The concept of a typewriter dates back at least to 1714, when

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The concept of a typewriter dates back at least to 1714, when
THE
TYPEWRITER
WEBSITE
Content
Organization
A
BRIEF
HISTORY
The
concept
of
a
typewriter
dates
back
at
least
to
1714,
when
Englishman
Henry
Mill
filed
a
vaguely‐worded
patent
for
"an
artificial
machine
or
method
for
the
impressing
or
transcribing
of
letters
singly
or
progressively
one
after
another."
But
the
first
typewriter
proven
to
have
worked
was
built
by
the
Italian
Pellegrino
Turri
in
1808
for
his
blind
friend
Countess
Carolina
Fantoni
da
Fivizzono
(as
established
by
Michael
Adler
in
his
excellent
1973
book
The
Writing
Machine);
unfortunately,
we
do
not
know
what
the
machine
looked
like,
but
we
do
have
specimens
of
letters
written
by
the
Countess
on
it.
Numerous
inventors
in
Europe
and
the
U.S.
worked
on
typewriters
in
the
19th
century,
but
successful
commercial
production
began
only
with
the
"writing
ball"
of
Danish
pastor
Malling
Hansen
(1870).
This
well‐engineered
device
looked
rather
like
a
pincushion.
Nietzsche's
mother
and
sister
once
gave
him
one
for
Christmas.
He
hated
it.
Much
more
influential,
in
the
long
run,
was
the
Sholes
&
Glidden
Type
Writer,
which
began
production
in
late
1873
and
appeared
on
the
American
market
in
1874.
Christopher
L.
Sholes,
a
Milwaukee
newspaperman,
poet,
and
part‐time
inventor,
was
the
main
creator
of
this
machine.
The
Sholes
&
Glidden
typed
only
in
capital
letters,
and
it
introduced
the
QWERTY
keyboard,
which
is
very
much
with
us
today.
The
keyboard
was
probably
designed
to
separate
frequently‐used
pairs
of
typebars
so
that
the
typebars
would
not
clash
and
get
stuck
at
the
printing
point.
The
S&G
was
a
decorative
machine,
boasting
painted
flowers
and
decals.
It
looked
rather
like
a
sewing
machine,
as
it
was
manufactured
by
the
sewing
machine
department
of
the
Remington
arms
company.
For
an
in‐depth
look
at
this
historic
device,
visit
Darryl
Rehr's
Web
site
"The
First
Typewriter."
The
Sholes
&
Glidden
had
limited
success,
but
its
successor,
the
Remington,
soon
became
a
dominant
presence
in
the
industry.
The
Sholes
&
Glidden,
like
many
early
typewriters,
is
an
understroke
or
"blind"
writer:
the
typebars
are
arranged
in
a
circular
basket
under
the
platen
(the
printing
surface)
and
type
on
the
bottom
of
the
platen.
This
means
that
the
typist
(confusingly
called
a
"typewriter"
herself
in
the
early
days)
has
to
lift
up
the
carriage
to
see
her
work.
Another
example
of
an
understroke
typebar
machine
is
the
Caligraph
of
1880,
the
second
typewriter
to
appear
on
the
American
market.
This
Caligraph
has
a
"full"
keyboard
‐‐
separate
keys
for
lower‐
and
upper‐case
letters.
Click
here
to
read
more
about
the
Caligraph.
The
Smith
Premier
(1890)
is
another
example
of
a
full‐keyboard
understroke
typewriter
which
was
very
popular
in
its
day.
Click
here
to
read
more
and
see
the
machine.
The
QWERTY
keyboard
came
to
be
called
the
"Universal"
keyboard,
as
the
alternative
keyboards
fought
a
losing
battle
against
the
QWERTY
momentum.
(For
more
on
QWERTY
and
to
learn
why
"QWERTY
is
cool,"
visit
Darryl
Rehr's
site
The
QWERTY
Connection.)
But
not
all
early
typewriters
used
the
QWERTY
system,
and
many
did
not
even
type
with
typebars.
Case
in
point:
the
ingenious
Hammond,
introduced
in
1884.
The
Hammond
came
on
the
scene
with
its
own
keyboard,
the
two‐
row,
curved
"Ideal"
keyboard
‐‐
although
Universal
Hammonds
were
also
soon
made
available.
The
Hammond
prints
from
a
type
shuttle
‐‐
a
C‐shaped
piece
of
vulcanized
rubber.
The
shuttle
can
easily
be
exchanged
when
you
want
to
use
a
different
typeface.
There
is
no
cylindrical
platen
as
on
typebar
typewriters;
the
paper
is
hit
against
the
shuttle
by
a
hammer.
The
Hammond
gained
a
solid
base
of
loyal
customers.
These
well‐
engineered
machines
lasted,
with
a
name
change
to
Varityper
and
electrification,
right
up
to
the
beginning
of
the
word‐processor
era.
Other
machines
typing
from
a
single
type
element
rather
than
typebars
included
the
gorgeous
Crandall
(1881)
...
...
and
the
practical
Blickensderfer.
The
effort
to
create
a
visible
rather
than
"blind"
machine
led
to
many
ingenious
ways
of
getting
the
typebars
to
the
platen.
Examples
of
early
visible
writers
include
the
Williams
and
the
Oliver.
The
Daugherty
Visible
of
1891
was
the
first
frontstroke
typewriter
to
go
into
production:
the
typebars
rest
below
the
platen
and
hit
the
front
of
it.
With
the
Underwood
of
1895,
this
style
of
typewriter
began
to
gain
ascendancy.
By
the
1920s,
virtually
all
typewriters
were
"look‐alikes":
frontstroke,
QWERTY,
typebar
machines
printing
through
a
ribbon,
using
one
shift
key
and
four
banks
of
keys.
The
most
popular
model
of
early
Underwoods,
the
#5,
is
still
to
be
found
everywhere.
Let's
return
for
a
moment
to
the
19th
century.
The
standard
price
for
a
typewriter
was
$100
‐‐
comparable
to
the
price
of
a
good
personal
computer
today.
There
were
many
efforts
to
produce
cheaper
typewriters.
Most
of
these
were
index
machines:
the
typist
first
points
at
a
letter
on
some
sort
of
index,
then
performs
another
motion
to
print
the
letter.
Obviously,
these
were
not
heavy‐
duty
office
machines;
they
were
meant
for
people
of
limited
means
who
needed
to
do
some
occasional
typing.
An
example
is
the
"American"
index
typewriter,
which
sold
for
$5.
Index
typewriters
survived
into
the
20th
century
as
children's
toys;
one
commonly
found
example
is
the
"Dial"
typewriter
made
by
Marx
Toys
in
the
1920s
and
30s.
REMINGTON
TYPEWRITERS
EVOLUTION
Remington
Standard
#7
The
No.
7
is
probably
the
most
commonly
found
of
Remington's
"blind"
typewriters,
about
250,000
having
been
sold.
It
differs
from
the
No.6
primarily
in
the
number
of
keys,
having
42
vs
the
6's
38.
This
#7
was
probably
intended
for
the
domestic
German‐speaking
market.
Indeed,
the
No.7
was
originally
intended
as
a
variant
of
the
No.6
fitted
for
foreign
languages,
the
additional
keys
being
necessary
for
diacritical
marks,
etc.
Of
course,
other
uses
within
the
English
language
were
soon
found
for
the
extra
keys,
and
it
wasn't
long
before
the
No.7
outpaced
sales
of
the
No.6
within
the
American
market.
Remington
Junior
The
Junior
stands
out
among
Remingtons
for
how
truly
unusual
it
is
compared
with
other
Remingtons.
Introduced
the
year
after
the
infamous
Union
Typewriter
Company
trust
was
reorganized
as
Remington
Typewriter
Co.,
the
Junior
was
actually
manufactured
at
Smith‐Premier's
factory
in
Syracuse,
NY.
In
fact,
the
Junior
shares
many
traits
with
the
full‐keyboard
Smith‐Premier
No.10,
and
especially
the
Smith‐Premier
Simplex,
a
stripped‐down
No.10
that
also
debuted
in
1914.
Most
notable
of
these
is
the
placement
of
the
ribbon
spools
behind
the
carriage
in
a
vertical
side‐by‐
side
configuration.
The
spring
drum
is
also
oddly
positioned,
sitting
perpendicular
to
the
carriage
with
the
cable
passing
down
from
the
carriage
along
a
pulley.
The
piece
that
looks
like
a
winding
key
on
a
daisy
is
the
spring‐tensioner.
Note
the
extremely
basic
keyboard.
A
single
set
of
shift
keys,
a
rudimentary
shift
lock
tab,
and
back
space
are
the
only
keyboard
controls.
The
margin
release
is
a
lever
up
on
the
carriage.
A
line‐spacing
toggle
behind
the
return
lever
is
just
about
the
only
other
amenity
to
be
found.
You
may
be
surprised
to
find
that
this
is
a
segment‐shifted
machine.
Though
segment‐shift
had
been
around
for
some
time
(since
the
L.C.
Smith
No.2),
this
is
the
first
application
of
the
technology
in
a
double‐shifted
keyboard
that
I
am
aware
of.
The
type
basket
shifts
down
for
capitals,
and
up
for
figures.
Alhough
small,
the
Junior
is
not
a
true
portable.
Many
collectors
refer
to
it
as
a
"luggable".
Remington
Portable
#1
The
#1
Portable
was
the
very
first
true
portable
typewriter
in
that
it
did
not
have
to
resort
to
tricks
such
as
folding
up
or
sacrificing
a
row
of
keys
to
reduce
size.
One
of
the
most
innovative
features
is
its
"pop‐up"
typebars
which
are
raised
for
use
via
a
side
lever
and
lay
back
flat
for
storage.
Over
half
a
million
were
made,
making
the
#1
a
fairly
easy
model
for
the
beginning
typewriter
collector
to
find,
and
in
my
opinion
no
collection
should
be
without
this
milestone
in
typewriter
history.
What
makes
this
Portable
#1
stand
out
from
the
rest
is
that
it
is
a
very
early
specimen.
During
its
first
year
of
production,
The
#1
was
made
in
limited
quantities,
and
had
to
be
special‐
ordered;
it
could
not
be
purchased
from
a
typewriter
dealer
until
October,
1921.
During
this
time,
several
design
elements
were
changed
as
Remington
worked
out
the
kinks
of
this
rather
experimental
little
machine.
The
machine
above
contains
all
of
the
very
earliest
features
except
the
method
used
to
secure
it
to
its
base.
Remington
Noiseless
7
The
Model
7
was
a
larger
version
of
the
Noiseless
Portable,
a
semi‐standard
in
the
same
vein
as
the
Noiseless
8.
It's
more
fully‐featured
than
the
portable,
yet
small
and
light
enough
to
easily
put
in
a
case
and
transport.
They
keyboard
is
outfitted
for
electrical
engineering.
It's
original
owner
was
an
electrical
engineer
in
the
iron
and
steel
field.
I
imagine
his
choice
of
career
was
inspired
by
his
father's
position
as
a
director
of
the
famous
Reading
Railroad.
Remie
Scout
The
Remie
Scout
was
available
in
four
different
versions,
giving
collectors
32
possible
combinations
to
look
for!
Additionally,
they
could
be
had
in
four
different
colors,
such
as
this
two‐tone
blue
Remie
Scout.
This
particular
model
is
the
cheapest,
lowest‐end
of
the
four
versions,
and
having
no
protective
front
frame
around
the
keyboard.
Though
the
option
of
a
case
was
available
for
extra,
it
often
came
with
just
an
oiled
cloth
cover.
It's
not
surprising
that
so
few
survived.
It
was
marketed
as
a
"child's
typewriter",
though
that
was
most
likely
a
euphemism
for
"inexpensive".
It
sold
for
$19.95.
Seventeen
Sometimes
alternately
labeled
"Model
17"
or
"No.17"
or
not
labeled
at
all
.
The
model
debuted
in
1939
and
became
the
primary
workhorse
for
government
offices
during
WWII.
In
1947,
it
was
renamed
the
KMC
(for
Keyboard
Margin
Control).
The
model
was
discontinued
in
1950.
The
story
behind
this
bright
red
world
traveler
is
that
it
was
purchased
by
a
serviceman
at
a
PX
on
a
US
Army
base
in
Turkey.
It
traveled
with
its
owner
to
Korea,
and
eventually
back
to
Minnesota,
where
it
turned
up
in
Minneapolis.
Obviously,
it's
been
repainted,
and
possibly
rebuilt.
The
keys
look
like
Smith‐Corona
keys,
but
I
have
seen
similar
keys
on
later
Remington
standards;
either
way,
they
aren't
original.
The
tag
on
front
is
for
Roger
A
Podany's
typewriter
service,
at
7
W
Lake
St,
Minneapolis,
who
may
have
done
the
alterations.
The
site
is
now
part
of
a
K‐Mart
parking
lot.
(Mr
Podany,
incidentally,
is
still
alive
and
has
been
the
proprieter
of
Office
Equipment
Warehouse,
Inc
since
1976.)
Remington
Quiet
Riter
Remington
Super
Riter
The
Super
Riter
is
the
direct
descendant
of
the
Seventeen
and
KMC
models.
Mechanically,
all
three
are
nearly
identical
under
the
shell.
Noteably,
the
Super
Riter
seems
to
take
a
step
backwards,
abandoning
the
automatic
margin
set
mechanism
for
old‐school
manual
margin
sets
behind
the
paper
tray.
The
change
may
have
been
repercussions
from
the
patent
infringement
lawsuit
Royal
won
against
both
Remington
and
Smith‐Corona
for
ripping
off
Royal's
Magin
Margin
system.
Torpedo
18b
The
difference
between
the
model
18
and
18b
is
that
the
18b
has
a
tabulator
and
the
18
does
not.
The
Torpedo
18/18b
was
the
last
true
Torpedo
manufactured
in
Germany
by
Torpedo
Buromaschinenwerke.
The
company,
long
partially
held
by
Remington‐Rand,
was
by
this
time
a
wholly‐owned
Remington
subsidiary.
After
the
18/18b
line
ended
in
1964,
production
was
moved
to
Holland.
Although
the
Torpedo
name
would
be
revived
on
a
handful
of
later
models,
none
matched
the
quality
and
precision
for
which
the
brand
was
legendary.
Remington
Holiday
This
inexpensive,
Holland‐made
portable
represents
the
waning
days
of
Remington's
typewriter
business.It
is
an
extremely
basic
machine,
with
no
tabs,
paper
support,
or
soundproofing.
The
case
(and
possibly
the
entire
plastic
housing)
was
made
in
Italy.
The
case
(a
top‐only
design
which
snaps
onto
the
bottom
half
of
the
typewriter)
and
shell
are
so
similar
to
my
Olivetti‐made
Escort
55
that
it
would
not
surprise
me
if
it
was
the
same
company.
I
wouldn't
be
surprised
if
the
Holland
factory
which
built
this
is
the
same
one
that
built
Royal's
late
portables.
Remington
24
This
critter
is
big.
Really
big.
The
wide
platen
that
you
might
be
thinking
is
14"
is
really
20".
The
overall
carriage
length
is
26".
Look
again
and
you'll
see
that
there
are
five
rows
of
keys‐‐the
top
row
is
a
10‐key
decimal
tabulator.
Obviously,
this
machine
was
used
for
accounting
work
of
some
sort.
It's
fitted
with
Double
Gothic
typeface,
which
was
popular
for
banking
and
check‐writing
because
of
its
legibility.
One
mechanical
innovation
of
interest
is
a
type
impact
control
mechanism
that
transfers
the
keylever
momentum
via
cam
lever
into
a
precise,
uniform
amount
of
energy
to
actuates
the
typebar.
Think
of
the
way
that
a
camera
delivers
the
exact
proper
amount
of
energy
to
activate
the
shutter
for
a
predetermined
amount
of
time,
regardless
of
how
quickly
or
slowly
the
user
depresses
the
shutter
release.
The
result
is
a
snappy
feel
and
uniform
type
impression.
Surprisingly,
the
housing
is
made
of
plastic,
and
as
you
can
see
the
ribbon
cover
doesn't
fit
quite
right.
One
of
the
plastic
tabs
that
holds
it
on
is
broken
off.
In
spite
of
ample
soundproofing
material,
it's
about
as
loud
as
one
would
expect
a
plastic‐shelled
standard
to
be,
and
the
gargantuan
carriage
advancing
thunka­thunka
only
adds
to
the
din.
This
is
a
machine
for
rattling
the
rafters.
The
excessive
body
size
reminds
me
of
the
Royal
Empress,
and
I
wonder
if,
like
the
Empress,
this
wasn't
an
intentional
strategy
to
be
able
to
use
the
same
housing
on
electrified
models.
WHO
USED
IT
AND
WHERE
?
The
typewriter
was
important
at
the
time
because
it
was
the
first
quick
and
easy
way
to
write
a
letter
or
message.
It
was
and
important
invention
for
writers
as
well
as
business
offices.
When
Remington
&
Sons
started
producing
typewriters
they
had
a
specific
idea
in
mind
as
to
how
the
typewriter
would
be
used.
They
had
imagined
that
typewriters
would
be
used
for
recording
dictation,
and
that
the
typist
would
be
a
woman.
A
1923
book
on
the
early
history
of
the
typewriter,
featured
a
portrait
of
Christopher
Latham
Sholes,
inventor
of
the
first
production
typewriter,
as
the
savior
of
women.
It
is
highly
unlikely
that
Sholes
consciously
invented
the
typewriter
with
the
intention
of
furthering
women's
liberation,
but
it
is
a
fact
that
this
office
appliance
had
a
major
impact
on
office
life
in
the
western
world.
The
typewriter
gave
women
jobs
in
the
office
and
an
opportunity
to
work
as
freelance
'typewriters'
in
offices
where
a
fulltime
use
for
the
machine
wasn't
feasible
yet.
In
that
sense
the
invention
of
the
typewriter
played
a
major
role
in
eventually
giving
women
economic
power,
an
equal
position
in
the
labor
force
and
a
voice
in
business.
But
there
was
still
a
long
way
to
go,
as
is
illustrated
by
a
sheer
endless
series
of
telltale
postcards
that
appeared
in
the
early
20th
Century.
One
more
explicitly
than
the
other
(pic
5),
they
all
told
the
same
story
about
the
boss
cheating
his
wife
with
his
secretary.
The
same
theme
also
appeared
in
several
series
of
stereo
view
pictures,
usually
ending
with
the
lovebirds
being
caught
by
the
boss'
wife.
WHY
IS
IT
OBSOLETE?
There
is
one
very
simple
reason
why
the
typewriter
is
obsolete
today:
the
invention
of
the
computer.
The
use
of
typewriters
started
to
decline
after
work
on
a
new
technology
(the
computer)
started
in
the
1930s
and
1940s.
But
it
is
not
until
the
1980s
that
the
decline
grew
steeper,
with
the
emergence
of
word
processors,
and
personal
computers.
However,
many
modern
writers
and
journalists
still
work
with
a
typewriter.
For
example,
Hunter
S.
Thompson
used
a
typewriter
to
work
until
his
death
in
2005.
Also,
author
Cormac
McCarthy
still
uses
a
typewriter
for
all
his
writing.
After
World
War
II,
the
electric
typewriter
advanced
in
the
office
world,
with
the
IBM
'golf
ball'
system
as
market
leader
(note
that
this
system
was
basically
invented
by
Blickensderfer
in
the
19th
Century,
and
was
perfected
in
the
1902
Blickensderfer
Electric).
Later
still
the
electronic
typewriter,
the
video
writer
and
the
word
processor
entered
the
market,
pushing
many
producers
of
mechanical
typewriters
off
the
market.
In
the
early
70s
Varityper,
the
direct
descendant
of
the
1881
Hammond,
stopped
production.
The
Remington
name
disappeared
in
the
same
decade.
But
even
today,
manual
typewriters
are
produced
and
sold
in
small
numbers
to
happy
users
around
the
world.
History
has
not
ended
yet.
The
Olivetti
Valentine.
If
there
is
one
post‐1920s
typewriter
that
deserves
to
be
mentioned,
it
is
the
Olivetti
Valentine,
a
design
by
Ettore
Sottsass.
This
space‐age
machine,
that
was
built
in
1970,
can
be
found
in
many
collections
of
industrial
design.
Mechanically,
the
machine
is
not
fundamentally
different
from
the
average
machine
that
was
built
half
a
century
earlier.
Today,
Olivetti
is
the
only
Western
company
still
producing
manual
typewriters.
TYPEWRITER
TYPEFACES
There
are
many
digital
typefaces
that
are
based
on
typewriter
typefaces.
The
Remington
standard
7
used
the
Fraktur
typeface.
The
Remie
Scout
had
caps‐only
with
a
no‐nonsense,
san‐serif
typeface.
The
Remington
24
used
the
Double
Gothic
typeface,
which
was
popular
for
banking
and
check‐
writing
because
of
its
legibility.
RESOURCES
Ribbons
&
Cleaning
supplies
• Tech
Support
Associates
(TSA)
carries
a
complete
line
of
tools,
parts,
and
supplies
for
modern
office
equipment.
Of
interest
to
the
collector
will
be
the
selection
of
cleaning
solvents
and
fabric
ribbons.
TSA
also
offers
platen
recovering
service.
Contact:
Tech
Support
Associates,
Ltd.,
2070
Peachtree
Industrial
Court,
Suite
102,
Chamblee,
GA
30341,
Telephone:
(404)
452‐8200,
Fax
Line:
(404)
454‐6075,
Order
Toll
Free:
(800)
633‐6626.
• Ames
Supply
Company
carries
a
complete
line
of
tools,
parts,
and
supplies
for
modern
office
equipment.
Of
interest
to
the
collector
will
be
the
selection
of
cleaning
solvents
and
fabric
ribbons.
Ames
also
offers
platen
recovering
service.
Contact:
Ames
Supply
Company,
2537
Curtiss
Street,
Downers
Grove,
IL
60515,
Telephone:
(630)
964‐2440,
Fax
Line:
(630)
964‐0497,
Order
Toll
Free:
(800)
848‐8780.
Hardware
&
Material
• Luggage
&
Handbag
Supply
Co.
is
a
source
for
coverings
and
other
parts
for
repairing
cases.
Contact:
Luggage
&
Handbag
Supply
Co.,
248
East
Arrow
Highway,
San
Dimas,
CA
91773‐3359,
Telephone:
(909)
394‐1213
or
(909)
394‐1220.
• Small
Parts
Inc.
caries
a
broad
range
of
precision
hardware
and
materials.
Contact:
Small
Parts
Inc.
13980
N.W.
58th
Court,
P.
O.
Box
4650,
Miami
Lakes,
FL
33014‐9727
Books
in
print
A
number
of
these
can
be
ordered
online
at
Amazon.com.
Just
click
on
the
highlighted
title
to
go
straight
to
Amazon's
page
about
that
particular
book.
(To
order
more
than
one
of
these
books:
click
on
the
first
title
in
order
to
go
to
Amazon's
page
about
the
first
book;
click
on
"Add
this
book
to
your
shopping
basket";
click
twice
on
your
"back"
button
to
return
to
this
page;
then
click
on
the
next
title
and
repeat.
When
you
have
put
all
the
books
you
want
in
your
shopping
basket,
click
on
"Buy
items
now.")
• Adler,
Michael.
Antique
Typewriters,
from
Creed
to
QWERTY.
Schiffer
Publishing,
1997.
$39.95.
An
exploration
of
early
typewriters
by
the
author
of
the
classic
The
Writing
Machine
(see
below).
208
pages
with
lots
of
color
and
black‐and‐white
photos.
Written
in
an
entertaining
tone
with
a
sense
of
humor.
Lots
of
information,
but
occasionally
errors
creep
in.
Includes
price
suggestions
which
are
generally
reliable,
sometimes
on
the
high
side.
This
book
is
the
most
comprehensive
typewriter
history
in
English.
I
recommend
it
for
any
serious
collector.
• Blickensderfer,
Robert
and
Paul
Robert.
The
Five‐Pound
Secretary.
Virtual
Typewriter
Museum,
2003.
A
handsome
book
all
about
the
great
Blickensderfer,
written
in
part
by
a
descendant
of
its
inventor.
Follow
the
link
to
order
the
book.
• Collector's
Guide
to
Antique
Typewriters.
Reprint
of
The
Typewriter
Topics
Encyclopedia
of
Typewriters
(1923),
published
by
the
Post
Group.
This
was
long
the
bible
for
English‐
speaking
typewriter
collectors;
it
lists
all
major
and
most
minor
typewriters
made
up
to
1923,
and
describes
them
in
an
entertaining
if
verbose
manner.
This
reprint
includes
many
reproductions
of
advertisements.
Available
from
Office
Machine
Americana
for
$12.95.
Also
reprinted
by
Dover,
edited
by
Victor
Linoff
(see
below).
• Current,
Richard
N.
The
Typewriter
and
the
Men
Who
Made
It.
Reprint
by
the
Post
Group
of
a
1950s
study
of
the
invention
of
the
Sholes
&
Glidden.
Good
reading.
Available
from
Office
Machine
Americana
for
$17.95.
• Dale,
Rodney
and
Rebecca
Weaver.
Machines
in
the
Office.
Available
in
hardback
and
paperback
.
Oxford:
Oxford
University
Press,
1993.
A
short,
popular
book
that
covers
typewriters,
telegraphs,
telephones,
dictation
machines,
computers,
and
more.
Gives
you
a
sense
of
the
context
in
which
typewriters
were
invented.
Entertaining,
and
includes
many
good
illustrations.
Information
on
typewriters
is
not
very
reliable,
though.
• James,
Duncan.
Old
Typewriters.
London:
Shire
Publications,
1993.
Shire
Album
#293.
$7.25.
A
small
pamphlet
that
attractively
presents
the
essentials
of
typewriter
mechanisms
and
has
some
nice
black‐and‐white
photographs.
Available
on
amazon.co.uk.
• Linoff,
Victor
(ed).
The
Typewriter:
An
Illustrated
History
New
York:
Dover
Publications,
2000.
A
reprint
of
the
1923
Typewriter
Topics
Encyclopedia
of
Typewriters.
An
important
early
source
that
includes
lots
of
usually‐reliable
data.
The
same
book
is
available
in
a
smaller
format
with
reproductions
of
early
advertisements,
under
the
name
Collector's
Guide
to
Antique
Typewriters
(see
above).
• Mares,
G.C.
History
of
the
Typewriter,
Successor
to
the
Pen.
London:
Guilbert
Pitman,
1909.
Reprinted
by
the
Post
Group.
An
excellent
early
"buyer's
guide"
to
writing
machines.
Available
from
Office
Machine
Americana
for
$24.95.
• Martin,
Ernst
(pseudonym
of
Johannes
Meyer).
Die
Schreibmaschine
und
ihre
Entwicklungsgeschichte.
4th
ed:
Pappenheim,
Bavaria,
1949.
An
outstanding,
encyclopedic
work.
Plentiful
illustrations
make
it
worth
looking
at
even
if
you
don't
know
a
word
of
German.
A
reprint
produced
by
collector
Leonhard
Dingwerth
may
be
available
on
amazon.de.
• Quiring,
Ed.
This
collector
offers
unbound
copies
of
his
Ph.D.
dissertation
on
the
history
of
the
typewriter
for
$30
each
including
shipping.
Dr.
Ed
E.
Quiring,
1105
Stahlridge
Street,
Caldwell,
ID
83605‐5678,
phone
208‐459‐8239,
e‐mail
[email protected]
• Rehr,
Darryl.
Antique
Typewriters
&
Office
Collectibles.
Collector
Books,
1997.
$19.95.
This
book
by
the
former
editor
of
the
journal
of
the
Early
Typewriter
Collectors
Association
is
an
invaluable
guide,
including
detailed
descriptions
of
hundreds
of
typewriters,
illustrated
with
color
photos.
It
is
not
exhaustive,
and
the
estimates
of
value
are
generally
agreed
to
be
too
low,
but
this
is
probably
the
first
book
the
beginning
typewriter
collector
should
buy.
You
can
order
it
directly
from
the
author
and
get
a
free
bonus:
the
new,
expanded
edition
of
"The
Early
History
of
the
Typewriter"
by
Charles
Weller.
• Robert,
Paul.
Sexy
Legs
and
Typewriters.
Virtual
Typewriter
Museum,
2004.
"Women
in
office‐
related
advertising,
humor,
glamour,
and
erotica."
A
different
sort
of
book,
not
for
those
who
disapprove
of
"R"‐rated
material.
Follow
the
link
to
order
the
book.
• Russo,
Thomas.
Mechanical
Typewriters:
Their
History,
Value,
and
Legacy.
Schiffer
Publishing,
2002.
The
latest
book
on
typewriters,
written
by
a
former
Remington
man
who
has
a
fabulous
collection.
Not
the
best
in
terms
of
completeness
or
accuracy,
but
notable
for
fine
photographs
of
Russo's
machines,
including
some
very
unusual
items.
A
separate
chapter
on
Remingtons
is
probably
the
most
complete
account
of
that
make
in
print.
Value
estimates
are
reasonable.
By
the
same
author:
Office
Collectibles:
100
Years
of
Business
Technology.
Both
books
are
also
available
directly
from
the
author:
Russo
&
Associates,
LLC,
1200
Philadelphia
Pike,
Suite
220,
Wilmington,
DE
19809,
USA.
•
Webster,
F.
S.
Company.
Typewriters
of
All
Kinds
and
Our
Galaxy
of
Stars.
This
rare
196‐
page
catalogue
published
in
1898
by
the
F.
S.
Webster
Co.
describes
a
wide
variety
of
machines,
services,
and
office
supplies.
Attractive
and
entertaining.
Click
on
the
link
to
order
a
print‐on‐demand
reprint.
LINKS
http://www.typewritermuseum.org/collection/index.html
http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/
http://hpricecpa.com/typewriters.html
http://www.mytypewriter.com/explorelearn/links.html
emmanuelle
joyeux
|
defunct
devices
creative
brief
|
10.07.2010


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