital Two
The second recital gives the performer the opportunity to apply the identified
aspects of Hancock’s improvisational language in a broader contemporary jazz
repertoire. It tackles pieces that have not been recorded by Hancock and therefore
throws up new challenges in terms of applying this assimilated improvisational
language. As illustrated above, the process of assimilation involves some
extensions and extrapolation of Hancock’s traits and devices, and examples of this
can be heard in CD 2.
The program includes three of the performer’s original compositions: ‘Step’,
‘Cryptic’ and ‘One By One’ (refer Appendix D for charts); and other pieces that
were not recorded by Hancock: ‘Moment’s Notice’ by John Coltrane (refer
Appendix D), ‘O Grande Amor’ by Antonio Carlos Jobim (refer Appendix D),
17 ‘Voyage’ by Kenny Barron18, ‘Hanky Panky’ by Dexter Gordon (refer Appendix
D), ‘Short Story’ by Kenny Dorham19, ‘Dienda’ by Kenny Kirkland20, and ‘B.P.
Bossa’ by Mike LeDonne (refer Appendix D).
In Recital Two, the challenge is to include all of the various musical elements in a
meaningful way while still retaining the essence of each piece. To do this, a plan
is drawn up for each of the ten pieces to be performed. Two improvisational
aspects are chosen for each piece as the primary devices to be employed in the
improvisations. This helps to create a well-balanced performance that
demonstrates use of all of the assimilated musical material (see Table 2 below).
PIECES
PRIMARY DEVICES
Moment’s Notice
Reharmonisation
Metric Displacement
Step
Upper Structure Triads
Use of Fourths
O Grande Amor
Reharmonisation
Motivic Development
Voyage
Bebop and Hardbop
Language
Metric Displacement
Hanky Panky
The Blues
Variation in Phrasing
Short Story
Use of Fourths
Polyharmony
Dienda
Motivic Development
Upper Structure Triads
B.P. Bossa
Melodic Minor Modes
The Blues
Cryptic
Metric Displacement
Variation in Phrasing
One By One
Diminished Modes
Metric Displacement
Table 2: Primary Devices for Recital Two
The following paragraphs give instances where the melodic, harmonic and
rhythmic elements can be heard in the pieces of the second recital, and if
applicable, where they have been adapted or extended.
3.2.1 Application of Melodic Elements
Use of bebop and hardbop language was chosen as one of the main focal points
for the performance of ‘Voyage’. The assimilated language is used in an indirect
18
Chuck Sher, ed., The New Real Book, 386.
Chuck Sher, ed., The New Real Book, Volume 3, 337.
20
Chuck Sher, ed., The New Real Book, Volume 3, 104.
19
18 manner, without forcing certain ‘licks’ into the performance, so as to create a
performance of a more personalised nature. It is employed throughout the piano
improvisation on this track (refer CD 2 – track 4).
Blues vocabulary can be found in the piano solo on ‘Hanky Panky’. The first
chorus of the solo is shaped using this language over bars 1-16 and 25-32 of the
32-bar form (refer CD 2 – track 5, 1:04 – 2:10). This is heard in the right-hand of
the piano above a march-like accompaniment in the left-hand. It was tied in with
the use of phrasing, which will be discussed further under ‘3.2.3 Applying the
Rhythmic Elements’.
‘B.P. Bossa’ has a complex harmonic structure under the statement of the melody
but opens out to a simpler harmony in the solo form (see Appendix D). The
performance of this piece provides a piano improvisation that juxtaposes the blues
vocabulary with melodic minor modes. This can be heard throughout the piano
solo (refer CD 2 – track 8, 3:24 – 5:50). The blues lines create cohesion within the
solo with a single blues scale working across the majority of the chord structure,
whereas the melodic minor modes are different for each chord, enabling the
creation of more complex melodic material.
Diminished modes were used as one of the primary devices in ‘One By One’, in
the form of 8-note dominant scales. They were used in the first, third and fifth
choruses of the solo as a way of creating harmonic tension (refer CD 2 – track 10,
2:48, 3:35 and 4:23).
Upper structure triads were employed as a primary device in the performance of
‘Step’. Extrapolating Hancock’s use of triads from excerpt 11 (see Appendix B),
two triads were identified and practised for each chord of the piece. An example
of an exercise is shown in figure 15 overleaf. This use of triads can be heard on
CD 2 – track 2, as chords (e.g. 3:50 – 4:05) and as single-note melodies (e.g. 4:41
– 4:51).
19 Fm11
(Bb & Ab major triads)
5
G 55 55 555 555 555 55
5
5
5
5
55555
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5
5
Figure 15: Examples of triad exercises over ‘Step’
Upper structure triads were also used in ‘Dienda’, this time with the addition of
passing notes between the notes of the triads. An example of this concept is
shown in figure 16 below, and variations of this technique can be heard
throughout the piano solo (refer CD 2 – track 7, 1:20 – 3:38).
Gm11
G 5 5 5
5
5 5 5
5
5 5 5
Gm11
5
(F major triad with passing notes)
5 5 5
5
Figure 16: Examples of triad use over ‘Dienda’
Melodies employing the use of fourths can be heard in the performance of ‘Short
Story’ (refer CD 2 – track 6, 3:13 – 5:34). Exercises were devised based on the
perfect fourth shapes used by Hancock in excerpts 12 and 13 (see Appendix B).
An example of one such exercise is shown in figure 17 below. The performance
of ‘Short Story’ uses this concept combined with chromaticism towards the end of
the solo, as discussed further under ‘3.2.2 Applying the Harmonic Elements’.
Cm11
5 5
G 555 555 55 55
'
'
'
5
5 55
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5
5
5
5
Figure 17: Examples of perfect fourth exercises for ‘Short Story’
Motivic development was included as one of the primary improvisation devices
for ‘Dienda’ and ‘O Grande Amor’. Examples of this can be heard in the first
chorus of the piano solo on ‘O Grande Amor’ (refer CD 2 – track 3, 1:19 – 2:20),
and the second chorus of the piano solo on ‘Dienda’ (refer CD 2 – track 7, 2:27 –
3:36).
20 3.2.2 Application of Harmonic Elements
Reharmonisation was applied to ‘Moment’s Notice’ to create a chord structure
more like Hancock’s composition ‘Dolphin Dance’.21 It is used throughout the
performance (refer CD 2 – track 1, 1:40 – 7:35). A chart of the re-harmonised
version can be found in Appendix D. The reharmonised structure has less chordal
movement and fewer points of obvious harmonic resolution. For example, bars 14 have had the II-V harmony removed:
Original:
| Em7 – A7 | Fm7 – Bb7 | Ebmaj7
| Abm7 – Db7 |
Reharmonised as:
| Em9
| Db9sus
| Fm9
| Ebmaj7
|
Reharmonisation was also used as a primary focus in ‘O Grande Amor’ (refer CD
2 – track 3). The first chorus of the piano solo (at 1:19) uses the original harmony:
Am7 – Abdim7 – C9/G – C9 – B7/F# – E7/F – Am7, while the second chorus (at
2:18) uses the same bass notes with new chords: Am9 – Abm9 – Gm9 – Gm9/C –
F#m9 – Fm9 – Em9/A. This was used to give the performance an extra layer of
harmonic sophistication, while providing a way to further develop the piano solo.
Polyharmony is used in the performance of ‘Short Story’. Chromatic chordal
movement, as used by Hancock in excerpts 12, 13 and 17 (see Appendix B), was
superimposed over the existing harmonic structure. The bass notes remained the
same so the new chords intentionally create harmonic dissonance. Examples of
this can be heard in the last two choruses of the piano solo (refer CD 2 – track 6,
4:59 – 5:34).
3.2.3 Application of Rhythmic Elements
One of primary devices used in ‘Moment’s Notice’ was metric displacement. An
example of this is heard in the form of accentual shift in bars 9-16 of the final
chorus (refer CD 2 – track 1, at 5:17). The melody, usually played on beats one
and three, is instead shifted to beats two and four (see figure 18 overleaf).
21
Chuck Sher, ed., The New Real Book, Volume 3, 108.
21 Cm11
G B
Ebmaj7
G 4
5:
B
5
5
Abm9
5
A7alt
Fm11
'
5
4
5 5 :
B
5 5
Gbmaj7
Db9sus
5
5
5
B
Bb7sus(b9)
5 5 5
5 5 :
5
5 5:
Figure 18: Accentual Shift, CD 2 – track 1, 5:17 – 5:27
The piano solo on ‘Moment’s Notice’ also used displaced motivic repetition, and
examples of this can be heard on CD 2 – track 1 (at 0:43, 1:02, 1:27, 1:43, 3:16
and 3:26) with a different motive used in each new chorus.
Metric displacement was one of the main focuses for ‘Voyage’, as shown in
figure 19 below. Examples of this in the form of polymeter can be found at the
beginning of the second chorus of the piano solo (refer figure 19, #1; CD 2 – track
4, at 1:10), and beginning of the fourth chorus (refer figure 19, #2; CD 2 – track 4,
at 2:17).
1) Fm%
5 5
!5 5
G 5 5 5
5
5 !5 5 5 5 5
5
!5 !5 5 5
!5 !5 5 5
5 5
G 5
5
5
5
5
5
2) Fm%
?
!5 !5 5 5
5 5 5
5
Figure 19: Polymeter, CD 2 – track 4, at 1:10 and 2:17
Polymeter is also used in ‘One By One’ (refer CD 2 – track 10), this time in the
form of quaver-triplets grouped in fours, and examples of this can be heard at 3:20
and 3:37.
A pre-planned approach using variation in phrasing, similar to that used on track 4
of CD 1, was employed in the improvisation on ‘Hanky Panky’ (refer CD 2 –
track 5). The piece has a 32-bar A-A-B-A form (refer Appendix D). The first
chorus of the solo (1:04 – 2:09) is shaped using shorter phrase lengths over the
‘A’ sections, and longer semiquaver phrases in the ‘B’ section. The second chorus
(2:09 – 3:15) uses a reverse of this: longer semiquaver phrases in ‘A’ sections and
22 shorter phrases in the ‘B’ section with more space in between. This creates a
logical overall structure and gives the solo an improved sense of forward motion.
Variation in phrasing is also a primary device employed in ‘Cryptic’. The melody
and first two choruses of the piano solo use a phrase structure that spans bars 2-3,
6-7 and 10-11 of the twelve-bar form (refer Appendix D; CD 2 – track 9, 0:00 –
0:42). This was inspired by some of the phrasing in Hancock’s solo on ‘Eye of the
Hurricane’.22
Another primary device used in ‘Cryptic’ is rhythmic displacement in the form of
polymeter. The melody is composed of 3/4 phrases that are played over the
underlying 4/4 metric framework (refer Appendix D; CD 2 – track 9, 0:00 – 0:21).
Further examples of polymeter can be heard throughout the improvised piano solo
on this track (0:21 – 2:49).
4. CONCLUSION
The recordings of the recitals presented with this project demonstrate the
application of aspects of Herbie Hancock’s improvisational language in
contemporary jazz performance. The project has identified melodic, harmonic and
rhythmic traits from Hancock’s solos of the pre-electric era, 1961-1968, and
presented prominent examples of each as a taxonomy. It has shown how these
have been assimilated through a practice regime that employs a series of twelvekey exercises. Examples have been given of further development of the musical
elements that create more opportunities for their execution in a variety of musical
situations. This newly assimilated improvisational vocabulary has been applied in
two 60-minute public recital performances, the first focusing on Hancock’s music
of the pre-electric era and the second exploring a broader repertoire including
three original compositions. Techniques used by the performer in applying this
improvisational language have been explained, and specific examples have been
given from the recital recordings to illustrate this process of application.
22
Herbie Hancock, Maiden Voyage
23 The general framework of this study has proven to be a reliable model, and has
served well in applying elements of Hancock’s music. Analysis of recordings
throughout the project has shown expansion of the performer’s improvisational
ideas and techniques and enhancement of the resultant performances. It has
proven beneficial to use an approach that takes into account a wide variety of
melodic, harmonic and rhythmic aspects, and this was facilitated by taking time to
identify these in the first stage of the project. The choice of two primary
improvisational devices for each piece of the second recital ensured that all of the
musical elements were effectively utilised. This pre-planned approach forced the
pianist beyond normal comfort zones and resulted in a performance with more
diversity. An interesting outcome of this research was the performer’s discovery
that a small musical ‘gem’ found in Hancock’s music resulted in a surprisingly
large amount of valuable material. This was shown in Chapter Three where a sixbeat phrase was turned into multiple pages of useful exercises and improvisational
tools.
The central theme of this project is the process used by the jazz performer to
broaden their knowledge and skills by taking on new improvisational vocabulary
and techniques. Many subjective decisions were made throughout the project in
line with the performer’s own aesthetic, and it follows that another musician
applying the same model of study would ultimately create a different end product.
The project does not offer a definitive view of Hancock’s music or the possible
applications of his improvisational techniques, but rather it illuminates the jazz
musician’s journey of exploration and musical discovery.
Further study into the various concepts covered in this project is warranted. An
expansion of the number of excerpts included in the taxonomy, further
augmentation of the assimilation exercises, or a more in-depth look at concepts
such as rhythmic displacement would be worthwhile.
24 APPENDIX A
OVERVIEW OF RECITAL RECORDINGS
Personnel: David McEvoy – piano; Tom Pulford – tenor saxophone; David
Phillips – double bass; Blake Hammat – drums; Jamie Mensforth and Jarrad
Payne – sound engineers
RECITAL ONE: The Pre-Electric Music of Herbie Hancock
6pm, Wednesday 10th July 2013, Electronic Music Unit, University of Adelaide
Tracks
Composer
Instrumentation
Duration
1. ‘The Sorcerer’
Herbie Hancock
Piano trio
6:28
2. ‘Wildflower’
Wayne Shorter
Quartet
8:46
3. ‘The Maze’
Herbie Hancock
Quartet
6:34
4. ‘Driftin’’
Herbie Hancock
Piano trio
5:36
5. ‘One-finger Snap’
Herbie Hancock
Quartet
6:27
6. ‘Dolphin Dance’
Herbie Hancock
Piano trio
5:42
7. ‘E.S.P.’
Wayne Shorter
Quartet
4:34
8. ‘Empty Pockets’
Herbie Hancock
Quartet
5:48
RECITAL TWO
6pm, Monday 2nd December 2013, Electronic Music Unit, University of
Adelaide
Tracks
Composer
Instrumentation
Duration
1. ‘Moment’s Notice’
John Coltrane
Piano trio
6:00
2. ‘Step’
David McEvoy
Quartet
7:05
A.C. Jobim
Piano trio
5:36
4. ‘Voyage’
Kenny Barron
Piano trio
5:07
5. ‘Hanky Panky’
Dexter Gordon
Piano trio
5:41
6. ‘Short Story’
Kenny Dorham
Quartet
6:20
7. ‘Dienda’
Kenny Kirkland
Quartet
6:12
8. ‘B.P. Bossa’
Mike LeDonne
Quartet
7:52
9. ‘Cryptic’
David McEvoy
Piano trio
4:48
10. ‘One By One’
David McEvoy
Quartet
6:09
3. ‘O Grande Amor’
Piano trio = piano, bass, drums Quartet = tenor saxophone, piano, bass, drums
25 APPENDIX B
TAXONOMY OF HANCOCK’S PRE-ELECTRIC IMPROVISATIONAL
LANGUAGE
Melodic Elements
Bebop and Hard-Bop Language
1) Bars 14-16, solo on ‘Dolphin Dance’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
D7
5k E 5 Gmaj7
5
5
5
5
5
5
3
3
3
3
5
5
5
5
5
5
4
G = 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 = 5!5 5 5 5 3
3
3
55
0
0
?
4 = E5
Cm7/Bb
Am7
3
2) Bar 29, solo on ‘I Thought About You’
From Miles Davis’ The Complete Concert, 1964: My Funny Valentine, and
“Four” & More
5 5 5 5 M
5 5
5
5
5
$
5
3 5 5 5
5
3
3
BBBB
?
Am9
G
5555
=
3) Bars 32-35, solo on ‘The Eye Of the Hurricane’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5
G7alt
G
C7alt
Fm
5 5 5 5 5 5 5
!5 5
26 4) Bars 61-64, solo on ‘One Finger Snap’
From Herbie Hancock’s Emperean Isles
5 5 [C7alt]
5 !5 5 5 5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
E
5
5
55
5
=
5
5
G
5
5 E5
5 5 5 5 5
C13[sus]
The Blues
5) Bars 29-31, solo on ‘Watermelon Man’
From Herbie Hancock’s Takin’ Off
C9
G 4
5
55
E5 5 !5 5
5 55 5
5 5
55
= 5 ?
Bb9
5M
I
IM
555
E5k
55
5
555 5k 555 5
5
4
4
5
=
5
F7
5
4
?
4
?
Diminished Modes
6) Bars 21-24, solo on ‘The Eye Of the Hurricane’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
G7
[C7]
Fm
C7
5
G = 5 5 5 !5 5 5 5 !5 E5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 ?
5
5
5
E
5
5 5 5 !5
7) Bar 33, solo on ‘There Is No Greater Love’
From Miles Davis’ The Complete Concert, 1964: My Funny Valentine, and
“Four” & More
G
Bb7 (Bb 8-note dominant)
5
5
3
5
3
!5
!5
!5
5
5
5
3
5
5
5
3
27 8) Bar 36, solo on ‘Dolphin Dance’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
(Bb 8-note dominant)
Bb13(b9)/Eb
G
5
!B
BB
5
5
3
5
!5
!BBB
!5
5
3
!
5
5
!BBB
3
E5
3
5
5
3
Melodic Minor Modes
9) Bars 9-13, solo on ‘The Eye Of the Hurricane’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
Fm
B
5 !5 5 5!5
5 55
5
G 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5555 5
!5 !5
55
55 55
55
55
0
4 = 4 = 4 = ?
4 = 5 = 5 4
G7
C7
Upper Structure Triads
10) Bar 38, solo on ‘Dolphin Dance’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
5
G7(#9#5)
G
B
!BBB
5
3
5
5
5
'
!'3'
'
5
5
3
5
5
5
3
5
5
3
11) Bars 37-38, solo on ‘There Is No Greater Love’
From Miles Davis’ The Complete Concert, 1964: My Funny Valentine, and
“Four” & More
G
C7
(Ab minor triad)
5
5 5
3
(A triad)
=
3
5
E 5 !5 M
3
(Ab traid)
3
3
5 5
!5 5 5 5 5
28 Use of Fourths
12) Bars 25-32, solo on ‘Witch Hunt’
From Wayne Shorter’s Speak No Evil
Cm7
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
5 5 !5 5 5 5
5
5
4
5
!
5
5 5 5 !5 !5 5 !5 !5 5 5 5
G 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
I
5
3
3
3
3
0
0
0
3
3
5 5 5M !35 5 ! 5M 5 5E5E5 !5 !5 5 5
5E5E5 !5 !5 !5 5 5 5
5
5
=
!5 5
= = 5
5 5 5
G 5
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
55 !55
?
4
4 5 5
4
?
0
Cm7
Cm7 3
Eb7
3
3
3
3
4 5 !5 !5 4
G 5 5 5 5 5 5 E5 !5 !5 5 !5 !5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 !5 5
!5
5 5 55 55 55
3
0
4 ?
0
4
5
3
3
3
3
3
13) Bars 49-60, solo on ‘The Eye of the Hurricane’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
Fm
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5
5
5 5
G = 5 5 5 5
Bass plays pedal tones for 12 bars: (no audible piano left hand)
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯
Bbm
G ?
¯ ¯ ¯
G7
G 5
!5 ! 5
¯
5 5
¯
5
¯
5
= 5 5 5 5
5
¯
¯
¯
¯
5
¯
¯
5 = 4
Fm
5 5
¯
¯ ¯
¯
¯
[F#m]
= E!55 E5 E5 !5 5
E5
5
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
5 5 !5 !5 ! 5 ! 5 5 5 5
5
¯
¯
¯
Fm
! 5 5 5 5 ! 5 5 ! 5 [C7alt]
5 5 5
E
5
!
5
E
5
!
5
!
5
!5 5 5 5 =
5 4
!5 E5 E5 !5 !5 E5
C7
¯ ¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
¯
29 Motivic Development
14) Bars 1-8, solo on ‘The Sorcerer’
From Herbie Hancock’s Speak Like A Child
Db%
G
G
D%
5 B
M
= 5
Db%
Em%
5: E5 B
5: E5 B
3
5 5 5 !5 : E5 E5 !5 5 5
5
5 E5 5
D%
A7
5:
D7
5:
Dm%
E5 B
5: 5
5 5 5 5 5
15) Bars 61-64, solo on ‘The Sorcerer’
From Herbie Hancock’s Speak Like A Child
Gm%/A
Cm9
G
5 5 5M
5 5 5M
M
5 5 5
M
5 5 E5 5
5 5 5
A7sus
M
5 E5 5
Abdim7
5
Harmonic Elements
Reharmonisation
16) Bars 13-16, solo on ‘All Of You’
From Miles Davis’ Miles Davis in Europe
B7
D7 [D13sus]
Db7 [Db13sus]
5
5
!
5
5
5
5
!
5
[F#/E]
5
E 5 5 5 5 E5 5 5 5
5
5 5
5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5
5
M
E
5
5
5
5 EB :
G
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
M3
BB
BBBB
BBBB
BBBB
EEBBBB
BB
Eb7 [Eb13sus]
C7 [C13sus]
[B13sus]
Bb7
30 Polyharmony
17) Bars 23-27, solo on ‘The Eye Of the Hurricane’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
[C#m7]
[C13(b9)]
Fm
[F#7]
G !5E5 5 55 55 5 55 !5E5 !5E 5 E5E5
Fm
[F#7]
Fm
4 E5E5 !5
5
55 !55 5
E 5 ! 5 !5 5
0
Rhythmic Elements
Metric Displacement: Accentual Shift
18) Bars 9-12, solo on ‘The Eye Of the Hurricane’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
G7alt
C7alt
Fm
5 !5
G 5
5 5 5 5 B
! 5 5 ! 5 5 5 5
55
55
0
4 = 4 = 4
5
5 !5 5
55
= ?
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5
5
5
5
5
5
4 = 5 = 5 4
19) Bars 23-27, solo on ‘The Eye Of the Hurricane’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
[C13(b9)]
Fm
[C#m7]
[F#7]
G !5E5 5 55 55 5 55 !5E5 !5E 5 E5E5
Fm
[F#7]
0
Fm
4 E5E5
5 !5 5 55 !55 5
!
5
E
5
!
5
31 Metric Displacement: Displaced Motivic Repetition
20) Bars 25-27, solo on ‘The Maze’
From Herbie Hancock's Takin’ Off
Em7
G 5 5M 4
5I 4
5 5M 4
5
5 5
5
5
5
= [Bb7]
I5 5 E5M 4
5I 5 5M 4
21) Bars 44-49, solo on ‘The Sorcerer’
From Herbie Hancock’s Speak Like A Child
5 5 G 5M 5 5 5 5 5 B 5: 5 5 5 5 5: 5 =E5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5E5 5 5M 5
5
Dm9
Cm9
Gm%/A
A7sus(b9)
Abdim7
Db%
22) Bars 1-8, solo on ‘Witch Hunt’
From Wayne Shorter’s Speak No Evil
G
Cm7
0
0
Cm7
G ?
3
5555
3
4 5 5 5 B
5
4
3
5 5 B:
4 5
5
3
3
5
5 5 B
53 5 5 5
5
!
5
5 5
!5 5 5 =
5 5 5 55 !5
3
3
3
3
3
32 Metric Displacement: Polymeter
23) Bars 33-36, solo on ‘One Finger Snap’
From Herbie Hancock’s Emperean Isles
Gm7(b5)
G 4
C7(b9)
= E5 5 5 5 5 5 E5 5 5 5 5 5 !5
Bb7(b9)
Fm7(b5)
5 5 5 5 5 !5 5 5
Ebmaj7
G 5 5 5 !5 5 5 5 5 !5 !5 5 5 5 E5 5 5 !5 5 5
5 E5 5 5
24) Bars 35-38, solo on ‘Dolphin Dance’
From Herbie Hancock’s Maiden Voyage
Bb13(b9)/Eb
5
5
5
5 5
3
5 5
5 5
5 5 5 5 5 5
!5 5 5 !
5 E5 53
!
5
G
5
5
3
3
3
3
'
3
3
'
!BBB
!BBB
!BBB
''
Dbmaj7/Eb
3
5 5
5
5
3
3
5 !5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5
5 5 5 5 5 5
5
G
5
5
3
3
3'
BBB 3
! BB 3
!3BB
! BB
!
!
'
'
B
B
B
B
'
C7(#9)/Eb
G7(#9#5)
3
3
33 APPENDIX C
EXAMPLES OF EXERCISES FOR THE ASSIMILATION AND
EXTENSION OF HERBIE HANCOCK’S LANGUAGE
Study #1
David McEvoy
Study based on bars 15-16, solo on 'Dolphin Dance', from Herbie Hancock's Maiden Voyage
Original phrase from Hancock's solo:
Am7
3
5 5
G = 5 5 5 5
3
0
3
D7
5
5
5
5 5 5
3
5
5
5
5
?
4
4
EXERCISE #1: Major II-V-I
(LH added; RH phrase adapted for major 7 chord)
Ebm7
Ab7
5
5 B
5!5 5 55 5 B
3
5
5
5 ! 5 55 5 5 55 BB
5
3
!
5
5
!
5
5
5
5
=5!55!5 5 G =55
3
3
3
3
3
3
'
BB
55 5 '
B
55
'
5
'
BB
B
'
= 5=5 '
=55 = 55
Dbmaj7
F#7
C#m7
E5 5 5 B
3
E5 5 E 5 E5 E 5 5 B
E
5
5
E
5
5
G =E5E55
3
3
3
'
EBB
5 5
E'
=E55 =E55
'
B
E7
Bm7
5
5 B
5 E5 5 E5 5 5 B
3
E
5
5
5
E
5
5
G = 5E5 5
3
3
3
EBB
'
'
= 555 =E555
'
B
Am7
D7
!5 5 5 5 5 B
3
5
!
5
5
5
5 B
G = 5!5 5!5 5 5
3
3
3
'
EBB
55 = 55
=
'
'
B
5 5
Gm7
3
3
3
5! 5
!
5
5
=
5
!
5
5
G 5 !5 5
3
'
'
'
Bmaj7
E5
=
E5E55 5E5
E
5
E
5
E5
3
'
'
'
BB
B
= 555 =
3
E5 E5 E5 5 5 B
E5
5 B
B
BB
E5 !5
=E 55 =! 55
Amaj7
=
3
5
'
'
'
3
3
E5 5 E5 5 5 B
5 5 5 E5 5 5
5 B
E
5
E5 5
3
=EE555 =!!555
BB
B
Gmaj7
=
3
5
'
'
'
C7
5 5 5 5 B
5
5 B
3
3
3
3
!5 5E5 5 E5 5 5 B
5
5
5 B
5
E
5
5
!5 5
3
Fmaj7
55
5
=
'
'
'
3
5
=E555 =!555
BB
B
3
!5 5!5 5 5 5 5 B
5
5
5B
5
! 5 5 !5 5
3
3
'
'
'
34 EXERCISE #2: Minor II-V-I
(RH phrase adapted for melodic minor harmony - 2nd & 8th notes lowered a semitone)
Ebm7(b5)
Ab7(b9)
5 5 5
3
1 5 5! 5 5 5 5
5
5
!
5
5
G =5155
3
3
3
'
BBB
1
'
'
'
B
C#m7(b5)
Dbm[maj7]
B
B
155 5
= 55=555
F#7(b9)
Am7(b5)
D7(b9)
3
E5 E5 E5 5 5 B
E
5
5
E
5
E5
5 B
= E5E5 5 5
3
E5 5
'
BB
'
=EE5555 =!!5555
'
BB
'
Am[maj7]
=
555 '
'
5 '
'
3
5! 5 55 5 5 55 BB
5
5
G = 55 5!5 5 5
3
3
3
'
EBBB
'
= 5555= 555
'
'
B
5
5 5
=555=E555
3
3
E7(b9)
5 E 5 55 E 5 5 55 BB
3
5
5
5
G = 5 5 5E5 5 3
3
3
'
EBBB
'
= 5555 =
'
B
'
B
B
Bm[maj7]
5 E 5 EE55 E 5 5 55 BB
3
5
E
5
5
G =E5 5 5E5 5 3
3
3
'
EBBB
'
'
=E5555 =E5555
'
B
Bm7(b5)
5! 5 55 5 5 55
5
5
5
= 55!5 5 5
3
3
3
'
BB
'
'
BB
'
3
3
5 5E5 5 E5 5 5 B
5
5
5 B
5
5 5E5 5
3
3
5
3
BBB
B
= E5555 =!5555
Gm[maj7]
=
'
'
'
'
3
5
3
3
E5 5 E5 5 5 B
5 5 5 5 5 5
5 B
E
5
5 5
3
'
'
'
'
35 Study #2
David McEvoy
The exercises from Study #1 are applied here to a 12-bar blues in F minor.
Left hand accompaniment similar to that in 'Study #1' should be used.
EXERCISE #1
Fm^
Fm11
3
3
5!5 5 5 5 5 B
3
5
5 B
G = ! 5 5!55 5 5 !5
5
3
!5 5 5 5 5 B
5
3
!
5
5
5
5 B
G =5!55!5 5 5
Bbm11
3
3
=
C7(b9)
3
3
3
5! 5 55 5 5 55 BB
5
5
=
5
G 5 5 5!5 5 3
5 5
3
Fm^
=
3
Gm7(b5)
3
5 5!5 5 5 5 5 B
5
5
5B
5
!
5
5
5
3
3
3
5 5!5 5 5 5 5 B
5
5
5B
5
5 5 !5 5
3
3
5
3
Fm^
=
3
5 5!5 5 5 5 5 B
5
5
5B
5
5 5 !5 5
3
3
5
3
EXERCISE #2 (addition of altered dominants)
Fm11
3
3
3
!55!5 5 5 5 5 B
=
5
5
5 B
G
!5 5 5
5 ! 5 5
3
5
5 B
5 ! 5 5 5 5 5 B
3
!
5
5
5
G =5!55!5 5 Bbm11
3
3
3
3
3
5!5 5 5 5 5 B
=
5
5
5 B
5
!5 5 !5
5 ! 5 5
3
Fm^
=
3
(Using shortened 1-bar phrases)
G7alt
F7alt
C7alt
3
3
3
5 5 3
=5!55 55 55 !5
=
5
G
5 55 !5
5
5 !5
3
3
3
3
5
5 5
3
5 5!5 5 5 5 5 B
5
5
5B
5
5 5 !5 5
3
3
3
Fm^
=
3
5
3
3
!5 5 5 5 5 B
5 5 5 5 5 5
5B
!
5
5 5
3
36 EXERCISE #3 (Using lengthened 4-octave phrases)
Fm11
3
3
3
3
3
55 55 5
5
=
5
5
G
5 5
5 5 5 55
3
3
5
5
55
Bbm11
G =
5 5
3
3
C13sus(b9)
3
3
5
Fm^
=
3
3
5
55 5 5
5
5
5
5 5
5 5 5 55
5
3
3
5
3
5 5
3
F7alt
5
5 5
5
5
5
5
3
3
5 555 5
5
5
5 5
5 5 5 5
3
3
3
Gm9(b5)
G =
5 5 5
5
!
5
5 5 5 5
5
5
3
3
3
5
5
5
5
=
5555!5
5
5! 5
3
3
3
3
3
5
5 5 5
3
5
5 5 5
3
5 5
Fm^
=
3
5 5
5
55 55 5
5
5
5 5555
3
3
3
3
3
3
55 55 5
5
5
5
5 5 55
3
3
3
3
55
3
5 5
55555
3
3
5
5 5 5 5 5
3
55
3
EXERCISE #4 (Using shortened half-bar phrases)
Fm11
F#m11
F#m11
Gm11
Fm11
C7alt
Fm^
F7alt
3
3
3
3
3
3
5 = 5555=53!555 5
5
5
=
5
=
!
5
=
=
5
=
5
=
5
5
G
5
E5
5
5 55 5 E 5 5E5 5 5 55 5!5 3
5 5 5 ! 5 E 5 !5
3
3
3
Bbm11
3
Abm11
3
3
F#m11
Gm11
3
Fm11
3
E7(#11)
Eb7(#11)
D7(#11)
5
5
G =5555 =5555 = 5 5555= E 5 5E55 = 5 555=E 5 5E5E5E5 = 5 5555= 5 5E55
5
5
5
3
3
3
3
3
(Using 1-bar phrases)
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
C7alt
Fm^
5
55555
3
3
3
(Using extended 4-octave phrase)
55 3 5555!5 5 5 3 3 3 555 55 5
=
G =
5555 !5 =5!55
55555
5
5 ! 5 5
3
5
3
5
3
3
3
3
G7alt
3
3
55
5
3
37 Study #3
David McEvoy
This study is based on 'The Sorcerer'
Scales for 'The Sorcerer':
Db%
(Db lydian)
(D lydian)
D%
(E dorian)
Em%
(D melodic minor)
Dm%
5
5 E5 5
G 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 E5 E5 5 5 E5 5 5 E5 5 5 5 E5 5
5 5 5 5 5
D%
A7(#11) (A lydian dominant) D7alt (D altered)
(D lydian)
5 E5 5 5
5
5
E
5
5
E
5
E
5
5
5
5
5 5 5
5
5
5
G 5 5 5 5
5 5 E5 E5
5 5 !5 E5 5
G
Db%
(Db lydian)
Abm9
(Ab dorian)
5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5
Cm9
(C dorian)
(G dorian)
Gm9
Ab7sus
(Ab mixolydian)
(D dorian)
Dm9
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5 5 5
5 5 5 5
Gm%/A
(A dorian b2)
(A mixolydian)
A7sus
(Ab diminished)
Abo^
G 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
E5 5 5
E5 5 5
55
5 5 5 5 5
5 5 E5 5 5
5 5 !5 E5 5 5
EXERCISE #1
This exercise is based on bars 61-64, solo on 'The Sorcerer', from Herbie Hancock's Speak Like A Child:
Cm9
G 5 5 5 5 5 5M
M
M
5M 5 E 5 5
E
5
5
5
5
5
M
5 5 5 5
Gm%/A
A7sus
Abdim7
5
The melodic cell from Hancock's solo is played across the whole form of 'The Sorcerer'.
Other variations can be made by starting the melodic cell at a different point on the scale.
Db%
M
G 5 5 5M 5 5 5
Db%
M
G 5 5 5M 5 5 5
5 5 5M 5 5 M
5
Abm9
G
5 5 5M 5 5 M
5
Cm9
G
M
5 5M
!5 5 E5 E5
D%
D%
5M
M
E5 5 5 E5 E5
Gm9
5 5 5M 5 5
5M
Gm%/A
5 5 5M 5 5
E5M
Em%
E 5 5 5M 5 E5 M
5
5M
M
5 E5 E5 5 E5
A7(#11)
Ab7sus
5 5M
5 5 5M 5
A7sus
E5M
5 E5 5M 5 5
Dm%
5 E5 5M 5 5
5M
D7alt
5 5 5M 5 5 M
5
5M
M
5 5 5 5 5
Dm9
5M
M
5 5 5 5 5
Abdim7
38 EXERCISE #2
This exercise is based on bars 5-8, solo on 'The Sorcerer', from Herbie Hancock's Speak Like A Child:
5M
G =
Db%
5 5 5
!5 :
D%
A7
E5 5 E5 !5
5
3
5 5 E5 5
D7
5:
5 5 5 5 5
The motive from the excerpt above is applied across the whole form of "The Sorcerer'.
The motive is rhythmically simplified in order to concentrate on the melodic/harmonic content.
Other variations can be made by starting the motive at a different point on the scale.
5:
Db%
G
5:
Db%
G
5:
Abm9
G
Cm9
G
5:
5 5
5 !5
5 5 5 !5
5 5
5 5
5 5
5 5
5:
D%
E5 5
5
D%
5:
Gm9
5:
A7(#11)
E5 5
5
5 5
5
Gm%/A
5:
E5 :
Em%
5 5 5
E5 :
5 :
Ab7sus
A7sus
!5 :
5 5 E5 5
5 E5
B:
Dm%
4
D7alt
5 5
4
B:
Dm9
5 5 5 5
5 5 E5 5
B:
4
Abo^
B:
4
39 Study #4
David McEvoy
Exercises 1-4 are based on bars 25-27, solo on 'The Maze', from Herbie Hancock's Takin' Off:
Em7
5 5M 4
G 5 5M 4 5I 4
0
I5 5 E5M 4
5I 5 5M 4
0
5
5 5
5 5 5
= [Bb7]
0
0
EXERCISE #1
Em7
G 5 5M 4
B
5I
4
5 5M 4
B
B
5I
5 5M
B
5 E5M 4
I5
4
E5
?
B
B
B
4
B
(Take exercise through 12 keys)
EXERCISE #2
Em7
G 5 5M 4
B
G 4
B
5I
5I
4
B
B
4
B
5 5M 4
5 5M
4
B
5I
5I
5 5M
4
I5
5 E5M 4
E5
4
B
B
B
B
5 5M 4
I5
5 E5M 4
B
B
B
5
4
B
5 5
M
0
B
B
(Take exercise through 12 keys)
40 EXERCISE #3
Fm
G 5 5M 4
B
G 5I
4
B
B
G 4 5I
5I
5 5M 4
I5
B
B
4 I5 5 5M 4
B
B
5I
B
B
I5
5 5M 4
5
B
B
B
?
5 5M 4
B
B
5 5M
4
5I
B
5
B
B
I5 5 5M 4
B
4
B
4 5 5M
4 5 5M 4
B
5 5M
5 5M
4
5
B
B
4
4
5 5M
4
?
?
B
B
(Take exercise through 12 keys)
EXERCISE #4 (Adapted to a 12-bar blues in F minor)
Fm
G 5 5M 4
G 4 5I
B
G7alt
G 5I
B
4
B
B
Bbm
5I
4 5 5M
B
4 5 5M 4
B
5 5M 4
I5
B
B
5 5M
4
I5
B
5 5M
4
5
B
B
B
?
5 5M 4
B
B
4 I5 5 5M 4
I5
5 5M 4
B
B
B
B
C7alt
I5 5 5M 4
B
B
5I
Fm
5
5 5M
4
5
B
B
Fm
4
4
5 5M
4
?
?
B
B
(Take exercise through 12 keys)
41 Exercises 5 and 6 use a motive inspired by Bars 23-27, solo on 'The Eye Of the Hurricane',
from Herbie Hancock's Maiden Voyage:
[C#m7]
[C13(b9)]
Fm
[F#7]
G !5E5 5 55 55 5 55 !5E5 !5E 5 E5E5
Fm
0
0
[F#7]
Fm
4 E5E5 !5
5
55 !55 5
E 5 ! 5 !5 5
0
0
0
0
The melody indicated by the bracket in the excerpt above is adapted to create the following motive:
G
5 5 5
5 5
4
EXERCISE #5
Based on the motive above, using rhythmic dispacement from exercise #1
Fm
5 5 5 5 4
G
5
''
''
5 5
5 5 5 5 5
0
5 5 5
'
'
''
5 5
5 5 5 4
?
0
EXERCISE #6
Exercise #5 is adapted and applied to a 12-bar blues in F minor
Fm11
5
G 5 5
5 5 4
5 5 5 5
5
4
G
5 5
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
4
5 5
[Gm7]
Bbm11
[Abm7]
G7alt
C7alt
5 5 5
G 5 5 5
5 4
5
[C7]
Fm11
[F#m11]
?
Fm13
5 5 !5 E5 5 E5 5 5 5 5 !5 5 !5 B:
Fm(maj7)
5 5 5 5 5 !5 5 5 !5
!5 5 5
5
5 !5 5 B:
42 APPENDIX D
CHARTS (in alphabetical order)
B. P. Bossa
Mike LeDonne
(Transcribed from 'Bout Time by David McEvoy)
straight 8ths
G 5M 5M
4
2 2:
5M
5:
E7(#9) A13
G 5:
2:
2M
5 5
Bb7(#9) C7(#9)
2:
5:
G 5:
Cm11
2 :
5:
G 5:
2 2
5 5:
5 5:
Dm11
2 2:
G 5:
2 2:
5 5:
F#7(#9) B13
2:
B
5M
5
B
2
D7(#9)
5
5
Db7(#9)
2
5
5
2
B
B
Ebm11
2
2 2:
Eb7
2 5
E7(#9)
2
B
2:
2M 2M
5:
5 5:
Ab13
Db9
5M
2M
2:
2M
5M
5M
2M
2M
5:
2:
Db7
:
I2
5M
5
Ab7
5
B
B
Db^
2M 2M
M
5 5 5 '
=
Eb7
2M
5M
Ab^
= 2 0
5M
5:
Ebm11 D7(#9) Db^
2M
2M
C7sus(b9)
2:
2M 2M
5
5
B:
4
2
:
4
?
0
C7(#5)
!55
2
&
C7(#5) Cm7
2:
2
=
4
?
F7(#5)
2:
5 5 ! 5
2 2:
5
B
2
Bbm11
5M
55 55
5:
5:
2 2
?
4
5 5:
5M
5M
'
5:
5:
2
&
Db^9(#5)
2 2:
B7
Bb7(#9) B7(#9)
C7 C7(#5)
2 :
D9(#11)
5 ! 5 5
5M 5M
5 B:
5 5 !5 5 !5
Fm/C
2
2 5 5:
5:
2M
5M
5
5 B
2 2:
2 2:
Ebm% Ab13 Am7
5M
5 5:
5:
A7(#5)D7(#9) Db^ C7(#9) B7(#9)
2 G13(b9)
2 5 5:
5 B
5 5 5 E 5 5 '
Bbm11 E^
2 :
E7(#9)
5
5M 5M
5 B
2 2:
A13(#9) D7(#9)
2:
4
2:
5 5:
E7(#9)
5 5:
F#7(#9) B13
4
G 5:
G 4
5:
2M
5M 5M
C7(#5)
:
5M
5M
2M
2M
Ab13
43 B. P. Bossa (Mike LeDonne)
G !5 5 5 5 5 = 5 5
G13
C7(#9)
:
2
2M 4
5 5 5:
M
B13
2
2
G !5 5 5 5 5 = 5 5
G13
C7(#9)
:
2
G ::
::
2M 4
B13
2
5 'B
Db^ C7(#9)Fm7
5
2M I2 :
2 2:
5
5M
5
'
2M
2
2
5M
Db^ Cm7 Fm
2M
0
4
5
5 !5 5 5
TO CODA
5M 5M
Bb7
Ab13
2 2M
Ç
2M
0
C7(#5)
2
&
4
To solos...
?
SOLOS:
Fm7
Gb^(#11)
B7(#11)
Bb7
Fm7
D7(#9)
G7(#5)
C7(#9)
Fm7
B7(#11)
Bb7
Ab13
G7(#5)
C7(#9)
Fm7
Fm7
Cm7(b5)
F7(b9)
Bbm7
Bbm7
G G G G 44 B. P. Bossa (Mike LeDonne)
G Bbm7(b5)
Eb7(b9)
Fm7
Ebm7
Ab^
Gm7(b5) C7(b9)
G Ab7
Db^
B7
Bb7
G (After solos, DC al coda)
G7(#5)
C7(#9)
Ç CODA
G !5 5 5 5 5 = 5 5
G13
2:
C7(#9)
B13
2M 4
2
G !5 5 5 5 5 = 5 5
G13
2 :
G !5
G13
2 :
Ab13
C7(#9)
B13
2M 4
2
5 5 5 5
C7(#9)
2M
=
4
5
2
Fm7
5M
5M 5
'
2M
2M
Db^ Cm7 Fm
2
5 5 5:
M
2
5 'B
Db^ C7(#9) Fm7
2M
5 5
B13
2
:
I2
2 5
2
::
C7(#9)
?
E7 Eb7 D7(#9)
2 2 2 2
5
5 4
5 !5 5 5
Bb7
2:
2 5M
5M
5
2M
2M
2
Bb7 A7(#11) Ab13(#11)
::
5M
5M
2M
2M
Ab13
M M
?5 5
Ab13
2M
2M
'
0
45 Cryptic
Up swing
G ::
::
0
Cm6
G ?
4
F^
5
5
5
=
Eb^
5 5
4
5
5M
0
5
5
5
5 5
5:
5
5
:
B
5M
5
Gb7(#11)
B :
4
5 5 5 5M !B :
5 5
=
Bb7(#11)
4 B :
0
Ç
B :
5 5 !5
5 5M 5 5 5
5
0
5&
5
0
0
5
&
= 5 5
M
5
5
5M
5
&
5 5M
0
G
5
5
5
B
5M
David McEvoy (2013)
0
4
::
::
B
:
% Fine last x)
(
G7alt
SOLOS:
G ::
::
First 2 choruses of each solo:
Cm6
BI :
0
5
[Gm7]
0
4
C7alt
:
B
G
F^
BI :
0
5
[Fm7]
0
4
Bb7
B :
::
G
Eb^
BI :
[Ebm7]
5
[Ab7]
0
[Db^]
0
4
G7alt
B :
::
46 Cryptic (D.McEvoy)
G ::
Chorus 3 onward (repeat till ready)
::
Cm6
C7(b9)
Bb7
G
F^
Ab7
Fm7
G
Eb^
Ebm7
Db^
Dm7(b5)
G7alt
47 Driftin'
Herbie Hancock
(transcribed from Takin' Off by David McEvoy)
Medium Swing
Eb13 Eb7 G7
Ab7
G7
Cm7
Ab7 Gm7
I5M I5MBbm7 5Am7(b5)
I
I
5:
M
5 =
55555 5M 4 5M 5 : 5
G 2 2 :: 4 5 5 : 5 5 5 55 55 5 = 5
1.
C7alt
G 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4
Eb7
G B
B
5 5 5 5
Cm
Cm^
G 5 5 5
! 5M
M
Eb7
G 4
Gm7
G 4
Fm7
Eb7
G B
B
(piano fill)
2 4 ?
Ab13
554 ?
Cm7
5 5
M
4:
[Bb7]
?
3
4 2 2 :: 55 55 E5 5 5 5 5 5 5
55 5
5
555
2.
Eb13
Fm7
Fm7
C7alt
TO CODA
(head out only)
IM
5 5 : 5 5 5 55 5 5 4
5
Bb7
3
55
E5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5
C7(#9)
?
Fm7
55
Eb7
B
B
Bb7
Ç
Fm7
4:
554 ?
5
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 :
F7
Bb7
Eb13
G7
Ab7
G7
Cm7
I5M I5M Bbm7
IM
5 5 : 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 = 5
5 =
5
Ç CODA
5
G 5
F13
Bb7
2
G7alt
5 = 5 = 5
?
4
Bb7
Eb7
?
Fm7
2 2
Ab7
5Am7(b5)
5: 5 5
5 5 5 5M
55 55 5 5 5 3
E5
555 5 B
5 5 B
C7(#9)
Eb13
?
D.C. for solos
Bb7
55
3
55
E5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5
Eb7
55 E5 5 5 5 3
5 5 55 5
5
4:
Eb13(#9)
2 %
48 Empty Pockets
Herbie Hancock
(transcribed from Takin' Off by David McEvoy)
Medium Swing
G 5 5 :: 5 5 4
Piano
:: 4 :
4
G 5 5 4
Pno.
4:
2 2:
G7
3
Pno.
?
F7
2 2: 2 0
?
5 5 5 5
?
Gb^
F7
2 2:
2 0
Ç(head out only)
= 5 5 5 5 5 5
4 ?
5 5
TO CODA
C7
4
2
[F7]
?
?
4
:
5 5 :
0
::
(piano fill)
0
Solos on the form (chords are played one-per-bar)
= 5 5 55 55 5 4
5
4: : 2 2 2 D7(#9) G7
4:
2 0
I
4 5 5 5 5 5M
?
F7sus
5 5 4
Bb7
(bass walks)
G 5 4
4:
= 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 IM
Ç CODA
554
55
5 5 5 IM
2 2: 2 0
?
Fm7
4
F7sus Gb7sus
!5 5 B :
G
Pno.
?
C7alt
?
F7 D7(#9) G7
= 5 5 55 55 5 = 2 5
2M = 2 2 : 2 C7alt
F7
Gb^(#11)
2M = 2 %
49 Hanky Panky
Dexter Gordon
(transcribed from Clubhouse by David McEvoy)
Swing/Shuffle
G !5 :: 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5: 5 4 : 5: 5 4 : 5: 5 4 : !5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5
5
5
5
Bbm7
Gb7
F7
Ab7
Gb7 F7
C7alt
Eb7 Db7
Cm7(b5) B7
1.
F7alt
G 5: 5 4 = !5 = !5 : 5!55 5
5
Bbm7
2.
4 = !5 ::
= E 5 5 5 !5
5:
5
5:
5
5
Ab7 A7 Bb7
Ab7 A7 Bb7
3
3
= 5 !5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 B
G 5 : 5 = 5 5 !5
E5
5: 5 E 5 5
Fm7
Bb7
Eb^
Gm7
C7
F^
C7
D7
Ab7
Fm7
Bb7
Eb^
Gm7
C7alt
Cm7
Db7
Cm7(b5)
3
Ab7
= !5 !5
5 !5
3
F7alt
3
3
G 5: 5 = 5 !5 !5!5 5 : 5 = 5 !5 !5!5 5 5 5 5 5 5 !5 5 5: 5 4 = !5
Bbm7
Ab7
Gb7
G 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5:
F7
5 4
Eb7
= 5 5:
5 4
5 4
= 5:
5
B7
= !5
TO CODA
(head out only)
Bbm7
Ab7
Gb7
G 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5:
G Ç CODA
Ab7 A7 Bb7
C7alt
F7alt
F7
C7alt
F7alt
5 4 = !5 = !5 : 5!55 5 5
Ab7A7 Bb7
C7alt
Ç
Ab7 A7 Bb7
5 5:
F7alt
?
5
D.C. for solos
Eb7(#11)
4 = !5 = !5 : 5!55 5
4 = !5 = !5 !5 5 5 !5 5 '
5: 5
5 5 5: 5
50 The Maze
Herbie Hancock
(transcribed from Takin' Off by David McEvoy)
Med-Up Swing
E
G :: '
'
'
`b
Em7
E
G :: =
A/E
Em7
'
'
'
'
E'
'
Em7
A/E
5:
5 5 5 B
5 5 5 4
'
E'
'
Em7
=
::
A/E
A/E
5:
5 5 5 B
4
5 5 5
TO CODA
(head out only)
E
Am7
G7
5:
G = 5 5 B
5
Ç F7
F#m7(b5)
5 5 !5 4
= 5
5 5 5 5 5
3
555
5 5 B
::
SOLOS:
E
G :: Em7
E
Am7
G G7
F#m7(b5)
Ç CODA
E
G =
F^
5
5
5
5
5
F7
::
after solos, D.C. al coda
!5
51 Moment's Notice
John Coltrane
(arranged by David McEvoy)
Up swing
G = 5 :
Em9
=
!5 :
I
G = 5:
Dm9
= !I5 :
5 !5 !5 5 555 5 5 5 5
Fm9
= 5 5
5M
Ebm9
= 5 5
G '
Cm7
5
G = 5:
Eb^
Em9
=
!5 :
I
G = 5:
Dm9
= !I5 :
5M
= 5 :
?
B
A7alt
Fm11
5 :
Abm11
5
5:
Gb^
5 !5 !5 5 555 5 5
5 5
5M
=
Fm9
5 5
5M
?
=
5 5 !5 5 5 55 5 5
5 5
5M
Db^
'
B
B
G = 5:
Ebm9
= 5 5
5M
= 5:
= 5:
?
B
'
5M 5M
B
B
B
= 5:
5M
Db7sus
5M
B
= 5:
5M 5M
= 5 :
B
Cm7
5
5M
4
5 ?
Bb7sus(b9)
= 5:
Db^
5:
B
5
5:
G7alt
5 5 5 5 5 5 :
Eb^
5 B
Db9sus
B
5:
5M 5M
Eb^
?
5M
5 5 !5 5 5 55 5 5 5 5 =
5M
= 5:
5:
5 B
Db9sus
'
B
G7alt
B
5:
5:
5
Cm7
5
52 Moment's Notice (John Coltrane; arranged by David McEvoy)
G '
Cm7
5
G B
A7alt
Fm11
4
5M
B
G '
'
''
Eb13sus
B
Fm7
= 5 4
'
B
B
B
= 5 4
'
!!'
''
'
'
''
= 5 4
Eb^
5
4
= 5 4
Bb13(b9)
B
?
4
D7alt
?
Head out
G 5
55
&
Eb^
5
4
4
4
4
5
! 555
F/Gb
5
4
B
'
!! '
''
= 5 4
B
0
::
0
::
Head in and solos
G 5
55
&
Ebdim7(^)
B
Eb13sus
B
Db7sus
5M
'
'
E! '
'
Eb13sus
= 5 4
'
'
''
Bb7sus(b9)
Eb13(b9)
B
'
'
'
'
'
53 O Grande Amor
Antonio Carlos Jobim
(transcribed from Getz/Gilberto by David McEvoy)
Bossa Nova
5 5:
G B
Am7
G
B
5 5
EB
B
B7/F#
G 5:
Dm7
B
G
G
B
B7/F#
EB
B
E7/F
!B
G7
= 5 5:
B
5 5:
?
B
B
B
=
E7/F
B
!B
?
=
5
D#dim7
B
?
B
B
Bb^
EB
E7(b9)
B
5
C9
B
5:
5
Bm7(b5)
5 B:
B
=
B
5 B
B
B
=
B
5 5 5
5:
5 5 5
B
B
5
5
5
5
0
'
Am7
B
B
B
F7
B
5
?
5 5 5
B
C/E
B
B
5 5:
4
B
?
=
B
= 5 5
5
5 B
C9
?
4
5
E7(b9)
B
B
5 5
B
5 E5 5
! B
C9/G
B
B
B
B
5 5 5 5 B
B
?
Am7
B
5 5 5
B
?
4
5
A7
= 5 E5 5
B
B
5 5 5 5 B
5 5 5
5 5:
C9
B
5 5 5
5 5
4
B
!B
B
=
C9/G
5 5 5 5
Abdim7[addE]
B
Dm7
B
=
B
G B
B
4
B
B
Am9
4
B
Bb9
5 B:
3
5 5 5:
B
B
5:
4
G B
B
5 5 5:
G B
5 5
Abdim7[addE]
B
5:
B
E7(#9)
B
B
B
54 One By One
Swing (shuffle)
I5 B:
G = 5 5M 5 :: 5
:: 4
0
G 5I 5 B :
Db^
G ::
::
= 5 5M 5 !5 5 5 5M 5
B
3
E7alt F9sus
= 2 2 : 2 0
4 = 2 2 : 2 0
5 5M 5 M
5 5 5M
= 5 I5 55 B:
B
2 0
I 5 B:
G 5
F9sus Eb9sus
Bb9sus A7alt
= 2 2 :
4
5 M
= 55 5M 55M 5 5M5 5
David McEvoy (2013)
2
&
= 2 2 :
4
= 5 5M 5 5M 5 5
M 5 '
C7alt
Ab9sus G7alt
4
?
4
Eb9
Bb9
A9
5M
= 5 5M 5 ::
Ab7 G7 Gb^(#11)
Sax solo:
F9
2 0
B
2M I2 :
4
::
2 0
% Fine last x)
(
E9
F9
G
Ab9
G9
::
G
G ::
::
Db^
C7alt
Gb^(#11)
F9
(Repeat till ready)
::
Piano solo:
F13(#11#9)
(F 8-note dominant (Eb diminished mode))
Bass pedals root note in crotchets...
55 One By One (D.McEvoy)
G
Bb13(#11#9)
F13(#11#9)
Bass continues root note pedal...
G
C13(#11#9)
Gb^(#11)
F9
Bass walks...
G
F9
Bass walks...
0
Eb9
E9
0
0
F9
0
G
Bb9
0
A9
0
Ab9
G9
0
::
G
Db^
0
C7alt
0
Gb^(#11)
0
F9
(Repeat till ready)
0
(D.C. for head out)
::
56 Step
David McEvoy (2013)
medium 3/4 (swung)
First chorus without melody:
G BBBB
G
Fm11
5
5
5
G B
E BB
D/Eb
5
G B
BB
B
Gm%
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
C7(#11#9)/G
5
5
5
5
5
Gb^(#11)/F
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
BBB
B
Gm%
5
5
3
5
Fm11
5
5
5
5 5 5
Fm11
5
5
5
5
B
Cm11(b5)
5
5
5
4
Fm%/G
5
5
5
5 5 5 5 5
Gb^(#11)/F
5
5
5
5 5 5 5 5
Gb^(#11)/F
5
5
5
5
5
5 5 5 5
Cm^/D
5
5
5
BBB
B
5
5
5
5
Cm^/D
555 555
5 5
5
5
BB:
BB :::
5
5 5 5
5555 555
5
Gb^(#11)/F
5
555 ! ! 555
5 5
5
5
BBBB :::
:
5
Cm11(b5)
5
5
5
BBB
B
5
5
Gb^(#11)/F
555 555
5 5
Fm11
55 55
55 55
5 5 5 5
Dm11(b5)
5
5
5 5
5
555 55 BB
5 55 BB
BBB
B
5
5 5
Gb^(#11)/F
5
5
5
5
5
Fm11
5555 555
5
BB
BB
5
5
5
5
5
5
555 555
5 E !5
5 5 5
D/Eb
55 55
55 55
5
G 5
5
5
BB
BB
5
:: Fm11 5
5
G 5
5
Dm11(b5)
(2nd x) (play rhythm 'lazily')
5
5
BBBB
È Melody:
G :: 5 5 5 5
Fm11
55 55 BB
55 55 BB
Gb^(#11)/F
55 555
5 5
5
BB
BB
Gb^(#11)/F
555 555
5 5
BBB
B
Fm11
555 55
5 55
5
5
57 Step (David McEvoy)
G 4
5
5
Gm%
5
5
5
C7(#11#9)/G
5
5
5
G :: B
5
5
5
5
Gm%
5
5
5
5
TO CODA
(Head out only)
5
5
5
Fm%/G
5
5
5
5
Ç
::
::
5
5
Solos over 16 bar form till ready:
5 5
::
Fm11
B:
B:
Gb^(#11)/F
Fm11
Gb^(#11)/F
Gb^(#11)/F
Cm^/D
G
Fm11
Gb^(#11)/F
Dm11(b5)
Fm11
Cm11(b5)
G [Ebdim7]
D/Eb
G
Gm%
Gm%
5
5
C7(#11#9)/G
Ç CODA
5 5
G 4 5
::
[Gdim7]
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
rit.
C7(#11#9)/G
5
Gm%
5
5
Gm%
5
rit.
5
5
freely:
B:
(DS al coda for head out)
5
5 5
5
Fm%/G
5
Fm%/G
::
B:
B:
%
58 Bibliography and Discography
Bibliography
Baker, D.N., L.M. Belt and H.C. Hudson, eds. ‘Herbie Hancock’, The Black
Composer Speaks. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1978. Print.
Berliner, Paul F. Thinking in jazz: the infinite art of improvisation. Chicago:
The University of Chicago Press, 1994. Print.
Coolman, Todd F. ‘The Miles Davis Quintet of the Mid-1960s: Synthesis of
Improvisational and Compositional Elements’, PhD thesis, New York
University, 1997. Print.
Dobbins, Bill. ‘Hancock, Herbie.’ Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online.
Oxford University Press. Web. 6 Dec. 2013.
<http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/412
92>.
Hancock, Herbie. Classic jazz compositions and piano solos / Herbie
Hancock; transcribed by Bill Dobbins. Rottenburg N., Germany:
Advance Music, 1992.
Levine, Mark. The Jazz Piano Book. Petaluma, CA: Sher Music, 1989. Print.
Levine, Mark. The jazz Theory Book. Petaluma, CA: Sher Music, 1995. Print.
Lyons, Len. The Great Jazz Pianists: Speaking of their Lives and Music. New
York: Da Capo Press, 1983. Print.
Morgan, David. ‘Superimposition in the improvisations of Herbie Hancock’,
Annual Review of Jazz Studies 11 (2000), 69-90. Print.
Sher, Chuck, ed. The New Real Book. Petaluma, CA: Sher Music, 1988. Print.
Sher, Chuck, ed. The New Real Book, Volume Two. Petaluma, CA: Sher
Music, 1991. Print.
Sher, Chuck, ed. The New Real Book, Volume 3. Petaluma, CA: Sher Music,
1995. Print.
Waters, Keith. ‘Blurring the barline: Metric displacement in the piano solos of
Herbie Hancock’, Annual Review of Jazz Studies 8 (1996), 19-37. Print.
Waters, Keith. ‘Modes, Scales, Functional Harmony, and Nonfunctional
Harmony in the Compositions of Herbie Hancock’ Journal of Music
Theory 49/2 (2005), 333-357. Print.
59 Discography
Byrd, Donald. Royal Flush. Donald Byrd with other musicians. Blue Note
CDP 62632, 1961. CD.
Coltrane, John. Blue Train. John Coltrane with other musicians. Blue Note
CDP 7 46095 2, 1957. CD.
Davis, Miles. Seven Steps to Heaven. Miles Davis with other musicians.
Columbia SRCS 9109, 1963. CD.
Davis, Miles. Miles Davis in Europe. Miles Davis with other musicians.
Columbia COL 519506 2, 1964. CD.
Davis, Miles. The Complete Concert, 1964: My Funny Valentine, and “Four”
& More. Miles Davis with other musicians. Columbia C2K 48821, 1964.
CD.
Davis, Miles. ESP. Miles Davis with other musicians. Columbia 467899 2,
1965. CD.
Davis, Miles. Miles Smiles. Miles Davis with other musicians. Columbia CK
48849, 1966. CD.
Davis, Miles. Nefertiti. Miles Davis with other musicians. Columbia 467089 2,
1967. CD.
Davis, Miles. Miles in the Sky. Miles Davis with other musicians. Columbia
COl 472209 2, 1968. CD.
Davis, Miles. Fillies De Kilimanjaro. Miles Davis with other musicians.
Columbia CK 46116, 1968. CD.
Getz, Stan, and Joao Gilberto. Getz/Gilberto. Stan Getz and Joao Gilberto with
other musicians. Verve Records POCJ-1802, 1963. CD.
Gordon, Dexter. Clubhouse. Dexter Gordon and other musicians. Blue Note
CDP 7 84445 2, 1965. CD.
Hancock, Herbie. Takin’ Off. Herbie Hancock with other musicians. Blue Note
CDP 7 46506 2, 1962. CD.
Hancock, Herbie. My Point of View. Herbie Hancock with other musicians.
Blue Note CDP 7 84126 2, 1963. CD.
Hancock, Herbie. Inventions and Dimentions. Herbie Hancock with other
musicians. Blue Note CDP 7 84147 2, 1963. CD.
60 Hancock, Herbie. Empyrean Isles. Herbie Hancock with other musicians. Blue
Note CDP 7 84175 2, 1964. CD.
Hancock, Herbie. Maiden Voyage. Herbie Hancock with other musicians. Blue
Note CDP 7 46339 2, 1965. CD.
Hancock, Herbie. Speak Like A Child. Herbie Hancock with other musicians.
Blue Note CDP 7 46136 2, 1968. CD.
LeDonne, Mike. ‘Bout Time. Mike LeDonne with other musicians. Criss Cross
Jazz 1033, 1988. CD.
Marsalis, Brandford. Royal Garden Blues. Brandford Marsalis with other
musicians. CBS 450151 2, 1986. CD.
Shorter, Wayne. JuJu. Wayne Shorter with other musicians. Blue Note CDP 7
46514 2, 1964. CD.
Shorter, Wayne. Speak No Evil. Wayne Shorter with other musicians. Blue
Note CDP 7 46509 2, 1964. CD.
Shorter, Wayne. Adam’s Apple. Wayne Shorter with other musicians. Blue
Note CDP 7 46403 2, 1966. CD.
61