forest and biodiversity

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forest and biodiversity
FOREST AND BIODIVERSITY
PROCEEDING
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
5-6 JULY 2013
Editors:
Ir. Martina Langi, M.Sc, P.hD
Ir. Johny S.Tasirin, M.ScF, P.hD
Dr. Ir. Hengky Walangitan, MP
Dr. Gaetan Masson
Organized by:
Manado Forestry Research Institute
Collaboration with:
Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency
Sam Ratulangi University
Global Environment Facility
Burung Indonesia
Government of North Sulawesi Province
SEAMEO BIOTROP
i
ISBN 978-602-96800-6-5
PROCEEDING
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE
“FOREST AND BIODIVERSITY”
Manado, 2013
Publised in 2013
Cover:
1.Julang Sulawesi, 2.Burung Manguni, 3.Angrek
4.Buah Jabon, 5.Capung, 6.Anoa
Photo by:
1. Thomas Arndt, 2. Diah Irawati Dwi Arini
3,5. Hanom Bashari, 4. Julianus Kinho, 6. Syamsir Shabri
Design and Layout:
Eva Betty Sinaga and Lulus Turbianti
Published by:
Manado Forestry Research Institute
Jl. Raya Adipura Kel. Kima Atas Kec. Mapanget Manado
Telp. 0431-3666683
Email: [email protected]hoo.com
Website: www.bpk-manado.litbang.dephut.go.id
Printed by:
IPB Press
ii
PREFACE
As one the countries have known with high biodiversity because of condition of an equatorial
climatic zones, Indonesia faced a variety of challenges. From about 5 million number of biodiversity in
the world, 15 % of which were in Indonesia, but its utility is still below 5 % of that amount.
Understanding and adequate management and extends the thing will become increasingly vital to the
increasingly growing needs. In addition, any delay in step can be made Indonesia vulnerable to
damage ecosystem/environment and natural resources biodiversity theft (biopiracy).
Documentation of the database (database) can be the least initial capital to rescue the genetic
resources that exist in our country. The proper allocation need to be held so that we are not
dependent on donor countries. Further to the agreed forms of biodiversity management. The
management o biodiversity can be started from the mapping, especially to determine potential areas
and require treatment. With that “wealth map”, can be an economic interpretation would lead to the
financial value of biodiversity Indonesia. In addition, need to also map type and the type of threats to
the conservation of forest biodiversity.
Organization of international seminar on this theme of “Forest and Biodiversity” is the
embodiment of one the function of Manado institute research forestry namely is the service data and
information science and technology research results to communities of users. The ultimate goal is to
be achieved can raise and answer the needs users, for research in the future are solution for the
existing problems.
Prosiding contains 24 title matter discussed and 20 matter supporting and the formulation
seminar based on On this occasion, we express our thanks to Secretariat of Forestry Research and
Development Agency, Sam Ratulangi University, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia,
The Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO.the result of discussion.
Post, publisher of material, comittee of organized, moderator, all participant has helped to
conduct seminar until constituent of proceeding.
Hopefully this proceed is usefull.
Manado, August 2013
Head of Manado Forestry Research
Institute
Dr.Ir. Mahfudz, MP
NIP. 19670829 199203 1 004
iii
TIM PENYUNTING
Penanggung Jawab
: Dr.Ir. Mahfudz, MP
Redaktur
: Ir. Eva Betty Sinaga, MP
Editor
: Dr. Ir. Martina Langi, M.Sc
Dr. Ir. Johny S.Tasirin, M.ScF
Dr. Ir. Hengky Walangitan, MP
Dr. Gaetan Masson
Sekretariat
: Lulus Turbianti, S.Hut.
Farid Fahmi, S.Kom.
Angelina Lenak, S.S
iv
CONTENT
Preface .........................................................................................................................
Content .........................................................................................................................
Remarks
Laporan Ketua Panitia ....................................................................................................
Sambutan Gubernur Provinsi Sulawesi Utara ....................................................................
Sambutan Menteri Kehutanan .........................................................................................
Rumusan ......................................................................................................................
iii
v
ix
xii
xvii
xxi
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF FOREST BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
The Effect of Submersion and Fruit Treatment to Seed Germination
and Initial Growth of Bintaro (Cerbera Manghas Linn) Seedling
Cecep Kusmana, Satriavi Putri Asrinata, and Edje Djamhuri ..................................
03-16
Nesting Ecology and Strategic Natural Treatment for The Nest of The Critically
Endangered Yellow-Crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata in Sumba
Hanom Bashari ..........................................................................................................
17-32
Conservation strategy of Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus Raffles, 1821)
at Dolok Sipirok Natural Reserve and surrounding area
Rozza Tri Kwatrina, Wanda Kuswanda, Titiek Setyawati ........................................
33-48
Nest Characteristics and Prospect of Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus morio)
Corridor Establishment in Menamang Forest, East Kalimantan Indonesia
Tri Sayektiningsih, Yaya Rayadin, Amir Ma’ruf, dan Ishak Yassir ...........................
49-58
Correlation Between Sialang Tree Diveristy (Nest of Apis dorsata Fabr.)
to Honey Productivity in Siak Regency – Riau Province
Avry Pribadi and Purnomo .........................................................................................
59-68
Options for The Biodiversity Conservation of Gunung Lumut Protection
Forest East Kalimantan
Tri Wira Yuwati, Gerard Persoon and San Afri Awang .............................................
69-80
The Ability of Adaptation and Early Growth of Nine Types of Diospyros in Exitu
Conservation in North Sulawesi
Julianus Kinho ............................................................................................................
81-92
Diversity and conservation status of mammals in Labanan research forest,
East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Tri Atmoko, Nurul S. Lestari, and Lipu ......................................................................
93-106
Adaptability and Growth Diversity of Merbau (Intsia bijuga) in Ex Situ Conservation Plot
at 3 Years Old
Tri Pamungkas Yudohartono, Mahfudz, and Hamdan Adma Adinugraha ............... 107-114
The Growth Variation of Several Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) Populations
After Six Years In Gunung Kidul
Ari Fiani dan Yuliah .................................................................................................... 115-120
v
Strategy to Establishment of Ex-Situ Genetic Resources Conservation Plots
of Eboni (Diospyros celebica Bakh)
Prastyono ................................................................................................................... 121-132
Evaluation of Ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm & Binn) Health
at KHDTK Sumberwringin in Bondowoso for Supporting Ironwood Genetic Conservation
Yuliah.......................................................................................................................... 133-143
Bird Species Richness on the Wae Wuul Nature Reserve :
Using Simple Method in Helping the Official Authority do Long-Term Monitoring
Feri Irawan ................................................................................................................. 145-164
Potential Distributions and Utilization of Faloak (Sterculia quadrifida R.Br 1844)
on Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara
Siswadi, Grace S. Saragih dan Heny Rianawati ........................................................ 165-172
Impact of the Presence of Invasive Species on Biodiversity and Conservation Management
Diah Irawati Dwi Arini ............................................................................................... 173-188
The Daily Behaviour of Nuri Talaud (Eos histrio) in Captivity
of Manado Forestry Research Center
Anita Mayasari dan Ady Suryawan ............................................................................ 189-196
Seedling Process Technique of Cempaka Wasian (Elmerrellia ovalis Miq. Dandy)
as a Local Potential Wood in North Sulawesi
Arif Irawan and Hanif Nurul Hidayah ....................................................................... 197-202
The Effect of Sowing Media, Early Treatment of Seed, and Covering to the Germination
of Gmelina arborea
Hanif Nurul Hidayah dan Arif Irawan ....................................................................... 203-206
Survival Rate of Mangrove Rehabilitation in Abraded Small Island Using Variation
of Age and Species
Ady Suryawan ............................................................................................................ 207-214
Conservation of Populations of Petung Bamboos (Dendrocalamus asper)
M. Charomaini and Anto Rimbawanto ...................................................................... 215-220
QUANTIFICATION VALUE AND BENEFIT OF BIODIVERSITY
Invasive Plant Species Risk Management for Forestry Sector in Indonesia
Soekisman Tjitrosemito, Titiek Setyawati, Adi Susmianto .............................................
223-236
Economy Study and Standard Price of Community-based Plantation Forest Products
Kristian Mairi ....................................................................................................................
237-260
Comparative Analysis of Several Quota Calculation Methods for Wildlife Sustainable
Harvesting in Natural Habitats
Yanto Santosa ..................................................................................................................
261-272
Policy Analysis of Forest Management in Order to Optimize Economic
and Ecological Function of Land Resources in The Catchment Area of Lake Tondano
Hengki Djemie Walangitan ..............................................................................................
vi
273-288
Adaptation Pattern of Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in Cajuput Swamp Forest
Hadi S. Alikodra and Reni Srimulyaningsih .....................................................................
289-230
Flora Diversity Loss in the Bioregion of Sulawesi
Elizabeth A. Widjaja and Bayu A. Pratama ......................................................................
301-320
An Approach in Ecosystem Valuation: A Case of the Mahawu Protected Forest
Martina A. Langi ...............................................................................................................
321-324
The Cost Analysis of Sustainable Electrification
Study Case: Community-Based Micro Hydro in Cibuluh Village,
Mt. Simpang Nature Reserve
Hilda Lionata ....................................................................................................................
325-334
Financial Analysis of the Combination of Wood Plants with Coconaut
(Cocos nucifera. Linneaeus) Plants in Sulut Case Study at Mapanget District
in Manado City
La Ode Asier .....................................................................................................................
335-344
Terentang (Campnosperma auriculata Hook. F) : Alternative Species for Light Construction
Purposes and Pulp Materials from Peat Swamp Forest in Central Kalimantan
Dewi Alimah .....................................................................................................................
345-356
SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
The Role of Local Botanic Gardens in Reducing the Rate of Flora Diversity Loss
Sugiarti, Joko Ridho Witono, Lyndle Hardstaff ..............................................................
359-370
Identification of Determinant Societal Variables for Successful Bali Mynah
(Leucopsar rothschildi) Conservation
Intan Purnamasari ...........................................................................................................
371-384
Positive Environmental Deviance: a Valuable Community Empowerment Tool
in Protected Area Management
Arzyana Sunkar ................................................................................................................
385-396
Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition of Secondary Vegetation Natural Forest
at Bukit Naga, KHDTK Rantau, South Kalimantan
Fatimah Fitriana and Sudin Panjaitan ............................................................................. 397- 416
Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs for Pulp and Paper to Secure the Sustainability
of Natural Resources
Han Roladi, Dian Anggraini Indrawan & Rossi Margareth Tampubolon ........................
417-442
Utilization of Natural Plant by The North Sulawesi Community as a Lowering of Diabetic
Lis Nurrani and Julianus Kinho ........................................................................................
442-452
The Succession on Grassland and Under of Johar (Casia siamea),
Pinus (Pinus Jung et de Vr) Stand on Forest Research Rantau
Sudin Panjaitan and Syarkani Yudi .................................................................................
vii
453-470
The Model of Optimal Forest Management Unit Area for a Sustainable
Forest Resource Administration
Wahyu Andayani ..............................................................................................................
471-478
Distribution Mapping and Conservation Strategies of Citron-crested Cockatoo
(Cacatuasulphureacitrinocristata) in the Fragmented Forest
of Laiwangi Wanggameti National Park, East Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara
Oki Hidayat and Kayat .....................................................................................................
479-484
Prospect of the Development of Gerunggang (Cratoxylun arborescens Bl.)
as Alternative Species for Pulp at Peat Swamp Forest in Central Kalimantan
Reni Setyo Wahyuningtyas ..............................................................................................
485-492
Generative Propagation of Kayupapi (Exocarpus latifolia R. Br.) at East Nusa Tenggara
Aziz Umroni, Heny Rianawati and Siswadi......................................................................
493-498
Development Technique of Cultivation of Bamboos Species in South Kalimantan
Sudin Panjaitan ................................................................................................................
Propagation of Gemor (Nothaphoebe coriacea Kosterm.), Non Timber Forest Product
Tree Species of Kalimantan Peat Swamp Forest
Purwanto B. Santosa dan Tri Wira Yuwati ......................................................................
499-510
511-518
Use of Indigenous Shrub and Tree as Liquid Organic Matter to Improve Soil Fertility in Supporting
Sustainability Soil Management
IN Prijo Soetedjo and Ida Rachmawati .......................................................................... 519-528
The Biodiversity Potential of Labanan Research Forest
Nurul Silva Lestari, dkk ....................................................................................................
529-546
Exploration and Inventory of Orchids in Faruhumpenai Nature Reserve
I Nyoman Peneng and Wawan Sujarwo..........................................................................
547-560
PRESENTATION OF KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
Forests: Biodiversity and Biosecurity
Prof. John Lovett ........................................................................................................ 463-471
Preaparation of the Ecosystem Profile for Wallacea
Ria Saryanthi .............................................................................................................. 473-476
viii
SAMBUTAN
KEPALA BALAI PENELITIAN KEHUTANAN MANADO
PADA SEMINAR INTERNASIONAL HUTAN DAN BIODIVERSITAS
(PARALLEL EVENT OF INTERNATIONAL SEMINAR “BIODIVERSITY AND INTEGRATED
PEST MANAGEMENT”
Manado, 5 – 6 Juli 2013
Yang terhormat,
ƒ Menteri Kehutanan Republik Indonesia
ƒ Gubernur Provinsi Sulawesi Utara
ƒ Kepala Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan
ƒ Kepala Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Konservasi dan Rehabilitasi Hutan
ƒ Kepala Pusat Pengendalian Pembangunan Kehutanan
ƒ Direktur BIOTROP
ƒ Direktur Eksekutif Burung Indonesia
ƒ Direktur GEF
ƒ Kepala Dinas Provinsi/Kabupaten/Kota yang membidangi Kehutanan
ƒ Kepala UPT Kementerian Kehutanan
ƒ Para tamu undangan dan peserta seminar yang berbahagia.
Assalamualaikum Warakhmatullah Wabarakatuh
Selamat pagi dan salam sejahtera bagi kita semua,
Pertama-tama marilah kita memanjatkan puji dan syukur kehadirat Allah SWT atas KaruniaNya
kepada kita semua sehingga pada hari ini kita dalam keadaan sehat wal’afiat dapat hadir di tempat ini
untuk mengikuti acara Seminar Internasional dengan tema “Hutan dan Biodiversitas” yang
diselenggarakan oleh Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manado bekerjasama dengan Sekretariat Badan
Litbang Kehutanan,
Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Pemerintah Provinsi Sulawesi Utara, Global
Environment Facilites (GEF), SEAMEO BIOTROP dan Yayasan Burung Indonesia. Acara ini merupakan
paralel event dari “Internasional Seminar Biodiversity and Integrated Pest Management”.
Peserta seminar yang saya hormati,
Sebagaimana kita ketahui bersama bahwa Hutan Indonesia dengan luas 120,35 juta hektar
merupakan kelompok hutan tropis terbesar ketiga di dunia setelah Brazil dan Zaire. Dalam wacana
keanekaragaman hayati Indonesia menduduki posisi kedua di dunia setelah Negara Columbia.
Keunikan keanekaragaman hayati di Indonesia ini tidak dapat ditandingi oleh negara-negara lain di
belahan dunia manapun. Keunikan tersebut antara lain Indonesia memiliki wilayah dengan tipe IndoMalaya yang sangat luas, juga tipe Oriental dan Australia serta peralihannya. Flora dan fauna langka
dan spesies endemik juga menjadi bagian yang menjadikan Indonesia negara yang sangat potensial.
ix
Sebagai salah satu negara yang dikenal dengan keanekaragaman tinggi, Indonesia menghadapi
berbagai tantangan tersendiri. Dari sekitar angka 5 juta biodiversitas di dunia, 15% ada di Indonesia
namun pemanfaatannya pun masih sangat rendah yaitu hanya sekitar 5%. Pemahaman dalam
pengelolaan keanekaragaman hayati untuk kesejahteraan masyarakat yang memadai menjadi kian
penting dengan semakin meningkatnya kebutuhan, namun pemanfaatan perlu juga dilandasi pada
prinsip kelestarian agar keanekaragaman hayati yang kita miliki ini untuk kemudian dapat kita
wariskan untuk generasi yang akan datang.
Bapak/Ibu peserta seminar yang berbahagia,
Sesuai dengan topik seminar yaitu “Hutan dan Biodiversitas”, perlindungan terhadap kelestarian dan
tingkat keanekaragaman hayati menjadi hal yang sangat penting terutama dalam rangka pencegahan
terhadap serangan hama dan penyakit. Perkembangan zaman dan kemajuan teknologi memicu
semakin terbukanya akses terhadap dunia luar. Keanekaragaman hayati di Indonesia tidak lepas dari
ancaman oleh introduksi spesies asing yang datang baik melalui perdagangan maupun kegiatan lintas
sektoral lainnya. Serangan hama dan penyakit baik yang ditimbulkan oleh organisme alam maupun
spesies asing (alien species) terhadap hutan alam maupun hutan tanaman memberikan dampak
kerugian yang tidak sedikit. Diperkirakan sebanyak 80% spesies di dunia terancam dan menderita
karena adanya kompetisi atau predasi yang disebabkan oleh hadirnya spesies asing baik dari
kelompok tanaman, mamalia maupun serangga. Kerugian dengan hadirnya spesies asing akan
menimbulkan potensi kerusakan lingkungan yang sulit untuk dipulihkan kembali. Kepunahan spesies
organisme lokal merupakan kerusakan yang tidak dapat diperbaharui lagi. Kerugian secara ekonomi
yang ditanggung suatu negara akibat adanya invasi suatu spesies di Eropa mencapai 375 juta dollar
per tahun. Selain itu perubahan struktur dan komposisi komunitas keanekaragaman hayati lambat
laun akan terjadi jika tidak ditangani secara tepat dan terpadu.
Adapun tujuan yang hendak dicapai dalam pelaksanaan seminar “Hutan dan Biodiversitas” ini
adalah:
1. Mendapatkan rumusan konsep biodiversitas yang sesuai untuk wilayah negara Indonesia,
terutama dalam ruang lingkup ekosistem dan sekaligus sebagai agenda pendidikan, riset dan
pengembangan kapasitas masyarakat melalui pengembangan jejaring antar berbagai pihak
terkait;
2. Merumuskan berbagai pendekatan yang relevan dalam melakukan kuantifikasi manfaat
biodiversitas bagi kehidupan sosial-ekonomi-budaya-politik dan,
3. Merumuskan berbagai alternatif pengelolaan biodiversitas untuk wilayah negera Indonesia.
Melalui seminar ini Bapak/Ibu akan mendengarkan tiga topik utama yang akan dipaparkan oleh para
penyaji meliputi Ilmu dan Teknologi Konservasi Biodiversitas, Kuantifikasi dan Manfaat Nilai
Biodiversitas; dan Pengelolaan Sumber Daya Alam Yang Berkelanjutan.
Bapak/Ibu dan Saudara-saudara sekalian yang saya hormati,
Terwujudnya kelestarian keanekaragaman hayati di Negeri tercinta ini tidak dapat lepas dari peran
dan tanggung jawab dari berbagai pihak. Peran lembaga penelitian, akademika, lembaga
pemerintahan dan masyarakat diharapkan dapat menjadi satu ikatan tali yang kuat untuk bersamasama mewujudkan kelestarian keanekaragaman hayati di Indonesia yang merupakan kebanggaan
x
bangsa serta warisan kepada anak cucu kita. Seminar akan dilaksanakan satu hari di tempat ini diikuti
oleh kurang lebih 300 orang dan berlangsung juga pameran. Pada besok hari kita akan mengunjungi
kantor Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manado untuk melakukan penanaman di areal persemaian
permanen, melihat persemaian permanen yang setiap tahun menyiapkan 1 juta bibit untuk
masyarakat, mendengarkan sosialisasi inseminasi anoa dan mengunjungi penangkaran anoa dan
burung nuri talaud yang sudah langka dan melihat fasilitas lainnya serta berkesempatan berdiskusi
antar peserta untuk meningkatkan tali silaturahmi. Pada sore nanti rencana kawan-kawan kita dari
Jepang sebanyak 25 orang juga akan bergabung dan besok akan melakukan penanaman bersama.
Kami mengucapkan terima kasih yang setinggi tingginya kepada Pemerintah Provinsi Sulawesi Utara
yang dipimpin oleh Bapak Dr. S. H. Sarundajang yang telah mendukung penuh serta memberikan
iklim yang kondusif Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manado. Terima kasih juga kami ucapkan kepada
Sekretariat Badan Litbang Kehutanan, Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Global Environment Facilities (GEF),
Direktur Biotrop, Burung Indonesia atas kerjasamanya dalam mendukung kegiatan seminar berskala
internasional ini. Terima kasih juga diucapkan kepada PT. Tirta Investama dan Balai Pengelolaan
DAS Tondano yang membantu dalam kegiatan penanaman besok. Terima kasih kepada seluruh
peserta yang hadir dan berpartisipasi dalam seminar dan pameran serta seluruh panitia dan pegawai
Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manado yang telah menyiapkan acara ini dengan baik. Akhir kata Semoga
hasil-hasil seminar ini dapat memberikan manfaat bagi kelestarian keanekaragaman hayati di
Indonesia.
Demikian sambutan saya, semoga Allah SWT senantiasa memberikan bimbingan kepada kita semua.
Billahit Taufiq wal Hidayah
Wassalamu’alaikum Wr.Wb.
Kepala Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manado
TTD
Dr. Ir. Mahfudz, MP.
xi
xii
SAMBUTAN
GUBERNUR SULAWESI UTARA
ACARA SEMINAR INTERNASIONAL “HUTAN DAN BIODIVERSITAS”
JUMAT, 5 JULI 2013 PUKUL. O8.55 WITA
HOTEL GRAND KAWANUA INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION, MANADO
Selamat pagi salam sejahtera bagi kita sekalian,
Assalamu’alaikum warakhmatullahi wabarakatuh,
Yth :
-
Bapak Menteri Kehutanan Republik Indonesia;
Bapak Kepala Badan Litbang Kehutanan;
Para Pejabat Struktural dan Para Pejabat Non Struktural;
Para Pimpinan Perusahaan di Bidang Kehutanan;
Para Kepala Dinas Kehutanan/Kabupaten/Kota;
Kepala UPT Lingkup Kementerian Kehutanan;
Perwakilan Lembaga Internasional;
Para Hadirin Sekalian.,
dalam suasana yang membanggakan ini, marilah kita panjatkan puji dan syukur kehadirat tuhan
yang maha kuasa, karena atas rahmat dan anugerahnya kita dapat menghadiri acara Seminar
Internasional “Hutan dan Biodiversitas”. Saya menyambut baik seminar internasional ini dan
sekaligus memberikan apresiasi kepada Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manado yang telah berinisiatif
untuk menyelenggarakan kegiatan yang sangat bermanfaat ini. Tidak lupa saya ucapkan selamat
datang kepada Bapak Menteri Kehutanan Republik Indonesia, bapak kepala badan litbang kehutanan,
para pejabat struktural dan para pejabat non struktural, para pimpinan perusahaan di bidang
kehutanan, para kepala dinas kehutanan/kabupaten/kota, kepala upt lingkup kementerian kehutanan,
perwakilan lembaga internasional, dan kepada seluruh peserta seminar internasional ini di bumi nyiur
melambai manado.
Hadirin yang saya hormati,
Sebagaimana kita ketahui bersama indonesia terletak di daerah sekitar khatulistiwa dan memiliki
iklim tropis dengan curah hujan yang relatif tinggi sehingga menjadikan negara ini menjadi salah satu
negara yang memiliki keanekaragaman hayati (biodiversitas) yang tinggi dan dikenal sebagai negara
mega biodiversity. Disamping itu juga keanekaragaman hayati indonesia memiliki keunikan
tersendiri apabila dibandingkan dengan negara-negara lain. Keunikannya adalah indonesia memiliki
tipe indo-malaya yang luas juga tipe oriental, australia, dan peralihannya lengkap dengan berbagai
jenis flora dan fauna langka serta spesies endemik.
xiii
Sulawesi utara terletak di bioregion wallacea dan merupakan salah satu provinsi di indonesia
yang memiliki kondisi alam yang unik dengan keanekaragaman hayati yang tinggi. Flora fauna di
sulawesi utara memiliki kekhasan tersendiri yang tidak dimiliki oleh daerah lain. Diantaranya adalah
babi rusa, burung maleo, burung taong, tarsius dan ikan purba raja laut (coelacant) yang terdapat di
lepas pantai manado. Selain itu juga di wilayah perairan sulawesi utara terdapat berbagai jenis ikan
dan terumbu karang. Perairan sulawesi utara merupakan salah satu kawasan pengembangan dan
pengelolaan wilayah laut yang telah ditetapkan oleh pemerintah pusat karena merupakan kawasan
yang strategis dan memiliki keanekaragaman laut yang tinggi.
Keadaan flora dapat dikatakan bahwa daratan sulawesi utara sebagian didominasi oleh hutan.
Kelebatan hutan rimba mulai dari ketinggian 300 meter dari permukaan laut sampai pada puncakpuncak gunung dengan berbagai jenis kayu yang berkualitas baik, antara lain eboni (kayu hitam),
kayu besi, kayu linggua, kayu cempaka, kayu nantu, terdapat juga rotan dan berbagai jenis dammar.
disamping itu juga, banyak terdapat tanaman keras perkebunan antara lain kelapa, pala dan cengkeh.
Hadirin yang saya hormati,
Keanekaragaman hayati yang kita miliki ini merupakan anugerah tuhan yang sangat berharga,
sebab itu keberadaan hutan beserta biodiversitasnya harus dimanfaatkan secara optimal bagi
kesejahteraan bangsa. Pemanfaatan keanekaragaman hayati bagi masyarakat hendaklah dilakukan
secara berkelanjutan (sustainable), sehingga manfaatnya tidak saja dapat dirasakan oleh generasi
masa kini tetapi juga oleh generasi yang akan datang.
Hadirin yang saya hormati,
Disadari bersama bahwa keanekaragaman hayatinya memiliki banyak manfaat nyata bagi
kelangsungan hidup manusia. Selain dapat memberikan manfaat bagi pertumbuhan ekonomi,
keanekaragaman hayati juga memiliki peranan dalam mempertahankan keberlanjutan ekosistem dan
yang tidak kalah penting juga bermanfaat sebagai sumber plasma nutfah serta menjadi lahan bagi
penelitian dan pengembangan ilmu yang sangat berguna bagi manusia.
Sebagaimana kita ketahui bersama, bahwa saat ini hutan sebagai salah satu penentu ekosistem
penyangga
kehidupan
telah
banyak
mengalami
kerusakan
dan
berpotensi
menurunkan
keanekaragaman hayati yang kita miliki. Harus disadari bahwa manusia bergantung pada ekosistem
dan spesies lain, dengan membiarkan kepunahan spesies dan perusakan hutan yang berlangsung
secara terus-menerus sebetulnya kita sedang mengambil resiko yang sangat tidak bijaksana terhadap
keberlangsungan hidup spesies kita sendiri.
Dalam konteks itulah, maka kita perlu menyatukan tekad untuk bersungguh-sungguh dan
mengerahkan
segenap
kekuatan
dalam
memberikan
upaya-upaya
konservasi
terhadap
keanekaragaman hayati baik itu secara in-situ maupun ex-situ demi terwujudnya kelestarian
sumberdaya alam hayati serta kesinambungan sekosistemnya sehingga dapat lebih mendukung upaya
peningkatan kemakmuran yang berkeadilan bagi rakyat dan mutu kehidupan masyarakat.
xiv
Oleh karena itu, melalui seminar internasional ini saya mengajak kita semua untuk berpikir
cerdas merumuskan langkah-langkah strategis serta konsep biodiversitas dan berbagai alternatif
pengelolaan biodiversitas untuk wilayah negara indonesia.
Hadirin yang saya hormati,
Demikianlah
sambutan
saya,
saya
ucapkan
terimakasih
kepada
semua
pihak
yang
memungkinkan dapat terselenggaranya acara ini. Semoga Tuhan Yang Maha Esa selalu memberikan
lindungan dan petunjuk-nya sehingga semua acara dan kegiatan dapat berjalan dengan baik dan
lancar.
Terimakasih - Wassalamu’alaikum warakhmatullahi wabarakatuh. Shaloom....!
Gubernur Sulawesi Utara,
TTD
Dr.S.H. Sarundajang
xv
xvi
SAMBUTAN MENTERI KEHUTANAN
PADA ACARA SEMINAR INTERNASIONAL
“HUTAN DAN BIODIVERSITAS”
Manado, Jumat 5 Juli 2013
Assalamu’alaikum warahmatullah wabarakatuh.
Yang sama-sama kita hormati:
1.
Gubernur Sulawesi Utara,
2.
Para Pejabat Eselon I dan II lingkup Kementerian Kehutanan
3.
Para Pejabat Struktural dan Para Pejabat Fungsional
4.
Para Akademisi
5.
Para Pimpinan Perusahaan di bidang kehutanan
6.
Para Kepala Dinas yang menangani kehutanan di Kabupaten/Kota
7.
Kepala UPT Lingkup Kementerian Kehutanan
8.
Perwakilan Lembaga Internasional
Selamat pagi dan salam sejahtera untuk kita semua,
Pertama marilah kita panjatkan puji syukur ke hadirat Allah SWT atas berkat dan rahmat-Nya
sehingga pada hari ini kita dapat berkumpul di tempat ini dalam keadaan sehat walafiat untuk
mengikuti seminar internasional “Hutan dan Biodiversitas”
Kegiatan seminar internasional “Hutan dan Biodiversitas” ini merupakan even parallel dari
Seminar Internasional “Biodiversity and Integrated Pest Management: Working Together for a
Sustainable Future” yang diselenggarakan oleh Universitas Sam Ratulangi bekerjasama dengan Pasific
Institute. Kegiatan seminar ini juga merupakan rangkaian kegiatan Peringatan 100 tahun Litbang
Kehutanan Berkarya untuk Indonesia.
Para Hadirin yang terhormat,
Berbicara tentang keanekaragaman hayati bukanlah berbicara semata-mata suara merdu kicau
burung dan gemericik air yang mendamaikan hati. Tetapi berbicara tentang keanekaragaman hayati
adalah upaya melestarikan kelangsungan kehidupan di atas bumi yang merupakan sistem yang amat
kompleks dan esensial bagi kehidupan.
Diskursus tentang keanekaragaman hayati seringkali tak menyentuh substansi pentingnya, yaitu
rantai keterhubungan. Ketika satu jenis spesies hilang, maka satu mata rantai dari suatu ekosistem
telah hilang. Semakin banyak ragam spesies yang hilang, maka ibarat mata rantainya akan putus
tercerai berai tidak saling mengikat lagi. Demikian pula, suatu ekosistem yang utuh, ibarat mata rantai
yang mampu menjadi pengikat tegaknya fungsi penunjang kehidupan, baik dari jumlah makhluk
xvii
hidup, spesies, genetik, dan sifat keragamannya yang juga merupakan syarat tersedianya jasa
ekosistem.
Oleh
karena
itu
peran
manusia
menjadi
sangat
penting
dalam
menjaga
keutuhan
keanekaragaman hayati karena aktivitasnya dalam memenuhi kebutuhan sandang, pangan, dan
papan sangat berpengaruh dalam proses proses hancur atau utuhnya suatu ekosistem. Karena
sebagai salah satu Negara yang dikenal dengan biodiversitas tinggi karena kondisi klimatik ekuatorial,
Indonesia menghadapi berbagai tantangan tersendiri.
Tingginya biodiversitas di Indonesia ini terlihat dari berbagai macam ekosistem yang ada di
Indonesia, seperti: ekosistem pantai, ekosistem hutan bakau, ekosistem padang rumput, ekosistem
hutan hujan tropis, ekosistem air tawar, ekosistem air laut, ekosistem savanna, dan lain-lain. Masingmasing ekosistem ini memiliki keanekaragaman hayati tersendiri. Dari sekitar angka 5 juta
biodiversitas di dunia, baik flora, fauna maupun mikro organisme, 15 % diantaranya berada di
Indonesia, akan tetapi pemanfaatannya masih dibawah 5 % dari jumlah tersebut. Pemahaman dan
pengelolaan yang memadai sekaligus meluas akan hal tersebut kini menjadi kian vital dengan kian
meningkatnya kebutuhan. Di samping itu, segala bentuk keterlambatan dalam melangkah dapat
menjadikan Indonesia rawan terhadap kerusakan ekosistem/lingkungan dan pencurian sumberdaya
alam hayati (biopiracy).
Saudara sekalian yang saya hormati,
Pendokumentasian dalam bentuk pangkalan data (database) paling tidak dapat menjadi modal
awal untuk menyelamatkan sumber-sumber genetik yang ada di Negara kita. Alokasi dana yang tepat
perlu diadakan agar tidak bergantung kepada Negara donor. Selanjutnya perlu disepakati bentukbentuk pengelolaan biodiversitas. Pengelolaan biodiversitas dapat dimulai dari pemetaan, terutama
untuk menentukan wilayah yang berpotensi dan memerlukan penanganan. Dengan adanya “peta
kekayaan” itu, dapat diupayakan interpretasi ekonomi yang akan mengarah pada nilai financial
biodiversitas Indonesia. Di samping itu, perlu dipetakan jenis dan tipe ancaman terhadap kelestarian
biodiversitas hutan.
Di sisi lain, tingkat biodiversitas dapat dijadikan indikator dalam menentukan penilaian
lingkungan (environmental assessment). Para ahli berargumen bahwa kekayaan jenis suatu lokasi
berbanding lurus dengan kekayaan sumber daya alam lokasi tersebut. Dengan demikian maka
makhluk hidup yang ditemukan pada suatu kompleks hutan, dapat menggambarkan kondisi alam
hutan tersebut.
Sebagai contoh, kehadiran capung dapat digunakan sebagai indikator yang baik
untuk menetapkan kualitas perairan setempat. Fungsi inilah yang dimanfaatkan untuk melakukan
analisis lingkungan, terutama melihat perubahan tingkat biodiversitas alami akibat adanya berbagai
macam kegiatan pengelolaan sumberdaya alam.
Saudara-saudara sekalian,
Penggunaan biodiversitas sebagai parameter lingkungan dilakukan dengan penentuan jumlah
dan distribusi spesies yang ditemukan. Jumlah total spesies pada suatu daerah mewakili heterogenitas
ruang daerah tersebut. Sementara itu, distribusi spesies mewakili tingkat toleransi spesies yang
ditemukan, atau dengan kata lain, tingkat interaksi spesies dengan alam lingkungannya. Interaksi
xviii
organisme yang ada pada habitat alaminya terhadap berbagai macam kegiatan yang berdampak
negatif maupun positif terhadap lingkungan alami perlu dievaluasi. Perangkat penilaian lingkungan
seperti Aplikasi Analisa Resiko Lingkungan (Environmental Risk Analysis) perlu diterapkan untuk
mencegah kemungkinan terjadinya kerusakan dan melihat sejauh mana potensi kerusakan yang
ditimbulkan.
Saudara-saudara sekalian,
Sesuai dengan topik seminar, perlindungan terhadap kelestarian dan tingkat biodiversitas hutan
merupakan hal yang penting, terutama pencegahan terhadap hama dan penyakit serta tidak kalah
penting dari ancaman invasi jenis-jenis asing (Invasive Alien Species). Semakin terbukanya akses
dunia, biodiversitas alami di Indonesia yang tinggi saat ini terancam oleh produksi jenis tumbuhan
asing baik melalui perdagangan maupun kegiatan lintas sektoral lainnya. Serangan hama dan penyakit
yang disebabkan oleh organisme alami maupun tanaman memerlukan penanganan yang tepat melalui
pengelolaan hama dan penyakit secara terpadu.
Indonesia telah memiliki Indonesian Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (IBSAP) untuk
memenuhi komitmen pada CBD. Target pada IBSAP 2003-2020 akan disesuaikan dengan Aichy
Targets yang disesuaikan dengan prioritas dan kapasitas nasional. Revisi target akan dimulai dengan
mengupdate status biodiversitas di Indonesia serta kebijakan dan program pengelolaannya sebagai
baseline dalam penyusunan rencana dan strategi.
Saudara-saudara yang saya hormati,
Pagi ini pada kesempatan yang baik ini kita berkumpul di sini untuk mendiskusikan berbagai
aspek yang terkait dengan hutan dan biodiversitas. Oleh karena itu, kepada seluruh peserta seminar
internasional, kami berharap agar dapat memanfaatkan kesempatan yang baik ini untuk saling
bertukar informasi dan pengalaman dan tidak kalah penting juga adalah membangun sinergi,
koordinasi, kolaborasi dan networking yang efektif dan efisisen antar berbagai pihak yang terkait
sehingga hutan di Indonesai tetap lestari dan masyarakatnya sejahtera.
Demikianlah beberapa hal yang dapat saya sampaikan pada kesempatan kali ini. Saya
mengucapkan selamat melaksanakan seminar internasional “hutan dan biodiversitas” semoga Allah
SWT selalu memberikan yang terbaik untuk kita dan bangsa Indonesia yang kita cintai ini.
Dengan mengucapkan Bismillahirrohmanirrohim, seminar internasional ini secara resmi kami
nyatakan dibuka.
Selamat bekerja dan berdiskusi.
Wassalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakaatuh.
Menteri Kehutanan
Zulkifli Hasan
xix
xx
FORMULA
Based on welcome speech of Minister of Forestry, Governor of North Sulawesi, keynote speaker Dr.
John Lovett and Dr.Geaton Mason, and explanation the paper of speaker and discussion that
developed during seminar, then the results of seminar can be formulated as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Biodiversity is important to preserve continuity of entities of life on earth which is composed by a
very complex ecological system.
Humans are very instrumental in keeping the wealth and biodiversity because of its activities in
fulfill the needs of clothing, food and board is very influential in the process destroyed or its full
ecosystem.
Protection of biodiversity and sustainability of forest ecosystems and forest biodiversity level is
crucial, especially in maintaining the resilience of biological prevention of pests and diseases as
well as the threat of an invasion of foreign types (Invasive Alien Species).
The importance of biodiversity conservation for balance nature and life support.
Need to keep protect the biodiversity and controlling the induction species.
Biosecurity method can be developed in accordance with the location, it is important to prevent
and resolve as soon as possible.
Wealth of Indonesia forest biodiversity, both flora and fauna are not only beneficial for the
ecosystems but also the economic benefit.
Biodiversity conservation efforts begin the process of identifying the population, habitat, threats,
to breed the species as well as strategies for the improvement of the habitat.
Dirumuskan di : Manado
Pada Tanggal : 5 Juli 2013
Team of formulator:
Chairman and interim member: Dr. Ir. Johny S. Tasirin, M.ScF.
Members:
1. Prof. Dr. Hadi S. Alikodra
2. Ir. Adi Susmianto, MSc.
3. Ir. Agustinus Tampubolon, MSc.
xxi
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
OF FOREST BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
1
2
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Effect of Submersion and Fruit Treatment…..
Cecep Kusmana, Satriavi Putri A., & Edje Djamhuri
The Effect of Submersion and Fruit Treatment to Seed Germination and Initial
Growth of Bintaro (Cerbera Manghas Linn) Seedling1
Cecep Kusmana1, Satriavi Putri Asrinata1, and Edje Djamhuri2
ABSTRACT
In the world, mainly Indonesia, the need of energy tends to rise up base on the increasing of
economic development and population. In the other side, fossil energy supply decreased, meanwhile
alternative energy resources (renewable energy resources) are not developed yet. Therefore, recently
and in the future, energy diversification (including bioenergy) shall be the first priority to be done in
order to guarantee energy safety. One of tree species’ having the high potential value for alternative
energy resources is bintaro (Cerbera manghas) in which naturally growing in landward mangrove
ecosystem. One of the aspects have to be done in supporting the bintaro sustainable utilization as
alternative energy resources is the high quality seedling production. Thus, this research was aimed to
consider the effect of submersion and fruit treatment to seed germination and initial growth of bintaro
seedling. Our obtained results that peeled fruit skin-seed showed the better germination performance
compared to unpeeled fruit skin-seed and naked-seed (extracted-seed). The bintaro peeled fruit skinseed germination performance was germination capability 100%, rate of seed growth 1.18%/etmal,
and seed germination value 0.51%/day. As for both peeled and unpeeled fruit skin-seed resulted in
the better initial seedling growth than that of naked-seed. Those performance of initial seedling
growth for two former treatments was ranged from 7.11-8.33 cm/week for height increment, 1.261.48 mm/week for stem diameter increment, and 2.3-2.6 leafs/week for leaf number increment. Seed
submersion for 4 days by both water and coconut water resulted in the similar performance of both
germination and initial growth of seedlings. Base on this research, it seems that bintaro peeled fruit
skin-seed, for both 4 days-submersion by water and coconut water showed the better performance of
seed germination and initial seedling growth.
Keywords: Bintaro (Cerbera manghas), initial seedling growth, seed germination.
I. INTRODUCTION
Greenhouse gas is among sources causing global warming. The burning of fossil fuel contributes
the greatest emission to the greenhouse gas. The use of biofuel such as biodiesel is one alternative
to overcome the environment problems. Major advantage of using biodiesel is its emission which is
1
2
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013
Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB).
Email: [email protected]
3
environmentally friendly, is easily to be reabsorbed by plants, and contains no sulfur. One of tree
species that has been researched that can produce biodiesel is Bintaro ( Cerbera manghas Linn.)
(Pranowo 2010). Problem faced in seed germination of Bintaro is mechanical dormancy, which is
caused by the position of embryo which is protected by filamentous and thick fruit skin. Generally,
almost all seeds that have mechanical dormancy problem has limitation in water absorption (Schmidt
2000). To overcome the problem, it is necessary to conduct fruit soaking and treatment before
germinating seed.
There has been not many research conducted for germinating bintaro’s seed.
Therefore, it is important to develop a technique to germinate bintaro’s seed in order to increase the
availability of bintaro’s seedlings. The objective of this research is to study the effect of fruit soaking
and treatment towards seed germination and initial growth of Bintaro’s seedlings. The research result
will be have benefit to enlarge knowledge on culture technique of Bintaro.
II. MATERIAL AND METHODS
A. Research site and period
The research was conducted from August to December 2011 in the Nursery and Greenhouse of
Silviculture Department, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University.
B. Research materials and equipments
Materials used were ripe bintaro fruit with pinkish green or black color, pure water, 100%
coconut water, sand, polybag, and fungicide. Tools used were knife, caliper, and camera.
C. Research methods
Research step
Bintaro’s fruit picking was conducted in Nuansa Asri Laladon Housing Complex in Ciomas, Bogor,
West Java. The fruits were then treated by dividing them into three categories, i.e. without fruit’s skin
peeling, extraction (separating the seed from the fruit pulp), and peeled fruit’s skin (peeling fruit’s skin
until the filamentous part of the seed is seen). Then, each of those three fruits categories were
soaked into pure water or coconut water for 4 (four) days. After the fruits soaking, those fruits were
planted in polybags containing sterilized sand. The sand was sterilized by roasting the sand for 1
(one) hour. Maintenance conducted were watering, weeding, and protecting from pest and disease.
Germination and growth response
The observation of seed germination was conducted weekly until the 15th week (105 days after
planting). The observation of seed growth was conducted on the 77th days after planting up to the
end of the research.
After the observation was completed, then the calculation of germination
potential, growth speed, germination value, increment of seedling height, increment of stem diameter,
and increment of total leaves were conducted.
a. Germination potential
The germination potential was calculated as follows (Direktorat Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan
2000):
Germination Potential (%) =
4
number of normal seedlings
u 100
number of fruits or seeds sown
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Effect of Submersion and Fruit Treatment…..
Cecep Kusmana, Satriavi Putri A., & Edje Djamhuri
b. Growth rate
The growth rate was calculated by Thronebery and Smith formula (Sadjad et al. 1999):
¦
Growth rate (% per etmal)
tn
0
N
t
where:
N
t
: percentage of normal germination at each observation (%)
: observation period (etmal)
c. Germination value
The germination value was calculated by Czabator formula (Czabator 1962 in Sadjad et al.
1999):
PV u MDG
Germination value (% per day)
where:
PV (% sprout/day)
=
MDG (% sprout/day)
=
% highest germination rate
number of days needed
% germination at the end of the germination period
total number of days of observation
d. Increment of seedling height
The weekly increment of seedling height was calculated by differential formula (Prodan 1968 in
Latifah 2004):
¦
Weekly increment of seedling height =
Tn
0
(Hn 1 Hn ) (Tn 1 Tn )
Tn
where:
Hn 1
: height (cm) at week n + 1
Hn
: height (cm) at week n
Tn
: observation week n
e. Increment of stem diameter
The weekly increment of stem diameter was calculated by differential formula (Prodan 1968 in
Latifah 2004):
¦
Weekly increment of stem diameter =
Tn
0
(Dn 1 Dn ) (Tn 1 Tn )
Tn
where:
Dn 1
: diameter (mm) at week n + 1
Dn
: diameter (mm) at week n
Tn 1
: observation week n + 1
Tn
: observation week n
5
f. Increment of total leaves
The weekly increment of total leaves was calculated by differential formula (Prodan 1968 in
Latifah 2004):
¦
Weekly increment of total leaves =
Tn
0
( X n 1 X n ) (Tn 1 Tn )
Tn
where:
X n 1
: total leaves at week n + 1
Xn
: total leaves at week n
Tn 1
: observation week n + 1
Tn
: observation week n
Experimental design
Experimental design used was Complete Factorials Randomized Design (CFRD), with two main
factors, namely soaking and fruit treatment, with three replications. Each replication was consisted of
10 (ten) individu. There are two main factors, i.e.:
-
Factor A : Fruit Soaking
A0: Soaking with pure water
A1: Soaking with coconut water
-
Factor B : Fruit Treatment
B0: without fruit’s skin peeling
B1: extraction
B2: peeled fruit’s skin
Data analysis
Data analysis was conducted using ANOVA and Duncan test.
6
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Effect of Submersion and Fruit Treatment…..
Cecep Kusmana, Satriavi Putri A., & Edje Djamhuri
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
A.
Results
The analysis of variance on the effect of fruit soaking and treatment towards seed germination
and initial growth of bintaro’s seedlings (C. manghas) is presented in Table 1.
Table 1.
The analysis of variance on the effect of fruit soaking and treatment towards seed
germination and initial growth of Bintaro’s seedlings
A
B
A×B
Germination Potential
Parameter
ns
**
ns
Growth Speed
ns
**
ns
Germination Value
ns
**
ns
Increment of Seedling Height
ns
**
ns
Increment of Stem Diameter
ns
**
ns
Increment of Total Leaves
ns
**
ns
** = highly significant at p value 0.01
ns = non significant
Based on the analysis of variance (Table 1) it is concluded that all germination parameters and initial
growth of seedlings were affected only by fruit treatment.
Germination potential
The curve showing the effect of fruit treatment towards germination potential was presented
in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Curve showing the effect of fruit treatment towards germination potential of Bintaro
It can be seen from Figure 1 that for fruit treatment B0 (without fruit’s skin peeling), the sprout
occurred on day 42 after planting, and continue to grow up to day 105 after planting in which the
germination potential reached 78% and the highest germination rate was achieved at day 77 after
planting.
For fruit treatment B1 (extraction), the sprout occurred on day 77 after planting, and
7
continue to grow up to day 105 after planting in which the germination potential reached 20% and
the highest germination rate was achieved at day 84 after planting. For fruit treatment B2 (peeled
fruit’s skin), the sprout occurred on day 38 after planting, and continue to grow up to day 105 after
planting in which the germination potential reached 100% and the highest germination rate was
achieved at day 84 after planting.
The result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards germination potential was
presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards germination potential of
bintaro
Treatment
B2
Average of
Germination Potential (%)
100a
B0
78b
B1
20c
Notes:
numbers followed by different letters showed significantly different effect at p value 0.05
Based on Table 2, the average of germination potential of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B2
(peeled fruit’s skin) showed the highest germination potential (100%) compared to other fruit
treatments (B0 and B1). Germination potential of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B0 (without
fruit’s skin peeling) showed higher germination potential (78%) than seed with fruit treatment B1
(extraction) which has germination potential of 20%.
Growth rate
The result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards growth rate was presented in
Table 3.
Table 3. Result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards growth speed of bintaro’s
seed
Treatment
Average of growth speed (%/etmal)
B2
1.18a
B0
0.93b
B1
0.23c
Notes:
numbers followed by different letters showed significantly different effect at p value 0.05
Based on Table 3, the average of growth speed of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B2 (peeled
fruit’s skin) showed the fastest growth speed (1.18%/etmal) compared to other fruit treatments (B0
and B1). Growth speed of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B0 (without fruit’s skin peeling) showed
faster growth speed (0.93%/etmal) than seed with fruit treatment B1 (extraction) which has growth
speed of 0.23%/etmal.
8
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Effect of Submersion and Fruit Treatment…..
Cecep Kusmana, Satriavi Putri A., & Edje Djamhuri
Germination value
The result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards germination value was
presented in Table 4.
Table 4. Result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards germination value of bintaro’s
seed
Treatment
Germination Value
B2
0.51a
B0
0.37b
B1
0.03c
Notes: numbers followed by different letters showed significantly different effect at p value 0.05
Based on Table 4, the average of germination value of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B2
(peeled fruit’s skin) showed higher germination value (0.51) compared to other fruit treatments (B0
and B1). Germination value of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B0 (without fruit’s skin peeling) was
higher (0.37) than seed with fruit treatment B1 (extraction) which has germination value of 0.03.
Increment of seedling height
The result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards increment of seedling height
was presented in Table 5.
Table 5. Result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards increment of seedling height
of bintaro’s seed.
Treatment
Increment of seedling height (cm/week)
B2
8.33a
B0
7.11a
B1
2.15b
Notes: numbers followed by different letters showed significantly different effect at p value 0.05
Based on Table 5, the average of increment of seedling height of bintaro’s seed with fruit
treatment B2 (peeled fruit’s skin) showed similar increment of seedling height (8.33 cm/week) with
fruit treatments B0 (without fruit’s skin peeling) which has increment of seedling height of 7.11
cm/week. These increments of seedling heights from treatments B2 and B0 were higher than
increment of seedling height of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B1 (extraction) which has
increment of seedling height of 2.15 cm/week.
Increment of Stem Diameter
The result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards increment of stem diameter
was presented in Table 6.
9
Table 6. Result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards increment of stem diameter of
bintaro’s seed
Treatment
Increment of stem diameter (mm/minggu)
B2
1.48a
B0
1.26a
B1
0.40b
Notes: numbers followed by different letters showed significantly different effect at value 0.05
Based on Table 6,
the average of increment of stem diameter of bintaro’s seed with fruit
treatment B2 (peeled fruit’s skin) showed similar increment of stem diameter (1.48 mm/week) with
fruit treatments B0 (without fruit’s skin peeling) which has increment of stem diameter of 1.26
mm/week. These increments of stem diameter from treatments B2 and B0 were higher than
increment of stem diameter of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B1 (extraction) which has increment
of stem diameter of 0.40 mm/week.
Increment of total leaves
The result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards increment of total leaves was
presented in Table 7.
Table 7. Result of Duncan test on the effect of fruit treatment towards increment of total leaves of
bintaro’s seed
Treatment
Increment of total leaves (leaves/week)
B2
2.6a
B0
2.3a
B1
0.8b
Notes:
numbers followed by different letters showed significantly different effect at p value 0.05
Based on Table 7, the average of increment of total leaves of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment
B2 (peeled fruit’s skin) showed similar increment of total leaves (2.6 leaves/week) with fruit
treatments B0 (without fruit’s skin peeling) which has increment of total leaves of 2.3 leaves/week.
These increments of total leaves from treatments B2 and B0 were higher than increment of total
leaves of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B1 (extraction) which has increment of total leaves of 0.8
leaves/week.
B. Discussions
Germination
Based on observation, the germination of bintaro’s seed is tolerant to sheltering.
This was
observed at day 30 after planting in the greenhouse with high light intensity, where the germination
had not happened. After one week of this phenomenon, the seed’s were moved under the Pinus
merkusii trees and after being moved, the germination occurred at day 38.
Based on this research, fruit treatment affected the germination potential, growth rate and
germination value (Table 1). Germination process of a seed is affected by fruit structure and seed.
Bintaro’s fruit structure has 3 (three) layers, i.e.: outer layer (pericarp), fibre layer (mesocarp), and
10
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Effect of Submersion and Fruit Treatment…..
Cecep Kusmana, Satriavi Putri A., & Edje Djamhuri
seed layered with thin skin or testa (endocarp). Bintaro’s embryo is located inside the seed and is
protected by hard filamentous layer.
Bintaro’s seed which fruit’s skin was peeled has germination potential of 100%, growth rate of
1.18%/etmal, and germination value of 0.5, which are the highest numbers compared to bintaro’s
seed which fruit’s skin was not peeled or which fruit was extracted.
It is argued that these
phenomena happened because fruit’s skin hindered the water absorption into the embryo as well as
hindered the growth of sprout from the seed. Fruit’s skin which is mechanically resistant can
immediately absorp water, but hold the swelling and development of embryo (Gardner 1991). Sutopo
(2004) stated that fruit’s skin causes dormancy in which hard fruit’s skin can be impermeable towards
water, gas, or can mechanically hindered the embryo.
Bintaro’s seed which fruit’s skin was not peeled has germination potential of 78%, growth speed
of 0.93%/etmal, and germination value of 0.37 which are higher than the extracted fruit, but lower
than the bintaro’s seed which fruit’s skin was peeled. These phenomena happened because in the ripe
bintaro’s fruit there is an opening which divides the mesocarp into 2 (two) parts (Figure 2).
Filamentous part at that opening is thinner than the other filamentous parts. Therefore, the embryo
can grow through the opening. However, water absorption on bintaro’s fruit which fruit’s skin was not
peeled is slower than water absorption on bintaro’s fruit which fruit’s skin was peeled. As a result, all
germination parameters of bintaro’s fruit which fruit’s skin was not peeled is lower than germination
parameter of bintaro’s fruit which fruit’s skin was peeled.
Figure 2. Germination opening of ripe bintaro’s fruit (A) and growth of embryo (B)
According to Widyawati et al. (2010), the germination of sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) which was
initially treated with sandpaper at the operculum of the seed, showed better condition than sugar
palm seed which was initially treated with sandpaper all over the seed. It is argued that within the
sugar palm seed there was operculum which functions as a small stopper where embryo is located
underneath the stopper.
The sprout will occur through the operculum.
According to Nasrullah
(1987), germination in coconut which skin was peeled occurred faster than germination in coconut
which skin was not peeled, whereas the germination potential of coconut with peeled skin was higher
than the germination potential of coconut which skin was not peeled. The decrease of fiber volume as
much as 1/3 (one third) tends to reduce the viability of coconut seed. It is happened because the
decrease of 1/3 of fiber volume resulted to the damage of coconut shell, which increases water
evaporation as well as fungi contamination into the endosperm of coconut. Bintaro’s seed extraction
11
resulted to 20% germination potential, 0.23%/etmal growth rate and 0.37 germination value which
are the lowest numbers compared to the other two treatments.
It is arguably the structure of
bintaro’s seed has thin endocarp and soft embryo so that it is prone to distrubance.
In this research, the 4 days duration of fruit soaking in pure water and coconut water is arguably
caused the low germination parameters, due to excessive imbibition towards seed. This excessive
imbibition caused the seed to be drowned in water, which in turn hindered the respiration of the seed.
According to Gardner (1991), respiration is very important to produce energy used in the metabolism
process of germination.
Based on this research, the 4 days duration of fruit soaking in coconut water or pure water did
not provide significant effect towards the germination of bintaro’s seed. This phenomenon may have
happened because the 4 days duration was not sufficient for bintaro’s fruit, which is big in size and
therefore, may need longer soaking duration.
However, the 4 days duration was excessive for
bintaro’s seed. According to Winarni (2009), 1 hour soaking of seed of African wood in coconut water
had affected the germination which average germination potential in day 50 after planting was
86.67%.
This number was higher than 1 day soaking in pure water which average germination
potential in day 50 after planting was 65.33%.
Initial growth
Sprout growth happens through a series of complex changes morphologically, physiologically,
and biochemically.
According to Sutopo (2010), the first phase of sprout growth starts from the
absorption of water by seed, then the softening of seed’s skin and the hydration of protoplasm. The
second phase starts from the activities of cells and enzymes and the increased respiration of seed.
The third phase is where there are occurrences of decomposition of materials such as carbohydrates,
fat, and protein into dissolved materials which are then translocated to the growing points.
The
fourth phase is the assimilation of the decomposed materials in the meristom to produce energy
needed for the activity of components development and new cells growth. The fifth phase is the
sprout growth through processes of division, development and cells division in growing points.
In this research, bintaro’s seedling initially occurred as root, continued by epicotyl, hypocotil, and
cotyledon. The seedling was divided into hypocotil and epicotyl. Hypocotil does not grow bigger,
therefore, the cotyledon remains underground during germination and does not perform
photosynthesis. Germination in bintaro’s seed depends on food reserves inside the seed.
Based on this research, fruit treatment affected the increment of seedling height, increment of
stem diameter, increment of total leaves (Table 1). Based on Duncan test (Table 5), it is shown that
increment of seedling height of treatment B2 (peeled fruit’s skin) was 8.33 cm/week with fruit
treatments B0 (without fruit’s skin peeling) which has increment of seedling height of 7.11 cm/week,
which were higher than than increment of seedling height of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B1
(extraction) which has increment of seedling height of 2.15 cm/week. Beside, the average of
increment of stem diameter of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B2 (peeled fruit’s skin) showed
similar increment of stem diameter (1.48 mm/week) with fruit treatments B0 (without fruit’s skin
peeling) which has increment of stem diameter of 1.26 mm/week, which were higher than increment
12
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Effect of Submersion and Fruit Treatment…..
Cecep Kusmana, Satriavi Putri A., & Edje Djamhuri
of stem diameter of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B1 (extraction) which has increment of stem
diameter of 0.40 mm/week.
It is shown that the average of increment of total leaves of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B2
(peeled fruit’s skin) showed similar increment of total leaves (2.6 leaves/week) with fruit treatments
B0 (without fruit’s skin peeling) which has increment of total leaves of 2.3 leaves/week, which were
higher than increment of total leaves of bintaro’s seed with fruit treatment B1 (extraction) which has
increment of total leaves of 0.8 leaves/week. These phenomena happened arguably because
germination of fruit which skin was peeled and unpeeled have higher growth strength and
germination capability compared to extracted fruit. According to Lensari (2009), good germination
capability can optimalize food reserve in seed to become energy. The energy is used for the growth
and development of sprout. Condition of embryo development is considered good when the seed has
high capability to collect food reserve as energy.
Based on observation during research, bintaro’s fruit has 1 or 2 seed per fruit. Up to this time, it
is unknown on how to differentiate bintaro’s fruit that has 1 seed from bintaro’s fruit that has 2 seeds.
The amount of seeds can only be seen after fruit extraction and from germination process. During
the observation there are 2 seedlings grown on several bintaro’s fruit, i.e. 20% of total seedlings
grown from the planted fruit (Figure 3).
Figure 3. Two bintaro seedlings grown from one bintaro’s fruit
Fruit soaking did not affect initial growth. This happened arguably because the fruit soaking was
not sufficient for the fruit, but excessive for the seed. Soaking in coconut water as additional growth
hormone had already been conducted. Bey (2006) that coconut water was proven to accelerate leaf
growth on moon-orchids.
IV. CONCLUSIONS
A. Conclusions
1.
Fruit treatment affected the germination of bintaro’s seed.
Fruit which peeled skin has
germination potential of 100%, growth rate of 1.18%/etmal and germination value of 0.51, which
was higher than fruit which skin was not peeled or extracted. Seed extracted had germination
potential of 20%, growth speed of 0.23%/etmal, and germination value of 0.37 which was the
lowest than the other treatments
13
2.
Fruit treatment affected the initial growth of bintaro’s seedling. Initial growth of seedling of fruit
peeled skin has increment of seedling height of 8.33 cm/week, increment of stem diameter of
1.48 mm/week and increment of total leaves of 2.6 leaves/week) while initial growth of seedling
of fruit which skin was not peeled has increment of seedling height of 7.11 cm/week, increment
of stem diameter of 1.26 mm/week and increment of total leaves of 2.3 leaves/week), which were
higher compared to initial growth of seedling of extracted fruit which has increment of seedling
height of 2.15 cm/week, increment of stem diameter of 0.4 mm/week, and increment of total
leaves of 0.8 leaves/week)
3.
Soaking duration of 4 days using pure water and coconut water as well as the interaction between
soaking treatment and fruit treatment did not affect seed germination and initial seedling growth
of bintaro
B. Suggestions
Based on this research, it is suggested to peel the fruit skin to stimulate seed germination and
initial seedling growth of bintaro.
REFERENCES
Bey, Y., W. Syafii, and Sutrisna. 2006. Pengaruh pemberian giberelin (GA3) dan air kelapa terhadap
bahan biji anggrek bulan (Phalaenopsis amabilis BL.) secara in vitro. Jurnal Biogenesis
2(2):41−46.
Direktorat Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan. 2002. Petunjuk Teknis Pengujian Mutu Fisik-Fisiologi Benih.
Departemen Kehutanan. Jakarta.
Gardner, F.P., R. B. Pearce, and R. L. Mitchell. 1991. Fisiologi Tanaman Budidaya. UI Press. Jakarta.
Latifah, S. 2004. Pertumbuhan dan hasil tegakan Eucalyptus grandis di hutan tanaman industri
[skripsi]. Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Sumatera Utara. Medan.
Lensari, D. 2009. Pengaruh pematahan dormansi terhadap kemampuan benih Angsana (Pterocarpus
indicus Will.) [skripsi]. Bogor: Fakultas Kehutanan Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Nasrullah, A. 1987. Pengaruh pengupasan sabut dan pemupukan kalium terhadap perkecambahan
dan pertumbuhan bibit Kelapa (Cocos nucifera L.) Varietas Genjah [skipsi]. Fakultas Pertanian
Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.
Pranowo, D. 2010. Bintaro (Cerbera manghas LINN) tanaman penghasil minyak nabati. Tree 1:91.
Sadjad, S., E. Muniarti, S. Ilyas. 1999. Parameter Pengujian Vigor Benih Komparatif ke Simulatif. PT.
Grasindo. Jakarta.
Schmidt, L. 2000. Pedoman Penanganan Benih Tanaman Hutan Tropis dan Subtropis. Na’iem M,
Rimbawanto A, Sukmananto B, Purwito D, Hendrati RL, Leksono B, Kapisa N, Charomaini M,
Komar TE, Bintoro, Putranto CB, penerjemah. Jakarta: Departemen Kehutanan. Terjemahan
dari: Guide to Handling Tropical and Subtropical Forest Seed.
Sutopo, L. 2010. Teknologi Benih. PT Raja Grafindo Persada. Jakarta.
Widyawati, N., Tohari, P. Yuoyono, I. Soemardi. 2009. Permeabilitas dan perkecambahan benih Aren
(Arenga pinnata (Wurmb.) Merr.). J. Agron. Indonesia 37(2):152-159.
Willan, R.L. 1985. A Guide to Forest Seed Handling: With Spesial Reference to The Tropics. Volume 2.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Roma.
14
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Effect of Submersion and Fruit Treatment…..
Cecep Kusmana, Satriavi Putri A., & Edje Djamhuri
Winarni, T.B. 2009. Pengaruh perlakuan pendahuluan dan berat benih terhadap perkecambahan benih
Kayu Afrika (Maesopsis eminii Engl.) [skripsi]. Fakultas Kehutanan Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Bogor.
15
16
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nesting Ecology and Strategic Natural Treatment…..
Hanom Bashari
Nesting Ecology and Strategic Natural Treatment for The Nest of The
Critically Endangered Yellow-Crested Cockatoo
Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata in Sumba1
Hanom Bashari2
ABSTRACT
Sumba Cockatoo Cacatua suplhurea citrinocristata is one of four sub-species of the Yellow-crested
Cockatoo, endemic for Sumba Island and including list of Critically Endangered category by IUCN. This
study aims to identify the characteristic of trees and nest holes that are actively used by Sumba
Cockatoos, and identify barriers and potential threats that interfere of reproduction activities. It will be
formulated strategic recommendations for treatment that more naturally in the rehabilitation of nonactive nest hole and minimize disruption or potential disruption that could inhibit of breeding process.
The early stages, gathered information of nest trees and holes of Sumba Cockatoos, through brief
interviews with forest communities, then, visited the nest tree. The results obtained, the estimated
breeding time of Sumba Cockatoo occurred in the period from September to February. Nest holes can
be located in the life or death tree, but it seems the most important factor is the existence of a good
nest tree. Encountered direct competition or scramble for the same hole by Eclectus Parrot. Physical
disorder of the nest hole that occurred are hole filled with water, rotten on inside wall, siltation, and
the disruption of ferns and lianas around the stem of nest hole.
Keyword: Cockatoo, nest hole, population, conservation, Sumba
I. INTRODUCTION
The Sumba Cockatoo Cacatua suplhurea citrinocristata is one of four Yellow-crested Cockatoo
subspecies. Yellow-crested Cockatoo is generally widely distributed in Sulawesi, Bali, Nusa Tenggara,
including Timor (Coates & Bishop, 1997). It is also found in Masakambing and Masalembo Island
(BirdLife International, 2001). However, Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata subspecies is only found in
Sumba Island (Coates & Bishop, 1997; BirdLife International, 2001; PHPA/LIPI/BirdLife InternationalIP, 1998).
According to the globally threatened species, in general, this species is classified as Critically
Endangered – CR category in the IUCN list due to the extremely rapid decrease in population, caused
1
2
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013.
Burung Indonesia, Jl. Dadali No. 32, Bogor, 16161 . Email: [email protected]
17
by unsustainable trapping for cage bird trade and vast area of deforestation (BirdLife International,
2013).
A survey of Burung Indonesia in 2007 showed that the population of this cockatoo subspecies
was still about 1.2 individual per 1,000 ha or 0.012 individual per hectare. It was estimated that only
around 56 Sumba Cockatoo existed in Manupeu Tanadaru National Park (MTNP) area (Wungo, 2011).
The survey result was relatively falling when compared to the average result of the same survey in
2001 that was 2.3 individuals per hectare or 230 individuals per kilometre square in MTNP area
(Persulessy & Trainor, 2001). According to the survey performed by Marsden (1995) during 19891992 in Sumba Island forest area, the Sumba Cockatoo population was estimated between 1,1502,644 individuals. While the result of survey conducted by Birdlife Indonesia in 2002 (Persulessy et al.,
2003) showed that the total population of Sumba Cockatoo in Sumba Island forest area was about
229-1,195 individuals only.
However, local people around the forest of MTNP have been reporting that Sumba Cockatoo are
easier to be found nowadays in great numbers compared to previous years. Some nesting or roosting
trees were identified and occupied by teens of birds, once even reported by the locals to be inhabited
by more than 30 birds on each roosting tree, which had not occurred for a long time (Djawarai, 2013,
pers. comm.). It indicates that Sumba Cockatoo is probably on the stage of favourable development
towards species recovery, especially in the MTNP area.
As for this survey, it was expected to identify the characteristics of the trees and nest holes that
are in good condition and actively used by Sumba Cockatoo in the last 12 months; identify the threats
and obstacles that has been or might be compromising the breeding activity of Sumba Cockatoo; give
appropriate recommendations for non-active nest holes restoration when it is possible to be
performed.
II. METHOD
The field surveys were conducted in five villages: Maradesa, Umbulangang, Umamanu,
Waimanu, and Manurara. The visits to nesting trees were performed on January and February 2013.
Preliminary information on trees and nest holes of Sumba Cockatoo were obtained through: brief
interviews (unstructured) with communities around the forest; re-identification of the trees that were
listed as Sumba Cockatoo nesting trees and used in some of prior researches.
To do a better assessment of nest holes’ characteristics in details (active and non-active nest
holes), the survey team climbed to the nest hole using standard tree climbing equipments with Single
Rope Technique (SRT). Previous trainings and simulations of climbing and assessment were
conducted to ensure the climbers’ safety and skill.
The survey team consisted of Burung Indonesia staffs from field office in Sumba, MTNP staff,
and some volunteers.
A simple analysis was performed on the data by collecting all the obtained information.
Afterwards, several characteristics of active and non-active nest holes were acquired. Important
recommendations to be performed in the next step of the survey or activity were also delivered.
18
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nesting Ecology and Strategic Natural Treatment…..
Hanom Bashari
III. RESULT
Some of active and non-active nesting trees that were identified in the last 12 months are
presented below in Table 1 and 2.
Table 1. Active nesting trees in the last 12 months that were encountered during the survey in
January 2013.
No
Tree Species
Location/
Last
Breeding Activity
& Number of
Village &
Encounter
Nest Holes
Latitude;
Longitude;
Altitude
1
Melingtonia
hortensi (2)
Maradesa
Jan-2013
S9.52269;
E119.72997;
377 masl
2
3
Unidentified
(dead)
(1)
Chinocheton
sp. (1)
Tanadaru/
Umbu-langang
S9.64214;
E119.69654;
580 masl
Lakokur/
Umamanu
Dec-2012
Jan-2013
S9.80711;
E119.74927;
520 masl
4
Glichidion sp.
(1)
5
Syzigium sp.
(2)
Lakokur/
Umamanu
S9.81131;
E119.75101;
535 masl
Tangairi/
Waimanu
S9.72657;
E119.54141;
Dec-2012
Nov-2012
Jan (2013): A pair of cockatoo was
seen flying around the nest and tree,
occasionally went inside the nest hole.
The hole was empty, the nestlings
were probably already flown or
fallen as the hole was not too deep
(hole no.1 and 2 were connected-the
same hole).
Dec (2012): A pair of cockatoo was
seen cleaning the hole.
Jan (2013): A pair of Sumba Hornbill
was seen around the nesting tree and
no cockatoo was seen.
Jan (2013): One cockatoo was seen
standing on a knot of the nest hole,
occasionally went inside the hole for a
few minutes. There were probably
nestlings in the hole or the
cockatoo was brooding. The tree
was also used as roosting tree.
Sep (2012): There were 13 birds
reported to roost there.
Dec (2012): A juvenile was reported
by locals flying out of the nest hole.
Jan (2013): No young was found
when the nest hole was inspected.
Nov (2012): A cockatoo was seen
going in and out of two nest holes.
But a Great-billed Parrot was also seen
going in the same hole while the
cockatoo was not around. The
19
No
Tree Species
& Number of
Nest Holes
Location/
Village &
Latitude;
Longitude;
Altitude
Last
Encounter
58 masl
6
Tetrameles
nudiflora (1)
Tangairi/
Waimanu
Jan-2013
S9.73709;
E119.55107;
26 masl
7
Tetrameles
nudiflora (1)
Leigawi/
Manurara
Jan-2013
S9.64755;
E119.49137;
396 masl
Breeding Activity
cockatoo was likely still searching
for a hole to nest.
Jan (2013): No cockatoo was seen,
only some Great-billed Parrots were
seen around the nest but they did not
enter it.
Jan (2013): A female cockatoo was
seen at the nest hole opening while
the male cockatoo was on the tree
around the nest. There was one egg
in the nest, it was assumed that
the female was going to lay
another eggs or just brooding.
Jan (2013): A female was seen coming
out from the nest hole and the male
was perching on an adjacent branch.
There was one young in the hole,
assumed four weeks old.
Table 2. Non-active nesting trees in the last 12 months that were encountered during the survey in
February 2013
No
Tree Species
Latitude/
Last
Latest Condition
Longitude/
Encounter
Altitude
1
Chinocheton
sp. (more than
Matimakaweda/
Waimanu
-
2)
S9.68022;
E119.52915;
437 masl
2
20
Tetrameles
nudiflora (1)
Matimakaweda/
Waimanu
-
There were a few Chinocheton sp. trees
around the main tree with multiple
holes. A cockatoo was seen passing
through, vocalized, and flew again. But
there were a lot of Tanygnathus
megalorynchos (20 individuals and
more) and teens of Eclectus roratus on
the nesting tree and other trees
surrounding it. It perched, vocalized,
and moved from one tree to another.
The tree was about 120 m apart from
tree no. 1. The tree and surrounding
condition was the same as tree no. 1
with many Tanygnathus and Eclectus.
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nesting Ecology and Strategic Natural Treatment…..
Hanom Bashari
No
3
Tree Species
Tetrameles
nudiflora (1)
Latitude/
Longitude/
Altitude
S9.67982;
E119.52807;
400 masl
Malawudana/M
anurara
Last
Encounter
Latest Condition
No cockatoo was seen.
in early 1990s
when WCS
did a research
No cockatoo was detected present. The
trunk around the nest hole was covered
with ferns.
S9.64664;
E119.48926;
394 masl
Figure 1. Maps of nest tree that found in and around Manupeu Tanadaru National Park,
January 2013
21
III. DISCUSSION
BREEDING SEASON
From survey in January 2013, it was known for certain that there was one nest with egg, tree no.
6, and another nest with Sumba Cockatoo young (assumed four weeks old in tree no. 7). If reference
was made from information that says that brooding can take time to 23 days (PHPA/LIPI/BirdLife
International-IP, 1998), or 29 days in rehabilitation cages (Djawarai, 2013, pers. comm.), then it was
predicted that the young in tree no. 7 (Table 1) was incubated in the first week of December 2012
and hatched in the end of December 2012.
If assumption was made on the breeding sequence that from nest preparation to egg laying
would take one month period. Then it was predicted that the breeding of Sumba Cockatoo in tree no.
7 started in early November 2012. However, the assumption needed further validation with several
researches and encounters with the cockatoo. Djawarai (2013, pers. comm.) mentioned that the
Sumba Cockatoo young in the rehabilitation cage in Manurara Village learned and was able to fly at
the age of three to four months. Therefore it was predicted that the young cockatoo in tree no. 7
would leave the nest around April 2013. Hence it was assumed that the breeding period of cockatoo in
tree no. 7 took place for a full six months period, starting from November 2012 until April 2013, from
copulation and nest preparation to the young fledgling.
However, it should be borne in mind that in mid January 2013 there was a nest hole with one
egg found in tree no. 6. If it was predicted that the egg was incubated in the end of January 2013,
then the young should be ready to fly by the end of June 2013; if assumed that the egg hatched in
February 2013 and the nestling was healthy and well developed. From these two cases, it was
temporary concluded that:
1. Sumba Cockatoo has a breeding period of at least six months term;
2. One of predicted period was from November to June.
Information obtained from the previous survey stated that there was one juvenile seen flying,
leaving the nest in tree no. 4 in December 2012. If one breeding period is completed in six months
term, then it was assumed that the nesting happened in August 2012 and the egg hatched in
September 2012.
There are three rather important information regarding the hatching time of Sumba Cockatoo’s
eggs, which are in the month of December (tree no. 7), February (tree no. 6), and September (tree
no. 4). There was a quite long interval between March and August with no information yet of brooding
and hatching of Sumba Cockatoo. But it was predicted that hatching time lies in the rainy season. It
also could be indicating that the wild Sumba Cockatoo is really depended on the rainy season period.
A change in breeding time pattern may happen if changes in seasons, especially in rainy season,
occur.
22
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nesting Ecology and Strategic Natural Treatment…..
Hanom Bashari
Period
I
II
III
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Note:
Main period:
brooding/hatching
Period of nesting,
laying eggs, and
rearing
Extra time interval
Figure 2. Prediction of Sumba Cockatoo breeding season
SPECIFIC BEHAVIOUR
The information regarding specific behaviour of breeding cockatoo was obtained from
communities around the forest. It shows the breeding stages as follows:
1.
Copulation
Unknown, no information, and no direct encounter.
2.
Searching for hole and nest preparation
The pair will be searching for a hole and preparing the nest together; a pair of cockatoo was
seen chipping off the nest hole in tree no. 2 (dead tree). Cockatoo will chip the dry wood to
deepen the hole. The chips will be thrown away from the nest but some of it will be used as bed,
on which the eggs are laid. New nest can be recognized from the debris found at the bottom of
the tree. According to the information from the community, the cockatoo is also likely to use old
or used hole as their nest.
Walker (2005) named some bird species that are potential competitors in various forms, such as
Eclectus Parrot Eclectus roratus, Great-billed Parrot Tanygnathus megalorynchos, Sumba Hornbill
Aceros everetti, Common Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis, Short-tailed Starling Aplonis minor, and
Sumba Boobok Ninox rudolfi. But no competition was directly encountered from these six species
during observation in January 2013. However, Eclectus Parrot was seen in February 2013 in Sumba
Cockatoo nest hole in tree no. 7 in Manurara Village, where a young cockatoo was previously seen in
January 2013.
3.
Egg laying
When a cockatoo lays eggs, according to locals’ information, the pair will break a few tree shoots
around the nesting tree.
4.
Brooding
The female will solely do the incubation as happened in rehabilitation cage in Manurara Village
(Djawarai, 2013, pers. comm.). No significant activities were recognized during the brooding process.
23
But it has been informed by the locals that the cockatoo in this stage is overly sensitive nowadays, a
slight disturbance on the nest or eggs can make the parents leave the nest.
5.
Hatching and rearing
When the eggs hatched, it is obvious that the parents will clean the nesting tree from all kind of
plants or other materials that come directly in contact. The cleaning including the removal of liana and
breaking of other trees’ shoots around the nesting tree, especially the ones that are located below the
nest hole. It is probably meant to avoid the predators or other animals from gaining access to the
nesting tree. And it can also be recognized as natural sign that the eggs are hatched.
During the rearing period, as seen in tree no. 7 from survey in January 2013, the female was
entering the hole (probably feeding the nestling) and the male was on guard, not far from the nest
hole. The observer’s presence was marked by loud call from the male. In this stage, according to
locals’ information, the cockatoo is also sensitive to humans. However, they will not abandon the
young even there are possibilities of being taken or eaten. The information support the prediction on
tree no. 1, the nestling was probably gone (fallen or preyed), as the nest hole was empty but both
parents were still in the nest and around the nesting tree.
6.
Fledging
According to local people, the presence of a fledgling is usually marked by the growth of
previously removed vegetation that was cleaned by the parents. The vegetations are big enough and
have leaves. The parents stop from cleaning the area since. The nestling is ready to fly in 3-4 months
period since it hatched.
BREEDING SUPPORTING FACTORS
From several encounters with Sumba Cockatoo active nests, some important information is
recognized as potentials of breeding supporting factors, such as:
x
The availability of nesting trees
During the survey in January 2013, there were five tree species that were listed as nesting trees:
Melingtonia hortensi, Chinocheton sp., Glichidion sp., Sizygium sp., and Tetrameles nudiflora.
According to the previous surveys, from direct encounters or locals’ information, the species of the
nesting trees had been constantly dominated by three main species (Pometia tomentosa, Tetrameles
nudiflora, and Chinocheton sp.). However, during the survey in January-February, three out of five
nesting trees that were found were uncommon to be used by the Sumba Cockatoo, which were
Melingtonia hortensiI, Glichidion sp., and Sizygium sp.
The availability of nesting tree was likely to be the most important factor for the cockatoo. As
some of the nesting trees were located nearby an active main road (nesting tree no. 2 in Tanadaru
was only 30 m apart from the main road). Some nesting trees were also close to farming land (tree
no. 8 in Leigawi was only 300 m from a corn field). The trees were mainly solitary, with crowns that
were separated from crowns of other trees. The condition was probably to prevent predators reaching
the nesting tree easily. If the canopy was dense and the nesting tree was in touch with crowns from
other trees, the cockatoo would usually free the nesting tree from contacts of other trees when the
eggs hatched.
24
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nesting Ecology and Strategic Natural Treatment…..
Hanom Bashari
Table 3. A few aspects of Sumba Cockatoo active nesting trees (January – February 2013)
Information (min-max)
Height (m)
12-40
Clear bole height (m)
15-25
Diameter DBH (cm)
Tree condition
0.59-1.56
The trees were usually alive and healthy. Though there were nest holes
located in dead branches of living trees. Dead trees were also
encountered, but still in quite good condition (not decomposed yet).
x
Comfortable hole
The encountered nest holes (active and non-active) were mainly located about 20 m above the
ground. The lowest height was 10 m in tree no. 2 in Tanadaru. The active nest holes in January 2013
(tree no. 6 and 7) were dry and in good condition. The following are some measured aspects of active
nest holes.
Table 4. A few aspects of Sumba Cockatoo active nest holes (January – February 2013)
Information (min-max)
Nest height (m)
Nest position in the tree
Hole direction
Nest hole shape
Nest hole width (cm)
Nest hole length (cm)
Nest hole condition
Depth of hole from the
lowest nest opening (cm)
Hole total height from its
bottom (cm)
Diameter of holed trunk
10-27
The nest hole was usually located in the main branch (first branch),
a part of it was also found in the main trunk. While a few nest holes
were in the secondary branch.
The azimuth direction of the hole did not show any particular
tendency. Active nest holes in tree no. 6 and 7 were in the branches
that slightly facing downwards. It is apparently a mechanism to
prevent the active holes from getting damp, wet, even avoided from
being waterlogged in rainy season.
Some of it had the shape of nearly perfect circle (tree no. 2 in
Tanadaru), but most of it was in the shape of elongated curve.
8-18
18-75
The nest holes were generally in good condition, not decayed yet.
The bark of the nest holes was partially peeled off from frequent
usage as perching spot. In general, nest holes that were not used
temporarily were a little damp with a few insects (ants, bees) around
it.
0-160
50-212
44-75
25
Information (min-max)
(cm)
Diameter of the bottom of
the hole (cm)
Width of the hole (cm)
Material found inside the
hole
x
20-65
20-65
In general, the materials consisted of a rather decayed wood chips
(originated from the hole itself). Some were containing a few
feathers of adult cockatoo’s breast. At the bottom of the hole in tree
no. 1 (Maradesa), the material was extremely decayed, almost soillike texture. But it could be originated from decayed wall that
collapsed.
Adequate forest area and condition
The active nesting trees were commonly found in primary forest (seasonal) with minimum
disturbance. The nesting trees were generally located in relatively vast forest block area (for it was
inside the national park area). However, the nesting tree in Maradesa was in a very narrow and small
forest block in the valley, probably not more than 20 ha. Several aspects of forest condition around
the nesting trees are presented in the next table.
Table 5. Several aspects of forest where the nesting trees are located during survey in January 2013
Information (min-max)
Type of general habitat
Slope (0)
Forest floor physical
condition
Surrounding tree stands
Liana and fern
Distance to the nearest
active path (m)
Distance to the nearest
main road (asphalt) (m)
Distance to the nearest
water source (m)
Water source
Distance to the nearest
farming area (m)
Distance to the nearest
26
All nesting trees were located in the primary forest with minimum
disturbance.
0-40
In general, the forest floor condition was varied from clean, mixed
with litters and leaves, to covered with gravel or had limestone
base.
In general, there were some open areas created by trees that died
from natural cause. There was no trace of recently felled trees (in
20 m radius from the nesting tree)
The area around the nest hole in all active nesting trees (Sep 2012
– Jan 2013) were almost free from fern and liana.
50-600
30-4000
1-700
Mainly stream or main river, but some had only natural spring as its
water source.
150-1800
300-1800
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nesting Ecology and Strategic Natural Treatment…..
Hanom Bashari
Information (min-max)
settlement (m)
Distance to the nearest
forest boundary (m)
x
50-600
Safe from disturbance
Even though some of the nesting trees were not far from roads, settlement, or farming area, the
best condition is to have it in location that is far from disturbance potential. The disturbance can be
caused by humans or natural disturbance. Humans can disturb it by their presence and activity. While
the presence of predators and competitors for holes or trees are samples of natural disturbances.
BREEDING INHIBITING FACTORS
Some conditions were indicated to be able to inhibit or disrupt the breeding process of Sumba
Cockatoo, especially from the observation results in January 2013. The conditions were concerning the
nest hole, nesting tree, and the forest where the nesting trees were located.
x
Nest hole condition
Shallow
This condition happened to the nest hole in Maradesa. It was a concern as the condition could be
the cause of the nestling falling off the nest or being easily preyed by other birds or predators.
Collapsed inner wall
The condition can be caused by the decayed and fragile inner wall. It can cause the nest hole to
become shallow and even worse the debris could fall on the nestling or eggs inside the hole. It could
possibly occur in the hole in Maradesa.
Waterlogged
This condition happens if the hole is vertically facing upwards. It also might happen if no knot
located above the nest hole to block the water flow on top the surface of the tree. Even though the
condition only happens during the rainy season, as it will become dry in the dry season, the condition
needs further survey. The waterlogged nest hole has more potential to become humid and decayed in
short time, as well as becoming attractive for some insects. The presence of the insects might disturb
the brooding and rearing process afterwards. The condition happened to the hole in Glichidion sp. in
Lakokur.
Decayed
It is possible to happen if the nest hole is humid. The humidity will cause the walls to be decayed
and collapsed afterwards. The condition happened to the nesting trees in Lakokur and Maradesa.
27
x
Tree condition
Lianas and ferns
The cockatoo will naturally clean the liana or fern that are attached to the nesting tree, especially
when the eggs hatch. But if the invasion of liana and fern is severe, the cockatoo is more likely to find
another nesting tree. The condition happened to the nesting tree in Malawudana. Even though the
nesting tree had been used for a long time by the Sumba Cockatoo, the individual that was identified
to use the hole regularly was using another nesting tree nearby. However, further survey needs to be
performed on that nesting tree to determine whether the ferns that caused the cockatoo to move or
the ferns were outgrown because the cockatoo decided to move.
Broken branch/crown
As found in nesting tree in Lakokur, the broken area was quite large, creating gap within the
canopy. It might be the cause for the wind blowing into the nest hole, water easily entering the nest,
or high exposure to the sun. It may influence the cockatoo in choosing the nest hole.
x
Forest condition
Competition between birds in securing the nest hole as their nest
Six bird species are considered as cockatoo competitors according to Walker (2005), as
mentioned before. But during the survey in January 2013, no competition was seen directly. A Sumba
Hornbill was seen near the nesting tree in Lakokur (Chinocheton sp.) during the survey; it actively
vocalized and was replied by loud calls of the cockatoo, but no taking over was seen. Wali and Wungo
(2013, pers. comm.) mentioned that they saw a Great-billed Parrot going inside a hole that was
previously entered by a Sumba Cockatoo, but no aggression was seen during their visit to a nesting
tree in Tangairi (November 2012). The nesting tree in Maradesa had different case; there was a
Wallacean Drongo Dicrurus densus nest right above the hole. It attacked the Sumba Cockatoo when
they approached the nest hole and scared them away. Nevertheless, the cases need further study to
determine whether the cockatoo or the other species that was taking over the nest hole. However, the
presence of other species was seen as disturbance to the cockatoo, showed by their calls.
A follow-up survey in February 2013 encountered a competition between Sumba Cockatoo and
Eclectus Parrot in tree no. 7, Manurara. They were fighting over a nest hole that was already occupied
by a cockatoo nestling (about six weeks old at that time). The parrot was seen entering the nest hole.
A Large-billed Crow was also occasionally seen roosting near the nesting tree and exchanging calls
with the parent.
Predation
The condition is not yet determine, but there is a potential of predation by some species that are
introduced to the island. Civet (Vivira tangalunga and Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) and Long-tailed
Macaque Macaca fascicularis can become as potential predators that may eat the egg or nestling.
Those species are spotted in several locations in forests of Sumba. Other bird species are also not yet
confirmed as predators; even though there was information from the locals that they suspected the
Large-billed Crow preyed on the Sumba Cockatoo nestling.
28
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nesting Ecology and Strategic Natural Treatment…..
Hanom Bashari
Tree cutting
The condition will surely affect the breeding process of Sumba Cockatoo. It is well known that
several potential nesting trees are good quality trees. Those trees are likely to be cut down by locals
for their domestic needs, especially trees that are located outside the conservation area. Some nesting
trees such as Pometia tomentosa, Tetrameles nudiflora, and Chinocheton sp. are very sturdy and
largely needed by the locals for building. They usually use lumber from Pometia tomentosa and
Chinocheton sp. tree for beams or columns while Tetrameles nudiflora wood is used for house planks
and fisherman’s boat.
Trapping and Trading
There has been no case of trapping and trading of Sumba Cockatoo in Sumba Island, especially
around MTNP area for more than 10 years. However it is a constant reminder that the increasing of
Sumba Cockatoo population in the future can trigger the Sumba Cockatoo offer in the market.
IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A. CONCLUSIONS
1. There are three hatchling time periods assumed for Sumba Cockatoo, which are September,
December, and February.
2. Seven active nests were encountered during the survey in January 2013. One of the nests
contained an egg (Tangairi/Waimanu) and another one had a four week old chick
(Leigawi/Manurara) in it. Three non-active nesting trees were also encountered.
3. The nest hole can be in living tree as well as in dead tree, but the most important factor is the
availability of nesting tree in good condition. The cockatoo does not have any problem even if the
forest area is not too large, as long as the nesting trees are existed.
4. A competition between Sumba Cockatoo and Eclectus Parrot was directly seen in tree no. 7 in
February 2013 during a follow-up survey.
5. The directly seen disturbance was an attack by Wallacean Drongo, for the Sumba Cockatoo nest
was located precisely below theirs.
6. Physical disturbances that happened were:
x
waterlogged, decayed, and shallow nest hole; and
x
invasion of liana and fern around the nest hole area.
B. RECOMMENDATIONS
1. The water should be removed from the waterlogged nest hole (Lakokur/Umananu).
2. To avoid the water to re-enter the waterlogged nest hole, a few actions can be performed:
x
make a protection roof to prevent the water coming straight into the nest hole;
x
make a concavity on top of the nest hole to prevent the water flowing from the trunk above
it;
x
Drill a hole at the bottom of the nest (if it possible to be done) to make sure the water that
entering the hole also exiting it.
3. For decayed hole (Maradesa):
29
x
The decayed part is scraped to prevent it from collapsing while the cockatoo is inside the nest
hole;
x
Perform prevention actions to avoid water getting inside the hole as for waterlogged nest hole
(no. 2).
4. For shallow nest hole (Maradesa), the nest hole should be deepening for about 30 cm after the
decayed wood is removed/scraped.
5. To perform cleaning for nesting tree that is largely covered by liana and fern, especially the whole
trunk from the bottom (next to the ground) to the area around the nest hole.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thank you to our colleagues in the field, Dominggus and Romi for helping all the surveys, and thanks
for whole team of Burung Indonesia - Sumba Program. Colleagues from Manupeu Tanadaru National
Park Office, Dwi, was also very helpful in the field, and also very appreciate for national park office for
the permitting. Of course also thanks a lot to the people from villages of Umamanu, Maradesa, and
Manurara, especially to Bapak Johan, Bapak Set, and others guide for helping and many important
information. Finally, thank you to all the support from the Burung Indonesian office in Bogor,
especially to Ria Saryanthi as a Head of Conservation Program at the time.
REFERENCES
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red DataBook.
BirdLife International. Cambridge.
BirdLife
International. 2013. Species factsheet:
http://www.birdlife.org on 01/07/2013.
Cacatua sulphurea.
Downloaded
from
Coates, B.J. and K.D. Bishop. 1997. A guide to the Birds of Wallacea. Dove Publications. Queensland.
Marsden, S. 1995. The Ecology and Conservation of the Parrots of Sumba, Buru, and Seram,
Indonesia. Conservation Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, Manchester
Metropolitan University. Manchester.
Persulessy, Y.E. and C. Trainor. 2001. Status Jenis Burung Endemik dan Sebaran Terbatas di Taman
Nasional Manupeu Tanadaru, Pulau Sumba Indonesia. Forest Inventory and Monitoring
Project. Jakarta.
Persulessy, Y.E., Y.B. Djawarai, and R. Marut. 2003. Laporan Survei Populasi dan Distribusi Kakatuakecil Jambul-Kuning Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata dan Empat Jenis Paruh Bengkok Lain di
Pulau Sumba. BirdLife Indonesia/ZGAP. Bogor.
PHPA/LIPI/BirdLife International-IP. 1998. Rencana Pemulihan Kakatua-kecil
PHPA/LIPI/BirdLife International-Indonesia Programme, Bogor.
Jambul-kuning.
Walker J.S., A.J. Cahill, and S.J. Marsden. 2005. Factors influencing nest-site occupancy and low
reproductive output in the Critically Endangered Yellow-crested Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea
on Sumba, Indonesia. Bird Conservation International: 15:347–359. Cambridge University
Press. Cambridge.
30
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nesting Ecology and Strategic Natural Treatment…..
Hanom Bashari
Walker, J.S., Cahill A.J. and Marsden S.J. 2001.
The
nesting
ecology
of
Yellow-crested
Cockatoo Cacatua sulphurea on Sumba and the potential for using artificial nest sites to
increase recruitments. Preliminary Report – May 2001. The Manchester Metropolitan
University-Wildlife Conservation Society-Loro Parque Fundation. Mancherster.
Wungo, E.Y. 2011. Laporan Survei Populasi Paruh Bengkok Terancam Punah Cacatua sulphurea
citrinocristata, Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Burung Indonesia. Bogor.
31
32
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Conservation Strategy of Siamang …..
Rozza Tri K., Wanda K., & Titiek Setyawati
Conservation Strategy of Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus Raffles, 1821)
at Dolok Sipirok Natural Reserve and surrounding area1
Rozza Tri Kwatrina2, Wanda Kuswanda3, Titiek Setyawati2
ABSTRACT
Siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus Raffles, 1821) is one of Sumatran primate and classified as
endangered species by IUCN Red Data List 2012. Rapid rate of current habitat degradation has
threatened the population of this species in the wild. This paper discuss the biological and ecological
state of siamang based on both literatures and field study since 2010-2012 at Dolok Sipirok Nature
reserve and surrounding areas. Results from these studies revealed that siamang home range covered
primary dry land forest, secondary dry land, and along the river nearby cultivation areas of Dolok
Sipirok and surrounding areas within altitude of 900-1,200 above sea level. The estimated population
density was 9.91±3.4 individual/km2, comprised of infant and juvenile which were the lowest among
other age classes.The authors recorded at least 48 plant species from the study area consumed by
siamang. Results also indicated that the leaf biomass of food plant species in secondary forest was
higher than that of primary forest, 4.04 kgFW/tree individual and 3.04 kgFW/tree individual
respectively. This paper suggests a number of conservation strategies that can be implemented to
conserve for siamang and their habitats in Dolok Sipirok Nature reserve and surrounding areas.
Keywords: Siamang, population, distribution and density, habitat and food plant species, conservation
strategies
I. INTRODUCTION
Indonesia is the one mega biodiversity country include of primates. Currently, 25% among the
200 species of primates in the world are in Indonesia. As one of the countries with the highest
diversity of primates in the world, Indonesia has 5 families, 9 genera, and more than 40 species of
primates, and 24 species of which are endemic. Several large islands such as Java, Borneo, and
Sumatra even have at least three endemic primates (Supriatna, 2001).
Pressure on primate species diversity is very high. Deforestation has implications on primates
that are heavily dependent on the forest, most of them are endangered in the wild. One of Sumatran
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency,
Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP.
Manado 5 July 2013
2
Centre for Conservation and Rehabilitation Research and Development, Jl.Gunung Batu No.5 PO Box 165;Telp.02518633234;Fax 0251-8638111 Bogor . e-mail:[email protected]; [email protected]
3
Aek Nauli Forestry Research Institute, Jl. Raya Sibaganding Km. 10,5 Parapat, Sumatera Utara 21174, Telp. (0625)
41659, 41653 . e-mail: [email protected]
33
primate is ‘siamang’ (Symphalangus syndactylus Raffles, 1821). Outside of Indonesia, original
populations of siamang are found only in Peninsula of Malaysia and a few areas in Thailand. Gibbon is
classified as Endangered on the IUCN Red List in 2008 after years on the status of Lower Risk,
meanings that 50% of the population is reduced over a period of 40 years or nearly 3 generations due
to habitat loss by 70-80% during the 50 yr. If habitats continue to decrease, then in future will
become a critically endangered and the remaining population must be monitored (Nijman & Geissman,
2008). Gibbons are also classified in Appendix I of CITES, thereby strictly supervised by the state.
Several scientific studies to support primate conservation of siamang and other species of
Hylobatidae at natural habitats in Sumatra, has been published (O'Brien et al., 2004; Sultan, 2009;
Lappan, 2005; Nurcahyo, A. 2001). But there are still limited infomations on siamang population at
northen part of Sumatra. Among the group of gibbon, siamang populations data information are
currently included in the category No Recent population estimate Available (NRA), meaning that there
are no latest informations of population estimation, because the information that is more than 20
years are not included in the assessment (Geissman, 2007).
Currently, siamang populations remaining in Sumatra are mostly found in areas of both protected
and conservation forests. Nijman and Geissman (2008) stated that the most urgent conservation
action for now is rescue gibbon habitats. Habitat is the most important component in the life of
wildlife populations, so that the low reproductive potential of a population is often alleged as a result
of decreased or impaired habitat quality. Therefore, data and informations about populations and their
habitat of siamang are very important. This paper describes the biology and ecology, based on several
researchs on siamang populations and habitat in their natural habitats at Dolok Sipirok Nature Reserve
(DSNR), North Sumatra, as well as implications and in-situ conservation strategies that have to be
done by the stakeholders.
BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL DATA OF SIAMANG
Sumatran siamang has the scientific name Symphalangus syndactylus. In taxonomy, siamang
belongs to the Order of Primates, family Hylobatiade, and the species S. syndactylus (Raffles, 1821).
Siamang classification has been modified by Groves (2005); Mootnick & Grooves (2005) in Gron
(2008) who raised the subgenus Symphalangus become a fully level, which was a part of the
subgenus Hylobates. Based on the number of chromosomes, Symphalangus Hylobates have
differences with other groups, which Symphalangus have 50 chromosomes, while Hylobates only 44
chromosomes.
Siamang is the only species of the genus of Symphalangus. Two subspecies siamang show the
distribution, in which S. s. syndactylus is found in Sumatra so called Sumatran siamang, whereas S. s.
continensis is found in Malaysia, so called Malaysian siamang. The disperse in nature of those two
subspecies of siamangs are presented in Figure 1. While the spread of the Sumatran siamangs are
presented in Figure 2.
34
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Conservation Strategy of Siamang …..
Rozza Tri K., Wanda K., & Titiek Setyawati
Figure 1. Map of natural distribution of siamang
Source: Gron (2008)
Figure 2. Natural distribution of siamang sumatera
Source: Nopiansyah (2007)
Siamang apes are not a tail group and are arboreal. Their body are covered by long hair and all
are black, except around the mouth and chin colored younger (Napier and Napier 1967). Siamang has
the largest body size among other gibbon groups. There are sexual differences characteristics in
siamang, males larger than females, which can reach 1 meter tall, with a weight reaches 14 kg. In
some samples in nature it is known that adult males have an average weight of 11.9 kg, and adult
females averages 10.7 kg. While in some surveys in captivity, adult males have an average weight of
12.8 kg and adult females average of 10.5 kg. Length of the head and hands ranges between 73.7 to
88.9 cm (Gron 2008).
35
The main characteristic of a siamang is having sound pouch that serves to amplify the sound.
Siamangs do not have tails, as in all the groups of small apes (lesser apes). Two digits on each foot
are partially joined by a membrane, hence the name “syndactylus”. The main movement of siamangs
are branchiation, which dominate almost by 80% of the movement. Other types of movement are
climbing, drifting, jumping, and walking on two legs. When compared with other gibbon groups,
siamang movement is slower, and laying his body to rest in a tree (Gron 2008).
The main siamang habitats are rain forest mountains. This type often found at elevations above
300 m above sea level, but they can live in lowland forests. In addition, siamangs can also live in
selectively logged of swamp forests, lowland forests, upland forests, and submontana forests.
Although living sympatrically with other gibbon groups in several habitats, siamang tends to be found
at an altitude above than other gibbon groups. However, siamangs are rarely found above 1500 m
altitude, although they can spread to an altitude of 1828.8 m (Gron, 2008).
Siamangs live in groups that can consist of 6 individuals, but the average is 4 individuals.
Homerange of siamangs average are 23 acres. Another literature mentions values from 0.2 to 0.48
km2, with little or almost no overlap. Daily range is smaller than other types of sympatric Hylobates,
often less than 1 km. Literature mentions a daily cruising range of siamangs are 640 - 1289 m. During
the rainy season, daily range is shorter than the dry season.
In some studies conducted in Malaysia and Indonesia, it is known that siamang eat a variety of
foods, including fruits, leaves, flowers, and insects. Daily activities are dominated by switching
activities, rest, and eat (Eastridge, 1999). Gestation period is 7 months, give birth every 2-3 years and
give birth to one child in every birth, there are sometimes multiple births. Siamang babies caerd for 2
years and reach maturity at age 6-7 years. Female rarely has more than 10 children throughout its life
(Gron 2008).
SITE DESCRIPTION
Dolok Sipirok natural reserve is one of 23 conservation areas located in North Sumatra Province.
This area is defined by the Minister of Agriculture. 226/Kpts/Um/14/1982, dated 8 April 1982 with a
total area 6,970 hectares. The district including the Sipirok, South Tapanuli, and North Tapanuli. CADS
region is a part of the line of Batang Toru tropical rain forest that represents the type of sub-montane
and montane forest, with altitudes between 600-1200 meters above sea level.
36
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Conservation Strategy of Siamang …..
Rozza Tri K., Wanda K., & Titiek Setyawati
Figure 3. Map of Dolok Sipirok Nature reserve area at North Sumatra
Source: BKSDA Sumut II (2011)
Dolok Sipirok Nature reserve and the surrounding regions are unique areas as they are types of
primate gibbon habitats (Symphalangus syndactylus), Sumatran orangutan (Pongo abelii), agile
gibbon (Hylobathes agilis), monkey (Macaca nemestrina). There are also rare wildlife species,
including endemic and protected bears (Helarctos malayanus), tapir (Tapirus indicus), Sumatran forest
goat (Naemorhedus sumatrensis sumatrensis), and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae).
II. METHODS
Data of siamang populations and habitat, particularly trees and feed biomass were collected in
the Nature Reserve Dolok Sipirok on 2010-2012. Coordinates of distribution of siamang population
was recorded on each line at observations and mapped. Those data were the number of individuals,
as well as the structure and composition of groups. We used line transect method with a total length
of track observations was ±18.9 km. Observations were conducted in the morning when gibbon
started to move (Kwatrina et al. 2013).
Measurements of habitat component were performed on both primary and secondary forests of
DSNR. We created measurement plots of 20 mx 20 m for tree and 10 mx 10 m for small trees
(Kusmana 1997). We recorded the data of name and number of individuals trees, stem diameter (1.3
m from ground level), and the number of species that identified as food plants. Determination of food
plant species is based on observations, interviews with the farmer, and from secondary data
collection. Data collection to determine the biomass of leaf food plant were the availability of leaves
on each tree sample at the time of the study. Measurement of biomass was based on Kuswanda and
Bismark (2007) methods.
37
Calculation of population density, variance and standard deviation of the estimated value was
done by using the equation of Heyne population density analysis according to Burnham and Anderson
(1976). Based on the observation, the populations were classified into infant, children, adolescence,
and adults age class (Gittins & Raemakers, 1980), and we calculated the number of individuals of
each age class (Kwatrina et al. 2013).
The diversity and abundance of habitat types were analyzed by using Shannon-Wiener diversity
index (Krebs, 1978; Santosa, 1995), and Evenness Index (Odum 1998; Santosa, 1995). To estimate
leaf biomass of food plant, we used Kosmogorov-Smirnov statistical tests, multicoleniarity, and the
regression (Fowler, 1998; Ghozali, 2006; Walpole, 1993; Supangat, 2008). All stages of data analysis
was processed by using SPSS 17.0 for Windows.
III. RESULTS
Population
Siamangs of DSNR and surrounding areas are mostly scattered at an altitude of 900-1200 m
above sea level (Kwatrina et al. 2013). According to Gron (2008), naturally, siamangs are often found
at an altitude >300 m above sea level, but are rarely found at altitudes of >1,500 m asl. A total of
81.8% siamang were only found in primary dry forest, and as much as 9.1% in secondary dry forest
and riverbanks near dry land farming (Kwatrina et al. 2013).
Kwatrina et al. (2013) showed the value of individual density equals to 9.91 ± 3.40
individuals/km2 with sampling intensity of ± 2.7%. The coefficient of variation (CV) for the individual
density was 0.22. With total areas of DSNR almost 69.7 km2, it was estimated that there were 691
siamangs in DSNR and its surrounding areas.
Figure 4. Map of siamangs distribution based on altitude (left) and land cover (right) at DSNR and
its surrounding areas
Source: Kwatrina et al. 2013
38
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Conservation Strategy of Siamang …..
Rozza Tri K., Wanda K., & Titiek Setyawati
Density of siamang groups was 3.71 kelompok/km2. Group size was 3.43 individuals / groups. In
addition to groups, observation also encountered a single individual (4 times out of 11 times the
encounter). When compared with other locations, the density of siamang in DSNR was not too low.
For the same habitat type, the montane and sub-montane forests, density of siamang in DSNR was
higher than groups of Southern Bukit Barisan National Park, but lower than groups of Kerinci Seblat
National Park (O'Brien et al., 2004).
Based on the growth phase, there were four categories of age; infants, children, adolescents,
and adults. The proportion of each category were 4.17% of the infants, 12.5% of children,
adolescents 29.17%, and 54.17% adults (Figure 5). Age distribution for infants and children showed
that the siamang population in DSNR was likely to develop in the early years, but it will be difficult to
grow in the following years because of the minimal number of groups of children and infants
(Kwatrina et al. 2013).
Figure 5. Histogram of age class percentage of siamang populations at Dolok Sipirok Nature reserve
and its surrounding areas
Source: Kwatrina et al. 2013
Habitat
DSNR Tropical forest area which is part of the Batang Toru Forest can be categorized into two
sub-types of forest formations (Laumonier et al., 1987). Firstly, subtype formations Air Bangis Bakongan which become a part of the Bukit Barisan Formation type of western hills high elevation
(300 to 1000 meters above sea level). Secondly, sub-types of Montana Forest (1000 - 1800 meters
above sea level) which is the part of Bukit Barisan types Formation which altitudes above 1000 meters
above sea level.
Flora
in
DSNR
is
dominated
by
Dipterocarpaceae,
Fagaceae,
Moraceae,
Myrtaceae,
Anacardiaceae and Euphorbiaceae (Perbatakusuma et al., 2006). Based on observations on 40 plots of
1.6 ha they obtained 155 species of plants that were divided into 87 species of seedlings, 84 species
of saplings, 56 species of pole, and 78 species of tree. Haundolok (Syzigium sp.) was the predominace
39
at all levels except of tree vegetation that was dominated by hoteng (Quercus gemelliflora Blume)
(Table 1). Hoteng was the one of food species of siamangs.
Table 1. Number and density of vegetation at Dolok Sipirok Nature Reserve
Stage of
vegetation
Seedling
Number
of species
(ind.)
87
Dominant species
Local name
Haundolok
Siala
Pakis
Scientific name
Eugenia sp.
Rhodoleia
teysmannii Miq
Asplenium sp.
Family
IVI
(%)
Density
(ind./ha)
Myrtaceae
15,80
4.000,00
Hammamelida
9,77
2.562,5
ceae
8,95
2.187,5
Polypodiaceae
panjang
Total of seedling density (ind./ha)
Sapling
84
45.000
Haundolok
Eugenia sp.
Myrtaceae
23,50
650
Hoteng
Quercus
gemelliflora Blume
Gordonia excelsa
Fagaceae
11,40
240
Theaceae
8,25
210
Api-api
Blume
Total of sapling density (ind./ha)
Pole
56
Haundolok
Randu
kambing
Hoteng
4.750
Eugenia sp.
Alstonia
macrophylla Wall.
Quercus
gemelliflora Blume
Myrtaceae
36,13
50
Apocynaceae
31,33
45
Fagaceae
26,08
42,05
Total of pole density (ind./ha)
Tree
78
430
Hoteng
Quercus
gemelliflora Blume
Eugenia sp.
Castanopsis
maranak
rhamnifolia (Miq.)
Hoteng
Haundolok
Fagaceae
28,94
35,6
Myrtaceae
28,58
30,6
Fagaceae
16,18
15
Dc.
Total of tree density (ind./ha)
236
Plant species diversity was high, indicated by their index values >3 for all levels of vegetation
grows stages. When compared to the index of diversity, evenness, and abundance of vegetation types
at all levels, the highest value was found for seedlings (Figure 6 and Figure 7). The high species
diversity was inversely proportional to the low evenness value for all levels of vegetation that is <1.
40
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Index value
Conservation Strategy of Siamang …..
Rozza Tri K., Wanda K., & Titiek Setyawati
4,5
4
3,5
3
2,5
2
1,5
1
0,5
0
4
3,89
3,48
3,63
H'
0.9
0,88
Seedling
Stake
0,86
Pole
0,83
E
Figure 6. Species Diversity index (H’), Evenness
index (E) of vegetation at Dolok Sipirok
Nature reserve
Tree
Stage of vegetation
60
54,58
48,9
Index value
50
37,7
40
32,45
30
N
20
10
0
Seedling
Stake
Pole
Tree
Stage of vegetation
Figure 7. Species Richness index(N) of
vegetation at Dolok Sipirok Nature
reserve
Gibbon known as leaf/fruit-eating animal. However, some literature mentions that the Sumatran
siamang prefers to eat fruit than leaves. At least, about 48 plant species were identified as the source
of feed. Edible parts are leaf and fruit (12 species), fruit (22 species), leaves (12 species), fruit and
bark (2 species) and consumed all of the part (1 species) (Table 2). Most important plant species is
Hoteng (Ficus sp.), which is major feed for other primate species such as the agile gibbon. The other
are from Moraceae and some of Fagaceae such as andarasi (Ficus congesta Roxb.), Hing acid
(Dracontomelon dao Merr. & Rolfe), gala-gala (Ficus racemosa) and handis (Garcinia celebica L.).
Table 2. The feed plant species of siamang at DSNR and surrounding area
No
Local name
Scientific name
Family
Edible part
Leaf
Fruit
1
Andarasi
Ficus congesta Roxb.
Moraceae
2
Api-api
Gordonia excelsa Blume
Theaceae
v
3
Aren
Arenga pinnata Merr
Palmae
v
4
Asam hing
Dracontomelon dao
Anacardiaceae
v
Myristicaceace
v
v
Bark
v
Merr.&Rolfe
5
Balun injuk
Myristica lawiana King
41
No
Local name
Scientific name
Family
Edible part
Leaf
Fruit
6
Baringin/Hau ara
Ficus sp.
Moraceae
v
7
Bayur
Pterospermum
javanicum Jungh.
Sterculiaceae
v
8
Cempedak
Arthocarpus integer
Merr
Moraceae
v
9
Dapdap
Fagara rhetsa Roxb.
Fagaceae
v
10
Deke-deke
Zingiber officinale Rosc
Zingiberaceae
v
11
Gala-gala
Ficus racemosa
Moraceae
v
12
Gumbot jambut
Ficus sp..
Moraceae
v
13
Handis
Garcinia celebica L.
Guttiferae
v
14
Hanyahap
Ficus sp..
Moraceae
v
15
Hatopul
Artocarpus rigidus
Moraceae
v
v
Myrtaceae
v
v
Ticalysia javanica Kds.
Rubiaceae
v
Myrtaceae
v
Myrtaceae
v
v
v
Blume
16
Hau dolok A
Syzygium densiflorum
Duthie
17
Hau dolok B
18
Hau dolok
Syzygium acuminatum
baringin
Miq.
Hau dolok game-
Syzygium cymosa
game
Lamk.
20
Hau dolok salam
Syzygium sp.
Myrtaceae
v
v
21
Hau dolok jambu
Syzygium racemosum
Myrtaceae
v
v
22
Horsik
Ilex pleiobrachiata Loes
Aquifaceae
v
v
23
Hole misang
Ficus sp.
Moraceae
v
24
Hoteng
Quercus sp.
Fagaceae
v
25
Hoteng maranak
Castanopsis rhamifolia
Fagaceae
19
DC.
v
v
(Miq.) Dc.
26
Hoteng barangan
Castanopsis inermis
Fagaceae
v
Podocarpaceae
v
Tiliaceae
v
Jack.
27
Hoteng batu
Podocarpus beccarii
Parl
28
Junjung buhit
Elaeocarpus floribundus
Blume
29
42
Karet
Hevea
brasiliensis Muell. Arg
Euphorbiaceae
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
v
Bark
v
v
Conservation Strategy of Siamang …..
Rozza Tri K., Wanda K., & Titiek Setyawati
No
30
Local name
Lacat bodat
Scientific name
Family
Shorea hopeifolia Sym.
Dipterocarpacea
Edible part
Leaf
Fruit
Bark
v
e
31
Mayang
Palaquium sp.
Sapotaceae
v
32
Mayang batu
Payena leerii
Sapotaceae
v
Sapotaceae
v
(Teijsm.&Binn.) Kurz.
33
Mayang durian
Palaquium obovatum
Engl., var.
34
Mayang rata
Payena glabra H.J
Sapotaceae
v
35
Mayang susu
Palaquium sp.
Sapotaceae
v
36
Modang kuning
Litsea odorifera Valeton
Lauraceae
v
37
Motung
Ficus toxicaria Linn
Moraceae
v
38
Pege-pege
Ficus tenuicuspidata
Moraceae
v
39
Petai hutan
Parkia speciosa HASSK
Leguminosae
v
40
Poga/Jambu-
Euphorbiaceae
v
jambu
Endospemum
diadenum Miq.
Rambutan hutan
Cryptocarya nitens
Lauraceae
v
v
Corner.
41
v
(Blume) Koord.&Val.
42
Sampinur tali
Podocarpus imbricatus
Bl. Var
Podocarpaceae
v
43
Simargalunggun
Ficus sp.
Moraceae
v
Aquilaria malaccensis
Thymelaeaceae
v
Ulmaceae
v
g
44
Songgak
Lamk.
45
Takki gatal
Gironneiera subaequalis
Planch.
46
Tambiski tombak
Eurya acuminata
Theaceae
v
v
Moraceae
v
v
A.P.DC.
47
Torop
Artocarpus elasticus
Reinw.
48
Tupe
Ficus sp.
Moraceae
v
Source : Observations data (2012) and Kwatrina et al., (2011)
The average of biomass in secondary forests was 4.03 kg/tree (fresh weight) and 1.88
kg/individual (dry weight). Based on food plant density by 136 individuals/ha (Kwatrina et al., 2011)
43
and wide of secondary forest area was 420 ha (Kuswanda, 2011), the total of leaves biomass were
230,193.6 kg (fresh weight) or 107,385.6 kg (dry weight).
The average biomass of primary forest was 3.04 kg / tree (fresh weight) and 1.62 kg/ individual
(dry weight). Based on food plant density by 136 individuals/ha (Kwatrina et al., 2011) and wide of
primary forest was 6,180 ha (Kuswanda, 2011), the total of plant leaves biomass was 2,555,059.2 kg
(wet weight) or 1,361,577.6 kg (dry weight). Value of biomass estimation was based on equations
that were presented in Table 3.
Table 3. Leaf biomass estimation results in secondary and primary forests
No of plant
Secondary forest
Primary forest
Fresh weight (kg)
Dry weight (Kg)
Fresh weight (kg)
Dry weight (Kg)
1
2,32
1,06
2,86
1,53
2
1,86
0,85
0,57
0,27
3
4,68
2,12
0,74
0,36
4
1,30
0,60
3,63
1,95
5
4,01
1,82
4,73
2,56
6
1,98
0,90
1,34
0,69
7
2,88
1,31
1,59
0,83
8
6,48
2,94
3,12
1,67
9
2,54
1,16
4,73
2,56
10
5,25
2,38
6,09
3,31
11
2,99
1,36
2,61
1,39
12
8,85
4,01
1,51
0,78
13
1,98
0,90
5,24
2,84
14
11,66
5,28
6,35
3,45
15
1,75
0,80
0,49
0,22
Jumlah
60,53
27,47
45,61
24,39
Rerata
4,04
1,83
3,04
1,63
The estimated average of leaf biomass in secondary forest was 4.04 kg/individual trees (fresh
weight) that was higher than in the primary forest biomass by 3.04 kg/individual trees (fresh weight),
and the same condition was found at the dry weight. If the density of the food plant in DSNR was
about 136 ind./ha, the biomass in the primary forest was 414 kg/ha (wet weight) or 222 kg/ha (dry
weight), and in the secondary forest was 550 kg/ha (wet weight) or 249 kg/ha (dry weight). Based on
the fact that leaf biomass of food plat at secondary forest surrounding the area of DSNR was higher
than that of at primary forest inside the area, it is conclude that the secondary forest around the area
of DSNR have important role as a part of siamang habitat.
44
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Conservation Strategy of Siamang …..
Rozza Tri K., Wanda K., & Titiek Setyawati
CONSERVATION STRATEGY
The observations and literature showed that siamangs population in DSNR and surrounding areas
are potential to decline in the future, if the structure of population with minimum number of the baby
and child class lasts for a long time. For the in-situ conservation efforts, it is necessary to support the
progressive formation of population structure. Based on the scientific information obtained in this
area, conservation strategies can be suggested are:
1. Monitoring of populations and home range of siamangs
Monitoring over time would assess the stability of siamang populations. Spots of siamang
distribution groups obtained in this study can be used as observation posts so that siamang
populations structures by age and sex can be accurately obtained (Kwatrina et al., 2013). Monitoring
programs can be done by 3-4 years and at any time in the case of major changes in habitat, such as
natural disasters. Mapping wildlife of habitats and ranges, control of poaching, and minimize habitat
destruction of wildlife and human conflict prevention can also be developed.
2. Enrichment of food plant in areas of DSNR
The average of food plant biomass in secondary forests was higher than the existing primary
forests in the area. It can be caused by several species of plants in secondary forest has a larger size,
such as teurep (Artocarpus elasticus Reinw.) and cempedak (Arthocarpus integer Merr.) compared to
the size of the Hau dolok leaves (Syzygium sp.) and hoteng (Quercus sp. ) on primary forest. Habitat
restoration programs through enrichment by adding native species of food trees with large biomass
can be done in order to increase the function of habitat, in addition we think that it is also useful to
limit damages of the area, to reduce harvest forest products, and to prevent fires.
3. Restoration of degraded area
Habitat restoration is needed because forests will take a long time to regenerate naturally.
Habitat restoration is expected to increase the carrying capacity and improve siamang populations.
Restoration programs can be focused on areas used for cultivation and shrubs land areas, around the
enclave at Rambassiasur village which is a part of siamang habitat. Choice of plants for restoration
should be done carefully and precisely to avoid the possibility of invasion of alien plant species /
specific that can damage native ecosystems.
The species can be selected by diversity of species around damaged areas and characteristics of
the land to be restored, such as its altitude above sea level. Ecologically, priority of species is food
plant for gibbon. Economically, those selected species should be useful and valuable to the local
community. The species are Macaranga sp. medang landit, durian, and cempedak.
4. Corridor development
Secondary forest around the DSNR is an important habitat for gibbons. It ranges from one to
another protected area. Corridor development can be focused on areas that linking buffer habitat of
siamangs around the area of DSNR, Sibual-Buali National Reserve, and Batang Toru protected forest.
According to Perbatakusuma (2006), biodiversity corridors have been proved beneficial in increasing
wildlife populations of locally and regionally, particularly small and isolated populations so that the
population fragments can be connected back. For primates, the corridor can be developed through the
45
planting of trees with big and tall stems characters, dense and continuous canopy. They should be
able to serve as a food source or nest trees, such as banyan, hoteng, and mayang.
5. Development of agroforestry in buffer zones
Agroforestry systems can increase the value of land, especially in areas that serve as a buffer
zone of DSNR. Complex agroforestry is appropriate for the buffer zone for settled agriculture which
involves many types of trees (tree-based) either intentionally planted or grown naturally on land, and
farmers can manage and follow a pattern that resembles the plant and forest ecosystems (Michon and
Foresta, 1995).
Agroforestry in the buffer zone areas around the DSNR can be developed on the former natural
forest land (rest of IUPHHK), on marginal land and / or shrubs. Land clearing can be done in the dry
season. At the beginning of the rainy season, the land can be planted with upland rice inserted other
crops (e.g, corn and chilly) for one to two harvests. Furthermore, intensification of land use can be
increased by planting trees for example rubber, cinnamon, nutmeg or other perennials. By the time
the tree is grown, farmers are still freely combines other annual crops that are beneficial economically
and culturally. Selective logging can be done if the staple crops began to fail or if a tree was too old
so it is not productive anymore. Agroforestry development is expected to form a community of land
that serves both as a source of economic and additional habitat for siamangs.
IV. CONCLUSION
Siamang of DSNR and its surrounding areas are mostly found on primary forest and at altitudes
900-1.200 m asl. Research and literature studies indicated that the population seems to develop in the
early years, but it will be difficult to grow in the following years because of the minimal number of
groups of children and infants age classes.
Secondary forest around the area of DSNR have important role as a part of siamang habitat. Leaf
biomass of food plant at secondary forest surrounding the area of DSNR was higher than at primary
forest inside the area. Then, conservation strategies proposed are; monitoring of populations and
home ranges of siamangs, enrichment planting of food plant in area of DSNR, restoration of degraded
areas, development of corridors, and development of agroforestry in buffer zones.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We thank to the Head office of BBKSDA of North Sumatra and management for permission to
work at the DSNR and to Ms.Fitri Noor CH for support and cooperation. Special thanks is dedicated to
research assistants, Andi Mandala Putra and Johannis Ginting. We also thank to Mr. Nasir Siregar for
his kind support and help throughout the research. Financial support from Forest Research Institute of
Aek Nauli, FORDA is gratefully acknowledged.
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Nijman, V. & Geissman, T. 2008. Symphalangus syndactylus. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Diakses pada 26 Januari 2010.
Nurcahyo, A. 2001. Daily Ranging, Home Range, Foods, Feeding and Calling in Siamang (Hylobathes
syndactylus). In WCS-IP. Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park in Space and time. 2000-2001
Research Report. WCS-IP/PHKA. Bogor.
O'Brien, T. G., M.F .Kinnaird, A. Nurcahyo, M. Iqbal. And M. Rusmanto. 2004. Abundace and
Distribution of Sympatric Gibbons in a Threatened Sumatran Rain Forest. International Journal of
Primatology 25(2): 267-284.
Odum, E.P. 1998. Dasar-Dasar Ekologi. Terjemahan Tjahjono Samingan. Gadjah Mada University
Press. Yogyakarta
Perbatakusuma, E.A., J. Supriatna, R.S.E. Siregar. D. Wurjanto. L. Sihombing, dan D. Sitaparasti.
2006. Mengarusutamakan Kebijakan Konservasi Biodiversitas dan Sistem Penyangga Kehidupan
di Kawasan Hutan Alam Sungai Batang Toru Propinsi Sumatera Utara. Laporan Teknik. Program
Konservasi Orang Utan Batang Toru - Departemen Kehutanan - Conservation International.
Pandan.
Santosa. 1995. Konsep Ukuran Keanekaragaman Hayati di Hutan tropika.
Sumberdaya Hutan, Fakultas Kehutanan IPB. Bogor.
Jurusan Konservasi
Suharjito, D., L. Sundawati, Suyanto, S. R. Utami. 1993. Aspek Sosial Ekonomi dan Budaya
Agroforestri. World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF). Bogor.
Sultan, K., Mansjoer, S.S., & Bismark, M. (2009). Populasi dan distribusi ungko (Hylobates agilis) di
Taman Nasional Batang Gadis, Sumatera Utara. Jurnal Primatologi Indonesia 6(1), 25-31.
Supangat, A. 2008. Statistik dalam Kajian Deskriptif, Inferensi dan Nonparametrik. Penerbit Kencana
Prenada Media Group. Jakarta.
Supriana, J. 2001. Indonesian Primate CAMP: Final Report. Conservation Breeding Specialist Group.
255 p.
Walpole, R.E. 1993. Pengantar Statistik. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta
48
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nest Characteristics and Prospect of Orangutan …..
Tri Sayektiningsih, Yaya R., Amir M., & Ishak Y.
Nest Characteristics and Prospect of Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus morio)
Corridor Establishment in Menamang Forest, East Kalimantan Indonesia1
Tri Sayektiningsih2, Yaya Rayadin2, Amir Ma’ruf2, dan Ishak Yassir2
ABSTRACT
Research was done to obtain data and information about nest characteristics and potency of
orangutan corridor establishment. Data were collected by establishing line-transect placed
perpendicular to Menamang river between June and November 2012. Nest pattern was classified into
four patterns. Meanwhile, nest age was divided into five types of stages: A, B, C, D, and E. Overall,
we had made 20 transects with total length 6006,6 m. We had found 69 nests during survey. We
recorded that 72,46% orangutans built one nest on one tree. Nest on the main stem is the most
abundant position in study site. We recorded two nests which were on stage A and B. But, nests on
stage E were more common. Orangutan used to build nest 10-19 m in height. Menamang forest is a
one of Kutai Landscape areas which used by Pongo pygmaeus morio as its habitat. Nowadays, Kutai
Landscape condition is not solid. It is caused by fragmentation due to palm oil plantation, forest
plantation, and settlement. Menamang Forest located in right and left of Menamang River is potencial
for orangutan corridor. This corridor allow orangutan to travel between two patches of forest. It also
connect forest patch in outside protected area with protected area (Kutai National Park). Those results
above give important information that orangutan is still active on using Menamang Forest as habitat.
Corridor establishment requires collaborative management among stakeholders. Besides that, adaptive
corridor must be considered.
Key words: Menamang Forest, Pongo pygmaeus morio, corridor, nest survey
I.
INTRODUCTION
Pongo pygmaeus morio is one of sub species of borneo orangutan found in eastern part of
kalimantan including several districts in East Kalimantan, Indonesia and Sabah, Malaysia (Husson et
al., 2009). In East Kalimantan, one of its habitats is in Kutai Landscape comprising Kutai National Park
and adjacent area. It was large lowland tropical forest prior to change into several uses. Recently, the
intake forest has been decreasing over the past few decades due to the development of palm oil
plantation (PT Hamparan Sentosa) and plantation forest (HTI PT Surya Hutani Jaya, PT Sumalindo
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency,
Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP.
Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Institute of Research for Natural Resources Technology Conservation, Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km. 38, Balikpapan,
Kalimantan
Timur.
Email:
[email protected],
[email protected],
[email protected],
[email protected]
49
Hutani Jaya). Besides that, people have been living in this region for years (Husson et al., 2003;
Meijaard et al., 2010; Ancrenaz et al., 2010).
The effect of habitat changing in Kutai Landscape have fragmented orangutan’s habitat (Meijaard
et al., 2010). Consequently, there are many Pongo pygmaeus morio trapped in forest patch within
certain concession. Habitat fragmentation leads to smaller and more isolated populations. Small
populations are more vulnerable to local extinction (Walker and Craighead, 1997). The impact will be
more serious because the number of population of this sub species is lower than the other two sub
species of orangutan in Kalimantan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus and Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii)
(Husson et al., 2009).
Habitat changing can also affect orangutan behavior on nest building (Prasetyo et al., 2009).
Habitat impact can be detected by nest characteristics i.e. number of nests and nest height. Ancrenaz
et al. (2004) revealed that number of nests and nest height were orangutan’s adaptation result from
their habitat. Therefore, nest characteristics are essential for habitat assessment (Rayadin, 2010).
Based on statement above, it urges to establish orangutan corridor (Dixon et al., 2006).
Orangutan corridor, connecting two large core areas: Kutai National Park and Muara Kaman Sedulang
Natural Reserve, is one of concepts of orangutan corridor which will be implemented in East
Kalimantan (Rayadin, 2011, pers.com). Unfortunately, there are many challenges to apply this project.
One of challenges is land use around corridor site plan (Sayektiningsih et al., 2012). The objective of
this paper is to describe both nest characteristics and the prospect of orangutan corridor
establishment based on land use in Menamang Forest. We hope that the result can be used as
recommendation for orangutan conservation in East Kalimantan.
II. METHODOLOGY
A.
Study Site
Research was carried out in Menamang Forest, Kutai Kartanegara District, East Kalimantan.We
focused on forest area located in bank (left and right) of Menamang River. Study site was shown in
Figure 1.
50
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nest Characteristics and Prospect of Orangutan …..
Tri Sayektiningsih, Yaya R., Amir M., & Ishak Y.
Figure 1. Study site
B. Nest Survey
1. Midline and Transect
The method that we used to count orangutan nest was transect line (Johnson et al., 2005;
Russon et al., 2001). Line transect sampling methods rely on four basic assumptions that must be met
to ensure validity of results. They are: (1) objects are detected at their initial location, (2) all objects
located exactly on (or above) the transect line are detected, (3) distances are measured accurately
and (4) transects are located randomly in the habitat (Morrogh-Bernard et al., 2003). We placed
midlines along existing trails to minimize disturbance. Transect lines have various length caused by
irregular condition of habitat. To avoid double counting, two transect on the same side of midline are
placed at least 200 m from each other. Each transect was walked twice based on hypothesized that
the double count would: (1) minimize the chance that nests were missed, especially directly above the
transect, in violation of a key assumption; (2) minimize error due to inter-observer variation (Johnson
et al., 2005). During survey we stopped every 5 m and search 360 0 for nest occurring within 50 m of
either side of the transect (Felton et al., 2003). Overall, we had made 20 transects with total length
6,0066 km. We recorded 69 nests along survey.
51
2. Nest Position and Nest Age
We recorded all nest along transect line. For each orangutan nest, we measured perpendicular
distance from directly below the nest to the transect and recorded nest characteristic (nest position,
nest age, and number of nest). We classified nest position in four positions following Prasetyo et
al.(2009).
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(0)
Figure 2. Nest position
Nest age was classified in five stage as follow: A= nest is new, still entirely green, B = nest is
relatively new, mixture of green and dried leaves, C = nest is brown, but shape remains intake, D =
nest has begun to fall apart; there are holes or chunck of leaves missing, E = nest is old; leaves are
gone and only the skeletal branch and twig structure remains (Johnson et al., 2005).
C.
Field Observation
We conducted field observation to obtain data about land use around orangutan corridor site
plan. Data collecting was done by using boat through Menamang River. As part of this term, we also
recorded geographic position on each land use using GPS.
D.
Data Analysis
Data were analyzed by descriptive quantitative method for nest characteristics. To know the
existing condition of land use, we translated our data on a map. This process was supported by Arc
Gis.10 software.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Nest Characteristics
1. Number of Nests
We recorded 69 nests in study site. In several transects, nest couldn’t be found. It was more
easier to look for nest on forest patch located near plantation forest or palm oil plantation. It might be
correlated with the food availability. Although trees were not on the fruiting season, orangutans could
shift their food sources on cambium or leaves (Russon et al., 2009). In this case, orangutans fall back
52
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nest Characteristics and Prospect of Orangutan …..
Tri Sayektiningsih, Yaya R., Amir M., & Ishak Y.
their food on cambium of Acacia or bud of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis). This behavior is more
significant for Pongo pygmaeus morio. Compared to the other sub species, Pongo pygmaeus morio is
more flexible on diet so that it can cope severe condition which is rare of fruit (Morrogh-Bernard et al.,
2009). Overall, the total of transect lines and nests was listed by the following table.
Table 1. Transect line and number of nest in study site
Site
Transect lenght
Number of nest
(m)
A
1000
18
B
1000
9
C
500
10
D
160
3
E
320
0
F
220
0
G
220
1
H
180
0
I
220
5
J
100
0
K
300
1
L
60
4
M
80
0
N
360
0
O
338
6
P
40
0
Q
160
0
R
332
8
S
316,6
3
T
100
1
Total
6006,6
69
Generally, orangutan build one nest on one tree. We calculated that 72,46% of nest was
constructed on one tree. Similar case could be found in Kutai National Park, Birawa and Meratus.
Based on Rayadin and Saitoh (2009) report, there were 87% nest built on one tree. These result
might be caused by the similarity of habitat condition. From this result, we supposed that the habitat
condition between two locations of study still could support orangutan’s living necessity. In degraded
habitat, orangutans tend to build more than one nests on one tree (Ancrenaz et al., 2004). Besides
the case above, we also found two or three nests on one tree (percentage 11,59% and 1,45%) on
several tree species i.e. Castanopsis fulva, Pentace triptera, Gironniera nervosa, Baccaurea sp.,
Pterospermum javanicum, Dillenia reticulata, and Pterospermum javanicum.
53
2. Nest Age
We found new nest on stage A (1,45%) and B (1,45%). Both nests on stage C and D had same
percentage, 28,99%. Meanwhile, nests on stage E were abundant with percentage 39,13%. The
finding of new nests proved that orangutans were still active using Menamang Forest (corridor area)
as their habitat. Figure 3 show proportion of nest age in study site.
A: 1.45%
E: 39.13%
B: 1.45%
C: 28.99%
D: 28.99%
Figure 3. Proportion of nest age in study site
3. Nest Position
The proportion of nest position is shown by Figure 4.
Top of tree:
33.33%
Top of
branch:
20.29%
Main stem:
46.38%
Figure 4. Proportion of nest position in study site
Nests were common built near the top of tree (Ancrenaz et al., 2004). Proportion of nest position
in main stem was higher than other location (46,38%), 33,33% nests were on top of tree, and
20,29% nests were on top of branch. Nest position can be indicator to know population structure of
orangutan. Adult orangutan tend to build nest on stable position (main stem), and young orangutan
common build nest on top of branch (Rayadin and Saitoh, 2009; Rayadin, 2010). Nest choice is also a
strategy to avoid predator (Kuncoro, 2004).
54
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nest Characteristics and Prospect of Orangutan …..
Tri Sayektiningsih, Yaya R., Amir M., & Ishak Y.
The basic pattern of nest position in the tree can be distinguished on four categories, which differ
with respect to how the main platform is created. Type 1 refers to a nest built near the main stem by
bending the horizontal branches springing from it to form the platform. Type 2 uses the horizontal
branch as its main foundation and uses side-branches to build the platform. This can be done near the
main stem or quite a distance away from it. Type 3 nests are in tree forks, i.e. where there is no main
stem above the nesting site. Type 4 deviates fundamentally from the other three in that several,
usually rather small, tree are connected, by bending and locking branches from each tree together
(Prasetyo et al., 2009).
4. Nest Height
Orangutans’ nest height varies from 11 m in Tuanan to 20 m in Ketambe. It is influenced by
canopy height (Felton et al., 2003; Prasetyo et al., 2009). Nests of orangutans are common in
intermediate layer of the forest which is covered by more leaves (Niningsih, 2009).
Based on our investigation, generally, orangutans built nest on 10-19 m in height (76,81%) with
meant 16,68±4,40 m. It might explain that it was a strategy to avoid predator because it brought
safety when they were slept. It was also believed to offer the animals an additional protection during
their sleep against a direct exposure to rains and/or sun (Ancrenaz, 2006). That behavior was
different with rehabilitant orangutans in Meratus Protection Forest. In that location, nests were mostly
found on 10-25 m above ground. They also built nest on the ground (Kuncoro, 2004; Handayani,
2003). Proportion of nest height is shown by Figure 5.
< 10: 2.90%
20-29: 20.29%
10-19: 76.81%
Figure 5. Proportion of nest height in study site
B.
Prospect and Challenges on Orangutan Corridor Establisment
Corridor site plan connected Kutai National Park and Muara Kaman Sedulang Nature Reserve is
forest located in bank of Menamang River. At the present time, that forest is divided into several
patches belong to certain concessions (HTI PT Surya Hutani Jaya and PT Hamparan Sentosa). Greensecondary forest along river bank still occur within HTI PT Surya Hutani Jaya. But, the condition is
55
dramatically changed when we travelled following river flow. The land convertion into palm oil
plantation was the common view. It just left forest about 50 m or less in width from river bank.
The forest is also converted by community to other purposes i.e. settlement, farms, and
cemetery. Commonly, the villagers have been living in Menamang Kanan and Menamang Kiri villages
for years. As descendants of Kutai tribe, they developed linguistic, cultural, and social aspects based
on Kutai cultures. They still acknowledge and respect the existence of traditional village head (kepala
adat). In term of housing construction, there is no distance between river and house. The back yard
of home is Menamang river. Menamang Kiri and Menamang Kanan people are dependent on farm
products for their livelihoods. The land farm location is far from settlement. Today, beside land farm,
the community try to cultivate palm oil which each household has 5 ha as plasma plantation (kebun
plasma). The program is a part of PT Hamparan Sentosa’s corporate social responsibility program.
Considering that condition, it can be a threat for corridor establishment remembering the location is
near river bank.
The challenges of orangutan corridor establishment come not only from human aspects but also
natural aspect. The continuous corridor connecting Kutai National Park and Muara Kaman Sedulang
Nature Reserve is hard to reach because it is separated by river with 100 m in width. The constraint
wouldn’t allow orangutans to travel across river. The situation of land use around corridor site plan is
drawn by Figure 6.
Figure 6. The situation of land use around corridor site plan
56
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nest Characteristics and Prospect of Orangutan …..
Tri Sayektiningsih, Yaya R., Amir M., & Ishak Y.
Corridor connecting Kutai National Park and Muara Kaman Sedulang Nature Reserve has more
positive impact either for orangutan population or for all living things within its habitat (Beier and Loe,
1992). Regarding the function of corridor, challenges, and geographic condition in Kutai Landscape, it
is important to establish adaptive corridor. Corridor can be built to connect Kutai National Park with
forest patches located in plantation which has function as conservation area.
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National Park, Indonesia. WWF-Indonesia, Betung Kerihun Project.
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Dixon, J.D., M.K.Oli, M.C. Wooten, T.H. Eason, J.W. McCown, D. Paetkau. 2006. Efeectiveness of a
regional corridor in connecting two florida black bear populations. Conservation Biology
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Felton, A.M., L. M. Engström, A. Felton, C.D. Knott. 2003. Orangutan population density, forest
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Husson, S., E. Meijaard, I. Singleton, C.V. Schaik, S.A. Wich. 2003. The Status of The Orangutan in
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Husson, S.J., S.A. Wich, A.J. Marshall, R.D. Dennis, M. ancrenaz, R. Brassey, M. Gumal, A.J. Hearn, E.
Meijaard, T. Simorangkir, I. Singleton. Orangutan Distribution, Density, Abundance and
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Orangutans Geographic Variation in Behavioral Ecology and Conservation. New York: Oxford
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Johnson, A.E; C.D. Knott; B. Pamungkas; M. Pasaribu; A.J. Marshall. 2005. A Survey of The Orangutan
(Pongo pygmaeus Wurmbii) Populatin In and Around Gunung Palung National Park, West
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Kuncoro, P. 2004. Aktivitas Harian Orangutan Kalimantan (Pongo pygmaeus Linnaeus, 1760)
Rehabilitasi di Hutan Lindung Pegunungan Meratus, Kalimantan Timur. Jurusan Biologi,
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Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam. Universitas Udayana. Bali. Tidak
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Meijaard, E., G. Albar, Nardiyono, Y. Rayadin, M. Ancrenaz, S. Spehar. 2010. Unexpected ecological
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management. Plos ONE 5 (9): e12813.doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012813.
Morrogh-Bernard, H.C, S. Husson, S.E. page, J.O. Rieley. 2003. Population status of the Bornean
Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) in the Sebangau peat swamp forest, Central kalimantan,
Indonesia. Biological Conservation 110: 141-152.
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Lackman-Ancrenaz, A.J. Marshall, T. Kanamori, N. Kuze, and Ramlan. 2009. Orangutan Activity
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Russon, A.E; A. Erman; R. Dennis. 2001. The Population and Distribution of Orangutans (Pongo
pygmaeus pygmaeus) In and Around The Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve, West
Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biological Conservation 21-28.
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H. Ramlee, P. Rodman, A. Sawang, K. Sidiyasa, I. Singleton, C.P.van Schaik. 2009.
Geographic Variation in Orangutan Diets. On: S.A. Wich; S.S.U Atmoko;T.M. Setia; C.P. van
Schaik, editor. Orangutans Geographic Variation in Bahavioral Ecology and Conservation. New
York: Oxford University Press (135-156).
Sayektiningsih, T., A. Ma’ruf, T. Muslim, Z. Arifin, Priyono, Warsidi, Mujianto. 2012. Kajian Potensi
Pembangunan Koridor Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus morio). Laporan Hasil Penelitian.
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http://proceeding.esri.com/library/userconf/proc97/to150/pap116/p116.htm. Diakses tanggal
17 Januari 2011.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Correlation Between Sialang Tree Diversity …..
Avry Pribadi & Purnomo
Correlation Between Sialang Tree Diveristy (Nest of Apis dorsata Fabr.)
to Honey Productivity in Siak Regency – Riau Province1
Avry Pribadi and Purnomo2
ABSTRACT
The Asiatic giant honeybees (Apis dorsata Fabr.) are abounded with the lowland rainforests of Siak
Regency. The colonies of A. dorsataare found nesting in most tall bee trees (Sialang trees; local
name). In Riau province there are about 50 species of Sialang tree. Problem. The forest
degeneration over to palm oil and the high exploitation of A. dorsatagave the effect of the honey
production and A. dorsatacolony avaibility today. The objective(s). (1) to evaluate the diversity
(richness, abudancy, and similiarity) of Sialang trees in sub district of rainforest in Siak, (2) to evaluate
the correlation of Sialang tree diversity to honey production and colony of A. dorsata, and (3) to
evaluate the advantages of sustainable A. dorsata honey harvesting. Method approach. Determining
the vegetation distribution and the number of Sialang trees, colony distribution, and A. dorsata density
colonies at Siak (10° 16’ 30” - 00° 20’ 49” S and 100° 54’ 21” - 102° 10’ 59” E). The farmer behavior
was also documented to compare the sustainable A. dorsataharvesting method (Purnomo, 2008).
Results. The correlation showed all diversity parameter of Sialang tree gave negative correlation to
A. dorsatacolony significantly (one of which caused by destruction honey harvesting method), but
gave the positive correlation to honey production significantly. Meanwhile, sustainable A.
dorsataharvesting method showed in 28 days after honey was harvesting, the A. dorsatacolony had
established more 1050 cm2 the honey cell and 264 cm2the pollen cell in each colony than destructive
harvesting method.
Key word: Apis dorsata, Sialang tree diversity, honey production, honey sustainable harvesting.
I. INTRODUCTION
In the international world, Indonesia is complimented as a country with the greatest biodiversity
after brazil. For that reason, it is called as a megabiodiversity country. Unfortunately, the pressure of
land necessity and natural wealth slowly thread the diversity of flora and fauna species of Indonesian
archipelago. The exploitation of forests, soils, rivers, lakes, and seas which are neededexcessively and
temporarily is not a wise action to make. Because, it is possible that the flora and fauna and the
microorganism hosting those ecosystems can be used as human welfare (Kompas, may 22nd, 2013).
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013
2
Balai Penelitian Teknologi Serat Tanaman Hutan Kuok . Jl. Raya Bangkinang-Kuok km. 9/BKN- Riau 28401Email :
[email protected]
59
One of the diversity forms is found in Asiatic giant honeybee (A. dorsata) which represents fauna, and
sialang tree which represents flora where the existences are more marginalized because of the rapid
deforestasion.
Asiatic giant honeybee (A.dorsata) is the most productive honeybee producing honey which has
the percentage of honey production nearly 60% of all honey produced in Indonesia (Ditjen RLPS,
2006). The characteristic of Asiatic giant honeybee hive is a hive with one stroke that hangs in a
branch and a twig of a tree. The hive stroke can be measured until 2x1 meter with 20 kg honey
production per hive. This species only develops in sub tropical and tropic Asia (around Pakistan to
Indonesia) and can not be found outside of Asia. In Indonesia, it can be found in Sumatra,
Kalimantan, Sulawesi, West Nusa Tenggara and East Nusa Tenggara (except Irian) (Starr et al.,
1987).
Sialang is a term for a big, tall tree which has diametre reached 100 cm or more, and the height
can reach 25 to 30 meter and is hosted by A. dorsata. In Riau, it has at least 50 species of the biggest
sialang trees which spread in peat and mineral soil. Sialang tree is a kind of plant which is protected
by law, both government law and customary/ community law. It is intended to preserve those trees as
the place which the group of bees produces honey as one of incomes of the people who lives near the
forests (Mujethid, 2007).
One of regencies in Riau province experiencing the rapid change of natural forest is Siak. Based
on the data of Riau provincial forestry office (2006), the rapid change of the nature forest was from
the conversion of PFI and palm tree plantations. The problem occured was the reduction of numbers
and diversity of sialang trees. Another problem was the permanent technique of honeybee A. dorsata
which tended to be destructive (cut off), it was feared to affect the sustainability of A. dorsata (WWF,
2012).
The impact of natural forests deforestation being PFI is appeared to be a unique phenomenon.
The tendency of A. dorsata colonies is more getting away to the forest boundary of HTI Acacia
crassicaraa, A. mangium, and Eucalyptus sp. (Purnomo et al., 2007). The similar tendency appeared
in palm tree plantation that showed the existence of the colonies withdrawing from the forest
boundary. This issue was related to the availability of food resources of honeybee A. dorsata, which
extrafloral nectar is produced by the Acacia plant (Sihombing, 1997).
Therefore, the objectives of the study are (1) to determine the diversity level of sialang tree in
Siak regency, (2) to determine the correlation of sialang tree diversity to the productivity of honey
harvesting and A. dorsata colonies, and (3) to examine the advantages of honeybee A. dorsata
harvesting technique sustainably to keep the living of A. dorsata colonies.
II.
DIVERSITY OF SIALANG TREE AND PREFERENCE OF ASIATIC GIANT HONEYBEE A.
DORSATA IN SIAK REGENCY
A tree is called sialang tree if the tree is hosted by Asiatic giant honeybee A. dorsata. Although
the tree is with height about more than 30 meters, but if it is not hosted by A. dorsata, it will not be
called sialang tree. The analysis result of sialang tree diversity showed that a district which hadthe
highestdiversity parameter wasTualang and the lowest was Mempura and Sungai Apit (table 1).
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Correlation Between Sialang Tree Diversity …..
Avry Pribadi & Purnomo
Analysis of sialang tree diversity parameter showed that the sialang tree diversity located in the village
that was around Siak river and concession areas of Plantation Forest Industry (PFI) which were
planted with Acacia mangium and Acacia crassicarpa showed higher rate (Tualang and Minas districts)
if compared to sialang tree diversity around coastal areas though the diversity value is still below 3.
Table 1. Some of diversity index parameter based on analysis result in some districts in Siak regencyRiau
Regency
Diversity index
Richness index
Abudancy index
Minas
1.088
1.303
2.948
Mandau
1.795
1.958
2.156
Tualang
2.169
2.857
5.879
Koto Gasib
1.039
0.962
2.814
Mempura
0.72
2.98
1.955
Bunga raya
1.44
6.80
3.910
Sungai Apit
0.84
0.91
1.902
It is suspected that the limit factor which formed the fertility level of peat soil in Sungai Apit
district (coastal area) affected the number and diversity of sialang tree which are adaptable in that
area. Peat type that found in east coast of Sumatera is ombrogen. This peat soil possibly first
appeared from the mangrove sediment soil which is then dried. This peat soil contains of high salt and
sulfide, so only fewer decomposer organisms inhabit it. Research in Sarawak showed that peat started
forming on mangrove mud about 4,500 years ago in the beginning with depth rate about 0.475 m/
100 years (at 10-12 m depth of peat), later shrank to approximately 0.223 m/ 100 years at the depth
of 0-5 m. Probably, the older the forest of peat soil, the fewer the availabilty of nutrients (Wikipedia,
2012). Therefore, it is thought that types of sialang trees growing much in rural forest area and river
boundary are hard to grow in coastal area and only specific types that can tolerate to this boundary
factor.
The result of inventories of sialang tree types showed that Sungai Apit district had only 5 types of
sialang tree with the number of 16 trees. While in the rural area (to the west) with the peat soil leads
to hemic peat, selotype (transition), and red-yellow podzolic mineral soil (Minas district) showed that
there were 11 types of sialang tree with the numbers of 87 trees. Whereas in concession area of PFI
(fibric peat to saprik) and along the river of Tualang distrct, it was found that there were 12 types of
sialang trees with the numbers of 51 trees (table 2).
61
Table 2.
Preference of Asiatic giant honeybee A. dorsata in choosing sialang tree in 3 districts of
Siak regency - Riau
Average of A. dorsata
Sialang tree species
colony per tree
Tualang district (found in concession area of PFI and Siak river flow)
Kempas (Koomssia Parvifalia)
25.9
Arau
44.2
Kayu Batu (Homalium tomentosum)
11.1
Ponti
30
Pupui
18.3
Makeluang (Heritiera Tarrieta )
20
Meranti (Shorea sp.)
25.5
27
Sisik
11.5
Pelajau
11
Macan Hutan
21.5
Balih Angin Gajah
13
Kole
Minas district (found a few of concession area of PFI)
Kayu Batu
22.5
Kempas
18.6
Arau
24.8
30
Rengas
26.8
Makeluang
Pulai (Alstonia sp.)
15
Jelutung (Dyera costulata)
20
Pasir-pasir
15
Poso
50
Beringin
30
Meranti
40
Sungai Apit district (coastal area)
Pulai
28
Kempas
19.5
25
Terap
34
Sentul
38.5
Arau
Based on the analysis, the preference level/ the fondness of honeybee A. dorsata to the sialang
tree in 3 districts representing the vegetation structure located in Siak regency (coast, ombrogen peat
soil and river flow area, red-yellow podzolic mineral soil) showed that sialang tree type which is the
best is arau type. Besides, it was found in those 3 districts, the preference level of honeybee A.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Correlation Between Sialang Tree Diversity …..
Avry Pribadi & Purnomo
dorsata per tree was considered high (24.8 to 44.2 colonies per tree) (table 2). Sialang tree type with
honeybee A. dorsata preference was found in 2 areas, i.e. peat soil (Tualang district) and red-yellow
podzolic mineral (Minas district)were kayu batu type (11;1 to 22.5 colonies per tree), makeluang (20
to 26.8 colonies per tree), and meranti (25.5 to 40 colonies oer tree). While the type of tree and
preference of honeybee A. dorsata found in coastal area and peat soil ombrogen were kempas type
(18.6 to 19.5 colonies per tree) and pulai rawa (15 to 28 colonies per tree)
Some factors influenced the high and low of colony preference of honeybee A. dorsata to sialang
tree relatively aremany horizontal branchings.The tall of tree reaching 27 m with branching fewer than
15 are not found vegetation/ another tree which is as big as the sialang tree, and branching that is
far from plants of epifit and liana (Starr et al., 1987) and located around the sustainable forest
(Purnomoet al., 2007). It can be seen that sialang tree located in the center of concession area of PFI
was not inhabited by honeybee A. dorsata which was caused of the micro climate change(Purnomoet
al., 2007).
III.
CORRELATION BETWEEN SIALANG TREE DIVERSITY TO HONEY PRODUCTIVITY AND
A. DORSATA COLONY
Based on the result of analysis, the correlation of sialang tree diversity to honey productivity and
A. dorsata colony showed that all parameter of diversity types (diversity, rinchness, abundancy).
Sialang tree showed a positive correlation to the honey harvest result obtained from all districts in
Siak regency (table 3). It means that the honey harvesting of A. dorsata increased. The result was
different to Pachepsky (2001) which stated that the increase of diversity will decrease the productivity
level of a community, especially tropical area, the great diversity level has low productivity. While in
subtropical area and temperate regions, even though it has low diversity level, the productivity level is
high.
It is thought there was a relationship between food resource of honeybee A. dorsata in form of
nectar of A. crassicarpa and A. mangium located in concession area of PFI. According to Purnomo et
al. (2010), the extrafloral nectar potency in PFI area planted by kinds of A. mangium and A.
crassicarpa showed 40-75 litre per day/hectare depending on the age of its standing. Another factor
was the existence of a large tree that was guarded by the local community, beside, the obligation of
the company is to prepare protected area and unlimited factor like coastal area that hinder the
adaptation of some kinds of sialang trees (figure1). It can be seen in the map of the village spread. It
showed that there were numerous sialang trees in the edge of concession area of PFI and along the
Siak river. The average result of honey harvest of A. dorsata showed the highest results in a row
from Tualang district (18,195 kg), Minas (11,713 kg), and the lowest was Sungai Apit district (10,360
kg). So, closed to the coastal area, the diversity of sialang tree was getting decreased straightly
compared to honey productivity that was also getting decreased. Moreover, the permanent technique
tended to be destructive, the honey harvest obtained tending to be more. Nevertheless, it could not
keep the sustainability of A. dorsata.
63
Table 3. Correlation between forest honey harvest productivity and A. Dorsata colony with some
diversity parameters in Siak regency-Riau
Parameter
Diversity index
Richness index
0.660*
0.002
0.660*
-0.465
-0.500
-0.466
Honey productivity
A. dorsata colony
Abundancy index
The opposite thing happened to the observation of the correlation between the parameter
diversity and the existence of
A. dorsata colony which showed the opposite trend (negative
correlation). It means that the rise of sialang tree diversity would impact to the reduction of the
number of A. dorsata colony and vice versa. If it relates to the sialang tree diversity that is low in
coastal area, it could be informed that the agregation level of A. dorsata colony to sialang tree in
coastal area (Sungai Apit district) had higher value when compared to the other two districts. The
high agregation level of A. dorsata in an area showed that the colony of A. dorsata was developing. It
is thought that it related to the existence of pollen source, especially coconut tree which produced
protein for A. dorsata. According to Cale and Ruthenbuhler (1975), the bee population development is
influenced by some factors, one of those is the ability of a queen bee to keep laying eggs. The ability
of laying eggs is strongly influenced by the food (royal jelly) given from the worker bees to the queen
bee, and to produce royal jelly, the bee colony needs pollen in sufficient amount. Royal jelly formed
by the worker bees is also influenced by the existence of hypopharengeal gland which is located in the
heads of worker bees. This gland needs nutrion such as protein, and in that way, the amount of
pollen will impact to the development of bee colony.
Rural areas (diversity of sialang tree is higher than diversity of sialang tree in coastal area)
dominated by PFI and palm tree plantation showed the agragetion trend that A. dorsata was lower
when compared to A. dorsata in coastal area (table 2). Concession area of PFI provided nectar which
was the food source of A. dorsata, however, it was poorer in providing another food source which was
pollen. Although there was a plam tree plantation which was happened to be the source of pollen, but
Liow et al. (2001) stated that in thailand, the population and agregation of A. dorsata consider lower
in palm tree plantation, because there are no nectars, and according to Nanork (2009), the branching
is not suitable for A. dorsata to nest. For that reason, it made the agregation of A. dorsata colony in
rural area considered lower than coastal area.
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Correlation Between Sialang Tree Diversity …..
Avry Pribadi & Purnomo
10
6
22
7
8
19
9
28
4
2
3
1
12
13
11 16
15
14
17
21
18
23
20
24
29
DesaRantau
9.
Bertuah
2.
3.
31
33
17. Desa Benteng Hilir
25. Desa Benayah
10. Desa Lubuk Umbut
18. Desa Paluh
26. Desa Pebadaran
Desa Mandiangin
11. Desa Teluk Kabung
19. Desa Berbari
27. Desa Penyengat
Desa Minas Jaya
12. Desa Pinang Sebatang Barat
20. Desa Pusaka
28. Desa
4.
Desa Minas Barat
13. Desa Pinang Sebatang Timur
21. Desa Perincit
5.
Desa Minas Timur
14. Desa Kuala Gasib
22. Desa Bunga Raya
6.
Desa Langkai
15. Desa Teluk Rimba
23. Desa Bedosan
30. Desa Kayu Ara
7.
Desa
16. Desa Kota Ringin
24. Desa Sungai Limau
31. Desa Lalang
Lubuk
Desa Sigintil
26
30
27
32
5
1.
25
Jering
8.
Sungai
Rawa
29. Desa Mengkapan
32. Desa Harapan
Desa Olak
: concession area of PFI Arara Abadi (Sinar Mas)
Picture 1.
The spread of central village producing honey in Siak regency in 2010
III. METHOD OF SUSTAINABLE HARVESTING OFA. DORSATA HONEY
In Siak regency, harvesting technique of honey before the year of 2000 was still destructive,
which was cutting off the whole part of the honeycomb. Since 2000, the Research for Forestry Office
in Kuok introduced a sustainable harvesting technique, which is done by the way of cutting and
brushing off honey and leaving the brood. The observation of the technique showed that the
composition of A. dorsata hive contained only 10% of honey and pollen, whereas the rest of which
was about 90% was the sapling (brood). The cutting of hive was done on the part of the stroke that
65
was farthest from the main stem because the stroke was located in the farthest area if it was seen
from the main stem.
Treatment for increasing honey productivity was done by doing cleaning treatment of the rest of
honey comb that was still attached to the stem after honey harvesting and by not doing cleaning
treatment (the rest of comb left tobe attached). Based on the observation, it was showed on day I
after doing honey stroke harvesting that both trials still made a crowd of A. dorsata.
After 7 days, the observation showed that the cleaningtreatment to the rest of honey comb made
a new hive built by the A. dorsata worker. While the rest of honey comb which was not doing the
cleaning treatment made the hive left by A. dorsata which inhabited it before. After 28 days since the
treatment, the cleaning treatment of honey comb showed that the part had reformed and bulged. The
opposite thing happened to the hive whose hive/comb was uncleaned which showed the change of
the function of the comb which was the comb for sapling (brood) to become honey (table 4). In
addition, the cleaning process of the rest of the honey comb had higher value (1260 cm2) if compared
to the uncleaned honey comb (960 cm2). The similar trend could be seen in the pollen comb and
brood which had higher values to the cleaning treatment compared to the uncleaned one (table 4).
Table 4. Wide average of each hive stroke (honey, pollen, brood) on the 28th day after the process
Part of hive
comb
Honey (cm2)
Pollen (cm2)
Brood (cm2)
cleaned
uncleaned
cleaned
uncleaned
cleaned
uncleaned
1050
0
264
0
0
0
210
960
380
520
7210
6580
0
0
0
0
1027
1550
1260
960
644
520
8237
8130
comb of former
honey harvest
(point
part/farthest part
of main
stem/harvested
part)
Center hive stroke
(left part)
Hive stroke of
starting point (the
nearest part to the
main stem
Total
The low trend of comb wide of each hive to the uncleaned treatment was suspected because of
the existence of the rotten comb rest, so it lured the decomposing organisms (fungi or decomposer)
to come, and it made the old hive becoming humid and rotten. This such condition was probably not
favored by the bees, specifically it was because of the high humidity of the comb which occured
disease caused by fungi and bacteria. According to Renich et al. (2011), some bee diseases are
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Correlation Between Sialang Tree Diversity …..
Avry Pribadi & Purnomo
caused by the existence of microorganisms such as roten larvae rot (caused by bacteria Bacillus
larvae).
IV. CONCLUSION
1.
Districts having the highest diversity parameter was Tualang (2.169) and the lowest was
Mempura and Sungai Apit (0.72 and 0.84). The analysis about diversity parameter of sialang tree
was located in the village around the Siak river flow and concession area of PFI which was
planted by Acacia mangium, Acacia crassicarpa, and Eucalyptus sp. and showed the highest value
(Tualang and Minas districts) if compared to sialang tree diversity in coastal area (Sungai Apit
district).
2.
Sialang tree diversity in Siak regency correlated negatively to A. dorsata colony agregation,
however it correlated positively to honey harvesting productivity.
3.
The 28th day observation, the rest of honey stroke done through the cleaning process had a
higher value (1260 cm2) if compared to the honey stroke which was uncleaned (960 cm2). The
similar trend was seen in pollen and brood strokes which had higher values through the cleaning
process compared to the uncleaned process.
REFERENCES
Cale, G.H and Ruthenbuhler, W.C. 1975. Genetics and Breeding of the Honey Bee. Dadant and Sons
Hamilton, Illonois
Dinas Kehutanan Provinsi Riau. 2006. Statistik Dinas Kehutanan Provonsi Riau tahun 2006.
www.dephut.go.id/files/statistik_dishutriau06_0.pdf
Ditjen
RLPS,
2001.
Data
Produksi
Madu
Indonesia
http://www.dephut.go.id/informasi/Statistik/2001
tahun
1997
s.d
2000.
Mujetahid, M.A. 2007. Technique of Forest Honeybee Harvesting Praticed by Local Community around
the Forest Area inDistrict of Mallawa, Regency of Maros. Jurnal Perennial, 4(1) : 36-40
Liow, L.H.; Sodhi, N.S. & Elmqvist, T. (2001). Bee Diversity Along a Disturbance Gradient in Tropical
Lowland Forests of South-east Asia. Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol.38, No.1 (Febuary 2001),
pp. 180–192, Available from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2655743
Oldroyd, B.P. & Nanork, P. (2009). Conservation of Asian Honey Bees. Apidologie, 40(3): 296-312
Pachepsky, E. 2001. Why it takes all kinds: diversity mechanisms and patterns in ecological
communities Chapter 5. Effects of diversity on the productivity and stability of communities
PhD Thesis. www.pachepsky.com/5_PachepskyPhDThesisChapter5.pdf
Purnomo, Rochmayanto, Y., Junaedi, A., Aprianis, Y., dan Suhendar 2007. Peta Sebaran Koloni Lebah
Hutan (Apis dorsata) dan Data Produksi Madu di Riau. Laporan Hasil Penelitian Balai
Penelitian Hutan Penghasil Serat, Kuok. Tidak dipublikasikan
Purnomo. 2010. Potensi Nektar Pada Hutan Tanaman Jenis Acacia crassicarpa untuk Mendukung
Perlebahan. Laporan Hasil Penelitian Balai Penelitian Hutan Penghasil Serat, Kuok (tidak
dipublikasikan)
Rennich, K., Petitis, J., 2, Vanengelsdrop, D. and Hayes J., 2011. National Honey Bee Pests and
Diseases Survey Report. Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania
67
Sihombing, D.T.H., 1997. Ilmu Ternak Lebah Madu. Gajah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.
Starr K. C., Schmidt, J.P., Schimdt, J.O. 1987. Nest-site Preference of Giant Honey Bee, Apis dorsata
(Hymenoptera: Apidae), in Borneo. Pan-Pasific Entomologist 63(1); 37-42
Utomo, Y.W. Melindungi Kekayaan Alam. Harian Kompas, 22 Mei 2013
World
Wide
Fund
for
Nature.
2012.
Madu
Sialang
Tesso
Nilo.
http://www.wwf.or.id/tentang_wwf/upaya_kami/pds/social_development/greenandfairproduc
ts/madu_tessonilo
Wikipedia. 2012. Gambut. http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gambut
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Options for the Biodiversity Conservation …..
Tri Wira Yuwati, Gerard P., & San Afri Awang
Options for The Biodiversity Conservation of Gunung Lumut Protection Forest
East Kalimantan1
Tri Wira Yuwati23, Gerard Persoon2 and San Afri Awang4
ABSTRACT
Gunung Lumut protection forest in East Kalimantan is the home of diverse flora and fauna. It was
reported that many plant species were being endemic and new to science. Mushrooms and birds were
also reported to have a high diversity. Nevertheless Gunung Lumut has facing problems due to forest
fire, illegal logging, encroachment for settlements and agricultures and conversion to oil palm
plantation. Limited or no alternative funding, a weak management design and no involvement of local
people in the management are the causal factors. Protection forest with an important role to protect
the area underneath and providing environmental service is no longer “protected”. This paper
presented options for the management of Gunung Lumut protection forest which ensure the
conservation of its biodiversity and at the same time providing alternative livelihood for local people.
Keyword : Gunung Lumut, East Kalimantan, protection forest, co-management, biodiversity
conservation
I. BACKGROUND
According to the Ministry of Forestry Strategic Data (2009), protected areas in Indonesia cover
more than 43.75% of its total forested area. The total forested area in Indonesia up to September
2009 was 136,645,269.91 hectares ( Ibid, 2009). The Ministry of Forestry Strategic Data (2009) also
stated that Indonesia had appointed 28,235,435.42 hectares of conservation areas and 31,551,110.4
hectares of protection forest.
Approximately, 23 % of the total forested area in Indonesia is
protection forest. The Law no. 41/ 1999 identifies protection forest as a forest area having the main
function of protecting life-supporting systems for hydrology, preventing floods, controlling erosion,
preventing sea water intrusion and maintaining soil fertility.
Nowadays, it is an irony to look at the state of protection forest in Indonesia. Created to protect
their important functions in providing environmental services, in reality, protection forests in Indonesia
are no longer “protected”. Illegal logging (Yonariza and Webb, 2007), forest fire (Lee et al, 2009),
encroachment for settlements and agricultural fields (Ginoga et al, 2005), conversion into oil palm
plantations (Sandker et al, 2007) are some of the main causes of the destruction going on in
1
This paper was presented in International Conference
on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013
2
Graduate School of Social and Behavioral Science, Leiden University, The Netherlands
3
Banjarbaru Forestry Research Institute, South Kalimantan, Indonesia
4
Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
69
protection forests. As a result, forests which should be protected are becoming public access forests
(Moeliono and Purwanto, 2008).
Decentralization for forestry sector has given the authority of protection forest to local
government (Dermawan et al, 2006). However, limited management budget, no alternative funds,
poor monitoring, institutional weaknesses, poor management design and no involvement of local
people are the major causes of poor management of protection forest. Moeliono and Purwanto (2008)
emphasized that lack of law enforcement and general neglect has allowed all parties to break the law
with impunity. To complete them all, there is no special policy for management of protection forest in
Indonesia (Ginoga et al, 2005). Ginoga et al (2005) concluded that the role of protection forest remain
dilemmatic due to: (i) gap in understanding similar terminology involved in managing protection forest
such as conservation area, forest protection or protected area, (ii) dualism in policy and regulation:
mentioning the need and effort for sustainability of protection forest thus making a room for
protection forest exploitation, (iii) no harmony in policy between sectors and
regulation between
national and regional level, (iv) overlapping policies, (v) underestimating of ecological role and
function of protection forest.
The basic question is how to manage protection forests with such
environment and social problems?
Gunung Lumut protection forest (GLPF) is the home of diverse flora and fauna of Kalimantan. It
is reported that many plant species were being endemic and new to science. It is also the home of
Dayak Paser customary people. However, decentralization has forced local government to generate
their own income. Up to March 2010 there were 4 timber concessions, 38 oil palm plantations and 86
coal mining concessions (20 exploitation permit and 66 exploration permit) in Paser district (Paser
District in Numbers, 2009). Several of them are bordering with the protection forest. The Dayak Paser
customary people collect Non-Timber Forest Product (NTFP) and practice extensive shifting cultivation
in this area. Due to limited budget, it is hardly any management activities in GLPF. As a result, the
forest area are degrading and becoming public access. Attention should be given to GLPF. This paper
wrapped up preliminary study of cooperation research between FORDA-Tropenbos-Leiden University
entitled “Integrating Local Land Use System in Collaborative Management of Protected Areas” with
two case studies in Gunung Lumut Protection Forest, East Kalimantan and Sebangau National Park,
Central Kalimantan. This paper presented one case study and aimed to offer options for the
management of GLPF which ensures the conservation of its biodiversity and at the same time
providing alternative livelihood for local people.
II. Declaration of Paser as Conservation District
On 29 June 2006 Paser district declared to be a conservation district. The purpose of this
declaration is to bring Paser towards sustainable development. It is stated in the mission of Paser
district (Paser District in Numbers, 2009). The reason behind the declaration was that Paser owns
protection forests and nature reserves. There are four protection forests (GLPF, Kendilo River-Mount
Ketam, Downstream of Sawang river and Samu river), two nature reserves (Adang bay and Apar bay)
and a great forest park (Lati Petanggis) in Paser district. Moreover, the increasing population and a
demand for higher economical growth have raised the awareness among Paser people that the
susceptibility of natural resources of Paser is also high.
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Options for the Biodiversity Conservation …..
Tri Wira Yuwati, Gerard P., & San Afri Awang
However, the total protected area (protection forest, nature reserve and great forest park) is only
21.36% of the total surface area of Paser district (Paser in Numbers, 2009). This condition has made
it difficult for Paser district to receive recognition from the provincial and central government. The
requirement for conservation district is that the surface area is dominated (more than 50%) by
protected area. For example, protected area of Kapuas Hulu district dominates 56.21% of the total
surface area (Muhajir, 2007). Hence, there is a contradiction between what was stated and what is
actually carried out. There is a massive conversion of forest area into mining and oil palm plantation in
Paser. Percentage distribution of Gross Domestic Regional Product (GDRP) showed that 68.36% of the
total GDRP of Paser district in 2008 was supported by mining sector. The actual receipt from land and
building taxes for Paser district in 2008 showed that 81.55% came from mining, 8.44% came from oil
palm plantation and only 0.62 % came from forestry sector. It can also be seen from the growing
number of mining companies which were 10 companies in the end of 2007 but increasing to 20
companies in the end of 2008. Let aside the presence of 66 mining exploration permits. There is also
a perception that to become a conservation district will be easier to attract funding from the central
government and international institutions.
The promotion of Paser as conservation district was initiated by the Asia Forest Partnership (AFP)
consisted of various institutions: World Wide Fund (WWF), Tropenbos Indonesia (TBI), Center for
International Forestry Research (CIFOR), The Ministry of Forestry and Paser district government.
These institutions were working together to promote conservation district scheme for three districts of
East Kalimantan province: Kapuas Hulu, Paser and Malinau. Kapuas Hulu district in West Kalimantan,
Malinau and Pasir district in East Kalimantan have shown their serious interests in becoming
conservation districts in the future despite of the presence of obstacles remained such as legal and
technical constraints.
III. GUNUNG LUMUT PROTECTION FOREST
The designation of Gunung Lumut as protection forest was conducted in 1983 through the
Ministry of Forestry Decree No. 24/Kpts/Um/1983. Before the designation, it was a production forest
under concession of PT Telaga Mas since 1970’s. GLPF covers an area of 35,350 hectares and lies
between 116º02'57" and 116º50'41" East Longitude; 01º19'08" and 01º49'33" South Latitude. It
stretches from the north to the south about 56.3 km length and 8.3 km wide, surrounded by 15
villages, and even one settlement is located inside the protection forest (Anonymous, 2005).
Administratively, GLPF belongs to Pasir District and covers four sub districts i.e. Long Kali, Muara
Komam, Long Ikis and Batu Sopang in the East Kalimantan province. The GLPF area is mainly covered
by dipterocarp lowland forest, apart of the area are dominated by trees of meranti ( Shorea spp.) and
kapur (Dryobalanops lanceolata) (Murniati et al, 2006). Approximately 60% of the forest is still in
pristine condition with a complete flora and fauna (Anonymous, 2005). The buffer zones of the GLPF
are production and limited production forest areas with degraded condition. Thousand of forest
dependent people are living in these buffer zones (Murniati et al, 2006). Despite of its designation as
a protection forest, logging activities are continuing and even worsened by the activities of large
number of small concessions (IUPHHK = Ijin Usaha Pemanfaatan Hasil Hutan Kayu) granted by the
District Head (Bupati) around the protection forest.
71
Figure 1. Map of Gunung Lumut protection forest, Pasir District, East Kalimantan
(source: East Kalimantan Development Planning Agency, 2010)
Finally, the activities of IUPHHK were stopped by the MoF decree No. 541/Kpts-II/2002.
Currently, there are 4 timber concession holders, 86 mining concessions (20 exploitation permit and
66 exploration permit) and 38 oil palm plantations are still operating around GLPF. Concerning the
needs to conserve biodiversity within and around GLPF, three districts (Pasir, Tagalong and Barito
Selatan) have signed a MoU for the proper management and protection of the remaining protection
forests in the borders of these districts.
TBI, an international NGO, has supported co-management in the area since 2005. TBI has
initiated activities such as: inventory of biodiversity and natural resources, stakeholder analysis,
research on communal rights, the formation of multi-stakeholder management institutions,
development of zoning plans and trainings. Furthermore, varieties of research activities ranging from
biodiversity assessment to social economy and customary rights of local people in Pasir District have
been conducted by Tropenbos Indonesia in cooperation with The Ministry of Forestry and
Mulawarman University. The research on biodiversity assessment demonstrated a high botanic
diversity in the Gunung Lumut in terms of genera (Slik, 2005). It was also determined that Macaranga
and Mallotus were becoming post- disturbance indicator species. Sidiyasa et al (2005) concluded that
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Options for the Biodiversity Conservation …..
Tri Wira Yuwati, Gerard P., & San Afri Awang
Gunung Lumut had a high plant species diversity of approximately 445 higher plant species. These
species belong to 215 genera and 74 families (not including lianas, epiphytes and herbs). It is believed
that many recorded plant species were new either for East Kalimantan or even for science in general.
Wiriadinata (2005) conducted inventory on understorey forest plants diversity and collected 194 herbs
and shrubs, 33 trees, 21 lianas and 4 orchids. Some of these are being endemic and new to science
such as Begonia spp. Marji and Noor (2006) identified 81 mushroom species in Mului forest, 60
species in Lumut forest and 48 species in Rantau Layung forest. Boer (2006) investigated the avian
diversity at GLPF and a total of 137 bird species were identified, some of them were endemic. Slik and
Van Ballen (2005) determined that species richness of birds in primary and disturbed forest was
similar. De Iongh et al (2005) compared rapid assessments and checklist-based analysis for
proportional guild composition of lowland forest bird communities between Sungai Wain and Gunung
Lumut forest. They concluded that rapid assessments were effective for understorey and terrestrial
species but not for arboreal species. Suyanto (2006) investigated the biodiversity of small mammals
from GLPF and he identified 18 species of small mammals in GLPF. Saragih (2005) compared the
community oil palm plantation and local rattan gardening in terms of economic profit. The result was
that community oil palm plantation was economically more profitable than local rattan gardening and
this has resulted a strong competition between two land use type. Wahyuni (2007) concluded that
traditional management of Ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri) or Iron wood was very weakly developed in
Gunung Lumut. Bakker (2005) illustrated that since the implementation of decentralization in January
2000, conflicts with customary land have affected problems for local and central government. The
claims demanded for the formal recognition of land rights and return of customary land to
communities. Socio-economic assessment was conducted in two villages of Muluy and Rantau Layung
(van der Ploeg and Persoon, 2007 ). Muluy lies in the heart of GLPF while Rantau Layung is located
adjacent to GLPF. People in Muluy considered that wild resources were more important than cultivated
or bought resources. Thus, the people of Rantau Layung considered both as important. People of
Rantau Layung distinguished primary forest into 4 landscape sub-types based on distances to the
village and accommodation in customary law. Soedirman (2005) identified 53 actors who play roles in
the Kalimantan forestry problems. It was determined that the forestry related government institutions
were major elements of identified stakeholders, however, it showed situation of unclear or
overlapping authorities.
IV. OPTIONS FOR THE BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION OF GLPF
Several options for protection forest management which can be chosen are in the form of
Protection Forest Management Unit with all its institutional arrangements, while collaboration can be
build through schemes of social forestry released by the Ministry of Forestry which are Village Forest
and Community Forest. Other alternative option is the management of an independent management
body such as Sungai Wain protection forest and Wehea protection forest in East Kalimantan. However,
this particular option will need a strong government support, meaning that there should be a
commitment from local government to release its authority and giving a legalized umbrella in the form
of local government rules (PERDA-Peraturan Daerah). The designation of a protection forest as
Biosphere Reserves can also become other alternative protection forest management since in this
scheme man is inseparable from his environment. Meaning that natural resource conservation is
73
including the people in and surrounding the resources. Each option will be analyzed and presented
with its challenges and opportunities, strength and weaknesses.
1. The current management of GLPF
After decentralization of forestry sector started in January 2001, the authority of GLPF has been
given to the Paser district forestry office. In the end of 2006 in order to withstand the continuous
pressure of logging and mining companies, the district head was proposing to up-grade GLPF into a
National Park.
On 4 Februari 2008, 125 Dayak paser customary people were going to the Paser
district House of Representatives to protest the upgrading plan. Up to present, there is no approval
from the Ministry of Forestry regarding the plan. However, in order to implement Susilo Bambang
Yudhoyono’s bureaucracy reformation policy, the district head decided to merge the forestry office
with mining and energy office through Paser district head decree No. 21/ 2008. Started in 2008, GLPF
has been managed by the Paser district forestry, mining and energy office.
In the early of 2009, the Paser district government formulated a Paser District Technical
Implementation Unit of Gunung Lumut Conservation Area (GLCA). However, only in early 2010 it has
been started to operate after receiving operational budget from the district government. The activity
of GLCA in 2010 is mainly socialization to stakeholders of Gunung Lumut. Hence, due to the election
of the new Paser district head in June 2010, the GLCA manager has not been officially inaugurated
yet. In general, there are no actual management activities of GLPF up to present. Currently, there is
no alternative source of funding for the management of GLPF. It mainly depended on the district
budget. The current institution is also lack of human resources. By the merger of forestry office and
mining and energy office, conservation and forest protection is not a priority for Paser district. The
bureaucracy reformation made it simpler to release mining exploration and exploitation concession. It
is easier to convert forest into mining area, because all the paper works take place in one office alone.
As a proof of this, in 2008, there are 66 new mining exploration permits. The voice from the forestry
department was not heard because mining supported the biggest income for the district. Moreover,
the pressure from customary people living in GLPF is also higher. They declared the rejection to any
conservation scheme and they demanded for the recognition of their customary rights and forest. In
addition, there are frictions between NGOs working in the area. Could the current management of
GLPF handle the obstacles? Considering the current condition, potential and weaknesses, it is not
realistic to expect that GLPF will survive in the long run. To do nothing surely will accelerate the
degradation and forest destruction and at the same time marginalizing the customary people who
have high dependency with forest resources.
2. GLPF as a biosphere reserve
AFP organized many activities towards forestry good governance promotion in Paser district,
including: training of GIS for Paser district government officers, workshops and the initiation of a
working group for collaborative management of GLPF. In the workshop on GLPF co-management the
participants who are the stakeholders of GLPF (district government, sub district government, timber
companies, mining companies, university, NGO’s, customary leaders, village leaders) agreed that GLPF
shall be promoted as Biosphere Reserve.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Options for the Biodiversity Conservation …..
Tri Wira Yuwati, Gerard P., & San Afri Awang
UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere program (MAB) identified biosphere reserves as areas of terrestrial
and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its
sustainable use. Biosphere reserves are having three functions: (1) conservation function, (2)
development function and (3) logistic function. A conservation function means contributing to the
conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation. A development function means
fostering economic and human development which is socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable. A
logistic function means providing support for research, monitoring, education and information
exchange related to local, national and global issues of conservation and development. In general, its
purpose is to reduce loss of biodiversity, improve livelihoods of local people and enhance social,
economic and cultural conditions for environmental sustainability. Today, there are 564 sites in over
109 countries are joining World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR). This concept allowing the
division of a protected area into three zones: core zone, buffer zone and transition zone. In a
biosphere reserve, forest-dependant people/forest dwellers are inseparable with the forest. Zoning
allows settlements and forest product utilization. Hence, is it applicable to GLPF? What are challenges
and opportunities for the implementation of this scheme?
First, if GLPF becomes a biosphere reserve (a conservation forest) it means that the authority of
the forest area is given to the central government. It is stated in the Law No. 41/1999 on Forestry
sector that the authority for management of conservation forests is the central government/ the
Ministry of Forestry. Will Paser district government give part of its forest to the central government?
Decentralization means that local government has to generate their own income. Loosing part of its
natural resources is also loosing the opportunity to generate more income. Second, will the Ministry of
Forestry accept it? While the plan for up-grading GLPF into national park has not yet answered up to
now. Indonesia is rich in biodiversity of flora and fauna; however there are only 6 biosphere reserves
registered in the WNBR located in Indonesia due to the difficulties in the implementation of such
concept. Third, who will initiate and facilitate the process until it is accomplished? NGO’s,
governments, or academics? The actualization of the process needs strong endurance, commitment,
energy and fund as well. The initiator and facilitator have to bring all stakeholders to sit together and
raise awareness of them regarding GLPF and the people in and surrounding it.
The opportunities of changing GLPF into biosphere reserve are that: First, if central government
would like to accept it, usually it will be supported by annual budget from the ministry of forestry, just
like in national parks. Second, the biosphere scheme has been discussed and agreed by the
participants of GLPF workshop in Paser district. Third, the customary people has conducted
participatory mapping of the customary forest and the forest division among villages. The map can be
used as a starting point to establish zoning by overlaying it with satellite images and doing ground
check in the field.
3. Co-management of GLPF
Co-management of protection forest in Indonesia has been implemented in Sungai Wain and
Wehea protection forest in East Kalimantan. Although both of them are under the authority of District
Environment Office, the actual management of the forests is given to an independent management
institution; Badan Pengelola Hutan Lindung Sungai Wain (BPHLSW) or Sungai Wain Protection Forest
75
Management Institution for Sungai Wain and Badan Pengelola Hutan Lindung Wehea (BP-Huliwa) or
Wehea protection forest management institution for Wehea. The head of BPHLSW and BP-Huliwa was
selected by the representatives of stakeholders of both protection forests. However, the management
budget was fully supported by the district government; Balikpapan city government and East Kutai
district. Moreover, there are differences for both forests in the methods towards co-management.
BPHLSW started the co-management process with awareness raising (Purwanto, 2007), while BPHuliwa bound the commitment of customary people to conserve the forest through compensations;
giving scholarships to the children of customary forest ranger (In Dayak language: Petkuq Mehuey).
The implementation of co-management is reasonably difficult (Borrini-Feyerabend et al, 2007). First, it
needs commitment from the local government to conserve the forest. The commitment is not only in
the form of district policy but also annual budget for the management. Second, it is highly depended
on the negotiation process and consensus which is usually long and tiring (Persoon and van Est, 2003;
Pomeroy and Rivera-Guieb, 2006; Borrini-Feyerabend et al, 2007). Third, Initiator and facilitator are
certainly needed to guard this process until co-management is fully accomplished (Borrini-Feyerabend,
1997). Initiator and facilitator shall make planning for the co-management process and also planning
for the model and institutional arrangements. This process should ensure that all stakeholders are
being involved in the decision making. Is co-management applicable to GLPF? The formulation of
GLCA can be seen as starting point towards conservation of GLPF. GLCA shall make forest
management planning with the involvement of all stakeholders in decision making especially the
customary people in and around GLPF. Another opportunity of GLPF is the declaration of Paser as
conservation district. It is expected that declaration is followed by actions. One thing that is of high
concern for GLPF is the commitment of public administration or the willingness of district government
to conserve this forest. Looking at the high number of mining concessions, mining exploration permit
and oil palm plantations, the merger of forestry and mining office in Paser district, it is difficult to
believe their commitment as conservation district. Hence, the big question would be “ How to manage
protection forest with lots of social and environmental problems? Where is the position for comanagement?”
4. Macro and micro management of GLPF
According to forest management, a forest shall be managed to reach its sustainability. The
establishment of a forest management unit, whatever function (production, protection and
conservation forest) is very crucial to ensure its sustainability. Based on government decree no 6/2007
jo government decree no 3/2008, every forest function should be managed in one Forest
Management Unit (FMU). Therefore, protection forest shall be managed in Protection Forest
Management Unit (PFMU).
We have a strong opinion that village forest and community forest scenarios are more distinct,
more clear, and supported by law. Collaborative management is nice in the concept level, however,
there is no policy support and highly depends on the negotiation process and consensus between local
people and local government. How is the position of village forest and or community forest in the
Gunung Lumut Protection Forest Management Unit?
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Options for the Biodiversity Conservation …..
Tri Wira Yuwati, Gerard P., & San Afri Awang
The scenario for the Gunung Lumut protection forest management are as follows:
(1) Formulating Gunung Lumut Protection Forest Management Unit and its institutional arrangement
(organizational structure, human resource development, regulation arrangements, decision
making system, institutional budgetting, main activities, monitoring and evaluation)
(2) The local people of Muluy is given options for community development program of Village Forest
or Community Forest
(3) The PFMU authority shall reserve a forest area for Village Forest or Community Forest which
then asked to the forestry minister for the concession.
(4) The Paser distrcit government on behalf of the Muluy people shall propose a permit of
community development scheme: Village Forest or Community Forest. When the permit has been
accepted, then all planning, actuating, monitoring and evaluation procedures shall following the
forestry minister policy
(5) The same procedure shall be applied to 14 villages surrounding GLPF
(6) For the protection forest area which has been converted to rubber ( Havea braziliensis) garden,
banana garden and other plantation, then the agroforestry model shall be considered so that the
succession is certainly happening
(7) For the area that are still in a good condition, the commodity shall be directed to non-timber
forest product, alternative energy plants and food producing plants
(8) The license holder of Village Forest and Community Forest is independent and coordinative with
the PFMU authority
(9) The task of PFMU manager is to formulate policy and guidelines through GLPF management plan.
This plan shall be a guidance and criteria for working performance monitoring for Village Forest
and Community Forest License Holder
Challenges and opportunities for the management of protection forest
(1) This paradigm has high opportunity to be implemented due to the released of government no
6/2007 jo government rule no 3/2008, forestry minister decree on village forest and forestry
minister decree on community forest. With this paradigm, to establish a protection forest
management unit is a-must. The Muluy people have been residing in the forest could ask for
village forest and community forest schemes
(2) The government policy on point (1) has a big opportunity to solve conflict from the social and
economical pressure of local people in and around the forest
(3) Government decree no 38/2008 about decentralization policy especially for forestry sector has
given the opportunity to formulate norm, standard, procedure and criteria (NSPC) for the
management of protection forest and local government policy on protection forest management
due to the division of the authority under local government and
77
(4)
To decide commodities and technology for land use management appropriate for local people
and forest protection function.
From those paradigms, challenges for the management of protection forest are:
(1) How to build an agreement between local people in and surrounding protection forest regarding
the management of protection forest?
(2) How to build a multi-stakeholder agreement regarding protection forest management?
(3) How to facilitate local government in formulating Governor/district heads and or local
government rule on protection forest management arrangements?
(4) To what extent local government’s willingness to conserve protection forest without converting
them into oil palm plantation?
(5) Do the ministry of forestry and local government have the same perception regarding protection
forest utilization?
V. CONCLUSION
The challenges and opportunities for protection forst management is urgent to be formulated
due to unavailable basic concept for protection forest management in Indonesia and never been
discussed seriously in the level of local government. In building the concept of protection forest
management in Indonesia, shall considering the formal policy or rules and valued by real situation in
the field, not unrealistic beautiful dreams which are difficult to be reached. Hence, the authors would
like to promote the formulation of PFMU as macro-management and Village Forest or Community
Forest as micro-management for Gunung Lumut protection forest management. The proposed option
is more distinct, more clear and supported by law. The challenges and opportunities to configure that
option is urgently needed to be studied.
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The Ability of Adaptation and Early Growth …..
Julianus Kinho
The Ability of Adaptation and Early Growth of Nine Types of Diospyros in
Exitu Conservation in North Sulawesi1
Julianus Kinho2
ABSTRACT
Ebony wood is derived from the genus Diospyros. The diversity of Diospyros species in Indonesia
approximately 100 species and 26 species of them spread in Sulawesi. The species of Diospyros who
have produce commercial wood are D.celebica, D.ebenum, D.ferrea, D.lolin, D.macrophylla,
D.pilosanthera, and D.rumphii. The most important types and of high economic value are D.celebica
and D.rumphii. The existence of Diospyros species in their natural habitat is diminishing due to
internal factors and external factors. One effort can be done in order to maintain the diversity of
Diospyros is conducting exitu conservation. This study aims to determine the survival and adaptability
of 9 species of Diospyros in order to exitu conservation in Arboretum of Manado Forestry Research
Institute (MFRI). This research are using Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications; each
replication consist of 10 individuals so that for each type of Diospyros consists of 40 individuals who
are planted with a distance of 3 m x 3 m. Data were analyzed statistically to determine differences in
growth of 9 species Diospyros using SPSS ver 16.0. The results show that the percentage of the
overall life of 9 species of Diospyros 90.69%. The highest percentages of survival are D.ebenum
(100%) and D.rumphii (100%). The lowest is D.hebecarpa (60%). The types who have living
percentage above 75% are 8 types namely D.ebenum (100%), D.rumphii (100%), D.malabarica
(97.50%), D.pilosanthera (95%), D.korthalsiana (95% ), D.minahassae (90%), D.celebica (90%),
D.cauliflora (88.75%). Percentage of life reflects the adaptability of a species outside its natural
habitat so that species that have a high percentage of life, has high adaptability to changes in the
growth environment. The type has highest in height and diameter growth among most of the 9 types
of Diospyros is D.ebenum with an average height growth (41.15 cm) and the average growth
diameter (0.56 cm). The type that has lowest growth of high and diameter is D.malabarica with an
average height growth (31.56 cm) and the average growth diameter (0.33 cm).
Keywords: Diversity, Diospyros, growth, adaptation, conservation, exitu
1
This paper was presented in International Conference
on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency,
Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP.
Manado 5 July 2013
2
Manado Forestry Research Institute , email : [email protected]
81
I. INTRODUCTION
Ebony is the name of several commercial timber species from the genus Diospyros incorporated
in Ebenaceae family. The mention of the name for some type of ebony wood are often called
Diospyros spp. There are approximately 100 species of Diospyros in Indonesia based on herbarium
collections stored in the Research Center for Conservation and Rehabilitation Bogor of the previously
named Bosbouw Proefstation (Forest Research Institute) (Alrasyid, 2002). According to Whitemore
et al., (1989) there are 26 species of the genus Diospyros in Sulawesi, while according to Keβler et al.,
(2002) there are 19 species of the genus Diospyros in Sulawesi.
The types of ebony tree (Diospyros spp.) are generally found in nature forests or lowland
primary forest to a height of 900 m above sea level in hilly areas of tropical forest and they are rarely
found in secondary forest. Several type of ebony (Diospyros spp.) even reported to grow in the forest
of the mountains to a height of 1700 m above sea level, peat swamp forest, heath forest, and forest
on limestone soil and ultra alkaline soil (Riswan, 2002). Ebony is the most famous species of lowland
forest formations in Sulawesi Island, and the concentrations are spreading their natural growing place
in Central Sulawesi and North Sulawesi (Steup, 1931 in Whitten et al., 1987).
Harvesting and export of ebony have started since the days of the Dutch East Indies government
in Indonesia, so the name of ebony has been long recognized in the timber trade, especially in
European countries (Sanusi, 2002). In the timber trade, ebony grouped into three groups. The first
group is referred to "black ebony" namely; D.ebenum and D.ferrea; second group referred to
"streaked ebony" namely; D.blancoi, D.celebica and D.pilosanthera and the third group referred to
"white Diospyros wood" namely; D.discocalyx and D.rigida (Walujo, 2002). The other authors mention
that ebony tree consists of 7 (seven) types namely; D.celebica, D.ebenum, D.ferrea, D.lolin,
D.macrophylla, D.pilosanthera, and D.rumphii (Alrasyid, 2002). The most important ebony are
D.celebica and D.rumphii while known as Makassar ebony or striped ebony or coromandel in the world
market (Heringa, 1951 Alrasyid, 2002).
The existence of ebony types (Diospyros spp.) in their nature habitat is decrease and limited.
This limitation due to internal factors and external factors. Internal factors like the nature of the
growth is very slow and not equals with the rate of their exploitation. External factors are over
exploitation, illegal logging, destruction of their nature habitat due to forest fires and conversion of
the region etc. To carry out of the existence of ebony (Diospyros spp.) it is necessary to conservation
efforts. One effort to be taken is by exitu conservation. The exitu conservation can be carried out
through planting in garden collections, botanical gardens, trial gardens, forests, urban forests or in the
Nature Park. (Oka, 2002).
This study aims to determine the survival and adaptability of 9 species of Diospyros through
exitu conservation in Arboretum of MFRI.
II. METHODOLOGY
A. Materials and Equipment
Materials used in this study are seedling of nine types Diospyros (D.pilosanthera, D.cauliflora,
D.minahassae, D.ebenum, D.korthalsiana, D.celebica, D.rumphii, D.malabarica and D.hebecarpa)
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which derived from uprooted seedlings and fertilizers NPK. Tool used are meteres, mini calipers,
scissors cuttings, altimeter, GPS, thermohygrometer, lux meter, flaging tape, hoe, shovel.
B. Research Procedures
Plantation was done after maintained in nursery for 12 months. Plantation using spacing of 3 m x
3 m. Plantation area is a land eviction by former Ultisol soil type. This research using Complete
Randomized Design with 4 replications, each replication consist of 10 individuals so that for each type
of Diospyros consists of 40 individuals. Fertilization is done in 3 times. The first fertilization when
planting, second fertilization after 4 months and third fertilization at age 7 months.
Height and diameter data retrieval are done three times, the first measurements at planting and
the second measurement at the age of 4 months old plants and the third measurement at the age of
7 months.
C. Data analysis
A statistical data analysis using program SPSS ver 16.0. To determine whether there are
differences in height and diameter growth of each type of Diospyros using ANOVA and if there are
difference followed by Duncan's test.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. Adaptability
Percentage of living is very useful to evaluate the success rate of a particular plant species
especially in conservation areas exitu and one of parameters is adaptability. Observation Percentage
of live plants done by counting the number of chicks that died on each of Diospyros species planted in
exitu conservation areas by block planting. The average percentage life of nine types of Diospyros
shown in figure 1.
Life Persentage
120,00
D.ebenum
D.rumphii
100,00
100,00 100,00 97,50
80,00
95,00 95,00
D.malabarica
90,00 90,00
D.pilosanthera
60,00
D.korthalsiana
60,00
40,00
20,00
0,00
88,75
D.minahassae
D.celebica
D.cauliflora
D.hebecarpa
Figure 1. Percentage living of Diospyros in MFRI Arboretum
83
The results show that the percentage of the overall life of 9 species of Diospyros is 90.69%.
Based on figure 1 we know that which has the highest percentage of life is D.ebenum (100%) and
D.rumphii (100%) and the lowest is D.hebecarpa. The types of Diospyros who have life percentage
above 75% as much as 8 types namely; D.ebenum (100%), D.rumphii (100%), D.malabarica
(97.50%), D.pilosanthera (95%), D.korthalsiana (95%), D.minahassae (90%), D.celebica (90%),
D.cauliflora (88.75%) indicating that the adaptive capacity of eight species outside their natural
habitat proficiency level is quite good although planted at different growth environment with its
natural environment in the forest relatively more humid nature and contain organic matter. The types
who have percentage life below 75% is D.hebecarpa (60%) indicating that the adaptation capabilities
beyond low natural habitat.
Percentage of living D.hebecarpa lower than 8 other Diospyros species in guess because this
type of the leaves are smaller than other types and easy to fall off due to stress and are more
sensitive to environmental changes during the early growth outside their natural habitat
B. High growth
Analysis results of height growth in the species of Diospyros in exitu conservation area shown in
table 1.
Table1. Analysis of Height Growth 9 Diospyros type in MFRI Arboretum
Descriptives
Height
95% Confidence
Interval for
Mean
Type
N
Mean
Std.
Deviation
Std.
Error
Lower
Bound
Upper
Bound Minimum Maximum
D.pilosanthera
4
39.8750 3.34203 1.67102 34.5571 45.1929
36.50
43.40
D.cauliflora
4
37.4000 2.72274 1.36137 33.0675 41.7325
33.60
40.00
D.minahassae
4
35.8525 3.54575 1.77288 30.2104 41.4946
32.21
39.80
D.ebenum
4
41.1500 3.33617 1.66808 35.8414 46.4586
37.40
45.20
D.korthalsiana
4
38.1800 1.86376
35.2143 41.1457
36.00
40.52
D.celebica
4
35.1000 2.27743 1.13871 31.4761 38.7239
32.20
37.20
D.rumphii
4
36.3875 2.06193 1.03097 33.1065 39.6685
34.23
38.80
D.malabarica
4
31.6500 2.63502 1.31751 27.4571 35.8429
29.20
34.40
D.hebecarpa
4
33.1500 3.21818 1.60909 28.0292 38.2708
28.80
36.20
Total
36
36.5272 3.82695 0.63782 35.2324 37.8221
28.80
45.20
.93188
Based on table 1 known that the average height growth for species of Diospyros in exitu
conservation in MFRI Arboretum sequentially namely: D.ebenum (41.15 cm), D.pilosanthera (39.87
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cm), D.korthalsiana (38.18 cm), D.cauliflora (37.40 cm), D.rumphii (36.38 cm), D.minahassae (35.85
cm), D.celebica (35.10 cm), D.hebecarpa (33.15 cm), and the lowest is the D.malabarica (31.65 cm).
Results of analysis homogeneity of variance for high growth Levene Statistic shows that the
value is equal to 0.892 with a value of 0.536 Sig is greater than alpha (5%) which means that the
variance of the high growth in the Arboretum 9 species of Diospyros are the same. Results of analysis
of homogeneity variance for high variable shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Homogeneity Test Results Variable Height
Test of Homogeneity of Variances
Height
Levene Statistic
0.892
df1
df2
Sig.
8
27
0.536
Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) are shown in Table 3 indicate that there is a difference in
height growth to 9 species of Diospyros in exitu conservation indicated by the calculated F value
(4.57)> F table (2,36).
Table 3. Analysis Variance of 9 species of Diospyros in Height Variable
ANOVA
Height
Sum of
Mean
Squares
df
Square
F
Sig.
Between
(Combined)
295.103
8
36.888
4.579
0.001
Groups
Linear Term Contrast
160.917
1
160.917
19.977
0.000
134.186
7
19.169
2.380
0.049
Within Groups
217.490
27
8.055
Total
512.593
35
Deviation
There is a difference in the high growth of 9 species of Diospyros in MFRI Arboretum, then followed
by Duncan's test. Duncan test results shown in Table 4.
Table 4. Results of Duncan Test for High Growth for 9 species of Diospyros type in MFRI Arboretum.
Height
Subset for alpha = 0.05
Duncana
Diameter
N
1
2
D.malabarica
4
31.6500
D.hebecarpa
4
33.1500 33.1500
3
4
5
85
Height
Subset for alpha = 0.05
Diameter
N
1
D.celebica
4
35.1000 35.1000 35.1000
D.minahassae
4
35.8525 35.8525 35.8525 35.8525
D.rumphii
4
36.3875 36.3875 36.3875
D.cauliflora
4
37.4000 37.4000 37.4000 37.4000
D.korthalsiana
4
38.1800 38.1800 38.1800
D.pilosanthera
4
39.8750 39.8750
D.ebenum
4
41.1500
Sig.
0.064
2
0.067
3
0.181
4
0.082
5
0.098
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed.
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 4.000.
Based on table 4 known that there are 5 groups of average height growth of different. The first
group consists of species D.malabarica with the average value (31.65), D.hebecarpa (33.15),
D.celebica (35.10) and D.minahassae (35.85). Sig value of 0.064 for the first group is greater than
alpha (5%) which means that the average growth in the first group are the same height. The second
group consists of species D.hebecarpa with the average value (33.15), D.celebica (35.10),
D.minahassae (35.85), D.rumphii (36.38), D.cauliflora ( 37,40). Sig. for the second group is 0.067
which means that the average growth in the second group are the same height. The third group
consists of species D.celebica with the average value (35.10), D.minahassae (35.85), D.rumphii
(36.38), D.cauliflora (37,40), D.korthalsiana ( 38.18). Sig. for the third group is 0.181 which greater
than alpha (5%) which means that the average growth in the third group are the same height. The
fourth group consists of D.minahassae (35.85), D.rumphii (36.38), D.cauliflora (37,40), D.korthalsiana
(38.18), D.pilosanthera (39.87). Sig. 0,082 for the four groups larger than alpha (5%), which means
the average height growth of the fourth group are the same. The fifth group consists of species
D.cauliflora (37,40), D.korthalsiana (38.18), D.pilosanthera (39.87), D.ebenum (41.15). Sig. 0.098 for
the five groups are greater than alpha (5%) which means that the average growth in the five groups
are the same height.
Duncan test analysis results in table 4 show that the species of Diospyros are planted in order to
exitu conservation in MFRI Arboretum with height growth of a different high growth very significant
that kind of D.malabarica and D.ebenum. High growth of the lowest among the nine types of
Diospyros until the age of 12 months ie planting D.malabarica with average 31.65 cm and the highest
of D.ebenum. Plant height growth due to increasing age (Santoso and Anwar, 2002). High growth is
one indication of the absorption of mineral nutrients and photosynthetic processes (Rahman and
Abdullah, 2002). Height growth of plant in exitu conservation of Diospyros in MFRI Arboretum from
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time to time continue to reveal variations, and it can be seen from the results of early growth
measurements 3 times in the field. High growth occurring variation is caused by three factors: genetic
factors, environmental factors and the interaction between genetic factors and environmental factors
(Wright, 1976). Geographical differences between the native habitat and native habitat outside of a
species can affect the growth of a plant species. According to Zobel and Talbert (1984) differences in
the geography of where growing influence on the growth of a kind. The growth rate of a species can
indicate the adaptability of a species outside its natural habitat. The faster growth of a species outside
its natural habitat is getting better reflect the process of adaptation of a species to different growth
environments. Alrasyid (1985) reported that when compared between plants under teak stands ebony
with ebony plants in the experimental garden in Cikampek, West Java that both have the same
climatic conditions, high growth turns ebony plants under teak stands slower than that grown in the
experimental garden. The growth inhibition was reported because of the stress (stress) received direct
sunlight during ebony plant teak trees shed their leaves. Ebony plants including slow growing species.
Ebony plant height increment during the first 8 years under teak stands in the area of type C climate
ranges from 7-55 cm / yr (Alrasyid, 1985).
C. Diameter growth
The result of diameter growth analysis for 9 species of Diospyros in exitu conservation in MFRI
Arboretum shown in table 5.
Table 5. Diameter growth analysis for 9 types of Diospyros
Descriptives
Diameter
95%
Confidence
Interval for
Mean
N
Mean
Std.
Deviation
D.pilosanthera
4
0.5500
0.04243
0.02121 0.4825 0.6175
0.50
0.59
D.cauliflora
4
0.3525
0.04992
0.02496 0.2731 0.4319
0.31
0.42
D.minahassae
4
0.3450
0.02380
0.01190 0.3071 0.3829
0.32
0.37
D.ebenum
4
0.5600
0.02582
0.01291 0.5189 0.6011
0.53
0.59
D.korthalsiana
4
0.4525
0.02986
0.01493 0.4050 0.5000
0.42
0.49
D.celebica
4
0.3475
0.02500
0.01250 0.3077 0.3873
0.32
0.38
D.rumphii
4
0.4000
0.04243
0.02121 0.3325 0.4675
0.36
0.45
D.malabarica
4
0.3375
0.02754
0.01377 0.2937 0.3813
0.31
0.37
D.hebecarpa
4
0.3475
0.02217
0.01109 0.3122 0.3828
0.32
0.37
Type
Std.
Error
Lower Upper
Bound Bound Minimum Maximum
87
Descriptives
Diameter
95%
Confidence
Interval for
Mean
N
Mean
Std.
Deviation
D.pilosanthera
4
0.5500
0.04243
0.02121 0.4825 0.6175
0.50
0.59
D.cauliflora
4
0.3525
0.04992
0.02496 0.2731 0.4319
0.31
0.42
D.minahassae
4
0.3450
0.02380
0.01190 0.3071 0.3829
0.32
0.37
D.ebenum
4
0.5600
0.02582
0.01291 0.5189 0.6011
0.53
0.59
D.korthalsiana
4
0.4525
0.02986
0.01493 0.4050 0.5000
0.42
0.49
D.celebica
4
0.3475
0.02500
0.01250 0.3077 0.3873
0.32
0.38
D.rumphii
4
0.4000
0.04243
0.02121 0.3325 0.4675
0.36
0.45
D.malabarica
4
0.3375
0.02754
0.01377 0.2937 0.3813
0.31
0.37
D.hebecarpa
4
0.3475
0.02217
0.01109 0.3122 0.3828
0.32
0.37
36
0.4103
0.09082 0.01514
0.31
0.59
Type
Total
Std.
Error
Lower Upper
Bound Bound Minimum Maximum
0.379 0.441
5
0
Based on table 5 known that the average diameter growth for Diospyros species in exitu
conservation in MFRI Arboretum greatest in sequence, namely: D.ebenum (0.56 cm), D.pilosanthera
(0.55 cm), D.korthalsiana (0.45 cm), D.rumphii (0.40 cm), D. cauliflora (0.35 cm), D.celebica (0.34
cm), D.hebecarpa (0.34 cm), D.minahassae (0.34 cm), and the smallest is D.malabarica (0.33 cm).
The results of the analysis of homogeneity of variance for diameter growth Levene Statistic
shows that the value is equal to 1.391 with a value of 0.245 Sig larger than the alpha (5%) which
means that the variance of the diameter growth of 9 species of Diospyros in MFRI Arboretum is the
same. Results of analysis of variance homogeneity for the diameter variable are shown in table 6.
Table 6. The results of homogeneity test for diameter variable
Test of Homogeneity of Variances
Diameter
Levene Statistic
1.391
88
df1
df2
Sig.
8
27
0.245
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Ability of Adaptation and Early Growth …..
Julianus Kinho
The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) for diameter variable shown in table 7 shows that
there is a difference in diameter growth for 9 species of Diospyros in exitu conservation indicated by
the calculated F value (28.80) > F table (2,36).
Table 7. Analysis of Variance for 9 species of Diospyros type for diameter variable
ANOVA
Diameter
Sum of
Squares
df
Mean
Square
F
Sig.
Between
(Combined)
0.258
8
0.032
28.808
0.000
Groups
Linear Term Contrast
0.061
1
0.061
54.509
0.000
0.197
7
0.028
25.137
0.000
Within Groups
0.030
27
0.001
Total
0.289
35
Deviation
We know that there is a difference in diameter growth for 9 species of Diospyros in MFRI
Arboretum, then followed by Duncan's test. Duncan test results shown in table 8.
Table 8. The results of diameter growth Duncan test for 9 types of Diospyros in MFRI Arboretum
Diameter
Subset for alpha = 0.05
a
Duncan
Type
N
1
D.malabarica
4
0.3375
D.minahassae
4
0.3450
D.celebica
4
0.3475
0.3475
D.hebecarpa
4
0.3475
0.3475
D.cauliflora
4
0.3525
0.3525
D.rumphii
4
D.korthalsiana
4
D.pilosanthera
4
0.5500
D.ebenum
4
0.5600
Sig.
2
3
4
0.4000
0.4525
0.578
0.051
1.000
0.676
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed
a. Uses Harmonic Mean Sample Size = 4.000.
89
Based on table 8, we know that there are 4 groups of the average growth of different diameters.
The first group consists of species D.malabarica with the average value (0.33), D.minahassae (0.34),
D.celebica (0.34), D.hebecarpa (0.34), D.cauliflora ( 0,35). Sig. 0.578 for the first group is greater
than alpha (5%) which means that the average growth in the first group are the same diameter. The
second group consists of species D.celebica with the average value (0.34), D.hebecarpa (0.34),
D.cauliflora (0.35), D.rumphii (0,40). Sig. for the second group is 0.051, which means the average
growth of the second group are the same diameter. The third group consists of species D.korthalsiana
with average values (0,45). Sig. for the third group was 1.000. The fourth group consists of species
D.pilosanthera (0.55), D.ebenum (0,56). Sig. 0.676 for the four groups were greater than alpha (5%)
which means that the average growth in the fourth group are the same height.
Duncan test results of the analysis in table 8 shows that the species of Diospyros are planted in
order to conserve in MFRI Arboretum with different diameter growth significan namely; D.malabarica,
D.minahassae, D.rumphii, D.korthalsiana, D.pilosanthera and D.ebenum. Diameter of the lowest
growth among the 9 species of Diospyros growing until the age of 7 months is D.malabarica with an
average of 0.33 cm and the highest of D.ebenum with an average of 0.56 cm.
Diameter growth is more affected by competition than the height of the tree (Soeseno, 1985). In
plants Diospyros young age (7 months), especially the kinds that are alleged ebony producer
competition has not occurred in getting nutrients and sunlight because it has a low diameter growth
increment. According to Seran et al., (1991) reported the diameter increment growth of young plants
ebony (D.celebica) of 2.44 mm/year. Santoso and Anwar (2002) reported that there were indications
of variation in diameter growth of young plants ebony (D.celebica) in test of 7 provenance ebony
(D.celebica) in Malili, South Sulawesi. Ebony diameter growth (D.celebica) derived from Barru (4.45
mm) and Malili (4.21 mm) was the highest at the age of 36 months than those who come from other
provenance 5 (Santoso and Anwar, 2002). When compared with the growth of ebony (D.celebica) in
MFRI Arboretum planted in ultizol soils type with an average diameter growth of 0.347 cm at the age
of 12 months, it can be said to be growing quite well. According to estimates Steup (1935) and
Beversluis (1947), the average growth (Mean Annual Increment) of ebony (D.celebica) ranged from
0.5 cm/yr, and the average volume growth of between 0.5 m3/ha/th , so as to achieve the required
volume of 40 m3/ha/th 80 years. Data on the growth of various types of ebony on the site have not
been widely available so as to determine the environmental conditions ebony growth ( D.celebica)
optimal outside their natural habitat research still needs to be done. This growth results in accordance
with the opinion Soerianegara (1970) which states that the distribution of ebony trees large enough,
when planted in different places will result in different growth responses. Soerianegara (1967)
reported an average diameter increment for 20 years ebony plants 1.5-1.6 cm/yr, then decreased to
0.5 cm/yr.
IV. CONCLUSION
Percentage of the overall life of the 9 species of Diospyros in exitu conservation in MFRI
Arboretum is 90.69%. The highest percentage of life is D.ebenum (100%) and D.rumphii (100%). The
lowest percentage of life is D.hebecarpa (60%). The species of life that have a percentage above 75%
as much as 8 types namely; D.ebenum (100%), D.rumphii (100%), D.malabarica (97.50%),
90
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Ability of Adaptation and Early Growth …..
Julianus Kinho
D.pilosanthera (95%), D.korthalsiana (95% ), D.minahassae (90%), D.celebica (90%), D.cauliflora
(88.75%). The species has below of 75% of live D.hebecarpa (60%). Percentage of life reflects the
adaptability of a species outside its natural habitat so that species that have a high percentage of life,
has high adaptability to changes in the growth environment. The species that has a height and
diameter growth among most of the 9 species of Diospyros is D.ebenum with an average height
growth (41.15 cm) and the average of diameter growth (0.56 cm). Species that have high growth and
the lowest of diameter is D.malabarica with an average height growth (31.56 cm) and the average
growth diameter (0.33 cm).
Acknowledgements
The authors would like to thank Dr. Ir. Mahfudz, MP head of MFRI who has provided the
opportunity and support to the author to carry out the study. Conveyed gratitude to Ir. Sudiono (Head
of Nature Resource Conservation Institution of North Sulawesi) and Ir. Agus Rantelembang, M.Si
(Head of Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park) have been given permission to explore the plant
material in each work area. Thanks also extended to Sumarno Patandi, Yermias Kafiar and Melkianus
Diwi and all parties cannot be mentioned one by one so that the study can be accomplished by either
starting from the exploration of plant material, maintenance in the nursery to the field planting.
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2. No.. 6. Special Edition Ebony Management. Research Center for Biology LIPI. Bogor.
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Seran, D., B.Santoso and B.Ginoga, 1991. Ebony growth in Kalaena Nature Reserve, Kab. Luwu South
Sulawesi. Journal of Forestry Research Vol. IV 12 Forestry Research Institute Ujung Pandang.
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Research Institute, Bogor.
Soeseno, O.H. , 1985. Tree Breeding. Foundation Trustees Research Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada
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August 2002. Research Center for Biology-LIPI. Bogor.
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Diversity and Conservation Status …..
Tri Atmoko, Nurul S. Lestari, & Lipu
Diversity and Conservation Status of Mammals in Labanan Research Forest,
East Kalimantan, Indonesia1
Tri Atmoko2, Nurul S. Lestari3, and Lipu4
ABSTRACT
With at least 225 species of mammalian, Borneo forest has important role for conserving mammals
diversity. Labanan research forest is one of the remaining ideal habitat for mammals. The ecosystem
was still relatively good and support mammals diversity. The objective of this study was to find out
the mammals diversity and its conservation status in Labanan research forest. Fourteen transects
were systematically arranged in the forest to observe mammals species. Large mammals were
observed through the automatic camera that was set at the side of animal trail. Meanwhile, bats and
small mammals (rodents and treeshrews) were captured using mist net and cage traps, respectively.
The results of this study found 41 species of mammals that included in 31 genera and 16 families.
Top five of mammals (except bats) base on relative of frequency are wild pig (Sus barbatus Müller),
mueller gibbon (Hylobates muelleri Martin), bornean yellow muntjac (Muntiacus atherodes Groves &
Grubb), sun bear (Helarctos malayanus Raffles), and sambar deer (Rusa unicolor Kerr). Bats species
were, dominated by Cynopterus brachyotis Müller, Rhinolophus borneensis Peters, Rhinolophus
arcuatus Peters, and Hipposideros cervinus Gould. Shannon diversity indices (H’) of bats is 3,6. The
eleven out of 41 mammals species are protected by Indonesian Governman Law. Based on the IUCN
criteria, only sun bear included the endengered species, whereas 8 species are vulnerable. Both sun
bear and mueller gibbon are included in Appendix I CITES.
Keywords: Labanan research forest, mammal, bat, conservation status
I. INTRODUCTION
Kalimantan covered 73% of the great island of Borneo. It has rich fauna and share much of its
fauna with Asian mainland and the other Sunda Islands (MacKinnon et al., 1996).
1
This paper was presented in International Conference
At least 225
on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency,
Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP.
Manado 5 July 2013
2
Institute of Research for Technology of Natural Resources Conservation
Jl. Soekarno-Hatta Km 38 Samboja Po.Box 578, Kalimantan Timur. e-mail: [email protected]
3
Dipterocarps Research Center
Jl. A. Wahab Syahrani No. 68 Sempaja, Samarinda, East Kalimantan
East Kalimantan Nature Conservation Agency
Jl. M.T. Haryono Kel. Air Putih Kode Pos 1601, Samarinda, East Kalimantan
4
93
species of mammals occur in Borneo and 44 species out of that number are endemic to the island
(MacKinnon et al., 1996; Payne et al., 2000). Mammals are a class of vertebrates, distinguished by
the possession of mammary glands in the female and in having hair on the body (Turner, 2004).
Commonly, there are
two classification of mammalian known, namely large mammals and small
mammals. Its categorization is not based on taxonomy. The large mammals considered to refer to
any assemblage of mammal species whose individual live weights more than 5 kg when adult
(Stoddart, 1979). Literature on diversity of mammals in Indonesia, especially Kalimantan is limited
yet.
Most of research on mammals in Kalimantan still refer to Payne et al. (1985) (translate to
Indonesian in 2000).
Labanan research forest is one of 33 research forest under the management of Forest Research
and Development Agency, Ministry of Forestry, located in Berau, East Kalimantan. It was declared as
KHDTK (Kawasan Hutan Dengan Tujuan Khusus) for research based on Decree of the Minister of
Forestry No. 121/Menhut-II/2007. Several research focused on sylviculture have been conducting in
this area, that is SILIN (Silvikultur Intensif) and STREK (Silvicultural Technique for Regeneration of
Logged Over Area in East Kalimantan) Project. However, study related wildlife, particularly mammals
have not been carried out yet. Research regarding animals need to be encouraged to enhance the
function of Labanan research forest as a research site. This study aimed to find out mammals species
in Labanan research forest and its conservation status.
It can be used as initials information to
support further animals study in Labanan research forest.
II. METHOD
A. Study site
The research was conducted in Labanan Research Forest, locatedat Berau District, East
Kalimantan, Indonesia (117O10’–117O15’E and 1O52’-1O57’N) (Figure 1). The site is topographically
variable, comprised of flat, ridges, and limestone hills, with altitude from 125 m asl to 275 m asl.
Annual precipitation was 2.012 mm. Monthly rainfall fluctuated from 4,9 mm in June to 140,1 mm in
February. The rainfall data were recorded from the Kalimarau meteorological station located
approximately 60 km from the site. The habitat types of this site consist of early secondary forest
(34,42%), old secondary forest (29,86%), primary forest (4,10%), and swamp (0,12%) (Suryanto et
al., 2010). Common tree genera in the site are Shorea spp, Dipterocarpus spp., and Dryobalanops
spp. (Lestari et al., 2013).
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Diversity and Conservation Status …..
Tri Atmoko, Nurul S. Lestari, & Lipu
Figure 1. Map of study site
B. Materials and Equipments
The equipments used for this research were binocular, Busnell camera-traps, DSLR camera, GPS
Garmin CSx 60, mist nets, cages traps, bat pockets, field guides of mammal and bat (van Strien,
1983; Payne et al., 2000; Suyanto, 2001; Struebig & Sujarwo, 2006). Materials in this research were
salted fish and bananas.
C. Methods
The research was carried out in July-August 2012 and March-April 2013. This area has been
separated into western and eastern side by the road of Samarinda-Berau.
Observation in 2012 was
conducted in ± 3.400 ha of western side and 2013 was in ± 4.550 ha of eastern side.
Preliminary activities was set up 14 transect observation along the 5-7 km in the Labanan
research forest.
Seven transects were systematically arranged in the west and east side.
The
distance between transect was 1 km.
Animal with more than 5 kg weights were categorized as large mammals (Stoddart, 1979).
However,
in this research we classified ordo of Artiodactyla, Carnivora, and Primates into large
mammals, while Scandentia, Rodentia and Chiroptera were categorized as small mammals and bats.
We used these kind of classification due to taxonomic consistency. Large mammals were observed
using direct and indirect encounter technicques. We did direct observation using rapid assessment
method (Bismark, 2011). The observer walk slowly in both inside and outside transect and record all
mammals species found. Indirect observation was conducted based on the discovered of mammals
footprint, scratches, wallows, former hair, former bite, nests, and vocalization.
95
In 2013, 6 camera-traps were set at study site..
It was all set up along the trails where
frequently passed by the animal. When the animal passed in front of the camera, the camera system
took photograph or video automatically. Camera-trapping is an effective way to provide information
about the presence of both diurnal and nocturnal mammals.
Small mammals were observed by the trapping method. Twenty traps were placed along the
transect. Salted fish and bananas were placed inside the trap as bait. Bats were captured using mist
nets installed in the forest hallways and ex skidding road. In 2012, 4 mist nets were positioned in 6
locations. We also did bats observation in the lime cave. In 2013, ten mist nets were set up in 4
location. For each location, mist net were installed for 3-4 nights.
C. Data Analysis
Red
list
data
book
IUCN
(http://www.iucnredlist.org/),
Appendix
CITES
(http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/species.html), and Indonesian Governman Law (PP No. 7 1999
tentang pengawetan jenis tumbuhan dan satwa) were used to determine the conservation status of
mammal species.
Bats diversity was calculated using Shannon-Wiener Index (Krebs, 1989).
The
existence frequency was estimated to calculate the relative frequency of the mammals at the site
(adapted from Bismark, 2011):
Relative frequency (%) =
୘୰ୟ୬ୱୣୡ୲ୱୟ୫ୟ୫୫ୟ୪ୱ୮ୣୡ୧ୣୱୟ୰ୣ୤୭୳୬ୢ
୘୭୲ୟ୪୲୰ୟ୬ୱୣୡ୲ୱ
šͳͲͲΨ
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A.
Large mammals
A total of 16 large mammals species of from 13 generas and 7 families were recorded in Labanan
Seven out of 16 large mammals are endemic of Borneo, namely Muntiacus
atherodes, Tupaia montana, Petaurillus emiliae, Callosciurus orestes, Presbytis rubicunda,
Presbytis frontata, and Hylobates muelleri. Large mammals species of Labanan research forest are
research forest.
presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Large mammals species of Labanan research forest
Ordo
Familly
No
Species
Observed
Relative
frequency (%)
Artiodactyla
Suidae
1
Sus barbatus
footprint, nest,
100,00
camera trap
Cervidae
2
Muntiacus atherodes
footprint, camera
50,00
trap, direct
observation
3
Rusa unicolor
footprint,
28,57
vocalization
Trangulidae
4
Trangulus napu
footprint, capture,
28,57
camera trap
5
96
Trangulus javanicus
footprint, camera Share with T. napu
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Diversity and Conservation Status …..
Tri Atmoko, Nurul S. Lestari, & Lipu
Ordo
Familly
No
Species
Observed
Relative
frequency (%)
trap
Carnivora
Primate
Ursidae
6
Helarctos malayanus
scratch, nest
35,71
Viverridae
7
Arctogalidia trivirgata
camera trap
14,29
8
Viverra tangalunga
direct observation
7,14
9
Paguma larvata
direct observation
7,14
10
Arctictis binturong
camera trap
7,14
11
Hemigalus derbyanus
camera trap
7,14
12
Hylobates muelleri
direct
64,29
Hylobatidae
observation,
vocalization
Presbytis rubicunda
direct observation
28,57
14
Presbytis frontata
direct observation
14,29
15
Macaca fascicularis
direct observation
14,29
16
Macaca nemestrina
camera trap
7,14
Cercopithecidae 13
Labanan research forest with its dense vegetation, is a potential habitat for mammals. However,
it is quite difficult for observer to see the animal directly in the forest. The terrestrial mammals in
particular are very wary to human activities and some of them are partly or wholly nocturnal. Setting
up camera-trap in the field is the most effective way to record them. Camera-traping is an ideal
system to collect some basic information on a range of elusive large mammals and does so with
minimal impact on the community that is being studied (Griffiths & Schaik, 1993). The mammals
species which was found
captured by camera trap namely small-toothed palm civet (Arctogalidia
trivirgata), binturong (Arctictis binturong), banded palm civet (Hemigalus derbyanus), and pig-tail
macaque (Macaca nemestrina).
Bearded pig is a dominated large mammals in Labanan research forest. Many wallows, nest, and
footprints of this species were found in all transects. Adult females build nest in the place where
they giving birth. The nest are made of saplings and shrubs which have been bitten and broken then
piled up on the ground. The piglets remain in the nest for ten days before following the mother
(Knibbe, 2000). Some of the new nests were found in March 2013 but didn’t find any in 2012, so we
supposed that the breeding season of bearded pig is in February to March.
Sun bear is a shy, secretive animal and live in dense forest. It is almost impossible to study them
through direct observation. The evidence of Sun bear occurrence in the study site based on the
finding of both their nest and scratchs in the trees.
Nest of sun bear was found in the tree of
Dacryodes rugosa approximately 15 meters above the ground. Sun bear’s nest is similar to
orangutan’s. It was composed by broken fragment of twigs while orangutan’s nests neatly arranged
by branch folds. We found 11 trees with sun bear’s scratch. The characteristics of those trees were
97
almost similar. They had a cavity with shattered entrance. We were certain that it is containing some
bee nest as their food.
Malayan sun bears are omnivores and known as consumers of bees nests (honey), invertebrates
and fruits (Payne et al., 2000; McConkey & Galetti, 1999). Invertebrates which was the feed of sun
bear are termites (Isoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), and beetle larvae (Coleoptera) (Wong et al., 2002).
They also eat various kind of fruits such as Canarium pilosum, Erycibe maingayi, Ficus consociate
(McConkey & Galetti, 1999). The figs (Ficus sp.) are the most common fruit consumed (Wong et al.,
2002). McConkey and Galetti (1999) explained that sun bear are important seed dispersers as well,
depending on the species consumed, the number of seeds ingested and the deposition site.
Primate group in Labanan research forest was dominated by Mueller gibbon. This animals was
recognized by direct sighting and its vocalizations. All gibbon species are known to produce great call
(Geissmann & Nijman, 2006) which can be heard further than two kilometers (Nijman, 2001). Great
calls in gibbon are thought to function as territory defense as well as to strengthen the pair bond
(Gittins & Raemaekers, 1980; Rowe, 1996; Cheyne et al., 2008). Previous studies to determine the
animal location based on gibbon call using triangulation method by multiple listening sites (Rinaldi,
1998; Nijman & Menken, 2005; Cheyne et al., 2008; Hamard et al., 2010). Meanwhile single listening
site was conducted in this study using "Sight 'n Go" facility from GPS. We recorded mueller gibbon
sing in early morning at 6.30 am and sometimes still can be heard until 10.30 am. Reichard (1998)
reported that male and female white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar) sing coordinated, which mostly
occur from about 7.00–11.00 am, whereas according to Gittins and Raemaekers (1980) the animal
sing at 06.00 am until 13.00 pm and once in 14.00 pm.
Labanan research forest composed by several forest formation (early secondary forest, old
secondary forest, and primary forest) and there are still many large diameter trees with high canopy.
Vertical stratification is ideal conditions to support the gibbons and other animals activities and provide
their food resources. Gibbon is arboreal lesser apes (Rowe, 1996; Nijman et al., 2008), prefer high
canopy levels to its activity (MacKinnon & MacKinnon, 1980), and cannot survive in the absence of
closed-canopy forest (Nijman et al., 2008). Hypothesized by Hamard et al. (2010) suggested that that
canopy cover and tree height will be positively correlated with gibbon density.
B. Small Mammals and Bats
A total of 25 species of small mammals from 9 genera and 18 families were found during the
study and 16 species out of it were bats. Bat species diversity index (H’) in Labanan Research Forest
is 3,60, higher than study in undisturbed forest (Medelline et al., 2000) and forest fragment (Calouro
et al., 2010) that is more less 2,50 and 2,09, respectively. Generally, small mammals are important to
maintain forest ecosystem health.
Bats are useful as indicators of disturbance conditions in
neotropical rainforests (Medellin et al., 2000), important pollinators and controlling insects (MacKinnon
et al., 1996; Primack & Corlett, 2005). Rodents and other small mammals play important role of seed
dispersal and food sources for raptor, carnivorous, and reptiles. List of small mammals and bats in
Labanan Resaerch Forest are presented in Table 2.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Diversity and Conservation Status …..
Tri Atmoko, Nurul S. Lestari, & Lipu
Table 2. List of small mammals and bats in Labanan Research Forest
Ordo
Familly
No
Species
Observation
Scandentia
Tupaiidae
1
Tupaia montana
direct observation
Rodentia
Muridae
2
Sundamys muelleri
captured
3
Maxomys rajah
captured
4
Ratufa affinis
direct observation
5
Petaurillus emiliae
captured
6
Callosciurus orestes
direct observation
7
Rhinosciurus laticaudatus
direct observation
8
Exilisciurus exilis
direct observation
9
Hystrix brachyuran
camera-trap, direct
Sciuridae
Hystricidae
observation
Chiroptera
10
Chironax melanocephalus
captured
11
Cynopterus brachyotis
captured
12
Balionycteris maculate
captured
13
Penthetor lucasi
captured
14
Macroglossus minimus
captured
15
Rhinolophus arcuatus
captured
16
Rhinolophus creaghi
captured
17
Rhinolophus acuminatus
captured
18
Rhinolophus affinis
captured
19
Rhinolophus borneensis
captured
20
Hipposideros galeritus
captured
21
Hipposideros diadema
captured
22
Hipposideros cervinus
captured
23
Hipposideros larvatus
captured
Emballonuridae
24
Emballonura alecto
captured
Molossidae
25
Tadarida mops
captured
Pteropodidae
Rhinolophidae
Hipposideridae
C. Conservation status
Based on the IUCN criteria, sun bear (Helarctos malayanus) is endengered species, while 8, 3,
25, 3, and 1 species are vulnerable, near threatened, least concern, data deficiency and not included
in the IUCN list, respectively. According to CITES, 2 species (4,8%) included in Appendix I, ie sun bear
and mueller gibbon (Hylobates muelleri), while 7 species (17,1%) included in Appendix II. Under
Indonesia Government Law, 11 species (26,8%) categorized as protected species (Figure 2).
Conservation status of mammals in Labanan Research Forest are presented in Appendix 1.
99
Figure 2. Conservation status of mammals in Labanan research forest by IUCN (En=endangered,
Vu=Vulnerable, NT=Near threatened, LC=Least Concern, DD=Data deficiency), CITES (App
I=Appendix I, App I=Appendix II), and PP 07 (Protected by Indonesian Government Law).
Sun bear and mueller gibbon are protected by IUCN, CITES, and Government Law. Despite
population data of sun bear is lacking, rapid loss of habitat is strong evidence declining of animals
population (Fredriksson et al., 2008). Several threats to sun bears are habitat destruction, commercial
hunting as pets and traditional Chinese medicine (Fredriksson et al., 2008), forest fires, and killing
bears to preventing damage to crops (Fredriksson, 2005).
Mueller gibbon is considered as
endangered based on the estimation that more than 50% of the population have been reduced over
the last 45 years, habitat loss, hunting and wildlife trade and for human consumption (Geissmann &
Nijman, 2008).
Hunting and habitat disturbance are main threats to mammals species in Labanan research
forest. Sus barbatus, Muntiacus atherodes, Rusa unicolor, Trangulus napu and Trangulus javanicus
are the most common species hunted by local people. They use trap and air rifle to catch the animal.
Land occupancy is also occuring in this area. It happens due to lack of understanding of local people
who consider that Labanan research forest can be inhabited. Conservation action plan is urgently
required to protect the wildlife from population depletion.
IV. CONCLUSION
At least 41 species of mammals were found in the Labanan research forest. This results is the
initial data, thus further study on mammals species is still needed to be conducted. The presence of
arboreal primates indicate Labanan Research Forest has good forest condition with tall trees and
canopy continuity.
Forest protection efforts in this site should be improved to support wildlife
conservation.
100
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Diversity and Conservation Status …..
Tri Atmoko, Nurul S. Lestari, & Lipu
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are most grateful to Dr. Rufiie, Director of Dipterocarps Research Center for his support to
this study. We also would like to thank
Suryanto, S.Hut., M.Si and team member of Labanan
biodiversity exploration for their help during the field work.
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Suyanto, A. 2001. Kelelawar di Indonesia. Puslitbang Biologi-LIPI. Bogor.
Turner, J.R. 2004. Mammals of Australia: An introduction to their classification, biology and
Distribution. Pensoft Publishers.
van Strien, N.J. 1983. A guide to the track of mammals of Western Indonesia. Bogor. School of
Environmental Conservation Management, Ciawi.
102
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Diversity and Conservation Status …..
Tri Atmoko, Nurul S. Lestari, & Lipu
Wong, S.T., C. Servheen, L. Ambu. 2002. Food habits of malayan sun bears in lowland tropical forests
of Borneo. Ursus 13:127-136.
www.cites.org/eng/resources/species.html
www.iucnredlist.org
103
Appendix 1. Conservation status of mammals in Labanan research forest
No
1
Species
Muntiacus atherodes Groves &
Conservation status*
English name
Bornean Yellow Muntjac
Grubb
IUCN
Least
CITES
PP No 7
-
Protected
Protected
Concern
2
Rusa unicolor Kerr
Sambar Deer
Vulnerable
-
3
Sus barbatus Müller
Bearded Pig
Vulnerable
-
4
Tragulus napu F. Cuvier
Greather mouse-deer
-
-
Protected
5
Tragulus javanicus Osbeck
Lesser Mouse-Deer
Data
-
Protected
6
Helarctos malayanus Raffles
Sun Bear
Vulnerable
7
Viverra tangalunga Gray
Malay Civet
Least
-
Deficient
App. I
Protected
-
-
-
-
Concern
8
Paguma larvata C. E. H. Smith
Masked Palm Civet
9
Arctictis binturong Raffles
Binturong
Vulnerable
-
Protected
10
Hemigalus derbyanus Gray
Banded Palm Civet
Vulnerable
App II
-
11
Arctogalidia trivirgata Gray
Small-toothed Palm Civet
Least
-
-
App II
-
-
-
-
-
App II
Protected
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Protected
App II
Protected
Least
Concern
Concern
12
Tupaia Montana Thomas
Mountain Treeshrew
Least
Concern
13
Sundamys muelleri Jentink
Muller’s Rat
14
Maxomys rajah Thomas
Brown Spiny Rat
Vulnerable
Giant Squirrel
Near
Least
Concern
Ratufa affinis Raffles
15
Threatened
16
Petaurillus emiliae Thomas
Lesser Pigmy Flying Squirrel
17
Callosciurus orestes Thomas
Bornean Black-banded
Least
Squirrel
Concern
18
Rhinosciurus laticaudatus Müller
Shrew-faced Ground
Near
Squirrel
Threatened
Plain Pigmy Squirrel
Data
Data
Deficient
19
Exilisciurus exilis Müller
Deficient
20
Hystrix brachyuran Linnaeus
Common Porcupine
Least
Concern
21
Presbytis rubicunda Müller
Maroon Langur
Least
Concern
22
Presbytis frontata Müller
White-fronted Langur
Vulnerable
App II
Protected
23
Macaca fascicularis Raffles
Long-tailed Macaque
Least
App II
-
Concern
104
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Diversity and Conservation Status …..
Tri Atmoko, Nurul S. Lestari, & Lipu
No
24
Species
English name
Macaca nemestrina Linnaeus
25
Hylobates muelleri Martin
26
Chironax melanocephalus
CITES
PP No 7
Pig-tailed macaque
Vulnerable
App II
-
Mueller Gibbon
Endangered
App I
Protected
Black-capped Fruit Bat
Least
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Concern
Temminck
27
Conservation status*
IUCN
Cynopterus brachyotis Müller
Short-nosed Fruit Bat
Least
Concern
28
Balionycteris maculate Thomas
Spotted-winged Fruit Bat
Least
Concern
29
Penthetor lucasi Dobson
Dusky Fruit Bat
Least
Concern
30
Macroglossus minimus É.
31
Rhinolophus arcuatus Peters
Arcuate Horseshoe Bat
32
Rhinolophus creaghi Thomas
Creagh’s Horseshoe Bat
Long-tongued Nectar Bat
Geoffroy
Least
Concern
Least
Concern
Least
Concern
33
Rhinolophus acuminatus Peters
Acuminate Horseshoe Bat
Least
Concern
34
Rhinolophus affinis Horsfield
Intermadiate Horseshoe Bat
Least
Concern
35
Rhinolophus borneensis Peters
Bornean Horseshoe Bat
36
Hipposideros galeritus Cantor
Cantor’s Roundleaf Bat
37
Hipposideros diadema Geoffroy
Diadem Roundleaf Bat
Least
Concern
Least
Concern
Least
Concern
38
Hipposideros cervinus Gould
Fawn Roundleaf Bat
Least
Concern
39
Hipposideros larvatus Horsfield
Intermediate Roundleaf Bat
Least
Concern
40
Emballonura alecto Eydoux &
Greater Sheath-tailed Bat
Gervais
41
Least
Concern
Tadarida mops de Blainville
Sunda Free-tailed Bat
Near
Threatened
*Sources:
IUCN
CITES
PP No. 7
: http://www.iucnredlist.org/;
: http://www.cites.org/eng/resources/species.html;
: Indonesian Government Law (Peraturan Pemerintah No. 7 tahun 1999
tentang pengawetan jenis tumbuhan dan satwa).
105
106
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Adaptability and Growth Diversity of Merbau …..
Tri Pamungkas Y., Mahfudz, & Hamdan A.A.
Adaptability and Growth Diversity of Merbau (Intsia bijuga) in Ex Situ
Conservation Plot at 3 Years Old1
Tri Pamungkas Yudohartono2, Mahfudz3, and Hamdan Adma Adinugraha2
ABSTRACT
Recently, Indonesia forests has been threatened to biodiversity loss. One of many forest tree species
facing risk of extinction was merbau. Conservation status of merbau was vulnerable (VU A1cd).
Therefore, genetic conservation of this species was urgently required. Ex situ conservation plots of
merbau have been established in Bondowoso, East Java and Sobang, Banten. The objectives of this
study were to know survival and growth diversity of merbau in those e x situ conservation plots. These
ex situ conservation plots were designed as provenance test. Provenances used in ex situ
conservation plot in East Java were Halmahera Timur, Waigo, Oransbari, Wasior, Nabire and Seram.
Provenances used in ex situ conservation plot in Sobang were
Babo, Bintuni, Carita, Klamono,
Manimeri, Oransbari, Remsiki, Sarmi and Tandiwasior. Elevation, biophysical and climate of those
provenance tests are different. Results showed that adaptability and growth diversity of merbau plants
in Bondowoso ex situ conservation plot were better or higher than those in Sobang ex situ
conservation plot at 3 years old. Average life percentage of merbau plants in Bondowoso and Sobang
ex situ conservation plot were 88.15 % and 81.51 % respectively. These value indicated that merbau
had good adaptability. Genetic diversity of height and diameter among provenances in Bondowoso ex
situ conservation plot was significantly observed. In Sobang ex situ conservation plot, there was no
significant difference in term of height among provenances, while
genetic diversity of diameter
among provenances was significantly observed. Site condition and provenances used in ex situ
conservation plots have resulted in the difference of the adaptability and growth diversity.
Key words : Intsia bijuga, forest, adaptability, diversity, conservation
1
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research
Jl. Palagan Tentara Pelajar Km. 15, Purwobinangun Pakem Sleman Yogyakarta
Phone : +82 274 895954, Fax : +82 274 896080
E-mail : [email protected]
3
Manado Forestry Research Institute, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
2
107
I.
INTRODUCTION
Recently, Indonesia forests have been threatened to biodiversity loss. One of many forest tree
species facing risk of extinction is merbau. Supply of merbau timber was still relied on exploitation in
natural forests. Merbau timbers have been massively exploited in its natural distribution. This activity
has resulted in declining populations of merbau.
Based on monitoring of UNEP-WCMC (1991),
conservation status of merbau is vulnerable (VU A1cd). People have broadly ulitised merbau timber
because of its high economic value and good qualtity of merbau wood. Distribution of Intsia bijuga
including Samoa (Amerika), Australia, Burma, Kamboja, India, Indonesia, Madagaskar bagian barat
(lowland area), Malaysia, Myanmar, Pacific islands, Papua New Guinea, Philipina, Seychelles,
Tanzania, Thailand dan Vietnam (TCIS, 2007). Declining populations of merbau could cause
decreasing its genetic diversity. Genetic diversity is very important factor for genetic conservation
because it will determine the ability of species to adapt to environmental changes.
Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research (CFBTI) Yogyakarta has
established ex situ conservation plots of merbau Bondowoso, East Java and Sobang, Banten.
Provenances used in ex situ conservation plot in East Java were Halmahera Timur, Waigo, Oransbari,
Wasior, Nabire and Seram. Provenances used in ex situ conservation plot in Sobang were
Babo,
Bintuni, Carita, Klamono, Manimeri, Oransbari, Remsiki, Sarmi and Tandiwasior. Elevation, biophysical
and climate of those provenance tests (ex situ conservation plots) are different.
Those ex situ
conservation plots will be used to support tree improvement program of merbau. The objectives of
this study were to know survival and growth diversity of merbau in those ex situ conservation plots.
II. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
A. Location
Research activities were conducted in ex situ conservation plots of merbau in Bondowoso, East
Java and Sobang, Banten. Administratively, ex situ conservation plot of merbau in Bondowoso is
located in Bondowoso Regency, East Java Province. According to Schmidt dan Ferguson classification,
its climate is B with average annual rainfall 2400 mm per year. Soil type is brown andosol with slope
range between 0 to 15 %. It is located at 800 m above sea level. Most of parts in this plot are
covered by shrubs and grass.
Administratively, ex situ conservation plot of merbau in Sobang is
located in Pandeglang Regency, Banten Province. According to Koppen classification, climate type of
Pandeglang Regency is Af. Average annual rainfall of Pandeglang is above 3000 mm per year. Soil
type is regosol and red yellow podsolik with slope range between 0 to 25 %. Elevation of this plot is
varied between 85 - 175 m above sea level. Geographically, the ex situ conservation plot of merbau
in Sobang is located at 06o37’10” – 06o38’15” and 105o39’05” – 105o40’15” E.
B. Materials
Materials used in this study were merbau plants in ex situ conservation plots of in Bondowoso,
East Java and Sobang, Banten. Those ex situ conservation plots were designed as provenance test.
Research design used in those ex situ conservation plots is Randomized Complete Block Design with
one treatment factor namely provenance. Provenances used in ex situ conservation plot of merbau in
Bondowoso were Halmahera Timur, Waigo, Oransbari, Wasior, Nabire dan Seram. Each provenance
comprises 3 blocks which are also functioned as replication. Each provenance in every block consists
108
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Adaptability and Growth Diversity of Merbau …..
Tri Pamungkas Y., Mahfudz, & Hamdan A.A.
of 60 plants. Meanwhile, provenances used in ex situ conservation plot of merbau in Sobang, Banten
were were Babo, Bintuni, Carita, Klamono, Manimeri, Oransbari, Remsiki, Sarmi and Tandiwasior.
Each provenance comprises 6 blocks with 400 plants within each block (Mahfudz, dkk., 2006).
C. The Measured Character
Character was measured to all merbau plants in ex situ conservation plots of merbau in
Bondowoso, East Java and Sobang, Banten at 3 years old. The characters measured were life
percentage, height and diameter. Life percentage is measured to know the ability of merbau plants to
adapt to environmental changes. Height was measured from ground level to apical growing point.
Diameter was measured at 10 cm above ground level.
D. Data Analysis
Measuring results were analysed using variance analysis to know variation among provenances. If
variation among the tested provenances was found, then it was continued with Duncan’s Multiple
Range Test (DMRT). DMRT is executed to know the difference among the tested provenances.
Mathematic model used is :
Yij = μ + Bi + Pj + εij
dimana : Yij
= Measured character
μ
= General mean
Pj
= Effect of the jth provenance ke-j
Bi
= Effect of the ith block
εij
= Random error at the ijth observation
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A.
Results
1.
Life Percentage/Adaptability
Life percentage could represent the ability of species to adapt to environmental changes. It could
represent survival rate of species. Life percentage of plant in the ex situ conservation plots of merbau
in Sobang and Bondowoso at 3 years old is shown in Figure 1 and 2.
109
Life percentage (%)
90,00
86,46
86,46
85,00
88,89
84,29
79,58 78,06
80,00
77,08
78,65
74,17
75,00
70,00
65,00
Provenance
Life percentage (%)
Figure 1. Life percentage in Sobang ex situ conservation plot at 3 years old
94,00
92,00
90,00
88,00
86,00
84,00
82,00
80,00
92,22
87,22
87,22
89,44
88,33
84,47
Provenance
Figure 2. Life percentage in Bondowoso ex situ conservation plot at 3 years old
2. Growth
Variance analysis was conducted to know variation of growth character among provenances
trait. It was calculated based on measuring data of diameter and height. The results of variance
analysis is shown in Table 1 and 2.
110
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Adaptability and Growth Diversity of Merbau …..
Tri Pamungkas Y., Mahfudz, & Hamdan A.A.
Table 1. Variance analysis of diameter in the ex situ conservation plots of merbau in Sobang and
Bondowoso at 3 years old.
Source of
variation
Provenance
df
5
Sobang
Sum of
Mean
square
Square
57,065
7,133
40,119
8,024
75,993
1,9
Bondowoso
Sum of
Mean
square
Square
256,10
51,22
Block
Error
2
10
36,76
111,56
Source of
variation
Provenance
Block
Error
Remarks
df
8
5
40
18,38
11,16
F
Sig.
3,755*
4,223*
0,020
0,04
F
Sig.
4,59*
ns
1,65
0,020
0,241
* = significantly different at level test 5 %
ns = not significantly different
Table 2. Variance analysis of height in the ex situ conservation plots of merbau in Sobang and
Bondowoso at 3 years old.
Source of
variation
df
Provenance
8
Block
Error
5
40
Source of
variation
Provenance
df
Block
Error
2
10
Remarks
5
Sobang
Sum of
squares
168640,33
Mean
Square
21080,04
99071,72 19814,34
722523,44 18063,09
Bondowoso
Sum of
Mean
squares
Square
11441,00
2288,20
2563,41
4419,08
1281,71
441,91
F
Sig.
ns
0,343
ns
0,377
1,17
1,10
F
Sig.
5,18*
2,90ns
0,013
0,102
* = significantly different at level test 5 %
ns = not significantly different
Table 1 shows that genetic variation of diameter among provenances was significantly observed
in both the ex situ conservation plots of merbau in Sobang and Bondowoso at 3 years old.
Table 2
shows that genetic variation of height among provenances was significantly observed in the ex situ
111
conservation plot of merbau in Bondowoso at 3 years old. Meanwhile, there was no significant
difference in term of height among provenances in the ex situ conservation plot of merbau in Sobang.
Difference and ranking of provenances can be known using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The
result is shown in Table 3 and 4.
Table 3. Result of DMRT of diameter in the ex situ conservation plots of merbau in Sobang and
Bondowoso at 3 years old.
Sobang
Bondowoso
No.
Provenance
Diameter (mm)
No.
Provenance
Diameter (mm)
1
Babo
12,65a
1
Seram
14,81a
2
Remsiki
12,77a
2
Nabire
18,21ab
3
Carita
12,83a
3
Oransbari
21,98bc
4
Bintuni
13,02a
4
Waigo
23,75bc
5
Sarmi
13,15a
5
Wasior
23,92bc
6
Klamono
13,43a
6
Halmahera Timur
25,82c
7
Tandiwas
13,80a
8
Manimeri
14,40a
9
Oransbar
16,07b
Table 4. Result of DMRT of height in the ex situ conservation plots of merbau in Bondowoso at 3 years
old.
No
Provenance
Height (cm)
1.
Seram
96,96a
2.
Nabire
129,69ab
3.
Oransbari
148,65b
4.
Halmahera Timur
163,23b
5.
Waigo
163,57b
6.
Wasior
167,45b
B. Discussion
Average life percentage of merbau plants in Bondowoso and Sobang ex situ conservation plot
were high –namely 88.15 % and 81.51 % respectively. Those values indicated that merbau plants
could be well adapted in Sobang and Bondowoso. Site characteristics which fulfilled the growing
requirements of merbau have resulted in this good adaptability. In natural distribution, merbau was
found up to 1000 m above sea level in various soil types with average annual rainfall more than 2000
mm per year.
Genetic diversity of height and diameter among provenances in Bondowoso ex situ conservation
plot was significantly observed. In Sobang ex situ conservation plot, there was no significant
difference in term of height among provenances, while
genetic diversity of diameter among
provenances was significantly observed. According to Yudohartono (2008), average of genetic
112
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Adaptability and Growth Diversity of Merbau …..
Tri Pamungkas Y., Mahfudz, & Hamdan A.A.
diversity of I. bijuga from six provenances (Halmahera Timur, Waigo, Oransbari, Wasior, Nabire dan
Seram) based on isozyme analysis was high namely 0,392. Provenances used in the ex situ
conservation plots have resulted in the difference of the adaptability and growth diversity Generally,
average of life percentage, height and diameter in Bondowoso ex situ conservation plot were higher
than those in Sobang ex situ conservation plot. It tend to be affected by site condition within the ex
situ conservation plots rather than the tested provenances.
Figure 3. Bondowoso ex situ conservation plot
Figure 3. Sobang ex situ conservation plot
Most parts of Sobang ex situ conservation plot were densely shaded by mature trees such as
teak, johar and others. Conversely, only a few parts of Bondowoso ex situ conservation plot were
shaded by mature trees. Consequently, light intensity receiving merbau plants in Bondowoso ex situ
conservation plot was higher than that in Sobang ex situ conservation plot. Yudohartono (pers.com,
2006) revealed that adaptability and growth of merbau plants under shaded areas were worse than
those in open areas at above 1 year old.
High genetic diversity of merbau was represented through good adaptability and high growth
diversity among merbau provenances in Bondowoso and Sobang e x situ conservation plots. Genetic
diversity is very important that determine the ability of population/provenance to adapt to
environmental changes, long term evolution, and a base for genetic improvement (Lande and
Shannon, 1996 in Rimbawanto dan Widyatmoko, 2006). High genetic variation was found among
merbau provenances in both Sobang and Bondowoso ex situ conservation plots , so potential of
merbau genetic resources which could be saved and ulitised was higher.
IV. CONCLUSION
1.
Survival rate of merbau plants in Sobang and Bondowoso ex situ conservation plots was high at 3
years old. It was showed through high average life percentage of merbau plants in Bondowoso
and Sobang ex situ conservation plot–namely 88.15 % and 81.51 % respectively. Merbau had
good adaptability in those ex situ conservation plots at 3 years old.
113
2.
Growth diversity of merbau was affected by provenances.
Genetic variation of height and
diameter among provenances in Bondowoso ex situ conservation plot was significantly observed.
In Sobang ex situ conservation plot, there was no significant difference in term of height among
provenances, while genetic diversity of diameter among provenances was significantly observed.
REFERENCES
IUCN. 1994. IUCN Red List Categories. Prepared by the IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN,
Gland, Switzerland.
Mahfudz, Yudohartono, T.P., dan Sugeng, P. 2006. Pembangunan Kebun Konservasi Jenis Merbau
(Intsia spp). Laporan Akhir. Puslitbang Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan tanaman Hutan.
Yogyakarta.
Rimbawanto, A. danWidyatmoko, A.Y.P.B.C. 2006. Keragaman genetik empat populasi Intsia bijuga
berdasarkan penanda RAPD dan implikasinya bagi program konservasi genetik. Jurnal
Penelitian Hutan Tanaman Vol. 3 No.3, Juni 2006. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan
Tanaman. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, Departemen Kehutanan.
TCIS. 2007. Intsia bijuga. http://www.unep-wcmc.org /trees/trade/int_bij.htm Diakses pada tanggal
04 Desember 2008.
WCMC. 1991. Provision of data on rare and threatened tropical timber trees. Unpublished
Yudohartono, T.P. 2008. Studi Variasi Genetik Beberapa Populasi Merbau (Intsia bijuga O.Ktze)
Menggunakan Penanda Isoenzim dan Pemanfaatannya dalam Program Konservasi Genetik.
Tesis Program Studi Ilmu Kehutanan Jurusan, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada,
Yogyakarta.
114
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Growth Variation of Several Sandalwood …..
Ari Fiani & Yuliah
The Growth Variation of Several Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.)
Populations After Six Years in Gunung Kidul1
Ari Fiani2 dan Yuliah2
ABSTRACT
Study on phenotypic characterization of
several sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) populations
wasn conducted in the Ex-Situ Conservation Plot at Watusipat, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
on September 2011. The study laid out
in Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) with 4
replications in 3m x 3m planting space. Each block contained 16 tree plots. A six year old sandalwood
populations were: Sumba, Fatunisuan (North Central Timor), Belu, Soebela (Rote Island) and Imogiri
(Java Race Land) used as treatments. Analysis of variance was conducted to compare the height and
growth performance in the field. The mean survival rate was 84,8% ranging from 73% to 95%. Plant
height
and
stem
diameter
were
significantly
different
among
populations.
In
general,
Soebelahadhighest survivalrate (95%), at 5 height 5 m and diameter 3,63 cm, whereas Fatunisuan
has the lowest survival rate.
Key Word : Sandalwood, growth variation, population
I. INTRODUCTION
Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is an Indonesian native species, which has a natural
distribution in the Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) province. Commercially, Santalum album known as
Sandalwood. This species has
high economic value both in domestic and foreign markets. Soenarno,
2012, to submit that the essential oil and timber production of Santalum album L. are higher than
other species of Santalum. Sandalwood essential oil containing a fragrant, among others, used a lot of
oil production, handicrafts (sculpture, fan, rosary), religious requirements (incense) as well as
traditional medicine ingredients.
Sandalwood populations currently is vulnerable which could lead to genetic degradation and
threatening future sustainability. Exploitation started
1
since the 3rd century without appropriate
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
2
Center For Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research
Balai Besar Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan
Jl. PalaganTentaraPelajar Km.15, Purwobinangun, Pakem, Sleman Yogyakarta 55582 Telp.(0274) 895954,896080 Fax.
(0274) 896080; e-mail :[email protected]; [email protected]
115
rehabilitation measures, and since year 2000 Sandalwood was no longer contributing to the Provincial
Government income of NTT. Such condition would threaten the sustainability and future expansion
of this economic plant. In general the conservation status of sandalwood is included in vulnerable
category (: VUA1d.). While according to CITES sandalwood is included in Appendix II type (WWF
Indonesia, 2008).
Based on these conditions, then since 2002 Center For Biotechnology and Tree Improvement
Research Yogyakarta has contributed in conservation of sandalwood through plantation measuresat
Watusipat ex situ conservation,in Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. The purpose of this activity was to
conserve sandalwood genetic resources from extinction. Until 2005, about 3.5 ha of on farm
conservation of genetic material collected from a variety of natural population in NTT as well as in
Java, were established.
Variability of phenotypic characters is the key to success for plant breeding programs. With a
wide variability, then the chance of selecting desired trait becomes larger,to support breeding
programs required a series of sandalwood evaluation activities on the growth of sandalwood collected
in Ex-situ Conservation Plot atWatusipat, GunungKidul. Information to complement existing research
findings on genetic variability mainly sandalwood up plant breeding programs and conservation can
be more optimal. This study aimed to determine the diversity of sandalwood population growingat 6
years age planted at Ex-situ plot Conservation, Watusipat, Gunung Kidul.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The experiment was conducted at Sandalwood Ex-situ Conservation Plot, in Watusipat, Gunung
Kidul on September 2011. Based on climatic classification of Schmidt and Ferguson (1951), research
locations including the C type climate with rainfall 1894 mm / year, the rainy season begins in
November and end on March. Areal of studies was moderately steep undulating topography with
slopes of 8% - 30%. Partly rocky soil, Vertisol soil type, parent material and tufvolkan marl with low to
medium levels of fertility, altitude ± 150 m above sea level.
Five sandalwood populations from Nusa Tenggara Timur and Java were planted in 2005. The five
populations were originated from Sumba, . Fatunisuan (Timor Tengah Utara), Belu,.Soebela (Rote
Island) and Imogir i(Java Raced Land).
The study was laid out in RCBD (Randomized Complete Block Design) with 5 populations as
treatment, 4 replications (blocks) with 16 tree plots for each block, hence the total populations were
320 tree plots at a spacing of 3 x 3 m. Sandalwood seeds were collected during exploration activities
in 2004. Seedling maintenance was done until the seedlings ready for field planting, approximately
after one year. Planting in the field conducted in 2005. Data collected after six years by measurement
of plant height, stem diameter at breast heigh tand survival rate. The collected data were analyzed by
ANOVA.
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III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Measurement of plant height and stem diameter has been carried out to determine the diversity
of sandalwood growth caused by difference in origin (natural distribution). Analysis of variance of
plant height and stem diameter reveal significant difference among populations (Table 1).
Tabel 1.Analysis of variance of the six years old sandalwood plant height and stem diameter
Parameter
Plant height
Stem Diameter
Source of Variance
Degree of
Sum of
Mean
Freedom
Square
Square
F calc.
Population
4
5,4279
1,3570
4,65
Block
3
4,5172
1,5057
5,16
Error
8
2,3360
0,2920
Total
15
12,2811
Population
4
4,6649
1,1662
3,48
Block
3
2,7262
0,9087
2,71
Error
8
2,6785
0,3348
Total
15
10,0696
The results showed that plant height of six years old sandalwood varied between 3.5003m
(Fatunisuan, TTU) to 5.0008 m (Soebela, Rote). Stem diameter varied between 2.1612 cm
(Fatunisuan, TTU) to 3.6335 cm (Soebela, Rote). The mean of plant height and stem diameter of each
population and the results of DMRT average presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Average plant height and stem diameter of six years old of sandalwood from several
populations
Population
Average
Plant height (m)
Stem Diameter (cm)
Sumba
3,6630
ab
2,8269
ab
Fatunisuan (TTU)
3,5003
b
2,1612
b
Belu
4,0852
ab
2,8685
ab
Soebela (Rote)
5,0008
a
3,6335
a
Imogiri (Jawa)
4,1080
3,4533
ab
b
Description: numbers followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% significance level.
Based on the analysis of variance, there is a significant difference in height growth and stem
diameter of sandalwood plants from five populations. This indicates the existence of genetic diversity
between sandalwood populations. Plant growth is resulted from interaction between genetic factors
and the environment in which the plants grow. The influences of environmental factors occur
indirectly through physiological processes in the body of the tree. The influence of genetic factors and
environmental factors can lead to variations in the plant. Variation due to environmental influences is
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called non-heritable variation that is the variation is not passed on to offspring. Variation due to
genetic factors is called heritable variation, the variation being passed on to offspring. The realizations
of the results of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors are reflected in morphological
performance, including plant height and stem diameter that can be measured quantitatively.
Performance of sandalwood population in Watusipat, Gunung Kidul, six years after planting shown in
Figure 1 below.
Figure 1. Performance of Sandalwood in Watusipat, Gunung Kidul, six years after planting
Environmental at Watusipat Ex Situ Conservation Plot in which Sandalwood planted was relatively
uniform. Therefore, the diversity among different populations of the six-year-old sandalwood in
Watusipat, GunungKidul due to the value of genetic diversity of five populations. Haryjanto (2009)
reported that the genetic diversity in Watusipat sandalwood is relatively high (0, 3166). Brand (1993)
inSoenarno (2012) on his studyin the district of Timor Timur Selatan, Timor Island also reported a
phenotypic and genetic diversity of several sandalwood populations, among others, from Netpala,
Siso, Buat, Oenlasi, Tetafg and Aenhut. Andrew et al., (2004) suggested that the variation between
provenances indicates extensive genetic variation at the population level.
Variation observed in the growth of sandalwood in Plot Ex-Situ Conservation Watusipat Cendana,
Gunung Kidul is also likely due to the origin of the discontinuous distribution of sandalwood, where
each population dispatch quite far , even different islands. Zobel and Talbert (1991) suggested that a
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Ari Fiani & Yuliah
variety of tree species is due to partly by the presence of geographic variation (provenance), variety
of places to grow in the provenance, variations in the stands in the place grew, variations in tree
stands, and variations in the tree. According to Wright (1976), factors that affect the possibility of
geographic variation (geographic races) is the spread of a type of tree that produces more extensive
genetic variations compared to narrower species native range. A species that has a continuous nature
enables the distribution is always the exchange of pollen between individuals in the population. So
that the genetic variation between populations is not too high. However, if the distribution of
discontinuous nature, such as populations separated by mountain, river or the sea there will be a
large genetic variation between populations.
Survival rate ranged from 73% to 95%; Fatunisuan, Middle East North (73%),Sumba (77%),
(Belu (85%), Imogiri, Land race Java (94%) and Soebela, Rote (95%) respectively. The variation in
the survival and growth of the sandalwood in Watusipat Gunung Kidul possibly due to variations in the
adaptability of each population to the different environment in which it’s grow with the region of
origin. With the adaptability variations, each plant will express phenotypic different. Plants that grow
well showed its ability to adapt in the growing place, while others will grow ugly and even death
(Zobel and Talbert, 1984). Although the fifth population on this research is quite diverse environment,
but based on this test, sandalwood able to adapt well in Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta. Thus the area is
quite suitable for the development of sandalwood. This is mainly due to the adaptability of
sandalwood is pretty high for a variety of environmental factors.
The high genetic diversity of sandalwood provide further opportunities for the utilization of
sandalwood plant breeding programs to obtain superior properties expected. Based on the ranking of
average height and trunk diameter and percent growth, sandalwood from Soebela (Rote Island)
showed the best growth compared to other populations. Thus, the population Soebela can be used as
a source of seed for development purposes.
IV. CONCLUSION
1. Based on the phenotype of plants in the field, sandalwood at Watusipat ex-situ conservation in
Gunung Kidul varies in height and diameter growth.
2. The plant height of 6 years old sandalwood varies between 3,50 m (Fatunisuan, TTU) to 5,0 m
(Soebela, Rote), while the diameter varies between 2,16 cm (Fatunisuan, TTU) to 3,63 cm
(Soebela, Rote).
3. In general, Soebela has a highest rank on survival (95%), height (5,0 m) and diameter (3,63 cm),
whereas Fatunisuan has the lowest rank.
REFERENCES
Andrew, S.M., S.M.S. Maliondo, J. Mtika, H.P. Msanga, V.R. Nsolomo, 2004, Growth Performance of
Azadirachta indica Provenances in Morogoro, Tanzania, Journal of Tropical Forest Science 16
(3) : 328 – 335.
119
Haryjanto L., 2009, Keragaman Genetik Cendana (Santalum album Linn.) di Kebun Konservasi Ex Situ
Watusipat, Gunung Kidul, dengan Penanda Isoenzim. Jurnal Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan. Vol 3
No.3 November 2009, 127-138.
Soenarno, 2012, Mengenal Lebih Jauh Cendana Di Nusa Tenggara Timur, Silvika EdisiJuni, 2012, 3138.
Wright, J.W., 1976, Introduction to Forest Genetics, Academic Press Inc., New York.
Zobel, B. and J. Talbert., 1984, Applied Forest Tree Improvement, Waveland Press Inc., Prospect
Heights. Illionis.
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Strategy to Establishment of Ex Situ Genetic Resources …..
Prastyono
Strategy to Establishment of Ex-Situ Genetic Resources Conservation Plots of
Eboni (Diospyros celebica Bakh)1
Prastyono2
ABSTRACT
Ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh.), a species endemic to Sulawesi Island is classified into category of
Vulnerable (VU A1cd ver 2.3) according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which means
that the tree species are facing a high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future. This species has
also been evaluated for inclusion in the Appendix II of CITES. To prevent the excessive utilization
trend and further loss of genetic resources, genetic conservation efforts both in-situ and ex-situ must
be conducted immediately. Establishment of in-situ genetic conservation stands of the species is of
the highest priority as they will preserve their genetic diversities along with their ecosystem. Yet, ex
situ genetic conservation stands in several areas are required to ensure genetic diversities of the
species are well maintained and conserved when the existence of the species in its natural populations
is threatened. The stands are also expected to provide genetic material for future tree breeding
programs. A proper strategy to establish ex situ genetic conservation stands is required so that the
established stands are a representation of the existing genetic diversity in natural populations. This
paper describes the strategy and the stages of establishing ex situ genetic conservation stands of
ebony. There are five target populations in the collection of genetic material for ex situ genetic
conservation purpose, namely Luwu Timur, Barru, Parigi Moutong, Morowali and Mamuju populations.
Keywords: ebony, Diospyros celebica, genetic resources conservation, ex situ
I. INTRODUCTION
Forest degradation in Indonesia is currently in an alarming rate. Data from the Ministry of
Forestry in 2007 showed that the rate of forest degradation in Indonesia reached up to 0.9 million ha
per year during 1982 to 1990, 1.8 million ha per year during 1990 to 1997 period, 2.83 million ha per
year during 1997-2000 period and 1.08 million ha per year during 2000-2006 period.
1
2
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
Centre for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Yogyakarta
Jl. Palagan Tentara Pelajar KM. 15 Purwobinangun, Pakem, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55582
Telp. (0274) 895954, 896080 Fax. (0274) 896080
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Forest degradation is a serious threat to the existence of forest genetic resources of flora, fauna
and microorganisms. Exploitation of natural forests that is extractive in order to meet human needs
affects to deterioration in quality and quantity of forest at the genetic, species, and ecosystems level.
Concessions in natural forest management, plantation, mining, settlement and resettlement, as well as
the weakness of the bureaucracy are some of the factors that lead to fragmentation and degradation
of Indonesia's tropical forests (Curran et al., 2004). Forest degradation will lead to the possibility of
extinction of a species, or a reduction in the number of individuals vegetation in the area that is lost.
There are several endangered species of flora in Indonesia such as ramin (Gonystylus bancanus),
sandalwood (Santalum album), ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh), ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri
Teijsm. & Binn.) and several Dipterocarp species.
Ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh), an endangered endemic species of Sulawesi, is scattered in
Central Sulawesi, West Sulawesi and South Sulawesi provinces. D. celebica has been included in the
category of Vulnerable (VU A1cd ver 2.3) by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of
Nature) Red List of Threatened Species (2012) which means that there has been a decline of at least
20% over the last 10 years or three generations caused by decline in the extent and quality of habitat
and high exploitation rates. In addition, it has been evaluated for inclusion in Appendix II of CITES
(Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), which means
that the species is likely to become endangered when there is no tight regulation of trade.
Genetic resources conservation of ebony both in situ and ex situ are urgently required, to
maintain the ability to adapt to environment changes and to support tree breeding activities for
improving forest production (Graudal et al., 1997; Skroppa, 2005). In such cases ex situ conservation
will have to complement, or at times substitute for in situ conservation. This paper outlines an ex situ
genetic resource conservation strategy of ebony that includes population sampling strategy for
collection of genetic materials, handling of genetic materials and procedures to establish ex situ
genetic conservation stands of ebony.
II. SPECIES DESKRIPTION
A.
Taxonomy
The genus Diospyros, family Ebenaceae, consists of more than 300 species. In Indonesia, there
are 100 species of trees of the genus Diospyros L. The most important species is Diospyros celebica
Bakh. The complete classification of D. celebica Bakh is as follows:
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Kingdom
: Plantae
Division
: Spermatophyta
Sub Division
: Angiospermae
Class
: Magnoliopsida
Order
: Ebenales
Family
: Ebenaceae
Genus
: Diospyros
Species
: Diospyros celebica Bakh.
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Strategy to Establishment of Ex Situ Genetic Resources …..
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B. Natural distribution and habitat of ebony
Ebony (D. celebica Bakh.) is endemic to Sulawesi Island which can be found in Poso, Donggala
and Parigi (Central Sulawesi), Maros, Barru, Mamuju and Luwu (South Sulawesi) and Gorontalo
(Paembonan and Nurkin, 2002). According to Alrasyid (2002), ebony is naturally found in ridges plains
to an elevation of 700 m above sea level, but the ideal elevation for the growth of ebony is less than
400 m above sea level. Ebony is grown on a variety of soil types ranging from calcareous soils,
latosols, red-yellow podzolic and a permeable shallow rocky soil. Ebony can grow well in areas with
low rainfall (1,230 mm/yr) in the region of Tomini (Central Sulawesi) to the wet areas with rainfall of
2,750 mm/yr (Malili, Mamuju and Poso) (Alrasyid, 2002; Paembonan and Nurkin, 2002).
C. Morphological variation of ebony
According to Santoso (2002), there were clear differences in the morphological properties of
ebony between provenances. Leaves of ebony of Gorontalo and Dumoga Bone provenances were
thicker and more rounded than the leaves of ebony of Poso, Donggala, Mamuju and Luwu
provenances which have longer leaves. Fruits of ebony of Gowa and Maros provenances are more
rounded and larger than which of the other provenances. The average number of seeds per kilogram
of ebony of South Sulawesi provenance was about 800 while the seeds of Central Sulawesi
provenance was about 1,150 (Soerianegara et al., 1995).
III. SAMPLING STRATEIESY AND STANDS ESTABLISHMENT PROCEDURES
A.
Sampling strategy to collect genetic materials
1.
Number of population
The purpose of sampling among multiple populations is to capture geographical and ecotypic
variation of the target species. The key biological consideration to construct a population sampling
regime for purpose of establishing ex situ genetic conservation stands is “degree of genetic difference
among populations”, so that the genetic diversity in the population level can be covered (Center for
Plant Conservation, 1991). Species with a broad distribution, as many as 3-5 populations are fairly
representative of the genetic diversity of the species. Whilst species with low potential for gene flow
between populations more than five populations need to be sampled. Sampling should be started from
the location with most abundant population or highest genetic diversity (Jaramillo and Baena, 2002).
According to Restu (2007), genetic diversities of ebony of Mamuju and Barru provenances were
higher than that of other South Sulawesi provenances. Homozygosity of ebony tended to increase due
to inbreeding. In amount of 95.4% genetic diversity was derived from the diversity within population.
This result was confirmed by Widyatmoko et al. (2011), who revealed that the genetic diversity of two
ebony populations of South and Central Sulawesi population using RAPD markers was on average of
0.289. The proportion of ± 70% of genetic diversity was distributed within provenance, while the
remaining 30% was distributed between provenances. While the genetic distance between the two
populations was 0.303. Cluster analysis of the samples showed a clear grouping population according
to geographical location. The authors suggested that collection of genetic material for the purpose of
establishing ex situ genetic conservation stands should be focused from populations that are
geographically distinct.
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Figure 1. Distribution of ebony populations in Sulawesi (Source: Google Earth)
Based on the various references and geographic distribution of ebony, genetic materials for
establishing ex situ genetic conservation stands should be collected from five populations namely
Mamuju (West Sulawesi), Barru (South Sulawesi), East Luwu (South Sulawesi), Parigi Moutong
(Central Sulawesi) and Morowali (Central Sulawesi) as presented in Figure 1. The five populations
should be eco-geographically difference as they are geographically apart. The first two populations
should be sampled because they had a higher genetic diversity than the other populations (Restu,
2007).
2. Number of individuals per population
Sampling multiple individuals within a population is required in order to capture the significant
fraction of genetic diversity (Centre for Plant Conservation, 1991). According to Lawrence and
Marshall (1997), the minimum Ne (effective population size) for ex situ conservation is 172 individuals
per population. While Jaramillo and Baena (2002) recommended as many as 50 individuals should be
sampled for such purpose. The number of samples needs to be increased if there are eco-geographic
or climatic variations. However, Brown and Briggs (1991) stated that in order to capture the diversity
of alleles efficiently, large number of simple per population is not required as “the allelic content of a
simple is proportional to the log of both population and simple size”. The author suggested that at
least 10 individuals per population were considered as sufficient. The Centre for Plant Conservation
(1991), recommended that as many as 10-50 individuals per population should be sampled for the
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purpose of establishing ex situ genetic conservation stands, depending on relevant life-history
characteristics, population history, and other factors affecting the natural distribution of variation.
Thus, sampling in a minimum number of 30 individual unrelated trees from each population of ebony
should be considered as a rational choice due to the fact that ebony population decreased drastically
in its natural distribution or in other words there is limited number of remaining mother trees in each
population.
3. Number of propagules per individual tree
The key consideration of how many propagule should be collected from each individual tree is
the estimation of propagule survival. Collection of many propagules per individual trees is needed to
ensure specific genotypes are represented (Centre for Plant Conservation, 1991). Approximate
number of seeds or wildlings that are taken from each individual tree should consider viability and
persistence of population numbers and should not cause population depletion. For many tree species,
in total 1 to 20 propagules from each individual tree is considered sufficient (Frankham et al., 2002).
Kiding Allo and Sallata (1991) revealed that seed viability of ebony reached up to 90% when they
were instantly germinated after collected from the mother trees. Indeed, 23 seeds are needed to be
collected to get 20 seedlings. However, when the number of fruit is abundant, collecting extra number
of seed will ensure the survivability of the individual tree.
When collection of fruits or seeds of ebony is impractical, collection of wildlings would be the
best choice. Santoso (1997) stated that in the natural forest during the peak season of fruiting, there
was about 500 - 4,000 wildlings of ebony at a radius of 5 m from the mother tree. According to
Sallata and Renden (1991), survival rate of wildlings with 2-4 leaves was up to 87% when they were
wrapped with banana stem bark and stored for 1 week. Therefore, to obtain final number of 20
seedlings, collection of at least 23 wildlings is acceptable. In summary, either seeds or wildlings can
be used as genetic materials for establishing an ex situ genetic conservation stand. At least 23 seeds
or wildlings should be collected from each individual mother tree.
B. Strategy to stands establishment
1. Nursery techniques
a. Seed handling
Fruits should be collected by climbing and picking the ripe fruits on the trees because the fruits
that have been fallen are vulnerable to Penicilliopsis clavariaeformis fungi (Soerianegara, 1967). The
characteristics of the ripe fruit are yellowish red fruit coat, with hairy dark brown seeds inside. Seeds
need to be immediately extracted from the fruits (Figure 2(b)) (Alrasyid, 2002; Santoso, 1997). As a
recalcitrant seed, seed of ebony has a very short longevity. Thus, it should be germinated immediately
after the extraction process is complete to maintain its viability (Figure 2(c)) (Kiding Allo and Sallata,
1991).
Seeds are sown or planted in furrows across the seed bed containing a sterilized soil + sand
(3:1) medium, and then covered by sand with a thickness of ± 2 cm. The seed bed then should be
covered with clear plastic mulch to keep moisture and shading net of 75% to reduce the intensity of
sunlight (Smith, 1997; Alrasyid, 2002). Water twice a day with a fine spray is required up to some 2-3
125
weeks after seeds germination. Germination time ranged from 10 to 30 days after sowing (Sumiasri
and Setyowati, 2006). After this time, when the seedlings have been developed, watering of only once
a day is sufficient. The seedlings should be pricked out and transplanted to pots once the seedlings
have developed to such a stage that further growth will be affected because of competition to light,
water and nutrients with other seedlings. The proper time to do so is when the seed coat was
detached from the cotyledon and the seedling has produced itsfirst two true leaves (Figure 2(d))
(Santoso et al., 2002). The seedlings are ready to be planted in the field after 8-10 months in the
nursery when they reach about 25-30 cm of high (Alrasyid, 2002).
Figure 2.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
A mother tree of ebony (a), a ripe ebony fruit (b) seeds extraction (c), and seedling of
ebony in the nursery (d) (Photo: Prastyono)
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Strategy to Establishment of Ex Situ Genetic Resources …..
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b. Wilding handling
Wildlings should be collected from forest floor i.e. right under each mother tree. To keep the
identity of each wildling, wildlings of each mother tree should be bundled, wrapped and labeled.
During transportation process, the wildling should be kept moist by wrapping their roots with a wet
newspaper, then put in a cardboard box that had been covered with banana stem barks (Figure 3).
According to Sallata and Renden (1991) and Santoso et al. (2002), survival rate of wildlings with 2-4
leaves was up to 87% when they were wrapped with banana stem barks and stored for 1 week while
it decreased to only 60% when they were stored for 3 weeks. The collected ebony wildlings need to
be immediately planted in pots (polyethylene bag) filled with mixture of 1 part of top soil, 1 part of
sand and 1 part of organic manure or humus. The pots are then placed upright into the pot beds to
avoid distortion of the pots. The pot beds should be covered by clear plastic mulch and shaded by
shading net of 75-80% to maintain air humidity and temperature. Water is required once a day up to
some 4-5 months until the seedlings are strong enough and ready to be planted in the field.
Figure 3.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Ebony willings (a), bundling and labeling of wildlings (b) packing of wildlings (c), wilding
transplantation in a nursery (d) (Photo: Prastyono)
127
2. Planting procedures
a. Site Selection and Land Preparation
Security of tenure is of the most important consideration in the selection of sites to establish ex
situ genetic conservation stands. Due to genetic considerations and also to ensure genetic loss, each
population/provenance should be planted on a minimum of 2 sites. Adaptability of the ebony to the
site must be proven, and the stand must be able to produce reproductive materials in the
environmental conditions. Ex situ conservation stands of ebony should be established in areas which
are suitable for ebony as stated by Alrasyid (2002), Paembonan and Nurkin (2002), and Kiding Allo
(2002, 2006).
Land preparations for planting ebony are depending on the land conditions, ebony seedlings, as
a semi-tolerant species, require shadings to protect from full sunlight in early stage of their growth
until the age of five years (Santoso et al., 2002). Firstly, in the open areas, shading plants should be
planted one year prior to planting ebony, so when ebony seedlings are planted, shading plants will
have been able to provide shade. Fast growing tree species that are suitable for shading plant are
Gliricidia sp. and legume species such as lamtoro (Alrasyid, 2002; Santoso et al., 2002). Secondly, in
the areas of logged over areas or areas which have remaining trees or shrubs, ebony can be planted
in an alley as the seedlings will have adequate shade from the remaining vegetations (Alrasyid, 2002;
Santoso et al., 2002).
b. Planting Techniques
Planting should be done when the seedlings have developed sufficiently and are less vulnerable
to climate variation. The species would have reached this stage when they are approximately 25-30
cm high. Hardening-off process should be started at least 2 months before the transplanting is taken
by pruning roots and reducing the amount of water supplied.
Square or rectangular spacing planting patterns can be employed for planting ebony. A 5 x 5 m
square spacing is recommended by Santoso et al. (2002). It is recommended to hoe an area about 50
cm around the planting hole to clear all vegetations with their roots to reduce competition for water
and nutrients by weeds. Planting holes with a diameter of 30 cm and 30 cm dept are usually sufficient
for ebony. If necessary, 20 grams of NPK fertilizer can be applied at the bottom of the holes before
planting. Finally, ebony seedlings should be planted in each hole by removing the polyethylene
bag/container pot before placing the seedling into the planting hole (Santoso et al., 2002).
Replacement planting is generally not necessary if the survival rate is greater than 80%.
However, since the plantation purpose is to maintain genetic diversity, replacement planting for every
single dead tree would be necessary. It could be done a month after seedling had been planted.
c. Layout
FAO (1977) has recommended that stand size for ex situ genetic conservation stands established
for the maintenance of variation over many generations, and subject to open pollination, is more than
10 ha. Potential of genetic drift will increase sharply with decreasing stand size. However, it is
impractical to do so when the site availability is limited. It is therefore plantation in an area of at least
1.5 ha per population would be a rationalone.
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Each population should be planted in a separate area to prevent genetic contamination among
populations so that population differentiation is maintained. In other words, ex situ conservation
stands must be adequately isolated from contaminating pollen from outside sources, including
hybridizing, or potentially hybridizing, species and provenances (FAO, 1977). FAO (1977) has
recommended that a minimum isolation strip of 330 m is required around ex situ conservation stands.
If it is possible to identify each seedling of each mother tree (family), plantation in a single tree
plot would give more benefit and minimize inbreeding as each tree is surrounded by different families.
This is the concept of the third-era genetic resources conservation by Soekotjo (2001). When wildings
are to be used as genetic material source, it is likely impractical to ensure the identity of each wilding.
In this case planting ebony as a bulk for each population is of a reasonable decision.
3. Protecting Young Trees and Shading Trees Removal
Although ebony seedlings require shade, they do not require any root competition for water and
nutrients. Weeding is therefore important to help the seedlings survive the competition with fast
growing weed species. As a rule of thumb, three or four weeding operations should be carried out in
the first year of planting, and two or three in the second year and another one in the next years
(Smith et al., 2002). Fertilizing or adding manure to the soil will improve the growth of seedlings. A
small amount of fertilizer is applied after weeding is complete and after rain to reduce the risk of the
fertilizer washed away.
The young trees also need to be protected from grazing, trampling, pest and diseases and fire.
Since grazing, trampling and most fires are usually caused by man, education of the general public is
often the best way to prevent such threats. While pest and diseases established in the plantation can
be controlled by chemicals and baits.
Seedlings of ebony require full shade until the age of 3 months, whereas at the age of 6 months
needs only 40-60% of shade. Therefore, shading plants should be gradually removed once the
seedlings reached the age of 6 months. The young plants should be free of shading plants by the age
of 5 years (Smith and Misto, 1995).
4. Stands Evaluation and Characterization
The ex situ stands should be periodically monitored and evaluated to determine their adaptability
of each ebony population to the new environment. Characterization to the stands includes following
characteristics namely growth, morphological and genetic characterization, reproductive biology and
wood properties of each ebony population.
IV. CONCLUDING REMARK
Understanding distribution of population and genetics diversity of ebony is crucial for establishing
ex situ genetic conservation stands.
Method and sampling procedures play a critical role in
determining the quality of collected genetic materials for the purpose of establishing such stands. The
ex situ genetic conservation stands should be established in areas that are secure and suitable for
ebony to optimally grows and be able to regenerate.
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REFERENCES
Alrasyid, H. 2002. Kajian Budidaya Pohon Eboni. Berita Biologi Vol. 6 (2). LIPI, Jakarta
Brown, A.H.D. and J.D. Briggs. 1991. Sampling Strategies for Genetic Variation in Ex situ Collections of
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conservation/selection stands. Annexes 7/1 and 7/2. In: Fourth Session of the FAO Expert
Panel of Forest Genetic Resources. Held in Canberra, Australia, 9–11 March 1977. FAO,
Rome.
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University Press, Cambridge.
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forest genetic resources. Danida Forest Seed Centre. Denmark.
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IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. <www.iucnredlist.org>.
Downloaded on 09 August 2012.
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International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Cali, Colombia.
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Kiding Allo, M. 2006. Spread Position and Habitat of Ebony (Diospyros celebica Bakh) Growth
Requirements for Production Stripe in Sulawesi. Proceeding of the International Seminar on
Plantation Forest Research and Development. Yogyakarta.
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Perkecambahan Eboni. Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan, BPK Ujung Pandang
Lawrence, M.J. and D.F. Marshall. 1997. Plant population genetics. In: Maxted, N., B.V. Fored-Lloyd,
and J.G Hawkes. (eds) Plant genetic conservation. Pp: 99-113. Chapman and Hall. New York
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Berita Biologi Vol. 6 (2). LIPI, Jakarta
Restu, M. 2007. Keragaman Genetik Lima Provenansi Eboni (D. Celebica Bakh) untuk Pemiliaan Pohon
dan Konservasi Genetik. Disertasi S3, Program Pasca Sarjana Hasanuddin. Makassar.
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Sallata, M.K. dan R. Renden. 1991. Pengaruh lama penyimpanan dan jumlah daun terhadap
pertumbuhan anakan Eboni. Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan, Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Ujung
Pandang.
Santoso, B. 1997. Pedoman teknis budidaya eboni (Diospyros celebica Bakh). Balai Penelitian
Kehutanan, Makasar.
Santoso, B. 2002. Status dan Strategi Pemuliaan Pohon Eboni (Diospyros celebica Bakh.). Berita
Biologi Vol. 6 (2). LIPI, Jakarta
Santoso, B. dan Misto. 1995. Pengaruh tingkat naungan terhadap pertumbuhan anakan eboni di
lapangan. Jurnal Penelitian Kehutanan, BPK Ujung Pandang.
Santoso, B., C. Anwar dan S. Nompo. 2002. Pembudidayaan pohon eboni (Diospyros cerlebica Bakh.).
Berita Biologi Vol. 6 (2). LIPI, Jakarta
Skroppa, T. 2005. Ex situ conservation methods. In: Geburek, T., dan Turok, J. (Eds). Conservation
and Management of Forest Genetic Resources in Europe. Arbora Publisher, Zvolen.
Soekotjo. 2001. The status of ex situ conservation of commercial trees in Indonesia pp 147 – 160. In :
Thielges, B.A., S.D. Sastraparja and A. Rimbawanto (eds). Proceeding : Seminar on in situ
and ex situ conservation of commercial tropical trees. Gadjah Mada University and
International Tropical Timber Organization. Yogyakarta
Soerianegara, I. 1967. Beberapa keterangan tentang jenis-jenis eboni. Pengumuman No. 12. Lembaga
Penelitian Hutan, Bogor.
Soerianegara, I., D.S. Alonzo, S. Sudo, and M.S.M. Sosef. 1995. Diospyros L. In Timber Trees: Minor
Commercial Timbers. Plant Resources of Southeast Asia. PROSEA 5(2), 185-205. Lemmens,
R.H.M.J, I. Soerianegara and W.C. Wong (Eds.) Bogor
Sumiasri, N. dan N.Setyowati. 2006. Pengaruh Beberapa Media pada Pertumbuhan Bibit Eboni
(Diospyros celebica Bakh.) melalui Perbanyakan Biji. Biodiversitas Vol. 7 (3).
Sunaryo. 2002. Konservasi Eboni (Diospyros celebica Bakh.). Berita Biologi Vol. 6 (2). LIPI, Jakarta
Widyatmoko, A.Y.P.B.C., I.L.G. Nurtjahjaningsih, Prastyono. 2011. Study on the level of genetic
diversity of Diospyros celebica, Eusideroxylon zwagery and Michelia spp. using RAPD markers.
Project report of ITTO PROJECT PD 539/09 REV.1 (F). Centre for Conservation and
Rehabilitation Research and Development. Bogor
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Evaluation of Ironwood …..
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Evaluation of Ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm & Binn) Health at
KHDTK Sumberwringin in Bondowoso for Supporting Ironwood Genetic
Conservation1
Yuliah2
ABSTRACT
Ironwood (Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. & Binn.) is one of commercial tree species that is
categorized as vulnerable species required urgent conservation action. Ironwood genetic conservation
has been developed in KHDTK Sumberwringin, Bondowoso since 2004. To support silvicultural
treatment and minimize damages, health monitoring is needed to understand impacts of pests,
diseases, nutrient deficiencies and further adverse consequences. The purpose of this study is to
diagnose ironwood damages and to evaluate its health status. The study was conducted at the age of
9 years after planting. The plantation consists of four populations with 3 replications and 25 tree plots.
Damage assessment was conducted using FHM guidance (Alexander and Barnard, 1995). The
parameters measured were percentage of damage and Value of Damage Index (VDI). The results
showed that VDI of ironwood on ex-situ conservation plot was categorized as mild (3.41). The
damage on the leaves was dominant in the form of perforated leaves, brown spot and white patches.
While on the stem were caused by epiphytes. Heavy shade and high rainfall are probably the main
causes of the damages. Despite mild damages, anticipative management is required, for example, by
gradually lowering the shading through thinning or punning.
Key Words: Ironwood, evaluation, health, genetic conservation
I. INTRODUCTION
Ulin (Eusideroxylon zwagery T. Et B) is one of the commercial species of Indonesian tropical
forests, especially in the southern part of the island of Sumatra, Bangka Belitung and Kalimantan
(Susanto, 2006). Ironwood demand is driven by the nature of wood which has a good quality in
terms of strength and durability. Utilization of ironwood is varied, such as for buildings, bridges, and
marine hull. Ironwood forest exploitation occurred in the long-range nature, but with less successful
regeneration Ulin grows slowly and takes time to be ready for harvesting. The average increase in
1
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
2
Balai Besar Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan
Jl. Palagan Tentara pelajar Km 15, Purwobinangun, Pakem, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Telp (0274) ; Fax (0274)
Email: [email protected]
133
diameter at a rate of young trees can reach 9.5 mm in a good condition. Maximum diameter size at
age 40 is 36 cm, and it can take 100 years to reach a diameter of 50 cm. Exploitation and destruction
of forest habitat are considered the cause of the shrinking population of ironwood in nature. In South
Sumatra and Jambi, ironwood species are hard to find (Junaidah, et al, 2006), while in Kalimantan is
still available, but in very small amounts (Wahjono and Imanuddin, 2011). IUCN (2012) included
ironwood in the category of Vulnerable A1cd ironwood +2 cd. Therefore, conservation of ironwood
becomes a very urgent action.
Since 2004, Center for Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research has started developing
conservation of ironwood at KHDTK Sumberwringin, Bondowoso. Genetic materials were collected
from 4 populations, namely: Nanga Tayap (West Kalimantan), Source Barito (Central Kalimantan),
Sepaku (East Kalimantan), and Seruyan Hulu (Central Kalimantan). To support the conservation
efforts, regular monitoring needs to be done to minimize the damages of pests, diseases, nutrient
deficiencies and others. Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) is one method of health stand monitoring
assessment through classifying types and proportions of damages per individual plant. That
information is the basis for the managers to determine necessary silvicultural treatments. The purpose
of this study is to assess the damages on plots conservation ironwood in Sumberwringin, Bondowoso,
to know the status of population stand health.
II. MATERIALS and METHODS
A.
Location and Time
Forest health monitoring was conducted in the genetic conservation plots in Sumberwringin,
Bondowoso. The plots is located in the village of Wringinanom, Sukosari, East Java. According to the
Schmidt and Ferguson climate classification, it is included into climate B with rainfall 2,400 mm/year.
Soil type is andosol with slope between 0 and 15%, altitude of 800 m above sea level. The study was
conducted in March 2013.
B.
Materials
Research materials are 9-year stands of ironwood from 4 provenances. The origins of the genetic
material are presented in Table 1.
Table 1. The Origin of Genetic Material of Ironwood
No
Provenances
Locations
1
Nanga Tayap
Natural Arboretum area of PT Suka Jaya Makmur, Nanga Tayap
District, Ketapang, West Kalimantan.
2
Barito
Barito River District, Murung Raya, Central Kalimantan.
3
Sepaku
Areal Sources Seed PT ITCI KU Ulin, Sepaku District, North Paser
Penajam, East Kalimantan.
4
Seruyan Hulu
PT Sari Bumi Kusuma, Seruyan Hulu District, East Kotawaringin,
Central Kalimantan.
Source: Research reports of Ironwood, 2004
Research equipment needed include: stationery, map plant, FHM manual and the tally sheet.
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C. Research Design
The procedures of the research of forest health monitoring are as follows:
1. Observation and damage measurement. This activity was carried out in all plants in the plots. FHM
guidelines developed by the USDA Forest Service (Alexander and Barnard, 1995) was used. The
data collected was tree damage location (L), the type of damage (T) and the level of severity (S)
based on existing guidance (Table 2,3,4). The data were then calculated using the value of the
damage index code and the weight of the index value of the damage.
Table 2. Tree damage location
Code
Description
Value (x)
0
No damage
1,5
1
Roots (exposed) and stump (0,3 m from ground level)
2
2
Roots and lower bole
2
3
Lower bole ( lower half of the trunk between the stump and base of
1,8
the live crown
4
Lower and upper bole
1,8
5
Upper bole (upper half of the trunk between stump and base of the
1,6
live crown)
6
Crownstem
7
Branches
1,2
1
8
Buds and shoots
1
9
Foliage
1
Source : Alexander and Barnard, 1995
Table 3. Type of damage
code
Description
Value (y)
01
cancer
1,9
02
Conks, fruiting bodies, and other indicators of advanced decay
1,7
03
Open wounds
1,5
04
Resinosis or gummosis
1,5
11
Broken bole or roots less than 0.91 m from bole
1,6
12
Brooms on roots or bole
1,3
13
Broken or dead roots
1
21
Loss of apical dominance, dead terminal
1
22
Broken or dead
1
23
Excessive branching or brooms
1
24
Damage foliage or shoots
1
25
Discoloration of foliage
1
Source : Alexander and Barnard, 1995
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Table 4. Severity grade
code
classes (%)
Value (z)
1
01 – 19
1,1
2
20 – 29
1,2
3
30 – 39
1,3
4
40 – 49
1,4
5
50 – 59
1,5
6
60 – 69
1,6
7
70 – 79
1,7
8
80 – 89
1,8
9
90 – 99
1,9
Source : Alexander and Barnard, 1995
2. Data Analisys :
a. Calculation of the percentage of certain types of damage in the plot used the following formula:
% of damage = Number of plants that experienced type of damage X 100%
Total number of plants in a plot
b. Calculation of Value Damage Index (VDI), which is the final calculation to determine tree damage
level observed (healthy, mild, moderate, severe) used VDI formulas:
VDI = X.Y.Z
Notes:
VDI = Value of Damage Index
X
= The weights on the type of damage
Y
= The weight value at the location of damage
Z
= The weights on the severity of damage
c. To determine the effect of block provenance and origin of the damage on trees, the data were
analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and if found differences, it was followed by Duncan's
Multiple Range Test (Duncan `s Multiple Range Test-DMRT). The mathematical model used is:
Yij
= μ + B1 + Pj + ε ij
Notes:
Yij
=
μ
=
Pj
=
=
Bi
ε ij
=
characteristics measured
average population
effect of the j-th population
effect of the i-th block
Error or influence to the rest –ij
III. RESULTS and DISCUSSIONS
A. Type and Percentage of the Damage
The percentage of survival plants in conservation plot of ironwood at Sumberwringin, Bondowoso
is 56% (169 of 300 plants live plants). In addition, the results showed that all plants experience
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Evaluation of Ironwood …..
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damages with different intensity and type. The most dominant damage occurs in the leaves and
stems. The type and frequency of damage can be seen in Figure 1.
100.00
90.00
80.00
70.00
60.00
50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
Perforated
foliage
Brown Spot
White
Patches
Black
Mildew
Epiphytes
Figure 1. Chart type and frequency of damage to the conservation of ironwood in Sumberwringin plot,
Bondowoso.
Types of damage
1. Perforated foliage
This damage is in the form of a hole in the center of the leaves or tears irregularly covering
almost all the plants (94.08%). This damage can be caused by diseases or pests. Diseases lead to loss
of leaf epidermis and leave a small hole on the leaf surface. It is found two types of pests, that is,
grasshoppers and caterpillars. Grasshoppers and caterpillars bite the leaves causing damage in the
form of tears. Grasshopper bites usually start from the edge of the leaf up to the middle (Laetemian
and Rumthe, 2011). The caterpillars feed leaves but leave the skeleton leaves. Hole or tear in the leaf
areas of the leaves disappear thereby affecting the process of photosynthesis. Disruption of
photosynthesis process will ultimately impact on plant growth.
Figure 2. Damages to the leaves in the form of perforated.
137
2. Brown spot
Brown spotting on ironwood plant is found in about two third (60.95%) of the stands.
Observable phenomena such as clumped brown spots, blotches surrounding, leaves turning to
yellowish color can be indications of this damage type. These patches are seen in part or whole leaf
surfaces. Damaged leaves is generally found in young leaves. Similar conditions are also found in the
study of Ngatiman and Armansyah (2006) who examined the ironwood pest in the nursery. This
disease occurs because the alleged attack Penicillium sp. Further impact of this brown spotting is
leaves becoming dry and fall down.
Figure 3. Brown spot on foliage
3. White Patches
Symptoms of this disease are white patches on the leaf surface, initially in the form of small
round spots which then expands. In severe cases, white patches will cover almost the entire surface
of the leaves making the leaves look dull. The intensity of these attacks is quite high, at 84.62% of
the plant. The cause of this disease is unknown. Looking at the high intensity of their attacks, this
condition would also inhibit the photosynthesis process of plants.
Figure 4. White patches on foliage
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Evaluation of Ironwood …..
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4. Black Mildew
Black spots on
leaves surface
Figure 5. Black Mildew on ironwood foliage
Damage caused by black mildew mold on plants in plots ironwood Sumberwringin conservation is
relatively low, only 1.78%. Sooty mold disease is caused by a fungus Capnodium sp which belongs to
the class Ascomycetes (Anggraeni and Lelana, 2011). Initial attack begins with the onset of symptoms
of the disease black coating on the leaf surfaces. The black coating is because of melanoid pigment in
the cell walls of hyphae that form a colony (mycelium). Mycelium grows on the surface of leaves,
covering stomata and leaf tissues, so that it will disrupt the host plants (Sastrahidayat, 1990;
Suryanto, 2010; Anggraeni and Lelana, 2011). In dry seasons, Capnodium sp will multiply rapidly and
decrease in the rainy season. As the time of this study was in the rainy season (March), this damage
is rarely found but it needs to be inspected as in the dry season this disease would likely to increase.
Although it is not a deadly disease, disruption of the process of photosynthesis in the leaves will result
in stunted plant growth.
5. Epiphytes
Epiphytes are plants that ride on other plants as a place to live but it does not take nutrients
from their host. Water is obtained from the surrounding environment such as rain, moisture and dew.
Mineral nutrient requirements are obtained from dust or other plant decomposition. Though they do
not take nutrients from ironwood plants, epiphytes can be a competitor in obtaining sunlight.
Sometimes epiphyte roots also penetrate to the tree, covering the stem and disturbing the balance of
the physiology of their host plants. Epiphytes are found in the plots and dominated by Lichens and
Fungi. It also is found other species, i.e: Ptherydophyta, Orchidaceae, and lianas. The availability of
these organisms is quite a lot, accounted at 97.63%.
139
Figure 6. Lichens, moss, ferns on the ironwood trunk
B. The Value of Damage Index (VDI)
VDI in conservation plots for each provenance ironwood and blocks are presented in the figure 7.
4.5
4
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
Nanga Tayap
Sumber Barito
Sepaku
Seruyan Hulu
Provenances
Block 1
Block 2
Block 3
Average
Figure 7. Damage index graph ironwood value of each provenance and block
To determine differences in VDI based on provenance and origin of the block, analysis of
variance test was conducted and the result can be seen in Table 5.
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Evaluation of Ironwood …..
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Tabel 5. Analysis of variance for VDI of ironwood at KHDTK Sumberwringin, Bondowoso.
Source
Intercept
Hypothesis
Type II Sum
of Squares
141.090
.641 2
.320(a)
Hypothesis
Error
blok
Mean Square
141.090 1
Error
Provenance
df
Hypothesis
Error
.039 3
.013
1.095 6
.182(b)
.641 2
.320
1.095 6
.182(b)
F
Sig.
440.34
4
.002
.072
.973
1.756
.251
a MS (blok)
b MS (Error)
It is observed that the average VDI of ironwood for all provenances is 3.41. Based on each
provenance, the VDI ranges from 3.35 to 3.54 for provenance Nanga Tayap, West Kalimantan and
provenance Barito, Central Kalimantan, respectively. According to Khoiri (2004) VDI on the ironwood
includes lightweight. Results of analysis of variance show no significant differences both in provenance
and replication. This shows all of the populations have the similar susceptibility to disease infestations.
Environmental conditions in different blocks do not significantly affect the level of damage.
Based on the VDI, the level of damages of ironwood stands in conservation plots in
Sumberwringin is only minor, but the intensity of their attacks is quiet serious. Based on this
information, it is required to act immediately a precaution measure in order to avoid greater damage
and pest and disease outbreak. The amount of diseases, pests and plant pests on conservation plot
ironwood in Sumberwringin is likely influenced by environmental factors, such as altitude, rainfall,
temperature, and intensity of the sunlight. Observation sites are located at an altitude of 800 meters
above sea level with a fairly high rainfall (2,400 mm/year). Habitus ironwood trees shade canopy that
has a broad shape also allows increased moisture and sunlight intensity reduction. Agrios (1996)
stated humidity affects the expansion and disease attack rate. It is necessary for ironwood to be
planted under storey, because ironwood seedlings and sapling require a heavy shade (Soerianegara
and Lemmens, 1993). However, at the next stage young trees need sufficient sunlight to grow.
Therefore, silvicultural treatment, such as thinning at this stage need to be taken to open the shading
intensity of ironwood stand. In addition, regular maintenance such as cleaning brush, epiphytes and
other plant pests should also be prescribed.
IV. CONCLUSION
1.
Type of damage that occurs in the conservation plot ironwood include: perforated and torn
leaves (94.08%), brown spots on the leaves (60.95%), white patches on the leaves (84.62%),
black mildew (1.78%) and epiphytes (97.63%)
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2.
The average value of damage index in ironwood plot is 3.41 categorized as mild damage, but
prevention is required to be done in order to avoid greater damage and outbreak. Actions that
can be performed include routine maintenance and gradual reduction of the shading intensity.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors are grateful to Eritrina Windyarini and Nur Hidayati who gave generous and valuable
feedbacks on writing this paper and research direction.
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Gunung Lawu. Biodiversitas 1(1):14-20
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5(1) Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Pudoc Scientific Publishers, Wageningen.
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Susanto, M. 2006. Status Litbang Ulin (Eusideroxylon zwagery T. Et B) Puslitbang Hutan tanaman.
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Wahjono, D., dan Imanuddin, R. 2011. Sebaran, Potensi dan Pertumbuhan/Riap Ulin (Eusideroxylon
zwageri Teijsm & Binn) di Hutan Alam Bekas Tebangan di kalimantan. Makalah pada
Prosiding Lokakarya nasional Status Konservasi dan Formulasi jenis Jenis Pohon yang
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Bird Species Richness on the Wae Wuul Nature Reserve …..
Feri Irawan
Bird Species Richness on the Wae Wuul Nature Reserve :
Using Simple Method in Helping the Official Authority do Long-Term
Monitoring1
Feri Irawan2
ABSTRACT
Wae Wuul Nature Reserve (WWNR) is one of the Important Bird Areas (IBA) in the northern part of
Nusa Tenggara. This area represents the natural grassland ecosystem on the island of Flores.
However, the data and information related to bird species diversity is still limited. The objectives of
this study were to determine the bird species richness rapidly and introduce a simple survey method
to the official staff for further monitoring. The birds inhabiting the Wae Wuul area were surveyed
between July, 31 and August, 4 2012 using random walk approach and 10 birds species list which
developed from MacKinnon list method. A total of 1281 individual birds belonging to 36 families and
61 species was recorded, including 10 restricted-bird species and one endangered species. A
significant proportion of species in the Wae Wuul area were shrub and woodland specialists. The
species discovery curve shows the number of species in this area is possible rise up to 80 species.
The results demonstrate that the method is good enough to determine the bird species richness and
the relative frequency of a particular bird species. In addition, this method is easy to use by anyone
and suitable for monitoring bird diversity further.
Keywords: Important Birds Area (IBA), bird richness, monitoring, methods
I. INTRODUCTION
Wae Wuul Nature Reserve (WWNR) is proposed to protect the dry grassland ecosystem which is
a typical habitat of ancient reptile, the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis). In addition, this
region is also home to one globally threatened species, Flores Crow (Corvus florensis) and four
restricted-range bird species (Trainor et al., 2000). The existence of those birds makes the area
identified as one of the Important Bird Areas (IBA) in Northern Nusa Tenggara according to BirdLife
International criteria (Sujatnika et al. 1995, Rombang et al., 2000). Unfortunately, most of them are
poorly known to be entered on such records.
Since Wae Wuul area is proposed to be a conservation area by the FAO / UNDP 1982, the
avifaunal survey are generally lacking. The existing data is a list of bird species recorded in 1998 by
1
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP.
Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Burung Indonesia Mbeliling Program, c/o Jalan Dadali No 32 Bogor, West Java 16161
Corresponding Author: [email protected]
145
Trainor and Lesmana (2000) based on their one day visit. At least 37 species of birds were recorded.
And the recent studies conducted in 2008 by Purwandana et al. (2008) by involving official staff from
management. During ten days observation, they have collected 45 species of birds. Surprisingly
enough, although there are significant differences in effort but the number of species recorded is not
much different. However, the information from both studies can be used as a reference for further
research, especially related to bird species richness.
Species richness is simply a count of species present in a sample, community, or taxonomy
group (Mc Ginley & Duffy, 2010). It is also widely used as a criterion when assessing the
relative conservation values of habitats or landscapes (Brook et al., 2006).
Currently, the management of the area conducted by the Balai Besar Konservasi Sumber Daya
Alam, Nusa Tenggara Timur based on Forestry Ministerial Decree Number 427/Kpts-II/1996 dated
August 9, 1996 with an area of 1484.84 ha and under status as a nature reserves. The manager has
an important role in ensuring the critical value of the area is maintained in the future. Therefore, it is
necessary to assess and monitor biodiversity as part of the management aspects. However, these
needs are still constrained by capacity issues and budget allocation. Thus, there is an urgent need to
develop a simple and inexpensive method to assess and monitor the condition of biodiversity in the
long term.
The objectives of the study were to conduct a rapid assessment on bird richness in WWNR and
surrounding areas. This study also try to shared knowledge to
the official staff about a simple
method that would be useful for monitoring in the future and it called listing methods.
II. STUDY AREA
Wae Wuul Nature Reserve (WWNR) is administratively located in two rural areas, Warloka and
Macang Tanggar, Komodo district, West Manggarai regency. It is about 15 km to the south of the
city Labuanbajo. The location is accessible by dirt road during dry season or sea routes by motor
boats from Labuanbajo to Warloka, the nearest villagest on the coast. The altitude of the areas from
0m to 300m above sea level.
The annual rainfall less than 800 mm. The small river in the area will dry up during dry seasons.
However, there some fairly large rivers in the north and eastern areas are still flowing. The monsoon
forest vegetation is usually found along that river, e.g kesambi ( Schleichera oleosa), kelumpang
(Sterculia foetida), kapok (Ceiba petandra), asam (Tamarindus indica), dan Ara (Ficus sp.).
WWNR has a diverse range of habitat. Almost the areas covering by natural grassland and in
some places also found palm family inside, e.g gebang (Corypha utan) and lontar (Borassus
flabellifer). WWNR also has limited area with characterize as deciduous forest, shrubland and inland
water (swamp, riverine, lake).
The landscape is also directly adjacent to the settlement and
cultivation areas in eastern and northern part regions.
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Bird Species Richness on the Wae Wuul Nature Reserve …..
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CAMP
Titik Pengamatan
147
Figure 1. Map of Wae Wuul Nature Reserves
III. METHODS
This paper is based on rapid bird survey that targeted closed-canopy forest. However large
expanses of savanna and cultivation in this area were also given priority. Another site, Dolat wetland,
was visited briefly in the last day and the results are quite significant for overall effort. This survey
was carried out in Wae Wuul Nature Reserves (WWNR), West Manggarai regency, East Nusa
Tenggara, in three days observation, July 31st to August 2nd 2012.
The observations were made in the morning (from 06:00) and afternoon (from 15:00) by two
teams working who make observations on the path and walking the opposite direction at random.
Observers are advised to walk slowly, exploring the areas and record all bird species identified in the
list. Each team consisting two person and lead by an experienced observer to avoid misidentification.
Birds identification was refer to Coates and Bishop 1997.
Birds were recorded opportunistically. The relative abundance was assessed from 46 tenspecies lists, which adapted from the 20-species lists described in MacKinnon et al. 2010. The tenspecies lists were used to compensate for the relatively low number of species present at the field
sites. Each lists only includes the first ten bird species observed in a sample area, but same species
may also be recorded on a different list. The bird species richness estimated using a species
discovery curve (Bibby et al. 2000). The curve drawn by replacing unit of survey effort with the
number of lists and plotting this against the cumulative total number of species.
IV. RESULT
A total of 1,281 identifications of 61 bird species were recorded during this survey, yielding 46
ten-species Mackinnon lists. These result includes ten resticted-birds species such as Flores Crow
(Corvus florensis) which is one of endemic bird in Flores, Brown-capped Fantail (Rhipidura diluta),
Yellow-spectacled White-eye (Zosterops wallacei), White-rumped Kingfisher (Caridonax fulgidus),
Flame-breasted Sunbird (Nectarinia solaris), Wallace’s Scops-owl (Otus silvicola), Flores minivet
(Pericrocotus lansbergei), Thick-billed White-eye (Heleia crassirostris), Black-fronted Flowerpecker
(Dicaeum igniferum), and Golden-rumped Flowerpecker (Dicaeum annae). Detail information about
these records can be found in appendix 1. Summary of the study are shown in Table 1.
The relative abundance of each species was calculated, and found eleven birds species with the
highest value as shown in Table 2. The higher values of those birds gives a clear picture that the
eleven species are fairly easy to find than other species during field observation. All those species
are often found in open areas (eg cultivated areas, forest edges), and there are only a few species
are also found in the forest area such as Common Whistler (Pachycephala pectoralis) and Wallacean
Drongo (Dicrurus densus).
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Table 1.
Summary of three days observations in Wae Wuul Nature Reserve and surrounding
areas.
Distribution & Conservation status
Total of birds species
Total of individual birds
Number of species
61
1281
Endemic to Northern Nusa Tenggara
10
Endemic to island of Flores
1
IUCN RedList Category (2011)
1.
Least Concern
61
2.
Near-threatened
1
3.
Vulnerable
-
4.
Endangered
1
Appendix CITES Category (2011)
1.
Appendix II
8
2.
Not evaluated
55
National Law Protection (PP no. 7 & 8 1999)
1.
Protected
17
2.
Not yet protected
46
The results above show clearly that the WWNR are important sites for bird conservation both
local, regional and global levels. New record for the five restricted-range birds species in this area
are also obtained in this study. Thus, the WWNR’s status as on of the important birds area in
Wallacea region is getting stronger.
The relationship between the species and its habitat are also evaluated briefly. Based on the
observation, about 56 percent of the bird species that were observed live in a open-canopy system
(see fig. 2). Bird species that live in the open areas more easy detected than areas with closedcanopy. The open canopy system involved savanna, cultivated area, shurb and forest edges. The
other classes of habitat was closed canopy system that typically as deciduous forest, and the last is
inland water (eg. small river, swamp, ponds).
149
inland water
13%
Closed area
31%
Open area
56%
Figure 2. Proportion of observed bird species’s habitat preference.
The species discovery curve in Figure 3 shows that the curve is likely to rise. This is due to 14
new birds recorded in brief visit in wetland area on the last day observation. This suggests that the
more varied habitats visited, the opportunities new species observed more increase.
Table 2. List of birds species with the highest relative abundance values.
No.
Species
List repeated
Relative
abundance
Category
1
Streptopelia chinensis
30
0.75
abundant
2
Pachycephala pectoralis
25
0.63
Common
3
Dicrurus densus
24
0.60
Common
4
Nectarinia solaris
24
0.60
Frequent
5
Geopelia maugei
24
0.60
Frequent
6
Lonchura molucca
23
0.58
Frequent
7
Hypothymis azurea
22
0.55
Frequent
8
Merops ornatus
21
0.53
Frequent
9
Chalcophaps indica
21
0.53
Frequent
10
Nectarinia jugularis
20
0.50
Frequent
11
Saxicola caprata
19
0.48
Frequent
Finally, by using a logarithmic regression based on the curve, the estimated number of species
that can be found in WWNR and surrounding areas are 80 species of birds. Its meant about 76
percent of the total birds in this area have been covered in this study. The equation was chosen
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because (i) the lack of information about the avifauna in the WWNR, (ii) the study area is quite
spacious which is currently not possible to be done thoroughly and (iii) a heterogeneous habitat
types (Bibby et al. 2000).
Figure 3. Species curves from rapid birds survey in Wae Wuul Nature Reserve and surrounding
areas during three days observation.
70
Number of species
60
50
y = 12,329ln(x) + 5,4969
R² = 0,9292
40
30
20
10
0
1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28
31
34
37
40
43
46
Number of lists
V. DISCUSSION
This study found higher species richness of bird than the previous studies. A total of 61 birds species
were recorded in the present study including 59 considered resident, and two migrant species such
as Sacred Kingfisher (Todiramphus sanctus), then Rainbow Bee-eater (Merops ornatus). The five
restricted-range bird species also recorded in this study as previously reported. And now, the total to
ten species because of the new record for the five other restricted-range in the region.
This rapid assessment on bird richness that was carried out in the major groups of habitat in WWNR
serve as a valuable measure for determine changes in species richness in long-term bird monitoring.
By using listing methods, less skilled observers can still produce lists of species as long as they want.
They provide a simple measure of relative abundance as shown in Table 2. Common species will
occur on many lists, and the rare species on only a few.
As shown in Figure 3, the number of bird species will increase when the studies conducted in diverse
habitat with sufficient duration of time. It is also important to remember that the detection
probability of an individual species will be different depend on the habitat types. In an open area,
the opportunity to detect the presence of a bird is better than area with dense canopy. In generally,
the birds in the forest or closed-canopy system is a cryptic species so that why they are quite difficult
to observe.
Although the species curve on Figure 3 shows that the curve is likely to rise, most of the bird species
that were common in the WWNR during the time survey had been recorded. It can be seen from the
percentage of the number of species recorded with an estimated value of species richness.
151
The results presented in this paper provide enough information that the method list is quite easily
applied by anyone. In addition, The methods is low cost, simple and can provide useful information
for conservation planning that easy to understand and explain to audiens. However, this approach
has the considerabel weakness to answer certain needs, such as population estimation.
VI. CONCLUSION
The present study gives signigicant results about bird species richness that can be found in the
WWNR and surrounding areas. During three days observation using ten-species list, sixty-one
species was recorded. It includes ten restricted-range birds species for the Northern Nusa Tenggara.
Five of them are new records for this site such as White-rumped Kingfisher (Caridonax fulgidus),
Flores minivet (Pericrocotus lansbergei), Thick-billed White-eye (Heleia crassirostris), Wallace’s
Scops-owl (Otus silvicola) and Flame-breasted Sunbird (Nectarinia solaris). The observations of those
bird are valuable information to the ongoing IBA monitoring project as well as management
planning.
A species richness approach using listing methods can be applied by anyone even for people
who have not been able to recognize any bird species well. The methods is low cost, simple and can
provide useful information for conservation planning. The resutl also can be displayed in various
forms of graphs or curves that are easy to understand and explain to others. They are not only
suitable for rapid assessments of poorly known areas but also can be used in population for longterm monitoring.
ACKNOWNLEDGEMENT
I would like to thanks, Mr. Ora Yohanes, the Head of Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam
Section II Ruteng and Wae Wuul NR’s officials at Labuan Bajo for giving me permission to work in
Wae Wuul NR. I am also greatful to my teammates; Nur Sita Hamzati (undergraduate student of
Sepuluh November Technology Institute) and Faizal Abdul Aziz (undergraduate student of Bogor
Agricultural University), who assisted in data collection. The study was funded by the Ministry of
Foreign Affairs of Denmarks – DANIDA through joint program between Dansk Ornithologist Forening
(DOF), based in Denmark and BirdLife Indonesian Association (Burung Indonesia).
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Bentang Alam Mbeliling yang Produktif dan Berkelanjutan.[internal report]. Labuan Bajo,
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Brook, T.M, R.A. Mittermeier, G.A.B da Fonseca, J. Gerlach, M. Hoffmann, J.F. Lamoreux, C.G.
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Coates, B.J. dan K.D. Bishop. 1997. A guide to the Birds of Wallacea. Dove Publications.
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Gould, W. 2000. Remote Sensing of Vegetation, Plant Species Richness and Regional Biodiversity
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Mackinnon, J., K. Phillipps, dan B. van Balen. 2010. Burung-Burung di Sumatera, Jawa, Bali dan
Kalimantan. Burung Indonesia. Bogor.
Magurran, A. E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton University Press.
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Monk, K.A., Y. de Fretes, and G. Lilley. 1997. The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku.
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Mukwashi, K. 2011. Rapid Assessment of Bird Richness and Habitat Condition in Tourist Areas in
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Cagar Alam Wae Wuul. Laporan Kegiatan. Balai Besar Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam
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Rombang, W.M., C. Trainor, dan D. Lesmana. 2002. Daerah Penting bagi Burung: Nusa
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Bird Species Richness on the Wae Wuul Nature Reserve …..
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List of bird species that found in the Nature Reserve and surrounding Wuul Wae.
Name
x
x
status
PP No. 7/1999
Name
Conservation
CITES (2011)
Indonesia
Tranor dkk.
(2000)
Inggris
Trainor &
Lesmana
(2000)
Species
Purwandana
dkk. (2008)
Family
Present
No.
Migratory birds
Bird list based on studies
IUCN (2011)
Appendix 1.
Orange-
1
Megapo
Megapodius
footed
Gosong kaki-
diidae
reinwardt
Megapode
merah
Phasiani
2
3
dae
Anatidae
x
Green
Ayam-hutan
Gallus varius
Junglefowl
hijau
x
Anas
Pacific
superciliosa
Black Duck
Itik gunung
x
Sunda Teal
Itik benjut
LC
x
Y
LC
x
x
LC
Anas
4
Anatidae
gibberifrons
x
LC
x
LC
x
LC
x
LC
x
LC
Y
Y
Lesser
5
Anatidae
Dendrocygna
Whistling-
javanica
duck
Belibis batu
x
Wandering
6
Anatidae
Dendrocygna
Whistling-
Belibis
arquata
duck
kembang
Green
7
Anatidae
Nettapus
Pygmy-
Angsa-kerdil
pulchellus
goose
hijau
x
Wooly-
8
Ciconiida
Ciconia
necked
Bangau
e
episcopus
Stork
sandang-lawe
Cattle
9
Ardeidae
Bubulcus ibis
Egret
Kuntul kerbau
x
LC
LC
Javan
Ardeola
Pond-
10
Ardeidae
speciosa
heron
Blekok sawah
x
11
Ardeidae
Ardea
Great-
Cangak laut
x
155
x
x
LC
List of bird species that found in the Nature Reserve and surrounding Wuul Wae.
Name
x
x
status
PP No. 7/1999
Name
Conservation
CITES (2011)
Indonesia
Tranor dkk.
(2000)
sumatrana
Inggris
Trainor &
Lesmana
(2000)
Species
Purwandana
dkk. (2008)
Family
Present
No.
Migratory birds
Bird list based on studies
IUCN (2011)
Appendix 1.
billed
heron
Pacific
12
13
14
15
Ardeidae
Egretta sacra
Reef-egret
Falconid
Falco
Spotted
ae
moluccensis
Kestrel
Accipitri
Haliastur
Brahminy
dae
indus
Accipitri
dae
Kuntul karang
Alap-alap sapi
x
Kite
Elang bondol
x
Accipiter
Brown
Elang-alap
fasciatus
Goshawk
coklat
x
LC
Y
LC
II
Y
LC
II
Y
LC
II
Y
LC
II
Y
LC
II
Y
LC
II
Y
x
LC
II
Y
x
LC
II
Y
x
LC
II
Y
x
LC
x
x
Short-toed
16
Accipitri
Circaetus
Snake-
Elang-ular
dae
gallicus
eagle
jari-pendek
x
White-
17
Accipitri
Haliaeetus
bellied
Elang-laut
dae
leucogaster
Sea-eagle
perut-putih
x
x
Accpiter
18
Accipitri
novaehollandi
Grey
Elang-alap
dae
ae
Goshawk
kelabu
x
Black-
19
Accipitri
Elanus
winged
dae
caeruleus
Kite
x
Elang tikus
Oriental
20
21
22
156
Accipitri
Pernis
Honey-
Sikep-madu
dae
ptilorhyncus
buzzard
asia
Accipitri
Circus
Spotted
Elang-rawa
dae
assimilis*
Harrier
totol
Gallinula
Common
chloropus
Moorhen
Rallidae
Mandar batu
x
x
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Bird Species Richness on the Wae Wuul Nature Reserve …..
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List of bird species that found in the Nature Reserve and surrounding Wuul Wae.
23
Rallidae
Name
Porphyrio
Purple
porphyrio
Swamphen
x
Mandar besar
status
LC
White-
24
Rallidae
Amaurornis
breasted
phoenicurus
Waterhen
Kareo padi
x
x
LC
Gemak loreng
x
x
LC
Barred
25
157
Turnicid
Turnix
Buttonquai
ae
suscicator
l
PP No. 7/1999
Name
Conservation
CITES (2011)
Indonesia
Tranor dkk.
(2000)
Inggris
Trainor &
Lesmana
(2000)
Species
Purwandana
dkk. (2008)
Family
Present
No.
Migratory birds
Bird list based on studies
IUCN (2011)
Appendix 1.
Appendix 1. Continues
Scolopacid
Actitis
Common
ae
hypoleucos
Sandpiper
Trinil pantai
x
x
L
C
Dara-laut
27
Laridae
Sterna
Black-
tengkuk-
sumatrana
naped Tern
hitam
L
C
Great
28
29
30
Crested
Dara-laut
Laridae
Sterna bergii
Tern
jambul
Columbida
Streptopelia
Spotted
Tekukur
e
chinensis
Dove
biasa
Columbida
Chalcophaps
Emerald
Delimukan
e
indica
Dove
Zamrud
x
x
L
C
x
x
x
x
L
C
L
x
x
C
Green
Columbida
31
Ducula aenea
e
L
Imperialpigeon
Pergam hijau
x
C
x
Island
32
33
34
Columbida
Streptopelia
Collared-
Dederuk
e
bitorquata
dove
jawa
Columbida
Geopelia
Barred
Perkutut
e
maugei
Dove
loreng
Columbida
Geopelia
e
striata*
x
x
x
Perkutut
Zebra Dove
jawa
x
x
x
L
C
x
x
L
C
L
x
C
Red-
35
Psittacida
Geoffroyus
cheeked
Nuri pipi-
e
geoffroyi
Parrot
merah
L
x
C
Rusty-
36
158
Cuculidae
Cacomantis
breasted
Wiwik
sepulcralis
Cuckoo
uncuing
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
L
x
C
II
PP No. 7/1999
x
CITES (2011)
x
Conservation
status
IUCN (2011)
Indonesia
Name
Tranor dkk.
(2000)
Inggris
Name
Purwandana
dkk. (2008)
Species
Trainor &
Lesmana
(2000)
26
Family
Present
No.
Migratory birds
Bird List based on studies
Bird Species Richness on the Wae Wuul …..
Feri Irawan
37
38
Cuculidae
Cuculidae
Cuculus
Himalayan
Kangkok
saturatus
Cuckoo
ranting
Centropus
Lesser
Bubut alang-
bengalensis
Coucal
alang
Cuculidae
scolopaceus
Asian Koel
Tuwur asia
Otus
Wallace's
Celepuk
40
Strigidae
silvicola
Scops-owl
wallacea
Collacalia
Glossy
esculenta
Swiftlet
Walet sapi
Apus
House
Kapinis
nipalensis
Swiftlet
rumah
Eurystomus
Asian
Tiong-lampu
Coraciidae
orientalis
Dollarbird
biasa
Alcedinida
Todiramphus
Scared
e
sanctus
Kingfisher
Cekakak suci
Alcedinida
Todiramphus
Collared
Cekakak
e
chloris
Kingfisher
sungai
White-
Cekakak
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
Apodidae
Apodidae
x
x
x
Caridonax
rumped
tunggir-
ae
fulgidus
Kingfisher
putih
Alcedinida
Alcedo
Blue-eared
Raja-udang
e
meninting*
Kingfisher
meninting
Merops
Rainbow
Kirik-kirik
ornatus
Bee-eater
australia
Merops
Blue-tailed
Kirik-kirik
philippinus
Bee-eater
laut
Meropidae
PP No. 7/1999
CITES (2011)
IUCN (2011)
C
x
x
x
x
L
C
L
C
L
x
C
II
L
Alcedinid
Meropidae
Conservation
status
L
Eudynamys
39
Tranor dkk.
(2000)
Indonesia
Name
Trainor &
Lesmana
(2000)
Inggris
Name
Species
Purwandana
dkk. (2008)
Family
Present
No.
Migratory birds
Bird List based on studies
C
x
L
x
C
x
x
x
L
C
L
C
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Y
L
C
Y
L
C
Y
L
x
x
C
x
x
x
Y
L
C
L
x
C
x
Sunda
50
Picidae
Dendrocopos
Woodpecke
moluccensis
r
x
Caladi tilik
x
Elegant
51
159
Pittidae
Pitta elegans
Pitta
x
x
L
C
L
Paok la'us
x
C
Y
Appendix 1. Continues
52
53
54
Helmeted
Cikukua
e
buceroides
Friarbird
tanduk
Acanthizida
Gerygone
Golden-bellied
e
sulphurea
Gerygone
Artamus
White-breasted
leucorhynchus
Woodswallow
Campepha
Pericrocotus
gidae
lansbergei
dae
57
Pachycephala
idae
pectoralis
Kepudangsungu besar
Oriole
kuduk-hitam
Dicrurus
Wallacean
Srigunting
densus
Drongo
wallacea
Rhipidurid
Rhipidura
Brown-capped
Kipasan
ae
diluta
Fantail
flores
Rhipidurida
Rhipidura
e
rufifron
Monarchida
Terpsiphone
Asian Paradise-
Seriwang
e
paradisi
flycatcher
asia
Monarchida
Hypothymis
Black-naped
Kehicap
e
azurea
Monarch
ranting
Corvus
64
Corvidae
65
Paridae
Parus major
Great Tit
66
Hirundinida
Hirundo
Striated Swallow
160
emas
chinensis
Rufous Fantail
florensis
Flores Crow
x
Kancilan
Kepudang
Kipasan
dada-hitam
Gagak
flores
Gelatik-batu
kelabu
Layang-
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
x
x
LC
LC
LC
x
x
x
LC
x
x
x
LC
x
LC
x
x
x
x
LC
x
x
x
x
LC
x
LC
x
x
x
x
LC
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
LC
x
EN
x
LC
LC
PP No. 7/1999
CITES (2011)
IUCN (2011)
Trainor &
Lesmana
(2000)
Tranor dkk.
(2000)
LC
x
kerdil
Cuckooshrike
x
Conservation
status
x
x
Sepah
Black-faced
Golden Whistler
x
Kekep Babi
Black-naped
Dicrurudae
63
Flores minivet
x
Remetuk laut
Oriolus
59
62
novaehollandi
Pachycephal
Oriolidae
61
Coracina
ae
58
60
Indonesia
Name
Philemon
Campephagi
56
Inggris Name
Meliphagida
Artamidae
55
Species
Purwandana
dkk. (2008)
Family
present
No.
Migratory birds
Bird List based on studies
Ya
Bird Species Richness on the Wae Wuul …..
Feri Irawan
e
striolata
layang
loreng
Mirafra
Australasian
Branjangan
javanica
Lark
jawa
Zitting Cisticola
Cici padi
67
Alaudidae
68
Cisticolidae
69
Cisticolidae
Cisticola exilis
Zosteropid
Zosterops
ae
wallacei
Zosteropida
Zosterops
Oriental White-
Kacamata
e
palpebrosus
eye
biasa
Zosteropid
Heleia
Thick-billed
Opior
ae
crassirostris
White-eye
paruh-tebal
Muscicapida
Saxicola
e
caprata
Pied Bushchat
Decu belang
Muscicapida
Ficedula
Rufous-chested
Sikatan
e
dumetoria
Flycatcher
dada-merah
Dicaeum
Black-fronted
Cabai dahi-
igniferum
Flowerpecker
hitam
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
Dicaeidae
Dicaeidae
Dicaeidae
161
Cisticola
juncidis
Dicaeum
annae
Golden-headed
Cisticola
Yellowspectacled
White-eye
x
x
LC
x
Cici merah
Kacamata
walacea
x
x
x
LC
x
x
LC
x
x
LC
x
LC
x
LC
x
x
x
x
x
x
LC
NT
x
x
x
LC
x
x
LC
Goldenrumped
Cabai emas
x
Flowerpecker
Dicaeum
Red-chested
maugei*
Flowerpecker
Cabai lombok
x
LC
PP No. 7/1999
CITES (2011)
Conservation
status
IUCN (2011)
Indonesia
Name
Tranor dkk.
(2000)
Inggris Name
Trainor &
Lesmana
(2000)
Species
Purwandana
dkk. (2008)
Family
present
No.
Migratory birds
Bird List based on studies
Appendix 1. Continues
80
Nectariniidae
Nectariniidae
81
Estrildidae
82
Estrildidae
83
84
jugularis
Sunbird
sriganti
Estrildidae
Estrildidae
Flame-
Nectarinia
breasted
solaris
Sunbird
Plain-
Anthreptes
throated
malacensis
Sunbird
Lonchura
Black-faced
molucca
Munia
Taeniopygia
guttata
Scaly-
Lonchura
breasted
punctulata
Munia
Five-
Lonchura
coloured
quinticolor
Munia
Anthus
85
Motacilidae
novaeseelandi
ae
Zebra Finch
Australasian
Pipit
Total jenis
x
x
x
x
Burung-madu
matari
x
x
Burung-madu
x
kelapa
LC
Y
LC
Y
LC
Y
Bondol taruk
x
x
x
x
LC
Pipit zebra
x
x
x
x
LC
Bondol
peking
Bondol
pancawarna
Apung tanah
x
7
6
3
x
LC
x
LC
x
LC
45
31
37
*) Bird species names in bold are restricted range species of birds-the spreading area of less than 50,000 km2.
Notes
Species : Refer to BirdLife International (2008)
Indonesia Name : Refer to Coates & Bishop (1997)
Family/Suku : Refer to Birdlife International (2008)
Migratory bird : Refer to Coates&Bishop (1997)
Restricted-range species : Refer to Sujatnika dkk (1995)
IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature Resources) version 2011
162
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
PP No. 7/1999
Burung-madu
CITES (2011)
Olive-backed
Conservation
status
IUCN (2011)
Nectarinia
Tranor dkk.
(2000)
Nectariniidae
Trainor &
Lesmana
(2000)
79
Indonesia
Name
Species
Purwandana
dkk. (2008)
78
Inggris
Name
Family
Present
No.
Migratory birds
Bird List based on studies
Bird Species Richness on the Wae Wuul …..
Feri Irawan
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) :
The species that includes in the list of attachments (Appendices) of CITES (2011)
PP No.7 RI : species protected by the Indonesian government under Government Regulation No.7 of
1999 on the Preservation of Fauna and Flora
163
164
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Potential Distributions and Utilizationof Foloak …..
Siswadi, Grace s. Saragih, & Heny R.
Potential Distributions and Utilization of Faloak
(Sterculia quadrifida R.Br 1844)
on Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara1
Siswadi2, Grace S. Saragih2 dan Heny Rianawati2
ABSTRACT
Faloak (Sterculia quadrifida R.Br 1844) included in the Malvaceae family, grow on semi-arid land at
altitude of 0-900 mdpl and can reach a height of 20m. East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) is one of the origin
distribution of faloak. People in Timor utilize faloak bark as traditional medicine and harvest it from
trees that grow naturally. Harvesting is done by peeling the bark, therefore it is difficult to find a
smooth faloak trunk. The purpose of this research was to gather information of faloak benefits as
medicinal plants and its potential distributions in Timor, NTT. Methods used in this research were
vegetation survey and interview. The result of Faloak vegetation analysis showed faloak potential
distributions in the Timor island in each district and city as follow; Belu 6.25 trees / ha, TTU 1.4 trees
/ ha, TTS 14.16 trees / ha, Kupang 7.95 trees/ha and Kupang city 4.84 trees/ ha. The result of
ethnobotany study showed that people in Timor use faloak as herbal medicine to cure diseases such
as liver diseases, cancer, gastroenteritis, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and as red blood cell booster.
Keywords: Herbal, Ethnobotany, Timor, Faloak
I. INTRODUCTION
Nowadays, back to nature concept has become part of lifestyle. People tend to choose herbal
medicine to maintain their health. Faloak (Sterculia quadrifida) is one of the medicinal plant used by
people on Timor island. Faloak is deciduous plant, included in the Malvaceae family, can grow in
semi-arid climate (wet months 3-4 months and dry months 6-9 months) and at an altitude of 0-900
m above sea level. Distribution of faloak / red-fruit Kurrajong are
Australia (Western Australia,
Queensland, New South Wales) and Papua New Guinea, while the information of faloak distributions
in Indonesia is not yet available. However, plenty of faloak can be found on Timor Island, East Nusa
Tenggara (NTT). In Timor, the bark of faloak believed to cure various diseases such as liver, cancer,
diabetes, and digestive disorders. Most people harvest the faloak bark from trees that grow naturally.
1
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
2
Kupang Forsetry Research Institute, Jln. Untung Surapati No. 7 Kupang Nusa Tenggara Timur
Telepon (+62-380) 823357 email : [email protected] Fax (+62-380) 831068
165
Therefore, it is necesary to gather information of faloak distribution and its utilization as a base in
developing faloak as NTT province's herbal medicine in the future.
II. METHODOLOGY
A. Description of Faloak (Sterculia quadrifida R.Br 1844)
On Timor island Faloak tree can reach height up to 15 m or more, it has spreading canopy, light
gray bark, and secreted transparent sap when slashed. Flowering season is between April - June and
fruiting season is between June to October each year. Leaf shape obtuse or acuminate, The fruit is
densely stellate hairy on the outer surface, yellow, red or orange when mature and pods will open,
contains 4-8 black glossy seeds. Seeds are ellipsoid, fleshy, each size approximately 10mm, can be
eaten, and tastes like raw nuts.
Figure 1. Faloak Tree
Figure 2. Faloak fruit and seeds
Faloak has hipogeal germination type and scarification process can be done by soaking seeds in
cold water for 12 hours. On Timor island, Faloak can be found in all districts, besides that, base on a
vegetation survey also noted that faloak can be found on Sumba island and on Ngada district, Flores
Island (Russell-Smith, et al, 2006). On Timor Leste S. quadrifida called 'komila' (Mau, 2010). The
taxonomy of faloak:
Division: Angiosperms
Ordo: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Sterculia
Species: Sterculia quadrifida R.Br (1844)
B. Description of the Location
Research was carried out in five districts on Timor Island (East Nusa Tenggara): Kupang city,
Kupang district, Timor Tengah Selatan district, Timor Tengah Utara district and Belu district on April
until December 2011.
C. Data Collection and Analysis
The study was conducted by using vegetation analysis method to determine the potential
distributions of faloak, and interview to collect ethnobotany data (part of faloak which respondent
166
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Potential Distributions and Utilizationof Foloak …..
Siswadi, Grace s. Saragih, & Heny R.
use, kind of diseases that can be cured by faloak and how to use faloak). Soil chemical and physical
analyses was done to gather information of faloak grow site characteristics.
Faloak potential distributions was analyzed using Important Value Index (IVI). According to
Dumbois and Ellenberg (1974) determination of the sample plot carried out by random sampling.
Important Value Index indicate whether a species dominating a particular area or region. Higher IVI
indicates higher domination of a species in an area, with the range score of IVI is 0 to 300 for the
pole and tree level. While the result of interview were tabulated and analyzed descriptively.
Information collected through interviews were regarding gathering, preparation, and use of Faloak.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. Exploration On Timor Island
Exploration was carried out on Timor island, including Belu district, Timur Tengah Utara
(TTU) district, Timur Tengah Selatan (TTS) district, Kupang district and Kupang city to determine the
potential distributions of faloak on Timor. The results of faloak exploration on Timor are presented in
Table 1 and Figure 1.
Table 1. Faloak's Potential Distributions in 5 Districts
Location
Density (tree/ha)
Topography
Elevation (m)
Belu district
6,25
Steep slope
0-350
TTU district
1,4
Gentle slope
50-390
TTS district
14,16
Hilly
100- 176
Kupang district
7,95
Hilly
0-420
Kupang city
4,84
Gentle slope
0-300
Source: Primary data (2011)
Based on Table 1 and Figure 1, it is shown that the highest potential distribution of faloak is in
the TTS district
(14.16 trees / ha), while the lowest potential in the TTU (1.4 trees / ha). Potential
distribution of Faloak in Belu district are 6.25 trees/ ha; Kupang district of 7.94 trees / ha and Kupang
city 4.84 trees / ha.
167
Figure 1. Map of Research Location
Faloak can grow in different types of land slope, from flat to steep slope. It is commonly found
near streams, probably faloak seeds carried away by the water, then spread and grow along the river
flow. Faloak trees in some districts relatively in good condition because there is no exploitation by the
community. There are some plants plants that were found grow around faloak, such as ; kesambi
(Schleichera oleosa), kasuarina (Casuarina junghuniana), kabesak (Acacia leucophloea), pulai
(Alstonia scholaris), jati (Tectona grandis), ketapang hutan (Terminalia copelandii), papi (Exocarpus
latifolia), and kunfatu (Celtis wightii).
Table 2. Soil Physical Analyses
No.
Sample
Sand
Silt (%)
Clay (%)
Texture
(%)
1.
Kupang city 1
81,33
10,00
8,67
Loamy sand
2.
Kupang city 2
79,33
6,00
14,67
Sandy loam
3.
Kupang district 3
82,67
9,33
8,00
Loamy sand
4.
Bena, TTS district
45,33
24,00
30,67
Clay loam
5.
Kuan, TTS district
58,67
20,67
20,67
Sandy clay loam
6.
Kapan, TTS district
46,00
24,67
29,33
Sandy clay loam
7.
Banamlaat, TTU
75,33
12,00
12,67
Sandy loam
168
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Potential Distributions and Utilizationof Foloak …..
Siswadi, Grace s. Saragih, & Heny R.
No.
Sample
Sand
Silt (%)
Clay (%)
10,00
13,33
Texture
(%)
8.
Kab. Belu
76,67
Sandy loam
Source: Physic and Chemical Laboratory, Nusa Cendana University (2011)
According to Moor (1998), sandy clay loam soil is one of the average soil types, which required
minimum treatment and can be very productive, has good aeration and drainage. This soil type was
found in TTS district, which has the highest faloak potential distribution. Meanwhile, sandy loam and
loamy sand types tend to be acid, need watering and extra nutrient. Clay loam type has higher water
holding capacity so it is more difficult to manage when wet.
Table 3. Soil Chemical Analyses
No.
Sample
C-Org. (%)
N
(%)
P (Bray)
(ppm)
K
(me/100
g)
1.
Kupang
City 1
3,62
(High)
0,44
(Medium)
112,31
(Very High)
1,61
(Low)
2.
Kupang
City 2
5,40
(Very High)
0,84
(very
High)
105,11
(Very High)
1,70
(Low)
3.
Camplong,
Kupang
District
Unmeasurable
0,26
(Medium)
17,32
(Medium)
1,59
(Low)
4.
Bena, TTS
District
Unmeasurable
0,15
(Low)
48,54
(Very High)
1,58
(Low)
5.
Kuan,TTS
District
Unmeasurable
0,35
(Medium)
25,31
(Medium)
1,59
(Low)
0,68
(Very High)
0,44
(Medium)
87,58
(Very High)
1,74
(Low)
Unmeasurable
0,11
(Low)
32,67
(High)
1,63
(Low)
Unmeasurable
0,20
(Low)
23,77
(Medium)
1,56
(Low)
6.
7.
Kapan,
TTS
District
Banamlaat
, TTU
DIstrict
Belu
District
8.
Ca
(me/100
g)
28,01
(Very
High)
27,45
(Very
High)
29,43
(Very
High)
34,11
(Very
High)
35,86
(Very
High)
34,02
(Very
High
38,85
(Very
High)
33,10
(Very
High)
KTK
(me/100
g)
pH
35,32
(High)
6,44
(Acidic)
38,40
(High)
6,37
(Acidic)
32,04
(High)
7,52
(Basic)
33,45
(High)
7,81
(Basic)
34,71
(High)
7,63
(Basic)
32,59
(High)
7,45
(Neutral)
33,45
(High)
7,88
(Basic)
36,82
(High)
7,13
(Neutral)
Standard: Soil Research Center, 1983 in Hardjowigeno, S. (1995)
The soil chemical analysis results indicate that faloak grow in the range of pH 6.37 (slightly acid)
- 7, 88 (slightly alkaline).
Soil conditions at all locations is in natural condition and there is no
fertilization activities and other land preparation activities. In general, both physical and chemical
characteristics of the soil at all site showed little differences.
169
B. Ethnobotany Study
In order to gather information of the usage of faloak, ethno botany study was conducted in
Kupang City, Kupang district, TTS district, TTU district and Belu district. There are 23 people
interviewed; 18 people are user and 5 people are herbalist. Part of faloak which is used as raw
materials for herbal medicine is its bark. Few respondents bought faloak bark from the land owner
and others harvest it for free. However, none of the respondents tried to domesticate Faloak. Most of
the users take faloak as medicine for liver diseases, cancer, gastroenteritis, diabetes, rheumatoid
arthritis, and as red blood cell booster. Generally, traditional Timorese people make faloak decoction
by adding other ingredients and boiled it using a clay pot. Limes, turmeric and brown sugar are
common ingredients which added to faloak decoction.
A herbalist in Kupang have a recipe to cure diseases such as rheumatism, liver diseases and
other diseases; 350 gr of faloak bark cooked along with 25 gr turmeric, 15 gr ginger, 15 gr garlic, 2
gr dried cloves, 12 gr lemongrass, 8 gr cinnamon and 50 gr kaempferia galanga. All ingredients boiled
in 5 cups of water (1. 250 ml) for 20 minutes that will produce approximately 1,000 ml of decoction.
Leftover decoction can be boiled again just by adding some water, it can be repeated for 1 to 4 times
as long as decoction color stays red. Every society has its own ways in utilizing faloak, where most
people only use faloak bark without adding other ingredients, for example in South Amanuban subdistrict.
As the result of ethnobotany study at five districts and city, it can be said that people do utilizing
faloak, but some prefer to not sharing the information because they did not want this knowledge
widely spread. First reason, few person want to keep this information exclusively for themselves.
Second reason, some people did not want to be blamed or responsible if someone consumed faloak's
decoction and did not cure or had side effect. However, there are no respondent that stated the side
effect of consuming faloak's decoction. In TTS district, faloak utilization was limited among few
people. People in this district tend to kept the information of faloak's decoction, because they worried
about the risk of consuming faloak's decoction to cure liver diseases. Some respondent willing to
share their knowledge of faloak's usefulness to cure some diseases because they also had experience
that their disease was cured by taking faloak decoction. One respondent said that he had liver disease
in 2001 and someone gave him faloak's decoction, then his liver disease was cured.
From the
interview, several respondent said that faloak's decoction could cure liver diseases in 2 weeks to 3
months. In TTU district, the information of faloak usage as herbal medicine was brought by people
from Kupang and TTS district.
IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
A. CONCLUSION
Potential distributions of faloak in Timor was as follow; at Belu district 6.25 trees / ha, TTU
district 1.4 trees / ha, TTS district 14.16 trees / ha, Kupang district 7.95 and Kupang minicipalities
4.84 / ha. There are some threats to the preservation of faloak as in the TTS district and Kupang
district, faloak trees was cut down for building materials. While in Belu dictrict and Kupang city,
utilization of faloak bark is very intensive.
170
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Potential Distributions and Utilizationof Foloak …..
Siswadi, Grace s. Saragih, & Heny R.
Peopole in Timor use Faloak as natural remedy to cure liver diseases, cancer, gastroenteritis,
diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and as red blood cell booster.
B. Recommendation
Considering the intensive utilization of faloak and its potential benefit, further research regarding
active compounds, sustainable harvesting and domestication technique should be done. The provincial
government may added Faloak as species for "Kebun Bibit Rakyat" (People Seedling Orchard)
program, since Faloak is local species, and has adaptability in NTT province.
REFFERENCES
Hardjowigeno, S. 1985. Klasifikasi Tanah dan Lahan. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.
Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI). 2012 Hasil Identifikasi/determinasi Tumbuhan.
Herbarium Bogoriensis . Bogor
Mau, R. 2010. Ecosystem And Community Based Model For Zonation In Nino Konis Santana
Park, Timor-Leste. Thesis. Graduate School Bogor Agricultural University.
Bogor
National
Mueller-Dombois, D., and H.Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. Wiley, New
York.
Moor,
F.
1998.
Characteristics
of
Different
Soil
http://web.bethere.co.uk/fm/soil/formed/f0108.htm
Types.
The
World
of
Soil.
Russell-Smith, J., S. Djoeroemana, J. Maan and P. Pandanga. 2007. Rural Livelihoods and
Burning Practices in Savanna Landscapes of Nusa Tenggara Timur, Eastern Indonesia.
Hum Ecol (2007) 35:345–359.
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Impact of the Presence of Invasive Species …..
Diah Irawati Dwi Arini
Impact of the Presence of Invasive Species
on Biodiversity and Conservation Management1
Diah Irawati Dwi Arini2
ABSTRACT
Invasive species or “alien species” is defined as a new comer species in a region, those including the
group of animal and plant. The presence of this alien species is often unexpected but some of them
are done in purpose for human needs (those introduced by human). The invasive species can
compete with indigenous ones in obtaining the important resources for their lives. One of the ways,
they can breed rapidly. So, it is common that the invasive species are able to eliminate the indigenous
ones. For instance, deforestation as a result of human activity may finally cause significant pressure to
native species. Disturbance occurred in local ecosystem may change it to new ecosystem. This
phenomenon could trigger the appearances of new superior species that are more able to adapt and
survive well. In a whole world, it is estimated that about 80% of endangered species are suffered
from the loss of competition with invasive species. In the context of protection of biodiversity, the
born of invasive species may become a serious threat if there is no urgent action to solve it. However,
it still remains a question of how we distinguish them whether those including the group of invasive
species or not? This study is conducted to provide us the information related to the definition of
invasive species, the process of their born, the way they dominate the population in a region, the
impact of their presence on biodiversity and how to control them using the some technique or genetic
manipulation,.
Keywords: Invasive species, biodiversity, competition, control, impact
I. INTRODUCTION
Sulawesi island has a wide distribution of endemic species of flora and fauna that can attract
the world’sattention. Its high biodiversity have called the island, which is located in Wallacea region,
as "Heaven of Biodiversity". The high variation of flora and fauna in Sulawesi today may have been
caused by the formation process occurred in the past. Some areas have been isolated in a long time.
1
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013
2
Manado Forestry Research Institute
Jalan Raya Adipura Kelurahan Kima Atas, Kecamatan Mapanget Manado
Telp: (0431) 3666683, email: [email protected]
173
As a result,it triggered the appearance of various types of animals and plants in each “corner” of the
island. are different. It had been estimated that Sulawesi may have more than 4,222 species of flora,
but this estimated number is still too small because many of the potential areas had not been
explored yet.
It is inevitable that this biodiversity lives together with humans. Humans are present to utilize
them. However, the presence of human has brought changes of structure and composition of
biodiversity on earth. Any introduction of new species or change of habitat is able to invite alien
species either plants or animals that called as invasive or alien species (IAS). According to Pratt
(2012), IAS was defined as accidentally imported species or non-indigenous species which has the
potential to interfere with biological organisms.
The presence of alien species in a regionif assessed in terms of biological diversity may have a
positive impact on biodiversity. Its value-added can be utilized by humans as a food source or a
source of medicine as well as as a pet. On the other hand, it can also bring adverse effects caused by
the competition with native species. Even if the species are lethal,the indigenous species will
disappear or even become extinct locally.
Invasive alien plant species have been reported as ecological problem in several conservation
areas in Indonesia such as in Baluran National Park in East Java. For instance, the attack ofAcacia
niloticain prairie grass inhibits the growth of grass which is the main food for herbivorous animals like
deer, bison and buffalo in the park the nationwide. At first, this plant is only planted to serve as
firebreaks but then the development of plant progresses very rapidly. It is because the seeds of
Acacia nilotica have a good ability to grow on the media of buffalo dung (Tjitrosoedirdjo, 2012).Similar
case were seen at what happened in the area of Mount Merapi National Parkafter the Mount Merapi
eruption in 2010 where Acacia decurrenswas classified as an invasive species whose existence was
able to interfere with other plants. Even, it caused death to other plants. The attack of invasive
species also occurs in many other forests. Type Austroeuptorium inulaefolium (kirinyuh) is very
invasive in Gunung Gede National Park along with Passiflora suberosa Pangrango, Eupatorium
sordidum, Cestrum aurantiacum, Eupatorium riparium, Brugmansia suaveolens. In Ujung Kulon
National Park,Arenga obstusifolia and Chromolaena odorata, which are actually local plant species, are
fast growing species and dominate the national park area.Lantana camara in Meru National Park
Betiri, Merremia peltata National Park and Bukit Barisan National Park Eichhornia crassipes Wasur was
also one of the example cases. Golden snails or snails (Pomacea canaliculata), which were brought
from Africa to Indonesia, has now become a pest for crops. Iguana, which was originally a pet, now
became a prey of native Indonesian animal species. In Papua, the rapid growing of long-tailed
macaque population (Macaca fasicularis) has changed its behavior to be the predator for birds of
paradise by preying their eggs. They also became a threat of the tree kangaroos in reducing the
population.
The presence of this invasive species is often unpredictable and unrealized by humans, but the
impact can be a threat to biodiversity. Moreover, it can lead to a reduction of carbon stocks and
climate change in the long term (Puspasari, 2012). The purpose of this paper is to provide information
about invasive species in the regions of northern Sulawesi and theireffects to native species.
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II. INVASIVE SPECIES
A. Definition of Invasive Species
According to Wikipedia (2013), invasive species are not native to the place both types of animals
and plants, which will broadly affect their habitat invasion. Another notion describes invasive species
as non-native species that colonize a massive habitat.
Meanwhile, according to Campbell (2005) in Prinando (2011), invasive species could not be
separated from alien species (alien species), noting that the species was not native species in an
ecosystem. It caused a disturbance in the environment and economy and it was bad for human
health. Purnomo et al. (2002) added that an invasive species includes flora, fauna, and
microorganisms living outside their natural habitat. It could grow rapidly in the absence of natural
enemies and was able to become weeds, pests and diseases to native species.
Invasive species is closely related to the introduction of exotic species. Primarck (1998) explained
that exotic species could thrive in a new habitat, but not all species of exotic and invasive introduced
species were capable of. Kusmana (2010) later defined the invasive species into three categorized:
1. Non-indigenous species were alien species that invaded habitat and could cause harm either the
economic, ecological or environmental.
2. Native and non-native species were species that colonize a particular habitat severely
3. Widespread non-indigenous species was a species that expandedthe habitat.It included both alien
(exotics) and the native species that grew in their natural habitat.
B. The Birth of Invasive Species
Introduction is a movement made by human activities both species, subspecies or organisms on
the lower level of taxon, outside of their original place. This movement can take place within the
country and between countries (MOE, 2000). Humans do this introduction for reasons, such as for
economy, business, needs of staple food, or to manipulate the ecosystem. Import, distribution, and
utilization of various alien species either intentionally or unintentionally,may become potentially
invasive that can cause ecological and economic losses considerably. The presence of invasive species
generally exists because of competition between species for obtaining resources as much as possible
by growing and breeding very rapidly. The rapid development of species invading a habitatdepends on
several factors as follows:
1.
Ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually
2.
Ability to grow and breed rapidly
3.
Ability to distribute rapidly
4.
Phenotype is elastic, means having the ability to adjust its morphology following the
surrounding environment
5.
High tolerance to various environmental conditions (Wikipedia 2013).
At the beginning, the introduced and invasive species have to survive in a little population,
difficult to breed, and try to maintain their numbers. However, these species will become invasive if
they can get rid of the native species in terms of competition for resources such as nutrients, light,
space, water and etc. Activity and human mobility play a role in the distribution of plant species in the
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whole world. Land clearing by human can significantly press the population of local species and they
may become loss finally. A disturbed habitat that becomes a new ecosystem will affect the local
ecosystems.
Invasive species are able to change the ecosystem in many ways. It is estimated that 80% of
threatened species suffer from the competition or predation caused by invasive species (Wikipedia,
2013). Invasive alien species in Indonesia, which dominate the group, come from plants, mammals,
and insects. Most of them are distributed through trade and international trip, such as through the pet
trade, ornamental plants, and introduction of biological agents, international aid, research activities,
and tourism.
Introduction
Colonization
Establishment
Stage I
Stage II
Spred
Replacement
Native Species
Ecological
Effect
Figure 1. The process of becoming invasive species
C. General Impact of Invasive Species
Loss caused by the presence of invasive species is the potential environmental damage and
difficult to be restored. Extinction of a local species or organism is unrenewable. Some new species
and varieties, that are economically, socially and ecologically necessary, have positive contribution.
Some of them adversely affect the native ecosystems (Natalia, 2011).
Several studies have reported that the economic lossin a state can reach 375 million dollars per
yeardue to invasive species, even itreachs $ 5 billion in Europe from 1988 to 2000 (Purnomo et al.
2002). In term of ecology, invasive alien species can cause serious problems in the new habitat.
According to Mooney and Cleland (2001) referred to Prinando (2011), some alien invasive species can
change the evolutionary path of local species through competition, niche displacement, and finally to
extinction. Some studies also suggest that the introduction of an invasive plant species that pass
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through geographical boundaries, intentionally or unintentionally, can cause changes on the structure
and composition of plant communities in new ecosystem. This leads to the presence of invasive alien
plant species in a new habitat which is likely harmful because it can threaten ecosystems and
biodiversity (Wittenberg & Cock 2001).
III. INVASIVES SPECIES IN NORTH SULAWESI
A. Lantana camara
Lantana camara was firstly discovered in Indonesia in Sumatra, Java, Kalimantan and Sulawesi
(Biotrop, 2011). It is also known as “tembelekan”and was in the list of 100 invasive species around
the world. According to Dobhal et al. (2011), this species was able to change the quality and quantity
of the composition and distribution includingthe growth and number of other species in the
community. For instance, it was able to invade along 100 km in Himalayas Nayar River. In Florida, L.
camara is found plentyon the forest bank, roadside, pasture and estate areas. It is even cultivated as
an ornamental plant in garden centers and nurseries in United States because of its attractive flower
colors. L. camara becomes significant weedalong with other 650 weed varieties which spread in
various countries such as Australia and South Africa (Day and Neser, 2000). After being brought from
Brazil, It was firstly introduced in the Netherlands in the late of 1600s.It was grown in greenhouses in
Europe before being exported to other countries as an ornamental plant (ISSG, 2006).
The presence of L. camara in Florida has become a serious weed. The rapid growth of L. camara
became bush on the river bank and roads causing disruption of natural ecosystems due to its ability to
inhibit the growth of other nearby species through allelopati substance possessed at the shoots and
roots. Lantana fruit has been reported for its toxicity content. It is able to grow on soil with poor
nutrient and regenerate easily even after an interruption. The spread of their seedsis facilitated by
birds. Distribution of this species throughout the world is described in Figure 2.
InNorth Sulawesi, the plant is easily found on the roadside, in the house yard like in the village of
Rurukan - Tomohon. The planting habit ofNorth Sulawes people in their house yard known since time
immemorial helped the plant speciesspread and thrive quickly. In the conservation areas like in TN.
Nani Bogani Wartabone, CA. Mount Threshold and CA. Tangale, these plants are plenty found on the
road side, on the river bank, and growing well in ex. Burned area where fire outbreak previously
occurred.
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Figure 2.
Distribution of L. camara pecies (From : Global Biodiversity Information Facility,
2007) & L. camara which had found in Rurukan North Sulawesi
According to Sharm et al (2005), Lantana camara is the most invasive alien plant and distributed
widely throughout the world. Distribution of this plant has shown a serious threat to the ecosystem
around. In South Africa, the presence of this species threatened the Fynbos vegetation and water
resources (Holmes, 2000). Chatanga(2007) who studied on the impact of L. camara on native
vegetation Gonarezhou National Park Zimbabwe revealed that as an invasive species, it could bring
the negative impact on the structure and composition of native vegetation. Allelopati may affect tthe
vegetation and indirectly change the soil properties which in turn affect the nutrition, pH, moisture
level and it all depends on the level of invasion. Invasion of L. camara can reduce the number of
native species and harm the ecosystem. It has strong impact on the regeneration of native vegetation
especially in the riparian areas or riverside where this plant can flourish. Riparian areas are known to
have high diversities of plants and animals. The presence of this species is a serious problem because
it may bring changes on the structure and composition of vegetation which is important for wildlife
habitat, biotic diversity and the risk of future disasters.
B. Eichornia crassipes
Water hyacinth is an aquatic plant species which are very well known for the Indonesia
people. This floating vegetation which thrive in the tropical region has several local names. In
Manado, the plant is known as Tumpe. Water hyacinth was first discovered by a scientist named Carl
Friedrich Philipp von Martius, a German botanist. It was discovered in 1824 in the Brazilian Amazon
River (Wikipedia, 2013).Water hyacinth has a very high growth rate and is considered a weed that can
damage the aquatic environment. It can live in both water and soil. Plant height is approximately 0.4
to 0.8 meters. It does not have a trunk and it has a single leaf oval shape. The leaf tip is slippery and
colors green(Wikipedia, 2013). Water hyacinth is considered as a very invasive weed. It has high
adaptability and high reproductive rate that supports the successful growth especially in the tropics
and sub-tropics. Moreover, it is very tolerant to moderate and subtropical regions. Its very rapid
growth is supported by a sexual reproduction through seeds and asexually through stolons, in such a
way that its growth rate can reach 1.2 to 13.8% per day. (Gopal & Sahrma, 1981 in Sapdi, 2007). The
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presence of water hyacinth has caused serious problems in aquatic ecosystems. Problem caused by
water hyacinth in the new habitat is the rapid accumulation of biomass, surface closure, siltation of
lakes and rivers, so it becomes an important element in the changes on hydro landscape
(Tjitrosoedirdjo & Wijaya in Sapdi 1991, 2007). The other problem is that weeds are more competitive
than local plants, so both native plants and water animals can not survive and finally die (Tjitrosemito
1999).Water hyacinth grows in shallow ponds, wetlands and marshes, river with slow water flow,
lakes and water reservoirs. This plant has a high adaptation to extreme changes of water level, water
flow and nutrient availability, pH, temperature and toxins in the water. Rapid growth of water
hyacinth is caused by high nitrogen, phosphate and potassium containing in the water (Wikipedia,
2013). According to (Gopal and Sharma, 1981 in Sapdi, 2007), water hyacinth is the most damaging
aquatic species in the world. Based on FAO studies, it showed that salt content can inhibit the growth
of water hyacinth occurred in regions of West Africa, where water hyacinth will flourish during the
rainy season. Itwill reduce duringin the dry season when the content of salt is high.
In Southeast Asia, water hyacinth spread through Indonesia in 1894 which firstly took place at the
Bogor Botanical Gardens. Pane and Hasannudin (2002) says that the water hyacinth has invaded
irrigated areas in Indonesia. In the conservation area of TN. Wasur, water hyacinth invaded the rivers
and creeks Maro, Wanggo since 1990 which led to the disruption of water transport and siltation of
rivers because its roots are capable of binding mud around it. In 2000, its range spread to
downstream areas bordering with Papua New Guinea (Kusmana, 2010). Water hyacinth spread to
many countries in the period of late 19th century and early 20th century and resulted in degradation
of the aquatic ecosystem.
The impact caused by the invasion of water hyacinth is increase of evaporation due to the rapid
growth of water hyacinth. Other impacts is decrease of the number of incoming light which reduces
levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water. Dead water hyacinth plants will dissolve in water so it
will speed up the process of shallowing, disrupting transportation, especially for areas wherelife of the
community much dependens on rivers or lakes. It increase habitat for vectors of human disease as
well as reduce the aesthetic value of environmental waters. Stretch of water hyacinth will lead to lack
of oxygen of the water and can destroy the fish (Wikipedia, 2013). In addition, the population of
aquatic plants can be replaced by the presence of water hyacinth. According Tjitrosemito (1999), the
impact
of
losses
caused
by
the
water
hyacinth
can
be
assessed
economically
and
ecologically.Economically, the rapid growth of weeds can cover a wide area of water and can lead to
delays on shipping activity in areas that rely on water transport and often interfere with fishing
economy. The large biomass often hinders the flow of irrigation water. The presence of weeds will
reduce the value of commercial area, especially areas for tourist destination. In ecology, a dense
expanse of water hyacinth will reduce the light reaching the plants below the water surface.
Therefore, it will reduce the oxygen level in the water. This condition will reduce the number of
phytoplankton that may cause changes on the composition of invertebrate communities and will
ultimately affect the fishery. Thestrong competingability of water hyacinth could result in changes on
the composition of vegetation, damage local plants and take over the habitats of wild plants.
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Figure 3.
The invassion of water hyacinth in Tondano Lake
In Tondano lake ecosystems, the presence of water hyacinth become weeds that affects the
freshwater fish production. According to Frame (2012), the growth of water hyacinth in Lake Tondano
had been beyond the limit of tolerance which is only a matter of days, the rapid growth can cover the
entire surface of the lake. In some lake side, water hyacinth has reached 50 to 60 m of the banks.
Even in the middle of the lake, the floating of water hyacinths in the islands is visible and it is carried
by the wind all over the lake.
According to Replubika (2013), Tondano lake in 1923 has a depth of 40 feet in 1996 but lived
only 15 meters. Tondano lake is the largest lake in North Sulawesi and a habitat for fish and fish
Payangka Nike which is a typical kind of fish this lake. Homeland expedition team encountered two
types of Payangka fish / Marbel Goby (Ophieleotris aporos) is Payangka kodok and Payangka Merah.
Around the lake were found several small birds such as egrets ( Egretta Garzetta), kuntul kerbau
(Bubulcus ibis), Elang Paria (Milvus migrans), Elang bondol (Haliastur indus), Cekakak sungai
(Todirhamphus chloris) and Burung Madu (Nectarinia). So Tondano rescue program must also
consider the animals who live in the Lake Ecosystem Tondano.
C. Merremia peltata
Giant kale is a name given by the Minahasa people for the species Merremia peltata. This plant is
easy to find in the whole of North Sulawesi. It grows as a vine and a parasite to the other plants.
Once infected, the host plants soon suffocate and die. Not only in North Sulawesi, this plant also
threats the biodiversity conservation in some areas such as Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. It is
estimated to have invaded an area of approximately 8,000 ha. The existence of this plant, also
referred to as Mantangan, is a form of competition between species that interfere the habitat of
elephants, Sumatran tigers and rhinos. The morphology of M.peltata is scatter and connects one to
another. It even covers the forest floor that interfere the movement of wildlife.
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Figure 4.
The invassion of Merremia peltata
The growth rate can reach up to 2 cm per day. This type is also found in the Garden Nani
Wartabone, but the quantity is still few. According to forest society information, this plant becomes
natural food for herbivorous animals such as anoa (Bubalus sp.). The presence of M. peltata in North
Sulawesi has not shown any detrimental impact both on the conservation and outside the
conservation areas. However, if this type is not addressed quickly and appropriately,it will become an
invasive species.
D. Imperata cylindrica
Blady grass/alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) is a kind of grass-leaved sharp and often a weed
on agricultural lands. Growth of weeds very quickly because the seeds are scattered on the wind and
rhizomes that readily penetrate the soil. Alang-alang happy growing in fertile places and many
illuminated by the sun. This plant immediately dominating former forest land, open land, the former
fields, rice fields dried up and the edges of the road. Fire may stimulate the growth of reeds. Its
shoots often become food for animals especially herbivores. Reeds naturally spread from India to East
Asia, Southeast Asia, Micronesia and Australia. North Asia now spreading increases, Europe, Africa and
America as well as in several islands. Weeds have invasive properties and is considered a weed that is
difficult to control in addition to the benefits as soil protection, mulch for the agriculture, traditional
medicine and dry reeds can be used for the roof material especially in Bali and Eastern Indonesia
(Wikipedia, 2013).
Di Sulawesi Utara, alang-alang banyak dijumpai di lahan-lahan terbuka atau
bekas-bekas tebangan khususnya di dalam kawasan-kawasan konservasi. Di TN. Bogani Nani
Wartabone.
The Blady grass found in Kayu Manis-Maelang which is a result of former agricultural land
encroachment by the public as well as in the region Hunggayono - Gorontalo which is maleo bird
habitat. This area is very vulnerable to fire, due to the dominance of the reeds which is a fuel that is
highly flammable. In other locations, dominant reeds found along the edges of the former forest
clearing or traces of gold mining ileggal that are not used anymore. In the study showed that, within
181
three days without rain reeds will quickly burn through the fire flowering and bud formation rhizomes
will be faster. The presence of weeds resulted in other plants will have difficulty in obtaining
competitive water, nutrients and light. Disruption of the growth of other crops due to the presence of
toxic substances (allelopati) issued by reed rhizome roots. Handling dominance reeds is to provide the
shade plants that have faster growth, in North Lampung farmers eradicate weeds in biology by using
shade showed positive results (Purnomosidhi et al., 2013).
E. Pig (Sus sp.)
Invasive species not only from the classified plant species but also of species or vertebrate. One
of the animals that are invasive in North Sulawesi is a type of pig that are maintained by the
community. This case occurred in the Nature Reserve Nini Batuangus, directly adjacent to residential
areas causing livestock conservation forest communities with easy entry and invaded habitats of local
wildlife such as wild boar (Sus celebensis), Sulawesi monkeys (Macaca nigra) and so on. If allowed to
continue happening, and the pigs population increases, competition with local species can not be
avoided, especially in terms of food resources and space. In addition, the estimated local animals can
be infected by disease or parasites carried by pigs is maintained by the community.
F. Cattle (Bos taurus)
Cattle (Bos taurus) long known as cattle, where cattle are left in the fields grazing especially in
conservation areas can be a negative impact on the balance of the ecosystem, especially in terms of
food resources and competition for water resources fauna conservation area. As happened in TN.
Wasur, cattle grazing paddock into TN Wasur preceded by the publication of the Decree of the Head
of Level I Irian Jaya in 1979 which pointed TN Wasur grazing paddock area to the location of the
cattle grazing. Cow population growing rapidly but that kangaroo populations of endemic species
(Wallaby) being threatened. The existence of the cattle population in large quantities will cause soil
compaction that can mengahmbat growth of native grasses. So that happened in TN. Glaze, the life of
a bull in the paddock grazing in Baluran compete with the cattle.
It also occurs in several protected areas in North Sulawesi, in the Nature Reserve of Mount
threshold where cows are deliberately brought about by humans entered the region as ileggal towing
logs from within the region. Damage to forest ecosystems can not be avoided some way shape
hallways lead to some species eliminated or lost. Soil compaction can also cause stunted growth
species, plus transmission of disease or parasites carried by cattle to the animals that live in the area.
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(a)
(b)
Figure 5. Pig in Tangkoko NR (a) and Cattle which had found inside in Gunung Ambang NR (b)
IV. INVASIVE SPECIES MANAGEMENT
Over millions of years, sea, mountain ranges, rivers have become the natural insulation that
function in blocking the movement of living things in the natural ecological system. The insulation will
result in a specific and unique ecosystem. Isolation is a barrier for the movement of these species is
not currently working. Increasing flow of trade and mobility between countries makes a species can
move across long distances and into new habitats as alien species.
Alien species that came into a new ecosystem will adapt and compete with native species (native
species), some kind of alien species in the form of new strains and varieties assessed the economic
benefits sarta a positive contribution to the welfare of the people but some of them are alien species
that have growth very quickly even able to beat the native species can change the structure and
composition of local species. Species that can not compete will be threatened with extinction. Thus
the spread of alien species assessed as the greatest threat to biodiversity.
The impact of the presence of invasive species are economically very significant. In agriculture,
the presence of foreign plant pests and diseases that have not been known to give trouble farmers for
farmers. Some types of bacteria and pathogens impacting the world of farming. Eksostem water
contaminated by a variety of alien aquatic plants, bacteria and viruses which can degrade fisheries
production, and all of which will lead to increased costs for the control of various types of new pests
and diseases. The arrival of alien species is not always an adverse impact, some beneficial species in
agriculture, forestry, fisheries are alien species. Thereby the first step should be able to distinguish
whether the presence of foreign species that have harmful effects or not, especially for biodiversity. In
many developed countries the precautionary principle to the impact of the presence of foreign species
that were embodied in the regulations strictly control the spread of invasive species. For example
Bioterorism Act is applied in the United States (Ardhian, 2011). Control of alien species can be
grouped into four stages according to Wittenberg and Cock (2001), namely 1. Prevention
183
(prevention), 2. Early detection (early detection), 3. Eradication / eradication (eradication) and 4.
Control (control), more are presented in Figure 5.
Prevention is the first act and requires the least amount of cost. In Indonesia, controlling or more
accurately described as a precaution against invasive alien species set in Biodiversity Strategy Action
Plan Indonesia (IBSAP). Which implement an effective plan to minimize the biodiversity crisis. This
document berisis action should be taken to be a tool to strengthen its policies in biodiversity
management control and prevention programs include the development of invasive alien species as
cultivated (BLK, 2010). Other action is to quarantine. Pengkaratinaan in Indonesia is regulated by Law
No. 16 of 1992 concerning quarantine of animals, fish and plants.
Early detection is important in determining whether or not eradication of the species potentially
as invasive species. Early detection can be done by surveys that focus on species of concern by
considering the ecological aspects of the target species. Survey at specific locations to detect invasive
species around the entry point at increased risk of high biodiversity value. When precautions were less
successful, eradication program into action option. Eradication can be successful as well as the
solution can reduce the cost. In addition to the resources to support these programs should also be
considered. Eradication programs to do such through 1) habitats such as grazing management /
planned grazing and burning, 2) hunting of invasive species, especially for species of animals
(vertebrates). Control of invasive species of vertebrate groups such as cattle or pig that goes into
conservation areas is to do with understanding to the community, 3) mechanical control on a small
scale like pulling weeds or making snail, and 4) chemical control bait poison for example through a
vertebrate species (Wittenberg and Cock, 2001). The final step in the sequence will be made if
management is not sufficient to do is eradicate the invasive species control. The main purpose of the
control of invasive species is to reduce the density and abundance of invasive organisms that are in
the acceptable limits. Many techniques can be used in the eradication of invasive species control
techniques as described below :
1.
Physical control techniques and mechanics, performed using heavy equipment. Control
techniques such as cutting, lifting of the pulley, demolition by bulldozer or burning stump is done
manually. The advantage of this technique is a fast process but the losses will be more of an
effect on the condition of the surrounding ecosystem. As expressed by Kasno et al. (2001) which
says that the control with manual techniques on water hyacinth to lift and move it on dry land
will only survive in the short term only. This case occurs in Acacia nilotica in TN. Glaze, control is
managed using a bulldozer kill the tree A. nilotica seeds but do not turn off so that seedlings of
A. nilotica is found, the losses come uncovered grass and weed seeds that had been dormant in
the soil to grow into invasive species and vegetation dominates the savanna. Mechanical control
requires time and human resources personnel are sufficiently large (Tjitrosoedirdjo, 2012).
2.
Chemically control techniques, chemical control is not much done. Although the process is
fast and cost requirements can be more expensive than mechanical control. Mechanical weed
control have a much greater impact on biodiversity and the environment. Hill and Olckers (2001)
reported that in South Africa, the actual herbicide formulations are used for weed control in fact
lead to the demise of natural enemies or even pests will become resistant.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Impact of the Presence of Invasive Species …..
Diah Irawati Dwi Arini
3.
The biological control techniques, this technique has many advantages such as safe for the
environment, control agent has the ability to survive and spread yourself, the cost is not too
great. Of the benefits of biological control is considered as the most effective control techniques
(Schoonhoven et al. Sapdi 1996 in 2007). In Indonesia, for the biological control of water
hyacinth species have been developed since the last three decades by exploiting their natural
enemies are Neochetina spp. Biological control is suitable for use in natural and conservation
areas because it is environmentally friendly.
Integrated management of invasive species by combining several methods considered to be
more effective. Some images associated with invasive species control techniques shown in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Techniques how to control invasive species (source : www.google.com)
V. CONCLUSION
Knowledge and information, particularly the presence of invasive species in North Sulawesi is still
very minimal. Results of earlier studies found that six species were categorized as invasive species;
Lantana camara, Eichornia crassipes, Merremia peltata, Imperata cylindrica, Sus sp., Bos taurus. Of
the six known species, water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes) is the most widely distributed one and has
great impact on the ecosystem loss of Lake Tondano.
VII. RECOMENDATION
The presence of alien species is often neglected, but its impact on biodiversity loss is quite
pronounced. Therefore,studies on the identification of types of invasive species and their impacts
need to be performed in North Sulawesi. The integrated control management in a region which has
been seriously invaded needs to be taken into account by using the most effective method.
185
REFERENCES
Ardhian, D. 2011. Bahayanya Alien Invasif Spesies.http://www. http://ardhiandavid.wordpress.com/.
Diakses pada tanggal 10 Juni 2013.
Biotrop, 2011. Invasive Alien Species. http://www.biotrop.org/database.php?act=dbias.Diakses pada
tanggal 10 Juni 2013.
Chatanga, P. 2007. Impact of The Invasive Alien Species, Lantana Camara (L.) on Native Vegetation
In Northern Gonarezhou National Park Zimbabwe. Thesis. Tropical Resource Ecology
Programme. Departement of Biological Sciences. Faculty of Science. University of Zimbabwe.
Day, M.D & Neser, S. 2000. Factors Influencing the Biological Control of Lantana camara in Australia
and South Africa. Proceedings of the X Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. pp. 897908. United States Departement of Agricultural Research Services, Sidney, MT and Montana
State University, Bozeman
Dobhal P.K,Kohli K.R, Batish D.R. 2011. Impact of Lantana Camara L. Invation on Riparian Vegetation
of Nayar Region on Garhwal Himalayas (Uttarakhand, India). Ecology and The Natural
Environment 3(1):12-22.
Hill, M.P & Olckers, T. 2001. Biological Control Initiatives Against Water Hyacinth in South
Africa:Constraining Factors, Success and New Courses of Action in Biological and Integrated
Control of Water Hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes, pp 33-38. Proceedings of the Second Meeting
of Global Working Group for The Biological and Integrated Control of Water Hyacinth, Beijing,
China, 9-12 October 2000. China.
Holmes. 2000. Potret Keadaan Hutan Indonesia. Forest Watch Indonesia dan Washington D.C Global
Forest Watch. Bogor. Indonesia.
[ISSG]
Invasive
Species
Specialist
Group.
2005.
Global
Database.http://www.issg.org/database. Diakses tanggal 11 Juni 2013.
Invasive
Species
Kasno, Putri A.S.R, Widayanti. S, Sunjaya. 2001. Establishment of Neohaetina spp. Their Pattern of
Local Dispersal and Age Structure at Release Site. Biotropia 17:18-19.
KLH. 2002. Keanekaragaman hayati dan pengendalian jenis asing invasif. KLH-the Nature
Conservancy: Jakarta.
Kusen,
A.W.S.
2012.
Masalah
Enceng
Gondok
Di
Sungai
dan
Danau
Tondano.http://www.konservasidanautondano.wodpress.com. Diakses pada tanggal 11 Juni
2013.
Kusmana, C. 2010. Spesies Invasif. http://.www.cecep_kusmana.staff.ipb.ac.id/. Diakses pada tanggal
10 Juni 2013.
Natalia,
G. 2011. Alien Spesies dan Hasil Genetika Serta Kebijakan Terkait OHMG.
http://.www.keranjangsampahsaya.blogspot.com. Diakses pada tanggal 12 Juni 2013.
Pane H, & Hasannudin A. 2002. Gulma invasif jajagoan dan enceng gondok di lahan irigasi. Dalam:
Purwono B, Wardhana BS, Wijanarko K, Setyowati E, Kurniawati DS. Keanekaragaman Hayati
dan Pengendalian Jenis Asing Invasif. Jakarta: Kantor Menteri Lingkungan Hidup Republik
Indonesia dan The Nature Consevancy.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Impact of the Presence of Invasive Species …..
Diah Irawati Dwi Arini
Pratama, A.I. 2012. Dukungan Petugas Karantina Hewan dalam Menangkal Penyebaran Invasive Alien
Species (IAS) di Indonesia. http://.www.blog.ub.ac.id/ agriculnature/archives/9. Diakses pada
tanggal 10 Juni 2013.
Primack RB. 1998. Biologi Konservasi. Primack RB, Supriatna J, Indrawan M, Kramadibrata P,
penerjamah. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia. Terjemahan dari: A Primer of Conservation
Biology.
Prinando, M. 2011. Keanekaragaman Spesies Tumbuhan Asing Invasif Di Kampus IPB Darmaga Bogor.
Skripsi. Departemen Konservasi Sumberdaya Hutan dan Ekowisata. Fakultas Kehutanan.
Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor
Purnomosidhi. P & Subekti. R. 2013. Pengendalian Alang-Alang dengan Pola Agroforestry.http.www.
worldagroforestry.org. Diakses pada tanggal 13 Juni 2013.
Purwono B, Wardhana BS, Wijanarko K, Setyowati E, Kurniawati DS. 2002. Keanekaragaman Hayati
dan Pengendalian Jenis Asing Invasif. Jakarta: Kantor Menteri Lingkungan Hidup Republik
Indonesia dan The Nature Consevancy.
Puspasari, D. 2012. Tumbuhan Invasif Ancam Biodiversitas. http://.www.redd-indonesia.org. Diakses
pada tanggal 8 Juni 2013.
Republika. 2013. Kondisi Danau Tondano Sangat Memprihatinkan.http://.www.republika.co.id. Diakses
tanggal 5 Juni 2013.
Sapdi. 2007. Implikasi Keberadaan Spesies Asing Invasif Enceng Gondok dan Agens Hayatinya,
Neochetina spp. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae), terhadap Komunitas Tumbuhan Akuatik dan
Serangga. Disertasi. Sekolah Pascasarjana. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor
Tjitrosemito, S. 1999. The Establishment of Procecidochares connexa in West Java Indonesia: a
Biological Control Agent of Chromolaena Odorata. Biotropia 12:19-24.
Tjitrosoedirdjo, S. 2012. Strategi Konnservasi Banteng di Indonesia (Khususnya di Taman Nasional
Baluran). Pengelolaan Banteng di Taman Nasional Baluran. Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas
Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta. 11 Oktober 2011.
Wikipedia. 2013. Spesies Invasif. http://www.id.wikipedia.org. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Juni 2013.
. 2013. Imperata cylindrica. http://www.id.wikipedia.org. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Juni
2013.
. 2013. Lantana camara. http://www.id.wikipedia.org. Diakses pada tanggal 8 Juni 2013.
Wittenberg, R & Cock, M.J.W. 2001. Invasive Alien Species : A toolkit of Best Prevention and
Managemet Practices. CAB International, Wallingford. Oxon. UK.
187
188
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Daily Behaviour of Nuri Talaud (Eos histrio) …..
Anita Mayasri & Ady Suryawan
The Daily Behaviour of Nuri Talaud (Eos histrio) in Captivity of Manado
Forestry Research Center1
Anita Mayasari2 dan Ady Suryawan2
ABSTRACT
Talaud Red and blue lory (Eos histrio) known as Sampiri is one of rare endemic avifauna of Wallacea
which has been included in the list of protected species and the IUCN red list. This study aims to
examine the behaviour of Sampiri in captivity in Forestry Research Institute of Manado. The
observations were made in November 2012 on group which consist of 28 species) and individual
(6species) start at 6:00 to 17:30 pm. Observed behaviours are ingestive, moving, cleaning up the
body, elliminative, agonistic, resting, voice, sexual activities. Data collection techniques using scan and
instantenous sampling. The behavior of Sampiri in individual cage dominated by voice activity 61%,
moving 28% and ingestive 27%, whereas in group cage were voice activity 63%, resting 34.8% and
moving 27.3%. Observation show that voiced activity performed in conjunction with other activities.
Keyword: Nuri Talaud, Eos histrio, behavior, endemik, Wallace
I. INTRODUCTION
Nuri Talaud or better known as Sampiri (Eos histrio) is one of the
endemic avifauna wallace
rare. According to Coates and Bishop (2000) Nuri Talaud (E. histrio) have three sub species, namely
E.h histrio (Sangihe), E.h. talautensis (Talaud Islands), E.h. callengeri (Nanusa Miangas Island and
Islands). Nuri Talaud in the list of protected species in PP No. 7 of 1999 and listed in the IUCN Red
List 1994. Lambert (1997) and BKSDA North Sulawesi (2005) report that the main cause of the rising
status of being endangered is the trade and destruction of habitat.
According Mayasari and Suryawan (2011), Nuri Talaud has a great opportunity be done to
captivity. Morphological observations have an average weight of 130.39 grams, the average length of
26.30 cm and needs for feed an average of 82,139 gram for feed of the preferred
(Mayasari and
Suryawan, 2012).
According Alikodra (2002) behavior is movement stimuli in the organism to meet the need of
stimuli
1
by using stimuli from the environment, so prior to the breeding of animal, the patterns
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
2
Manado Forestry Research Institute, Jl. Raya Adipura, Kel. Kima Atas, Kec. Mapanget, Manado, Sulawesi Utara.
Email: [email protected]
189
behavior must be understood thoroughly. The purpose of this study was to determine the daily
behavior of Talaud Nuri in the Forestry Research Institute of Manado's captivity as a bid to provide
basic information Nuri Talaud in captivity.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
A.
Time and Location Research
Observations made during the month of November 2012 starting at 6:00 to 17:30 pm.
Observation cage located in the office area of the Forestry Research Institute of Manado, North
Sulawesi, located at an altitude of 70 m asl with climate according to Schmidt and Ferguson Type
A or very wet with rainfall 3,187 mm / yr, the average air temperature annual 25-27 ° C, season
rains from October to June (Manadokota.go.id, 2012)
B.
Materials and Research Tools
Materials used were 34 birds sampiri, communal observation cage measuring: diameter of 6 m
and a height of 7 meters. Individual cages measuring 1.5 x 1 x 2 meters, branches twigs, nest
and fruit. Equipment needed Stopwacth and stationery.
C.
Research Prosedures
1.
Preparation Research
¾
Preparation of communal and individual cages and complementary infrastructure such as
the feed, food and drinking containers, artificial nest.
¾
Samples distribution for the observation of birds as much as 28 in tails communal cage
and 6 tails in individual cage.
¾
2.
Acclimatization in a cage for 3 months before the specific behavior observed.
Implementation Research
¾
Research Activities begin with a preliminary observation to group some activities ever
encountered. Observed behavior is classified as follows: eating and drinking behavior
(Ingestive),
moving
(lokomotion),
body
care
(Grooming),
removing
impurities
(elliminative), agonistic, rest (resting), voice (voice), sexual (sexual activities) and others.
¾
Data collection techniques using scan sampling techniques and sampling instantenous.
observations were made 3 times a day is at 6 to 7 am, 12 am - 1 pm and 4.30 pm to
5.30 pm.
¾
Feeding before 6 am with various types of food such as papaya, banana and maize.
D. Data Analysis
Counting the frequency of bird activity using formulations Sudjana (1992) on the Savitri and
Takandjaji (2010), as follows:
F = Fi1 + Fi2 = Fi3 + ...Fin
F = Frekuensi
Fi1, Fi2, Fi3,Fin
= The frequency of an activity
Then to determine the relative frequency of activity, with the formula
190
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Daily Behaviour of Nuri Talaud (Eos histrio) …..
Anita Mayasri & Ady Suryawan
‫ܨ‬௥௘௟ ൌ
݄݂ܶ݁‫ݕݐ݅ݒ݅ݐ݂ܿܽ݊ܽ݋ݕܿ݊ܽݑݍ݁ݎ‬
ܺͳͲͲΨ
݄݂ܶ݁‫ݕݐ݅ݒ݅ݐ݂ܿܽ݊ܽ݋ݕܿ݊ܽݑݍ݁ݎ‬
Then to find out the average of each activity by the formula :
ࢀࢎࢋ࢓ࢋࢇ࢔ࢇࢉ࢚࢏࢜࢏࢚࢟ ൌ ࡭࢓࢕࢛࢔࢚࢕ࢌࢇࢉ࢚࢏࢜࢏࢚࢟࢏࢔࢚ࢎࢋࢉࢇࢍࢋ
ࡰࢇ࢙࢟࢕ࢌ࢕࢈࢙ࢋ࢘࢜ࢇ࢚࢏࢕࢔
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Observations indicate that there are differences in behavior between the dominant activity of
Talaud Nuri in the communal and individual cage. The observation shows that Nuri Talaud voice along
with other activities, so that when the observation will be obtained two activities at a time. The data
collection method does not allow for two activities at a time, then the voice activity on record
separately.
Voice is often done while eating, moving and taking care of the body. Calculation of the
percentage of the daily behavior of the results is known that noiseless time Nuri Talaud around 61%
in the invidual cage while in the communal cage reached 63% . To illustrate the percentage of the
daily behavior depicted in Figures 1 and 2.
The Daily Behaviour in The Individual Cage
Agonistic
0%
Sexual
0%
Resting
22%
Elliminative
3%
Grooming
20%
Nesting
0%
Ingestive
27%
Lokomotion
28%
Figure 1. Diagram individual behavior in individual cages Nuri Talaud
191
The Daily Behaviour in The Comunal Cage
Nesting
0%
Ingestive
6%
Agonistic
0%
Sexual
9%
Resting
35%
Lokomotion
27%
Grooming
19%
Elliminative
4%
Figure 2. Diagram Nuri Talaud group behavior in communal cages
Dominant behavior after the voice are moving, eating and resting. In the individual cages
locomotion activity
28%
and eat 27%, whereas in communal cages resting activity 34.8% and
27.3% move. Agonistic and nest is not found in the observations. Likely due to the acclimatization
process is long enough. agonistic activity found when the parrot Talaud meet after the seizure of the
community by North Sulawesi Natural Resources Conservation Center.
Nesting activity in these observations occur only when playing where Nuri Talaud just go in and
straight out, so with the method used was not able to record the event. Even to sleep the night or
when it rains, high winds Nuri Talaud not use artificial nests. Nests made of boards shaped like pigeon
cage, as Figure 3.
A.
Eating and Dringking Behaviour (Ingestive)
Eating and drinking behavior in communal cages only 6%, whereas in individual cages reached
27%. In communal cages Talaud Nuri as having mealtime patterns. This is indicated by encounter
time the food between the hours of 6:30 am to 8:30 am, lunch 11:00 to 12:00 am, and afternoon
3:30 pm to 5:00 pm. In individual cages do not have to diet, because of the time the food came not
as orderly in communal cages.
Eating behaviors performed with a strong voice as if calling for a meal together. While drinking
activities usually done before bathing or taking care of the body. It occurs in communal cages for
larger water containers, while in individual cages take bath not found.
The interesting thing while eating in a communal cage is when encounter the food is usually
preceded by one of the most aggressive, followed by 2-3 tails sneaking behind running such as
ensuring food safety. After eating direct voice and other birds came to eat
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Daily Behaviour of Nuri Talaud (Eos histrio) …..
Anita Mayasri & Ady Suryawan
Type of feed also affect Nuri Talaud how eating. Nuri Talaud when eating sweet corn seed,
using the tongue to peel the epidermis. Nuri Talud more often shook his head to clear his beak when
eating papaya or banana. When eating a banana, Nuri Talaud often grasped and directed to the beak,
like eating.
B.
Moving (Lokomotion),
Lokomotion behavior undertaken include: fly, go food, running, playing / acrobatics. Moving
activity is the dominant activity. Obtained figures on individual cages 28% and 27% of communal
cages. moving in branches and wire cage on legs and beak sometimes like acrobatics, movement on
the ground by doing jumping jacks.
C.
Caring for the body (grooming),
Grooming is treating the body or behavior cleaning up his body. body care activities in individual
cages at 20% while 19% in communal cages. Usual do care of his body after a meal and rest periods
between which the rub stick his beak, cleaning the wing feathers, tail, chest and back.
D. Defecate (elliminative),
Behavior defecate more often encountered between meals then shortly before the flight and
when perched. This behavior do by beginning to lift the tail higher. After defecation usually fly /
move and sometimes just silence.
Proportion defecate only 3% in individual cages while in communal cages at 4%.
E.
Agonistik,
Agonistic behavior during the observation data collection was never found. However, this activity
is predicted to have occurred during the acclimatization in communal cages, because some birds to
experience hair loss and sores. Maybe because Nuri Talaud live in groups, so if there is a bird entrants
will be considered competitors.
F.
Rest (resting),
Break behavior is the dominant behavior in communal cages often found at 9:30 am to 11:00 am
and 1 pm - 2:30 PM. Activity breaks Nuri Talaud
done by perched using one or two feet on the
twigs, hanging on the wire cage, closed his eyes while perched. Nuri Talaud there is never a break in
the nest of the day or night. Break behavior is usually performed after treating the body. Break
behavior On individual observations found only 22% whereas in communal cages reached 35%. May
be caused by conditions of communal cage is not in accordance with the Nuri Talaud's desire, so that
more activity was found silence / break.
G. Voiced (voice),
Voice is the dominant behavior, Voice is often performed with other activities. Voice observations
done separately from other behaviors. This is because the methods of observation can not record two
activity in the same time.
Calculation results voice proportion reached 61% in individual cages and 63% in communal
cages. Almost equal proportions of the two observations because Nuri Talaud always like shouted, so
when there are some birds that a voice on the communal cages of birds in individual cages will also
voice.
193
H. Seksual (sexual activities) dan lainnya.
Sexual behavior is only found in a communal cage and reached 9%. Activity that occurred just
kissing and making out, and never encountered mating activity. Individuals who perform these
activities only occasionally, usually two birds will always be together. Predictable because the shape of
the nest is not in accordance with Nuri Talaud habitat, so the birds are not mating. Habitat
observations showed that the nest is a
high tree . Maybe if obtained form suitable nest, Nuri Talaud
will breed.
IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A. CONCLUSIONS
1. Nuri Talaud dominant behavior in individual cages that voice, move and eat, while at the
communal cage voice, istirahat and moving.
2. Voice behavior performed in conjunction with other activities and reached more than 60%.
3. Agonistic behavior does not occur, probably due to the long acclimatization.
4. Sexual behavior does not happen mating, allegedly due to the environment, nests or cages are not
appropriate.
B. RECOMMENDATIONS
Research is needed to determine the forms of the nest, cage type and a suitable environment for
Nuri Talaud.
REFERENCES
Alikodra, H. S. 2002. Pengelolaan Satwa Liar: Jilid I. Yayasan Penerbit Fakultas Kehutanan. Kampus
Fakultas Kehutanan IPB. Bogor
Coates, B.J dan Bishop, K.D. 2000. Panduan Lapangan Burung-Burung di Kawasan Wallacea. Birdlife
Internasional-Indonesia Programme & Dove Publikation Pty. Ltd. Bogor.
BKSDA (Balai Konservasi Sumber Daya Alam) Sulut. 2005. Inventarisasi Satwa Endemik di Suaka
Margasatwa Karakelong, Kabupaten Talaud. BKSDA Sulut. Manado.
IUCN, The International Union For Conservation of Nature, 2008. Red Data Book IUCN.
Lambert, Dr.F.R. 1997. Pengkajian Lapangan tentang Status Konservasi Nuri Talaud di Indonesia.
IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN. Bangkok.
Manado.go.id. 2011.Keadaan Iklim. Diunduh dari http://www.manadokota.go.id/page-102-iklim.html.
Tanggal 21 Juni 2013 pukul 10.00 Wita
Mayasari, A dan Suryawan, A. 2011. Peluang Konservasi Ex Situ Burung Sampiri (Eos Histrio) Melalui
Penangkaran. Prosiding Ekspose Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manado. Halaman 143-154.
Manado
................................................ 2012. Hubungan Morfologi dan Preferensi Pakan Sampiri (Eos
histrio) di Penangkaran. Prosiding Prospek Pengembangan Hutan Tanaman (Rakyat),
Konservasi dan Rehabilitasi Hutan. Halaman 179-188. Manado
194
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Daily Behaviour of Nuri Talaud (Eos histrio) …..
Anita Mayasri & Ady Suryawan
Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 7 Tahun 1999 tentang Pengawetan Jenis Tumbuhan dan Satwa
Sawitri. R dan Takandjadji. M. 2010. Pengelolan dan Perilaku Burung Elang di Pusat Penyelamatan
Satwa
Cikananga,
Sukabumi.
Diakses
dari
http://library.fordamof.org/libforda/data_pdf/3117.pdf tanggal 5 Desember 2011
195
196
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Seedling Process Technique of Cempaka Wasian (Elmerrellia Ovalis Miq.)…...
Arif Irawan & Hanif Nurul H.
Seedling Process Technique of Cempaka Wasian (Elmerrellia ovalis Miq.
Dandy) as a Local Potential Wood in North Sulawesi1
Arif Irawan2 and Hanif Nurul Hidayah2
ABSTRACT
Seedling process techniques of cempakawasian (Elmerrilia ovalis (Miq.) Dandy) started from taking
fruit, fruit extraction, storage of seed, seedling, and weaning. Seed of cempakawasian is including the
type of recalcitrant seeds, so the handling should be in a fast time and the seed can not be saved in
the long term. The storage techniques of seed can use airtight plastic and stored in air-conditioned
room or refrigerator. Viability of cempakawasian seed will decrease as the length of time storage.
Cempakawasian seeding more effective using fine sand media that have been sterilized. Sprouts begin
to appear after 2-3 week. Seedling ready for weaning when it appeared two (2) leaves perfectly using
media such as soil applied singly. Once weaned, the seeds laid on the plot with a given shading. The
density of shading with 22,000 lux light intensity show the best result of high growth, diameter, and
cross-section of leaves. Cempaka wasian susceptable to caterpillar pests that attack the leaves.
Chemically control is done by using a systemic insecticide. Cempaka wasian seed is ready for planting
around the age of 5 months with a height of approximately 25-30 cm.
Keyword : seedling process techniques, cempakawasian (Elmerrilia ovalis (Miq.) Dandy), seed,
weaning media
I.
INTRODUCTION
Cempaka Wasian (Elmerrilia ovalis (Miq.) Dandy) is a kind of wood that has close links with the
community of Minahasa in North Sulawesi. Types of wood with durable and powerful class of class II
is widely used as the main materials to makes of custom home (houses Woloan) on this “bumi nyiur
melambai”. That community, Woloan's house with the main materials of cempaka Wasian's wood will
have aprestige value (pride) which is higher than the use of other types of wood. In addition to
custom homes as raw material, wood allotment cempaka wasian also is taken into accountin the North
Sulawesi region as feed stock to makes doors, frames, and various forms offurniture.
Cempaka wasian tree is a tree with the type of growth medium (medium growing species) with
cutting cycles ranging from 15-20 years. Cempaka wasian stands are found in the forests of the
1
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
2
Manado Forestry Research Institute, Jl. Raya Adipura Kel. Kima Atas Kec. Mapanget Kota Manado
Telp : (0431) 3666683 Email : [email protected]
197
people in North Sulawesi. This type of spread in almost every public forests, mixed farms and family
forest (Pasini forest) in North Minahasa regency (around Mount Klabat), Tomohon city (Tara-tara,
Pinaras, Mahawu, and Mount Masarang), Minahasa Districts (Kawangkoan, Langowan, Tondano East),
South Minahasa districts (Tareran), Bolaang Mongondow (Modayak) (Kinho, 2011).
Seeing the potentialis high enough to use this type of timber by the society, so the propagation
of activity needs to be done to meet the growing demand of cempaka’s timber. Generative
propagation activity through seed is one of the initial chain cempaka wasian for cultivation. This study
aims to determine these edingt echnique description cempaka wasian are using seeds from handling
the fruit, seed extraction, seed germination technique sand weaning techniques. The study was
conducted in the nursery of the Forestry Research Institute of Manado in December 2011 s/d in July
2012. Material sand tools used are cempaka wasian stands, cempaka wasian fruit, sprouts tub, sand,
soil, poly bags, and stationery. Observation sand maintenance carried out on seed germination and
weaning until the seed. Documentation of the activities carriy out during he download process,
gathering fruit, seed extraction, seed sowing, seedling grow than dweaning unti the seed.
II. FRUIT HANDLING AND SEED
A.
Fruiting Season
Based on the observation cempaka wasian stands in South Minahasa and Tomohon in 2011 s / d
in 2013 known that the fruiting season occurs in March-April and November-December.
B.
FruitCollection
Fruit of cempaka wasian shaped buni, with ripe fruit is generally red. Fruit collection is done by
climbing the selected parent trees. Criteria suggested parent tree is straight-trunked, height of free
branch is maximum, and generally show a healthy state. Fruit have been collected inserted in the
container / bag and be done extraction process if ithas been in processing place.
Figure 1. Cempaka Wasian (Elmerrillia ovalis) Fruit
C.
Seed extraction
Cempaka wasian fruit has a length between 5.4 to 7.3 cm wide and 1.2 to 2 cm. Cempaka
wasian seeds in the fruit is coated in red epidermis. The number of seeds in the fruit weevil estimated
50-80 seeds.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Seedling Process Technique of Cempaka Wasian (Elmerrellia Ovalis Miq.)…...
Arif Irawan & Hanif Nurul H.
Extraction process can be done by a fruit drying in the sun until the skin of the fruit broke and
seeds that are still covered with epidermis can be taken. However, because the seeds of cempaka
wasian are classified as recalcitranttype, so the long process of drying should be noted that this
process does not affect the viability of seed germination time. To eliminating the epidermis attached
to the seed can be done by soaking it first and clean it thoroughly. In addition to drying, to remove
the skin of the fruit can also be done by soaking it in water and clean it well with the epidermis still
attached to the seed. This method is more effective, but rather requires a longer time to soften the
outer skin of the fruit. After the extraction process is complete, make sure there is no residual back
epidermis still attached to the seed of cempaka wasian, as this can cause mildew when stored or
when the seed germination.
Cempaka wasian seeds that have been mature perfectly is black and sink when immersed in
water. Seed of cempaka wasian is not recommended stored in a long time. Seed saving can be done
in an airtight plastic and placed in an air-conditioned or refrigerators.
Figure 2. Cempaka Wasian (Elmerrillia ovalis) Seed
D. Seed weight test
To determine the weight of cempaka wasianseed, so do the seed weight test activities. This test
is done by weighing 100 seed arerandomly selected. Base on ISTA, to obtain seed weight of 1,000
grains seed can be done by weighing 100 seeds that are repeated as many as 8 (eight) times. The
number of replicates efficiently determined based on the value of coefficient of variance (Ck). Weight
determination of 1000 seedsshould be repeated if the coefficient of variance has a value> 4 (Ning and
Sidiyasa, 2011).
Tabel 1. Weight test results of 1.000 grainE. ovalis seed
199
Repeat
Weight (gram)
1 (100 grain)
2,94
2 (100 grain)
2,70
3 (100 grain)
2,80
4 (100 grain)
2,74
Repeat
Weight (gram)
5 (100 grain)
2,96
6 (100 grain)
2,94
7 (100 grain)
2,84
8 (100 grain)
2,75
Average weight = 2,84 gram
Weight of 1.000 grain = 28,4 gram
Ck (coefficient of variance) = 3,61%
S (standart error) = 0,10 %
Results of testing seed weight of 1,000 grains of E. ovalis is 28.4 grams with Ck (coefficient of
variance) by 3.61%. Based on the value of Ck can be stated that the determination of the weight of
the seed need not be repeated because it has a value of Ck <4. Of the test calculations also showed
that the estimated number of seeds of E. ovalis is as much as 35,211 grain per kg. Information from
seed collector is known that downloading cempaka wasian fruit within every tree can be taken one (1)
sack of mature seeds, with every one sack (size 50 kg) can be obtained seed (after the extraction
process) as much as 3 kg.
III. GERMINATION AND NURSERY
A. Seed germination
Seed germination of cempaka wasian can be performed on sow tub (plastic tubs or wooden tub)
are placed under shade. Sow media used is good sand that has been sterilized. Before sowing seeds,
watering should be done with water until saturated media (if possible add a fungicide to minimize
fungus that may attack the seed). Sowing seeds was done evenly on sow tub that has been prepared
and then covered with fine sand. Sow tub placed in a location free from interference by ants and mice
or closed the tub using wire ram blushes and provide anti ants around the site where sowing seeds.
Watering is done regularly (morning and afternoon) with a hand sprayer. Seeds will begin to
germinate about 2-3 weeks after sowing and will be weaned into polybag when the seedlings
currently has two (2) leaves perfectly. When seed germination, also the possibility that the disease
attacking cempaka Wasian is lodoh (dumping off). The disease is characterized by the decay of the
stem and continued with the fall of the seedlings are attacked. This disease appears generally are due
to lack of sterility of the medium used. If the disease began indicated to attacking seedlings, then do
the culling seedlings that have been attack that not spread to other seedlings.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Seedling Process Technique of Cempaka Wasian (Elmerrellia Ovalis Miq.)…...
Arif Irawan & Hanif Nurul H.
Figure 3. Sowing seed, seed germination, and seedlings ready for weaning
B. Seedbed
The weaning process into polybag can be performed in the morning or late afternoon to avoid
excessive stress levels at weaning cempaka Wasian. The media used is soil mixed with farmyard
manure. Based on the results of experiments on some weaning media(cocopeat + rice husk charcoal,
cocopeat + soil, soil + rice husk charcoal, cocopeat, and soil) are tested against seed cempaka known
that the best media affect growth responses of seedling cempaka (percent survival, height and
diameter) is the soil medium is applied singly. The use of manure is used to provide additional
nutrition for the growth of seedlings cempaka Wasian on the weaning phase. Seeds that have been
weaned placed under shading of the intensity of light being. Irawan et al (2012), in his research said
that the shade treatment is recommended to be able to give the best effect on the growth of
seedlings cempaka Wasian is at the level of shade density with light intensity of 22,000 lux. This is
because at that level can generate the highest growth seedlings at high parameter, seedling diameter,
leaf cross section (length and width).
Figure 4. Cempaka Wasian seed age 1 (one) month and 4 (four) months
Seedling maintenance routine includes watering, fertilizing, and prevention from pest and
disease. Pests are often attacked cempaka Wasian the caterpillar leaves. Characteristic cempaka
wasian plant which attacted by pests is a form of perforated leaves. This caterpillar pest control can
be done chemically using a systemic insecticide. With a good maintenance and controlled, seedlings of
201
cempaka wasian with less than 5 months old generally has reached high about 25-30 cm and ready to
be planted.
IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATION
A. CONCLUSION
1. Extraction technique of cempaka wasian seed can be done by drying and soaking to remove
the peel fruit and epidermis attached to the seeds.
2. germination of cempaka wasian seed can be performed on sow tub with media used is good
sand that has been sterilized.
3. Weaning of cempaka wasian seeds can be done in a polybag with weaning media used were
the soil: farmyard manure (2:1).
B. RECOMENDATION
1. Cempaka wasian seed is classified as recalcitrant type, so it is advisable not stored for a long
time to keep the viability of the seed.
2. To keep cempaka wasian seed from ant pests and rodents to note that the location of seedsowing that seed germination is not bothered by these pests both.
REFERENCES
Irawan, A., Hidayah, H. N., dan Halawane, J. E. 2012. Pengaruh Intensitas Cahaya dan Jenis Pupuk
terhadap Pertumbuhan Semai Cempaka Wasian (Elmerrilia ovalis (Miq.) Dandy) di
Persemaian. Seminar. Prospek Pengembangan Hutan Tanaman (Rakyat) Konservasi dan
Rehabilitasi Hutan. Balai Penelitian Kehutanan Manado.
Kinho, J. 2011. Prospek Pengembangan Kayu Cempaka di Hutan Rakyat Sulawesi Utara. Hal 379-382.
Prosiding Workshop Sintesa Hasil Penelitian Hutan Tanaman 2010. Pusat Litbang
Peningkatan Produktifitas Hutan.
Langi, Y.A.R. 2007. Model Penduga Biomassa dan Karbon pada Tegakan Hutan Rakyat Cempaka
(Elmrerillia ovalis) dan wasian (Elmerrillia celebica) di Kabupaten Minahasa Sulawesi Utara.
Thesis Sekolah Pasca Sarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Ningsih, M.A. dan Sidiyasa, K. 2011 Sifat dasar benih Dysoxylum alliaceum (Blume) Blume dari KHDTK
Samboja, Kalimantan. Prosiding Workshop Sintesa Hasil Penelitian Hutan Tanaman 2010.
Pusat Litbang Peningkatan Produktifitas Hutan.
Sudomo, A. 2010. Teknik Pembibitan Tisuk (Hibicus macrophyllus Roxb ex Hornem). Vol 3 No 2. Tekni
Hutan Tanaman. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengemb
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Effect of Sowing Media…...
Hanif Nurul H. & Arif Irawan
The Effect of Sowing Media, Early Treatment of Seed, and Covering to the
Germination of Gmelina arborea1
Hanif Nurul Hidayah2 dan Arif Irawan2
ABSTRACT
Giving some treatments before the cultivation of seedlings to the seed of Gmelina arborea has a
purpose to know the influence of germination potency. The treatments which are attempted includes
spreading media (M1 = sand, M2 = cocopeat, M3 = soil+sand, dan M4 = soil+cocopeat), early
treatment of the seed (P1 = without soaking in water, P2 = soaking in water during 12 hours, and P3
= soaking in hot water then stilled during 12 hours) and covering (S1 = without covering dan S2 =
with covering). From the observation result and calculation of germination potency, sand media plays
a good role in germination of gmelina. While for the best interaction influence is shown by interaction
of sand media with covering and interaction of soaking hot water with covering.
Keyword: Gmelina arborea, spreading media, covering, seeds treatment
I. INTRODUCTION
Gmelina arborea, commonly known by the name of gmelina is a broadleaf tree species belonging
to the family Verbenaceae. Tree height can reach 30m with a diameter of trunk more than 60 cm.
This fast growing timber species can be used as pulp, paper, veneer, particle board, panel boxes,
musical instruments, tailgate and others. Gmelina can grow well in wet to dry climates, at an altitude
of 50-1,110 m above sea level, on a wet alluvial soil and calcareous soil (Martawijaya et al., 1981).
Gmelina is one of many types of plants that developed the community in the form of community
forests. This type is preferred because it has a rapid harvest and cultivation techniques that easy. One
of the factors that determine the success of of development this species is the availability of quality
seeds that begins from the use of quality seeds and proper seed handling techniques. One of the
parameters that can be used to determine seed quality and proper handling techniques is through
seed germination ability.
1
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
2
Manado Forestry Research Institute, Jl. Raya Adipura Kel. Kima Atas Kec. Mapanget Kota Manado
Telp : (0431) 3666683 Email : [email protected]
203
Seed germination ability is influenced by genetic factors and environmental factors. Seed
germination started from imbibition or water absorption processes. The process of water absorption
on the seed is purely physical process but the beginning of germination, then followed by seed
metabolic processes so that the embryo grows into sprouts and then grown into seedlings (Mayer and
Poljakof, 1982 Bewley and Black, 1994).
This study aims to determine the seed handling techniques and best environmental factors that
affect germination ability of gmelina seed. Some treatments tested are differences sowingmedia, seed
pretreatment and covering treatment.
II. METHODOLOGY
This study was conducted in September-October 2012 in the greenhouse at Permanent Nursery
of BPDAS Tondano in Manado. Materials used are gmelina seeds, soil, sand, and cocopeat. The tools
used include sprouts tubs, plastic lid, and sprayer. Seeds are selected manually by selecting good
seeds and uniform size. Sowing seeds is done in accordance with the treatment were tested.
The experimental design used in this study is a factorial experiment with RAL basic design
consisting of three (3) factors which sowing media (M1 = sand, M2 = cocopeat, M3 = soil + sand,
and M4 = soil + cocopeat), pretreatment seed (P1 = without soaking in water, P2 = soaking in water
during 12 hours, and P3 = soaking in hot water then stilled during 12 hours) and covering (S1 =
without covering and S2 = covering). Each treatment consisting of 3 (three) replicates and each
experimental unit consisted of 10 seeds. The data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance
and significantly different if followed by Duncan's test.
Germination observations perfomed 1 (one) month after sowing.Germination ability is calculated using
the following formula:
DB =
σ ௚௥௢௪௜௡௚௦௣௥௢௨௧௦
σ ௦௘௘ௗ௣௟௔௡௧௘ௗ
‫ͲͲͳݔ‬Ψ
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Germination process of gmelina seed take about 1 month. After the seeds germinate, then began
to do observations of the number of sprouts that emerged and calculated the sprouts percent. Sprouts
percent of data that have been obtained subsequently processed to determine the effect of each
treatment and the interaction between treatments tested (Table 1).
Based on the analysis of data it is known that not all treatments are tested influence on the
sprouts percent of gmelinaseeds. Individually,the treatment which give significant effect was sown the
media treatment,while interaction between the treatment effect is the interaction between the sowing
media*covering treatment and seed pretreatment*covering. Effect of seed pretreatment and covering
factor individually and the interaction between sowing media treatment*seed pretreatment,sowing
media*seed pretreadment*covering treatment did not significantly affect to the sprouts percent of
gmelina seed.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Effect of Sowing Media…...
Hanif Nurul H. & Arif Irawan
Table 1. Analysis of variance results of germination potency Gmelina arborea seed
Source of Diversity
Freedom
of Degree
Number of
Squares
Central
Squares
F-Value
3
2
1
6
3
2
6
26,22
5,77
2,72
13,11
22,83
27,44
12,33
8,74
2,89
2,72
2,19
7,61
13,72
2,05
3,37*
1,11
1,05
0,84
2,93*
5,28*
0,79
sowing media
seed treatment
covering
sowing media*seed treatment
sowing media*covering
seed treatment*covering
sowing media*seed
treatment*covering
note : * = significantly different at 5% level test
Sowing media with the highest response values that affect germination ability of gmelina seed is
sand media (M1) and cocopeat (M2) with a germination ability of 59% (although the both media
statistically are not the best medium because it is not different from the other sowing media
treatment) (Table 2). Both of these media provide a higher response than the use of a mixture of soil
media. This is possible because the soil media has more resistant to waterbinding properties and
absorb or releaseof heat. Individually, the use of sand and cocopeat media give more higher
fluctuations temperatures compared to the use of mixed media with soil. Sudrajat et al, 2009 the
results of his research explains that the sand media gives the best results for seed germination of
kemenyan (Styrax benzoin Dryand) with 63% sprouts. While Sudomo (2012) in his research shows
that the best response of sengon (Falcataria moluccana (miq.) Barneby & JWGrimes) germination is
use of sand that is equal to 87.33%. Temperature fluctuations in the sowing media allegedly able to
improve seed coat rupture which resulted the water imbibition process into seed go faster. The use of
sand is widely used in testing the seed germination ability and used as a standard media in seed
germination test that issued by ISTA (1999).
Interaction influence of sowing media*covering and seed pretreatment*covering also give
significant effect on the observed response. Further test to the interaction of sowing media*covering
produce the best response to sand media treatment (M1) and covering treatment using transparent
plastic
(S2)
with
a
germination
ability
by
69%,
while
the
best
interaction
of
seed
pretreatment*covering produced by seed pretreatment with soaking in hot water then stilled during
12 hours (P3) and covering treatment using transparent plastic (S2) with germination ability by 65%.
Transparent plastic lid is used in order to maintain a stable level of humidity sow media. This
treatment is quite affecting germination ability of gmelina seed on experiments that have been done.
This is because the medium remains moist ensures the availability of water on the seeds that were
sown. Water is a basic necessity in the germination of seeds for enzyme activity that allows the
breakdown of seed coat and the use of food reserves material (Suhartati in Copeland 2007). Seed
germination process started with the water absorption and the seed coat softened and swell as well as
the influx of oxygen as the seed respirationthat causes of metabolism embryo cells continues, it
strongly supports the process of germination (Kamil, 1979).
205
Gmelina seeds were soaked using hot water is good enough to improve the viability, because in
these conditions can soften the seed coat so that water and oxygen absorption process balanced and
germination process can take place effectively. According Sutopo (1994) germination process can be
influenced by soaking in water at a certain temperature, which resulted in physical dormancy can be
broken and increasing the seed permeability. Suhartati (2007) in his study revealed that pretreatment
of sengon butoh seed with soaking for 4-8 hours with the initial temperature of water is 100o C is
produce the best germination response is 70-90%.
Hot water is a solvent that is effective in solving the problem of skin or physical dormancy, and
quickly removes the barrier of dormancy due to thermal energy, and stimulate germination by
changing the physical structure of the seed coat. Thermal energy make absorption of water and
oxygen process is easy to reach equilibrium, so as to affect the germination of seeds. Hot water can
remove the kalazal stopper at micropyle, so that seeds absorbs more water (Bewley and Black, 1982
in Setiadi and Charomaini 2000).
IV. CONCLUSION
1. Suggested the use of the best media in sowing gmelina is the sand media.
2. Best interaction effects that affect germination ability response of gmelina seed is treatment
interaction of sowing media in the form of sand with covering treatment using transparent plastic
and soaking seed treatment interactions in hot water then stilled during 12 hours with covering
treatment using transparent plastik.
REFERENCES
ISTA. 1999. International Rules for Seed Testing: Rules 1999. Seed Science and Technology, 27
Suplement. Zurich. Switzerland.
Kamil, J. 1979. Teknologi Benih. I. PT. Angkasa Raya. Padang.
Martawijaya, A., I. Kartasujana., Y.J. Mandang., S.A, Prawira., K.Kadir.1989. Atlas Kayu Indonesia.
Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan.
Mayer, A.M. and M.A. Poljakoff.1982. The Germination of Seed. Pergamon Press
Setiadi, D dan M. Chairomaini . 2000. Pengaruh Perlakuan Pendahuluan terhadap Perkecambahan
Benih Balsa (Ochroma, sp). Buletin Pemuliaan Pohon. Puslitbang Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan
Tanaman Hutan. Yogyakarta.
Sudomo, A. 2012. Perkecambahan Benih Sengon [Falcataria moluccana (miq.) Barneby& j. W. Grimes]
pada 4 Jenis Media. Vol 3 No 1. Prosiding SNaPP: Sains, Teknologi, dan Kesehatan. P2U LPPM
Unisba.
Sudrajat,D,J. dan Megawati. 2009. Perkecambahan Benih Kemenyan (Styrax benzoin Dryander) Pada
Beberapa Media Tabur dan Perlakuan Pendahuluan. Vol 6 No.3. Jurnal Penelitian Hutan
Tanaman. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Hutan Tanaman. Bogor..
Suhartati. 2007. Pengaruh Perlakuan Awal Terhadap Viabilitas Benih Sengon Butoh (Enterolobium
cyclocarpum Griseb). Jurnal Penelitian Hutan Tanaman 4(1). Pusat Penelitian dan
Pengembangan Hutan Tanaman. Bogor.
Sutopo, L. 1994. Teknologi Benih. Fakultas Pertanian UNIBRAW. Rajawali Press. Jakarta.
206
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Survival Rate of Mangrove Rehabilitation…...
Ady Suryawan
Survival Rate of Mangrove Rehabilitation in Abraded Small Island
Using Variation of Age and Species1
Ady Suryawan2
ABSTRACT
Island of Indonesia has experienced a reduction in the number, according to 2004 data recorded over
17,508 but recent data 2010 the number of islands only 13,466 islands. Many factors cause
differences in these figures, but the potential dangers of coastal erosion can lead to narrowing or even
eliminate an island. The purpose of this study was to determine the successful rehabilitation of
mangrove ecosystems in small islands abraded using several species and variations Rhizophoraceae
age of the plant. Completely randomized blog design (RCBD) with factors several species and variation
age. The results show that R. apiculata, B. gymnorrhiza, C. tagal and plant age 6 months had a higher
than R. mucronata and plant age 2 months. Seed R. apiculata by age 6 months is the highest success
achive71%. The results of the analysis concluded that the variations in the type and age factors
significantly affect.
Keyword : Abraded, mangrove, rehabilitation, island
I. INTRODUCTION
Number of islands in Indonesia based on data from the Ministry of the Interior in 2004 reached
17,508 7,870 islands (Subiandono, 2011; Santoso and Kardono, 2008). However, the results of a
survey conducted through 2010 stated that the number of islands in Indonesia, only 13 466 islands
(Nationalgeographic.co.id, 2012; Nasionalnews.viva.co.id, 2011; Antaranews.com, 2010). according
Nationalgeographic.co.id (2012) due to the difference in the number of islands island different
definitions
increase in sea level and erosion threats to the existence of even a mainland island (Santos, 2004).
One cause abrasion damage to the mangrove ecosystem is an area of 2.15 million ha during the last
21 years (Anwar, 2004)
1
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
2
.
Manado Forestry Research Institute, Jl Raya Adipura, Kel. Kima Atas, Kec. Mapanget, Manado, Sulawesi Utara.
[email protected]
207
One of the efforts to protect the coast and islands of rehabilitation of mangrove ecosystems
along the coastline. Obstacles encountered in mangrove rehabilitation in the small island is limited
mangrove species as a source of seed, so that rehabilitation is still a lot to use seeds from outside the
island. Rhizophoraceae is a family that has the most extensive distribution types. The aim of this
research is to know how much the plant rehabilitation success using 4 types of plant families
Rhizophoraceae on 2 different age of the plant nursery.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
This research conducted in Talise and Bangka Island, betwen september until nopember 2012.
Family Rhizophoraceae that is Rhizophora mucronata, Rhizophora
apiculata, Ceriops tagal, dan Bruguiera gymnorrhiza in two different age ie 2 month and 6 months.
We used 4 tree species of
The tools we used were trowel, meter tape, stationery and flagging tape.
The design of the experiment using a completely randomized design factorial pattern by a factor
of type (4 variations) and seedling age factor (2 variations) repeated 4 times in 4 blocks by the
number of replications of each treatment 30 plants so that the total number of plants 4 x 2 x 4 x 30
= 960 plants. The study was repeated in several locations hereinafter referred are blocks at Talise
Island and Bangka, North Sulawesi. In general overview of the block is presented in Table 1.
Table 1. Characteristics of Block Research
Block
Characteristics
Block I
A mangrove location + 20-40 meters dominated by Rhizophora mucronata and
Rhizophora apiculata. This location is between the three islands, so the waves come
is not as strong as in other locations, thin mud, dominated by white flaky shells, no
river estuary. Results of analysis of soil samples that pH 8.2 - 8.07, K content of
0.01%, N 0.05%, P 166.3 ppm and organic C 0.84%.
Block II
Mangrove ecosystem of seed sources, muddy locations within one meter , frequency
tides reach 40 times / month, mangrove forests with thickness 100 to 150 meters and
plot placement is at 50 meters on the shoreline so that the incoming waves undergo
reduction by mangrove roots. Results of analysis of soil pH unknown 8:04 - 8, K
content of 0.01%; 0:06% N, 15.7 ppm P and organic C 3:16%.
Block III
An open beach, so the waves comes very strong , the area has a shallow mud and
sand, seagrass beds at this location large enough to + 70 meters to the front, there
are 2 locations Sonneratia alba a high reaching 20 + meter,
Avicennia maritime.
Results of analysis of soil pH unknown 8:32 to 8:06, 0:01% K, N 0.01%; 47 ppm P
and organic C 0.65%.
Block IV
Block IV is the location of seagrass beds along 150 meters ahead. mangrove forest as
thick as 15 meters. Results of analysis of soil pH 7.94, K content of 12:02%, 00:02%
N, 40 ppm P and organic C 3:52%
A. Research procedures
Research procedures include: 1). Preparation of 4 types of plant seeds with ages 2 and 6
months. 2). Measurements and plants tagging . 3). planting randomly in four blocks by
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
planting
Survival Rate of Mangrove Rehabilitation…...
Ady Suryawan
space 25 x 50 cm without opening a polybag. 3). Each block is lined. 4). calculate the amount of living
plant . 5). Percentage of successful data were analyzed by the formula:
‡”…‡–ƒ‰‡‘ˆ•—……‡•• ൌ ୬୳୫ୠୣ୰୭୤୪୧୴ୣୱୣୣୢ୪୧୬୥ୱ୮ୣ୰୲୰ୣୟ୲୫ୣ୬୲
୲୭୲ୟ୪୬୳୫ୠୣ୰୭୤ୱୣୣୢୱ୮୪ୟ୬୲ୣୢ୮ୣ୰୲୰ୣୟ୲୫ୣ୬୲
šͳͲͲΨ
B. Data Analysis
Analysis conducted on percent of survival rate to determine the real impact of each factor, if
obtained real then tested the effect of continued Duncan.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A.
Variation of Age and Species
Before planting, measuring height, diameter and number of leaves early. Plant height was
measured from the point of cotyledons or plumula, while the diameter measured at the stem just
below the seat cotyledons (plumula). The mean measurements presented there Table 1.
Tabel 1. Dimension of early seedling
Dimensions of seedling
Factor
Age
Species
Diameter
Height
Number of
(mm)
(cm)
Leaves
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza 2 months
3.4
4.8
2.1
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza 6 months
4.1
13.3
4.7
Rhizophora apiculata 2 months
3.8
5.6
2.0
Rhizophora apiculata 6 months
4.5
11.0
3.7
Ceriops tagal 2 months
3.6
5.4
2.0
Ceriops tagal 6 months
4.0
7.7
6.8
Rhizophora mucronata 2 months
5.8
12.5
4.0
Rhizophora mucronata 6 months
6.0
36.2
4.4
Based on Table 1, highest seed plant that is Rhizophora mucronata age 6 month has 36 cm of
high and 6 mm of diameter, while the smallest seeds derived from B. gymnorrhiza age 2 months in
high 4.8 cm or 1/9 of the high of the highest in the seed samples used in this study.
The fourth type of family Rhizophoraceae have growth rates vary. High growth of the
consecutive fastest namely R. mucronata, B. gymnorrhiza, R. apiculata and no later than C. tagal.
For comparison the growth of mangrove seedlings using data by Anwar (2004) as follows:
Table 2. Specification of several types of mangrove seedlings ready for planting
Species
Avicennia marina
B. gymnorrhiza
C. tagal
R. apiculata
209
High (cm)
Number of Leaves
Age (months)
30
6
3-4
35
6
3-4
20
4
6-7
30
4
4-5
Species
High (cm)
R. mucronata
Sonneratia alba
Xylocarpus granatum
Number of Leaves
Age (months)
55
4
4-5
15
6
5-6
40
6
3-4
Compared to Anwar (2004), in Table 2, plant height in this study are not yet eligible. Results
nurseries seem to experience slow growth. Suspected caused by : 1). Medium level of soil fertility, 2).
Nursery is done on dryland, 3). Seedling measurement techniques, in this study measurements were
done on sitting cotyledons (plumula) until the end of the growing point. While according to Komar et
al (1992) in ipb.ac.id () light intensity affect the height growth R. mucronata, R. apiculata and B.
gymnorrhiza. According to Nugroho (2006) height growth, leaf number and length of R. mucronata
significantly influenced by the media and salt water spray.
B. Survival rate analisys
The results of the survival rate in the field are presented in Table 3.
Table 3. The survival rate percentage of trials plant of mangrove at the age of 4 months
Repetition
Species of Plant
The age of plant
Factor
Bloc
Bloc
Bloc
Bloc
Survival rate
I
II
III
IV
(%)
Ceriop tagal 6 bulan
57
70
30
50
52
Ceriop tagal 2 bulan
57
70
50
23
50
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza 6 bulan
80
70
0
73
56
Bruguiera gymnorrhiza 2 bulan
60
80
40
50
58
Rhizophora apiculata 6 bulan
77
87
53
67
71
Rhizophora apiculata 2 bulan
27
77
27
23
39
Rhizophora mucronata 6 bulan
23
43
30
83
45
Rhizophora mucrionata 2 ulan
27
67
17
53
41
The Survival rate of 6 months
56
The Survival rate of 2 months
47
The mean of survival rate percentage
51
Based on Table 2, the average of survival rate percentage reached 51%. Block is capable of
delivering the highest success is block II and the lowest block III. Block II is the ecosystem of
mangrove seeds, have 1 meter thick mud, covered with thick mangrove 80 meters, so that the waves
were coming muffled by existing vegetation. While the block III is the location directly facing the
open sea, have seagrass beds in front of the plot reached 70 meters, shallow mud and sandy
conditions
While on the factor of variation of age and species of the plant, R. apiculata 6 months has the
highest value reached 71%. to ascertain the influence of factors, the variance analysis as follows.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Survival Rate of Mangrove Rehabilitation…...
Ady Suryawan
Table 4. The Analysis of variance percent survival of plants
Type III Sum of
Source
Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Corrected Model
11.116a
7
1.588
6.751
.000
Intercept
313.959
1
313.959
1.335E3
.000
Plant Species
3.253
3
1.084
4.610
.003
Age of plant
2.301
1
2.301
9.783
.002
Plant species * age of plant
5.561
3
1.854
7.881
.000
Error
223.925
952
.235
Total
549.000
960
Corrected Total
235.041
959
a. R Squared = .047 (Adjusted R Squared = .040)
Thee factor type of plant, plant age factors and their interaction, has a value of less than 0.05
sig. this shows that these two factors and interactions have a significant effect on the success of the
percentage of survival. Seedling age 6 months had a survival rate percentage higher than the age of
2 months namely 56% and 47%. But on the seedling of B. gymnorrhiza age 6 months was lower
than the age of 2 months. The factor of Plant species was tested further by Duncan test in Table 5.
Table 5. The duncan test of plant species factor
Subset
Plant Species
N
4
240
1
240
.5667
3
240
.6125
2
240
.6292
Sig.
1
2
.4792
1.000
.185
Means for groups in homogeneous subsets are displayed. Based on observed means. The error
term is Mean Square(Error) = .235.
Based on Table 5, C. tagal, B. gymnorrhiza and R. apiculata have not real difference. The third
of species have a significant difference with R. mucronata. the average percentage of survival rate in
Table 3 shows R. mucronata has a lower percentage than the other three species.
C. REHABILITATION USING FAMILY RHIZOPHORACEAE
The fourth type of plant that is used is a type of mangrove Rhizophoraceae family. According to
Chapman (1976) Rhizophoraceae's propagules have possible to grow naturally because when the
seed falls directly be stuck or when the tide will carry over into the shallow mud and will form roots.
211
According to Anwar (2004) in the special location R. mucronata would be better if planted using
propagules. The results Suryawan et al. (2012) use propagules as rehabilitation plant
on the small
island has a survival rate of 77%.
Komar et al (1992) in ipb.ac.id (
) and Nugroho (2006) said that the light has influence on
the height growth of R. mucronata, R. apiculata and B. gymnorrhiza, while the media and salinity
significantly affect the height growth and leaf R. mucronata,
Based on references, allegedly rooting system and adaptability are the main factors that
influence the success of the four species tested in this study. allegedly that using propagules as
plant of rehabilitation will adaptatif than the R mucronata from the nursery.
IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A.
CONCLUSIONS
1. The second factor has significant influence to the survival rate of mangrove rehabilitaion .
Type R. apiculata, B. gymnorrhiza, C. tagal and plant age 6 months had a significantly higher
success than R. mucronata and plant age 2 months.
2. Seed R. apiculata aged 6 months has get the highest survival rate reached 71%
B.
RECOMMENDATIONS
Need research on root systems and adaptability mangroves for allegedly are the main factors
that affect the survival rate.
REFERENCES
Antaranews.com.2010. HASIL survey terbaru jumlah pulau di Indonesia. Diakses dari
http://www.antaranews.com/berita/1282043158/hasil-survei-terbaru-jumlah-pulau-indonesia
pada tanggal 26 februari 2013
Sanur
hadapi
ancaman
abrasi.
Diakses
.2010.PANTAI
http://www.antaranews.com/berita/1262938090/pantai-sanur-hadapi-ancaman-abrasi
tanggal 26 Februari 2013
dari
pada
Antarasulut.com.2012. PEMKAB sangihe perlukan Rp 25 milyar cegah abraso pantai. Diakses dari
http://www.antarasulut.com/berita/16498/pemkab-sangihe-perlukan-rp25-m-cegah-abrasipantai pada tanggal 26 Februari 2013
Chapman, 1976. Mangrove Vegetation. J. Cramer . California University. California.
UNEP. 2007. Mangroves of Western and Central Africa. UNEP-Regional Seas Programme/UNEP-WCMC.
Ipb.ac.id.com.
.PARAMETER lingkungan hidup mangrove. Di akses dari
http://itk.fpik.ipb.ac.id/SIELT/mangrove.php?load=parameter.php pada tanggal 1 maret
2013.
Kusmana, C. dan Samsuri. 2009. Rehabilitasi Mangrove Pada Tapak Khusus. Diakses dari
http://cecep_kusmana.staff.ipb.ac.id/files/2011/01/2009-Mangrove-Rehabilitasi-MangroveTapak-Khusus.pdf pada tanggal 28 Februari 2013
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Survival Rate of Mangrove Rehabilitation…...
Ady Suryawan
Green.kompasian.com.2012. JAKARTA dalam ancaman bahaya banjir rob tsunami serta abrasi pantai.
Diakses dari http://green.kompasiana.com/penghijauan/2012/01/09/jakarta-dalam-ancamanbahaya-banjir-rob-tsunami-serta-abrasi-pantai-428655.html pada tanggal 26 Februari 2013
Media.eol.org.
. RHIZOPHORA mucronata, mangrove.
http://media.eol.org/pages/482514/overview pada tanggal 28 Februari 2013
Diakses
dari
Nasional.news.viva.co.id.2011.INDONESIA
daftarkan
13.487
pulau
ke
PBB.
http://nasional.news.viva.co.id/news/read/260537-indonesia-daftarkan-13-487-pulau-ke-pbb
Nationalgeographic.co.id. 2012. HANYA ada 13.466 pulau di Indonesia.
http://www.nationalgeographic.co.id/berita/2012/02/hanya-ada-13466-pulau
pada tanggal 26 Februari 2013
Diakses dari
-di-indonesia
Nugroho, A.Y. 2006. Pengaruh Media Semai dan Kadar Garam Air Siraman Terhadap Pertumbuhan
Propagul Rhizophora mucronata. Skripsi IPB. Bogor
Proseaenet.org.
. DETIL data rhizophora mucronata lamk. Diakes dari
http://www.proseanet.org/prohati2/browser.php?docsid=169 pada tanggal 28 Februari 2013.
Santos, A.N.D. 2004. Antlantis The Lost Conteinents Finally Found.
Santoso, A. D. dan Kardono, 2008. Teknologi Konservasi dan Rehabilitasi Terumbuh Karang. Jurnal
Teknik Lingkungan. Vol 9 No. 3 Hal 221-266. Jakarta.
Subiandono, E. 2011. Rencana Penelitian Integratif “ Pengelolaan Hutan Mangrove dan Ekosistem
Pantai. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan. Jakarta.
Suryawan, A. et all. 2012. Laporan Hasil Penelitian. Teknik penanaman pada areal terabrasi dan pulaupulau kecil (teknik rehabilitasi hutan mangrove dan hutan pantai terabrasi). Balai Penelitian
Kehutanan Manado. Manado.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Conservation on Population of Petung Bamboos (Dendrocalamus asper)
M. Charomaini & Anto Rimbawanto
Conservation on Populations of Petung Bamboos
(Dendrocalamus asper)1
M. Charomaini2 and Anto Rimbawanto2
ABSTRACT
Petung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper), one of the important commercial bamboos found in
Indonesia, a big size grass, is classified as Graminae with many important usage. The culms is known
to be used as furniture, building material, chopsticks, paper and so on. The life plants is useful as soil
conservation, erotion controller, leaves as fodder and young shoot as nutritive vegetable. Bamboo
clumps become decrease in number due to the over exploitations and wrong harvesting techniques.
Eventhough bamboo has important value economical and environmentally, only few government or
private institutions have cared to the species so that research and development of the species is lack
and left behind. Objective of this study is to develop and study the genetic relationship amongst
collected, vegetative propagated, and planted populations in the form of genetic/populations
conservation garden. Other objective was to study the genetic population by the help of DNA analysis.
Populations conservation garden has been established in Bondowoso using 17 populations in a RCB
Design, 3 blocks, 3 ramets for each clone, plated in a tree line plots with 5m x 5m spacing. Population
from Parakan, Temanggung showed superior in the diameter size and number of culms per clump.
Genetic diversity study for the 12 observed samples were varied between 0.510 and 0.978. Cluster
analysis based on genetic distance showed that there was no clustering based on geographic
locations.
Keywords: Petung bamboo, genetic/ population conservation, genetic diversity, cluster analysis
I. INTRODUCTION
Bamboo is a big size grass, very common known to Indonesian. The species grows in dense
groves, the culm is large, 20 – 30 m tall and 10 – 18 cm in diameter. Culm wall is relatively thick, 11 –
18 mm, the internode is about 40 – 50 cm long (Othman et al. 1995). In villages, bamboo is a plant
that could create cash income because of the high price of the culms due to their big size, thick and
sturdy as for building material. One culm of petung bamboo would be priced about Rp 50.000,- in the
2010, probably would be more recently (Charomaini, 2010). The young shoot is edible as vegetable
with high nutrient content. Very intensive root structure could be benefit for hugging soil granules so
that sloping contoured ground becomes resistant to rain-water erosions. Recent experiment by
students from the State University of Yogyakarta (UNY) resulted that bamboo leaves could be
processed becomes crispy snacks due to the high nutritive value (Junita, 2012).
1
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
2
Researchers on Balai Besar Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan Yogyakarta
215
Many bamboo species are found in Indonesia, but only several have been known as commercial
bamboos such as: petung (Dendrocalamus asper), wulung or black bamboos (Gigantochloa
atroviolacea), green ampel (Bambusa vulgaris var. vitata), ivory bamboos (B. vulgaris var. striata),
apus/ rope bamboos (Gigantochloa apus), tutul/ mosaic bamboos (Bambusa sp.), thorny bamboos
(Bambusa blumeana) and so on. Twelve bamboo species has been recommended by INBAR to be
prioritized for research and development which were: 1) Bambusa blumeana; 2) Dendrocalamus
asper; 3) Gigantochloa apus; 4) Bambusa vulgaris; 5) G. pseudoarundinacea; 6) B. atra; 7) B.
heterostachya; 8) G. atroviolacea; 9) G. balui; 10) G. atter; 11) G. scortechinii; and 12)
Schizostachyum zollingeri (Widjaja, 1994).
Eventhough bamboo has important value, economical and environmentally, only few institutions,
government or private have cared to the species so that research and development on the species is
lack and left behind. There was a motto, bamboo is “a poor man’s timber”. Bamboo becomes an
inferior product, lower than wood, categorized as by product as well as rattans (Anon. 2012). In fact,
bamboo material is needed to supply paper industries, furniture, chopsticks, constructions material
and so on. Increasing of information and communication technology causes increasing the need of
raw material/ culms so that exploitation to this species becomes very intensive. If there are no effort
to save the existance of this species, the number of the species will fastly be reduced or becomes
unavailable to the industries. Balinese in Desa Pakraman Angseri has succeeded planting bamboos as
community plantations of about 12 ha, could help recover underground water stream and hot springs,
increase community cash income and supports the monkeys life as tourism object (Sumatera and
Peneng, 2005).
Center for Forest Biotechnology and Tree Improvement Research,Yogyakarta by the donation
from IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute) established a Bamboo Genetic
Conservation Garden in Bondowoso, East Java in 2005. Started by collecting vegetative propagules
from 19 places or populations in Java Island, and propagated as culm cutting in the nurseries to be
planted in the fields later on (Charomaini, 2005). This is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Petung clones were propagated by culm cuttings in the nursery, Yogyakarta.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Conservation on Population of Petung Bamboos (Dendrocalamus asper)
M. Charomaini & Anto Rimbawanto
II. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
Research objectives was to develop and study genetic relationships amongst collected,
vegetative propagated and planted populations in the form of genetic conservation garden. By the
establishment of the conservation garden, hopefully there will be a benefit to conserve or save genetic
resources of petung that will be useful to the environment as water preservation and soil
conservation. Other positif impacts are to remind people that bamboos is as an important species to
increase people’s welfare by means of creating cash income and supporting industries by providing
raw material.
To study and develop petung in the genetic conservation aspect and genetic population studies
by the help of DNA analysis.
III. ACTIVITY RESULT
Two activities had been carried out which were: 1). Population diversity study on Petung; and 2).
Establishment of genetic population of Petung in Bondowoso research garden.
By doing population diversity study, researchers can understand the natural diversity patterns of
petung bamboo in Java. As bamboo regenerates by vegetative (mostly), to analyze genetic variability
of this species was used diversity indexes which is Simpson’s diversity index (d). Genetic diversity of
the 12 observed samples were varied between 0.510 and 0.978. Cluster analysis based on genetic
distance (Cluster Analysis) showed that there was no clustering based on geographic locations.
Dendrograph of the populations based on UPGMA analysis is shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Dendrograph of populations based on UPGMA analysis
217
Second activity was the establishment of Petung genetic conservation garden in Sumberwringin
research Garden in Bondowoso, East Java. Planting stocks in the form of planting material derived
from vegetative propagations originated from 18 -19 populations across Java islands as shown in
Figure 5.
Figure 3. Locations of 19 sources of vegetative propagules
Notes:
1. Kuningan; 2. Sumedang; 3. Pandeglang; 4. Sukabumi; 5. Purwodadi; 6. Parakan; 7. Linggasari; 8.
Purwokerto; 9. Ambarawa; 10. Umbulharjo, Sleman; 11. Umbulmartani;
12. Turgo, Sleman; 13.
Kokap, Kulonprogo; 14. Samigaluh; 15. Klaten; 16. Banyuwangi;
17. Malang; 18. Ngawi; 19.
Lamongan.
Figure 4. One of Petung’s clump in Bondowoso (1910)
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Conservation on Population of Petung Bamboos (Dendrocalamus asper)
M. Charomaini & Anto Rimbawanto
Planting stocks originated from vegetative propagations (culms with tuberous based branches
was planted horizontally) of 18 populations in nurseries were used as planting material to be planted
in the field after being maintained for about three months in polybags in the nurseries before planting
in to Bondowoso research garden.
Altitude of planting area in Bondowoso (Sumberwringin) is about 780 m above sea level which is
appropriate enough for bamboos growing. Total plantation area is about 1,5 - 2 ha, number of clumps
are 441, spreaded into 3 blocks (RCB Design), planted in 3 line ramets for each clone, with spacing of
5 m x 5 m. Since the age of the plantation now (2013) are already 8 years old, the average culm
diameter was about 15 – 20 cm. Number of culm per clump could be about 12 or more for the healthy
clumps.
REFERENCES
Anon. 2004. Konservasi Genetik Jenis Bambu Petung (Dendrocalamus asper). Leaflet. Pusat
Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan. Jl. Palagan Tentara
Pelajar km 15. Purwobinangun. Pakem, Sleman, Yogyakarta. Telp (0274) 895954.
Anon. 2012. Bambu Indonesia. Budidaya dan Pemanfaatannya. PT. Bambu Nusa Verde. Jl. Mangunan,
Tebonan, Harjobinangun, Pakem, Sleman,Yogyakarta 55585. Indonesia.
Charomaini, M. 2004. Pembangunan Kebun Konservasi Bambu Petung di Sumberwringin, Bondowoso.
Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan. Yogyakarta.
Charomaini, M. 2010. Field exploration on black petung bamboo in Cepogo, Boyolali. Central Java.
Personal experience. 2010.
Junita,
Nancy.
2012.
Daun
Bambu
Bisa
Jadi
kerupuk
Sehat.
Kabar24.com.
http://www.kabar24.com/gaya-hidup/read/20120525/31/37409/daun-bambu-bisa-jadikerupuk-sehat.
Othman, Abd.Razak; Abd. Latif Mohmod; Walter Liese and Norini Haron. 1995. Planting and Utilization
of Bamboo in Peninsular Malaysia. Research Pamphlet no. 118. FRIM, Kepong, 52109 Kuala
Lumpur. p.6.
Sumatera, I. W. Dan I. N. Peneng, 2005. Pemberdayaan Hutan bambu sebagai penunjang sosial
ekonomi masyarakat Desa Pakraman Angseri, Tabanan, Bali. Prosiding Perkembangan Bambu
Indonesia. Jogja.
Widjaja, Elizabeth A.; Mien A. Rifai; Bambang Subiyanto and Dodi Nandika. 1994. Strategi Penelitian
Bambu Indonesia. Yayasan Bambu Lingkungan Lestari. Bogor. 1994. P.6.
219
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Survival Rate of Mangrove Rehabilitation…...
Ady Suryawan
QUANTIFICATION VALUE AND BENEFIT
OF BIODIVERSITY
221
222
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Invasive Plant Species Risk Management for Forestry Sector…...
Soekisman Tjitrosemito, Titiek S., & Adi Susmianto
Invasive Plant Species Risk Management for Forestry Sector
in Indonesia1
Soekisman Tjitrosemito2, Titiek Setyawati3, Adi Susmianto4
ABSTRACT
The progress of modern life with increasing travels, tourism and trades carries with it an increasing
threat of Invasive Plant Species(IPS) wether non natives or natives on the environment, production
systems or human health. IPS have been inflicting a considerable damage, therefore, actions must be
taken to halt the
invasion. The process of invasion follows stepwise path involving six steps,
transport, introduction, colonisation, naturalization, spread and inflicting damages. The steps of
introduction and spreads are the strategic points at which actions must be taken to prevent IPS from
inflicting damages.Indonesia has been importing plants since colonial time and before. About 2000
non native plants species were recorded in Indonesia, some of them were invasives. Since the
issuance of Forestry Law in 1967 natural forests have been massively exploited leaving a huge forest
opening susceptable to biological invasion. Technological development on risk management ensures
that any incoming plants is screened out to detect and reject potential invasive plants, while the
existing production systems are managed properly to avoid any possible invasion of plant species. The
existing invasive plant species in forestry sectors and other various land use systems are subjected of
developed risk management, followed by planned actions determined in the risk management to halt
further negative impact.
Keywords: Invasive Plant Species, introduction, non-native, biological invasion, forestry, risk
management.
I. INTRODUCTION
Indonesia has been an open country since colonial times, and being a tropical country that
supports the growth of plants almost the whole year around prompted the colonial government, which
was supported by capable botanists, to exploit the environmental condition to introduce and establish
crops for generating high profit. The successful introduction of exotic crops such as coffee, rubber,
tea, cinchona etc. produced yield of highly demanded products providing a huge profit to the nation.
However, beside generating high profit, these practices also carried an unwanted weeds such as
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global Environment
Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013
2
Member of IAPS team
National Project Coordinator
Director, Centre for Conservation and Rehabilitation Research and Development
Jln. Gunung Batu no 5, Bogor, PO Box 165, West Java, Indonesia
3
4
223
Erechtites velerianifolia. Many more plants intended as crops were introduced and many more weeds
unitentionally were also introduced. The introduced plants intended for crops turned out to be invasive
plants such as Acacia nilotica which was intended as a source of arabic gum, Mikania micrantha
intended for medicinal plants, Widelia trilobata as ornamerntal plants, even the curiosity of botanists
must be payed dearly as the imported plants turned out to be invasive weed such as waterhyacinth
(Eichhornia crassipes). Some tree species look very common as planted as shade tree on premises or
road sides such as Leucaena leucocephala, Adenanthera pavonina, Samanea saman, Spatodea
campanulata although they are considered invasive (Weber,2003). Currently there are almost 2000
non indegenous plants and more than 300 species are becoming invasive. Along with a relatively high
economic growth enjoyed by Indonesia, this will increase international travel and trade, and will
further escalate the extent and frequency of plant species transfer, and exarberate the problems of
invasive species. The agricultural production systems progressed extensively creating land use
systems susceptible to invasion of plant species.
The issuance of Forestry law in 1967 proved to be succssful in providing fund to support the
economic recovery and growth of Indonesia. The law gave the concession holders the right to utilize
forest products for commercial purposes. The utilized products were mainly timber generated from
logged trees such as Shorea sp of Dipterocarpaceae family. The extensive logging to pursue high
volume of timber, was not followed by replanting sufficiently creating huge gaps and deteriorating
forest vegetation up to the extend of degradation. A very extensive tropical forest in Indonesia is
currently suffering from over logging, making these systems susceptable to plant invasion. Not only
plants such as M. micrantha, or C.odorata, and other exotics that are already in Indonesia ready to
invade susceptable areas local plant species such as Imperata cylindrica or Merremia pelata,
Thespesia lampas, Vernonia sp., as well as Bidens sp. are invasive in Indonesia, and many more may
become invasive when the condition is suitable for them to invade. The process of invasion is greatly
facilitated by climatological condition.
The biological invasion followsa stepwise path where to reach a step should have passed the
lower step. Catfort et a (2009) described 6 steps of biological invasion, i.e.(1). transport, (2).
introduction, (3).colonization, (4)naturalisation,
(5) spread and (6) inflicting damage to the
environment. Non native or alien plant species experience the whole 6 steps to become invasive,
while native ones experience only steps 5 and 6, because they are native, therefore, do not have to
follow step 1,2,3 and 4; some consider the later as weeds. To fight this biological invasion at each
step must be treated accordingly and appropriate strategy must be developed and integrated into
legislation. The early process of invasion, ie. transportation and introduction are considered very
strategic points at which to intercept to prevent further invasion process. At this point any introduction
of plant ideally should be subjected to risk assessment, i.e. evaluation of their biological characters
upon any possibility of becoming invasive. Only plants that their probability level of becoming invasive
are acceptable may be admitted, otherwise must be rejected. The second strategic point is at the
point where plantsare spreading and inflicting damages to the environment, production systems or
human health. Therefore, sufficient technology and efforts must be spent to halt the spread and
confine the invasion. The invasion must be controlled and IPS or weed population must be reduced if
not eradicated. However, there are already many weeds or invasive plants species inside the country,
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Invasive Plant Species Risk Management for Forestry Sector…...
Soekisman Tjitrosemito, Titiek S., & Adi Susmianto
and which species should be controlled or eradicated first, in other words technology how to prioritize
and implement management action in the field at the most efficientway must be developed. .
The above conditions, i.e. many exotic plant species ready to invade, many degenerated sites
susceptable to invasion and many local species capable of invading deteriorated locations makes the
threat of invasion become considerably huge. Thus, the magnitude of the problem requires
prioritization across invasive plant species or weed policy, management and legislation. Such
prioritization needs have led to the development of mechanisms/processes that assess and account
for therisks associated with weed introduction and managements.
II. THE CONCEPT OF RISK
Risk is defined as likelihood of undesired event occuring as a result of behaviour or action
(including no action). Risk assessment is the means by which the frequencies and consequences of
such events are determined, and should be accompanied by an expression of any uncertainty in the
assessment process. The consequences of undesired events in question are usually adverse (i.e. one
does not consider the
risk of winning a lottery ) and are expressed in term of the assessment
endpoint. Assessment endpoints are simply an expression of values that one is trying to protect by
undertaking the risk assessment procedure, and thus distinguish the environmental risk assessment
(ecological risk) from human health risk assessment ( human fatality or human injury endpoint).
The risk associated with invasion of alien plant species can be defined as the likehood of
undesired events occuring as a result of these actions. It is important to recognize the interpretation
of this definition is entirely dependent upon the endpoint of the assessment. If the endpoint is
establishment of an invasive alien plant species in a new locality, then the risk is expressed in term of
lokelihood of establishment. If the endpoint is environmental damage, then the risk must be defined
as the likehood of enviromental damage,arising as a result the introduction and establishment of an
alien plant species.
Notice that the definition of risk is sensitive to the assessment of endpoint (which in itself simply
is an expression of value). In the first part of the paragraph above, risk was expressed in term of an
establishment of an alien plant species –there is thus an implicit assumption that the establishment of
an invasive alien plant species in a new localities is an undersired event. This is equivalent to an
expression environmental value that wishes to preserve “natural” or existing species assemblages. By
contrast, in the second part of paragraph, risk is defined in term of the environmental damage. In
this definition the establishment of a new invasive alien plant species “per se” does not constitute the
undesired event to be avoided – one is merely concerned with the subsequent environmental damage
that could arise as a result of this. Thus if an assessor could garantee that a particular invasive alien
species would have no adverse effect on the environment, then under this definition, there would be
no risk.
Quantitatively the definition of risk (an event), assessed as a mathematical combination (often
the product) of the magnitude of the consequence of an event and the likelihood of that event
occurring.
225
III. WEED OR INVASIVE PLANT SPECIES (IPS) RISK ASSESSMENT
A. Pre-border Weed or IPS Management
The outstanding systems of Weed Risk Assessment for pre-border situation is thosedeveloped in
Australia. The Australian WRA system is based on a three-tiered process (Walton, 2001]: (1) checking
of the targetspecies against exhibited prohibited or permitted lists, (2) a screening process using a
series of predetermined questions to evaluate the weedy/invasive potential of species not rejected in
tier 1 and (3) further evaluation of those species identified as requiring more information to determine
their weedy potential following the assessment process in tier 2. The screening process used in tier
2of the current Australian WRA system uses 49 questions covering the historical, bio-geographical,
biological and ecological aspects of the target species, in which the questions are answered almost
entirely using ‘Yes’/‘No’/ ‘Don’t know’ responses. Scoring is a simple additive process, with values of
>6 receiving a ‘reject entry’ assessment, values ranging from 1 to 6 receiving a ‘further evaluate’
assessment and <1 an ‘accept entry’ assessment. These categories were established based on
extensive empirical calibration producing arejection rate of 10% or less for non-weeds and no more
than 30% of the weed species being assessed as ‘further evaluate’ (Phelong et al, 1999).
The system is adopted by FAO and somewhat simplified, adopted by IPPC and utilized as a
guidance by Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) and Hawaiian Ecosystems At Risk (HEAR)
projects. It is also accepted by WTO by providing protection without creating barriers to trade
(Andersen et al. 2004).
The Australian WRA (A WRA) has been developed based on agricultural weeds, when utilized to
assess invasive alien species in forestry contact may be less accurate. In this line Daehler et al (2004)
modified A WRA into Hawaian WRA
(H-WRA). The questions, 2.01, 2.04, 2.10 for examplesare
modified each by “tropical and subtropical climate, native or naturalized in tropical and subtropical
climate, tolerate limestone or a wide range of soil.Climatematching is an essential component of the
A-WRA and whilst theuse of climate matching software has been advocated Gordon et al.( 2008a)
used other proxies or default scores .They generated systematic scores forthe climate match
questions based on information on the speciesnative latitudinal range. For question 2.01 (species
suitable to tropicalor subtropical climates), species with a latitudinal range midpointbetween 20 0North
and 200South (i.e. centred on the tropics),were given a score of two; those with midpoints between
200and300North or South (corresponding to ‘subtropical’) were given ascore of one, and species with
midpoints >300North or South(i.e. ‘temperate’) were scored as zero. To address question 2.02(quality
of climate match data), a score of two was given for speciesthat had a published latitudinal range, a
score of one if therange was described but latitudes had to be obtained from atlases,and if the range
was uncertain, the score was zero. Standard protocolsfor answering all other questions were followed
across all species(Gordon et al., 2008b).
A more significant modification was the addition of second screening, where species which fell in
between 1-6 were subjected to second screening in the form of decission tree as in Fig. 1.This
additional second screening H-WRA successfully identified 85% nonpest correct compare to 65%
without second screening. Without second screening H-WRA failed to identify 24% of the species
tested, although second screening can not reached 100% but leaving only 8% unidentified. It seems
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Invasive Plant Species Risk Management for Forestry Sector…...
Soekisman Tjitrosemito, Titiek S., & Adi Susmianto
quite good able to increase the capacity of WRA through HWA to predict correct decission. The
decission tree utilized in the second screening was developed purely based on logical reasoning not on
empirical data, therefore, it is possible there are other alternatives of the decission tree.
Tree or tree-like shrubs
Herbs or low stature
A.Shade tolerance OR known
to form a dense stand, AND
Reported as weed of
cultivated land
Accept
B. Bird or clearly wind
dispersal.
No
yes
No
yes
Life cycle < 4 years
Unpalatable to grazers
OR known to form a dense
Figure 1. Decission tree used to screen harmful plants having score between 1 – 6, Reject indicates
predicted pests, while accept indicates likely nonpest (Daehler et al 2004) .
After such modification WRA seems more appropriate for forestry sector in Indonesia, although
much must be done to really make the systems working. The much discussed criterium to predict a
plant to be weed or to be invasive is if it has been a weed or invasive species somewhere and it is
predicted that it will be a weed or invasive species in other similar environment also. Many experts
discovered that there were many plants which did not have historical record to be weed or invasive
species anywhere and then become a weed or invasive species, and they critizised that the criterium
of weed somwhere was not a good criterium of predicting an invasive species or a weed. However,
that criterium has predicted correctly in many ocassion, and if those species which do not have
historical record being an invasive species somewhere probably they are not in close contact
withhuman activities yet , or in other word thosespecies which did not have historical record being
invasive or a weed, when they become invasive species it is their first record.
Despite being widely accepted, the Australian WRA system does not adequately separate the
consequence from the likelihood as stipulated above; rather the outcome conveys the risk as a single
score based on the answers to 49 questions. Daehler and Virtue [2010] examined thequestions and
identified the ones that most closely reflect the likelihood (i.e. of spread) and consequences (i.e.
impacts) to establish if this lack of separation resulted in assessment problems. They found that there
wasa slight improvement in identifying weeds compared to the original WRA, with no change for nonweeds, if groupings of likelihood and consequence questions were considered independently.
The summary which relates the likehood and consequences is given in the following tabel (Table
1.) as adopted from Downey et al, (2010). Table 1 not only separates likehood from consequences in
the pre-border analysis, but also under the condition of post border even in the concept of preventing
227
the environmental asset from negative impact of invasion. The condition in the field in Indonesia is
rather acute as the invasio of A.nilotica for example has altered the ecosystem of savana into that of
shrubs at the expend of protected animals such herbivores birds and others.
Table 1.WRA systems, highlighting the type of risk addressed by each and the measures used to
assess the risk (Downey et al, 2010)
Risk Assessment
system
Risk (event)
Consequence1)
(basis of assessment)
Likelihood2)
(basis of assessment)
Pre- border
(prevention)
Importation of a
new weed species
(1) The type of impact a
weed species may have
(i.e. potent ial impact) to
agriculture, biodi versity
and/or human health and
(2) where the impact
could occur (i.e. the
potential distribu tion), if
it were to be
introduced3)
A prediction of a plant
species potential to become
weedy, using attributes
associated with its ability to
(1) establish, reproduce
and, disperse and (2) pose
a threat, if it were to be
introduced 3)
Post-border
(generally
eradication &
containment )
The invasion of a
newly established
weed species or
expansion of an
existing weed
species
(1) The type of impact a
weed
species may have (i.e.
potential
impact) to agriculture,
biodiversity and/or
human
health and (2) where the
impact
could occur (i.e. the
potential
distribution).
(1) The ability to prevent
the spread of a weed
species based on the
control options available,
(2) degree of coordi nation
available, (3) the
invasiveness of the weed
species (based on the
ability to establish,
reproduce and disperse)
and (4) the threat posed
Protection of
environmental
assets4)
The extinction or
extirpation of
native species due
to the invasion of
an existing
weed species
(1) The degree of impact
posed by a weed species
to native species and (2)
where the impact
currently occurs relative
to the native species at
risk and (1) above
(1) The ability to achieve a
conser
vation outcome
(i.e.recoverabi
lity of the species).(2)
feasibility of weed control
and (3) the degree
ofurgency for manage
ment based on the impact
posed by the weed species.
Note :
1)
Impact is defined as the effect that a weed has on native species .
2)
Threat is defined as the possible
danger posed to a native species as a result of a weed, i.e. there is the possibility of an impact, rather than
an actual current impact . 3)The Australian WRA system does not separate consequence and likelihood. Based on
the risk measures used, we have separated them here for comparative purposes only.
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Invasive Plant Species Risk Management for Forestry Sector…...
Soekisman Tjitrosemito, Titiek S., & Adi Susmianto
B. Post border IPS or Weed Risk Management
The term IPS or weed risk management (i.e. whether to avoid, mitigate,or tolerate the risk) is
adopted here to mean the overall process of identifying, assessing and treating risks. It is,
different from the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)international standards on
phytosanitary measures, which considers risk analysis as the overall process and equates risk
management to risk treatment.
There are six stages in WRM protocol (Figure 2). Stage 1 is based on establishing a context
within which a WRM system will operate and the methodologies for later stages and outcomes. Stage
2 is associated with the identification of weed candidates both existing and emerging. Stage 3 is
associated with an analysis and evaluation of the weed risk, based on thecontrol options and three
key criteria: invasiveness (i.e.ability to establish, reproduce and disperse), impacts (e.g.to the
environment, agriculture or human health) and potential distribution. Stage 4 focuses on an analysis
and evaluation of the feasibility of coordinated control based on three key criteria, being: current
distribution, control costs and duration. Stage 5 determines the weed management priorities, by
comparing the weed risk and feasibility of coordinated control for different weed species. Finally,stage
6 is associated with the implementation of the weed management actions as determined from stages
1 to 5, being a transition from strategic planning toon-ground actions [Anon, 2006.]. Management
actions include preventing entry, eradication, containment and improving targeted management
techniques. Communication and consultation,and monitoring and review are key elements at each
stage of the WRM process.Using a question-based scoring system for stages 3 and 4, the results are
put into a decision matrix (WRM matrix) in which the ranked weed risk (stage 3) is assessed against
the ranked feasibility of coordinated control (stage 4). The ranked values of each are assigned a
category, for example, negligible, low, medium or high. The combination of each criterion is given a
management objective that is applied to the respective cells of the matrix (Figure 3).
229
COMMUNICATE AND CONSULT
3.Analyze and evaluate weed
WEED RISK
ASSESSMENT
2.Identify weed risk candidates
4.Analize and evaluate feseability
of coordinated control
5.Determine weed management
priorities
MONITOR AND REVIEW
1.Establish the WRM context
6.Implemen Weed management
action
Figure 2. The six stages of the WRM process (Anon, 2006)
IV. INVASIVE PLANT SPECIES RISK MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS
There are many systems available to develop IPS risk management, however, basically they are
similar. The component of management decissions are risk assessment and feseability of actions.
A. IPS Risk Assessment
Risk is
composed of three criteria,
invasiveness, impacts and potential distribution.
Invasiveness estimates the rate of spread, faster spreading weeds being a higher priority for
control. Impacts are the economic, environmental and social effects the weed has. Potential
distribution indicates what total area the weed could spread to. The South Australian Systems
developed by Dr John Virtue, Weed Ecologist, Animal and Plant Control Group Department of Water,
Land & Biodiversity Conservation. GPO Box 2834, Adelaide SA 5001 uses scores of 10 for each of
these criteria and these scores are multiplied, to give a weed risk score out of 1000.
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Invasive Plant Species Risk Management for Forestry Sector…...
Soekisman Tjitrosemito, Titiek S., & Adi Susmianto
Utilizing the systems the score of risk may be graded to give the following classifications :
Frequency band
80 - 100 (top 20% possible score)
IPS Risk Score
>192
Classified Risk
very high
60 – 80
<192
High
40 – 20
<101
Medium
20 – 10
<39
Low
10 – 0 (bottom 20% possible scores)
<13
negligible
B. Feasibility of actions
The feasibility of action are divided into three main criteria; control costs, current distribution and
persistence. Control costs considers the weed management costs of detection, on-ground control
and enforcement/education needs. Current distribution considers how widespread the weed is.
Persistence refers to the expected duration of control works. Scores for each of these criteria are
multiplied (each ranging between 0 and 10), to give a feasibility score out of 1000. Assess feasibility
for the land use at risk, so that its score can be directly compared to the weed risk score from the
same land use to set control priorities. In the following questions higher scores indicate lower
feasibility of containment.
Following the technique developed by this systems the following classification are produced.
Frequency band
80 - 100 (top 20% possible score)
60 – 80
Fisibility Score
>113
<113
Feasibility Classification
very high
High
40 – 20
<56
Medium
20 – 10
<31
Low
10 – 0 (bottom 20% possible scores)
<14
negligible
IV. DETERMINING PRIORITIES.
The above results are arranged into a matrix shown in Figure 3. The following matrix gives
guidance on appropriate strategic, IPS or weed management actions. Different IPS species will appear
in different positions on the matrix, based on their risk and feasibility of containment scoring. Each
land use will have a separate matrix. Following are guiding principles for each of the management
categories in the matrix. At a landscape scale these principles need to be interpreted in terms of
different outcomes per land use for different weeds. For example, a weedof IPS may rank as “destroy
infestations” in one land use and “limited action” in others. In this case coordinated control may still
be required in the latter land uses to enable protection of the former land use.
The term “management area” can be used below to apply to a range of spatial scales.
V. ALERT
Species that are not known to be present in the management area and which represent a significant
threat. Such species would score “0” in Feasibility of Containment due to their absence.
Aims to prevent the species arriving and establishing in the management area
231
Prevention of entry to management area.
VI. ERADICATION
There are huge debates worldwide on the concept of eradication, which is mostly used in term of
effort of human being or human intervention to get rid off diseases.
This word is used
interchangeably to “elimination”, whereasstandard definition for disease control and eradication do not
clearly defined in the literature.Eradication itself involves control interventions to completely stop
spreading of the diseases. All disease is controllable through the simple method of quarantine. In
fact, the ultimate goal of control is eradication. Thus control can be varied depending on stages of
diseases (Jamison et al. 2006). Thus, Eradication denotes the certified total absence of human cases,
the absence of a reservoir for the organism in nature, and absolute containment of any infectious
source. Virtue (2010) stated that eradication is effort that aims to remove the weed species
from the management area.
VII. DESTROY INFESTATIONS
This action is primarily aiming at significantly reduce the extent of the weed species in the
management area.It can be started with conducting detail surveilannce and mapping to easily
located the infestation. Once infestation can be traced, the local eradication will be carrierd out at all
feasible sites. Effort to prevent spreading out side their first infestation areas shall be monitored and
further action must be taken place by preventing the weed species entering to particular management
area and preventing from such movemement, either thorugh trading/selling or other activities allowing
the organism/species moving freely from their containtment. There was no option to grow these
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Invasive Plant Species Risk Management for Forestry Sector…...
Soekisman Tjitrosemito, Titiek S., & Adi Susmianto
unwanted plants or even maintain the infested area and the land manager shall monitor towards their
reduction.
VIII. CONTAIN SPREAD
Allmost all action in the scope of appropriate strategies has to go through seveal steps where the
differences are vey subtle. Similar to previous action that under particular case, contain spread is
aiming to prevent the ongoing spread of the weed species in the management area. Steps
taken are rather similar to destroy infestation weher surveillance and mapping to locate all infested
properties should be made prior to control trial.
Thus, control of all infestations, aiming for a
significant reduction in weed density is very clear.Prevention of entry to management area and
movement and sale within adminstrative sies.Must not allow to spread from cultivated plants (if
grown).Last things that shall be done consistently and if possible, monitor change in current
distribution.
IX. PROTECT SITES
Prevention and containment of the spread of invasive plant species is vital to our efforts to
protect native plants across our land and territory.
This specific action is aiming at preventing
thespread of the weed species to key sites/assets of high economic, environmental
and/or social value. There are various situation where distribution of weedsare very limitedand
only threatens a few number of industries/habitats and we can call this as “lower weed risk”.
The
other situation represent weedsthat may be more widespread but they have not yet invaded/impacted
upon many important industries or habitats, we can call this as “higher weed risk”.
Further action to
protect this valuable sites among of those are: 1) Surveillance and mapping to locate all infested
areas, 2) Identification of key sites/assets in the management area, 3) Control of infestations in close
proximity to key sites/assets, aiming for a significant reduction in weed density, 4) Limits on
movement and sale of species within management area, 5) Must not allow to spread from cultivated
plants (if grown) in close proximity to key sites/assets, and 6) Monitor change in current distribution
within and in close proximity to key sites/assets.
X. MANAGE WEED
At this stages, managing weeds is aiming at reducing the overall economic, environmental
and/or social impacts of the weed species through targeted management. There are a
number of action need to be taken among of those are: 1) Conduct research and develop integrated
weed management (IWM) packages for the species, including herbicides and biological control (where
feasible), 2) Promote IWM packages to landholders or park managers, 3) Monitor decrease in weed
impacts with improved management, and 4) Identify key sites/assets in the management area and
ensure adequate resourcing to manage the weed species.
XI. MANAGE SITES
Managing sites is aiming at maintaining the overall economic, environmental and/or social
value of key sites/assets through improved general weed management.
This can be
achieved through: 1)Promote general Integrated Weed Management principles to landholders/park
managers,
including
the
range
of
control
techniques,
maintaining
competitive
vegetation/crops/pastures, hygiene and property management plans, 2) Identify key sites/assets in
233
the management area and ensure adequate resourcing to manage these to maintain their values, and
3) Broaden focus beyond weeds to all threatening processes.
XII. MONITOR
Monitoring activity focus primarily on the spread of the species and review any perceived changes in
weediness.
This action is aiming atdetecting any significant changes in the species’ weed
risk.
XIII. LIMITED ACTION
The weed species would only be targeted for coordinated control in the management area
if its local presence makes it likely to spread to land uses where it ranks as a higher
priority.
Undertake control measures if required for the benefit of other land uses at risk
Otherwise limited advice to land managers if required.
XIV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Indonesia has long been well-known as an agriculture country importing a considerable number
of foreign plants grown as crops. Some imported plants were contaminated by unwanted plants
mainly invasive plants, such as Erechtites velerianifolia. Some imported plants become invasive such
as A.nilotica, Widelia trilobata, Mikania micrantha, waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) andetc. Some
native plant species may find their new environment condusive for optimum growth and thereby
facilitating invasion as described by Catford et al.(2009). The issuance of Forestry Law in 1967 invited
enterprenuer to exploit trees from Indonesian forests and the government receive huge
financialsupport to Indonesian economic recovery and development. The activities, however, have
leaved a considerable forest opening or logged over forest which may be susceptable to plant
invasion. To halt the invasion, a policy preventing the importation of potentially invasive plants is
recommended. A screening system capable of detecting potentially invasive plants is developed in the
form of Risk Management, implemented through legislation carried out by Quarantine Authorithy. At
current stages while Indonesiangovernment has not readyyet with Risk Management system, those
developed by Pheloung in Australia and modified by Daehler et.al (2004) in Hawaii may be adopted. A
Risk Management systems requiring inputs of risk assessment and feasibility of control actions and
scored accordingly, and arranged in a matrix will be able to provide guidance what actions should be
taken at a particular situation. A system developed by John Virtue of South Australia may also be
suitable.
REFERENCES
Andersen MC, Adams H, Hope B, Powell M.2004. Riskassessment for invasive species. Risk Analysis
24:787–93.
Anon. 2006. National Post-border Weed Risk Management Protocol. HB 294. Standards Australia,
Standards NewZealand, and Cooperative Research Centre for AustralianWeed Management,
Sydney, Australia
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Soekisman Tjitrosemito, Titiek S., & Adi Susmianto
Catford, Jane A, R. Jansson and C. Nilsson. 2009. Reducing redundancy in invasion ecologyby
integrating hypotheses into a singletheoretical framework. Diversity and Distributions,
(Diversity Distrib.)15, ,22–40
Daehler CC, Denslow JS, Ansari S, Kuo H.2004. A riskassessment system for screening out invasive
pest plantsfrom Hawaii and other Pacific islands. Conservation Biology 18:360–8.
Daehler CC, Virtue JG. (2010). Likelihood and consequences:reframing the Australian weed risk
assessment to reflect astandard model of risk. Plant Protection Quarterly 25(2):52–5.
Downey PO, Williams MC, Whiffen LK, Auld BA, HamiltonMA, Burley AL, et al. 2010 Managing alien
plants for biodiversityoutcomes – the need for triage. Invasive Plant Science and Management
3:1–11.
Downey,P.O., S.B. Johnson, J. G. Virtue and P. A. Williams 2010. Assessing risk across the spectrum
of weed management.CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition
and Natural Resources 2010 5, No. 038. http://www.cabi.org/cabreviews
Gordon, D.R., Onderdonk, D.A., Fox, A.M., Stocker, R.K., 2008a. Consistent accuracy ofthe Australian
weed risk assessment system across varied geographies. Diversity and Distributions 14, 234–
Gordon, D.R., Riddle, B., Pheloung, P.C., Ansari, S., Buddenhagen, C., Chimera,Daehler, C., Dawson,
W., Denslow, J., Jaqualine, T.N., LaRosa, A., Nishida, T.,Onderdonk, D.A., Panetta, D., Pyšek,
P., Randall, R., Richardson, D.M., Virtue, J.,Williams P., 2008b. International WRA workshop
2007 protocol: guidance foranswering the Australian weed risk assessment questions. In:
Proceedings of the Second International WRA Workshop, Sept. 14–15, Perth, Australia
Jamison, D.T, Breman, J.G, and A.R.Measham (editors). 2006. Disease Control Priorities in
Developing Countries. 2nd edition.Washington (DC): World Bank.
Pheloung PC, Williams PA, Halloy SR.1999. A weed riskassessment model for use as a biosecurity tool
evaluatingplant introductions. Journal of Environmental Management 57:239–51
Virtue J.G. 2010. South Australia’s weed risk management system. Plant Protection Quarterly 25:75–9
Walton CS. 2001. Implementation of a permitted list approach toplant introductions to Australia. In:
Groves RH, Panetta FD,Virtue JG, editors. Weed risk Assessment. CSIRO. Publishing,
Melbourne, Australia p. 93–9.
Weber, E. 2003. Invasive Plant Species of the World. A reference Guide to Environmental Weeds.
CABI International Wallingword, Oxon OX 10 8DE, UK. 548 p
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Economy Study and Standard Price of Community-based Plantation…...
Kristian Mair
Economy Study and Standard Price of
Community-based Plantation Forest Products1
Kristian Mairi 2
ABSTRACK
Marketing and standard price of CBPF (Communities Base Plantation Forest) product aspect
is
fundamental to know in order the sustainability of communities plantation business. There for, it is
required a government policy to protect and preserve the community's business. This study is
intended to determine the feasibility of standard price, marketing efficiency and financial feasibility
analysis of CBPF products in Northern Sulawesi Province.
The studi was conducted in Januari to April 2013 in three districts of Northern Sulawesi Province. This
studi is base on both primary and secondary data. Primary data and information were collected from
farm household, lokal wood traders, developers and key informants through interview and focusgroup discussion (FGD).
To determine the feasibility of standard price of CBPF products are used three approaches i.e: (1)
market price, (2) stumpage price, and (3) parity/social price. The marketing efficiency parameters
used in this research such as (1) profit margin, (3) marketing margin, (3) mark up analysis (i.e: mark
up on selling). Financial feasibility analysis are base on three investment criteria such as net present
value NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR) , and internal rate of return (IRR).
The result show that financial analysis from CBPF in Northern Sulawesi Province are feasible in term of
all three investment criteria. Meanwhile market distribution system of CBPF product is not efficient yet
according to profit margin, marketing margin, and mark up on selling parameters. Profit margin value
for lokal trader is 27% (Rp. 135.000/m3), the middleman about 23% (Rp. 110.000/m3), and then
farmer/producer about 13% (Rp. 55.000/m3) dan the least is province trader about 5% (25.000/m3).
Average marketing margin value by lokal traders about 70% (Rp. 350.000/m3), middleman about
68% (Rp. 320.000/m3), and then farmer/producer about 65% (Rp. 280.000/m3), and the least is
province traders about 14% (Rp. 75.000/m3). Marketing condition for CBPF timber produc is imperfect
and there is a tendency toward oligopsonistic condition
The findings of this study indicate that CBPF program provides a good prospect of creating a new
entrepreneurs in forestry sector by support of government policy in setting the standard price of
sengon logs in forest area about Rp. 225,000 - 240.000/m3.
Keywords: CBPF, standard price, marketing efficiency, financial analysis
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global Environment
Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013
2
Manado Forestry Research Institute, Jl Raya Adipura, Kel. Kima Atas, Kec. Mapanget, Manado, Sulawesi Utara.
237
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Background
The Ministry of Forestry has made various efforts to accelerate the implementation of CBPF such
as make rules and regulations as the legal basis, ease of licensing and financial supporting.
Furthermore socialization intensively conducted, the level of bureaucracy shortened, proakatif effort to
to encourage community have been taken, involving various stakeholders conducted, transaction costs
are minimized and the revolving fund distribution institution was established namely Forest
Development Financing Center (BLU-Pusat P2H) - which provides micro credit access for the
development of community base plantation forest (HTR), community forest (HKm), village forest (HD)
and community partnership forest. All of these efforts indicates the seriousness of Ministry of Forestry
to facilitate local communities as a new business entities of sustainable forest management on forest
state.
HTR program is a form of policy innovation management practices in production forests. Be
regarded as an innovation because HTR program could be seen as something new. Novelty can be
seen in the aspect of granting management rights to local communities to manage production forest
(state forest) that has never been before. If the previous management of production forests is only
given to the private companies (such as HPH and HTI) and government corporate (Inhutani and
Perhutani). By the CBPF program, suggestions and criticism from various parties which necessitates
that local people are also capable of sustainable forest management practices can be accommodated.
The question: is it true that such prescriptions? The answer will be proven in one rotation of fast
growing crop (8 years later).
The problems could potentially be an obstacle in CBPF development are feasibility and marketing
products aspecs. Farmers are rational individuals, meaning that farmers choice for timber investment
business is determined by how much the benefits of the effort. The results of Darusman and
Hardjanto (2006); Lubis (2010), as well as Sitanggang (2009) stated that in general the business
community timber plants serve only as a sideline and not be the main source of income. This indicates
that the plantation business has not been attractive to farmers. In other words business plantation
business can not be relied upon household income.
These condition raises questions about the feasibility of HTR. Therefore the feasibility analysis of
CBPF is necessary to study. Besides the financial feasibility studies, also necessary to study the
marketing of CBPF product. HTR production marketing study include the potential for timber and nontimber markets resulting from the HTR, channel marketing timber and non-timber products from the
grower farmers and industries, as well as the profits distribution of each market actors along the
market chain. The feasibility analysis will ultimately determine the standard price of CBPF products
produced. Standard pricing by the government is expected to be a policy that can be a driving force
for the development of CBPF in Indonesia.
The study was conducted in North Sulawesi that has reserve HTR area covering 48.140 ha.
Applied pattern is developer pattern. North Sulawesi province declared as one example of the
successful development of HTR developer pattern. This is reflected in the data of actual credit
agreement in July of 2010. KTH amount of the loan agreement which has as many as 24.321
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Kristian Mair
households consisting KTH IUPHHK HTR shareholders with total area of 3.960 hectares spread over 3
districts. The amount of the credit platform of Rp. 21.995.238.200, -. (Rahmadi, 2013).
B. Problem Formulation
Good understanding of the relationships / interactions occurring market reciprocity will allow to
improve the livelihood of small farmers to direct their production to fulfill market opportunities. This
study aims to answer some fundamental questions relating to the feasibility of HTR, optimal pricing of
mutual benefit between all actors of forest products marketing. Therefore the main problems to be
answered in this study are :
a. Whether HTR business is financially feasible ?
b. How the marketing channels as well as the margin share and marketing efficiency of CBPF
products ?
c. How much the standard price of CBPF product so that all segments of market participants to
obtain a reasonable profit?
d. What are the problems faced by both farmers and traders, and what opportunities that can be
done to improve the better market for mutual benefit?
C. Hypothesis
Hypothesis are constructed in this study are :
1. CBPF development worthy of being a mainstay of the family business due to financially viable and
has a prospective market
2. There are opportunities to further expand of CBPF development and government policies are
needed to regulate the standard price as well as facilitation in providing market opportunities.
D. Objectives
The objectives to be achieved from economic studies and standard prices of CBPF products
include the following :
1. Analyze the financial feasibility of HTR development
2. Inventory of patterns HTR's product marketing in North Sulawesi
3. Standard prices analysis of HTR products.
4. Identify problems and constraints in the implementation of the HTR program in North Sulawesi
5. Make recommendations for policy HTR development.
E.
Outputs and Outcomes
Economic studies and standard prices of HTR product will result in the following outputs :
1.
Data and information relating to the financial viability HTR management.
2.
Data and information related to markets and marketing system in the management of HTR.
3.
Data and information on the standard price of forest products.
4.
Data and information management conditions HTR
5.
Formulation of policies and development strategies HTR.
239
The expected outcomes of this study is terbangunanya Forest Plantation business system that is
beneficial to all parties involved in the development of HTR. Making HTR as a mainstay of business for
farmers – HTR IUPHHK holders, and support business activities of production and marketing of the
industry for HTR. The expected outcomes of this study is the establishment of forest plantation
business system that is beneficial to all parties involved in the development of HTR. HTR is a mainstay
business for farmers which support the timber industry production.
II. RESEARCH METHODS
A.
Location and Respondents
HTR program implementation in North Sulawesi province just found in three districts namely
North Minahasa regency (Kab. Minut) , South Minahasa regency (Kab. Minsel) , and Bolaang East
Bolaang regency (Kab. Boltim).
Each district selected by purposive respondents who have obtained forest utilization license as
samples in this study. In Minut district selected 20 respondents, in Minsel district selected 12
respondents and in the Boltim District selected 8 respondents. Thus there are 40 holders of forest
utilization license as respondents.
In order to assess the marketing channels conducted interviews with market participants.
Determination marketing institutions involved as respondents through snowballs sampling are based
on information from the farmer to whom the commodities sold and who is often involved in the
purchase and trade of sengon wood. Thus selected 15 respondents with details of 8 respondents from
local traders and 5 respondents from middlemen and 2 respondents from province traders in Manado
City.
Primary data were collected through interviews using a structured questionnaire and through
Focus Group Discussion (FGD) on farmers HTR and marketing actors.
B. Data Analysis
1.
Financial Feasibility Analysis
Investment criteria used to analysis for HTR feasibility in North Sulawesi are:
-
Net Present Value (NPV).
Annotation:
n
NPV
¦
t 1
240
Bt Ct
1 i t
Bt
= Benefit of project in year t
Ct
= Cost of project in year t
t
= time periode of the investment
i
= interest rate
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Investment criteria:
If NPV > 0, its means the project is profitable because the benefit received is greater than total
cost incurred.
If NPV = 0, its mean break even because the benefits are just enough to cover the total costs
incurred.
If NPV < 0, its mean the project not profitable becouse total cost incurred is greater than
benefits
-
Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR)
Annotation:
n
B
Bt
¦
t
i 1 1 i n
Ct
¦
t
i 1 1 i C
Bt
= Benefit in year-t
Ct
= Cost in year-t
i
= interest rate
t
= time periode of the investment
n
= life time of project
Investment criteria:
If B/C>1 = profitable
If B/C<1 = not profitable
-
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
‫ ܴܴܫ‬ൌ ݅ଵ ൅ ܸܰܲଵ
ሺ݅ െ ݅ଵ ሻ
ܸܰܲଵ െ ܸܰܲଶ ଶ
Annotation:
-
NPV1
-
NPV2
= NPV is the smallest negative value
-
i1
= Interest rate that generate the smallest positive NPV
-
i2
= Interest rate that generate the smallest negative NPV
= NPV is the smallest positive value
Investment criteria:
2.
-
If IRR > i ; its means an investment is feasible to do
-
If IRR = i ; its means an investment is break even
-
If IRR < i ; its means an investment is not feasible to do
Marketing Aanalysis
Marketing efficiency can be determined through the analysis of (1) profit margin, (2) marketing
margin, and (3) operational efficiency by using the parameter mark up on selling (Desai, 2001).
241
1. Profit Margin:
ܵ݇݅ ൌ
݇݅
ͳͲͲΨ
ܲ‫ ݎ‬െ ܲ‫ܨ‬
ܾܵ݅ ൌ
ܾ݅
ͳͲͲΨ
ܲ‫ ݎ‬െ ܲ‫ܨ‬
ܵ‫ ݌‬ൌ
݂ܲ
ͳͲͲΨ
ܲ‫ݎ‬
2.
Marketing Margin: Mp = Pr – Pf atau MP = ∑ bi + ∑ ki
3.
Mark up on selling
‫ ݈݈݃݊݅݁ݏ݊݋݌ݑ݇ݎܽܯ‬ൌ
ƒ”‰‹ƒ–ƒ‹ƒ‰ƒ
ͳͲͲΨ
‫݈ܽݑܬܽ݃ݎܽܪ‬
Where :
Mp = Marketing Margin;
Pr = Price at consumer level(user);
Pf = Price at Producers level(farm)
bi = marketing cost at i;
ki = profit at i;
Ski, Sbi = Part of the benefits received marketing agency;
Sp = amount of the contribution prices received by producers
3. Floor Price Analysis
In order to assess the floor prices of timber produced by forest farmers can be used three
approaches namely market price, standing stock price and social or parity price. (Irawati, at all, 2008)
Market prices are formed by the market mechanism through transaction process among
consumers and producers who met in the marketplace. Market price data can be obtained from HTR
farmers, traders at the village level and in the industry that buy directly to farmers.
Stumpage price reflect the floor value of the stand. Stumpage price is formed by total cost in
production process. HTR development cost is total cost incurred ranging from the cost of procurement
of seeds, planting activities and maintenance cost until the tree ready to cut.
Social/parity price is the price that reflects best allocation of resources to produce the highest
profits. Social price calculated on the basis of the opportunity cost of the most profitable alternative of
wood products by parity approached. Social price derived from the international market price at the
gate industry.
C.
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Assumptions
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In financial analysis and marketing required some the assumptions as the basis for calculation.
The assumption is expected to approach the actual state or condition of the field and should be
appropriate scientifically justifiable. The assumptions used are as follows:
1.
Total cost of CBPF construction for one rotation sengon forest (8 years) was Rp. 8.531.900/Ha. It
is based on the Regulation of Forest Development Funding Head. No. P.01/P2H-1/2010 on
January 21, 2010.
2.
Sengon diameter (D) average at 8-year-old is 37.6 cm, bole height (T) is 10 m so that the
volume average of 0.78 m3/pohon. Valume tree is calculated by the formula: V = ¼ x 22/7 x D2
x T x 0.7
3.
There are 400 trees/Ha are grown until the 8th year. This is consistent with the minimum
requirements specified in the assessment of HTR outcomes
4.
Interest rate (i) used is 10% per year.
5.
HTR analysis unit used is 1 (one) hectare.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A.
Analisis Finansial CBPF
1.
CBPF Activity Process
HTR development in North Sulawesi province was conducted with the concept of SFM
(Sustainable Forest Management). It means that the criterion is measured based on the sustainable
annual allowable cutting (AAC) same every year. This concept is similar in the HTI (Industrial
Plantation Forest) that planting area designed same every year so that the results of timber harvesting
the same every year too. Thus, there are activities that are carried out simultaneously and
overlapping.
The following table describe the activities carried out during one rotation.
Table 1. HTR development activities conducted in every year
Year
No
A
Activities
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
PLANTATION
1
Nursery
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
2
Land preparation
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
3
Planting
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
B
PRESERVATION
1
Preservation in year 1
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
243
Year
No
Activities
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
2
Preservation in year 2
3
Preservation in year 3
4
Continued preservation 1
√
√
√
√
√
√
5
Continued preservation 2
√
√
√
√
√
√
C
FOREST PROTECTION
1
Pest and disease controling
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
2
Fire control
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
3
Forest protection
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
√
D
HARVESTING
√
2. Elements Cost of HTI Development
In order to implement HTR development program, the government provides soft loan facility for
the communities to be used as working capital to finance all activities (for one rotation). The amount
of soft loan given is Rp. 8.5319 million for each hectare. This is set up through the Regulation Forest
Development Funding Head, No. P.01/P2H-1/2010 0n January 21, 2010 about the Component Costs
Financed by Forest Development Financing Center for CBPF Development and Industrial Forest
Plantation, as detailed in the following table.
Table 2. Elements Cost of HTI Development Per Hectar
No
A
Activities
Area unit (Ha)
PLANTATION
1
Nursery
Ha
2.038.200
2
Land preparation
Ha
2.706.500
3
Planting
Ha
575.700
Total A
244
Cost unit (Rp)
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No
Activities
B
Area unit (Ha)
Cost unit (Rp)
PRESERVATION
1
Preservation in year 1
Ha
911.200
2
Preservation in year 2
Ha
717.700
3
Preservation in year 3
Ha
630.000
4
Continued preservation 1
Ha
358.300
5
Continued preservation 2
Ha
179.100
Total B
C
2.796.300
FOREST PROTECTION
1
Pest and disease controling
Ha
219.200
2
Fire control
Ha
93.000
3
Forest protection
Ha
103.000
Total C
415.200
Total A + B + C
3.
Ha
8.531.900
Income from CBPF Development
The cropping pattern is done by the community in HTR area is a monoculture, thus, revenue is
expected at the end of sengon rotation just timber. Based on the assumptions in this study as well as
market price of sengon’s logs, the farmer income of HTR development about Rp. 46.800.000/ha.
Table 3. Farmer’s income from CBPF development per hectar
No.
Number of Trees
(logs)
1
Logs Volume (m3)
400
312
Market Price
(Rp/m3)
150.000
Income (Rp/ha)
46.800.000
Sources: Primary data analysis
4.
NPV, BCR, and IRR Analysis
Investment criteria that used to assess the feasibility of HTR project is NPV, BCR, IRR (Andayani,
2008). Financial feasibility analysis of HTR project using a discount rate of 10% (adjusted for deposit
245
rates State Bank in 2012). The calculation results of HTR businesses financial feasibility analysis
presented in the following table.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Nursery
Land preparation
Planting
PRESERVATION
Preservation in year 1
Preservation in year 2
Preservation in year 3
Continued preservation 1
Continued preservation 2
FOREST PROTECTION
Pest and disease controling
Fire control
Forest protection
1
2
3
B
1
2
3
4
5
C
1
2
3
247
PLANTATION
Activity
A
No
103.000
93.000
219.200
911.200
575.700
2.706.500
2.038.200
0
717.700
1
630.000
2
Tabel 4. Financial Feasibility Analysis of HTR project per hectare in North Sulawesi
358.300
3
Year
179.100
4
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...
8
Total
248
DB = Discount Benefit
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Ket : DF = Discount Factor;
DC = Discount Cost;
i = interest rate
13.621.106
24,94
(122.328)
IRR
(269.196)
1,60
(520.661)
21.832.545
46.800.000
8.531.900
Total
BCR
(652.455)
21.832.545
(6.646.800)
122.328
NPV
269.196
0,683
21.832.545
520.661
0,751
DB (i = 10%)
652.455
0,826
6.646.800
0,909
DC (i = 10%)
8
0,467
...
1,000
179.100
4
DF (i = 10%)
358.300
3
46.800.000
630.000
2
REVENUE/Ha
717.700
1
E
6.646.800
0
Year
TOTAL COST/Ha
Activity
D
No
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Based on the calculation results of NPV is Rp 13,621,106, - (NPV> 0), so it can be concluded that
HTR development is profitable because the benefits received by the project is greater than all the total
costs incurred.
Calculation of BCR is to determine whether a particular sacrifice will obtain greater benefits.
Calculation results of BCR showed positive values (1,60). It means that business HTR is stated
feasible. It also means that any expenditure is Rp. 1 will give you the benefit is Rp 1.60.
IRR value shows the average rate of annual profits for companies that invest in the project and
expressed in units of percent (Gittinger, 1986). Based on the calculations, the value of IRR is 24.94%,
which means that HTR Sengon business is very feasible because the value of the benefits are greater
than the bank rate prevailing now.
B. Marketing Analysis of HTR Product
1. Marketing Channel Patterns of HTR Product
Number of marketing actors who engage in marketing timber activities in North Sulawesi there
are four, namely:
1. Farmer/Producers
Farmers / Producers is the forest land owner or license holder of HTR development.
2. Mi d dle ma n
Merupakan traders yang membeli pohon berdiri dan menjualnya dengan merubah bentuk atau
masih bentuk gelondongan (log). Kayu-kayu tersebut dikumpulkan dan diletakkan di tepi jalan.
Tengkulak atau calo kayu ini sama dengan istilah “pengepul” di Jawa. Middleman are traders who
buy logs from farmers and sell again to other traders . Middlemen or brokers is the same term of
"pengepul" in Java.
3. Local Tra de rs
Local traders is a intermediate traders who sells timber and wood logs that have changed form
and usually have a mini sawmill.
4. Provincial Traders
Provincial traders are traders who buy and hold wood from brokers and local traders to be sold to
sawmills or other consumers. This traders also bought processed wood (poles, boards, battens,
rafters) and then collected in a place (shop) for sale this product.
In general marketing activities by actors timber marketing in North Sulawesi forming in 4 (four)
pattern, namely:
1. Patern 1 : Producers (farmer) - Consumer (middleman, and users). Producers conduct marketing
activities ranging from tree harvesting to delivery of wood to consumer.
2. Patern 2 : Producers – Middleman – Consumer. Marketing activities carried out by middlemen to
249
the consumer by buying a tree stand from producers and then sell to consumers.
3. Patern 3 : Producers – Local Traders – Consumer. Marketing activities carried out by local traders
to the consumer while producers selling trees standing.
4. Patern 4 : Producers – Middleman – Provincial Traders – Consumer. Marketing activities carried out
by middlemen and provincial traders followed to the consumer while producers selling
trees standing to middleman.
There are several methods used in sale of timber/logs in North Sulawesi, among:
1. Farmer sells directly the wood to middlemen by mention physical conditions such as type of wood,
age, and volume of logs.
2. Middlemen observed previously community-owned timber plantations. If there is any type and
size of timber needed it will immediately ask whether to sell or not.
3. Middlemen get information from other community. The information is followed up with a survey
directly to the location of stand. Generally people who have provided the information getting
reward from the middlemen.
Once one of these three processes are implemented, then the farmer and middleman
immediately make a bargain price until the transaction. In the process of the transaction discussed
the deal with the system of payment whether cash or installments.
2. Marketing Margin and Profit Margin Analysis
According to Philip Kotler (1997) definition of margin carries two meanings: (1) the difference
between the price paid by the final consumer price received by producers, (2) fees and marketing
services required as a result of demand and supply of services marketing. Thus the marketing margin
represents the difference between the price level retailers with price-level producers (fishermen or
farmer). Marketing margins just shows the difference between the retail price and farmer and did not
give a statement about the number of products being marketed. While the value of marketing margin
is the multiplication of the number of products that are marketed
To determine the distribution of the benefits derived by each of businessmen, the following
describes the structure of the acquisition that started construction cost analysis sengon stand up to
the determination of the selling price.
a. Market price of Sengon logs
Sengon cropping pattern conducted in monoculture with a target initial planting 500-600 trees
on the assumption that there is a minimum of 400 trees alive until the end of the rotation sengon
(age 8 years). Based on farmer experience in the field and supported by several studies (Andayani,
2008; son, 2006; Sitanggang, 2009) that the plant sengon 8-year-old has reached an average
diameter of 37.6 cm with a height of 10 m free branches. Thus the volume of logs obtained sengon
average 0.78 m3/logs.
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Based on a market survey and interviews with the farmer HTR and timber traders by focus
group discussion method has obtained information that the market price sengon log is Rp.
150,000/m3.
b. Marketing Cost Analysis
Marketing costs incurred respective businessmen include chainsaw costs (felling and bucking),
transportation costs (from forest to market, and the cost of loading and unloading), and
administrative costs and other charges. Here is rekaptulasi marketing costs based on existing
marketing patterns in North Sulawesi.
Table 5. Cost Marketing unit for each m3 of Sengon logd in North Sulawesi.
Marketing Cost (Rp/m3)
No
Cost Unit
Patern 1
Patern 2
Patern 3
Patern 4
1
Chainsaw man fees
70.000
65.000
65.000
65.000
2
Transportation cost to TPN by cows
45.000
45.000
45.000
45.000
3
Transportation cost by truk
60.000
55.000
55.000
55.000
4
Loading and unloading cost
20.000
20.000
20.000
20.000
5
Retribution, taxes and license fees
30.000
30.000
30.000
30.000
6
Loading and unloading cost
7
Transportation cost by truk
Total
-
-
-
20.000
30.000
225.000
215.000
215.000
265.000
Sources: Primary data analysis
c. Analisis Margin Pemasaran dan Margin Keuntungan
Salah satu cara untuk mengetahui tingkat efisiensi pemasaran kayu bulat Sengon di Provinsi
Slawesi Utara adalah dengan menggunakan analisis margin pemasaran (marketing margin) dan margin
keuntungan (profit margin) sebagaimana disajikan pada tabel berikut ini.
251
Table 6.
Distribution of Marketing Margin and Profit Margin.
Patern 1
Activity
Price
(Rp/m3
Patern 2
Share
(%)
Price
(Rp/m3
Patern 3
Share
(%)
Price
(Rp/m3
Patern 4
Share
(%)
Price
(Rp/m3
Share
(%)
Production cost
150.000
35
150.000
32
150.000
30
150.000
29
Marketing Cost:
225.000
52
215.000
45
215.000
43
215.000
41
- Chainsaw man fees
70.000
16
65.000
14
65.000
13
65.000
12
- Transportation cost to
45.000
10
45.000
9
45.000
9
45.000
9
60.000
14
55.000
12
55.000
11
55.000
10
and
20.000
5
20.000
4
20.000
4
20.000
4
- Retribution, taxes and
30.000
7
30.000
6
30.000
6
30.000
6
Selling logs Price
430.000
100
475.000
100
500.000
100
450.000
86
Profit Margin
55.000
13
110.000
23
135.000
27
85.000
16
320.000
68
350.000
70
300.000
57
Marketing Cost:
50.000
10
- Transportation cost by
30.000
6
20.000
4
525.000
100
Profit Margin
25.000
5
Marketing Margin
75.000
14
TPN by cows
- Transportation cost by
truk
- Loading
unloading cost
license fees
Marketing Margin
280.000
65
Traders
truk
- Loading
and
unloading cost
Selling logs Price
Sources: Primary data analysis
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Based on the calculation results of profit margins and marketing margins distribution above, we
can obtained the following information:
-
Patern 1: farmers' profit margins 13% (Rp. 55.000/m3) and marketing margin 65% (Rp.
280,000).
-
Patern 2: middlemen profit margin 23% (Rp. 110.000/m3) and marketing margin
68% (Rp.
320.000/m3)
-
Patern 3: local traders profit margin 27% (Rp. 135.000/m3) and marketing margin 70% (Rp.
350.000/m3)
-
Patern 4: middlemen profit margin 16% (Rp. 85.000/m3) and marketing margin 57% (Rp.
300.000/m3), while provincial traders earn profit margin 5% (Rp. 25.000/m3) and marketing
margin 14% (Rp. 75.000/m3).
Further information obtained that the profit distribution gains of the four market participants like
farmers, middlemen, traders and provincial traders are not evenly distributed. Distribution where the
biggest profits are earned by local traders about 27 % (Rp. 135.000/m3), while the farmer/producers
gain second smallest profit distributions at 13% (Rp. 55.000/m3). It can be concluded that the
marketing or marketing system logs in North Sulawesi are inefficient due to the distribution of profits
earned by individual market participants do not provide a sense of justice in accordance with the
sacrifice (cost of investment) . According Andayani (2008) that in order to assess the level of
efficiency of the trade system of a product or service can be judged from the size distribution of the
benefits of each offender marketing. A system is said to be efficient if the trading system between
actors marketing investment percentage is comparable to the percentage gains among actors in the
marketing of these products . It also means that the greatest actors should invest in marketing the
biggest gain among the actors of marketing and vice versa.
d. Operational Efficiency Analysis
According Andayani (2007), to analyze the level of operational efficiency of marketing then used
an analysis based on a mark-up on selling value (mark-up value based selling Price). Value of
roundwood marketing operational efficiency sengon in North Sulawesi Patern contained in the
distribution of benefits of the various market participants (Patern 1 to 4). Based on the above table it
obtained information regarding the level of operational efficiency of marketing and distribution of the
benefits received by each businesses marketing by marketing Patern in North Sulawesi province as in
the following table.
253
Table 7.
Operational Efficiency Value and Marketing Benefits Distribution.
Patern
Marketing Actors
Marketing Magin
3
(Rp/m )
Price (Rp/m3)
Mark up on
Selling (%)
1
Farmer
280.000
430.000
65,12
2
Middleman
325.000
475.000
68,42
3
Local Traders
350.000
500.000
70,00
4
Middleman
300.000
450.000
66,67
5
Provincial Traders
75.000
525.000
14,29
Sources: Primary data analysis
According to Kohls, RL (1967), the criteria for assessing whether an efficient market mechanism
if market mechanisms are capable of delivering products or services from producer to consumer with
the lowest possible cost and the equitable distribution of benefits of the price given to the consumer
market institutions involved.
Based on the data in Table 7, obtained information that the efficiency of marketing operations
logs sengon in North Sulawesi ranged between 14.29% s / d 70.00%. Lowest efficiency values
obtained by provincial traders only 14.29. This is due to marketing costs (sacrifices) well at least that
only Rp. 50.000/m3 where provincial traders transportation costs only. While the largest efficiency
values obtained by local traders in the amount 70% with an average profit of Rp. 135.000/m3. While
the efficiency of farmer/producers of 65.12% with an average profit of Rp. 55.000/m3. Efficiency
value middlemen at 68.42% with a mean profit of Rp. 110.000/m3 (Patern 2) and 66.76% with a
mean profit of Rp. 85.000/m3 (Patern 4).
It can be concluded that Sengon timber marketing pattern in North Sulawesi is not efficient
because of the benefits distribution of the marketing actors are not evenly distributed. It can be seen
indicators of differences in efficiency value that is wide enough between 14.29 s / d 70% (there is a
wide disparity of 55.71%). Differences can also be seen that the profit margin that market participants
received between Rp. 25.000/m3 s / d Rp. 135.000/m3 (there are wide disparities about Rp.
110.000/m3).
C.
Floor Price Analysis of HTR Products
To set a floor price policy of HTR timber can be used three approaches, namely market price,
stumpage Price, and social/parity price (Irawati, at all, 2008).
1. Market Price
Market price is prices established through market mechanisms, which through attraction process
between consumer and producers who meet in market. Based on a market survey and focus group
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interviews with the farmer HTR and timber traders obtained information that the average market price
sengon at site is Rp. 150.000/m3.
2. Stumpage Price
Price stump is the level of prices that reflect the value of the stand. Price calculation Sengon
stump in North Sulawesi is Rp. 115 270 s / d Rp. 123 273 per m3, which was calculated as follows:
Tabel 8. Stumpage price Calculation of Sengon Log in North Sulawesi
No
1
Cost Elements
Production cost at year 0
Rotation (year)
Interest rate per year (%)
2
Stumpage value at year8 (Rp/ha)
Production (m3/ha)
3
Stumpage value (m3/ha)
Value in Rp. and %
8.531.900
8
8% - 10%
15.791.951 - 18.288.885
312
50.615 - 58.618
Profit (15%)
8.793
Risk (10%)
5.862
4
Stumpage value after profit
59.408 - 67.411
5
Stumpage value after profit + resiko
65.270 - 73.273
6
Land owner fees (per m3)
Stumpage value after profit + resiko +fee (Rp/m3)
50.000
115.270 - 123.273
Sources: Primary data analysis
3. Sosial Price
Social/parity price is the best price allocation of resources so as to produce the highest profits.
Social price calculated on the basis of which opportunity cost of the most profitable alternative HTR
business that approached parity prices. HTR social price of timber derived from the international
market price.
255
Community timber sold to factories that will process further into the export commodity is
calculated based social price processing plant sale at the door. Social price sengon logs in North
Sulawesi Rp. 225,000 to Rp. 240,000 per m3, which was calculated as follows.
Table 9. Social Price Calculation of Sengon Logs in North Sulawesi
No
Price and Cost
Value (Rp/m3)
1
Logs Price at industry gate
470.000 - 500.000
2
Cost elements
230.000 - 275.000
- Chainsaw man fees
65.000 - 75.000
- Transportation cost to TPN by cows
45.000 - 55.000
- Transportation cost by truk
60.000 - 70.000
- Loading and unloading cost
30.000 - 40.000
- Retribution, taxes and license fees
30.000 - 35.000
Social Price of Sengon Logs
240.000 - 225.000
Sources: Primary data analysis
Based on the standard price analysis of sengon logs using three approaches, namely market
price, stumpage price and parity price, we obtained information that partitas price provide the highest
value, and then market and last stumpages price. Sequentially value of stump price is Rp. 115.270 to
Rp. 123.273 per m3, market price Rp. 150.000/m3 and parity/social price Rp. 225.000 to Rp. 240.000
per m3.
When we use the reference standard pricing policy is based on the stumpage price it means
farmer only earn income based on production cost plus profit margin. When using market price means
HTR farmers earn additional profits slightly larger than stumpage price. When using parity/social price
as standard price means the sale of wood products HTR farmer get maximum profit from HTR
business.
Base on the third method analysis above, it is recommended that the determination of the
standard sengon logs price in North Sulawesi should refer to the parity price about Rp. 225,000 to Rp.
240,000 per m3 in standing stock level. It is based on the consideration that:
-
Timber market mechanisms in North Sulawesi have not been efficient where traders earn greater
profit margin than farmer (the largest capital owners) so there are still opportunities to improve
the market mechanism to be efficient so that determination of standard price of Sengon logs is Rp.
225,000 to Rp. 240,000 per m3 in standing stock level is still very rational / marketable.
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-
HTR farmers' bargaining position is very weak in determining the selling price. Current pricing is
determined dominant by the buyers/traders so the market price is still lower than reasonable so it
is relevant to determine the standard price about Rp. 225,000 to Rp. 240,000 per m3.
-
Thus, the HTR farmers will be encouraged and motivated to manage HTR because of significant
benefit to the HTR program success rates can be higher and faster in improving the economy of
the communities around the forest (in accordance with the principle of the development of propoor, pro-growth , pro-jobs, and pro-environment).
To protect the rights of farmers in order to obtain a reasonable price, it can be done by setting
the standard price of Rp. 225,000 to Rp. 240,000 per m3 in stand-level. Thus government policy
intervention is required to issue a Decree of the Ministry of Forestry for each type of wood as a guide
in the marketing system in each province in Indonesia.
V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A. Conclusions.
1. HTR development in North Sulawesi has a huge potential to be developed in terms of all aspects of
financial feasibility is based on investment criteria such NPV = Rp. 13,621,106; BCR = 1.60, and
IRR = 24.94%. The third investment criterion is stated worth the effort because it is profitable.
2. There are four marketing patterns in North Sulawesi. Of those four Patern showed the biggest
profit margins respectively are local traders 27% (Rp. 135.000/m3), then middlemen 23% (Rp.
110.000/m3), and then the farmer 13 % (Rp. 55.000/m3) and the last provincial traders about 5%
(25.000/m3).
3. The biggest marketing margin earned by local traders about 70% (Rp. 350.000/m3), then
middlemen 68% (Rp. 320.000/m3), then farmer 65% (Rp. 280.000/m3) and least by provincial
traders about 14% (Rp. 75.000/m3).
4. The biggest marketing operational efficiency level obtained by local traders which is 70%, then by
middleman at 68.42%, and 66.76%, then by the farmer at 65.12% and least by the provincial
traders at 14.29%. Thus government policy interventions need to create perfectly competitive
marketing system so HTR program profitable for the farmer.
5. Marketing system of logs in North Sulawesi have not efficient both in terms of marketing margin
and profit margins criteria and marketing operational efficiency criteria.
6. The floor price sales of sengon logs in North Sulawesi should be determined by government policy
intervention to obtain profer basis price in order to protect HTR business farmer. Standard price
determination of Sengon logs in North Sulawesi should refer to the parity price about Rp. 225,000
to Rp. 240,000 per m3 in standing stock level.
B. Recommendations
1. Infrastructures facilities need to repair such as roads access to the site to be accessible by
vehicles/truck so transportation cost can be reduced. Thus farmers' incomes could more increase.
257
2. Wood industry needs to be built near the site to accommodate the HTR products in the second
crop rotation.
3. More selective in choosing a credible developer with experience in forest plantation development
so do not be a limiting factor in the HTR development.
4. Perlu verifikasi lapangan untuk memastikan farmer yang akan mendapat IUPHHK HTR adalah
farmer penggarap di lokasi HTR agar tidak terjadi konflik lahan diantara farmer HTR seperti yang
terjadi sekarang.
5. More accurate in the field verification to ensure that the farmer will get the HTR management right
is a farmer cultivators in order to avoid land conflicts between farmer HTR as is happening now.
REFERENCES
Andayani, W., 2008. Pemasaran Hasil Hutan. Lecture Notes. Jurusan manajemen Hutan. Fakultas
Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada. (Tidak dipublikasikan)
Boyd, H, Orville,C, Walker, J, Claude, L. 2000. Manajemen Pemasaran. Jakarta:Edisi dua Erlangga.
Darusman, D., Hardjanto. 2006. Tinjauan ekonomi hutan rakyat. Prosiding Seminar Hasil Penelitian
Hasil Hutan. Bogor: Pusat Litbang Hasil Hutan. hlm: 4-13.
Djamin, Z. 1984. Perencanaan dan Analisis Proyek edisi 1. Jakarta: Lembaga Penerbit Fakultas
Ekonomi. UI Press.
Gittinger, J. 1986. Analisis Proyek Pertanian. Jakarta: UI-Press
Husnan, S dan Suwarsono. 1994 Studi Kelayakan Proyek. Edisi revisi 1. Yogyakarta UPP AMP YKPN.
Irawati, S., Maryani, R., Effendi, R., Hakim, I., Dwiparabowo, H., 2008. Kebijakan Penetapan Price
Dasar Penjualan Kayu HTR Dalam Rangka Pengembangan HTR. Jurnal Analisis Kebijakan, Vol.
2. Pusat Penelitian Sosial Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Kehutanan. Bogor.
Kadariah, Karlina, L dan Clive, G. 1978. Pengantar Evaluasi Proyek. Jakarta:Fakultas Ekonomi
Universitas Indonesia.
Kohls, R.L. 1967. Marketing of Agricultural Products. The Macmillan Company. New York.
Kotler, P. 1997. Manajemen Pemasaran. Edisi sembilan. Prentice–Hall Inc. New Jersey.
Lubis, S.U., 2010. Manfaat Ekonomi Sistem Pengelolaan Hutan Rakyat di Sekitar Taman Nasional
Batang Gadis (Studi Kasus: Desa Hutarimbaru Dan Desa Tolang, Kecamatan Ulu Pungkut,
Kabupaten Mandailing Natal) [Skripsi]. Medan: Departemen Kehutanan, Fakultas Pertanian,
Universitas Sumatera Utara.
Putra, AEN. 2006. Analisis Sistem Tataniaga Kayu Jenis Sengon (Paraserianthes Falcataria) dan Prospek
Pengembangannya. Skripsi Fakultas Pertanian IPB (tidak dipublikasikan).
Rahmadi, A.I.,(2013). Progres pembangunan HTR Yang Dibiayai Pinjaman Dana Bergulir di Provinsi
Sulawesi Utara. Makalah Kapus P2H Pada Seminar Evaluasi Kinerja Debitur HTR di Prov. Sulut.
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Sitanggang, P.H., 2009. Manfaat Ekonomi Sistm Pengelolaan Hutan Rakyat (Studi Kasus: Dusun
Marubun Pane Kecamatan Tigarunggu Kabupaten Simalungun) [Skripsi]. Medan: Fakultas
Pertanian, Universitas Sumatera Utara.
259
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Yanto Santosa
Comparative Analysis of Several Quota Calculation Methods
for Wildlife Sustainable Harvesting in Natural Habitats1
Yanto Santosa2
ABSTRACT
Wildlife harvesting from natural population is essential to increase a species population growth rate
and local welfare as a source of revenue. This paper compared three sustainable harvesting quota
calculation methods in terms of the number of harvest, population sustainability and ease of use.
Sustainable harvesting quota calculation method which was based on the difference between
population size and minimum viable population (MVP) was proved to be the best (number of harvest),
safe (guaranteed sustainable population) and easy to use as compared to other methods based on the
differences between population size and carrying capacity and population size and half of carrying
capacity. Estimation of habitat carrying capacity of species with multi dietary feed is very difficult to
perform since weights/coefficients for each type of feed consumed varied with sex and age class or
body weight and the estimation productivity of each source of feed varied according to physical and
biotic environmental conditions.
Such conditions have made "carrying capacity estimation value"
inappropriate. Furthermore, the size of harvest would likely be lower when the current population size
reached its carrying capacity, since growth rate/population growth was close to zero.
Keywords: harvesting quota, minimum viable population, carrying capacity, growth rate
I. INTRODUCTION
Indonesia has an important position in terms of global biodiversity, since it is one of the ten
countries with the richest biodiversity, often known as megadiversity country (Primack et al. 1998 in
Bappenas, 2003). Although it covers only 1.3% of the total global landmass, Indonesia harbours a
very high fauna species diversity: about 12% of world’s mammal (515 species, 39% endemic), second
in the world; 7.3% of world’s reptiles (511 species, 150 endemic), fourth in the world; 17% of the
total bird species (1531 species, 397 endemic), fifth in the world; 270 species amphibians (100
endemic), sixth in the world and 2827 invertebrate species. Furthermore, Indonesia is home to 35
primate species (ranks fourth in the world, (18% endemic) and 121 butterfly species (44% endemic).
Perhaps Indonesia is the only country after Brazil and maybe Colombia that has the highest
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency,
Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP.
Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Wildlife Ecology and Management Section, Department of Forest Resources Conservation & Ecotourism,
Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, [email protected]
261
freshwater fish diversity, about 1400 species (Dephut 1994; Mittermeier et al. 1997 in Bappenas,
2003).
Preservation and protection of fauna diversity can be performed through the establishment of
protected areas and the ratification of protected species through laws and regulations or regulatory
policies. No wonder that the government policies represented by the Ministry of Forestry prior to
1990, tent to “restrict” the use of fauna by the community. New opportunities rises after the
enactment of Act No. 5 of 1990, which stated that: “Indonesian natural resources and their
ecosystems which are bestowed by God Almighty and have an important role for human life, need to
be managed and utilized sustainably, in harmony, harmonious and balanced for the welfare of the
present and the future generation of the people of Indonesia in particular and mankind in general “.
In the framework of liability for the wildlife that can be exploited, Indonesia has ratified CITES
(Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) in 1978, through
the Presidential Decree No. 43 of 1978. Subsequent harvesting of natural wildlife was regulated
through harvesting quota as stipulated in the Government Regulation No. 8 of 1999 on Utilization of
Wildlife. Unfortunately, the determination of harvesting quotas (especially for Long Tailed Macaque)
has not been specified based on valid population demographic data, time-series and has not used
proper calculation formula (Santosa and Indriani 2010). Quota determination is currently only based
on the realization of the development of quota fulfilment from the past 3 years.
Therefore it is
important to answer the following fundamental question: Which harvesting quota calculation
method can ensure the sustainability of a population? Before answering the key question, it
is useful to first discuss the importance of harvesting in wildlife management.
II. THE IMPORTANCE OF HARVESTING
Historical records showed that since the beginning of its existence, man has harvested biological
resources for the fulfilment of their basic needs which then grow into a source of livelihood either as
main or secondary sources. Such shift in harvesting motive from “subsistence” to “benefit oriented” is
presumably one important reason why until now, policy-setting conservation areas or protected status
for certain wildlife species often received antagonistic responses from the local communities.
Fears of accelerated extinction of certain wildlife species indicated by the increasing number of
wildlife that are given the “protection” status had unfortunately become a “commodity” with high sales
value for “NGO Conservationist” and for policy makers to receive “attention/grant/assistance” from
domestic and foreign stakeholders who are preservation conscious. On the contrary, to the local
community, this condition has severely pressure their day-to-day survival. Similarly, for entrepreneurs,
the costs became even greater, which resulted in low profits.
That is probably the reason why Act No 5 of 1990 was interpreted as “controversial”. The phrase
“needs to be managed and utilized sustainably, in harmony, harmonious and balanced for the welfare
of the people of Indonesia” on one hand is a breath of fresh air for the local communities and wildlife
entrepreneurs. On the other hand, other parties who have received much benefits from selling “the
issue of extinction”, such sentence is like an early death “drums” for animals that they were protecting.
Yet, if examined closely, it is clear that wildlife utilization is allowed under Act No. 5 of 1990 if and only
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if, it is utilized sustainably in harmony, harmonious and balance for the local welfare of the society.
Within that regard, it is necessary to have a comprehensive answer to the question: “How does
harvesting impact the development of wildlife populations and local communities?”
Many wildlife population demographics researchers (Caughley 1977; Bailey 1984; Dubray 1988;
Gonzalez 1987) find that harvesting intended to balance the sex-ratio is required in wildlife
management. In general, sex-ratio in nature is always close to 1:1 (where opportunities of male and
female born were equal to 0.5), whereas the optimum sex-ratio in most wildlife is 1: 4 (deer,
elephants, etc.) or even 1:15 for groups of long-tailed macaques (Santosa 1996). The term “optimum”
is used since it is under such sex-ratio figures that the highest number or birth rate occurred.
Furthermore, harvesting that is conducted at the time of the highest population growth rate (r
max) is required to maintain the level of population growth rate. For populations that are harvested
continuously, graph of the population growth would resemble a saw blade shaped, and that the total
population size would never reach their habitat carrying capacity. Similarly, harvesting that is
performed when the population size reaches the habitat carrying capacity would create individual
animals with better body weight and health than those that are not harvested.
Harvesting should absolutely be conducted when a population is experiencing explosion and or
has been considered as “pests”/disturbing to the surrounding community (Tarumingkeng 1994;
Santosa 2006). Harvesting effort is intended to balance population size in the context of natural
ecosystem food chain. Additionally, Riffle, S K & Don White, Jrd (2009) in their article entitled
“Management of Wildlife Harvested Populations” state that “reason for wildlife harvesting can be
summarized in 5 major areas and, in each, the goal of a harvest strategy would be different.
1. Management Tool
Harvests can benefit both humans and ecosystems when they are used as a management tool to
preserve populations or to mitigate effects of human activities. Harvests are often an effective way to
reduce populations of overabundant wildlife, reduce human-wildlife conflicts, and eradicate invasive
and exotic organisms. Sport hunting is commonly referred to as managing with a gun.
For example, historical conversion of land in eastern North America from forest to agricultural
land uses has facilitated an increase in Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater), a nest parasite,
which contributes to declining populations of some songbirds. For songbirds with small population
sizes or limited ranges, removing cowbirds can help sustain populations (Morrison et al. 1999).
Similarly, predator removal (i.e., harvesting) is needed to increase breeding success of waterfowl in
some management areas (e.g., Garrettson and Rohwer 2001).
Additionally, non-native, introduced species (exotics) can have profound impacts on native
species and ecosystems, such that harvests may be effective over broad areas of habitat. For
example, feral hogs (Sus scrofa) can cause great damage to both native ecosystems and agricultural
crops, and the only effective means of control currently available is harvest (e.g., Engeman et al.
2007).
263
2. Nutrition
For many rural populations, especially in developing countries, hunting supplies the primary source
of protein in human diets. Subsistence hunting provides substantial nutrients, calories and protein in 62
countries worldwide (Bennett and Robinson 2000). The anthropocentric goal would be to provide
enough sustainable harvest to meet basic nutritional needs. In most ancient societies, a successful hunt
not only fed one’s family, but also brought respect from both family and community (Bolen and
Robinson 2002). Although today most humans acquire their food from commercial stores, hunting and
harvesting of wild populations will undoubtedly continue.
Hunting of wildlife for food (i.e. bushmeat hunting) is today considered a significant threat
to conservation of wildlife diversity in tropical forest (Robin son et al. 1999; Milner-Gulland &
Bennett 2003). Particularly in Africa the available information indicates that hunting is often not
sustainable and wildlife populations have shown consistent declines or become locally extirpated
(see Robinson & Bennett 2000).
Tropical
forests
have
traditionally
been
an
essential source of protein in Africa (Asibey
1974). In Tanzania, bushmeat is becoming increasingly important for maintaining standards of
living, as a source of protein and cash i n c o m e ( Barnet 2 0 0 0 ). Illegal b u s h m e a t t r a d e i s
therefore developing fast in urban areas and is beginning to drive demand (Milledge & Barnet
2000).
3. Economics
Economics can drive harvests in 2 ways. First, for subsistence hunters, the harvest of wild meat
represents a source of nutrition that would otherwise have to be purchased (Bennett and Robinson in
Robinson and Bennett 2000). Cash money is often scarce for rural populations.
Second, harvests are often conducted with the intent to sell the animals for profit. Such intent
can include rural subsistence hunters selling meat for cash, sale to the pet trade, and larger
commercial operations. We include both legal and illegal harvest because the ecological effects of
both are the same. The goal would be to maximize (or sustain) harvest, and hence profit.
Third, sport hunting produces economic benefits resulting from license sales. Funds from the sale
of hunting licenses support game species management programs as well as other programs such as T
and E species, nongame, education, and habitat acquisition and management.
Lastly, in 1937, the Federal Aid to the Wildlife Restoration Act (commonly called the PittmanRobertson Act) placed a federal excise tax on sporting arms and ammunition, with proceeds to be
reapportioned to states for wildlife research and restoration.
4. Recreation
Hunting is often regulated for recreational opportunities, usually in more developed countries.
The anthropocentric goal here would be to provide recreational opportunities, although profit can
motivate recreational hunting too. With some large mammals and fish, the goal may be to provide
“trophy” individuals, rather than a maximum harvest.
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5. Culture
Hunting can be part of a society’s cultural heritage. Hunting can garner respect for the hunter
and provider, and produce culturally significant adornments (e.g., feathers) and trophies. In addition,
important rituals and celebrations may center on hunting (Bennett and Robinson in Robinson and
Bennett 2000), with the goal being to ensure a sustainable harvest large enough to provide a reliable
harvest for these cultural needs.
Thus it is clear that harvesting certain individual of a population living in natural habitat,
regardless of the status of the area is part of population management activities that must be
performed. Obviously, it should be performed in accordance with the objectives and strategies of the
population management. All stakeholders should agree with the basic principle of sustainable
harvesting, that is, the amount harvested should not exceed the rate of population growth (Bailey
1984; Sinclair 1994; Santosa 1996; Samedi 1999). The following discussed the comparative analysis
of 3 methods of sustainable harvesting quota.
III. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THREE QUOTA CALCULATION METHOD
Out of the many proposed method of calculating wildlife harvesting quotas, there are 3 methods
that are of interest, namely:
(a) Q = Nt – K (Minimum harvesting method)
(b) Q = Nt – ½ K (knowm r max N = ½ K) (Maximum harvesting method)
(c) Q = Nit – MVPit (Difference of MVP method)
Where Q = size of harvest
Nt = population size
K = habitat carrying capacity
MVPit = minimum viable population
r = intrinsic population growth rate
The minimum and maximum harvesting methods both have some similarities in terms of types of
variables used as the basis of calculation, namely population size (N t) and carrying capacity (K). The
fundamental difference between the two methods lies in the amount of harvests where maximum
harvesting method would produce a greater number of harvests when compared with the minimum
harvesting method. From the perspective of size of harvest, the minimum harvest method can be
termed “minimalist method”, whereas the maximum harvest method can be termed “maximalist
method”. The maximalist method requires the use of accurate confirmation of the growth rate that
must reach maximum (r max). Some researchers (Sinclair 1994; Lavieren 1994 in Kusmardiastuti
2010; Riffle, S K & Don White, Jrd 2009) found that maximum growth rate began when Nt reached ½
K.
From the perspective of sustainability, empirically it can be shown that both methods would
produce sustainable harvests. Using the minimalist method, population size after harvest will be the
value of K with the expected growth rate equal to zero. As with maximalist method, the size of
265
harvested populations is close to ½ K but with maximum growth rate. The main obstacle to the use of
both methods is the calculation of the value of K.
So far there are three approaches that can be used to calculate the value of K, i.e.:
௉೔
1.
K=
2.
K =
3.
K=
Where:
஼೔
௅೓
ெ஽஺
ேభ ሺଶேబ ேమ ିேబ ேభ ିேభ ேమ ሻ
ேబ ேమ ିேభ మ
K
= habitat carrying capacity (number of individual/year)
Pi
= feed productivity of ith species
Ci
= feed consumption of ith species
Lh
= total available habitat (ha)
MDA = minimum dynamic area
Nt
= size of population on tth year
The first method (K =
௉೔
஼೔
) was based on the ability of land to produce a certain amount of feed
and then compared to the level of requirement/average consumption of feed for each individual
animal. For herbivore species with feed less than 3 types, feed productivity estimation of the 3 types
of feed and the consumption rate are relatively uncomplicated. However, for most herbivores (or
omnivores), their diet regime comprised of more than 3 types and for some, reaches up to 23 types
(for example, long-tailed macaque as observed by Kartono, 2004). For category of animals with such
great food regime, the estimation of K value would certainly be difficult. Not to mention the variety of
food productivity due to the diversity of physical and biotic habitat characteristics (season, soil type,
topography, vegetation composition, etc.). Similarly is the high variation in the estimation of
consumption as a result of variation in sex, morphometry size, age class and inter-and intra-individual
variability of the animals.
Santosa and Hendra (2010) states that the estimation of K value using the second methods (K =
௅೓
ெ஽஺
) requires an accurate information about the total area of habitat suitable for the animal
population under study, and the total accumulative area required by the animal population to perform
all types of activities (eating, sleeping, moving, mating, resting, etc.). Various research topics on
spatial habitat modelling using GIS technology have been conducted (examples Bos javanicus by
Rekyanto
et al 2010; Rhinos by Rahmat et al 2012 and Tiger by Priatna et al 2012, etc.) thus
information on suitable area would be relatively easy to obtain with greater validity. However,
information on the accumulated area or MDA (Minimum Dynamic Area) still seems difficult to obtain.
Some research on Spatial Analysis was still limited to “individual home ranges and limited period”
variables and their physical and biotic characteristics. While species home ranges frequently change
and vary according to internal factors (Crook et al. 1976; Auvray 1983; Gonzalez 1984; Schall 1985)
and external factors (Krebs and Davis 1978; Hudson 1985; Bianchet 1986; Cumming and Blake 1987).
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The influence of internal factors on the spatial utilization pattern has been widely studied. Bunnel
and Harestad (1983) conclude that the extent of home range is closely correlated with animal body
weight. Large-bodied animals will have larger home ranges than small-bodied animals. Furthermore,
Georgii (1980), Auvray (1983), Schall (1985) and Dubois (1989) state that male wild goat and deer
have wider home ranges than the females. Gautier (1982), Kamil and Yoerg (1982), Howard (1986)
state that early experience and increase of age/experience are factors that influence the spatial
utilization pattern. The total area of home range increased with age class until sub-adults age class
and decreased until adult age class. In the group of mammals that have hierarchy, status/ social role
are significantly influencing the strategies for spatial utilization. Individuals with low social status can
only use a low quality of space (Bouissou and Signoret 1970; Geist 1971 and van Horne 1983).
The followings are some of results of research on the influence of external factors on the extent
of home range. Cibien (1984) and Maublanc (1986) find that vegetation structure is significantly
affecting the total area of home range, where they found that areas in agrosystem provide wider
home range than in forests with dense vegetation. Delaunay (1982), Trimaille (1985) and Vincent et
al (1986) state that an increase in population density is often followed by a broad decline in home
ranges of mouse deer populations. Direction and wind speed influence the spatial distribution and
movement of wild/mountain goat. During heavy wind, the goats will use the valley area alone
(Cruveille and Tuffery , 1981; Auvray 1983 and Gonzalez 1984).
Thus it is clear that prediction of K value using the “K =
௅೓
ெ஽஺
” method is constrained by the
limited information on the minimum dynamic area for a population. The influences of both the internal
and external factors on home range area required researchers to conduct research on different
individuals of different ages and sex, and represent a variety of physical/biotic habitat characteristics.
Unlike the previous two methods, the “K =
ேభ ሺଶேబ ேమ ିேబ ேభ ିேభ ேమ ሻ
ேబ ேమ ିேభ మ
” method only required data on
population growth size for 3 consecutive years. This mathematical approach was based on the
assumption that population growth rate would reach zero when population size reached its carrying
capacity (K). The main obstacle for obtaining these data is the unavailability of accurate inventory
method for each type of wildlife. Santosa (2006) concludes that animal inventory method is different
from plants inventory, since animal inventories are “species-specific” (not universal) in nature. Not to
mention the data retrieval process, where the diversity of motivations and the ability and experience
of the observers would determine the quality of the retrieved inventory data (Garel et al, 2005).
From the description above it can be concluded that the method for calculating sustainable
harvest quotas, namely the “minimum harvesting method” and “maximum harvesting method” were
relatively difficult to meet, especially to achieve the K value. Another alternative is “difference of MVP
method” which does not require the calculation/estimation of the value of K. The “difference of MVP
method” demands information about the minimum viable population size (MVP) for each age class and
sex. Minimum Viable Population (MVP) is the minimum number of individuals required to maintain the
survival of a species (Shaffer 1981). MPV is the smallest size of an isolated population in a particular
habitat, which has a 99% chance of survival for 1,000 years, in the midst of disaster risk posed by
certain factors, including random chance of environmental change, genetic and natural disasters. The
267
term MVP is likely the chance of survival of a species that can be maintained above a certain size.
Hence, MPV is an approach that allows for a quantitative estimation of the number of individuals
needed to preserve a species (Shaffer 1981).
Age determination of wildlife in natural habitat for each “cohort” is still an important issue in the
field. Some morphological characteristics (body size, fur colour/hair, horn/antler, etc.) only allow
differentiation to be made up to age classes (children, youth, adults and the elderly). Further data
about the chances of survival/mortality and fecundity (allegedly by the number of infants born to each
female parent) must be obtained through monitoring demographic parameters in time-series on a
variety of different populations and different types of habitat. At the early stage of the study,
literatures can be used to obtain initial information about both types of demographic data. In addition,
MVP for each age class can be obtained using the following formula.
Fxm. Xm + Fxd. Xd – mb. Xb + ma. Xa + mm. Xm + δmd.Xd = Nt –Fxm. Xm + Fxd. Xd +
δb. Xb) + (Pxb. Xb + δa. Xa) + (Pxa. Xa + δm. Xm )+ (Pxm. Xm + δd. Xd)
Note:
Nt = population size on year-t
Fxm = fecundity of young age
Xm = number of young individual
class
Xm = number of young individuals
δmd = proportion of adult mortality
δb = proportion of infants
Fxd = fecundity on adult age class
Pxb = infant life survival
Xd = number of adult individuals with maximum
δa = proportion of infants
ability to give birth
Pxa= juvenile life survival
mb = mortality of juvenile age class
δm = proportion of young
Xb = number of juvenile individuals
Pxm = young life survival
ma = mortality of infant age class
δd = proportion of adults
Xa = number of infant individuals
mm= mortality in young age class
The advantages of Difference in MPV method compared to the other two methods are its
relatively easy to use, meaning easy to obtain data for the constituent variables, and that sustainable
harvesting quota is not only the total number of individuals but can be specified to each age-class for
each sex. These details will certainly facilitate the implementation of harvesting on the field. Moreover,
the value of MVP is relatively more constant when compared to the value of carrying capacity (K),
which is estimated to be very sensitive to changes in both the internal factors of the animal itself and
the external factors of the environment.
IV. CONCLUSION
1.
Wildlife harvesting of certain population (sex and specific age class) in any natural population
regardless of the status of the area must be performed.
2.
The use of Nt- MVP (Difference in MPV Method) formula was assessed to be the best approach in
the calculation of sustainable harvesting quota.
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3.
Estimation and monitoring of wildlife population demographics parameter in time-series is
absolutely necessary, both in determining the status of a population and for determination of
sustainable harvesting quotas.
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Policy Analysis of Forest Management in Order to Optimize Economic and
Ecological Function of Land Resources in The Catchment Area of Lake
Tondano1
Hengki Djemie Walangitan2
ABSTRACT
Preservation of lake ecosystem and increasing productivity of dry land of Lake Tondano catchment
area is a form of socio-economic and ecological conflict in the use of land resources. Therefore, a land
allocation planning is required to achieve optimum sustainable land use systems. The objective of this
paper was to (1) to analyze the optimal allocation of land use in order to ensure sustainable land use
in the catchment of lake Tondano, (2) to evaluate of forest management policy to optimization of
ecological and economic function of land resources. The soil erosion was evaluated using USLE model.
The farming analysis was carried out to evaluate agricultural income and employment. The analysis on
optimal land use allocation was performed using goal
programming and post optimal Analysis was
carried out to evaluate of impact of forest management policy. The results showed that the target of
providing employment for farmers and farm workers as well as ensuring the objectives of minimum
forest areas it can be achieved even exceed the targets set in all scenarios priorities. Otherwise target
farm income that is able to meet the needs of decent living and erosion control can not be achieved
on all priority scenario.
Solutions that can be done to improve the economic and environmental
are the development of Aren plant (Arenga
pinnata) in the forest protected areas as well as improved agroforestry, which contributed significantly
benefits of land resources of the catchment areas
in increasing the income, employment, and erosion control.
Keyword : goal programming, post optimal, land use allocation, scenarios priorities.
I.
INTRODUCTION
TONDANO watershed ecosystem has a vital and strategic role for the economy of the region.
Economic and ecological functions have contributed to economic growth in North Sulawesi Province
through the tangible and intangible benefits. The tangible benefits include the potential contribution of
agricultural land and environmental services from the utilization of the Lake Tondano outlet stream as
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and
SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Departement of Forestry, Faculty of Agriculture, Sam Ratulangi University,
Email: [email protected]
273
hydroelectric power (hydropower) plant that generates power equal to 51.38 MW, the production of
freshwater fish in the Lake Tondano with a potential of 60-180 kg.ha–1.year–1, the irrigation of rice
field of approximately 8000 ha, and the use for drinking water. While the indirect benefits are the ecotourism value of the lake and the lake function as flood control for the city of Manado.
Land use conflicts in Lake Tondano catchment area are associated with the preservation of lake
ecosystems where erosion and sedimentation rate is high and the will to improve farmers' welfare and
income, to attain food security, and to provide jobs. Therefore, a land allocation planning is required
to achieve optimum sustainable land use systems.
Sustainable land use is a dynamic concept that involves complex interactions of biological,
physical, and socio-economical factors and requires a comprehensive approach to improving existing
systems and develops a new, more sustainable system. In order to achieve a sustainable land use at
least four indicators must be met namely : farm income to provide for a decent living for farm
households, provide more agricultural employment, less erosion than the tolerated erosion (Sullivan,
2005), and ensuring forest area with generously proportioned as an important component of
watershed ecosystem ( Gaetano, 2010., Ceyhan, 2010).
Optimal allocation of land use is an activity to improve the efficiency of land use types by
specifying the appropriate use of land (Y. Zhang, et al., 2012). Optimization model that can be
employed for planning to achieve multiple targets is a goal programming (Soemarno, 2004). This
method is widely applied in farm planning such as for farm crop pattern, the pattern of optimal
combination of crop and land use ( Rauf, 2005., Sharma, et al., 2007.,
Ibrahim, 2011),
land
allocation planning for the purpose of watershed landscaping (Soemarno, 1991., Rusdiana and
Ghufrona, 2011), and forest harvest scheduling (Hotvedt, 1983). This method is efficient tool for
integrating ecological and socio economic information to explore the possibilities for a sustainable
agriculture (Ibrahim, 2011), and as an analytical tool used the development of policy( Laborte, et al.,
1999).
This paper aims to describe the optimal allocation models of land use and to quantify the
potential role of biodiversity in the protected forest area using goal programming as a multi objective
linear programming (MOLP) procedure. The results of this study useful in formulating forest
management policy in order to improve the economic and ecological benefits of land resources in the
catchment area of lake Tondano.
II. Research Methods
A.
Study Area and Data
The research was carried out in the catchment area (DTA) lake Tondano Tondano Minahasa
region of North Sulawesi Province. Geographically, the study area lies between 10 06 '- 10 20' N and
1240 45 '- 1240 58' East Longitude, located at an altitude of 700-1000 meters above sea level (masl)
to the area of 18 466.95 ha. Based on public administration study area covers 9 districts which
consists of 69 villages. The study area is divided into three sub catchment area namely:
East,
Western and Southern sub Lake watershed.
The tools used in this study include the computer with the operating system MS Windows XP MS
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Office especially Excel for data analysis, ArcView GIS 3.2 for analysis of land capability class and
QMwin32 Program version 2.0 for analysis of land use allocation optimization. Maps were used
including, soil, slope and land use maps obtained in 2009 from BPDAS Tondano, and socio-economic
characteristic of the data including county statistics, 2010, Village statistics 2011, survey data and
farm income.
B. Model and Analysis Techniques
Analysis of the Land Unit
In this study land units based on slope class, land use and soil type. Furthermore overlay map
land units with land capability zoning map to identify the types of land use in each zone.
Farming Analysis on Major Land Use Types
Farming analysis on each type of land use was emphasized in three variables: farming
acceptance, cost, and income including the number of labor allocated in the farming. The farming
analysis was done by two approaches: (1) input–output data obtained from interviews to respondent
farmers on the type of land use being sought and (2) input–output data obtained from previous
researches and interviews with agricultural field tutors in the study region as a comparison.
Soil Erosion Prediction in each Type of Land Use
Tolerable soil loss (TSL) due to erosion in each type of land use was calculated using equation
(1) (Arsyad, 2010):
TSL
DE u Fd
u BD u10 ……………(1)
T
where TSL is the tolerable soil loss (ton.ha–1.year–1), DE is the effective soil depth factor (mm), Fd
is soil depth factor (according to Sub Order of soil), T is resources life (year) (for conservation
purposes 400 years), and BD is bulk density (g/cm3).
The amount of erosion was estimated by calculating the average annual soil loss from land use type
calculated by the Lost Universal Soil Equation (USLE) using equation (2) (Goldman et al., 1996).
A R u K u LS u C u P ……………….(2)
A is soil loss (ton.ha–1.year–1), R is rainfall erosion index, K is soil erodibility factor, LS
is slope length and steepness factor, C is vegetation cover factor, and P is erosion control practice
where
factor.
Analysis of Income Levels to Support the Needs of Decent Living (KHL) and the
Absorption of Labor
The threshold value for food sufficiency level of household expenses in rural areas is equivalent
to the rice exchange rate ranged between 240-320 kg (Monde et al., 2008) Therefore, income levels
can support the needs of decent living (KHL) for farmers and farm workers, used in this study was
320 kg/person/year × the price of rice (IDR/kg) × number of family members (persons/ household) ×
2.5. In this study the amount of farm income to meet the needs of decent living is IRD 15.18 millions
275
for every farmer and farm worker households per year.
The amount of labor in farming that is measured from the number of labor required for tillage,
crop maintenance, and harvesting is expressed in adult male workday amount (AMWA) unit
(Soemarno, 1991). The assumptions in this calculation were: (1) working age 15-64 years old, (2) the
proportion of farmers and farm workers based on PODES data in 2008, and (3) the adult female was
equivalent to 0.75 AMWA.
Optimization Analysis of Land Use
The land use types included in the optimization model were (1) annual crop field, (2) rice
paddies, (3) residential, (4) mixed farm, and (5) forest. The types of land use were defined as the
optimal activity according to the suitability of land capability zone and presented in Table 1
Analysis of the optimal allocation of land use with goal programming.
Setting of goals / targets
Target optimization of land use in the study of multi-functional land described in the DTA area
consisting of 2 (two) target socio-economic aspects (income and agricultural employment) and the 2
(two) target ecological aspects (the rate of erosion and the conservation of protected areas ).
Target optimal allocation of land use shall be as follows:
1. The combination of land use on soil erosion resulting DTA does not exceed the erosion that can be
tolerated (Tolerable Soil Loss / TSL).
2. Combination of land uses generate farm income that can meet the needs of decent living (KHL) for
farm households and farm workers.
3. The combination of land use that can provide employment for farm households and farm workers,
4. The combination of land use in the DTA can guarantee a minimum forest area covering 1014 ha
of protected forest areas, namely (HL) in the catchment area under forest land-use map of North
Sulawesi.
Fourth goals of the above is considered to have the same importance weight, but the analysis will
be made simulations with different priorities scenario.
Tabel 1. Notation of land use type as the optimal activity according to land capability zone in Lake
Tondano
Land Capability Class
(variable i)
(i)
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activity (variable j)
I
X11
rice
paddies
(X2)
X12
II
X21
X22
X23
III
X31
X32
X33
-
-
IV
X41
X42
X43
X44
-
V
X51
X52
X53
X54
-
annual crop
field (X1)
residential
(X3)
mixed farm
(X4)
forest
(X5)
X13
-
-
-
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Land Capability Class
(variable i)
(i)
activity (variable j)
VI
X61
rice
paddies
(X2)
-
X63
X64
X65
VII
-
-
-
X74
X75
VIII
-
-
-
-
X85
annual crop
field (X1)
residential
(X3)
mixed farm
(X4)
forest
(X5)
Model formulation
Goal programming models expressed in the form of equation 3, namely: objective constraint
equations, functional equations constraints and objective function equation. Goal programming model
structure refers to the procedures presented Soemarno (1991) and Render et al. (2006) as follows:
1). Constraint-Goal
a. Goal – constraint Soil erosion control equation:
Σ X i j + e i j -d 1 - - d 1 + = E .............................. (3)
The aim of minimizing d 1 +
where,
e i j : estimation value erosion that occurs on land use activity i on land
capability class j (ton ha-1 year-1).
X i j : broad (ha) allocated to land use activity i on land capability class j.
E : Target erosion that can be tolerated on the whole catchment area,
in tonnes year-1
b. Goal /constraints of minimum forest area
Xij + d 2 - = H ........................... (4)
Objective: minimize d 2 where,
H: target minimum area the protected forest in the catchment area
X i j : the total area (ha) allocated for forest land use on land capability class j.
c. Goal/constraint of farming income.
Σ X i j + P i j -d 3 - - d 3 + = P.R ............................. (5)
Objective: minimize the d 3 where,
P i j : farm income resulting land use activity i on land capability class j (IDR ha-1
year-1).
X i j : broad (ha) allocated to land use activity i on land capability class j.
P: Target average farm income (Rs ha-1 year-1) capable of meeting the needs
of decent living (KHL) for farm households and farm workers.
R: The number of farm households and farm workers in the catchment area
d. Goal/constraints of the maximum amount of agricultural labor
∑ tij Xij + d4- - d4+ = T
………………………..
Objective: Minimize the d4-
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(6)
tIJ: manpower needed on land use activity i on land capability class j (Mandays ha-1 year-1).
Xij: the total area (ha) allocated to land use activity i on land capability class j.
T: target agricultural labor (Mandays year-1) in the catchment area is the labor of farmers and farm
workers aged 15-64 years were expressed in equivalent units adult full time working days (AFTWDs)
(Soemarno, 1991).
2). Real constraint equations
a. Constraints of total catchment area:
∑ Xij = X ............................. (7)
where,
Xij = activity land use i on land capability class j.
X = is the total catchment area lakes Tondano (ha)
b. Constraints area of each land capability class as presented in Table 1.
3). Objective function equation
General form of goal programming model can be expressed as
௡
ି ା
‫ ࢆܖܑۻ‬ൌ ෍ ࡼା࢏࢐ ࢊି࢏࢐ ൅ ࡼ࢏࢐
ࢊ࢏࢐ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺͺሻ
௜ୀଵ
Subject to :
࢓
ሺ࢕࢈࢐ࢋࢉ࢚࢏࢜ࢋࢉ࢕࢔࢙࢚࢘ࢇ࢏࢔࢚ሻ෍ ࢇ࢏࢐ࢄ࢏࢐ ൅ ࢊି࢏ െ ࢊା࢏ ൌ ࢈૚ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ǥ ሺૢሻ
࢐ୀ૚
for J = 1, 2, . . . . m goals
and : X j , ࢊି࢏ , ࢊା૚ ൒ 0
ࢊି࢏ ǡ ࢊା࢏ = 0
Where : Z is objective function, ݀௜ି †ƒ݀௜ା vectors of positive and negative deviations from
the goal target levels (b), Pi is the preemptive factor/priority level assigned to each relevant goal in
rank order (i.e. P1 > P2 > . Pn), , The xij represents the decision variables, aij represents the decision
variable coefficients.
The assumptions used in the model of optimal allocation of land use are as follows: (1) the static
model, does not account for time horizon. (2) the calculation of farm income does not take into
consideration aspects of accessibility. (3) in the calculation of annual crops farm productivity is
assumed that productivity is affected by land capability class. Productivity of dry land in capability
classes I to V are assumed equal and the land capability classes VI productivity was reduced by 10%,
(4) agricultural labor is the percentage of farmers and farm workers aged 15-64 years, and (5) the
agricultural workforce is resident living in the catchment area of lake ondano and avoid migration from
outside the watershed.
Results of analysis of land use allocation with goal programming, assumed as a basis optimal
solutions, ie solutions to determine the extent of use of land resources potential based on land and
agricultural labor.
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Sensitivity analysis and its implications for policy development.
Forest management policy directives developed from the optimal solution obtained from the
analysis of goal programming. According to Render et al. (2006) sensitivity analysis of the model aims
to determine the implications of the optimal solution obtained before the solution is implemented.
Sensitivity analysis is done in a way that are (1) assess the contribution of each variable to the
achievement of expected goals, by conducting changes in coefficient value the variable activity (2)
assessing the effects of changes in technology coefficient, (3) assess changes in resource availability
or objectives set.
In this study the sensitivity analysis performed on multiple targets (RHS), namely : (1) the value
of the target erosion, which will simulate the implications of the model solution to the achievement of
the target when the value of land erosion RHS tightened or loosened to Tondano lake sedimentation
control purposes, (2) the value of broad goals forest area, which will be simulated implications of
forest area change on the model and the optimal solution set achievement targets. (3) changes in the
value of output coefficients farm income by utilizing the potential of the existing biodiversity in forests.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A.
Description of land capability class of the catchment area lake Tondano
Results of the spatial analysis of land capability class of catchment area lake Tondano presented
in appendix table 1, and appendix figure 1. From appendix Table 1, it can be seen that catchment
area of lake Tondano has eight land capability classes are divided into 12 sub-classes and distributed
in 42 units of land. The data area of each land capability class as follows: class I
2 041.13 ha
capability (11:05%), class II land area of 348.35 ha (1.89%), class III land area of 681.27 5 ha
(30.76%), class IV land of 7 107.37 ha (38.49%), class V land area of 475.23 ha (2.57%) class VI
land of 957.98 ha (5, 19%), class VII land area of 1 125.2 ha (6.09%) and category VIII area of
730.58 ha (3.96%).
B. Present land use
Actual conditions of land use in the study area based on data from Landsat imagery
interpretation from BP DAS Tondano are presented in Table 2, which shows that the most dominant
land use were paddy field, arable upland and mixed estate. Furthermore, based on analysis of the
land unit, data showed that the dominant type of land use in class I to class V was the annual dryland
crop, paddy fields and settlements. While on a classes VI – VIII, the dominant types of land use was
mixed estate and forests (primary and secondary forest).
279
Table 2. Actual land use type in the catchment area of Lake Tondano
No.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Land Use Type
Primary forest
Secondary forest
Mixed estate
Residential
Arable upland
Paddy field
Bush
Total
Area (ha)
462.42
988.03
3073.21
1536.10
4509.66
7750.83
146.70
18466.95
Percentage (%)
2.50
5.35
16.64
8.32
24.42
41.97
0.79
100.00
Source : Walangitan 2012
C. Amount of erosion in each land use activity and the tolerable sil loss (TSL)
Calculation of the TSL used the soil type data of Puslittanak Bogor that showed that the effective
average soil depth in sub watersheds of Lake Tondano is 1500 mm, the soil sub order is Udands with
value 1.00, land use age of 400 years, and soil volume weight (bulk density) 1.24 (g/cm3). The
accepted TSL was 40.125 tons.ha–1.year–1.
Results on erosion prediction generated in each type of land use showed that the type of mixed
farm and annual crop on steep to very steep slopes produced the highest erosion >500 tons.ha–
1
.year–1. Further erosion of the target value that can be tolerated (TSL) by the results of the analysis
with equation (1) is 40 tons.ha–1.year–1 and thereby target erosion for the watershed is 738 678 ton
year–1. This value is included in the category of high tolerance (JICA 2001). For the purpose of
controlling sedimentation in the lake Tondano, a value of TSL for 12-25 tons.ha–1.year–1 was used.
Thus the erosion of the target on average in the entire watershed area is expected to not exceed the
value of 221 603 - 738 687 tons.year–1.
Value of Living Needs (KHL) and the Income of Each Land Use Type
a) Income to meet the decent living needs
Decent life needs (KHL) is a measure of income of the farmers who are capable of financing nonagricultural needs including clothing, education, housing, health, social and religious, recreational
activities, and savings. The calculated KHL value per farmer household was IDR 17.6 millions and the
value of the entire targeted study area was IDR 431 742.08 millions.
b) Farming income in each type of land use
Annual Crop Farming (X1)
Annual crop farming is the most extensive land use with variety types of cropping patterns and
productivity. This type of land use spreads from land capability class I through class VI. The most
dominant crops are corn, peanuts, beans, tomatoes, carrots, and peppers. The survey revealed that
about 80% of farmers in Lake Tondano catchment area cultivate corn as the main with the most
extensive cropping patterns as follows:
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corn - fallow - corn (Jg - fallow - Jg) about 70%;
corn - fallow - tomatoes (Jg - fallow - Tm) of approximately 20%; and
corn - fallow - peanuts (Jg - fallow - Kt) of approximately 10%.
The income from pattern (1) was IDR 14.145 millions.ha–1. year–1, from pattern (2) was IDR 26
millions. ha–1.year–1 and from pattern (3) was IDR 14.177 millions. ha–1.year–1.
Additional income source available was from cattle during the fallow interval costing an estimated
IDR 1.5 million per cattle for four months that contributed in the increase of farmer income of about
IDR 7.5 millions.ha–1.year–1. Therefore, the revenue of annual cropping was amounting to IDR 18.019
millions.ha–1.year–1 (which was greater than KHL). For an additional of five cattle then the income
would be IDR 23.961 millions.ha–1.year–1.
Rice paddies (X2)
There was relatively no variation in the income from rice farming activity in the catchment area
Lake Tondano. Cropping pattern of rice – fallow – rice was the common one. The farm income with
the general input applied was netted at IDR 17.054 millions.ha–1. Thus, the income from rice pattern
with twice cropping per year was IDR 34.108 millions.ha–1. year–1.
Residential (X3)
In residential area the land is artificially blocked by manmade objects such as houses, roads, and
other buildings. Included in this use is the use of land as a family garden to plant a "living kitchen or
living pharmacy" which consists of various kinds of vegetables, food and fruits and medicinal plants.
The contribution of the garden products to the farmer income was difficult to measure. For simplicity
it was assumed to be 2.5% of the maximum income from annual cropping (i.e. IDR 5.5 millions. ha–
1
.year–1) due to the fact that farmers use their garden to plant vegetables.
Mixed Farming (X4)
Income from this type of farming was calculated with some assumptions developed from the
survey results as follows:
-
Production of corn crops ranged between 0.5 – 1 ton.ha–1 with revenue of approximately IDR 1.4
million per harvest or about IDR 2.8 millions.ha–1.year–1.
-
Production of cloves per hectare currently topped to a maximum of 200 kg.ha –1 at a production
cost of IDR 8.855 millions. The revenue using the average price IDR 60,000 kg–1 was IDR 12
millions. Therefore, the total income was IDR 3.145 millions.ha–1.year–1.
-
Most farmers use firewood for cooking. In average a farmer household needs about 10-15
(bundles) of wood per week(JICA-RRL, 2001). The availability of wood in mixed farming was high.
Most farmers take firewood from mixed farms based on the assumption that the revenue
generated from mixed farms = IDR 2.08 millions.year–1 (52 weeks × 10 bundles of firewood per
week × IDR 4000 per bundle).
Based on the above description, the income of the farmer obtained farm mixed farming was IDR
8.761 millions.ha–1 year–1.
281
Forest (X5)
Aren (Arenga pinnata) is an important crop in the catchment area Lake Tondano. This plant
grows well in most areas. Farmers are allowed to exploit non-timber products from forests, especially
palm trees to produce palm sugar and alcohol. The farmer income from producing sugar and alcohol
from 5 to 10 trees is about IDR 2.0 to 3.0 million per month. It is assumed that a family of two
working labors could manage some two hectares of forest area. The estimated revenue from the palm
tree business was IDR 6.0 millions.ha–1.year–1.
c). Agricultural job opportunities
Constraints in agricultural labor supply were calculated from demographic data of Lake Tondano
catchment area. The data included population number of productive age (15-64 years old),
percentage of farm households and farm workers, and wage adjustments for men and women labors.
The calculation of the number of farm labor supply used a model approach by Soemarno (1991).
The target of agricultural labor ranged from 12,501,934.76 adult full time working days
(AFTWDs) to14,410,837.86 AFTWDs. Details of the model input of goal programming coefficients are
presented in Table 3.
The coefficient of each activity in Table 3, was substituted in the input-output matrix model and
analyzed using QMwin32 version 2.0. The results were assumed as the optimal solution in determining
the land use level based on the land potential and available labor.
The optimal solution to the various priority target scenarios
Based on the results of the analysis of twenty-five types of land use activities by four goals to be
achieved, optimal solutions obtained for land allocation are presented in Table 4. Each target was
assumed to have equal weight in the analysis made scenario but with different priorities.
Tabel 3. Input coefficients for the analysis of optimal land use in the catcment area of Lake
Tondano
Variable
(land use type activities
according to )
X11
282
1.37
Income
(millions.ha–1. year–
1
)
23.961
Workforce
Employment
(AFTWD.ha–1. year–1)
296
X12
0.08
34.108
272
X13
1,37
5.5
45
X21
2,38
23.961
296
X22
0.02
34.108
272
X23
5,40
5.5
45
X31
36,99
23.961
296
X32
0.66
34.108
272
X33
1.75
5.5
45
X41
36,99
23.961
296
Erosion
( ton.ha–1. year–1)
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Variable
(land use type activities
according to )
X42
0.66
Income
(millions.ha–1. year–
1
)
34.108
Workforce
Employment
(AFTWD.ha–1. year–1)
272
X43
1.18
5.5
45
X44
8,83
8.025
192.6
X51
36,99
23.961
296
X52
0,66
34.108
272
X53
1,75
5.5
45
X54
8,38
8.025
192.6
X61
556.06
12.735
190
X63
77,9
5.5
45
X64
213,87
8.025
192.6
X65
14,43
6.0
162
X74
427,74
8.025
192.6
X75
4,2
6.0
162
X85
4,2
6.0
162
Erosion
( ton.ha–1. year–1)
Tabel 4. The results of analysis of the optimal allocation of land use according to priority target
Activity (Land Use Type)
(ha)
283
Optimal Land Allocation (ha) According to the Target Priority
P1
P2
P3
P4
X11
2 041.13
0
0
0
X12
0
853.38
1 811.36
1 055.27
X13
0
1 187.35
229.77
985.85
X21
348.35
0
0
0
X22
0
0
0
0
X23
0
348.35
348.35
X31
3 501.71
0
5 681.27
0
X32
2 179.56
5 681.27
0
5 681.31
X33
0
0
0
0
X41
0
5 692.13
1 167.9
6 568.31
X42
5 571.27
740.95
5 939.47
539.05
X43
1 536.1
0
0
0
X44
0
670.95
0
0
X51
475.23
0
475.23
0
X52
0
475.23
0
475.23
348.35
Activity (Land Use Type)
(ha)
SOURCE
Optimal Land Allocation (ha) According to the Target Priority
P1
P2
P3
P4
X53
0
0
0
0
X54
0
0
0
0
X61
957.97
401.23
0
756.08
X63
0
0
957.97
201.89
X64
0
556.75
0
0
X65
0
0
0
0
X74
102.93
394.62
394.62
111.2
X75
291.68
0
0
283.42
730.58
730.58
730.58
730.58
X85
: WALANGITAN, 2012
Tabel 5. Details of target achievement level optimal allocation of land use according to priority
Target variables
TSL
(ton. ha–1 year–1)
Income that meet KHL (IDR
millions year–1)
Maximum workforce
(AFTWD. year–1)
Minimum area of forest
cover (ha)
Target
value
738 670
43 1742.1
14 410 840
1014
Target Achievement According to the Scenario
P1
P2
P3
P4
0
0.0625
214 997.81
0.062
(0)
(-0.00)
(-29.11)
(+0.00)
12 777.09
0.0625
24 122
15 060.28
(+2.96)
(- 0.00)
(+5.58)
(+3.72)
9 981 581
10 040 929
9 871 109
9 959 928
(-69.26)
(-69.67)
(-68.49)
(-69.11)
8.26
283.23
283.42
0
(+0.81)
(-23.51 %)
(-27.95)
(0)
Description: P1 = priority target of erosion at least equals to TSL, P2 = priority target of farm
income to meet KHL, P3 = priority target of maximum supply of agricultural labor, P4 = priority target
of minimum area of forest cover in the catchment area. The numbers in bracket () are % deviation
from the target, a positive value is target not achieved, negative value is target not achieved the
target was exceeded, a zero value is achieved in accordance with the target value.
Table 4 and Table 5, shows that the P1 scenario shows that the commodity crops (corn and
vegetables), rice fields and forest products (plant sugar) as a commodity basis. With this scenario the
target incomes can be achieved with minimum deviation, whereas agricultural employment targets
exceeded by 69%, which means the availability of farm labor is not adequate to manage the potential
of existing land. This condition is relatively the same as the scenario P2, P3 and P4.
While the
scenario P3 crop commodities (corn and vegetables), rice and mixed farms as basic commodities.
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With this scenario soil erosion that occurs exceeded value that can be tolerated, which means that if
the employment is a priority will result in an increase in the rate of soil erosion exceeds TSL.
An important finding of this study was the minimum area of forest cover in all scenarios can be
achieved over the target without affecting other targets. It means that utilization of non-timber forest
products in a forest area can improve the optimization of the multiple benefit of land resources.
Implication of land use optimization on the forest policy management in the catchment
area of lake Tondano
The purpose of this sensitivity analysis is to evaluate the implications of which happened on the
management objective (multiple target) when the policy of reforestation and the development of the
sugar plant expanded in land capability class VII and class VIII, where the present land use is a mix of
garden and seasonal crops with an area of 1 885.78 ha. The analysis showed that if this scenario is
executed, the targets are exceeded forest area equal to (d-) 0.06%, simultaneously with the erosion
control objectives <TSL can be achieved as well as to target farm income are able to finance a decent
living needs for farmers and farm workers . This suggests that the target forest conservation with
income targets are not happened to trade off.
This was due to forest area in the watershed have socio-economic and ecological benefits are
very important. One of the potential biodiversity grows well in forest areas is Aren (Arenga pinnata).
The survey shows that about 40% of the villagers in the surrounding the forest utilize sugar plant
sugar as the main source of income. Sugar plant sap which then processed into sugar and alcohol
(cap tikus). Interviews showed that the income farm households in processing palm sugar is IDR 400
to750 thousand each week. This shows that the utilization of biodiversity can give a simultaneous
impact of watershed management namely: the forest conservation, erosion and sedimentation control,
providing employment and source of income for farmers and farm workers.
IV. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
1.
Limited agricultural labor in the catchment area of Lake Tondano allow forest area canbe
expanded through community forest policy. Community forest development strategy carried out
with a mixture of forest pattern is a tree with a combination of non-timber forest products in
order to multiple benefits of forest resources can be improved
2.
The function of forest conservation can be increased in line with increases in income to meet
KHL and erosion control, when the the potential biodiversity grows well in forest areas such as
palm trees, bamboo and other non-wood crops, and honey bee farming are intensified.
3.
The implication of the optimization model obtained from this study is the need to have strict
policies regarding land use conversion especially productive land for annual crops and rice
paddies. The role of land resource is very strategic to achieve sustainable agriculture as well as
contribute to control the rate of sedimentation in Lake Tondano.
4.
The research was limited only to agricultural resources related activities. Therefore, in the next
research we are to study the effects of activities related to non-agricultural sectors, such as
tourism and agricultural industry, to provide a complete optimal solution.
285
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Tailand. October, 13 – 17, 2003.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Adaptation Patternn of Proboscis Monkey…...
Hadi S. Alikodra & Reni Srimulyaningsih
Adaptation Pattern of Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus)
in Cajuput Swamp Forest1
Hadi S. Alikodra2 and Reni Srimulyaningsih2
ABSTRACT
The habitat of proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) are riverine and coastal forest, it was the most
threatened of all vegetation types in Borneo, which are conversion into agricultural land and logging.
Another threat to their survival is hunting. This study is the first research which try to focus on
adaptation pattern of proboscis monkey in cajuput swampy forest. The study shows habitat and
population of proboscis monkey and the conversion of cajuput habitat into agriculture and plantation.
The monkey was likely to be folivore, and based on IARF (individual activity records on feeding)
method, most of food was consisted of leaves (98,2%) and flowers (1,8%). However food plant
species and the percentage of food composition could change on some locations. The number of
population are 258 individual consist of 106 male and 78 female. It was distributed in 184 hectares
which is a group sizes is 4-51 individual. Protection of habitat and population are recomended for
sustainability survival of the proboscis
Keywords: Habitat, population, Proboscis monkey, Cajuputi, and swampy forest.
I. INTRODUCTION
Proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) are endemic to the island of Borneo. They are one of the
arboreal species (Payne et.al. 2000).They move between trees to find food (leaves, fruits or flowers).
Proboscis are able to adapt in changing habitat conditions, for example in rubber plantation
(Soendjoto 2005), in the gardens, in roof of houses, such as those in Kuala Samboja, East Kalimantan
(Alikodra 1997), in coconut plantation (Shaet al. 2008), in palm oil plantation (Boonratana 1999) or in
a polluted habitat and converted into ponds in Mahakam Estuaria(Atmokoet. al. 2007). Proboscis
monkey can also distributed in natural mangrove forest and cajuputiswampforest (Soendjoto 2005)
and dipterocarpaceae forest (Bennett &Gombek 1993).
Until now there isno informationon proboscis monkey studiesin the cajuputiswampyforest.
Scientific information on biology and ecology of these monkeys are needed and it is importanton
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor, Indonesia
[email protected]; [email protected]
289
protection of these species.The objectives of this study are to analyze the habitatand population of
proboscis monkey, and their adaptation to unsuitable condition.
II. METHODS
Data was collected from January to March 2013 on habitat and population of proboscis monkey
in canal swampy habitat, PT AntangGunungMeratus (AGM), Muning River and Puting River,
SuatoTatakan village, South Tapin district, South Kalimantan Province. The vegetation of swampy
habitat was dominated by cajuputi (Malaleucacajuputi), Due to the global warming, the dry and rainy
season isn’tclear, it was rainy condition on January to March 2013.
The objectives of habitat analysis are to determine structure and composition of vegetation in
order to support of habitat to sustainability of proboscis population, distributions and behavior.The
measured parameters were the number of species and diameter and tree height, vegetationprofile
and the habitat functions, the individual activities record of feeding (IARF), and nutrients composition
of vegetation feeding.
Data of vegetation collected based on vegetation analysis (Soerianegara&Indrawan, 1998).And
the proboscis observation such as population, movement and behaviour was used a canoe (the river
survey method) (Sha et. al. 2008). By a concentration observation, then we calculate the result of a
number, age structure, and sex ratio. The observation were carried out based on daily cencus, it was
starting from 06:00 am until 06.00 pm during 30 days.
III. RESULT AND DISSCUSSION
A. Habitat
The frequently habitat of proboscis monkey are mangrove forest, swamp peat forest, and
riverine forest(Alikodra 1997, Alikodra&Mustari 1994, Bennett 1988, Bennett & Sebastian 1988,
Bismark 1981, 1986, Boonratana 1994, 2000, Jeffrey 1979, Salter &Aken 1983, Salter et. at. l985,
Yeager 1991, and Yeager &Blondal 1992). However, inSouth Kalimantan Province proboscis monkey is
also distributed in swampy habitat of cajuput forest.
The result of of the number species in cajuputi forest were 26 species, it was dominated by
pulantan (Alstoniaangustiloba) between 126 indvidual/ha and 266 individual/ha. Both sides have a
different composition and density of species in seedling and sapling, which is dominated by A.
Angustilobain the left and mangobi (Decaspermumfruticosum) in the right of the canal.The seedling
composition dominated by kelakai (Stenochlaenapalutris), it was 60.588 individual/ha) in the left and
35.555 individual/ha in the right of the canal river.
The highest of the Importance Value Index (IVI) for trees, poles, saplings, and seedlingson the
left side of the canal areA. Angustiloba (248,87%), A. Angustiloba(196,86%), A. Angustiloba(70,32%)
and S. palutris (77,32%) (Table 1) and on the right side of the canal areA. Angustiloba(253,48%), D.
Fruticosum(130,71%), D. fruticosum(70,32%), and A. Angustiloba(77,32%) (Table 2). The significant
differences on IVI for both sides of canal was depend on the community activities on swampy habitat,
examples ladang, sawah, illegal logging, and oil palm plantation.
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Adaptation Patternn of Proboscis Monkey…...
Hadi S. Alikodra & Reni Srimulyaningsih
Table 1. The value of IVI for trees, pole, sapling, and seedling level on the left side of canal
Level
Trees
Local
Name
Scientific Name
RD (%)
RF (%)
RD (%)
IVI (%)
90,53
68,19
90,15
248,87
1,05
4,55
0,67
6,26
1,05
4,55
0,86
6,45
2,11
4,55
3,08
9,73
3,16
9,09
2,40
14,65
1,05
4,55
2,10
7,70
Kelakai
Alstonia angustiloba
Elaeocarpus glaber
Ilex cymosa
Comnaperma spesi
Combretocarpus rotundatus
Ficus binnendykii
Malaleuca cajuputi
Alstonia angustiloba
Decaspermum fruticosum
Elaeocarpus glaber
Comnaperma spesi
Malaleuca cajuputi
Alstonia angustiloba
Decaspermum fruticosum
Malaleuca cajuputi
Syzygium zeylanica
Alstonia angustiloba
Decaspermum fruticosum
Malaleuca cajuputi
Nephrolepis cordifolia
Scleria levis
Stenochlaena palutris
Jenis Z
-
Jungkal
Melastoma malabatricum
Jussieua erecta
Sporobolus diander
Uncaria scletophylla
Jussieua repens
Pulantan
Hapoak
Masira
Tarantang
Tumih
Kariwaya
Gelam
Pole
Pulantan
Mangobi
Hapoak
Tarantang
Gelam
Sapling
Pulantan
Mangobi
Gelam
Bati-Bati
Seedling
Pulantan
Undergrowth
Mangobi
Planting
Gelam
Paku
Tamparah
Karamunting
Pisangan
Umpai
Kait-Kait
Jenis B
1,05
4,55
0,75
6,35
71,02
50,01
75,84
196,86
14,49
22,73
12,40
49,62
10,15
13,64
8,51
32,29
2,90
9,09
2,60
14,59
1,45
4,55
0,66
6,65
23,64
46,69
-
70,32
18,18
26,68
-
44,86
54,55
13,34
-
67,88
3,64
13,34
-
16,98
1,38
8,16
-
9,55
0,11
2,04
-
2,15
0,74
2,04
-
2,79
14,88
12,25
-
27,12
24,34
18,37
-
42,71
43,78
26,53
-
70,32
0,21
2,04
-
2,25
0,53
4,08
-
4,61
0,43
4,08
-
4,51
9,67
6,12
-
15,79
1,91
2,04
-
3,95
1,17
10,21
-
11,37
0,85
2,04
-
2,89
RD (Relative Density), RF (Relative Frequency), RD (Realtive Dominance), IVI (Importance Value Index).
The cajuput swamp forest habitat is still support the existing proboscis monkey population, but it
have been a high risk to establishment the population and distribution in the future. It is understood
that regarding to increasing the population numbers of the villages community, it will be need more
conversion of habitat into agriculture and palm oil plantation. Conversion to paddy field usually occurs
during the dry season on Julyand August, they burn the vegetation for paddy field. They cut the
cajuputwood because it is a commercial wood for building, otherwise the cutting of cajuput trees are
economic profit oriented.
The total of cajuputi swampy habitat is 1.912hectares, which is 184 hectares (9,62%) still
effective support to a home range of proboscis monkey in research area.
291
While in this research that
found one of home range size of a group was 26to 90 hectares. For example one of range in a group
of proboscis monkey is shown in Figure1. Home range of proboscis habitat in Pulau Kaget between
30-75 hectares (Meijaard&Nijman 2000), Boonratana (1999) statethe home range of a focal one-male
group in Lower Kinabatangan was 220 hectares.
Figure 1. Home range of proboscis monkey in canal
Table 2. The value of IVI for trees, pole, sapling, and seedling level on the right side of canal
Level
Trees
Local
Name
Pulantan
Mangobi
Hapoak
Masira
Tarantang
Pole
Pulantan
Mangobi
Hapoak
Masira
Sapling
Pulantan
Mangobi
Masira
Gelam
Bati-Bati
Mahang
Seedling&
Hapoak
Undergrowth
Masira
Planting
Bati-Bati
Paku
292
Scientific Name
Alstonia angustiloba
Decaspermum fruticosum
Elaeocarpus glaber
Ilex cymosa
Comnaperma spesi
Alstonia angustiloba
Decaspermum fruticosum
Elaeocarpus glaber
Ilex cymosa
Alstonia angustiloba
Decaspermum fruticosum
Ilex cymosa
Malaleuca cajuputi
Syzygium zeylanica
Macaranga pruinosa
Elaeocarpus glaber
Ilex cymosa
Syzygium zeylanica
Nephrolepis cordifolia
RD (%)
RF (%)
RD (%)
IVI (%)
95,05
61,56
96,87
253,48
0,99
7,70
0,54
9,22
1,98
15,40
1,24
18,61
0,99
7,70
0,57
9,25
0,99
7,70
0,79
9,47
37,50
40,00
40,32
117,82
53,13
30,00
47,58
130,71
6,25
20,00
7,67
33,92
3,13
10,00
4,43
17,56
26,09
27,28
-
53,37
30,44
27,28
-
57,71
4,35
9,09
-
13,44
17,39
9,09
-
26,48
17,39
18,19
-
35,58
4,35
9,09
-
13,44
1,53
2,56
-
4,09
0,51
2,56
-
3,07
2,55
2,56
-
5,11
26,97
17,95
-
44,92
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Adaptation Patternn of Proboscis Monkey…...
Hadi S. Alikodra & Reni Srimulyaningsih
Local
Level
Scientific Name
RD (%)
RF (%)
RD (%)
IVI (%)
21,12
15,39
-
36,51
32,57
23,08
-
55,65
1,53
2,56
-
4,09
Jenis D
Scleria levis
Stenochlaena palutris
Lepidagathis javanica
Ficus sagittata
0,76
2,56
-
3,33
Jungkal
-
3,56
2,56
-
6,13
Loa
-
2,29
2,56
-
4,85
Mungu
0,51
2,56
-
3,07
Karamunting
Poikilospermum suaveolens
Melastoma malabatricum
1,53
5,13
-
6,66
Sawi Alang
-
0,76
2,56
-
3,33
Kait-Kait
Uncaria scletophylla
Dipteracanthus repens
2,80
12,82
-
15,62
1,02
2,56
-
3,58
Name
Tamparah
Kelakai
Jenis C
Jenis E
RD (Relative Density), RF (Relative Frequency), RD (Realtive Dominance), IVI (Importance Value Index).
B. Population
Based on daily cencus, we calculated the total number of proboscis monkey are 258 individual,
190 individual were distributed in the left side of canal and68 individualin the right side of the canal.
The agestructure was divided on three categories, which is adult(149 individual), sub adult (54
individual), juvenile (41 individual), and infant (14 individual). The sex ratio between male and female
was 1: 1,4 (Table 3).Average density per group is 3 individual/ha with the highest density of
14individual/haand the lowest (0,19) individual/ha.Average density in mangrove habitat in Kutai
National Park were 0,58individual/ha (Bismark 2002).
Table 3. Population of proboscis monkey in canal
Sex Ratio&Age Composition
Homerange
(ha)
I
J
KA 1
26,76
6
KA 2
90,07
Group
Male
Female
Total
Density
(Ind/ha)
SA
A
SA
A
9
4
8
8
16
51
2,00
0
2
0
11
1
3
17
0,00
6
11
4
19
9
19
68
Right Side
Total
Left Side
293
KI 1
5,78
0
1
1
1
2
5
10
2,00
KI 2
7,85
0
2
3
4
2
4
15
2,00
KI 3
14,46
0
0
2
4
2
2
10
1,00
KI 4
7,07
5
6
0
4
0
16
31
4,00
KI 5
6,46
0
1
0
1
1
2
5
1,00
KI 6
13,54
0
11
5
7
5
20
48
4,00
KI 7
6,50
2
5
3
4
2
4
20
3,00
KI 8
3,33
1
4
6
8
6
22
47
14,00
KI 9
3,02
0
0
1
1
0
2
4
1,00
Sex Ratio&Age Composition
Homerange
(ha)
Group
I
J
Total
8
Total of Population
14
Male
Female
Total
Density
(Ind/ha)
SA
A
SA
A
30
21
34
20
77
190
32,00
41
25
53
29
96
258
1,00
I (Infant), J (Juvenile), SA (Sub Adult), A (Adult)
The monkey population was distributed in 11 locations on the left and the right of the canal
habitat. The distribution of proboscis monkey side are9 locations in the left; KI 1 (km 15+50015+300), KI 2 (km 14+500-14+200), KI 3 (km 13+700-12+400), KI 4 (km 11+500-11+200), KI 5
(km 10+800-10+100), KI 6 (km 9+500-9+100), KI 7 (km 6+500-5+800), KI 8 (km 2+600-2+100),
and KI 9 (km 1+500-1+000) and onthe right 2 locations on KA 1 (km 15+300-14+300) and KA 2 (km
11+500-10+100) (Figure 2).
Figure 2. Distribution of proboscis monkey
C. Behavior
The average daily behavior of proboscis monkeys was dominated by eating (280 minutes),
moving (220 minutes), resting (190), and grooming (40 minutes) (Figure 3). Early in the morning at
6.00 am they arestarting for moving. The daily activities of proboscis monkey start moving from
sleeping tree to another tree for eating, resting, grooming and avoiding the threat or predator. Then
in the afternoon they will sleep on the tree that last tree they sit. While one group usually back to
permanent sleeping trees, such as KI 1. There are sevenbehaviorsit was observed are moving, eating,
resting, grooming, parenting, and current threat.
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Adaptation Patternn of Proboscis Monkey…...
Hadi S. Alikodra & Reni Srimulyaningsih
300
250
Minute
200
150
100
50
0
Moving
Eating
Resting
Groaming
Figure 3. Time budget of daily activity of proboscis monkey
a. Moving
Moving behavior consists ofclimbing trees, down from the trees, moving between trees,
jumping between trees, running and swimming. Jumping behavior of this monkey done from one tree
to another tree for looking feeding, and escape from predator or disturbed by peoples. This monkey
also jumping the tree to another tree and sleep in that tree.
Proboscis monkeys are primates who can swimbecause between the toes there are membrane
functionsto help animal for moving in water. During field observation, there are at least two
individuals were observed swimming across the canal, i.e the proboscis group of KI 2. According to
the local community information, proboscis monkey will more frequently swim in dry season to looking
for feeding sources, and then will back in afternoon at 17:00 pm.
b. Feeding Behavior
Feeding behavior is a major activity of proboscis (4,5 hours/day), while Bismark (1986) found
that duration of eating behaviorwas 3,6 hours, 41,2% performed in the morning, which is between of
07:00 am to 10:00 am. While Shalter et. al (1985) in some habitat of proboscis feeding behavior have
range 13,1% to 63,2% from its activities.
Feedingspecies of those monkeys areA. Angustiloba, M. cajuputi, D. Fruticosum,S. palutris,
rumputtamparah (Scleria levis),I.tiliaceae and flower of M.malabatricum. There are five types of
feeding based on information from local communitywhich are commonly eaten by the monkey;those
are kariwaya (Ficusbinnendykii), bati-bati (Syzygiumzeylanica), jambu burung (Syzygiumsp.),hapoak
(ElaeocarpusGlaber), and Masira (Ilex cymosa).Part of the feed is eaten in the form of leaves (98,2%)
and flowers (1,8%). This is same with Soendjoto et. al. (2005) who found that most of food was
consisted of leaves (80,9%) and flowers (11,3%). But in his reseach sometimes they also eat fruits
(6,77%) and barks (0,95%).
There are five ways of proboscis eating behaviors: (1) the monkey sits with two legs to take
leaves with both hands, then one of hand put it intothemouth, (2) directly take leaves with the mouth,
295
(3) take leaves by one of its hand, then put it into themouth, (4) take leaves by two hands, then put
into the mouth, (5) take the branch to choose young leaf, then put into the mouth by one hand.
Feeding behavior of proboscis as well as other habitatobserved by Bismark (1984, 1986), which
is sitting on a branch, then use two or one of hand to take leaves, then put it into the mouth. Function
of hands are to take leaves and to put leaves into the mouth (Napieret al. 1967).AlsoAlikodra et. al.
(1990)said that proboscis take leaves by hands, then put 1-3 pieces of leaves into themouth
respectively, and thenchewed. While Bismark (1994) explains that the leaf consumed by proboscis is
young leaffrom first to third of the top branches, flowers and fruit, which is taken directly bymouth or
by hands.
Proboscis monkey interest to material for diet that have high water content (59,06%). Bismark
(1987) said found in mangrove forest (68%), while Soendjoto (2005) explain in rubber forest
(20,59%). Beside that, proboscis monkey in cajuputi swamp forest more interest to high protein diet
M. cajuputi(6,08%), S. palutris(15,91%), A. angutiloba(13,59%), D.
fruticosum(10,85%), S. levis(6,03%), I. tiliaceae(13,34%) dan M. malabatricum(2, 93%). While
content,
such
as
Bismark (2002) said found of proboscis interest to diet that have high tanin.Nutrients composition of
proboscis monkey feeding can be seen in Table 3.
Table 3. Nutrients composition of proboscis monkey feeding in cajuputi swamp forest
Nutrients
Unit
Mc
Sp
Aa
Df
Sl
It
Water content
%
45,08
50,34
18,91
16,22
16,86
17,72
59,06
Ash
%
6,14
3,86
10,62
9,87
10,12
-
Protein
%
6,08
15,91
13,59
10,85
6,03
13,34
2,93
Rough Fiber
%
12,4
11,93
10,97
15,48
14,05
9,94
17,16
Fat
%
2,24
1,31
1,76
0,41
0,4
0,21
0,12
Phosphor (P)
Ppm
5,85
7,05
17,64
0,05
13,22
10,35
0,07
Potasium (K)
Ppm
0,85
0,26
0,41
292,01
0,11
0,18
295,5
Calcium (Ca)
Ppm
0,12
0,23
0,05
2242,54
0,05
0,09
4555,88
Natrium (Na)
Ppm
0,45
0,53
0,18
367,65
0,38
0,18
-
Ppm
0,22
0,066
0,09
294,93
0,11
0,13
Sulphur (S)
%
0,63
0,42
1,32
432
0,62
0,43
427
Ferro (Fe)
ppm
0,81
< 0,001
0,41
< 0,034
0,49
0,44
< 0,03
ppm
< 0,011
< 0,011
<0,011
0,989
< 0,011
< 0,011
Cuprum (Cu)
ppm
< 0,001
< 0,001
0,05
-
0,05
< 0,001
Zinc (Zn)
ppm
0,16
0,46
0,64
< 0,007
0,81
0,57
Magnesium
(Mg)
Manganese
(Mn)
Mm
307,41
7,83
9,40
Mc (Malaleuca cajuputi), Sp (Stenoclaena palutris), Aa (Alstonia angustiloba), Df (Decaspermum fruticosum), Sl
(Scleria levis), It (Ipomea tiliaceae), Mm (Melastoma malabatricum).
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c. Resting behavior
Resting behavior characterized by a proboscis sitting without doing any activity, but occasionally
seen perform self-care activities, such as grooming. Also carried out with the occasional straight feet
and body front of for several minutes, and then sit back. This activity frequent in the shade and
covered from sun, such as at the middle and lower canopy or on top of canopy tree which is more
leaves.
d. Grooming
Grooming or self-care behaviors carried by itself or by two individuals with back in row position.
Groaming behavioral was carried by one individual usually by moving the hand toward the body or
parts of body and then throwing the result of something the body parts. Body scratching behavior is
usually done by one individual with one hand while sitting down and legs hanging.
e. Parenting behaviors
The parenting behavior is the parent who was holding the baby and mother are always observing
and together with her son. Mother carrying a baby in all activities and never relinquished the baby
carrier, while the parent who was caring for her child only occasionally holding herbaby. Parent who
was caring for the child when the child's hand holding a jump and fell from a tree, groaming, sitting
side by side when eating and resting and when there is the threat of the child will be immediately
taken by the hand and then picked up at the front and jump to the tree that is estimated to safe from
the threat or nuisance.
f. Current threatsbehavior
Proboscis monkeys are primates that live in groups, each group led by alpha male. The body of
alpha male larger than other group members, entered the adult age composition, and have a greater
voice. Alpha male is often seen at the front watching the surrounding environment, the alpha male
will issue a distinctive sound when it saw a threat. This voice will be accepted directly by other
proboscis as a warning sign to save theirselves. When current threat, alpha male will stoop,
staringinto the source of the threat, and a sound that is loud, while others will move to the safer
place. In this condition, alpha male will move after all members of the group had moved on.
Position of proboscis monkey behavior based on canopyis mostly done on high canopy especially
in the morning and afternoon for foraging behavior. However there are some foraging and eating
behavior of proboscis done on the forest floor, which sits on the forest floor with both hands pick the
leaves to eat leaf and placed it into themouth either with one or both hands. This conditions was
adapted to habitat conditions that have a lot of dry trees or burned, so it is available only in bush life
form, such as S. palutris, M. malabatricum, and I. tiliaceae.Proboscis long existence based on the
position can be seen in Figure 4.
297
500
Minute
400
300
200
100
0
High canopy
Midle canopy
Under canopy
Ground
Figure4. Long existence of proboscis monkey based on position
IV. CONCLUSSION
1. The total habitat of cajuput swampy forestis 1.912 hectares which is 184 hectares (9,62%) use by
proboscis monkey for their habitat. The remnant of the habitat still support to existing of proboscis
monkey, such as eating, resting, grooming, and parenting but have high risk to the population on
the future regarding to the threat by conversion to agriculture or paddy field and cutting the
cajuputi trees.
2. The population of proboscis monkey are 258 individual, 190 individual were distributed on the left
side of canal and 68 individual on the right side. Based on age composition, there are adults (149
individual), juveniles (54 individual), babies (55 individual), the sex ratio between male and female
was 1: 1,4and average density per group is 3 individual/ha with the highest density of 14
individual/haand the lowest (0,19 individual/ha).
3. Regarding to the habitat fragmented, it was a negative impact to the home rangeof proboscis
monkey, the remain habitat only 26 to 90 hectares, and the pressure will be more high regarding
to the increasing number of community population.
REFERENCES
Alikodra HS, S Yasuma, N Santoso, R Soekmadi, and E Suzana. 1990. Studi Ekologi Bekantan (Nasalis
larvatus Wurmb, 1781) di Hutan Lindung Bukit Soeharto, Kalimantan Timur [catatan
penelitian]. Proyek Peningkatan Perguruan Tinggi. Tidak Diterbitkan.
Alikodra HS and AH Mustari. 1994. Study on Ecology and Conservation of Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis
larvatus Wurmb) at Mahakam River Delta, East Kalimantan: Bahvior and Habitat Function.
Annual Report PUSREHUT (5): 28.
Alikodra HS. 1997. Population and Behavior of Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus) in Samboja Koala,
East Kalimantan. Media Konservasi, 5(2): 67-72.
Atmoko T, A Ma’ruf, I Syahbani and MT Rengku. 2007. Kondisi Habitat and Penyebaran Bekantan
(Nasalis larvatusWurmb) di Delta Mahakam, Kalimantan Timur. Makalah disampaikan pada
Seminar Pemanfaatan HHBK dan Konservasi Biodiversitas Menuju Hutan Lestari, 31 Januari
2007.
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Hadi S. Alikodra & Reni Srimulyaningsih
Bennett EL and F Gombek. 1993. Proboscis Monkey of Borneo. Natural History Publications (Borneo)
Snd, Bhd, Kota Kinabalu.
Bennett EL and AC Sebastian. 1988. Social Organization and Ecology of Proboscis Monkeys ( Nasalis
larvatus) in Mixed Coastal in Sarawak. Int. J.of Primatol. 9 (3): 233-255.
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Kalimantan Timur. Kumpulan Seminar pada Forum FPS-IPB. Bogor.
Bismark M. 2002. Biologi Konservasi Bekantan (Nasalis larvatus). Bogor: Pusat Penelitian dan
Pengembangan Hutan dan Konservasi Alam.
Boonratana R. 2000. Ranging Behaviour of the Proboscis Monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) in the Lower
Kinabatangan, Northern Borneo. Int. J. Primatol. 21 : 497-518.
Meijaard E and V Nijman. 2000. Distribution and Conservation of Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus)
in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biol. Conserv, 92: 15-24.
Napier JR and Napier PH. 1967. A Handbook of Living Primates. New York: Academic Pr.
Payne J. Francis CM. Phillipps K. 2000. Panduan Lapangan Mamalia di Kalimantan, Sabah, Serawak
dan Brunei Darussalam. Kartikasari SN, Penerjemah. Jakarta : Wildlife Conservation Society
and The Sabah Society. Terjemahan dari : A Field Guide of The Mammals of Borneo.
Salter RE, NA Mackenzie, KM Aken, and PK Chai. 1985. Habitat Use, Ranging Behaviour, Food Habits
of the Proboscis Monkey, Nasalis larvatus(van Wurmb), in Sarawak. Primates, 26 (4): 436451.
Sha JSM, H Bernard, and S Nathan. 2008. Status and Conservation of Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis
larvatus) in Sabah, East malaysia. Primate Conservation (23): 107-120.
Soendjoto MA. 2005. Adaptasi Bekantan (Nasalis larvatus) terhadap Hutan Karet: Studi Kasus di
Kabupaten Tabalong, Kalimantan Selatan. [Disertasi]. Sekolah Pascasarjana, Institut
Pertanian Bogor.
Sorianegara dan Indrawan. 1998. Ekologi Hutan Indonesia. Bogor: Laboratorium Ekologi Hutan,
Fakultas Kehutanan Institut Pertanian Bogor
Yasuma S and HS Alikodra. 1990. Mammals of Bukit Soeharto Protection Forest. Samarinda: Japan
International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Directorate Ganeral of Higher Education.
Yeager CP. 1991. Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus) Social Organization: intergroup Patterns of
Association. Am. J. Primatol. 23: 73-86.
Yeager CP. 1992. Proboscis Monkey (Nasalis larvatus) Social Organization: The Nature and
PossibFunctions of Intergroup Pattern of Association. Am. J. Primatol. 26: 133-137.
299
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Flora Diversity Loss in tke Bioregion of Sulawesi…...
Elizabrth A. Wijaya & Bayu A. Pratama
Flora Diversity Loss in the Bioregion of Sulawesi1
Elizabeth A. Widjaja2 and Bayu A. Pratama2
ABSTRACT
Indonesia is one of the biggest biodiversity area in the world after Brazil, has about 35,000 – 42,000
species, however this data need to be confirmed. The database of the Indonesian Flora is based at
the Herbarium Bogoriense and based also on the specimens which was kept since 1871. The richness
of the Indonesia flora is very important for the decision makers especially how to prevent the flora
diversity get loss. Sulawesi as one of the biggest island in Indonesia (182,870 km 2 with the collecation
rate 23 species/ 100 km2) has also high endemism flora species. The flora expedition to Sulawesi has
been done since 1687 when Dampier visited and collected specimens from Buton. According to
Steenis (1955), the total number of specimens collected from Sulawesi is 32,500 specimens, which
was collected by Blume (1825 – 1827), Miquell (1855) and Koorders (1898). Keßler et al. (2002) has
mentioned on this publication that there are 120 species of trees found in Sulawesi. Widjaja et al
(2011) mentioned on her book “The state of Indonesian biodiversity” that Sulawesi has 6796 species,
among this species it was listed that 292 species of 57 family are endemic to Sulawesi. Based on the
study done since 2010, it s found that only 38Species was found in the field. When the locality of
endemic species was laid on the land cover map, it was found that there are some species are no
longer grow in the forest any more because the area was changed into housing area, plantation area,
paddy field area or industry. The endemic species grow in specific soil characters, and certain altitude.
Because of that the endemic species usually never grow in another habitat. Mapping of each endemic
species will be drawn in Land cover, soil and also climate maps.
Keywords: flora diversity, loss, Sulawesi
I. INTRODUCTION
Indonesia as megabiodiversity country after Brazil, has a high flora diversity which is about
35,000 – 42,000 species (Welzen et al 2005). The position of Indonesia which laid between two
tropical country Asia and Australia and two ocean Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean make this area very
unique and high endemism. Indonesia also consists of 17,500 islands which about 9 million km2 large
1
This paper was presented in International Conference
on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Bidang Botani, Puslit Biologi – LIPI, Cibinong 16911, Email: [email protected]
301
(2 million km2 land and 7 million km2 Ocean). Indonesia has only 1.3% of the world surface, but we
have about 25% of the world Angiospermae.
Sulawesi as one of the biggest island in Indonesia (182,870 km2 with the collecation rate 23
species/ 100 km2) has also high endemism flora species. The flora expedition to Sulawesi has been
done since 1687 when Dampier visited and collected specimens from Buton. According to Steenis
(1955), the total number of specimens collected from Sulawesi is 32,500 specimens, which was
collected by Blume (1825 – 1827), Miquell (1855) and Koorders (1898). Keßler et al. (2002) has
mentioned on his publication that there are 120 species of trees found in Sulawesi. Widjaja et al
(2011) mentioned on her book “The state of Indonesian biodiversity” that Sulawesi has 6796 species,
among this species it was listed that 292 species of 57 family are endemic to Sulawesi.
In the COP (Congress of the Parties )of the Conventional Biological Diversity VIII in Brazil, one of
the target in 2010 is to find the indicator of the biodiversity loss in the global, regional and national
level. Whereas in the Aichi Target which has been discused in Nagoya, it is mentioned that Strategic
Goal A is to address the underlying causes of biodiversity loss by mainstreaming biodiversity across
government and society. LIPI as science and technology provider and knowledge-based institution,
should provide data about the state of biodiversity in Indonesia as has been done on the publication
of the State of Indonesian biodiversity (2011) by Widjaja et al (2011). From this data, it is expected
that LIPI (c.q. Research Centre for Biology) can perform the number of endemic flora in Indonesia
which is endangered or the plant which was introduced to Indonesia and become weeds and invasive
alien species in Indonesia. So it is expected that data can be provided which species was lost and
should be reintroduced to the original habitat, and also which species need to be conserved because
of the habitat changes and make the flora in that area was been disturbed either by natural or human
activities.
The purpose of this study is to record all endemic flora in Sulawesi and to monitor whether those
endemic species still exist in the field by overlay the data into the land cover map which was produced
by the Forestry Department. The data will also overlay with the soil and climate information of
Sulawesi and the land use on conservation of that area.
II. MATERIAL AND METHODS
A list of endemic species was collected either from the references and herbarium specimens kept
in the Herbarium Bogoriense (BO), L, K. From the list, the locality data is recorded and laid out on the
land cover map of 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009 which was produced by the Department of Forestry. To
understand the endemism of the species, the locality data is also overlay to the natural conservation
area map, soil characters and climate or rain fall classification which followed Trojer (1976). The soil
and climate map were produced by the Department of Agriculture.
The locality visited to monitor whether the species is still exist or get lost, based on province
where the forest left. This study was started in 2010 by monitoring the high endemism area in South
Sulawesi Province (Latimojong, Lompobatang Mountains), then the following year is done in South
East Sulawesi (Lamedai Nature Conservation, Mangolo tourist park, Papalia Tourist park, Rawa Aopa
national park, and protected forest Sangona area), and in 2013 the monitoring program was done at
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Flora Diversity Loss in tke Bioregion of Sulawesi…...
Elizabrth A. Wijaya & Bayu A. Pratama
West Sulawesi (Gandangdewata protected forest) and Central Sulawesi (Lore Lindu National Park). In
2012 the monitoring program was not done because the monitoring budget was cut down by the
government, so the monitoring was continued in 2013 with very short time visit due to the
government regulation for the field work. So, it is frankly can be said that the monitoring program to
see whether the endemic species is still existed or get lost cannot be used fully to say that those
species was get lost, however, by overlaying the locality of the species to the land cover, we can
predict that those species got lost due to the habitat changes.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Description of the study area
Geographically, the study site are located between 5°U - 7°S and 118° - 127°E. The
administration of the study site involves South Sulawesi, South East Sulawesi, Central Sulawesi, West
Sulawesi, however, North Sulawesi and Gorontalo Provinces has not been done.
The monitoring area for the biodiversity loss is very limited because the funding is not enough to
go to every single forest. Because of that from each province, 2 areas were selected. From each
locality visited, an attention was made to every area especially whether the area have swampy
primary forest, swampy secondary forest, mangrove primary forest, mangrove secondary forest, dry
land primary forest, dry land secondary forest and savanna. The landform of each area has drawn to
see whether the endemic species has a delimitation of landform and climate such as hilly, plain,
mountain, wavy, and climate type A, B, C, D with rainfall type I, II, III, IV. From the soil
characteristic, the species was overlaid to soil map.
B. Endemic species of Sulawesi
Sulawesi is one of the biggest island in Indonesia also the transition area from Asean Flora with
Australian Flora. Also Sulawesi is included in the central part of Malesia , is a transition zone between
the Sunda and the Sahul flora, and also between Wallace line and weber line. This is one of the
reason why Sulawesi has a high endemism flora. The uniqueness of the landform and rainfall, as well
as the position of Sulawesi in the Wallacea line make Sulawesi possess a high endemism.
However, the endemic species in Sulawesi is get lost very easily because of the habitat changes
either for housing area, plantation, road establishment or even illegal logging. Two global
environmental “problems”: currently attracting almost obsessive popular interest on climate change
and biodiversity loss. This study is concerned to the problem of biodiversity loss, later on it is expected
that this problem can also bring the ecological consequences of biodiversity loss. Then the biodiversity
loss can be evaluated to satisfied of human needs which make direct value or private value and also
to make indirect value to the society or its call social value Perrings et al. (1997).Van Welzen et al
(2005) mentioned that the flora of Sulawesi consist of 1065 species with the endemic flora 144
species and 921 for non endemic species, and it is expected that the endemic species will increase till
265 species. Van Welzen & Silk (2009) mentioned that Sulawesi which is part of Wallacea consists of
1169 species, with 160 species endemic (14% endemics) from the area with the size 182,870 km2 or
6% of the Malesian region.
303
Based on the data collected from the references and 675 specimen Herbariium, it is recorded
that there are listed that 292 species of 57 family are endemic to Sulawesi as shown on Table 1.
No
1
Family
Acanthaceae
Jenis
Strobilanthes calcicola J.R.I Wood & J. R. Benn.
2
Apiaceae
Trachymene acrotricha Buwalda
3
Trachymene celebica Hemsl.
4
Trachymene erodioides Buwalda
5
Trachymene sarasinorum (Warb. ex H.Wolff) Buwalda
6
Apocynaceae
Alyxia celebica D.J.Middleton
7
Alyxia globosa D.J.Middleton
8
Alyxia kabaenae Markgr.
9
Alyxia kendarica Markgr.
10
Alyxia lackii D.J.Middleton
11
Alyxia uniflora D.J.Middleton
12
Kibatalia wigmanii (Koord.) Merr.
13
Ochrosia acuminata Trimen ex Valeton
14
Ochrosia basistamina Hendrian
15
Rauvolfia kamarora Hendrian
16
Araceae
Alocasia balgooy A. Hay
17
Alocasia megawatiae Yuzammi & A.Hay
18
Alocasia suhirmaniana Yuzammi & A. Hay
19
Amorphophallus plicatus Bok & Lam.
20
Homalomena vittariifolia
21
Schismatoglottis inculta
22
Araliaceae
Arthrophyllum kjellbergii Philipson
23
Boerlagiodendron celebicum Lam.
24
Osmoxylon celebicum Philipson
25
Osmoxylon masarangense Philipson
26
Osmoxylon talaudense Philipson
27
Osmoxylon teysmannii (Boerl.) Philipson
28
Arecaceae
Areca oxycarpa Miq.,
29
Calamus aff inops Becc ex Heyne
30
Calamus ahlidurii Fernando
31
Calamus boniensis Becc ex Heyne
32
Calamus boniensis Beccari ex Heyne
33
Calamus didymocarpus Warb.
34
Calamus inops Becc ex Heyne
35
Calamus kandariensis Beccari
36
Calamus kjelbergii Furt.
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Flora Diversity Loss in tke Bioregion of Sulawesi…...
Elizabrth A. Wijaya & Bayu A. Pratama
No
37
Family
Jenis
Calamus koordersianus Becc
38
Calamus leiocaulis Beccari ex Heyne
39
Calamus leptostachys Becc ex Heyne
40
Calamus lorelinduensis JP Mogea & Rustiami
41
Calamus macrosphaerion Becc.
42
Calamus minahassae Warb ex Becc
43
Calamus obscurus Becc.
44
Calamus ornatus var. ornatus Blume
45
Calamus orthostachyus Furt.
46
Calamus pachystachys Warb ex Becc.
47
Calamus paucijugus Becc ex Heyne.
48
Calamus perpendiculus Rustiami
49
Calamus plicatus Blume
50
Calamus pseudomollis Becc
51
Calamus rosetus Rustiami
52
Calamus scleracanthus Becc ex Heyne
53
Calamus siphonospathus var. dransfieldii Baja Lapis
54
Calamus suaveolens W. J. Baker J. Dransf
55
Calamus symphysipus Martius
56
Calamus zollingeri Becc.
57
Daemonorops lamprolepis Becc.
58
Daemonorops macroptera (Miq.) Becc.
59
Daemonorops mogeana Rustiani
60
Daemonorops riedeliana Becc.
61
Daemonorops robusta Warb.
63
Daemonorops sarasinorum Warb.
64
Daemonorops schlechterii
65
Daemonorops takanensis Rustami
66
Granophyllum microspadix Burret
67
Gromophyllum kjelbergii Burret
68
Gromophyllum sarasinorum Burret
69
Gromophyllum selebicum (Becc.) Becc.
70
Korthalsia celebica Becc.
71
Pigafetta elata Becc.
72
Pinanga caesia Blume
73
Pinanga celebica Scheff.
74
Pinanga cf celebica
75
Pinanga kjellbergii
76
Pinanga macrorachis Burret
77
Pinanga macrostachya
305
No
78
Family
Jenis
Vaccinium paludicolum Sleum.
79
Aristolochiaceae
Thottea celebica Ding Hou
80
Begoniaceae
Begonia aptera Bl.
81
Begonia aptera subsp hirtissima Girmansyah & Dc. Thomas
82
Begonia bantamensis Hemsl val. Aff
83
Begonia capituliformis
84
Begonia comestibilis DC Thomas & Ardi
85
Begonia cuneatifolia Irmsch.
86
Begonia didyma Dc. Thoms et Ardi
87
Begonia flacca Irmsch
88
Begonia gemella Warb ex L. B. Sm & Wassh.
89
Begonia guttapila D.C.Thomas & Ardi,
90
Begonia hekensis D. C. Thoms.
91
Begonia heteroclinis
92
Begonia hirtella Link.
93
Begonia hispidissima Zipal ex Koorders.
94
Begonia insueta DC Thomas & Ardi
95
Begonia koordersii Warb ex L. B. Sm
96
Begonia lasioura DC Thomas & Ardi
97
Begonia longifolia Blume Complex.
98
Begonia masarangensis Irmsch.
99
Begonia mekongensis Girmansyah & Wiriadinata
100
Begonia nobmanniae DC Thomas & Ardi
101
Begonia ozotothrix Dc. Thomas.
102
Begonia prionota DC Thomas & Ardi
103
Begonia pseudolateralis
104
Begonia rachmati Tebbitt.
105
Begonia rantemarioensis DC Thomas & Ardi
106
Begonia sanguineopilosa DC Thomas & Ardi
107
Begonia siccacaudata J.Door.
108
Begonia torajana DC Thomas & Ardi
109
Begonia varipeltata De Thomas.
110
Begonia vermeulenii DC Thomas
111
Begonia watuwilensis Girmansyah
112
Boraginaceae
Cordia aspera G.Forst
113
Burmanniaceae
Gymnosiphon minahassae Schltr.
114
Burseraceae
Canarium acutifolium (DC.) Merr
115
306
Canarium trigonum H.J.Lam
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Elizabrth A. Wijaya & Bayu A. Pratama
No
116
Family
Celastraceae
Jenis
Euonymus impressus Blakelock
117
Salacia blepharophora Ding Hou
118
Salacia intermedia Ding Hou
119
Combretaceae
Terminalia celebica Exell
120
Terminalia kjellbergii Exell
121
Terminalia supitiana Koord.
122
Convolvulaceae
Argyreia celebica Ooststr.
123
Argyreia cinerea Ooststr.
124
Ipomoea stibaropoda Ooststr.
125
Cunoniaceae
Weinmannia celebica Koord.
126
Weinmannia coodei H.C.Hopkins
127
Weinmannia descombesiana Bernardi
128
Weinmannia devogelii H.C.Hopkins
129
Cyperaceae
130
Fimbristylis celebica Ohwi
Scirpus subcapitatus Thwaites ssp. celebicus Kern
131
Dichapetalaceae
Dichapetalum steenisii Leenh.
132
Dilleniaceae
Dillenia celebica Hoogl.
133
Dillenia ochreata (Miq.) Teijsm. & Binn.
134
Dillenia serrata Thunb.
135
Dillenia talaudensis Hoogl.
136
Dioscoreaceae
Dioscorea kjellbergii R.Knuth
137
Dioscorea sarasinii Uline ex R.Knuth
138
Dioscorea sexrimata Burk.
139
Dioscorea vanvuurenii Prain & Burk.
140
Dioscorea warburgiana Uline ex Koord.
141
Dipterocarpaceae
Hopea celebica Burck
142
Ebenaceae
Diospyros celebica Bakh.
143
Ericaceae
Diplycosia aperta J.J.Sm.
144
Diplycosia caryophylloides J.J.Sm.
145
Diplycosia caryophylloides J.J.Sm. var. longipes Sleum.
146
Diplycosia celebensis J.J.Sm.
147
Diplycosia crassiramea Sleum.
148
Diplycosia haemantha Sleum.
149
Diplycosia kjellbergii J.J.Sm.
150
Diplycosia minutiflora Sleum.
151
Diplycosia rubidiflora J.J.Sm.
152
Diplycosia sagittanthera J.J.Sm.
153
Diplycosia stenophylla Sleum.
307
No
154
Family
Jenis
Diplycosia undata J.J.Sm.
155
Gaultheria celebica J.J.Sm. var. petiolata J.J.Sm.
156
Gaultheria viridiflora Sleum.
157
Rhododendron arenicolum Sleum.
158
Rhododendron bloembergenii Sleum.
159
Rhododendron celebicum (Blume) DC.
160
Rhododendron eymae Sleum.
161
Rhododendron impositum J.J.Sm.
162
Rhododendron lagunculicarpum J.J.Sm.
163
Rhododendron leptobrachion Sleum.
164
Rhododendron lindaueanum Koord.
165
Rhododendron lompohense J.J.Sm.
166
Rhododendron nanophyton Sleum.
167
Rhododendron nanophyton Sleum. var. petrophilum Sleum.
168
Rhododendron poremense J.J.Sm.
169
Rhododendron pseudobuxifolium Sleum.
170
Rhododendron psilanthum Sleum.
171
Rhododendron pudorinum Sleum.
172
Rhododendron quadrasianum Vidal var. selebicum J.J.Sm.
173
Rhododendron radians J.J.Sm. var. minahassae Sleum.
174
Rhododendron rhodopus Sleum.
175
Rhododendron scarlatinum Sleum.
176
Rhododendron vanvuurenii J.J.Sm.
177
Vaccinium antrocelebicum var vicius Sleum
178
Vaccinium aucupis Sleum.
179
Vaccinium centrocelebicum Sleum.
180
Vaccinium centrocelebicum Sleum. var. maius Sleum.
181
Vaccinium cuneifolium (Blume) Miq.
182
Vaccinium dubiosum J.J.Sm.
183
Vaccinium henrici Sleum.
184
Vaccinium kjellbergii J.J.Sm.
185
Vaccinium latissimum J.J.Sm.
186
Vaccinium paludicolum Sleum.
187
Vaccinium pilosilobum J.J.Sm.
188
Vaccinium tomicipes J.J.Sm.
189
Vaccinium warburgii Sleum.
190
Fabaceae
Kallapia celebica Kosterm.
191
Flacourtiaceae
Homalium celebicum Koord.
192
Gesneriaceae
Aeschynanthus sojolianus Mendum & L.E.R.Galloway
193
308
Aeschynanthus celebicus Koord.
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Elizabrth A. Wijaya & Bayu A. Pratama
No
194
Family
Jenis
Aeschynanthus citrinus Mendum & S. Scott.
195
Agalmyla bicolor Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
196
Agalmyla exannulata Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
197
Agalmyla hilliardiae D.J.Middleton & S.Scott
198
Agalmyla immersinervia Hilliard
199
Agalmyla paucipilosa Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
200
Agalmyla pulcherrima Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
201
Agalmyla remotidentata Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
202
Agalmyla scabriflora Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
203
Agalmyla sojoliana Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
204
Agalmyla torajiana Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
205
Agalmyla vogelii Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
206
Cyrtandra bruteliana Koord.
207
Cyrtandra coccinea Blume var. celebica (Blume) C.B.Clarke
208
Cyrtandra cuneata Blume
209
Cyrtandra engleri Koord.
210
Cyrtandra fasciata H.J.Atkins
211
Cyrtandra gorontaloensis H.J.Atkins
212
Cyrtandra luteiflora H.J.Atkins
213
Cyrtandra polyneura (C.B.Clarke) B.L.Burtt
214
Cyrtandra purpurea H.J.Atkins
215
Cyrtandra serratifolia H.J.Atkins
216
Cyrtandra tenuicarpa H.J.Atkins
217
Gnetaceae
Gnetum gnemon L.
218
Icacinaceae
Gomphandra velutina Sleum.
219
Stemonurus celebicus Valeton ex Koord.
220
Leeaceae
Leea smithii Koord.
221
Loganiaceae
Fagraea tacapala Leenh.
222
223
Fagraea truncata Blume
Loranthaceae
224
Amyema irrubescens Barlow
Decaisnina celebica (Hemsl.) Barlow
225
Magnoliaceae
Magnolia phaulanta Dandy ex Noot.
226
Malphigiaceae
Aspidopterys celebensis Arenes
227
Malvaceae
Hibiscus teijsmannii Borss.Waalk.
228
229
Hibiscus tiliaceus L.
Melastomataceae
Astronia gracilis Bakh.f.
230
Astronia stapfii Koord.
231
Medinilla celebica Blume
232
Medinilla mucronata Koord.
233
Melastoma horridum Bakh.f.
309
No
234
Family
235
236
Jenis
Memecylon celebicum Bakh.f.
Memecylon crassifoilium Bakh.f.
Meliaceae
237
Chisocheton celebicus Koord.
Chisocheton warburgii Harms.
238
Menispermaceae
Tinospora celebica Diels
239
Mimosaceae
Archidendron crateradenum (Kosterm.) Nielsen
240
Archidendron minahassae (Koord.) Nielsen
241
Archidendron tjendana (Kosterm.) Nielsen
242
Moraceae
Ficus celebensis Corner
243
Ficus decipiens Reinw. ex Blume
244
Ficus geocarpa Teijsm. & Binn.
245
Ficus kofmaniae C.C.Berg
246
Ficus matanoensis C.C.Berg
247
Ficus minahasae Miq.
248
Ficus remifolia Corner ex C.C.Berg
249
Ficus submontana C.C.Berg
250
Ficus tonsa Miq.
251
Musaceae
Musa celebica Warb.
252
Myristicaceae
Gymnacranthera maliliensis R.T.A.Schouten
253
Horsfieldia coriacea W.J.de Wilde
254
Horsfieldia talaudensis W.J.de Wilde
255
Knema celebica W.J.de Wilde
256
Knema matanensis W.J.de Wilde
257
Myristica devogelii W.J.de Wilde
258
Myristica impressinervia J.Sinclair
259
Myristica koordersii Warb.
260
Myristica ultrabasica W.J.de Wilde
261
Nepenthaceae
262
263
Nepenthes glabratus J.R.Turnbull & A.T.Middleton
Nepenthes tomoriana Danser
Orchidaceae
Coelogyne multiflora Schltr.
264
Phalaenopsis celebensis Sweet
265
Phalaenopsis venosa PS Shim & Fowlie
266
Vanda Celebica J.J. Sm.
267
Vanda devoogtii J.J.Sm.
268
Oxalidaceae
Sarcotheca celebica Veldkamp
269
Piperaceae
Piper caninum Blume
270
Poaceae
Racemobambos celebica
271
Polygalaceae
Xanthophyllum celebicum Meijden
272
Proteaceae
Grevillea elbertii Sleum.
273
310
Helicia celebica Sleum.
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Flora Diversity Loss in tke Bioregion of Sulawesi…...
Elizabrth A. Wijaya & Bayu A. Pratama
No
274
Family
Jenis
Helicia kjellbergii Sleum.
275
Helicia kjellbergii Sleum. var. calva Sleum.
276
Helicia teysmanniana Sleum.
277
Rubiaceae
278
279
Psychotria celebica Miq.
Timonius stipulosus Boerl.
Sapindaceae
Cupaniopsis celebica Adema
280
Cupaniopsis strigosa Adema
281
Guioa hirsuta Welzen
282
Lepisanthes falcata (Radlk.) Leenh. ssp. celebica (Radlk.) Leenh.
283
Trigonachras celebensis Leenh.
284
Sapotaceae
Manilkara fasciculata (Warb.) Mull. Arg.
285
Schisandraceae
Kadsura celebica A.C.Sm.
286
Symplocaceae
Symplocos ambangensis Noot.
287
Symplocos maliliensis Noot.
288
Taccaceae
Tacca celebica Koord.
289
Thymelaeaceae
Gyrinops decipiens Ding Hou
290
Tiliaceae
Colona celebica (Blume) Burr.
291
Verbenaceae
Clerodendrum lanuginosum Blume
292
Viscaceae
Viscum exile Barlow
From the above table it can be seen that Arecacee, Ericaceae, Begoniaceae, Gesneriaceae have
very high endemism in Sulawesi, beside that Apocynaceae, Myristicaceae and Moraceae are has
medium diversity in Sulawesi. Because of that it can be said that Sulawesi is the home of Arecaceae,
Ericaceae, Gesneriaceae and Begoniaceae. According to van Welzen & Silk (2009), Ericaceae is a
family found at a higher atitudes, and possess many endemics species (716 out of 732 species
recorded in Flora Malesiana). The Ericaceae are well represented on the Sunda Shelf, are almost
absent in Wallaceae, but are extremely species rich with several genera on the Sahul Shelf. This
statement is different than the reality where we have the highest number of endemic species of
Ericaceae in Sulawesi (Wallacea). One of the reasonon the high endemism is the soil characters of this
area is very unique compare to other area of Indonesian archipelago. When the inventory of the
endemic flora is finalized, and the data is overlay to land cover, the data of the endemic flora which
may get lost can be drawn easily. From example on Arecaceae, Calamus is a genus of rattan has the
highest demand in the market, but this also included in the genus which has a high diversity, but also
risk due to overload harvesting. Therefore, the species is very risk in the future and get lost easily.
One of the effort to make the species do not get lost is by reintroducing the species in the same
locality. When the species has not lost, a collecting seedling need to be done and germinating in the
Forestry Department to be reintroduced to the original locality when the seedling was collected.
Beside providing data on the endemic species, a monitoring to the localities have been done
since 2010, but the monitoring result is not always positive, because the locality has been changed, or
the area visited is not the same when collection was made.
311
The latest reason was there is no
accurate information on the attitude, or coordinate where the specimens were collected. When the
specimen grow abundantly, those specimens are still found. After 4 years monitoring, 38 species of
292 species still exist in the field (Table 2). From the table below it can be seen that the highest
number of specimens seen in the field is family Ericaceae. One of the reason for this, because the
monitoring has been done in the high mountainous area such as Latimojong and Lompobatang where
the monitoring has been done.Another family is Gesneriaceae, Apiaceae and Poaceae also found in
the highland, whereas Araceae found in the lowland.
Table 2. Species found in the field.
No.
Family
Species
Found in
the field
1
1
Apiaceae
Trachymene acrotricha Buwalda
2
Apiaceae
Trachymene celebica Hemsl.
1
3
Apiaceae
Trachymene erodioides Buwalda
1
4
Apocynaceae
Alyxia kabaenae Markgr.
1
5
Araceae
Alocasia balgooy A. Hay
1
6
Araceae
Alocasia suhirmaniana Yuzammi & A. Hay
1
7
Araliaceae
Osmoxylon masarangense Philipson
1
8
Cunoniaceae
Weinmannia descombesiana Bernardi
1
9
Dilleniaceae
Dillenia serrata Thunb.
1
10
Ericaceae
Diplycosia celebensis J.J.Sm.
1
11
Ericaceae
Diplycosia crassiramea Sleum.
1
12
Ericaceae
Diplycosia rubidiflora J.J.Sm.
1
13
Ericaceae
Diplycosia undata J.J.Sm.
1
14
Ericaceae
Gaultheria celebica J.J.Sm. var. petiolata J.J.Sm.
1
15
Ericaceae
Gaultheria viridiflora Sleum.
1
16
Ericaceae
Rhododendron arenicolum Sleum.
1
17
Ericaceae
Rhododendron celebicum (Blume) DC.
1
18
Ericaceae
Rhododendron eymae Sleum.
1
19
Ericaceae
Rhododendron lagunculicarpum J.J.Sm.
1
Rhododendron lindaueanum Koord. var. bantaengense
20
Ericaceae
J.J.Sm.
1
21
Ericaceae
Rhododendron nanophyton Sleum.
1
22
Ericaceae
Rhododendron psilanthum Sleum.
1
23
Ericaceae
Rhododendron quadrasianum Vidal var. celebicum J.J.Sm.
1
24
Ericaceae
Rhododendron rhodopus Sleum.
1
25
Ericaceae
Vaccinium centrocelebicum Sleum.
1
26
Ericaceae
Vaccinium cuneifolium (Blume) Miq.
1
27
Ericaceae
Vaccinium latissimum J.J.Sm.
1
28
Fabaceae
Kallapia celebica
1
29
Gesneriaceae
Agalmyla scabriflora Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
1
312
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Flora Diversity Loss in tke Bioregion of Sulawesi…...
Elizabrth A. Wijaya & Bayu A. Pratama
No.
Family
Species
Found in
the field
1
30
Gesneriaceae
Agalmyla torajiana Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
31
Loganiaceae
Fagraea tacapala Leenh.
1
32
Loranthaceae
Decaisnina celebica (Hemsl.) Barlow
1
33
Melastomataceae
Melastoma horridum Bakh.f.
1
34
Musaceae
Musa celebica Warb.
1
35
Musaceae
Musa sp. (jantung pendulus merah)
1
36
Piperaceae
Piper caninum Blume
1
37
Poaceae
Racemobambos celebica
1
38
Sapindaceae
Cupaniopsis celebica Adema
1
38
The unseen specimens were not means that they get lost already, but an overlay with the land
cover forest 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009 is necessary as shown on the discussion below.
Distribution pattern of the endemic flora based on the land cover and land use agreement
Based on the endemic flora data, it can be seen that most endemic species like to grow in the
primary dry land forest. However, since 2000 – 2009 (Figure 1 – 4), it showed that the endemic
species found in the area and which not changes significantly, except in South Sulawesi. Most of the
endemic species in South Sulawesi was found outside of the forest. Because of that it is more difficult
to find those species because the habitat has changed from the original vegetation become housing,
plantation or infrastructure.
On the figure 2, it can be seen that the forest area has been decreased due to increase the
plantation area, the settlement, mining and dryland farming. This data can also be seen on table 3.
313
Figure 1. Diversity of endemic plants with land cover in year 2000
Figure 2. Diversity of endemic plants with Land Cover in Year 200
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Flora Diversity Loss in tke Bioregion of Sulawesi…...
Elizabrth A. Wijaya & Bayu A. Pratama
Figure 2. Diversity of Endemic Plants with Land Cover in Year 2003
Figure 3. Diversity of endemic plants with Land Cover in Year 2006
Figure 4. Diversity of endemic plants with Land Cover in Year 2009
315
In year 2000, most of Sulawesi has dominated by dry primary forest (Fig. 1), then the situation
was changed every year as seen on table 3. Therefore in 2009, the endemic flora mostly found not in
the forest area, because the primary dryland forest has decreased rapidly in 2009, on the other hand
the secondary dryland forest, plantation, settlement, mining, dryland farming with shrub is increasing
rapidly (Fig 4). The reduced rate of forest is correlated to the increasing of the housing area
(settlement), plantation (agriculture), mining, transmigration area and also savanna. If no one pay
attention to the degraded land, then the loss of endemic flora will go faster.
Table 3. Area of changes for each land cover in year 2000 until 2009
No.
Type of Land Cover
1
Swampy Shrub
2
3
4
5
Area (Ha)
Year 2000
Year 2003
Year 2006
Year 2009
33938,60
31380,95
33028,75
33649,92
Primary Dryland Forest
5830259,37
5608153,86
3953460,95
3893454,89
Secondary Dryland Forest
4573432,68
4656505,16
6030392,60
6033794,08
Primary Mangrove Forest
54688,06
51665,61
47581,30
45181,73
150328,28
151312,40
150263,43
149864,08
Secondary Mangrove
Forest
6
Primary Swampy Forest
755,72
755,72
755,72
755,72
7
Secondary Swampy Forest
33216,40
33022,69
31503,90
31230,66
8
Production Forest
16746,83
16746,83
17027,15
16730,95
9
Seaport / Airport
816,74
816,74
1292,02
1292,02
10
Plantation
244263,78
245927,09
246760,97
254018,15
11
Settlement
103086,65
103320,39
104561,00
114339,62
12
Mining
12995,88
13302,19
13667,57
14174,80
13
Dryland Farming
865847,78
878106,53
932812,21
930556,19
3565357,90
3672793,03
3728173,24
3754065,76
14
Dryland Farming with
Shrub
15
Swamp
16
Savanna
17
Sawah
935869,11
934977,44
938722,81
958074,54
18
Shrub
1466336,93
1484543,29
1641341,12
1636232,05
19
Fishpond
149250,32
154583,13
159923,37
162951,82
20
Clearing Land
118741,22
118483,55
125134,08
97597,37
21
Transmigration Area
12525,12
12525,12
12525,12
12731,86
22
Water
199617,41
199933,10
199617,41
199172,67
18683213,5
18683762,4
18683762,4
18683762,4
1
9
9
9
Total
8996,09
8646,57
9004,74
9157,46
306142,64
306261,08
306213,04
334736,13
Except for the land cover changes, another factor which may occurred is when monitoring has
been done, the endemic flora was collected before, not from the conservation area. So it is difficult to
map them if the locality belong to customary land, or private land which may get change already. It is
expected the flora endemic from the nature conservation area is still exist.
316
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Flora Diversity Loss in tke Bioregion of Sulawesi…...
Elizabrth A. Wijaya & Bayu A. Pratama
Figure 5. Diversity of endemic plants with forest land use agreement
Distribution of the Endemic flora based on their landform and rainfall
On the figure 6, it can be seen that most of the endemic species like to grow in the sediment,
volcanic and plutonic. However, several species can be found in different landform characters. The
variation of landform can make the species adaptable,or very specific on the habitat for each species.
By adapting to the habitat, distribution rate of each species may adaptable and regenerated easily,
but most of the endemic species are not adaptable and difficult to regenerate because of that the
endemic species grow on the very specific habitat.
317
Figure 6. Diversity of Endemic species with Type of Landform
Figure 7. Diversity of Endemic speccies with Type of Rainfall
On the Figure 7, the rainfall sequences types rainfall per year show that the endemic species
mostly grow in the rainfall type II B where the rainfall has rain between 1000 – 2000 mm/year with
multiple wave. The type II B rainfall can be included in the dry climate. Also the endemic species like
to grow in the type III C where the rainfall occurred between 2000 – 3000 mm/year with double wave
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Flora Diversity Loss in tke Bioregion of Sulawesi…...
Elizabrth A. Wijaya & Bayu A. Pratama
rainfall. Some species in the Sourh Sulawesi grow in rainfall type IVA where the rainfall has rain
between 3000 – 4000 mm/year with the simple wave and the lowest rainfall found at July – August.
The latest type of rainfall is included in the wet climate. When the endemic species is correlated to the
habitat landform, it is shown that the endemic species in the north and central of Sulawesi generally
grow in the sediment landform. In the south of Sulawesi, this endemic species is adaptable with the
rainfall type IIIA (wet climate) and IVA (Wet Climate) in the volcanic landform. In the South East
Sulawesi, the area is dominated by rainfall type IIB (dry climate) with metamorph landform. The
adaptable species on this condition can make the flora in this area became endemic.
IV. CONCLUSION
From this study it can be concluded that the endemic species of Sulawesi is 292 species (out of
6796 species, 4.3%) of 57 family, among this 38 species has been collected in the field. Due to a
high changes on habitat destruction, it is expectedthe endemic species can be to be used in
reintroduction at the original locality. An intensive field work to find those endemic species is very
important to prevent biodiversity loss. If it is possible a protection on the habitat changes should be
done to prevent more biodiversity get loss. Further data on the endemic species need to be collected,
although Widjaja et al. (2011) has mentioned that there are 6796 species found in Sulawesi.
REFERENCES
Keßler, P.J.A. M.M. Bos, S.E.C. Sierra Daza, A. Kop, L.P.M. Willemse, R. Pitopang,S.R. Gradstein.
2002. Checklist of woody plants of Sulawesi, Indonesia. BLUMEA Supplement 14NATIONAAL
HERBARIUM NEDERLAND, Universiteit Leiden branch. 160 pp.
Koorders, S.H.. 1898. Verslag eener botanische dienstreis door de Minahassa. Meded. ’s Lands
Plantentuin Nº 19: 1-716
Koorders, S.H.
1901. Eenige aanvullingen en verbeteringen van mijn verslag eener botanische
dienstreis door de Minahassa’. Nat. Tijdschr. N.I. 61: 250-261
Miquell, F. A.W. 1855. Flora van Nederlandsch Indie.Vol 1, 2.
Perrings, C., Karl-Goran Maler, Carl Folke, C.S. Holling, Bengt-Owe Jansson. 1997. Biodiversity loss.
Economic and ecological issues. Cambridge university Press. 332 pp.
Steenis, C. G. G. J. van. 1955. Flora Malesiana. Vol. 5.
Trojer, H. 1976. Weather Classification and Plant-Weather Relationship.FAO Working Paper no.11. Soil
Research Institute. Bogor, Indonesia. 85 pp.
VanWelzen, P.C., J.W. F. Slik & J.Alahuhta, 2005. Plant distribution patterns and plate tectonicsm in
Malesia. Biol. Skr. 55: 199-217. ISSN 0366-3612.ISBN 87-7304-304-4.
Van Welzen, P.C. & J.W.F Slik. 2009. Patterns in species richness and composition of plant families in
the Malay Archipelago. Blumea 54: 166-171.
Widjaja, E. A., Ibnu Maryanto, Daisy Wowor, Siti Nuramaliati Prijono. 2011. Status Keanekaragaman
Hayati Indonesia. LIPI Press. Jakarta. 48 pp.
319
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
An Approach in Ecosystem Valuation: A Case of The G. Mahawu…...
Martina A. Langi
AN APPROACH IN ECOSYSTEM VALUATION:
A CASE OF THE GUNUNG MAHAWU PROTECTED FOREST1
Martina A. Langi
2
I. INTRODUCTION
Determined as a protected forest since 1933, Gunung Mahawu serves as an important water
catchment area in North Sulawesi. The elevation ranges from 800 m to 1,372 m above sea level, and
with an area of 549.02 ha, most of it has already been secondary forest (73.27%) followed by an
open grasslands (19.36%) and invaded area for
farming (7.37%).
Scenic views of Tomohon,
Minahasa, and Manado can be seen from
mountain top leading it to one of ecotourism
destination of the province.
Gunung Mahawu has also been supporting
local agro-complex through its hydro-orology
functions, that is, by regulating water hence
topsoil of the land system.
Other essential
roles include biodiversity support and cultural
asset
that
are
important
to
community
livelihood. In the whole, the roles of Gunung
Mahawu can be stated as use values, existence
values, option values, and bequest values.
These ecosystem values have long been with
the community, however, they have just been
recognized and somehow appreciated by a
large scale of the community.
Some of the
reasons include the frequent occurrences of
flooding, land and road erosion, and landslides
all happened lately (within the past 5 years); in
the meantime there is also a raising awareness
of global warming impacts.
Located in the city of Tomohon, there has
Figure 1. The location of Gunung Mahawu
1
been
a
strong
attachment
mountain and the community.
between
the
Some cultural
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and
Development Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi
Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013
2
Sam Ratulangi University, [email protected]
321
aspects such as traditional music and dance can be associated with the presence of the mountain.
This city has been known as the center of regional education where people from many other places
come to study.
The mean temperature can be categorized as mild (around 200C), supporting certain
wildlife fauna and flora such as Nepenthes masarangense, Macaca nigra, Bufo celebensis, Ficus
minahassae, and Schefflera actinophylla.
Access
road
mountain
up
top
established
by
government
concerns
to
has
local
leading
on
the
been
to
increasing
pressure to the protected
forest already being open by
grasslands
and
farming.
This study examined public
Figure 2. One of scenic view taken from Gunung Mahawu
awareness
on
financial
aspects
the
mountain
of
focusing on its (a) water values; (b) carbon sequestration; and (c) existence values.
II. METHODS
The contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to estimate economic values of Gunung
Mahawu protected forest as the method allows valuation of non-market goods and services, both use
and non-use values.This method has some considerable limitations (i.e. the questions or the market
situations are hypothetical and thus subject to controversy); nevertheless, the method has been
widely used with some known assumptions and prior assurances such as: (a) taking as much as
possible on how people think about the good or service in question; (b) considering people’s
familiarity with the good or service, as well as the importance of such factors as quality, quantity,
accessibility, the availability of substitutes, and also the reversibility of the change; and (c)
determining the extent of the affected populations or markets for the good or service in question.Clear
definition of the services, the context, the confidence that respondents are actually stating their values
for these services.
During three months, 100 respondents affected by flood, water scarcity, and
landslides were being asked directly on their willingness to pay in order for the “disaster” not to
happen again (hypothetically). The total economic value of the mountain (Gunung Mahawu) is the
function of the following components:
1.
Values of domestic water
2.
Values of carbon sequestration
3.
Values of mountain conservation
4.
Values of mountain existence
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The economic valuation was made for several forms of ecosystem services mentioned above,
measured during year 2012. The NPV was estimated for 25 years with BI rate as much as 10%.
322
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
An Approach in Ecosystem Valuation: A Case of The G. Mahawu…...
Martina A. Langi
1) Water for domestic use
The assumption being used here is Gunung Mahawu stored and supplied soil water; then the
economic value for water is regarded as non-direct use. Related indicators include the maintained
quality and quantity of community water springs and wells; this water are being used for domestic
purposes including livestock. Table 1 contains the need, the price, and total cost involved for this
purpose.
2) Carbon valuation
The remaining forest of Gunung Mahawu is 402.28 ha (excluding the formed grasslands and
farmland). The carbon value was approached using the international general standard of 5 $/ton
C contained in secondary forest (being 283 ton C per ha). The related calculation is presented in
Table 1.
3) Conservation valuation
This value was measured from the willingness to pay of the community to keep and sustain
Gunung Mahawu as a protective forest. A research carried out by the Forest Ecology class of
UNSRAT (2012) on biodiversity of Gunung Mahawu biodiversityshowed these following results.
Vegetation density
was averagely 612per ha; and there were 23 bird species (among them 11
were native), 5 reptile species, 6 mammal species, and at least 14 insect species including various
butterflies. With diverse species still found in Gunung Mahawu, the quality of ecosystem as life
support to surrounding environment can be maintained.
The economic values of this aspect is
presented in Table 1.
4) Existence valuation
The existence values in this study covers cultural, spiritual, and esthetical aspects associated with
the presence of Gunung Mahawu.
From generation to generation, these values have been
cherished and recently appreciated more due to population growth and activities that has
consumed most open natural areas within the city. Economic valuation to these aspects were
approached from people’s willingness to pay (Table 1).
Table 1. Economic valuation on ecosystem services of Gunung Mahawu Tomohon
Ecosystem service
Value quantity and portion
NPV (10%, 25
%
years) (Rp)
1
Domestic water services
7,818,952,100
53.78
161,548,597,102
2
Carbon services
6,261,488,200
43.07
1,595,090,909
3
Conservation services
402,625,850
2.77
2,844,252,820
4
Existance services
0.38
507,796,849
Total economic value (Rp)
Rp/year
55,943,000
14,539,009,150
It was generally calculated that the total economic value of Gunung Mahawu at present is Rp.
14,539,009,150 per year or 36,141,516.23 Rp/ha/year. The value shows highest portion for domestic
323
water (53.78%) followed by carbon sequestration (43.07%), conservation (2.77%), and existence
(0.38%).
This shows a strong role of Gunung Mahawu in accommodating water need of the
community, at least locally.
The degradation of forest area may certainly affect this important
function. Serious protection and management are of urgency as there are some concerns regarding
opening access through road establishment.
Furthermore, this value has not completely covered all services bequeathed by Gunung Mahawu
to the living environment.
Other vital values such as the comprehensive estimation of flood
prevention, climate stability, nutrient cycling, or source of genetic plasma have not been included in
the above total economic value.
Nevertheless, this general calculation should be sufficient to
encourage professional management of Gunung Mahawu as a protective forest.
REFERENCES
Diamond, P.A. and Hausman, J.A. 2004. 'Contingent Valuation: Is Some Number better than No
Number?' The Journal of Economic Perspectives 8(4):45-64
Diamond, S.S. 2000. Reference Guide on Survey Research (2nd), Reference Manual on Scientific
Evidence, Federal Judicial Center.
Hanemann, W.M. 2004. 'Valuing the Environment through Contingent Valuation'. The Journal of
Economic Perspectives 8(4): 19-43.
Hartwirck, J.M. and Olewiler, N.D. 1986. The Economics of Natural Resource Use. Penguins Publ.
New York.
Mundy, B. and McLean, D. 2008. The Addition of Contingent Valuation and Conjoint Analysis. The
Journal Practice and Education 14(1):250-259.
Portney, P.R.2003. The Contingent Valuation Debate: Why Economists Should Care'. The Journal of
Economic Perspectives 8(4):3-17
Rangkaian Publikasi PS. Kehutanan UNSRAT 2011. Explorasi Biodiversitas Sulawesi. Penelitian dosen
dan mahasiswa.
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The Cost Analysis of Sustainable Electrification…...
Hilda Lionata
The Cost Analysis of Sustainable Electrification
Study Case: Community-Based Micro Hydro in Cibuluh Village,
Mt. Simpang Nature Reserve1
Hilda Lionata2
ABSTRACT
Indonesia is blessed with high potential of 75,000 MW hydro power (Public Work Ministry, 2011) but there
are 14.5 out of 43.5 million households without electrification (The Worldbank, 2005). To utilize the
potential of hydro power in rural areas, forest must be conserved to provide hydrological services.
Environmental and social aspects held key roles for a sustainable, rural electrification. This study is geared
to find out the actual cost of hydro power development by internalizing environment and social costs. A six
years old, community-based micro hydro in Cibuluh village located inside Mt. Simpang Nature Reserve is
chosen as the study site. Forest services in ensuring water availability for the micro hydro are valuated
through Contingent Valuation (CV) and Productivity Methods. Data of social and technical valuation is
collected using methodological triangulation. Visits to Cibuluh village were conducted on May and July
2010. The valuation of forest services from CV and Productivity Method is 8,880,000/year and 6,624,000
rupiah/year respectively. Social aspect valuated through triangulation method shared 43% of the total
budget, 268,965,000 IDR. Total technical cost in constructing micro hydro is 235,000,000 IDR.
Keywords: cost analysis, community-based micro hydro, forest service valuation, sustainable electrification
I. INTRODUCTION
A. Rationale
Indonesia has high potential of 75,000MW hydro power (Public Work Ministry, 2011). However,
as a developing country, Indonesia still experiences difficulty in energy utilization, especially in term of
electrification. Fourteen point six million out of 43,5 million households, mostly in rural areas, are
without electrification (The World Bank, 2005). Over the past three decades, Government has
allocated considerable resources to its rural electrification program mainly through State Electricity
Company (PLN). Yet, electrifying an archipelagic country with roughly 14,000 islands and widely
spread villages brings challenges. The task of rural electrification should not rely entirely on
conventional power generation technologies such as coal. Tapping into the available resources of
1
This paper was presented in International Conference
on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency,
Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP.
Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Burung Indonesia , email : [email protected]
325
renewable energy such as micro hydro is one of the clean, environmentally friendly solutions to
meeting rural electrification.
Maintaining the availability of water flows in the river is one important element to utilize the
potential of hydro power in rural areas. To ensure water availability, the forest must be conserved to
provide hydrological ecological services. Indonesia, once blessed with vast rain forest, currently
experiences decrease of forest’s area. Forest on Java island for example, suffers the most when its
area is reduced from 5,070 million hectares in 1950 to 1,3 million hectares in 1997. In 2009, only
897,978 ha of forest coverage is left (www.fwi.org).
Providing electricity and ensuring sustainable electrification in rural area is two different things.
Forty four of 80 on-grid (that supplies electricity to State Power Company) and 111 of 180 off-grid
(that feeds to consumers’ houses) micro hydro in Indonesia is no longer operating (Budiono, 2003).
Many stories of micro hydro (MH) constructions end up as developmental monument in Indonesia.
Community needs to be prepared for micro hydro development. Knowing that environmental and
social aspects held key roles in community-based, rural electrification, it is become necessary to
internalize the cost of these two aspects and learn how they contribute to micro hydro development.
I. 2 Research Objectives
This study is geared to valuate total cost of micro hydro development, by integrating the value of
ecological and social cost, showcasing micro hydro in Cibuluh village (later referred as Cibuluh MH) as
the study case.
II. METHODOLOGY
A. Study Site
One micro hydro in very hilly Cibuluh village, located inside Mt. Simpang Nature Reserve and
guarded by community based conservation group called Raksabumi was chosen as the study site. As
shown in Figure II.1, it is one of the few forests left in Java. This 15.000 ha forest experienced
rampant illegal logging during the period of 1997-1999. However, the forest has revived with the help
of a community based conservancy group called Raksabumi, facilitated by YPAL (Yayasan Pribumi
Alam Lestari), a local conservation NGO. Their success has made GEF-SGP (Global Environmental Fund
– Small Grant Program), grant them a 20 kW micro hydro. It has provided electricity for the people
since 2005 until now. Cibuluh households are located in clusters of 20-55 scattered households.
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Hilda Lionata
Figure 1. The map of Mt. Simpang Nature Reserve in West Java
B. Methodology
Three aspects needed for a community-based micro hydro are valuated to analyze the cost of its
development. First was the valuation of forest service to represent ecological aspect using
questionnaires of Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) and Productivity Method (PM). Forty of 148
consumers were surveyed on a random basis for CVM. Two respondents were sampled on reference
basis for PM. Second was the identification of Cibuluh social capital and the valuation of social
participation as representative of social aspect. Third was the valuation of technical micro hydro
construction to represent economical aspect. Data of social capital and technical MH construction was
collected using methodological triangulation. In depth interviews with key informants, informal
conservations, FGD (Focus Group Discussion) and field observations were carried out. Village profile,
project report and budget documents were studied. Total cost required for Cibuluh micro hydro
development is calculated from those three valuations. Preliminary visit to Cibuluh village was
conducted on May 19-22nd, 2010 while the second was on July 24-28th, 2010.
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A. Forest Service
1. Contingent Valuation Method
Respondent who stated relatively high willingness to pay (WTP) per month was the one who
economically depends on electricity for his micro internet-café. The person understands very well the
327
dependency of micro hydro to water availability and conservation of upstream area due to his frequent
exposures and involvements with YPAL and Raksabumi. There were 5 persons in total who were
willing to pay more than 10,000 IDR. Thirty two (majority of the respondents) were willing to pay less
than 10,000 IDR. Two hypothesis for the relatively low WTP were the lack of electricity usage for
income generating activity and the nature of Cibuluh people who are mostly subsistent, having limited
monetary capital in the households. The distribution of WTP in Cibuluh is skewed as can be seen in
Table III.1, therefore median WTP (5,000) reflects what the majority of people would be willing to pay
(Pearce, et.al 2006).
Tabel 1. Range of WTP Value from Questionnaire
Number of
respondents
WTP (in rupiah)
7
7
12
1
5
2
1
1
1
1,000
2000
5,000
7,000
10,000
15,000
25,000
30,000
50,000
Therefore, WTP value per year from CVM result in Cibuluh is 8,880,000 IDR. The statistic
description of WTP can be seen in Table 2.
Table 2. Descriptive WTP Statitistic of Cibuluh Micro Hydro Consumers
Item
Value
Total
Respondent
Mean WTP
Median WTP
Minimum WTP
Maximum WTP
37
7,371 IDR
5,000 IDR
1,000 IDR
50,000 IDR
2. Productivity Method
The total value of Productivity Method; 6,624,000 IDR/year, is derived from micro internet-café
and a tofu home industry. During interviews and daily interactions with the people, having electricity in
the house has enabled villagers to have longer working hours that leads to more productivity. Civil
servants can work longer hours that can lead to a promotion and higher income. Micro scale
entrepreneurs also gained additional hours to open their stalls or to produce snacks. Yet they were too
micro and incidental to be measured. There is another element of safety and convenient as added
value to have electricity from micro hydro rather than oil lamp or diesel fuel. Value derived from PM is
an understatement of the total economic value of the forest. It does not capture the full value of
forest services because it only addresses values in energy production (electricity). The sum of CVM
and PM, 15,504,000 million IDR/year, represents the value of forest service in 2010.
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The Cost Analysis of Sustainable Electrification…...
Hilda Lionata
Table 3. Result of Productivity Method of Cibuluh Micro Hydro
No.
Name
Profession
1
Tohir,
Entrepreneur
Notes
(owns
50 years old tofu home industry)
a If there is no electricity, 12 L of diesel fuel is needed
to
operate
the
machine
to
grind
1000
kg
beans/month. Thus, the production cost with no
electricity is 72,000 rupiah/month (6,000 rupiah/liter)
or 864,000 rupiah/year.
2
Warmin,
Entrepreneur
(owns
a If there is no electricity, 1 L of diesel fuel is needed to
26 years old micro internet café, with operate generator set for 2 hours. Thus, the
1 PC, 1 printer, 1 lap top production cost to keep the shop open without
and a digital camera)
electricity for 8 hours per day is 24,000/day or
480,000 rupiah/month or 5,760,000 rupiah/year.
Total Productivity Value
6,624,000 rupiah/year
B. Social Participation
As the management group has been facilitated by YPAL, it has been successful in tackling some
of social issues frequently faced in community-based micro hydro development. Though there are
some issues remain as challenges for Cibuluh management group, with time and experiences the
group will be able to tackle them too. Distrust from the subscriber to the managing group,
discrepancies of financial report within the group and to the subscriber, horizontal conflicts on
electrical quota were some of the challenges to be reduced gradually. Summary of frequent social
issue raised due to MH construction and how Cibuluh management group tackled them can be seen in
Table 4.
Table 4. The Frequent Social Issue faced by Community-based Micro-Hydro Development and Cibuluh
Management
Frequent
Social
Community-based
Issues
in
Micro-Hydro
Description
of
Micro-Hydro
Management
in
Cibuluh
Development
Weak management institution (Public
The institution is in an informal form, without any
Works Ministry, 2011 and Ilskog, 2008)
notary deed but it has its own structure such as leader,
operator, and a treasurer. It conducts meeting with all
consumers to elect new leader of the management.
Community’s inability to replace
The management group is able to provide money
generator after breakdown (UNIDO,
collected from the monthly fee and repair generator 3
2003)
times after the construction.
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Frequent
Social
Community-based
Issues
in
Micro-Hydro
Description
of
Micro-Hydro
Management
in
Cibuluh
Development
No guidance after construction. The
Guidance is provided after the construction by YPAL.
project organization only guides the
community during the construction,
which only takes a couple of months
(Verlinde, 2007)
Uncertain authority. It is not always clear
The line of authority is clear. When something goes
who has the responsibility, when
wrong, the community will convey it to the management
something goes wrong (Verlinde, 2007)
group. They try to resolve the problem first, but if they
need a mediator they ask for YPAL assistantship.
Lacking of training and assistantship to
Training and assistantship to operate and maintain MH
local operators to manage and maintain
is given not long after the construction to two of
micro hydro (Budiono, 2003)
management group member. The two then teach the
other members in the group.
Lacking of management skill for the
Collection is done in a monthly basis. The money is used
operator group to collect, manage and
to cover routine operational and maintenance cost.
control the usage of the money
Having the process in a well- documented archive and
generated from the micro hydro
accountable for the consumers is still a challenge.
(Budiono, 2003).
Lack of trust. People suspect the
Amount of collection from monthly fee is fluctuating.
management of the installation to be
Several consumers refuse to pay. The balance sheet is
corrupt and refuse to pay the bill
not too accountable and changes per leadership.
(Verlinde, 2007)
Sabotage. Villagers without a connection
Never happened up until today. People in Cibuluh still
are dissatisfied and sabotage the
upheld the agreement they made when they decide who
installation (Verlinde, 2007)
have the right to electricity connection.
Discrepancies on financial accountability
Discrepancies happens several times, it depend on the
& administration by the management
leadership of the management.
institution (Budiono, 2003).
(Source: GEF-SGP financial report and personal communication)
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The Cost Analysis of Sustainable Electrification…...
Hilda Lionata
Three major stakeholders are involved and have been engaged before, during and after micro
hydro Cibuluh MH development as can be seen in Table 5.
Table 5. The Stakeholders and Their Roles in Cibuluh Micro Hydro Development
Stake holders
Roles
Facilitating NGO, - YPAL (Yayasan
1.
Pribumi Alam Lestari)
Facilitating,- trust building, policy advocacy, group
information, acces to network, economic development
2. Capacity building,- human and organization
Funding NGO, - GEF-SGP (Global
Environmental Fund – Small Grant
Supporting the work of facilitating NGO including
providing fund
Program)
Cibuluh people
Becoming the actor of development:
Helping out the construction work
Managing MH operational and maintenance
Managing MH management group
GEF-SGP as funding NGO shared most of the expenses (63% of the total budget). Facilitating
NGO shared the least of the expenses (12%) while community shared 25% of the expenses. During
construction work, community shared almost in equal portion to the funding NGO as seen in Table III.
6. The social participation in form of monthly collection fee after the construction is not incorporated
into the community budget since it is used for MH operational and maintenance.
Table 6. The Summary of Social Participation Cost by Each Stakeholders
in Micro Hydro Construction and Development
Description
Community
YPAL
GEF-SGP
1. Pre-Construction
4,800,000
2,200,000
3,600,000
2. During micro hydro construction
55,500,000
14,400,000
55,800,000
3. Post micro hydro construction
5,000,000
5,750,000
89,475,000
Sub Total
65,300,000
22,350,000
148,875,000
Total Budget
236,525,000
(Source: GEF-SGP financial report and personal communication)
C. Technical
The technical cost of Cibuluh MH development is 235,000,000 IDR. All of routine operational and
maintenance expenses, including incidental, unexpected repairs are covered by the income obtained
from the consumers’ monthly fee. Micro hydro performance depends a lot on the quality of
331
maintenance and daily operation. Channel monitoring, turbine lubrication, forebay clearance are done
in a regular basis by Cibuluh MH management team. Damages to micro hydro such as overloading that
destroy the generator or capacitor have happened three times in Cibuluh. Fortunately the
management team knows how to repair the machines. Another annual repair is the intake pool due to
mistake on initial construction.
Table 7. Total of Technical Cost of Micro Hydro Development in Cibuluh Village.
Cibuluh micro hydro development
Budget (in IDR)
Pre Construction
Technical feasibility survey
9,000,000
Social, economic and environmental survey
2,700,000
Dissemination
1,600,000
During Construction
Physical construction
30,000,000
Turbine installation
70,000,000
Material and equipment transportation
Electricity network installation to houses
2,000,000
114,200,000
Commissioning, test and trial
1,500,000
Pasca Construction
Training of operation and maintenance
2,000,000
Cross visit of water management
2,000,000
Total Construction Cost
235,000,000
(Source: GEF-SGP financial report)
D. Cost Analysis
Micro hydro is often perceived as a cheap technology because the water that generated electricity
has been taken for granted. The valuation of forest service that ensures water availability in Cibuluh
from year 2004 to 2010 after calculated using Indonesian Central Bank rate of inflation is 85,221,951
IDR. Though the upstream area is not administratively located within the village, with the existence of
Raksabumi and Village Regulation, they still can do conservation work to ensure water availability. This
is a competitive advantage compared to other micro hydro which locates in different area with the
upstream area administratively. In the later context, micro hydro beneficiaries have no/limited control
to influence people living in the upstream to conserve the area.
As social participation plays a crucial role to instill and sustain technological development,
attention should be expressed in allocating certain budget to the works. In Cibuluh, this aspect shared
43% of the total budget, 268,965,000 IDR. The total actual cost by integrating social participation and
forest service aspect besides the technical is 556,746,951 IDR by year 2010.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Cost Analysis of Sustainable Electrification…...
Hilda Lionata
Table 8. The Actual Cost of Cibuluh Micro Hydro Development until Year 2010
Expenses
Year
Item
Budget Post
(IDR)
2004-2005
Micro Hydro Construction
TA
235,000,000
2004-2005
Preparation of Micro Hydro Construction
SPA
10,600,000
2004-2005
During Micro Hydro Construction
SPA
125,700,000
2004-2005
Forest Service (Value from WTP and
FSA
9,029,718
FSA
9,611,962
SPA
100,225,000
FSA
10,727,936
FSA
12,378,149
FSA
13,225,107
FSA
14,745,079
FSA
15,504,000
Productivity Method)
2005-2006
Forest Service (Value from WTP and
Productivity Method)
2005-2006
After Micro Hydro Construction (capacity
building, business plan consultation,
documentation & monev)
2006-2007
Forest Service (Value from WTP and
Productivity Method)
2007-2008
Forest Service (Value from WTP and
Productivity Method)
2008-2009
Forest Service (Value from WTP and
Productivity Method)
2009-2010
Forest Service (Value from WTP and
Productivity Method)
2010-2011
Forest Service (Value from WTP and
Productivity Method)
Total Budget until 2010
556,746,951
Note. TA: Technical Aspect, SPA: Social Participation Aspect and FSA: Forest Service Aspect.
IV. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Forest service, social participation and technical aspects contributed 15%, 43% and 42%
respectively to the total of 556,746,951 IDR of Cibuluh MH development until year 2010. Micro hydro
is predicted to be able to ensure electrification until its service time (year 2020) with the existing social
capital. The ability to install new micro hydro after the end of the current’s micro-hydro is still
questionable. The worst case scenario to sustain Cibuluh electrification is asking for more external
subsidy through other grants.
Study on micro hydro development in other social context such as tribal communities should be
carried out to have a comprehensive understanding on making a sustainable community-based micro
hydro. Study on innovation of the traditional water wheel technology, is more appropriate to answer
the electrification problem in remote areas that has limited access to market such as the study site
333
chosen here. If the micro hydro exists in different administrative area to the upstream area, study of
payment of ecosystem has to be considered.
REFERENCES
Budiono, C. (2003): Tantangan dan Peluang Usaha Pengembangan Sistem Energi Terbarukan di
Indonesia. Presentation Paper on Electrification Seminar. PT. Chazaro Gerbang Internasional.
Departemen Kehutanan Indonesia (2005): Rekalkulasi 2005 in http://www.dephut.go.id
Fauzi, A. (2004): Ekonomi Sumber Daya Alam Dan Lingkungan Teori dan Aplikasi. Penerbit PT.
Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta
Forest Watch Indonesia (FWI)/Global Forest Watch (GFW). (2002): The State of the Forest: Indonesia.
Bogor, Indonesia. Report of Forest Watch Indonesia and Global Forest Watch. Washington
DC:
Heyneardhi, H. (2004): Dari Layanan Publik ke Layanan Privat: Liberalisasi Sektor Ketenagalistrikan di
Indonesia. Penerbit The Business Watch Indonesia – Widya Sari Press. Surakarta
Ilskog, E. and Kjellstro, B. (2008): And then they lived sustainably ever after?—Assessment of rural
electrification cases by means of indicators. Energy Policy. 36 2674– 2684
Integrated Microhydro Development and Application Program (IMIDAP). (2009): Impelementasi
Pembangunan Mikrohidro Berbasis Masyarakat. Modul Pelatihan. Direktorat Jenderal Listrik
dan Pemanfaatan Energi. Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral
Integrated Microhydro Development and Application Program (IMIDAP). (2009): Panduan Skema
Investasi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Mikrohidro. Modul Pelatihan. Direktorat Jenderal Listrik
dan Pemanfaatan Energi. Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral
Kementrian Pekerjaan Umum. (2011): Penelitian dan pengembangan Pengelolaan Teknologi Mikro
Hidro Berbasis Masyarakat. Excecutive Summary. Jakarta
King, D. M., and Mazzotta, M. J. (2000): Ecosystem Valuation in www.ecosystemvaluation.org
Paish, O. (2002): Small hydro power: technology and current status. Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews. 6 537–556
Pearce, D., Atkinson, G. and Mourato, S., (2006): Cost Benefit Analysis and the Environment: Recent
Development. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
Perusahaan Listrik Negara (PLN). (2010). Tarif Dasar Listrik 2010 in www.pln.co.id
The World Bank. (2005):. Electricity for All, Options for Opening Access in Indonesia. Report of Energy
and Mining Unit, Infrastructure Development, East Asia and Pacific Region
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO). (2003): Chapter 10 Developing Energy
to Meet Development Needs. Report prepared in collaboration with World Health
Organization, United Nations Environment Programme, regional commisions and World Bank
Verlinde, Y. (2007): The Simpang Community and Electricity. Magister Thesis of Environmental
Technology. Saxion University, Deventer. Netherland
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The Cost Analysis of the Combination of Wood Plants…...
La Ode Asier
Financial Analysis of The Combination of Wood Plants with Coconaut (Cocos
nucifera. Linneaeus) Plants in Sulut
Case Study at Mapanget District in Manado City1
La Ode Asier2
ABSTRACT
In North Sulawesi is generally plantation in dominance with plants of coconut ( cocos nucifera L), so
that the capital province called as nyiur melambai city. Land use in the area of coconut plant is
inefficient due to only use the land around 20% per hectare, and 80% other land is not be utilized.
This research aims to know the magnitude of the financial value of some kinds of plant timber in the
area of coconut plants. Cempaka (Elmerrillia ovalis (Miq.)Dandy), teak (Tectona grandis, L.f),
mahogony (Swietenia mahagoni (L). DC), nyatoh (Palaquium obtusifolium), as sidelines plant be the
research object. Its result is sideline plant at age 6 to 7 years in the area of coconut plants can give
an advantage of between 2 to 5 times larger the capital issued, whereas the magnitude of cost
acceptance compared to the cost of production (R/C) ≥ 1, greater acceptance of 3 to 5 times that of
the capital that is used as the cost of production. This indicates that the plants is between very worth
trying to accomplish as a fire retardant plants soil erosion on the site of ,and it can increase revenue.
Keyword: Inefficient, coconut plantations, financial, sidelines plants, the cost of production.
I. INTRODUCTION
The increasing number of population, the total consumption of wood for domestic needs and for
export also increased. The wood needs can not be met by the production of natural forest a long a
depletion as timber supplies available. It encourages people to plant trees forest / woody plants on
holding commonly called community forests.
The term "community forests " are not mentioned in the Law. 41/1999 on Forestry, but the term
is synonymous with forest rights (in terms of the Act), which is located on forest land encumbered
land rights. Forestry Minister No.49/Kpts-II/1997 more detailed mention that the community forest is
a forest that grows on land encumbered property rights or other rights, with a minimum area of 0.25
ha and timber crop canopy closure of 50% or more minimum number of trees 500 stems / ha.
1
2
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013
Forestry Research Institute Manado, Jl. Raya Adipura Kel.Kima Atas, Kec. Mapanget Kota Manado
Telp.(0431) 3888863. Email: [email protected] / [email protected]
335
In North Sulawesi is generally plantation in domination by the coconut plant (Cocos nucifera. L),
so the provincial capital known as the City Nyiur Melambai. Distribution of oil that has been
domesticated originally done by people who migrated to the Pacific Malaysia and India that has been
begun in 3000 years ago. Without realizing it, it turns out wild coconuts in the area already exists.
This encourages the occurrence of a cross between wild and coconut oil that has been domesticated.
To know also that the Polynesian navigators, Malaya, and Arabs also play an important role in
spreading further into the Pacific, Asia, and East Africa. Coconut is really spread out to control every
aspect after European explorers in the 16th century bring West Africa, the Caribbean, and the Atlantic
coast.
Coconut naturally grows on the beach and the tree reaches a height of 30 m. This plant can
grow to height of 1000 m above sea level, but it will be a slowdown in growth. A coconut plantation/
industrial form of tree trunks straight from Palmae family. There are two opinions on the origins of the
oil from South America by DF Cook, Van Martius Beccari and Thor Herjerdahl and of Asian or IndoPacific according to Berry, Werth, Mearil, Mayurathan, Lepesma, and Pureseglove.
Coconut is widely available in Asian countries and the Pacific that produce 5.276 million tonnes
(82%) with a world wide production ± 8.875 million ha (1984) which covers 12 countries, while the
rest by countries in Africa and South America. Indonesia is the largest coconut (3.334 million ha in
1990) spread in Riau, Central Java, West Java, East Java, Jambi, Aceh, North Sumatra, North
Sulawesi, NTT, Central Sulawesi, South Sulawesi and Maluku, but production under the Philippines
(2.472 million tonnes with area of 3.112 million ha), which amounted to 2.346 million tons.
Palm plantations in terms of the land use is a plant that is not efficient because only about 20%
of land use per hectare, and the other 80% is land which is not utilized. Coconut plant population
amounted to 140 per hectare at a spacing of 9 x 9m, extensive root only about 1.5-2.0 meters from
the base of the stem (Nursuestini, 1990), thus the rest of the land area that can be used for crops is
between ± 9,760 m².
In North Sulawesi palm plantations in the area, estimated to ± 271.359 ha, this means that there
is an area of 217 087 ha ± which can be used for a variety of activities ranging from the use of farm
crops to annual crops.
On land that has a slope of undulating to hilly levels (> 25%) as most are generally in the region
of North Sulawesi, land usetime efficiently between coconut crops will increase the income of coconut
farmers economically, and can reduce the hazard of erosion.
Djafar (1991) suggested that erosion occurs in coconut planting area with a slope of 20% of the
cultivated peanut was 53 kg/4.5 m2 atau 117.78 tons/ha, while at the same slope with no treatment,
the erosion of 0.30 kg/4.5 m2 atau 0.67 tons/ha. Thus tillage on processed palm planting area on the
slope of ≥ 20% can result in greater erosion than no tillage.
Based on the above background information is needed regarding the effect of the plant between
either a timber in coconut plantation locations, both physically and financially. This study aims to
determine the value of (financial) from a combination of several types of woody plants in coconut
planting area.
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The Cost Analysis of the Combination of Wood Plants…...
La Ode Asier
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
A. Time and Location Research
The study is conducted in the Village of Lapangan, District of Mapanget, Manado City in
September 2012. The election of this location based on the results of field surveys, on the basis that
the coconut planting area (community property) there are a few combination with woody plants that
cempaka (Elmerrillia ovalis (Miq.) Dandy), teak (Tectona grandis, L.f), mahogony (Swietenia mahagoni
(L). DC), nyatoh (Palaquium obtusifolium.Burck.),
B. Materials Research
The equipment used in this research are, roving bands, haga hypsometer, mines, stationery, tally
sheet, questionnaire and cameras. The materials used are of stands located on site observations.
C. Research Methods
Data are collected through interviews, discussions, the selected respondents (purposive
sampling) includes information about the type of plant combinations, year of planting, and extensive
planting site. In addition to the other information about the process of community forest
management. Results of interviews with selected respondents then tabulated for descriptive analyzed.
Direct measurements in the of field include the tree-dimensional data on the size of tree
diameter at breast height, total tree height, tree height to the first branch, on each plant species in an
area of 0.1 ha.Volume wooden figures calculated with correction for coconut 1 (form cylindrical trunk)
and 0.7 for other types (Soendjoto, 2008).
Data are collected from the data collection and measurement in monitoring location calculated by
the formula:
1. The general formula for estimating tree volume (DepHut, 1992) are:
ൌ
Description:
V
d
h
g
f
337
=
=
=
=
=
൫గௗ మ ௫௛௫௙൯
ସ
or V = g x h x f
Volume of timber
Diameter at bosom height
Tree height
Cross-sectional area of a tree at breast height
Numbers form
2. Standing volume
ÝR
=
Ŕ.X
Description:
ÝR
Ŕ
= Volumestand (m3)
= Average volume of trees per hectare (m3/ha)
X
= Land area (ha)
To determine the amount of descriptive percent of capital gains are used, be approached by
using the general formulation of the analysis of ROI (Return OnInvestmen) (Halawane et al, 2011).
ROI ൌ ௉௥௢௙௜௧
஼௢௦௧Ȁா௤௨௜௧௬
‫ͲͲͳݔ‬Ψ
The amount of revenue from a series of expenditure (capital) which rated current is feasible and
profitable if the R / C ratio (Analysis Revenue Cost Ratio) is greater than 1.
R/C ratio ൌ ்௢௧௔௟ோ௘௩௘௡௨௘
்௢௧௔௟஼௢௦௧
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A. Community Forests
Community forest area managed by the individual societies (family rate) on land owned is
generally composed by planting one crop is referred to as coconut or palm plantations (pristine public
forests), while the area is composed of more than one species of plants (polyculture) generally a
combination of coconut plants with woody plants (people of mixed forest).
In the study, people of mixed forests are not clustered in one particular area but scattered
among the public housing complex. According Widayanti (2004), community forests are not clustered
in a particular area but depending on the location, land area, and the diversity of farming patterns.
In the research area, the crop is technically general irregular, the owner just make a distance
from one another tree that is 4 x 5 m for teak plant species, and a distance of 2 x 3 m for type of
mahogany, chrysolite and nyatoh among coconut trees ( 10 x 8 m). Owning farmers choose crops
cultivated only based on existing knowledge and not through careful planning, but rather take
advantage of the availability of seeds that exist around the region.
Lack of technical assistance related to the planning system, the results will not be optimal.
According to Simon (1995) referred to in Widiarti (2008) says that the plant will be designed from the
start attempted and in selecting the type of things that have to be met some kind of cultivated /
developed get optimal results, some of them have to meet the environmental, social and economic .
Community forests are not only contribute economically to increase revenue and expand
employment or business opportunities, but also in the response to the ecological functions of
degraded land, soil and water conservation, and the conservation of flora and fauna. Rahayu and
Awang (2003) suggested that the community forest; (1) provide additional assurance of daily income
from short-lived plants and savings from long-lived plants, (2) easier and cheaper to maintain than a
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
The Cost Analysis of the Combination of Wood Plants…...
La Ode Asier
farm or acreage crops, as it provides fodder or firewood and do not need to be fertilized and weeded,
(3) environmentally advantageous, because it can grow springs, reducing soil erosion, and increase
nutrient cycling.
Growth of timber trees in mixed forest folk influenced by many factors, namely the level of tree
density, planting pattern and plant species are cultivated. From interviews and direct observations in
the field showed that the growth of timber grown in coconut planting area did not significantly affect
the production of coconuts there. Community forests pure coconut crop is generally planted in the
study site in 1975-1976, producing fruit between the ages of 9-10 years. When compared with woody
plant species at that age has provided results from thinning efforts. So planting timber as intercrops in
coconut plantations each location into consideration that land use in the area of pristine public forests
(coconut plantation) can be utilized optimally.
B. Production of Forestry
According Setyamijaya (1982) that wood varieties in coconut (Cocosnucifera), tall stems and
large, can grow up to 30-40 m. The pole toenlarged and have a lifespan of up to 100 years.
Palm stems have different strengths in each section. Generally harder edge than the middle part.
These factors caused the vessel cells in groupsdisebutvascular tighter bundles and spread to the
edges than middle part(Joseph, 1987, referred to in Anonymous 1993).
Coconut wood physical and mechanical properties are very diverse, both vertical and horizontal
directions. At the ripe harvest stem in the center of the base of the tree trunk wood density 0.25 and
about 0.90 at the edge. Wood density at a height of 19.5 m above the ground rodmiddle part about
0.10 and 0.25 edges ( Richolson&Swarup, 1975) in (Widiatmoko, 1987). Further explained that by not
wooden eye on coconut wood, will enhance the possibility of exploiting Coconut wood for laminated
wood as a structural component interesting in design modern architecture.
Figure 1.A pile of coconut trunk (glugu) people from 40-50 years old.
Coconut wood processing in generally is not easy in practice, required considerable experience in
marketing patterns, especially for export quality. In recent years there have been numerous claims
against coconut wood flooring products from Indonesia are exported to America, Europe and Japan.
Portion of the claim generally achieve more than 40% products are exported volume. This led to huge
losses for exporters of coconut wood and tends to stop the business of the seller and the buyer in the
use of coconut wood. The sole reason for the claim is the change of the dimensions and shape of the
339
product once it reaches the destination or at the time of use. Changes in shape and dimensions as a
result of changes in humidity between the production and the use of a natural trait of most wood.
But in the case of coconut wood or other palm wood also find anatomical differences in the
structure and composition of very large compared to the traditional wood anatomy of needles or
leaves the group wide. Differences in the anatomical structure and implications are not widely known
by the coconut wood processing, so that the stages in the processing of coconut wood processing is
done exactly the same as the traditional wood. (Balfas, 2010).
Level Density
(High) > 600 Kg/m3
text
text
text
(Medium) 400-600 Kg/m3
(Low) < 400 Kg/m3
Figure 2. Example of coconut pieces of wood with the level of density at each pieceseams
Coconut plants have a physical structure that resembles an umbrella (crown), has leaves that
curl and distance from the surface of the ground has widened as the age of the plant. At the time of
the transfer of heavy rain occurs in crown water plants, some will flow through the midrib and
evaporated (interception), partly flows from the leaf to the stem (stemflow) and then to the ground,
while the other part will flow through the ends of the leaves and will fall into ground (throughfall) with
a fairly heavy flow, giving rise to kinetic energy that can unload a ground surface as a trigger spark
erosion mainly on coconut planting area that has a fairly steep slope.
To reduce throughfall and interception are high increase of the coconut crop plant species
between the prolific as timber, fruits that have high economic value can reduce damage to the
environment and to improve the welfare of society.
At the study site is dominated by crop plants between chrysolite cempaka (Elmerrillia ovalis (Miq.)
Dandy), teak (Tectona grandis, L.f), mahogony (Swietenia mahagoni (L). DC), nyatoh (Palaquium
obtusifolium.Burck.)
Planting is done in six to seven years ago with the maximum care less. At the teak plants
generally has a branching without pruning, this is due to lack of guidance from the technical officer.
For other plants have a rather solid density, and until now has not been done at the age of thinning.
Mahogany plant species, some get shoot pests, so it is necessary to optimize growth pest control in
order to maintain proper growth process until they reach the age of logging.
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The Cost Analysis of the Combination of Wood Plants…...
La Ode Asier
Results of measurement in the field, to plant cempaka, mahogany and nyatoh, has a diameter
uniformity of diameter to total height of each tree. The diameter at bosom height, between 12-31 cm,
and total plant height between 6.5 to 20 m. For teak DBH between 13-30 cm with a total height of
15-21 m. Standing volume / ha on average for each - the crop in locations such as the coconut
plantation in the table below:
Table 1.The total volume of trees to each plant
Species of plant
Volume of plant
(m3/ha)
Land area
(Ha).
Volume of plant
(m3/ha)
Teak (Tectona grandis.L.f)
282,72
3
846,16
Nyatoh (Palaquium obtusifolium.Burck.)
194,86
1
194,86
Cempaka (Elmerrillia ovalis (Miq.) Dandy)
65,46
1
65,46
Mahogony(Swietenia mahagoni(L). DC)
257,73
1
257,73
Figure 3. Nyantoh and teak plant each of 6 and 7 years old, in the location of the coconut plantation
Figure 4. Cempaka and mahagony plant each of 6 years in the coconut plantation site)
341
C. Cost Analysis
Vacant land in coconut planting area is large enough to provide a very high value benefits to its
owner. The wood produced from the sideline plant will increase revenues between millions of dollars/
month. The following comparative analysis of the advantages by using the simple formula of timber
plants in coconut planting location.
1. Analysis of teak planting assuming:
a.
The total area of 3 ha (land)
b.
Cultivation period of 15 years
c.
Spacing between plants coconut 4 x 5 m
d.
The mortality rate of 10%
e.
Investment costs are calculated in the first year just to cover the purchase of seeds between
plant and agricultural equipment.
f.
Cost wage laborer (HOK) are 8 hours/day of Rp. 50.000, -
g.
Revenues derived from the results of thinning which is the first harvest spacingof each - each
sideline plant.
2. Analysis Nyato timber planting, Cempaka, and Mahogany with assumptions:
a. The total area of 1 ha (land)
b. The total area of 1 ha (land)
c. Spacing between plants coconut 2 x 3 m
Revenues derived from the result of thinning which is the first harvest spacing of each crop
broke. Cost Analysis of Plant Exploitation sideline as in Appendix 1. Analysis of Costs and Benefits
Receipt sideline Plant in coconut plantations.
Table 2.Cost analysis of acceptance and profits sideline plants in coconut plantation site
Teak (Tectona
grandis.L.f)
72
m3
3.000.000
216.000.000
Cost of
production
(Rp)
34.500.000
Nyatoh(Palaquium
obtusifolium.Burck..)
68
m3
1.500.000
102.000.000
15.975.000
86.025.000
Cempaka(Elmerrillia
ovalis (Miq.) Dandy)
23
m3
2.500.000
57.500.000
15.975.000
41.525.000
Mahogony(Swietenia
mahagoni(L). DC)
72
m3
1.500.000
108.000.000
19.475.000
88.525.000
The results
ofthinning
342
Volume
Unit price
(Rp)
Total
revenue(Rp)
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Total benefits
(Rp)
181.500.000
The Cost Analysis of the Combination of Wood Plants…...
La Ode Asier
Revenuesresults for each type of plant that is in the area of coconut plantations provide sufficient
additional benefits, to ensure the value of the income it can be analyzed by using Analysis Return On
Investmen (ROI) and Revenue Analysis Cost Ratio (R / C ) to knowing the ratio of revenue to cost of
production which has been spent.ROI analysis results and (R /C) can be seen in the table below:
Table 3.The results of the analysis ROI and R/C each sideline plants
Spesies of the sideline plants
Teak (Tectona grandis.L.f)
Nyatoh (Palaquium obtusifolium.Burck..)
Cempaka (Elmerrillia ovalis (Miq.) Dandy)
Mahogony (Swietenia mahagoni (L). DC)
Spesies of the sideline plants
Teak (Tectona grandis.L.f)
Nyatoh (Palaquium obtusifolium.Burck.)
Cempaka (Elmerrillia ovalis (Miq.) Dandy)
Mahogony (Swietenia mahagoni (L). DC)
ROI
(Analisis
Return On
Investmen)
Benefits
(Rp)
Cost of
production
(Rp)
181.500.000
34.500.000
5,26
86.025.000
15.975.000
5.40
41.525.000
15.975.000
2.60
88.525.000
19.475.000
4.55
Benefits
(Rp)
Cost of
production
(Rp)
R/C
(Analisis
revenue
cost ratio)
216.000.000
34.500.000
6,2
102.000.000
15.975.000
6,4
57.500.000
15.975.000
3,5
108.000.000
19.475.000
5,5
Remarks
Remarks
From Table 3 shows that the benefits (ROI) of each plant crack between 2 to 5 times more of the
issued capital, while the cost of revenue as compared to the cost of production (R / C) ≥ 1, in Table 3
looks more revenue great 3 to 5 times of major capital employed in the production cost. This indicates
that the plant is very worth between cultivated as a crop planting erosion control on sloping site, and
can increase revenue.
IV. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion
Growth of timber grown in coconut planting area does not significantly affect the production of
coconut fruit, fruit products as a material decline in copra oil declined due to the many parents who
have not been rejuvenated, in 2009, a decline in production per hectare from 1.21 tons / ha to 1.20
tons / ha. Planting timber or fruit productive as intercrops in coconut planting area can reduce the
amount of rainfall as Throughfall which can cause erosion on sloping lands and to increase revenue
343
for the public welfare. Gains derived from each plant interposed between 2 to 5 times greater than
the issued capital, while the cost of greater acceptance of 3 to 5 times the amount of capital used as
production costs. In coconut plantation site selection has a fairly steep slope and less fertile for
agricultural crops is recommended to be planted with woody plant species that are of interest to
landowners and land kesusuaian technically meet.
B. Suggestion
The result of this research will be more useful if the financial aspects and ecological studies can
be explored in more depth, so it can be considered utilization of vacant land in coconut planting area
optimally.
Acknowledgements
This paper is the result of research that is not funded from the budget of the current year's DIPA.
Gratitude for the assistance and input suggestions in preparingthis paper to Prof. (Ris).Dr, Ir, MSc
Pratiwi, and Mr. Haryawadin KamaMr. Haryawadin Kama (Research Institute of Forestry Technician
Manado).
REFERENCES
Balfas.2010. Perlakuan Resin pada Kayu Kelapa (Cocos nucifera) (Resin Treatment on Coconut Wood).
www.forda-mof.org.
Departemen Kehutanan. 1992. Manual Kehutanan. Jakarta :Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan
Kehutanan. Jakarta
Djafar,M. 1991.Pengaruh Kemiringan Tanah dan Pengelolaan Tanah di Bawah Pertanaman Kelapa
Terhadap Erosi . Buletin Balika No 13. artikel -57, Balitka Manado.
Nursuestini, 1990. Usaha Pengawetan Tanah Pada Areal Tanaman Kelapa Bertopografi Miring
DenganTanaman Sela. Buletin Balitka No 12, artikel 11. Balitka Manado.
Soendjoto.M. Arief.dkk.2008. Keanekaragaman Tanaman pada Hutan Rakyat di Kabupaten Tanah
Laut, Kalimantan Selatan. Buletin BIODIVERSITAS. Vol.9. Nomor 2 Hal. 142-147. Banjarbaru.
Widayanti, W.T. 2004. Implementasi metode pengaturan hasil hutan pada pengelolaan hutan rakyat
(Studi di desa Kedung keris, kecamatan Nglipar, kabupaten Gunung Kidul). Jurnal Hutan Rakyat
6 (2): 27-46
Widiarti, dkk. 2008. Karakteristik Hutan Rakyat Pola Kebun Campuran. Jurnal Pusat Litbang Hutan dan
Konservasi Alam. Bogor.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Terentang (Campnosperma auriculata Hook. F) : Alternative Species…...
Dewi Alimah
Terentang (Campnosperma auriculata Hook. f) : Alternative Species for Light
Construction Purposes and Pulp Materials from Peat Swamp Forest in Central
Kalimantan1
Dewi Alimah2
ABSTRACT
Terentang (Campnosperma auriculata Hook.f) is a typical plant species of peat swamp forest. The
species has potential as light construction and pulp materials. The limited scientific information of
terentang, making these plants to became lesser unknown species. Terentang is not developed and
advantaged yet by the community. This paper aims to provide profile information, silviculture
techniques, and the possible use of alternative raw materials terentang as light construction and pulp
materials. Data such as wood physical and mechanics properties, wood chemistry properties, and fiber
dimensions and its derivatives were taken from the literature. The data obtained were compared with
standard criteria. Based on the analysis of wood basic properties, showed that terentang wood fiber
characteristics meet the criteria for the pulp and paper with fiber quality class I. For the analysis it is
also known that terentang as timber belonged to the strength class IV. The overall data of this wood
properties suggested that the species is suitable for light construction purposes and furniture.
Keywords : terentang, Campnospermaauriculata, wood properties, pulp, light construction
I.
INTRODUCTION
Peat swamp forests have a diversity of plants is relatively lower than lowland forest vegetation
types in other tropical regions. Diversity of plants in peat swamp forest equivalent to heath forest
plant species diversity and forest sub-mountainous tropical regions but is still higher than the diversity
of mountains and mangrove forests (Simbolon and Mirmanto, 2000). Mustaid and Sambas (1999);
Miyamoto et al (2003) reported that natural peat swamp forests in various regions in Borneo has a
density of 1300-3200 individuals/ha, with a number of species between 65-141 species and total basal
area of tree trunks with a diameter more than 5 cm in diameter to 23-47 m2/ha.
Peat swamp forest is a unique ecosystem in which there is a special flora and fauna diversity.
Biological resources of flora has various functions such as forest products, industrial raw materials,
pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, and other non-timber forest products. Martawijaya and Kartasujana
(1977) estimates that there are approximately 4,000 species of trees based herbarium material that
1
Supporting paper in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity” organized by Manado Forestry Research
Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development Agency, Global
Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO BIOTROP. Manado
5 July 2013.
2
BalaiPenelitianKehutananBanjarbaru, Jl. A. Yani Km. 28,7, LandasanUlin, Banjarbaru 70721
Telp. 0511 – 4707872, Fax. 0511 – 4707872 , Email :[email protected]
345
has been collected by the Forest Research Institute o fthe various parts of Indonesia. Estimated only
about 400 species of trees that have been used in Indonesia. Among the 400 species of trees, there
are only 258 species of trees whose wood has been exposed and commercialized.
While the commercial timber species from year to year have a problem interms of quality and
quantity, so we need a variety of ways to overcome them. One way to be taken is to utilize timber
species that are less known for meeting the needs of timber resources. Many lesser-known wood
species have been used by the public, but it can not be used either because the data are still very
limited. For the purpose of optimal utilization of wood basic properties of the wood needed
information.
Terentang is one of the endemic species of peat swamp trees. In ancient times terentang wood
is used for veneer, canoeing, board, and waterwheel vanes (Heyne, 1987; Anonymous, 1997). But in
general, terentang including one potential species of peat swamp yet known. Until now there has not
been much developed and used by community. Scientific information and research that discusses
prospects, silviculture techniques, and the wood basic properties was still a little.This paper aims to
provide profile information, silviculture techniques, and the possible use of alternative raw materials
terentang as light construction and pulp materials.This information is expected to be beneficial to the
wider community so that its potential can be optimally utilized and maintained the sustainability.
II. PROFILE OF TERENTANG
According to Heyne (1987), terentang (Camnosperma auriculata Hook.f) are classified into:
Kingdom
: Plantae
Phylum/Division
: Spermatophyta
Sub Division
: Angiospermae
Class
: Eudicots
Order
: Sapindales
Family
: Anacardiaceae
Genus
: Campnosperma
Species
: C. auriculatum
This type of terentang is known as Madang Rimueng (Aceh), Antumbus (Bat.), terentang putih
(Malaysia), terentang Malung (Bangka), dalipo (Sulawesi), and hamtangen (Sampit, Kalimantan). In
Indonesia, this species is spread in an area of Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Sulawesi. Terentang are
often found in swampy lowland forests and can form pure stands or is the dominant species with
other type. In addition it can also be found growing in primary or secondary forest that has well
drained soils at altitudes up to 1,600 m above sea level near the river, especially in the small and in
the valley, but only a small amount (Heyne (1987); Soerianegara and Lemmens, 2001) .
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Terentang (Campnosperma auriculata Hook. F) : Alternative Species…...
Dewi Alimah
Figure 1.Terentang Tree in KHDTK Tumbang Nusa (Photo :Dewi Alimah)
Terentang trees including fast-growing species with medium-sized to large reach 36 m high. The
native tree with a rather flat-topped crown and light gray to yellowish bark. Lower stem diameter
ranged from 80-135 cm. Breech lancet-shaped leaves with dark glossy green and leathery, leaf length
ranges from 20-50 cm and blunt on the edges. Sitting circular leaf stem, close to the base, and
extends to the top. Petiole has a sheet that resembles a pair of ear lobe. Young leaves reddish brown
color and it was bigger than the adult form. Flowers are small and greenish yellow petals are
deciduous and shaped panicles reaching 50 cm in length. Interest quickly developed into stone fruit
(drupa). Green fruit with white spots and after ripe physiological, fruit colored reddish purple rind.
Fruit width ranged from 0.5 to 0.8 cm (Keng, 1990; Anonymous, 1997). Terentang alleged male
flowering, bloom throughout the year, while the female flowering tree that took place in OctoberNovember, then in December of ripe fruit (Bogidarmanti et al, 2011).
A*
b*
c**
*
Figure 2. (a) Sapling, (b) mature leave, (c) flowers of terentang (Photo : Dewi Alimah,
2010)
347
**
Danu et. al.,
III. SILVICULTURE TECHNIQUES
Seed Handling
Propagation of terentang is generally done in generative, that is by collecting fallen fruit from
trees or climb directly. Moreover, it can also by utilizing available natural saplings around the parent
tree. Physiologically ripe fruit will become green rind characteristic reddish to dark red (Siregar et.al.,
2010). Fruit collection can be carried out in the period from November to January. In the panicle (fruit
stalk) can be obtained about ten pieces (Figure 3).
August
November
December
Figure 3. Process and The Formation of Flower into Fruit of Terentang (Photo : Danu et. al., 2010)
Terentang including recalcitrant seeds so once downloaded you should immediately extracted.
Extraction is done by soaking the seeds in a container of water for 2-3 days until the skin and flesh of
fruit rot. After these edsare cleaned of skin and flesh rotting fruit. Seeds that have been soaked
inclean water to choose seeds that pithy. Seeds that float should be discarded and not recommended
sowing (Suhartati et. al, 2012).
Seed Procurement
Seeds of terentang including recalcitrant so after seed selection should be done immediately
sown ingermination tub. Media used to be fine sand, fine soil or sand and soil mixture (1:1, V/v). To
speed germination container should sow container is covered. Nurseries of terentang canal so be done
with direct sow seeds in polybag. Media on polybags which can be used is a mixture of the soil with
compost (1: 1, v/v) (Suhartati et. al, 2012). Terentang seeds germinate 2-4 weeks after sowing and
weaning is done when the leaves have appeared minimal pair(Siregar et.al., 2010).
Procurement of terentang seedlings can also be done with cuttings system. Stems cut 20-25
cm long, dipped into a solution of root stimulator. Then put into polybag media has sided local peat
and rice huskin the ratio 7: 3. Stem cuttings were prepared in the buds should certainly have as afore
runner of new shoots (Panjaitan and Ardana, 2010).
Cultivation
One location is in the development of type terentang KHDTK Tumbang Nusa, Central Kalimantan.
Planting is done by the line planting in the logged and among mahang (Macaranga spp.) thicket
vegetation. Planting begins by compressing the peat soil in the planting hole. After 1 - 2 month-old
plants, the plants are done stitching declared dead (Panjaitan and Ardana, 2010).
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Terentang (Campnosperma auriculata Hook. F) : Alternative Species…...
Dewi Alimah
From the results of field measurements in 2010, the average tree height and diameter natural
terentang trees in Nusa KHDTK Tumbang Nusa row of 9.6 m and 8.55 cm (Appendix 1). At this
location, terentang associated with several types of plants such as gerunggang (Cratoxylon
arborescens), merapat (Combretocarpus retundatus), punak(Tetrameris taglabra), pasir-pasir
(Urandrase condiflora), jelutung (Dyera lowii), galam tikus, Eugenia sp., medang lengkuas, dara-dara,
manggis hutan, paning-paning, and others.
Pests and Diseases
Some fungi are found in terentang seeds ieAspergillussp, PenicilliumspandRhizopussp(Danu
et.al., 2010).
IV.
POTENTIAL TYPES OF TERENTANG
Terentang are often found in Central Kalimantan with the distribution includeTumbang Nusa,
Sampit, Katingan, and surrounding areas. To determine the potential of a plant species according to
their utilization, the necessary information regarding about the wood basic properties in question.
Wood basic properties include wood physical and mechanical properties, and wood chemical
properties. Wood physical, mechanical properties, and chemistry properties of this type of terentang
are presented in Table1.
Table 1. Wood Physical, Mechanical, and Chemistry Properties of Terentang
Wood Basic
Properties
Wood Condition
Parameter
Green
Dry
-
0.30
0.32
lbs/cu.ft
-
23
Radial shrinkage (G->OD)
%
-
3
Tangential shrink. (G->OD)
%
-
6
Volumetric shrink. (G->OD)
%
-
9
Bending strength
psi
4432
6127
Static bending (FSPL)
psi
2369
3183
Crushing strength (Perp.)
psi
175
320
Max. crushing strength
psi
2238
3253
Shearing strength
psi
-
1098
Impact strength
inch
13
16
Specific gravity
Density (Air – dry)
Physical
Properties*)
Mechanical
Properties*)
349
Unit
Wood Basic
Properties
Wood Condition
Parameter
Chemistry
Remarks : *)
**)
1 psi
Green
Dry
Work to maximum load
in-lbs/in3
4
5
Stiffness
1.000 psi
830
1020
Hardness
lbs
-
330
lbs/cu.ft
44
23
Ash content
%
-
0.61
Lignin
%
-
29.83
Cellulose
%
-
47.87
Extractive
%
-
3.56
Hemicellulose
%
-
18.13
Weight
Properties**)
Unit
= Source of www.woodwokerssource.com,
= Source of Bogidarmanti et.al (2011)
= 0,07 kg/cm2
4.1 The Potential of Terentang as Construction Purposes
Based on wood physical properties, the sapwood is not differentiated from the heartwood and is
of the same color. The wood is described as pink-gray, mauve-gray, or salmon gray in color. It
darkens upon exposure. The grain is typically interlocked, very smooth texture, and dull. From Table
1, note that wood density ofthe in green condition of 0.3, while the dry conditions of 0.32. Based on
the of wood strength classification by Anonymous (1976), terentang wood including strength class IV
(specific gravity .40 to .30). Terentang wood relatively light wood with shrinkage from wetto dry the
airan average of 3 (radial), 6 (tangential), and 9 (volumetric) (Table 1). Comparison of tangential and
radial shrinkage (T /R) wood of terentang was 2. This value means that the wood has a low
dimensional stability.
In general, the classification of wood strength in Indonesia based on the bending strength and
maximum crushing strength. Other wood mechanical properties is also important to note in relation to
the processing and use of wood for certain purposes. From Table 1,note that the bending strength of
terentang wood at 6,127 psi (428.89 kg/cm2) and maximum crushing strength of 3,253 psi (227.71
kg/cm2). Based on the above two values, terentang wood quite strength class IV(Anonymous, 1976).
From the description of the physics and mechanical properties, dimensional stability of terentang
wood is low and they can’t with stand the load is too heavy so it is not suitable for building
construction needs. This timber can be use das a construction material that is not direct contact with
high humidity and does not receive heavy burden such as kaso, battens, wall, and roof list.
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Compatible with Anonymous (1976), wood with strong class IV Compatible utilize das processed
wood, furniture frames, lighters, and pulp.
4.2
The Potential of Terentang as Pulp Materials
Pulp quality is influenced by the properties of the type of wood used. According Prawirohatmodjo
(1974), the properties of good wood for raw material fiber pulp is longer than the average type, cell
wall thickness meets 2w/l<1, the basic specific gravity lower than the average type, the percentage of
fibers larger than the vessel, fingers, and parenchyma, low extractive content, high cellulose content
than the average types, and levels of hemicellulose enough.
From Table 1,note that the wood of terentang has a specific gravity of 0.32. According Syafii et.
Al. (2006), wood with a specific gravity of less than 0.50 allows to obtain pulp with quality I. Timber
with low density require as shorter cooking time than wood with high density.
Extractive content of terentang wood is 3.56% (Table 1), where this value is categorized as
being qualified to obtain pulp (<5). According Pasaribu and Tampubolon (2007), a wood with
extractive content ranging from 2-4% allows to obtain pulp with quality II. This suggests that the type
of terentang potential to serve as an alternative raw material pulp. According Sutapa (2005), in
addition to causing blunting the means of production, high levels of extractive also cause spots on the
paper produced.
In the processing of pulp, lignin is very influential on pulp color, complicate milling, and produce
low sheet strength (Siagian et al, 2003). Lignin is also a chemical component of wood that must be
removed in the treatment of pulp wood cells that can decompose (Junaidi and Yunus, 2009). Lignin
content of terentang wood is 29.83% (Table 1) when compared with conifer lignin which ranges
between 25-35% (Prawirohatmodjo, 1997). This shows that in terms of lignin content, terentang
require cooking by the number of chemicals are in the processing of pulp. According Syafii et.al
(2006), a wood with lignin content ranging between 25-30% allows to obtain pulp with quality II.
Wood holoselulosa content expressed totalc arbohydrate or polysaccharide compounds that
consist of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin (Prawirohatmodjo, 1997). Holoselusa high levels will
provide better strength on paper produced. Terentang holoselulosa levels estimated at 66% and this
value is quite possible to use a terentang as raw material pulp and paper. According Syafii et.al
(2006), a wood with holoselulosa content of more than 65% allows to obtain pulp with quality I.
Meanwhile, terentang cellulose content was 47.87% (Table 1). According Pasaribu and Tampubolon
(2007), a wood with cellulose content of more than 45% allows to obtain pulp with quality I. The
content of cellulose in the wood can be used as a determinant of the magnitude of the yield of the
pulp produced in the pulping process, where the greater levels of cellulose in the wood, the greater
the yield of pulp produced (Casey, 1980).
Hemicellulose content of terentang was 18.13% (Table 1), including hemicellulose plant height in
the range, ie15-19%. Hemicellulose serves as a binder in the manufacture of pulp and paper so that
the higher content of hemicellulose, the better quality of pulp and paper (Prawirohatmodjo, 1997).
351
Besides influenced wood chemical properties, fiber requirements for raw materials pulp and
paper is determined by the fiber dimensions and its derivative value. Fiber dimensions, its derivative
value, and scoring result on Both of terentang wood can be seen in Table2.
Table 2. Fiber Dimensions, Its Derivative Value, and Scoring Result on Both of Terentang Wood
Description
Fiber
*
Dimension
Unit
Value
Scoring
Result
Value**)
Quality
Class**)
Fiber length (L)
μm
1450.03
50
III
Fiber diameter (d)
μm
37.36
-
-
Cell wall tickness (w)
μm
2.18
-
-
Lumen diameter (l)
μm
33.01
-
-
Vessel length
μm
835.48
-
-
Vessel diameter
μm
162.59
-
-
Runkelratio
-
0.11
100
I
Felting power
-
39.30
25
IV
Muhlstephratio
%
21.76
100
I
Coefisien of rigidity
-
0.07
100
I
Flexibility ratio
-
0.80
100
I
)
Fiber Derivative
)
Value *
I
Scor Total
475
(451 – 600)
Remarks : *)
**)
= Source of Suhartati et. al (2010),
Runkel ratio
= Classification according to Anonymous (1976)
= 2w/l
Felting power
= L/d
Muhlsteph ratio
= ቂ
ௗ మ ି௟ మ
ௗమ
Coefficient of rigidity
Flexibility ratio
ቃ× 100%
= w/d
= l/d
μm = micron = 10-3 mm = 10-6 m
From Table 2, note that the length of the fiber terentang at 1450.03 microns. Based on IAWA
classification (Nurrahman and Silitonga, 1972), the length fiber of terentang including medium class
(900 – 1600 μ). Fiber length affects the tear resistance, tensile strength, and power folding in the pulp
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and paper produced. The longer the fiber, the higher the strength of the pulp produced (Pasaribu and
Tampubolon, 2007).
Runkel ratio is a comparison of two times the fiber wall thickness with lumen diameter. Runkel
ratio of terentang fibers was 0.11(Table 2). According to Anonymous (1976) Runkel ratio are smaller
or equal to 0.25, including class I. Runkel ratio like this indicate that the timber has a thin cell wall
and lumen diameter in width so that the fiber pulp sheet completely and the bonds between the fibers
either (Silitonga et. al., 1972).
Felting power value of terentang fiber was 39.30 (Table 2). Felting power value is a comparison
of fiber length to fiber diameter. The greater the ratio, the higher the better tear strength and power
loom fiber. According to Anonymous (1976), the felting power value of terentang fibers belong to a
class IV because the value is under 40. This suggests that a paper outstretched wood has a weak
bond.
Muhlsteph ratio of terentang wood fibers was 21.76% (Table 2). According Anomim (1976), the
Muhlsteph ratio value of terentang wood includes class I because the value is below 30%. Muhlsteph
ratio is a comparison between the cell wall cross-sectional area of the cross sectional area of the cell
in percent (Anonymous, 1976). According Marsoem (2002), Muhlsteph ratio shows that lower the
quality of the fiber the better because it can produce a smooth sheet of paper, plastic, and stronger.
Rigidity coefficient is the ratio of wall thickness to cell diameter fibers. This comparison showed a
negative correlation to the length of break strength (tensile strength). Higher the rigidity coefficient,
lower the tensile strength of the paper. The manufacture of pulp should use raw materials that have a
low rigidity coefficient (Syafii and Siregar, 2006). Rigidity coefficient of the fiber produced from
terentang fibers by 0.07 (Table 2). According Anomim (1976), the rigidity coefficient ofterentang
fibersincludeclass Ibecause the valuewasbelow 0.10. This suggests that paper based terentang wood
has high tensile strength.
Flexibility ratio of terentang fibers was 0.80 (Table 2). According Anonymous (1976), the
flexibility ratio of terentang fibers includes class I because it is equal to 0.80. Flexibility ratio is a
comparison of between lumen diameter and fiber diameter. High flexibility ratio shows that the thin
cell walls. According Marsoem(2002) fiber cell wall thickness is associated with the degree of flat and
fiber fineness experienced in the milling process (beating). According Syafii and Siregar (2006), fibers
with high flexibility ratio means the fibers have thick cell walls are thin and easily deformed. The
shape-shifting abilities cause the interface between the fiber surface more freely resulting in better
fiber bonding and will produce pulp sheet with good power.
The result of the fiber dimension scores and its derivative value from terentang fiber sat 475.
According to the classification of Anonymous (1976), terentang wood including into fiber quality class
I (451-600). From these data, can be informed terentang wood has the potential to produce good
pulp.
353
V. CONCLUSION
1.
Evaluated from wood physical and mechanical properties, terentang wood including strength class
2.
Be reviewed from the wood chemical properties, fiber dimension, and its derivative value,
IV. Terentang wood suitable for light construction and furniture.
terentang wood has good prospects for development as a kind of alternative raw materials for
pulp.
REFERENCE
Anonymous. 1976. Vademecum Kehutanan Indonesia. Departemen Pertanian. Direktorat Jenderal
Kehutanan. Jakarta.
______. 1997. Manual of The Large and More Important Non Dipterocarp Trees of Central Kalimantan
Indonesia Vol I. Forest Research Institute. Samarinda.
Bogidarmanti, R., N. Mindawati, and Suhartati. 2011. Gerunggang (Cratoxylon arborescens Blume.)
dan Terentang (Campnosperma coriaceum Jack. Dan C. auriculata Hook.f) : Jenis Alternatif
Potensial Sebagai Bahan Baku Kayu Pulp. Proceeding of the National Seminar of MAPEKI XIV
pp 315 – 326.
Casey, J.P., 1980. Pulp and Paper, Chemistry and Chemical Technology. Vol I. Pulping and Bleaching.
Second Edition. Intersciece Publiser. Inc New York.
Danu, A.A. Pramono, Nurhasybi., D.F. Djam’an, N. Wahyuni, S. Muharam, H. Royani, N. Nurohman, E.
Supardi and Abay. 2010. Teknik peningkatan produksi benih tanaman hutan penghasil pulp
jenis mahang (M. hypoleuca), skubung (M. gigantea), terentang (Cmapnosperma coriaceum).
Research Report. Balai Penelitian Teknologi Perbenihan Bogor. Unpublished.
Heyne, K. 1987. Tumbuhan Berguna Indonesia Jilid II. Badan Litbang Kehutanan. Jakarta.
Junaidi, A.B. dan R. Yunus., 2009. Kajian Potensi Tumbuhan Gelam (Melaleuca cajuput Powel) Untuk
Bahan Baku Industri Pulp: Aspek Kandungan Kimia Kayu. Jurnal Hutan Tropis Indonesia. No
28 Hal 284-291.
Keng, H., 1990. The Concise Flora of Singapore: Gymnosperms and Dicotyledons. Singapore
University Press, Singapore. 222 pp.
Martawijaya and Kartasujana. 1977. Ciri umum, sifat dan Kegunaan Jenis Kayu-kayu Indonesia.
Laporan Lembaga penelitian hasil hutan (LPHH). Bogor.
Marsoem, S.N., 2002. Pulp dan Kertas. Yayasan Pembina Fakultas Kehutanan UGM. Yogyakarta.
Miyamoto, K., E. Suzuki, T. Kohyama, T. Seino, E. Mirmanto, and H. Simbolon. 2003. Habitat
Differentiation Among Tree Species with Small-Scale Variation of Humus Depth and
Topography in a Tropical Health Forest of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical
Ecology (19) : 43-54.
Mustaid, S., and E. N. Sambas. 1999. Floristic Composition of Peat Swamp Forest in MensematSambas, West Kalimantan. Proceeding of the International Symposium on Tropical Peatlands
pp. 153 – 164. Bogor.
Nurrahman, A and T. Silitonga.1972.Dimensi Serat Beberapa Jenis Kayu Sumatera Selatan. Report
No.2, LPHH, Bogor.
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Terentang (Campnosperma auriculata Hook. F) : Alternative Species…...
Dewi Alimah
Panjaitan, S. and A. Ardana.2010. Prospek Pengembangan Jenis Tanaman Terentang (Camnosperma
auriculata) di Kalimantan.Galam Vol 4(1) : 71-79.
Pasaribu, R.A and A.P.Tampubolon. 2007. Status Teknologi Pemanfaatan Serat Kayu Untuk Bahan
Baku Pulp. Dissemination Workshop Program and Activity Research Needs To Support BPHPS
Plantation Wood Pulp and Network. (Unpublished).
Prawirohatmodjo, S., 1977. Kimia Kayu. Yayasan Pembina Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah
Mada, Yogyakarta.
Silitonga, T., R. Siagian and A. Nurrachman. 1972. Cara pengukuran serat kayu di Lembaga Penelitian
Hasil Hutan (LPHH). Publikasi Khusus No.12. Agustus, 1972. LPHH. Bogor.
Simbolon, H. dan E. Mirwanto. 2000. Checklist of Plant Species in The Peat swamp Forest of Central
Kalimantan. The Indonesia Institute of Science. Bogor.
Siregar, N; M, Omon; R, Kurniatydan R, Damayanti. 2010. Teknik perbanyakan tanaman secara
generative danvegetatif jenis Mahang (Macarangah ypoleuca Rchb.f.et.Zoll.), Skubung
(M.gigantea Mull.Arg.), Terentang (Campnosperma coriaceum (Jack.) Hall.f.ex.Steen).
Laporan Hasil Penelitian. Balai Penelitian Teknologi Perbenihan, Bogor. Unpublished.
Soerianegara, I dan R.H.M.J Lemmens (eds). 2001. Plant Resources of South East Asia Timber Trees.
Major Commercial Timbers 5(1): 102-108. Prosea. Bogor.
Suhartati, S. Rahmayanti, A. Junaedi, and E. Nurrohman. 2012. Sebaran dan Persyaratan Tumbuh
Jenis Alternatif Penghasil Pulp di Wilayah Riau. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan
Kehutanan. Jakarta.
Sutopo,R.S., 2005. Karakteristik Industri Pulp, Makalah Pelatihan Industri Pulp, Balai Besar Pulp dan
Kertas. Bandung.
Syafii, W dan I.Z. Siregar. 2006. Sifat kimia dand imensi serat kayu mangium (Acacia mangium Willd.)
dari tiga provenans. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kayu Tropis 4(1):29-32. Masyarakat Peneliti
Kayu Indonesia
http://www.woodworkerssource.com/online_show_wood.php?wood=Campnospermaauriculata.
Accessed on May 16, 2013.
355
APPENDIX
Appendix 1. Dimensional Growth of Natural Terentang in KHDTK Tumbang Nusa
Trees
Trunk Sircumference
Trunk Diameter
Number
(cm)
(cm)
1
37
11.78
12
2
40
12.74
14
3
40
12.74
12
4
17
5.41
6
5
25
7.96
10
6
28
8.92
9
7
17
5.41
6
8
25
7.96
10
9
21
6.69
9
10
27
8.60
9
11
12
3.82
5
12
33
10.51
13
8.55
9.58
Average
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High (m)
The Cost Analysis of Sustainable Electrification…...
Hilda Lionata
SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT
OF NATURAL RESOURCES
357
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The Role of Local Botanic Gardens…...
Sugiarti, Joko Ridho Witono, & Lindle H.
The Role of Local Botanic Gardens in Reducing the Rate
of Flora Diversity Loss1
Sugiarti2, Joko Ridho Witono2, Lyndle Hardstaff2
ABSTRACT
Biodiversity conservation is a national priority as a part of the implementation of sustainable
development. Both in-situ and ex-situ conservation are required to insure that biodiversity can be
conserved, studied and utilized through sustainable practices. The Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(LIPI) and Ministry of Forestry are responsible for the conservation of biodiversity in their respective
roles as the scientific authority and management authority. Bogor Botanic Gardens-LIPI (BBG) is a
center of ex-situ plant conservation which has thousands of specimens in its collection of Indonesian
flora diversity. Besides continuous development of existing botanic gardens, BBG also advocated for
and initiated establishment of local (district and provincial) botanic gardens.
More than 21 local
botanic gardens have been established and are managed by local goverments with supervision and
assistance from BBG-LIPI. Ex-situ conservation of flora diversity though local botanic gardens will
become increasingly significant, as in-situ conservation is facing many challenges such as illegal
logging, forest fires and natural disasters. This paper outlines the background and aims of the
establishment of local botanic gardens. It also discusses their role in conserving flora diversity and
providing sites for research, education, promotion, recreation and campaigns for green development.
Key words : Biodiversity, Botanic Gardens, ex-situ conservation, flora.
I. INTRODUCTION
Indonesia is a megabiodiverse country where biodiversity provides the major resources required
for building, food, energy, medicinal and other raw materials. Its potential is even higher in light of
the Nagoya Protocol, which is an international agreement to regulate the provision of equitable access
to and benefits from biodiversity in the form of genetic resources and traditional knowledge..
Extinction is a natural process, but the rate of extinction is often accelerated by excessive
utilization of resources by humans. Another factor that may be a cause biodiversity loss is the
phenomenon of climate change. Visible results of the effects of climate change on a species, as a
component of biodiversity, include changes in range of distribution, changes in timing of reproduction
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Center for Plant Conservation - Bogor Botanic Gardens, Indonesian Institute of Sciences
Email : [email protected]
359
and increasing scarcity. Poorly planned regional development encourages environmental damage.
Motivated by increased local revenues, licenses are easily provided to investors, such as palm oil and
mining organizations whose activities eventually threaten the availability of biodiversity. Regional
development of ex situ plant conservation sites in these areas can be used as an alternative solution.
Conservation of Indonesian flora scattered in 47 natural ecosystems across the country can be carried
out with the involvement of local governments, local communities and NGOs.
Flora conservation efforts have been carried out by the central government; both in situ by the
Ministry of Forestry and ex situ, in the form of botanic gardens, by the Indonesian Institute of
Sciences. The Center for Plant Conservation – Bogor Botanical Gardens (1817), LIPI, alongwith 3
botanic garden branches, namely Cibodas Botanic Gardens (1852), Purwodadi Botanic Gardens (1941)
and Bali Botanic Gardens (1959) , have played a role in conserving Indonesian flora for nearly two
centuries.
The existence of local (district and provincial) botanic gardens managed by local governments
will conserve Indonesian plant species in their own region, thus conserving the local genetic variations
(gene bank) which are very important for restoration efforts. Other added values of local botanic
gardens are that the public can gain knowledge and insight into the flora of Indonesia, as well as
provide revenue for local governments.
Another important impact of the development of local botanic gardens is that their plant
collections are recorded. These records can then be used as a reference for naming plant species in
the local area, as well as for other scientific activities such as botanical or taxonomic studies, research
to determine species extinction, or general botany. As a scientific authority, the Center for Plant
Conservation - Bogor Botanical Gardens - LIPI will continue to monitor and guide the management of
plant collections at local botanical gardens, in accordance with Presidential Regulation no 93 year
2011. To this point, there are 21 new botanical gardens which have been established and developed
in partnership with the Botanic Gardens LIPI, local governments and the Ministry of Public Works.
Location, size and collection size of each regional botanic gardens are also presented in this paper.
II. MEGADIVERSITY COUNTRIES AND BIODIVERSITY
A. Megadiverse countries
Worldwide, tropical rain forests are concentrated in three locations : Malesia, south and central
America, and the western part of Central Africa. Indonesia, Brazil and Zaire are the countries with the
largest tropical rain forest in their respective continents namely, Asia, America and Africa. Hence they
known as the last bastion of the world’s tropical rain forests.
Indonesia is known to be very rich in biodiversity, both on land and its seas (megadiverse
country), after Brazil and Colombia. Biogeographically Indonesia is located in the Malesia zone
(Southeast Asia to western Papua). It has two diversity centers, namely Borneo and Papua as well as
very high rate of endemism and unique habitats. For example, in Papua the percentage of endemic
flora is about 60-70%. Between these two diversity centers, there is a transitional area located at
Makassar Strait (Wallace’s line).
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Sugiarti, Joko Ridho Witono, & Lindle H.
Seen from a biodiversity perspective, the Indonesian geographical position is advantageous. The
country consists of thousands of islands located between two continents, namely Asia and Australia,
and it is located on the equator line. With such a position, Indonesia is one of the countries with the
greatest wealth of biodiversity worldwide. With a territory covering
1.3% of the Earth surface,
Indonesia contains 17% of the world’s species. As a megadiverse country, Indonesia’s biodiversity
consists of 707 mammal species ( 12% of the world’s mammal species), 350 reptilian and amphibian
species ( 15% of the world’s reptiles and amphibians), 1,602 bird species (17% of the world’s birds),
2,184 freshwater fish species
( 37% of the world’s freshwater fish) and 35,000-40,000 plant
species (11-15% of the world’s plant species) (LIPI, 2011). Indonesia is home to at least
2,500
marine mollusc species, 2,000 crustacean species, 6 marine turtle species, 30 marine mammal species
and more than 2,500 marine fish. Indonesia also has a very high percentage of endemic species. For
example 14,800 endemic plant species (number 5 in the world) including 225 endemic palm species
(number 1 in the world), 201 endemic mammals species (number 2 in the world), 35 endemic primate
species, 150 endemic reptilian species (number 4 in the world), 100 endemic amphibian species, 397
endemic bird species (number 5 in the world) and 121 endemic butterflies species. Endemism is very
important because it indicates that a species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. (LIPI.
2011).
B. BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity is a natural phenomenon related to the diversity of living creatures and the complex
ecosystems in which they live.. With such an understanding, biodiversity includes the interactions
among various life forms and also between those life forms and their environment. These interactions
are what allow the environment to be capable of providing the large quantities of goods and services
required to support human life and welfare (The Biological Association of Indonesia. 2007).
1. Ecosystem diversity
An ecosystem is an ecological system formed by the interrelationship between living organisms
or biotic elements with their environment or abiotic elements. Ecosystem diversity is related to the
diversity of habitat types, biological communities and ecological processes, where there are diversities
of species and genetics therein.
An ecosystem is classified based on the characteristics of its most prominent communities. In
terrestrial ecosystems, plant communities or vegetation type are used as a reference because they are
a reflection of physiognomy or morphological interactions between animals, plants, and the
environment. There are 47 recognised natural ecosystems in Indonesia, ranging from tropical snow
fields in the peak of Jayawijaya Mountains, lowland rain forests, beach forests, grasslands, savanna,
wetlands, rivers, lakes, swamps, mangroves, coral reef and the deep sea. (Kartawinata, 2012).
2. Species diversity
Indonesian is located in the Malesia region, which also includes the Philippines, Malaysia and
Papua New Guinea. This region was determined based on the distribution of vegetation/ plant genera
and is characterized by 3 demarcations. The first demarcation is Torres Strait which indicates that 66
flora genera from New Guinea can not cross over to Australia and 340 Australian flora genera can not
be found in New Guinea. Secondly, Tanah Genting Kra on The Malay Peninsula marks the boundary of
361
Malesia flora distribution with Thailand. This demarcation indicates that 200 Thailand flora genera
have not spread to Malesia areas, and 375 Malesia flora genera are not found in Thailand.The third,
at southern Taiwan, is the boundary between Malesian flora and Taiwanese flora. Malesia flora shares
more similarities with the flora of Asia than that of Australia, and 40% of the flora genera found in
Malesia are not found outside of the area bounded by the three demarcations.
The distribution of fauna and flora in Indonesia reflects the movements of the Sunda Shelf and
Sahul Shelf, from when the great southern continent of Gondwana began to break up about 140
million years ago. Species such as durian, rattan, tusam and Arthocarpus were concentrated on the
Sunda Shelf (Endarwati, 2005).
Based on herbarium speciments and data from the National Taxonomy Assessment Report for
Indonesia, Biological Research Center, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (20011),
the number of plants in 7 Bioregions of Indonesia are presented in Table 1.
Table 1. The number of plants species in 7 bioregions of Indonesia based on herbarium
speciments at Biological Research Center-LIPI
No
Bioregion of Indonesia
Number of plants species
1
Sumatera
5,692
2
Jawa
6,641
3
Kalimantan
5,575
4
Sulawesi
6,796
5
Nusa Tenggara
490
6
Maluku
2,279
7
Papua
3,928
Source : Biological Research Center, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (2011)
3. Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity is the diversity of natural characteristics found in one species. There is no
species in which every individual is exactly the same in appearance. There are different phenotypes in
the population of Matoa (Pometia pinnata) in Papua both vegetative and generative, reproductive
capabilities The sago population in Ambon includes many different species, including 6 main species.
Based on the number of wild durian species present, thought to be 19, Kalimantan is suspected to be
the center of durian genetic diversity. Cultivation techniques have created a huge genetic resource in
the form of crops such as rice, maize, yam, seedless watermelon, orchid species, snake fruit and
others.
Germplasm has been used at the research institute for tens years. The use of germplasm as a
resource in the development of new crossbreeds has produced superior varieties of agricultural
speciese. These superior varieties have been broadly developed and have increased farmers incomes.
There are about 3.9 million crop germplasm collections, but 53% of them are owned by developed
countries such as the United States, Europe, and Russia; 16% are owned by IRRI (rice), ICRISAT,
CIMMYT and CIAT ; and only 31% are owned by developing countries. This reality is in contrast with
the fact that the origin of most germplasm is in developing countries.
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Sugiarti, Joko Ridho Witono, & Lindle H.
New international regulations have agreed that ownership of germplasm can no longer be
transferred entirely to another country, as happened in the past. This means that countries rich in
germplasm, such as Indonesia, will not lose the benefits of their genetic biodiversity to other wealthier
countries and will instead work together with them to produce agricultural products (Diwyanto.2003).
III.
A.
BIODIVERSITY LOSS AND CONSERVATION STRATEGIES
Biodiversity loss
Biodiversity is at a tipping point in Indonesia and worldwide, and most of the world’s biodiversity
is located in conservation areas. Damage to both quantity and quality of natural habitats is a major
factor in biodiversity loss. Currently, the forests which contain of the bulk of natural resources have
decreased and are very susceptible to damage. Indonesian population growth has led to an increase
in the need for the necessities of life, such as food, clothing and housing. Human dependence on
biodiversity remains high, especially for people living near the forest.
The rates of deforestation in Indonesia from 2000 to 2011 are presented in Table 2.
Table 2. Rate of deforestation in each province in year 2000-2011
Rate of Deforestation (%)
2000-2003
2003-2006
2006-2009
2009-2011
Riau
-2.06
-3.62
-4.29
-3.54
Jambi
-0.20
-1.39
-2.71
-1.94
Central Kalimantan
-0.47
-0.86
-1.48
-1.34
North Sumatra
-0.19
-0.97
-1.61
-1.22
Bengkulu
-1.43
-0.32
-0.43
-1.06
West Kalimantan
-0.22
-1.84
-1.42
-0.70
West Sumatra
-0.23
-0.95
-1.71
-0.68
North Maluku
-0.32
-0.27
-0.11
-0.44
Central Sulawesi
-0.35
-0.60
-0.17
-0.40
South Kalimantan
-1.33
-1.88
-1.09
-0.32
North Sulawesi
-2.34
-1.40
-0.20
-0.26
East Kalimantan
-0.32
-0.96
-0.60
-0.24
Yogyakarta
0.00
-2.80
-0.14
-0.24
Aceh
-0.08
-0.36
-1.18
-0.20
Lampung
0.21
0.00
-0.37
-0.18
Gorontalo
-0.33
-2.05
-0.25
-0.17
Central Java
-0.02
0.00
-0.54
-0.12
Bangka Belitung
-0.31
-1.17
-3.23
-0.11
East Nusa Tenggara
-0.01
-0.46
-0.01
-0.09
Banten
-0.11
-0.39
-2.41
-0.08
Papua
-0.08
-0.38
-0.14
-0.04
Maluku
-0.06
-0.12
-0.16
-0.03
West Nusa Tenggara
-1.53
-0.75
-0.11
-0.01
363
Southeast Sulawesi
-0.10
-0.79
-0.18
-0.01
West Papua
-0.01
-0.01
-0.03
0.00
South Sulawesi
-0.65
-0.62
-0.43
0.00
Bali
-1.67
0.00
-0.53
0.00
DKI Jakarta
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
East Java
-0.26
-0.14
0.07
0.06
West Java
0.02
-0.63
-1.18
0.51
South Sumatra
-0.73
-0.08
-1.47
2.28
-0.33
-0.78
-0.74
-0.41
Total
Resource: State of Environment Report in Indonesia 2012
B. Flora and fauna in IUCN Red List
Based on data from the IUCN (International Union for Conservation Natural), there are 4,640
animal species and 755 plant species on the Red List. Animals are grouped by class and each plant
species grouped by division and order, as shown in Figure 1.
Sales; Liliopsida; 0;
Sales; 1
0%
Magnolipsida; 0;
27
7
665 0%
273
54
91
Annelida
Krustasea
Insekta
2
714
24
Merostomata
Actinopterygii
364
622
Amphibia
Aves
Chondrichtyes
Mammalia
Reptilia
678
1564
175
Sarcopterygii
Cnidaria
Mollusca
Polypodiophyta
Coniferopsida
129
Cycadopsida
Liliopsida
Magnolipsida
Figure 1. Number of plant and animal species included on the IUCN Red List.
C. Conservation strategies
Plant conservation can be implemented in two ways, namely by in situ conservation and ex situ
conservation. In principle, both types of conservation are complementary of each other. In situ
conservation is the best way to implement plant conservation in Indonesia, because this conservation
strategy protects plants and their ecosystems. In situ conservation sites, including nature reserves,
wildlife sanctuaries, national parks and nature parks are managed by the Ministry of Forestry.
Although the number and extent of in situ conservation areas is increasing from year to year, the
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The Role of Local Botanic Gardens…...
Sugiarti, Joko Ridho Witono, & Lindle H.
pressure on these areas is quite high, due to encroachment, illegal logging, and poaching of plants
and animals living within them. This is further exacerbated by knowledge of potential natural
resources, which give way to degrading activities such as mining and oil and gas operations in the
conservation areas. With continued degradation of the natural environment, including in situ
conservation areas, botanic gardens can be considred the 'last bastion' of plant conservation.
D. National and international plant conservation policies
The high level of environmental damage caused by human activities during the development
process has led to the need for international policy involving institutions such as UNEP, environmental
NGOs, environmentalists and countries which care about the environment. The phenomenon of
climate change is tangible evidence of damage to the environment. The issue of climate change is a
hot topic being discussed by many people and organisations around the world because it will affect
quality of life and the condition of the earth in the future. Several international documents relating to
the conservation of biodiversity, particularly plants and environmental damage are as follows:
1. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
2. Agenda 21: Programme of Action For Sustainable Development
3. Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC)
4. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora (CITES)
5. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
Regarding the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, the Indonesian Government
hasreleased several policies and regulations. Some important policies related to biodiversity are:
1. UU no.4.1982 - about the main points of environmental management
2. UU no.5. 1990 - about conservation of natural resources and ecosystems
3. UU no.5. 1994 - on ratification of the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity (CBD).
The Ministry of Environment is the CBD national focal point, responsible for coordinating the
implementation of the Convention at the national level. In practice, the ministry is assisted by several
other focal points, in accordance with requests from the CBD secretariat. Some of these additional
focal points include the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA),
the Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI), the Clearing House Mechanism (ICHM), Bio-safety focal points
and others. The Center for Plant Conservation Bogor Botanic Gardens-LIPI has been
appointed the national CBD and GSPC focal point.
IV. ROLE OF BOTANIC GARDENS IN INDONESIA
The botanic garden has three main functions (Hyams & Macquitty.1969):
1. As a research site with a collection of plants and botanical herbarium.
2. Carrying out applied research such as acclimatization and introduction of plants that
have economic value such as rubber, coffee, tea, chocolate and others.
3. Horticultural research activities include the selection, hybridization, and development of valued
products
365
Over time, changes in the environment and mindset of those managing botanic gardens has
dynamically altered the function of the
gardens. Now, botanic gardens also serve as a place of
education and tourism as well as providing ecosystem services.
A botanic garden is an area of ex situ plant conservation that has a documented plant collection
and is laid out according totaxonomic classifications or bioregion, thematically, or a combination
thereof; with the aim of conservation, research, education, tourism and environmental services
(Presidential Regulation No. 93 Year 2011).
Compared with other countries in the Americas, Western Europe, East Asia, South Asia, West
Asia and Southeast Asia, the number of botanic gardens in Indonesia is still lagging behind (Table 5),
especially when taken into account that Indonesia is a ’megadiverse’ country in terms of plant
diversity.
Table 5. Numbers of botanic gardens at in several countries
No
Name of country
Number of botanic gardens
1
USA
459
2
Rusia
155
3
India
131
4
Australia
128
5
England
116
6
Italy
105
7
Japan
64
8
Argentina
48
9
Brazil
40
10
Colombia
28
11
Belgium
28
12
Spanyol
28
13
South Korea
14
14
Malaysia
12
15
Filipina
12
16
Thailand
7
17
Indonesia
4
18
Saudi Arabia
4
Source: BGCI database, www.bgci.org/garden_search
In Indonesia there are four botanic gardens managed by the Indonesian Institute of Sciences
(LIPI); Bogor Botanic Gardens, Cibodas Botanic Garden, Purwodadi Botanic Garden and 'Eka Karya’
Bali Botanic Gardens. Between them, they conserve 8,304 plant species (about 20% of Indonesian
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Sugiarti, Joko Ridho Witono, & Lindle H.
plant species), with a total of 69,050 specimens (Table 6). Due to physical constraints such as the
availability of land and capacity of the soil, the four botanic gardens are estimated to be able to
conserve a maximum of only 30-40% of the plants present in Indonesia.
Table 6. Plant collections at botanic gardens managed by LIPI
Bogor BG
Cibodas BG
Purwodadi BG
'Eka Karya' Bali BG
Family
238
240
175
206
Genus
1,389
902
980
1,021
Species
4,273
1,929
2,207
2,314
Specimens
23,541
11,855
13,760
19,894
Source: Registration unit, Bogor Botanic Gardens, June 2011
The limitations of the four botanic gardens managed by LIPI, especially the availability of land
and natural conditions that are not able to represent all of the ecoregions in Indonesia, mean that the
four botanic gardens are considered insufficient. Within an ecosystem, each species has a specific
role, but the role of most plant species are not yet well understood. Therefore, ideally, every
Indonesian plant species would be conserved ina botanic gardens, in various locations in accordance
with the specifications of its habitat. Such conditions can be achieved through the establishment of a
new botanic garden in an area that represents an ecoregion of Indonesia.
Based on table 7, 10 Local Botanic Gardens have a collection of 23,128 plant speci-mens which
have been planted in gardens and 84, 556 specimens still maintained in the nursery for
acclimatization.
Table 7. Regional botanic gardens managed by local governments
No
Name of local botanic garden
(ha)
Year of
inisiation
Number of plants
collection
species
Speciment
1
Baturraden BG, Banyumas District,
Central Java
142
2.004
509
2.135
2
Bukit Sari BG, Bungo Tebo District
and Batanghari district, Jambi
425
2.005
168
1.952
3
Massenrempulu BG, Enrekang
District, South Sulawesi.
300
2.006
281
6.714
4
Katingan BG, Katingan District,
Central Kalimantan
127
2.006
60
779
5
Pucak BG, Maros District, South
Sulawesi
120
2.006
57
279
6
Balikpapan District, Balikpapan city,
East Kalimantan
309
2.007
577
1.732
7
Kuningan BG, Kuningan District,
West Java
172
2.007
199
7.941
8
Liwa BG, West Lampung District,
116
2.007
162
894
367
No
Name of local botanic garden
(ha)
Year of
inisiation
Number of plants
collection
species
Speciment
Lampung
9
Samosir BG, Samosir District, North
Sumatera
100
2.008
57
540
10
Batam BG, Batam City, Riau Islands
86
2.008
-
-
11
Sambas BG, Sambas District, West
Kalimantan
300
2.008
-
-
12
Danau Lait BG, Sanggau District,
West Kalimantan
328
2.008
-
-
13
Lombok BG, East Lombok District,
NTB
130
2.008
31
162
14
Solok BG, Solok District, West
Sumatera
112
2.009
-
-
15
Minahasa BG, Minahasa District,
North Sulawesi
186
2.009
-
-
16
Kendari BG, Kendari city, Southeast
Sulawesi
113
2.009
-
-
17
Jompie BG, Parepare City, South
Sulawesi
14
2.009
-
-
18
Banua BG, Banjarbaru City, South
Kalimantan
122
2.011
-
-
19
South Sumatera BG, Ogan Ilir
District, South Sumatera
100
2.011
-
-
Resources : Rencana Pengembangan Kebun Raya Indonesia. 2012
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Sugiarti, Joko Ridho Witono, & Lindle H.
V.
CONCLUSION
Plant conservation is essential to the continued presence of plant species diversity for study and
sustainable use. The issue of conservation is becoming more and more important due the increasing
pressure on natural habitat, vegetation and ecosystems. In-situ plant conservation must be
complemented byex-situ plant conservation, both scientifially and also in regards to management. In
Indonesia, those responsibilities are held by LIPI and the Ministry of Forestry. Botanic gardens are one
example of ex situ plant conservation, where plant species and genetic diversity are maintained.
Educationplays a vital role in understanding the meaning and purpose of conservation. Promoting
awareness of conservation to all levels of society, from students topoliticians and decision-makers is
important and must be carried out continuously. It is for these reasons that conservation is considered
a long-term investment.
.
REFERENCES
Diwyanto, K. 2003. Pemanfaatan Keanekaragaman Hayati dan Bioteknologi: Upaya Peningkatan
Kesejahteraan Masyarakat. Prosiding Workshop Peran Keanekaragaman Hayati Dalam
Perbendayaan Ekonomi Masyarakat. Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup Republik Indonesia.
Jakarta
Hyams. 1969. Great Botanical Gardens of The World. Mc Millan. New York
Kartawinata K. 2012. Diversitas Ekosistem Alami Indonesia. Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia dan
LIPI Press. Jakarta
Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup RI. 2012. Status Lingkungan Hidup Indonesia 2012. Jakarta
Peraturan Presiden Nomor 93 Tahun 2011 Tentang Kebun Raya
369
Subbidang Registrasi PKT Kebun Raya Bogor. 2011. Jumlah Koleksi Tumbuhan Kebun Raya yang
Dikelola LIPI. Bogor
Undang-undang Nomor 4 Tahun 1982 Tentang Pokok-pokok Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup
Undang-undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1990 Tentang Konservasi Sumberdaya Alam Hayati dan
Ekosistemnya
Undang-undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1994 Tentang Pengesahan Konvensi Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa
Mengenai Keanekaragaman Hayati.
Widjaja A Elizabeth, Ibnu Maryanto, Daisy Wowor, Siti Nuramaliati Prijono.
Keanekaragaman Hayati Indonesia. LIPI Press. Jakarta
2011.
Status
Witono J R dkk. 2012. Rencana Pengembangan Kebun Raya Indonesia. Pusat Konservasi Tumbuhan
Kebun Raya Bogor, LIPI. Bogor
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Identification of Determinant Societal Variables…...
Intan Purnamasari
Identification of Determinant Societal Variables for Successful Bali Mynah
(Leucopsar rothschildi) Conservation1
Intan Purnamasari2
ABSTRACT
Bali mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi) is a critically endangered endemic species currently confined only
in Bali Barat National Park. Conservation within and outside their natural habitat is necessary, one of
such through captive breeding program. This research intent to identify the variables influencing the
performance of bali mynah conservation. Research was conducted at Sumberklampok Village from
February to March 2013 using direct observation and interview methods involving 19 members of
breeder organization and 60 non members, who were selected using random sampling.
Respondents’ characteristics, cultural variables and bali mynah preservation variables were observed.
Data was analyzed using chi square test ran on SPSS version 20. Results showed that cultural
variables were significantly correlated with preservation variables.
Folklore about bali mynah,
knowledge of bali mynah, participation in captive breeding organization and income had significant
correlations with length of period in conducting captive breeding.
Moreover, participation in
organization and profession as breeders were significantly correlated with total number of chicks
born, while only participation in captive breeding organization correlated with the number of birds.
The research further concluded that the determinant societal variables in achieving successful bali
mynah preservation could be categorized as economic and cultural variables.
Keywords: bali mynah, conservation variable, captive breeding
I. INTRODUCTION
Bali mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi) is an endemic species currently confined only in Bali Barat
National Park (BBNP). The species qualifies as a critically endangered based on criteria of IUCN.
Conservation of bali mynah is vital to preserve its population, hence conservation within and outside
their natural habitat is necessary. Alikodra (1987) states that one cause of a decrease in the
population of bali mynah is illegal hunting. The alleged poaching is done by the people in the
immediate area of BBNP. Sumberklampok Village is one of the enclave village in BBNP which
according to Ismu (2008) still has a strong interaction with the region to access resources in the
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Master Student Tropical Biodiversity Conservation Study Programme Department of Forest Resources Conservation &
Ecotourism Faculty of Forestry - Bogor Agricultural University. Email: [email protected]
Telp/fax 0251-8621947
371
form of firewood, sonokeling wood, forest honey and leaves for fodder. Sustainable management of
bali mynah will be difficult without the involvement of the local communities. Suansa (2011) states
that local people is a very important element in management activities, they are the ones who best
understand the environmental conditions existing in the vicinity. The fact proves that communities
involvement around protected areas is critical to the success of the management of an area (Bayu
2000; Kusnanto 2000). This is in line with protected area management activities that involve the
surrounding communities in the breeding activities like bali mynah community in Sumberklampok
Village.
The captive breeding program established in Sumberklampok Village was one way to conserve
bali mynah outside their natural habitat. Various research have been conducted to identify the
independent variables determining the success of the management of wildlife population in nature or
in captivity, but most are related to wildlife variables (Prayana 2012; Azis 2013). Research that
examines the independent variables behind the motivation of people to perform captive breeding
activities and is statistically proven is still lacking. Therefore, such study is required.
The objective of the research was to identify the variables of Sumberklampok community that
motivated them to perform bali mynah conservation. This research is expected to provide inputs for
conservation area management especially in enhancing community empowerment efforts in wildlife
exsitu conservation.
II. METHODS
The research was conducted at Sumberklampok Village of Bali Province from February to March
2013. The equipments and materials used in this research included stationary, voice recorder,
camera, questionnaire, interview guides, document, literature and geographic map of the village.
Data were collected using observation and interview methods. As many as seventy nine respondents,
composed of 19 members belonging to breeder organization and 60 non members, were selected
using random sampling method. Respondents’ characteristics, cultural and bali mynah conservation
variables were observed (Table 1). Data were analyzed using chi square test ran on SPSS version
20.
Table 1. Types of data collected
No.
Types of data
Parameter
Variable
1.
Respondent
Characteristics of
Origin (ethnic), profession, level of
variable
respondent
education, income, age and lenght
Data source
Interview
of stay
2.
372
Cultural
Religion system
The number of bali mynah
variable
and ceremonies
utilization in religious ceremonies
Social
The number of norms and written
Interview
organization
or not written regulation(s) and
observation
system and
social organization about bali
affairs
mynah
Art
The number of dances, songs,
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Interview
Interview
and
Identification of Determinant Societal Variables…...
Intan Purnamasari
No.
Types of data
Parameter
Variable
Data source
poems, rhymes, couplets, paintings,
fairytales, folklore and baly mynah
utilization in symbols.
Knowledge
Levels and knowledge source about
Interview
system
bali mynah
Language system
Use of bali mynah as street names,
Interview
brand, place, season and month
observation
and
name
Livelihood system
Economic, species utilization
Interview
intensity (material consumption,
observation
and
livestock feed or drugs or trade)
Technology
Utilization of teh bali mynah in
Interview
systems and
system technology and equipment
observation
equipment
(productive tools, weapons,
system
containers, fire ignition tool, food
and
processing equipment, clothing,
shelter and transfer tools)
3.
Preservation
Breeding
The number of population, mortality
Interview
variable
captivity
and births, captive management
observation
and
(feed, cages, health, reproduction,
human resources, sanitation), acces
to breeding, parties involved in the
breeding, number of parental stock,
number of birds sold, the number of
the birds released, the amount of
funds expended
4.
Types
of
Bali mynah
Bioecology of bali mynah
Literature
Research
General condition
Location, spacious, climate,
Literature
location
of research
topography, demographics of
location
society
wildlife
5.
III. RESULTS
The analysis that was studied includes analysis of the correlation between the respondent’s
characteristics; between respondent’s characteristics and cultural variables; between respondent’s
characteristics and preservation variables; and between cultural variables and preservation variables.
A. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS
Result of the survey showed that out of the 19 members of the breeder organization, only 15
respondents (18.99%) from 79 respondents were breeders (Table 2).
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Table 2. Percentage of breeders based on respondents’ characteristics.
Characteristics
Origin
Age
Education
Length of period in
stay
Income per month
Breeders
Non-breeders
Madura
12.66%
40.50%
Bali
6.34%
40.50%
22-40 years old
3.80%
37.97%
41-59 years old
11.39%
25.32%
60-78 years old
3.80%
17.72%
Low
7.59%
44.30%
Average
10.13%
34.18%
High
1.27%
2.53%
5-28 years
1.27%
26.58%
29-52 years
13.92%
37.97%
53-76 years
3.80
16.46%
< Rp 1.500.000
2.53%
45.56%
Rp 1.500.000 ≤ x < Rp 3.000.000
15.19%
31.65%
≥ Rp 3.000.000
1.27%
3.80%
Cultural variables
Cultural variables were identified using the universal approach to cultural elements by
Koentjaraningrat (2002). These include cultural elements of the religious system and ceremonies,
social organization, art, dialects/languages, knowledge system, livelihood and technology system and
equipment.
Religious system and ceremonies
Religion system and ceremonies variables that were examined were species utilization in
religious ceremonies or ritual, indicating the type of species utilization in various religious activities.
Religiously, captive breeder of bali mynah were Hindus (33.33%) and others were Moslem (Table
3).
Table 3. Respondent percentage based on religious system
Respondent profession as a captive-breeder
Religious system
Hindu
Islam
Breeders
33.33 %
66.67 %
Non breeders
49.12 %
50.88%
Customary tradition that has religious background was only found on Hindu respondents. The
custom tradition itself is a religious ceremony called Tumpek Kandang, devoted to the safety of pet
which was done every six months.
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Identification of Determinant Societal Variables…...
Intan Purnamasari
Social organization and affairs
Social organization system and affairs that were examined were related to norms and written or
not written regulation(s), and also to existence of groups that specifically handle the bali mynah,
which would indicate an attempt to preserve species that were considered important for the
community. Elements within a social organization of any society are governed by the local customs
and regulations of various entities in the environment in which one lives and get along from day to
day (Koentjaraningrat 2002). A written rule concerning the protection of natural resources was found
in the customary regulations of the Balinese known as awig-awig. The regulation within Awig-awig
was further clarified in what is called Pararem which is the customary rules applicable to 1 banjar
(hamlet) and explained about the sanctions and fines which must be met if a violation occurs.
Social organization was formed by the community incorporating legal or illegal entities that
serves as the basis for community participation. Social organization relating to the preservation of
the bali mynah was found at Sumberklampok Village, namely a group of Bali Mynah captive breeders
named ‘Manuk Jegeg’. Manuk Jegeg gave access to the community to be a Bali Mynah captive
breeder. In addition, Manuk Jegeg allowed the breeders to exchange experiences regarding
techniques of keeping Bali Mynah which would enhance their knowledge.
Based on survey result to 79 respondents, as many as 19 respondents were members of Manuk
Jegeg breeder group. Out of this, as many as 15 members of Manuk Jegeg were captive breeders of
bali mynah where as many as 11 persons already got their legal permission to captive breed bali
mynah. The captived Bali Mynah birds belonged to Ainul Yaqin Foundation with production sharing
system which was regulated under a memorandum of understanding for bali mynah preservation.
The other 4 members who had yet attained their captive breeding license, were still preparing the
infrastructure for captive breeding activity at their home as it was the main requirement to become a
captive breeder of bali mynah. Currently, Manuk Jegeg had submitted permits for legal license for
captive breeders for its members who already fulfil the requirements of a captive breeder such as
available facilities and infrastructure to breed bali mynah, and also proposed assistance for parental
stock of bali mynah for new breeder candidates.
Arts
Bali mynah utilization was scripted in the folklore. Based on the local folklore, it was known that
bali mynah inhabited Sumberklampok Village were not allowed to be capture and consumed due to
its bitter taste of the meat. According to the story, the reason was because bali mynah often utilized
the bitter part of the wood as its feedstock.
Knowledge System
As many as 27.85% of the respondents had high level of knowledge regarding bali mynah.
Community knowledge system that indicated the existence of bali mynah in the community life,
appeared in discussions or talks from the past and present. Sumberklampok Village is the natural
habitat of Bali Mynah and is an enclave village of Bali Barat National Park (BBNP). Therefore, the
villagers were often exposed and engaged in the activities of preservation of the bali mynah by
BBNP, one of which was conducted through public awareness.
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Language System
Language is a tool of human communication either through writing, oral, or gesture that shows
the goals to be achieved (Anas et al. 1994). Based on the interviews with 79 respondents, the name
“bali mynah” was never for street names, brand, arrival of a season, indicators, and others.
Livelihood System
Livelihood system includes the type of livelihood that indicated the species economic utilization
and the intensity of its uptake (material consumption, feed, medicines or trade). Based on field data
it was noted that the economic utilization of bali mynah was done through captive breeding activities
as well as tourism that used captive breeding activities as the main attraction. So far, captive
breeding activity had yet provided economical advantage since there were no captive bred birds that
were sold from the breeder. This happened because the breeders were still waiting for the official
release permit for sale of bali mynah birds. The Bali Mynah captive breeding of Sumberklampok
village had been visited by local and foreign tourists. There were as many as 31 visits in June 2011
to December 2012. The tourist activities were in conjunction with Bali Barat National Park. Currently,
the income from tourism activities is managed by Manuk Jegeg breeder group for its group activities
such as habitat reconstruction activities to prepare for bali mynah released in 2014.
Technology and equipment system
Technology appeared in the ways human beings conducted his daily work, organized the
society, means of expressing beauty and produce artistic results. There are eight kinds of equipment
system and physical culture elements that are found within a community that lived off farming
(Koentjaraningrat, 2002) that include productive tools, weapons, containers, fire ignition tool, food
processing equipment, clothing, shelter and transfer tools. Based on the survey, it was found that
there were no element of the bali mynah in the utilization of technology and equipment systems
used by Sumberklampok people.
B. BALI MYNAH PRESERVATION VARIABLES
Breeding activity of bali mynah has begun since November 2010, but the breeders received
their parental stocks not until June 2011. Table 4 below presented data of breeder activities in
Sumberklampok Village.
Table 4. Data of captive breeding activity
Preservation
variables
Breeders
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Length of period
in conducting bali
mynah captive
breeding (month)
21
21
21
21
21
16
21
7
21
21
21
21
21
21
21
Total number of
bali mynah bird
(individual)
3
2
1
5
8
3
7
5
7
7
2
2
2
2
2
Total number of
bali Mynah chicks
1
0
0
5
7
0
8
0
5
5
0
0
0
0
0
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(individual)
Number of bali
mynah chicks
that were born
(individual)
4
0
0
12
9
0
11
0
6
9
0
0
0
2
0
Number of bali
mynah chicks
that died
(individual)
3
0
0
9
3
0
3
0
1
4
0
0
0
2
0
C. CORRELATION BETWEEN RESPONDENT’S CHARACTERISTICS
The results of the correlation analysis between the characteristics of respondents were
conducted on a 95% confidence level using chi-square test is presented in Table 5. Age has a
significant correlation with length of stay indicated by the majority of Sumberklampok people that
were born and raised in the village. Age also have a significant correlation with education. Old-age
respondents tent to have lower education level compared to younger respondents. Public facilities
including school building was built in 1963 after Sumberklampok was established and recognized as
a village, hence old-aged respondents found it difficult to attain formal education services.
Table 5 Correlation between characteristics of respondents
Correlated variables
Non- correlated variables
Age - lenght of stay
Age - income
Age - education
Age - Origin
length of stay - income
Age - profession
length of stay - Origin
education - Origin
length of stay - education
income - profession
education - income
education - profession
income - Origin
Origin - profession
length of stay - profession
Length of stay had significant correlation with income. Most of the Sumberklampok community
were dry land farmers where the lands were inherited during the time when their parents were still
hard labours by opening forest lands and clearing the shrubs for coconut plantation. Hence, the local
people tent to have bigger land area than the immigrants. Wider land plots would increase a
person’s income. Length of stay was also found to be correlated with the origin of the respondent.
Respondents who came from Madura tent to have longer length of stays in comparison with
respondents coming from Bali. It was because the Maduranese occupied the village since 1922 who
were deliberately brought in by the Netherlands to become labourers on plantations belonging to the
Netherlands, while the people of Bali comprised of 3 different areas of origin namely Karangasem
377
Regency who took refuge in the event of an eruption of Mount Agung in 1963, the island of Nusa
Penida, and ex transmigrants of Timor-Leste who came in 2000. Length of stay was also correlated
with education, as respondents who lived in the Village of Sumberklampok prior to 1963 were lacking
in formal education.
Income had a significant correlation with the profession as breeder. Results from field data
showed that respondents with high income had the tendency to become a breeder. Breeding costs
were quite high. Furthermore, in the MoU on Leasing of Bali Mynah Prental Stock between the
breeders and the Bali Mynah Preservation Association (APCB) it was stated that a breeder must
provide a guarantee in the form of cattle in case of death of the loaned parental stock that were due
to the negligence of the breeder. A breeder of bali mynah must spent an average fee of Rp. 5 million
(US $ 506.50) to built the cage and Rp. 250 thousands (US$ 25.32) monthly for feeds.
D. CORRELATION BETWEEN CULTURAL VARIABLES AND RESPONDENT’S
CHARACTERISTICS
Results of the correlation analysis between cultural variables and respondents’ characteristics on
a confidence level of 95% are presented in Table 6.
Table 6. Correlation between cultural variables with characteristics of respondents
Correlated variables
Non-correlated variables
participation in captive breeding
organization - origin
participation in captive breeding organization length of stay
participation in captive breeding
organization - profession
participation in captive breeding organization education
knowledge - length of stay
participation in captive breeding organization income
knowledge - education
participation in captive breeding organization - age
knowledge - profession
knowledge - origin
knowledge - income
knowledge - age
folklore of bali mynah - age
folklore of bali mynah - education
folklore of bali mynah - origin
folklore of bali mynah - profession
folklore of bali mynah - length of stay
customary regulation -age
folklore of bali mynah - income
customary regulation - education
customary regulation - origin
customary regulation - income
customary regulation - length of stay
customary regulation - profession
Community participation in the captive breeder organization had a significant correlation with
the origin and profession as breeders. Results showed as many as 68.42% of bali mynah breeder
organization members came from Madura and the rest from Bali. It is thought to be due to the
background of the Maduranese whom in the past had stronger interaction with the area compared
with the Balinese people. The participation of the respondents in captive breeder organization was
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Intan Purnamasari
correlated with respondent's profession as a breeder. The captive breeder organization provided a
base for the breeders as well as other community members who wished to contribute to the
preservation of the bali mynah. Community participation in the captive breeder organization would
grant access to the respondents to become a bali mynah breeder.
Public knowledge of bali mynah correlated with the respondent's age and length of stay.
Respondents who were older and have a period of longer length of stay showed greter knowledge of
bali mynah as compared to respondents who were younger and had a shorter period of stay. Amba
(1998) states that a person's life experiences can improve the person's skills and knowledge.
Knowledge correlated with the latest education of the respondents. Amba (1998) also states that
knowledge of a person is closely related to the education level of that person, where a person who is
highly educated tends to have wider knowledge. Knowledge also correlated with the profession of
the respondent. Respondents who have a high knowledge of bali mynah tent to have a desire to
become a bali mynah breeder.
This is in line with Siswiyanti (2006), who states that higher
knowledge will results in higher participation in an activity since they are more informed of the
benefits to be received.
There was a significant correlation on age and profession variables of the respondents. The
survey results showed that respondents considered being a breeder required expertise,
thoroughness and high level of difficulty of caring, thus respondents thought that only certain people
were able to become bali mynah breeders in the village. Expertise and precision required skills
gained through knowledge. Respondents who were older tent not to wish to become a bali mynah
breeder. This is in line with the opinion that old age can result in the onset of disorders and
physiological barriers such as decreased hearing and vision as stated by Lunandi (1989) in Amba
(1998) as well as absorption of knowledge.
The folklore of bali mynah had significant correlation with age, origin, length of stay and
respondent's income. This bali mynah story was better known by the older respondents who showed
longer length of stay. This was because the respondents who lived and settled in the Village of
Sumberklampok prior to 1982 had its own stories about their life experience of bali mynah because
bali mynah were still abundant in the village at that time, hence they experienced higher interaction
with the birds. Origin had a significant correlation with the folklore of bali mynah. The respondents
from Madura had more knowledge on the story of bali mynah compared to residents from Bali. It
wass thought to be because the Maduranese who were the first to occupy the Village of
Sumberklampok, therefore they had higher interaction with the birds and feature more stories of bali
mynah which were then inherited to the following generations.
Customary regulations related to bali mynah had significant correlation with origin and length of
stay. Customary regulations regarding the protection of animals especially the bali mynah was only
possessed by the Balinese reflected in the customary regulation of awig-awig. Since the Balinese
residents tent to have a shorter period length of stay, therefore length of stay of the respondents in
the Village of Sumberklampok has association with customary regulations regarding the bali mynah.
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E. CORRELATION BETWEEN PRESERVATION VARIABLES AND RESPONDENT
CHARACTERISTIC
Correlation analysis between preservation variables and respondent characteristics showed that the
only correlation was between lengths of period in conducting captive breeding with income (Table
7). Respondents with higher income tent to have much longer length of period in conducting bali
mynah captive breeding. This was expected to be influenced by the rate of capital cost that needed
to become a bali mynah captive breeder and also the monthly total spending associated with captive
breeding activities.
Table 7. Correlation between preservation and respondents’ characteristics
Correlated variables
Non-correlated variables
Income - length of period in conducting
Age - length of period in conducting captive
captive breeding
breeding
Profession as captive breeder - length of
Age - total number of bali mynah bird
period in conducting captive breeding
Profession as captive breeder - total number of
Age - total number of bali mynah chicks
bali mynah chicks that were born
Age - total number of bali mynah chicks that were
born
Age - total number of bali mynah chicks that died
Length of period in staying - length of period in
conducting captive breeding
Length of period in staying - total number of bali
mynah bird
Length of period in staying - total number of bali
mynah chicks
Length of period in staying - total number of bali
mynah chicks that were born
Length of period in staying - total number of bali
mynah chicks that died
Education - length of period in conducting captive
breeding
Education - total number of bali mynah bird
Education - total number of bali mynah chicks
Education - total number of bali mynah chicks
that were born
Education - total number of bali mynah chicks
that died
Income - total amount of Bali Mynah bird
Income - total amount of Bali Mynah chicks
Income - total number of bali mynah chicks that
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Intan Purnamasari
were born
Income - total number of bali mynah chicks that
died
Profession as captive breeder - total number of
bali mynah bird
Profession as captive breeder - total number of
bali mynah chicks
Profession as captive breeder - total number of
bali mynah chicks that died
Profession as captive breeder was correlated with the length of period in conducting bali mynah
captive breeding and also with the total number of bali mynah chicks that were born in each of
captive breeding place. This correlation showed that the achievement of bali mynah captive breeding
was not only dependent upon the condition of captive breeding place and the condition of birds that
were born, but also dependent on the person as the captive breeder. When a person was willing to
conduct captive breeding activity and was doing it the right way, then it would have influenced on
the captive breeding achievement. As many as 6 breeders had succeeded to breed bali mynah
chicks. Constrain involved by other breeders that were not able to breed bali mynah chicks was due
to the low hatching ability of the eggs of which was expected due to the breeder’s skill, high
sensitivity of bali mynah that caused stress easily and highway noisiness. Currently, many breeders
had their captive breeding place located near the highway. To cope with the problem, Manuk Jegeg
had made various efforts to improve feeds and captive breeding place, exchange experiences with
successful breeders and conducting exchange of parental stock exchange with APCB on December
31st of 2012, as many as 15 parental stock couples that were left to guard by BBNP.
Constrains faced by breeders whom succeeded to breed bali mynah chicks include high rate of
bali mynah mortality, where one breeder said until February 2013, he recorded as many as 9 bali
mynah chicks died from 12 bali mynah chicks that were born. The high rate of mortality happened
during the beginning of captive breeding activity. This was expected due to lack of experience of the
breeder, also due to lack of maintenance and caring for the birds hence caused the birds to caught
diseases. Diseases associated with the captive bred birds found by breeder included polio, influenza,
and diarrhea. In general, the birds with diseases often followed by death. The captive breeders
were improving their efforts by studying bali mynah behaviour to learn the pattern of bali mynah
daily behaviour which in the end was expected to reduce the rate of bali mynah mortality in the
following year.
F. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PRESERVATION VARIABLES AND CULTURAL VARIABLES
The result from correlation analysis between preservation variables and cultural variables using
chi-square test using a 95% reliance interval is summarized in Table 8.
381
Table 8. Correlation between preservation variables and cultural variables
Correlated variables
Non-correlated variables
length of period in conducting captive
length of period in conducting captive breeding -
breeding - folklore
common law
length of period in conducting captive
total number of bali mynah chicks that were born -
breeding - participation in captive breeding
common law
organization
length of period in conducting captive
total number of bali mynah chicks that were born -
breeding - knowledge of bali mynah
knowledge of bali mynah
Total number of bali mynah chicks that
total number of bali mynah chicks that were born -
were
born
-
participation
in
captive
folklore
breeding organization
total number of bali mynah chicks that died common law
total number of bali mynah chicks that died knowledge of bali Mynah
total number of bali mynah chicks that died - folklore
total number of bali mynah chicks were died participation in captive breeding organization
total number of bali mynah bird - common law
total number of bali mynah bird - knowledge of bali
mynah
total number of bali mynah bird - folklore
total number of bali mynah bird - participation in
captive breeding organization
total number of bali mynah chicks - common law
total number of bali mynah chicks - knowledge of
bali mynah
total number of bali mynah chicks - folklore
total number of bali mynah chicks - participation in
captive breeding organization
The length of period in conducting bali mynah captive breeding had significant correlation with
folklore, participation in captive breeder organization and knowledge of bali mynah. Participation in
captive breeder organization provide easier access to become a breeder and obtained more
knowledge of bali mynah as well as on conducting appropriate captive breeding of bali mynah.
Result from the analysis showed that there was a correlation between folklore known by respondents
about bali mynah with length of period in conducting bali mynah captive breeding activity. This was
in line with Umar (2009) in Nori (2012) who suggests that a person’s behaviour can be influenced by
personal past experiences on his surroundings. Based on interviews with local people, it was
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revealed that Sumberklampok Village was once a bali mynah natural habitat, which later produced
several folklore associated with bali mynah.
The stories were still alive within Sumberklampok
Village. Garibaldi and Turner (2004) describe that within a community there are species that are
closely related with local people and depend their lives on it in fulfilling their daily requirements and
also play a key part in the local culture. Such species was preserved through knowledge of its
utilization that could be found in narrative, ceremony, dance, song, and writings. Thereby it was
expected that bali mynah existence in folklore indicated that there was a close relation between
community and the bird.
A significant correlation was also found between respondent’s knowledge of bali mynah and the
length of period in conducting bali mynah captive breeding. Knowledge would influence someone’s
attitude and behaviour. High knowledge of bali mynah would support the achievement of successful
bali mynah captive breeding, so that it could motivate people in continuing their captive breeding
activity for longer period. This was in line with Siswiyanti (2006) who suggests that people with
higher knowledge will have higher participation in the activity because they will know much more
about the benefit they will achieve. Schoorl (1982) in Amba (1998) also suggest that community will
participate in certain activity if they have the capability and knowledge about the activity. The higher
the knowledge about a certain activity, the higher is the probability to participate in that activity.
IV. CONCLUSIONS
The societal variables that determine the success of the preservation of bali mynah in the
Sumberklampok Village could be categorized as breeders characteristics and cultural variables.
Variables that determined the characteristics of the respondents were income and profession of
respondents while the determinant cultural variables were participation of the community in bali
mynah captive breeder organization, knowledge, and folklore about bali mynah.
Therefore the
determinant societal variables of a successful bali mynah captive breeding in Sumberklampok Village
could be categorized as economic and cultural variables.
RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Community Involvement in the preservation of species particularly through community
empowerment programmes should consider the relationship between local communities and
species to be conserved.
2. Further study is needed regarding correlated variables to determine the level of correlation
between the variables to arrived at the most determinant variables for successful preservation of
bali mynah thorugh captive breeding programmes.
3. In the future, studies on successful rate of released bali mynah from the captive breeding
programme in Sumberklampok village is necessary.
383
REFERENCES
Alikodra HS. 1987. Masalah Pelestarian Jalak Bali. Media Konservasi Vol 1 No 4.
Amba M. 1998. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi partisipasi masyarakat dalam pelestarian hutan
mangrove (studi kasus di kecamatan Teluk Ambon Baguala, Kotamadya Ambon, Maluku)
[tesis]. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.
Anas Z, Rubiyatno, Wartinah, Suradi, Waridah S dan Sukardi J. 1994. Antropologi. Bumi Aksara.
Jakarta.
Azis AS. 2013. Teknik Penangkaran dan Aktivitas Harian Jalak Bali di Penangkaran UD Anugrah Kediri
Jawa Timur [skripsi]. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.
Bayu A. 2000. Hubungan Kondisi Sosial Ekonomi Masyarakat Pemukiman dalam Kawasan (enclave)
dengan Penggunaan lahan di Taman Nasional Gunung Halimun (Studi Kasus di Kampung Cier,
Desa Cisarua, Resort Cigudeg) [Skripsi]. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.
Garibaldi A and Turner N. 2004. Cultural keystone species: implications for ecological conservation
and restoration. Ecology and Society 9 (3) : 1.
Ismu
I. 2008. Draft Ringkasan Lokasi Taman Nasional
http://www.rareplanet.org. Diakses pada 3 Januari 2013.
Bali
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(TNBB).
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Koentjaraningrat. 2002. Pengantar Ilmu Antropologi. Rineka Cipta. Jakarta.
Kusnanto K. 2000. Bentuk-Bentuk dan Intensitas Gangguan Manusia pada Daerah Tepi Kawasan
Taman Nasional Gunung Gede Pangrango Jawa Barat. [Skripsi]. Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Bogor.
Nori D. 2012. Perilaku penyimpangan positif (positive deviance) Masyarakat Desa Gunung Masigit
terhadap konservasi karst Citatah [skripsi]. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.
Prayana A. 2012. Teknik penangkaran dan aktivitas harian mambruk victoria (Goura victoria Fraser
1844) di Mega Bird and Orchid Farm, Bogor, Jawa Barat [skripsi]. Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Bogor.
Siswiyanti Y. 2006. Hubungan karakteristik anggota`masyarakat sekitar hutan dan beberapa faktor
pendukung dengan partisipasinya dalam pelestarian hutan di kawasan pemangkuan hutan
parung panjang kabupaten bogor [tesis]. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.
Suansa NI. 2011. Penggunaan Pengetahuan Etnobotani dalam Pengelolaan Hutan Adat Baduy.
[Skripsi]. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Bogor.
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Positive Environmental Deviance: a Valuable Community…...
Arzyana Sunkar
Positive Environmental Deviance: a Valuable Community Empowerment Tool
in Protected Area Management1
Arzyana Sunkar2
ABSTRACT
Although protected area (PA) demarcation is satisfactorily addressed, failures in its management
were often evident. Community participation was said to be the key for conservation success yet
insufficient attention has been given to activities that promotes true community participation in
resources conservation.
This paper explores the topic of positive environmental deviance as an
approach to sustainable resource management that is community-centred. Positive deviance takes
advantage of community’s assets and strengths.
Local communities were more likely to commit
themselves to long-term conservation efforts if their knowledge and opinions were incorporated. The
idea of positive deviance is that in every community or organization, there are few individuals or
groups who showed pro-conservation behaviour while using the same resources as their peers. It
enables the community to identify and adopt strategies used by their members that has been proven
beneficial. It is a means of empowering the community, because the solution came from within
community, they are the actors and the agents of change. The use of positive deviance in PA’s
management is still limited but very potential because greater inclusion of local communities in PA
management would ensure the integrity of the area.
Key words: protected area management, community empowerment, positive deviance
I. INTRODUCTION
Although protected area demarcation as one of the determinants of a juristically defined
protected area (PA) is often conducted without facing any problems, however failure in PA
management is still common. Community participation, on one hand is said to be the key for a
successful conservation efforts but on the other hand very few PA management efforts that promote
pure/true community participation.
The main challenge of sustainable use of natural resources according to Sunkar (2008) deals
more with managing human relationships rather than technical interventions. Unfortunately in many
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Department of Forest Resources Conservation & Ecotourism, Faculty of Forestry-Bogor Agricultural University
Kampus IPB Darmaga P.O Box 168 Bogor 16001. Phone/Fax: 0251-8621947
Emails: [email protected]; [email protected]
385
current PAs, local people have not been empowered to manage their own resources without any
external interventions. There are many programmes in PAs within the community development
scheme, but in reality take the form of providing assistances, thereby increasing the level of local
people dependence on others. Results of the studies conducted by Wiratno et. al, (2004) and Untoro
(2006) on the so called Conservation and Development Programmes conclude that the success rate
of these programmes are still very limited. Karsidi (2001) argues that community development is an
attempt to motivate and encourage the community to be able to explore their potential and dare to
act to improve the quality of their life, through among others, education for their self-awareness and
empowerment. The success of community empowerment programme that is sustained with
adequate funding is normal, but the empowerment that capitalizes community-owned resources, is
something of extraordinary.
Communities and their environment is a social-ecological system, thus the approach must
consider the principles of a system. One of the main principles of a systems approach (systems
thinking) is that the solution to the problem exists within the system itself (Maani & Cavana, 2007).
Based on this principle, a community empowerment approach should look for solutions within the
community itself using the resources available in the community.
II. PEOPLE, FORESTS AND BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity conservation initiatives often reflected national or even global interests, but limiting
local access to land and resources. For decades, the centralized/top-down nature conservation was
in fact or perceived to have reduced access to resources and welfare, thus causing conservation to
be deemed unfair, inefficient and unsustainable. The limited government resources whether it be
human and physical, as well as the fact that users of PAs could reach places far beyond the area
itself, have caused the centralized management of PAs often or even in many cases ineffective.
Ineffectiveness of the current PA management could be due to various interests of
stakeholders, diverse problems and obstacles in carrying out their roles. For this reason, PA
management should be bridged through collaborative management (co-management) system so that
all stakeholders of PA shared responsibility in its management. Collaborative management approach
required the existence of a management which was initially a top-bottom, into a decentralized
management, which gave legal force to the community as well as technical assistance for
communities to be empowered in managing resources in PA. Decentralized management of PAs
often took the form of community-based conservation, which was expected to provide local supports
to the national conservation agenda by involving resource users in decision making.
A protected area in Indonesia that faced many conflicts with the local people is national park.
New paradigm shift in national park management from restrictions of natural resource utilization to
involvement of community roles had already entered into force for over a decade now. Community
involvement in park management was expected to support the success of conservation.
Nevertheless, in reality, there were still many obstacles found in its implementation which until now,
participatory strategies are still unable to show satisfactory results in long-term natural resource
management system. This were caused by lack, even in some places, absence of local roles (both
community and institutional) in decision-making.
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Positive Environmental Deviance: a Valuable Community…...
Arzyana Sunkar
Management of national parks in Indonesia today remains largely under the full authority of
government, although some national parks have started to involve other stakeholders. Hence, the
management of national parks in Indonesia began to experience a shift towards division of control
between National Park authority and other stakeholders. One important stakeholder in national park
management and of course in other protected areas is the people leaving in the vicinity of the areas.
Co-management regimes represent collaborative strategies that incorporate institutional
mechanisms to share the responsibility for management of the natural resources between the
government and the communities (Kildow, 1997; Singleton, 1998). Simply put, government entered
into a partnership with communities to share various responsibilities for planning and implementing
natural resource management measures. Such systems recognized that natural resource
management policies were rarely successful without the involvement of the communities they seek
to influence. In this sense, co-management represents a systematic approach towards reaching
consensus among multiple interests involved in the coastal resources, institutionalizing processes
appropriate to the culture and location (Virdin, 2000).
Such shift is based on several achievements in the management of protected areas and
especially national parks over the years. Besides specific achievements, there were also some
challenges in implementing collaborative management that involved community empowerment.
III. COMMUNITY EMPOWERMENT IN PROTECTED AREAS
Participatory management approach in the management of protected areas is not a new
concept. Participatory management involved public participation in both the planning and
implementation activities. Through this participation, the public would understand the major issues
and gave them a chance to find a way to solve this problem. Thus, it is expected, that local
communities would have deeper understandings about the areas they occupy or in the vicinity,
improving communication skills and creating strong cohesion and consensus among them. This
activity wouls create a stronger relationship with the area manager. Decentralization and
empowerment of local organizations and communities were important strategies to achieve an
effective participation of local communities in managing natural resources. Through participation
and empowerment of communities, park managers would gain a clearer understanding of the major
problems faced by society and ways to solve the problem could be explored.
Community collaboration in decision-making process was increasingly being used in the
development and management of protected areas. Meanwhile, in enhancing the community and
management or conservation resources, ecotourism for example is able to accommodate the direct
involvement of local communities. Ecosystem preservation system has evolved as a result of the
interaction between humans and nature and can be found in all national parks in Indonesia. In
ecotourism, residents who lived near or within the PA could receive benefits from development
activities that required local community participation in various activities and services. This has
improved their livelihoods.
In some cases, the view that human activity was contrary to the conservation of ecosystems
has been neglecting the involvement of local communities. But lately, it is widely accepted that
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because of the limited management capacity, the local community could play an effective role in
helping PA management to achieve its sustainable use of resources. In this case, local communities
were considered important as major stakeholder and to participate in management to ensure
sustainable use of resources. For example, in national parks, local communities could play an active
role in ecotourism industry, and they could even take more responsibility in managing the local
tourism sector. However, in this situation, some form of regulations and collaborations between the
park manager and local communities should be formulated for the success of ecotourism. Members
of local communities should be given some rights to operate and run ecotourism activities in national
parks. They should be responsible for the safety of resources while performing their daily activities.
However, they were not able to fully participate in the activities of resource protection if the current
management was still not structured. Until now, overall, the efforts to balance the interests of local
communities and park management in Indonesia still showed disappointing results.
In the framework to integrate community participation, strategies should be used that include
local community assistance in collecting necessary data and information. Thus, the area manager
must gather information together with the community. Local people could provide feedbacks on the
approach to management, implementation, and/or during the evaluation stage. In addition to
providing information to members of the community, education and training activities were required
to enhance the ability of members of the community such as workshops, identify the leaders in the
community to engage, develop educational materials, develop economic alternatives, linking with
other organizations, forming a local organization, developing incentives, and conduct public meetings
so that people would know what was done in the protected areas.
However, protected areas were often established without the involvement of the community or
any agreement with the local community. This has resulted in distrust of some members of
community toward park’s manager. Thus, to involve the community, the first step that could be done
is to build relationships and trust, and enhance community capacity to be able to make the right
decision. Another major criterion was the accessibility to participation and proper accountability
procedures and credible to the participants. Communities should have access and can obtain
information on how to participate in the process. People had the right to intervene in the decision
making process, and must be able to express their views and opinions if possible ensure the full
participation or in other word self-mobilization (Table 1). Thus, one element that is essential for
community participation is the empowerment of local communities to ensure that they have a role in
decision making process.
Table 1. Typology of participation
Passive Participation
Participation does not take the responses of the participants into
consideration. Information shared belongs only to external institutions.
Participation in
People give anwers to questions where they do not have the
Information Giving
opportunity to influence the context of the interview and often the
findings are not shared.
Participation by
People are consulted and their views are taken Consultation into
Consultation
account. However, it does not involve their decision-making.
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Arzyana Sunkar
Participation for Materials
Participation involves people taking incentives in cash or kind for their
and Incentives
services provided. In such cases the disadvantage is that there is no
stake in being involved once the incentives end.
Functional Participation
Participation occurs by forming into groups with predetermined
objectives. Such participation generally occurs only after major
decisions have been already taken.
Interactive Participation
People participate in information generation and its subsequent
analyses that lead to action plans and implementation. It involves
different methoologies seeking various local perspectives thereby
involving people in decision-making about the use and quality of
information.
Self mobilization
Being independent of any external interventions, people participate and
take initiatives to change systems. They develop contacts for external
inputs, but retain control over the way resources are managed.
Source: Pretty et al. (1995)
Participation can be viewed as a goal to empower local communities to have greater control
over their lives and resources as well as means to achieve improvement of social and economic
objectives. Therefore, community participation programmes were effective in providing a forum to
integrate social and environmental concerns into decision-making process hence brought together
different stakeholders and (ideally) reduce conflicts.
According to the definition used by the Directorate General of Protection and Nature
Conservation (2007), community empowerment is all efforts made by a group of people with or
without external supports, to be able to continue to develop their capacity or potentials for the
improvement of their quality of life, independent and sustainable. Frankly, it can be interpreted as a
process that built community through the development of human or community capacity, changed
people's behaviour, and community organization. Empowerment of communities surrounding
protected area is defined as all efforts that aimed to improve welfare and increase their participation
in all activities of the conservation of natural resources and ecosystems in a sustainable manner.
The definition indicated 3 main objectives in empowering the community, namely: developing
the ability of society, changing people's behaviour, and self-organizing community. The ability of
communities that could be developed was more or less referred to the ability to try, the ability to
search for information, the ability to manage activities, skills in agriculture and many more based on
the needs or problems faced by the community. Community empowerment is a concept that
summarizes the economic development of social values. This concept reflects a new paradigm of
development, namely of “people-centred, participatory, empowering, and sustainable" (Chambers,
1996).
Within such framework, efforts to empower people could be viewed from three sides. First is
creating an atmosphere that allowed the potentials within the community to be developed
(enabling). Here the point of departure was the recognition that every human being, every society,
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has the potential to be developed. In other words, there is no community that exist without any
power, because, in such case the community would not be able to thrive. Empowerment is an effort
to build such power done by encouraging motivation and raise awareness of their potentials and
efforts to develop it.
Second is to strengthen the potentials or power possessed by the people (empowerment).
Within this framework, more positive steps were required, apart from just creating an atmosphere.
Such should include concrete steps, and involves the provision of various inputs, as well as opening
access to various opportunities that would make people to become more empowered. For that, there
should be special programs for the less vulnerable community because generally, many programmes
did not always able to touch this part of society.
Empowerment not only included the strengthening of individual members of community, but
also its institutions. Instilling modern culture values such as hard work, thrift, transparency, and
accountability is a fundamental part of empowerment. Similarly were the reform of social institutions
and their intergradations into development activities and the role of society in it. It is important to
increase people's participation in decision-making process concerning themselves and society.
Therefore, community empowerment should be very closely related to the establishment, cultivation
and practice of democracy.
Thirdly, empowering contained a meaning of protection. In the process of empowerment, the
weak must be prevented from getting weaker, due to lack of power. Therefore, protection and propoor should form the fundamental importance of the concept of community empowerment.
Protection did not mean isolating or covering of the interaction, because this would only stunt and
weaken the poor. Protection should be viewed as an attempt to prevent imbalanced competition,
and exploitation of the stronger over the weaker.
Community empowerment should not make people to become increasingly dependent on a
variety of donations. One example was a research conducted by Untoro (2004), who concluded that
after the termination of a community empowerment programme through the scheme of International
Conservation Development Project (ICDP), which basically provide the people with aids (forms of
donations) and assistances, the local people have no idea what to do or who to turn to for
assistance, hence they were back to their normal activities like before the beginning of the project.
Basically, all what was enjoyed must come from one's own. Therefore, the ultimate goal was to
empower the community, enable and built their skills to advance themselves toward a sustainable
living.
In helping communities to be independent, it is best to use empowerment approach rather than
approaches that lead to dependence. Sometimes the term "contribution approach" was often used to
refer to the methods of assistance. Donations itself is not a bad thing, if on the basis of virtue, a
value which we fully support. However, what was meant by "approach to donation," was a way to
help the poor and powerless but not helping them to rely on themselves. Giving to a person or group
in need would only satisfy their needs temporarily. Hence, when they re-require, they will return to
the source where they got assistances for the first time. Therefore if we expected the community to
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Positive Environmental Deviance: a Valuable Community…...
Arzyana Sunkar
be independent, be sure that they desired something. Find a way for them to work or fight for it, so
that when they need it again they did not came begging. Empowerment approach to community
groups required the determination of community groups in need and then able to show to other
member of community groups ways to achieve it.
Communities can be made as individuals who are stronger, that is physically and psychologically
strong or as groups of people who are stronger, that is more capable, more powerful and more rich
(related to the utilization of local natural resources). A facilitator must be careful to avoid predictions
and assumptions about groups of people as if they are individuals. As a facilitator, one must be able
to see the individuals as individuals and could work with them.
In order to successfully empower community groups, it is important to have some basic
understandings of the social organization, social level and the community. It is also important to
know about the relationship between individuals, between individuals and community groups, and
between communities. The process of empowerment, or development capability, is a social process,
it should be something to be experienced by the community itself.
IV. POSITIVE ENVIRONMENTAL DEVIANCE AND PROTECTED AREA MANAGEMENT
Various literatures (in Rodriguez et. al, 2008) wrote that the obstacles to empowerment were
social barriers, but on the other hand it was also demonstrated that successes in protected areas
management used insights and knowledge of the local community as the basis for area management
planning. The public had a right to participate in the decision-making process, and should be able to
express their views and opinions.
One successful example of community empowerment in Indonesia occurred in Bali Barat
National Park (BBNP). In BBNP, the perspective of the National Park and the local communities
towards the forest was different. Primary concerns of the villagers were on how they could maintain
and improved their livelihood, whereas the primary objective of the National Park was to conserve
the biodiversity of the protected forest. Thus, if the National Park wanted to encourage the
community people to stop illegal logging or hunting, it was necessary that both parties realized the
real situation that existed on each other. It was also necessary to facilitate empowerment of the
surrounding communities in order that they would be able to improve their economic situation
without destructing natural resources surrounding them. Being concerned with the above situation,
it was necessary to build up the capacity of the related park officials and field staffs regarding
community facilitation and empowerment. The activity proved to be very successful as shown in one
activity involving the local people in the development of captive breeding of bali mynah, where
several villagers were motivated and initiated their own captive breeding programme, which were
then followed by more and more people who showed a positive reaction toward this initiative
(Elizabeth Rahyu, a facilitator of BBNP project, personal communication).
One of the social change models that use the principles of community empowerment is
Positive Deviance that demands community involvement, using the available resources found
within the community so that sustainability will be maintained (PDI 2009). Positive deviance is a
community-based approach to solving community problems that were based on the belief that the
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solution to the problems faced by people already existed in the community itself (agent of change).
Positive deviance encouraged the public to view, search and explore their own wisdoms and
resources and rebuild their power to solve the problems they are facing. This is an innovation
because it is different from previous conventional approaches of community empowerment that
looked more into the weakness within a community through the questions such as, "What are the
problems encountered?", "What can we do for you?", "What's wrong here?" Instead community
empowerment programmes should looked at the internal strengths of the community including
assets and resources in order to find solutions to the problems they faced by using their own
resources.
Positive deviance approach to date, both in Indonesia and in the world, had very limited usage,
but has been successful in many developing countries (PDI 2009) in the fields of: (1) Health improving community nutrition status (Sternin; Vossenar et al 2009), preventing the spread of HIV /
AIDS in the third world, reducing infections in the hospital (Marra et al. 2010), improve the health of
patients (Macklis 2001) and children (Sethi et al. 2003);
(2) human rights - the protection of
children and women, reduce ethnic conflict; and (3) education - lower dropout rate (Bradley et al.
2009).
Positive deviance in the field of natural resource management has not been studied much less
related to the field of protected area management. To date, literatures studies on various positive
deviance applications only found two studies on positive deviants related to the field of natural
resources conservation. These were research conducted by Nori (2012) on positive deviants who
performed conservation activities in non PA, and study on sustainable fishery management in Tun
Mustapha Marine Park in Sabah who found one head of a family who was a positive deviants where
he preferred to use traditional method in fishing despite other people within the community who
chose fish bombing, but he still managed to obtained enough income (Kushardanto, 2009).
Community empowerment programmes generally began by providing knowledge to change
attitudes and behaviour. Conversely, in positive deviance approach, the start would be on
identification of existed local practices (behaviours) rather than knowledge. The basic principle is
that one would be easier to act in new ways of thinking than to think of new ways to take action.
This is also confirmed by Karsidi (2001) who states that today's community empowerment
programme should follow the progress of development, where an extension officer should be more
of a motivator and facilitator to the community rather than as someone who are very knowledgeable.
Based on various studies on positive deviance (Macklis 2001; Sethi et al. 2003; Vossenar et al.,
2009; and Bradley et al. 2009) it could be concluded that to date, the benefits were seen only at the
level of society, whereas when talking about conservation of natural resources, the benefits should
also be seen on the environment. Literature studies on the results of positive deviance application
indicated that this approach provided positive impacts for the individual actors and other community
members who adopted it, which currently the successful rate is still at the community level. If so far
positive deviance was only seen from the impact on individuals and organizations, then in natural
resources conservation, impacts on the environment should also be seen, therefore it is thus more
appropriate to refer to positive deviance of resource management as Positive Environmental
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Arzyana Sunkar
Deviance (PED).
Positive environmental deviance could become an empowerment framework in protected area
management. By engaging the communities in activities that was previously conducted by individual
(s) or organization within the same community and who shared the same living challenges would
allow faster acceptance by the other members of the community. In addition, since the opportunities
that community resources were located within the PAs were also high, especially for the indigenous
people who were allowed to live in some of Pas, it is deemed necessary to have the local people
supports in the PA management. Prior to the establishment of protected areas, PAs were in fact
sources of livelihood for the local people. Therefore we could not just took away their source of
livelihood. Furthermore, area managers can also fill their budget shortfalls and human resources
through this approach, since it did not take too long for a positive deviance approach to be
successful. It is also simple, not difficult to do, inexpensive and produced sustainable ecological and
social benefits that were needed in order to receive supports from the community to achieve
sustainable use of natural resources. Therefore three types of empowerment could be utilized under
the positive environmental deviance framework for a protected area management programme that
focussed on psychological, social and economical empowerments for successful sustainable resource
management.
Protected areas managers need people’s support hence should be sensitive to the norms and
culture of the local communities. Mansperger (1995) emphasizes the importance of preservation of
tradition in maintaining a group’s sense of self-esteem and well beings, which Scheyvens (1999)
refer to as psychologically powerful. Any activities that interfered with the integral relationship
between a group of people and their land, might resulted in negative effects.
The PED approach
believed that the wisdom to solve community’s problems lies within the community.
community members provide culturally appropriate expertise.
Therefore,
Activities which were sensitive to
cultural norms and built respects for local traditions could, therefore, be empowering for local
people.
Social empowerment referred to a situation in which a community’s sense of cohesion and
integrity had been
strengthened by an activity. PED would be able to build strong community
group(s) which is the foundation for any successful community empowerment programmes. In PED
approach, change would be led by internal change agents who, with access to no special resources,
present the social behavioural proof to their peers. If they could do it, so could others. As the
behaviours were already in practice, the solutions could be implemented without delay or access to
outside resources.
Economic empowerment referred to the local community’s access to productive resources in the
protected area. It should be of concern to protected areas managers that the local people will only
continue to support conservation of protected areas if an activity assists with their own development
(Sindiga, 1995) especially in economical terms. This way benefits can be sustained, since the
solution resides locally.
393
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Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition…...
Fatimah Fitriana & Sudin Panjaitan
Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition of Secondary Vegetation
Natural Forest at Bukit Naga, KHDTK Rantau, South Kalimantan1
Sudin Panjaitan2 and Fatimah Fitriana 2
ABTRACT
The research aims to determine the vegetation composition, species variability, species distribution
and vegetation profile in the natural forest of KHDTK Rantau South Kalimantan. The research was
carried out using Nested sampling with permanent plots of 20 m x 20 m for trees, 10 x 10 m for
poles, 5 x 5 m for saplings and 2 x 2 m for seedlings. Moreover, understory vegetation was also
observed. The result showed that: 1) There were 24 species of understory vegetation, 19 seedling
species, 21 sapling species, 13 pole species and 24 tree species, 2) The species with the highest
Importance Value Index (INP) for seedling and sapling was Kayu baranakan and for poles & trees
was Medang putih, 3) The vegetation variability in KHDTK Rantau was included in less criteria with
the value ranging from 0.76 to 1.59, 4) The vegetation profile was in the stratum C and D dominated
with Medang of Lauraceae family and Kayu baranakan of Euphorbiaceae family, and 5) It is
suggested to conduct more intensive protection and security to the area of KHDTK so that the
factors hindering the succession can be minimized in order to keep the effort of further management
more assured.
Keywords : Composition, vegetation, secondary, Rantau
1. INTRODUCTION
Forest is a vegetation community dominated by trees whose environmental condition different
from the condition outside the forest. The relationship between biotic and non-biotic factors causes
the formation of forest, which becomes a solid ecosystem. The changes occur in the forest
community are obvious and the changes are the transition from one forest community by another
one. The changes are caused by natural factors like the mountain explosion, typhoon, fire due to
lighting, etc. Meanwhile the non-natural causes are the results of human carelessness such as the
forest fire, grazing, shifting cultivation, illegal logging, animal hunting, wood stealing and etc. Forests
have an important role in influencing the environment. Although forests are renewable natural
resources, it does not mean that their existences are infinite. The context of critical land
rehabilitation in the protected forest that optimizes the utilization of the available fund is directed to
the forest formation through natural succession, which is still kept from any possible disturbance so
that the process of natural succession can work well. The forest region with specific purposes
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013.
1
2
Banjarbaru Forestry Research Institute, South Kalimantan, Indonesia
397
(KHDTK) located in Baramban Village, Rantau, is one of the research forests that has been selected
to become KHDTK since 2005, with the width of + 180 ha, based on SK Menteri Kehutanan No. SK.
177/Menhut-II/2005, June 29 2005. The research was carried out to identify the vegetation changes
occurred in KHDTK. The objectives of the research were to find out: 1) the composition of vegetation
species in the natural forest of KHDTK Rantau, South Kalimantan, 2) the vegetation species at the
seedling, sapling, pole and tree stages in the natural forest of KHDTK Rantau, and 3) the species
distribution and vegetation profile in the natural forest of KHDTK Rantau. The benefit of the research
was to provide scientific information for the related institutions about the change tendency of species
composition of the vegetation growth stages in the secondary forest and the vegetation development
in KHDTK Rantau.
II. RESEARCH METHOD
A. Place and Time
The research was conducted in a natural forest at Bukit Naga, Baramban Village, Tapin
Regency, South Kalimantan for 3 months. It was started with the literature study, followed by the
equipment preparation, the sample collection, the data analysis, and the report writing. The height
of the area was 100 – 400 above sea level. On the flat topography, it surged until the slopes with
slope degree of 10 – 80 %, and the soil type, mainly on mountain slopes, is yellow red podsolik and
laterik. The climate in the location, according to Schmid dan Fergusson, is climate B with the average
rainfall 1000-2000 mm/year, and the rain commonly falls in November to May (Yudi. S, 2000).
B. Materials and Equipment
The object of the research was the natural vegetation in KHDTK Rantau. The equipment
employed in the research was: 1) GPS to determine the research spots, 2) Compass to determine
the direction, 3) Lightmeter to measure the light intensity, 4) Soiltester to measure the soil pH, 5)
Meter to measure the height of seedlings, 6) Nylon rope of 100 m to make the observation plots, 7)
Phyband to measure the diameter of natural regeneration rod, 8) Camera to document the data, 9)
Thally sheet to record the data, 10) Machete to open the path and make the plots, and 11) Some
other tools.
C. Data Collection Techniques
The path method (transect method) was employed to measure the trees. The width of the path
was 20 m divided into continued plots of 20 m x 20 m, 10 m x 10 m, 5 m x 5 m, and 2 m x 2 m for
the tree, pole, sapling, and seedling observation, respectively. Understory plants were also observed.
It employed the sampling method of a big plot contained smaller plots called Nested sampling. The
observation area was 10 ha, and the area was the ex-burnt area with the plants growing naturally
(Panjaitan, 2012). The location of the path which were the sample plot was determined by Purposive
Sampling. There were 5 paths, each of which was with the length of 100 m and the width of 20 m,
and the space between one and another was 200 m. The paths were made to cut the contour lines
with the similar sloping, namely 10-80 %. To take the belt point, we used the bridge as the
standard/pale.
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Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition…...
Fatimah Fitriana & Sudin Panjaitan
D. Data Analysis
The vegetation data were analyzed and then calculated to find out the importance value of
each tree species.
1. Importance Value Index
The importance value index is the result of the sum of Relative Density (KR), Relative Frequency
(FR) and Relative Dominance (KR). To determine the amount of KR, FR, and KR, the calculations are
conducted like the followings (Soerianegara and Indrawan, 1978).
1.1. The method to Calculate Density (K)
a. Density of a species
۹ൌ
‫ܛ܍ܑ܋܍ܘܛ܉܎ܗܚ܍܊ܕܝܖܔ܉ܜܗ܂‬
‫ܜܗܔܘ܍ܔܘܕ܉ܛ܎ܗܐܜ܌ܑ܅‬
b. Relative Density (KR)
۹‫ ܀‬ൌ
۲‫ܛ܍ܑ܋܍ܘܛ܉܎ܗܡܜܑܛܖ܍‬
‫ܠ‬૚૙૙Ψ
۲‫ܛ܍ܑ܋܍ܘܛܔܔ܉܎ܗܡܜܑܛܖ܍‬
1.2. The method to Calculate Frequency (F)
a. Frequency of a species
۴ൌ
‫܌ܖܝܗ܎ܛ܉ܟܛ܍ܑ܋܍ܘܛ܉܍ܚ܍ܐܟܛܜܗܔܘܔ܉ܜܗ܂‬
‫ܛ܍ܑ܋܍ܘܛܔܔ܉܎ܗܛܜܗܔܘܔ܉ܜܗ܂‬
b. Relative Frequency (FR)
۴‫ ܀‬ൌ
۴‫ܛ܍ܑ܋܍ܘܛ܉܎ܗܡ܋ܖܝܙ܍ܚ‬
‫ܠ‬૚૙૙Ψ
۴‫ܛ܍ܑ܋܍ܘܛܔܔ܉܎ܗܡ܋ܖ܍ܝܙ܍ܚ‬
1.3. The method to Calculate Dominance (D)
a. Dominance of a Species
۲ൌ
‫ܐܜ܌ܑܟ܉܍ܚ܉ܔ܉ܛ܉܊܎ܗܔ܉ܜܗ܂‬
‫ܜܗܔܘ܍ܔܘܕ܉ܛ܎ܗܐܜ܌ܑ܅‬
b. Relative Dominance (DR)
۹‫ ܀‬ൌ
۲‫ܛ܍ܑ܋܍ܘܛ܉܎ܗ܍܋ܖ܉ܖܑܕܗ‬
‫ܠ‬૚૙૙Ψ
۲‫ܛ܍ܑ܋܍ܘܛܔܔ܉܎ܗ܍܋ܖ܉ܖܑܕܗ‬
If a certain species or family has the highest importance value, it is called a dominant species
characterizing the forest condition itself (Samingan, 1978). Marsono (1977) stated that the
importance value ranges between 0 – 300 %.
Based on Baku Mutu Lingkungan Vegetasi Hutan (Environmental Quality Standard of Forest
Vegetation) Kepmenhut Nomor: 200/Kpts-IV/1994, the criteria for determining Importance Value
Index are presented in Table 1.
399
Table 1. Criteria (Sufficient to determine the Importance Value Index (INP)
INP of tree (%)
INP of seedling/sapling/ pole (%)
Criteria
> 240
> 160
Very good
180 – 239
120 – 159
Good
120 – 179
80 – 119
Enough
60 – 119
40 – 79
Less
< 60
< 40
Much less
Source : Baku Mutu Lingkungan Vegetasi Hutan Kepmenhut Nomor: 200/Kpts-IV/1994
(Environmental Quality Standard of Forest Vegetation) Kepmenhut Nomor: 200/Kpts-IV/1994)
2. Dominance Index
To determine a species dominance in the community from the stages of succession, the
following formula is applied (Odum, 1971 and Lumbanbatu, 1982) :
C
Remarks : C = Dominance Index
ni = Importance value of a species i
N = Total importance value
3. Species Variability
To determine the species variability that also shows the stability of vegetation stages, the
following formula is used. (Shanon and Wiener, 1949 and Odum, 1993 in Bratawinata, 2001):
H
¦i
n
1
ni
ni
x log
N
N
Remarks : H = Variability Index
ni = Total of each individual
N = Total of all species individuals
Based on Kepmenhut Nomor: 200/Kpts-IV/1994, the criteria of species variability were presented in
Table 2.
Table 2. Criteria to determine Species Variability Index
Species Variability Index (H)
Criteria
> 3.0
Very good
2.26 - 3,0
Good
1.60 – 2.25
Enough
0.76 – 1.59
Less
< 0.76
Much less
Source: Baku Mutu Lingkungan Vegetasi Hutan Kepmenhut Nomor : 200/Kpts-IV/1994
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Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition…...
Fatimah Fitriana & Sudin Panjaitan
4. Distribution Index
To determine if the individuals were distributed more equally to the present species at the
growth stages, the calculation is formulated as the following (Pielou, 1966 and Odum, 1993 in
Bratawinata, 2001):
H
e = --------Log S
Remarks :
e = Distribution Index
H = Species Variability Index
S = Total of Present Species
III. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
A.
Vegetation Composition
Based on the result conducted in the research area, there were a number of species and family
found in all growth stages, the understory, seedling, sapling, pole, and tree stage. The data of each
growth can be seen in Table 3.
Table 3. Total of species found in each growth stage.
No
Growth stage
∑ species
∑ family
1
Understory
24
11
2
Seedling
19
11
3
Sapling
21
11
4
Pole
13
7
5
Tree
24
13
The table above indicated that the number of species at the stage of tree and understory was
the greatest number compared to the number species at the stage of seedling, sapling, and pole.
This happened because there was a growth competition among vegetation in nutrients, latitude,
light, and other environmental factors. In this case, Onrizal, et al. (2005), stated that the dominant
and co-dominant species that were the constituents of the ex-burnt forest, which scattered
systematically, indicated that there was a competition to get the nutrients and latitude. If a species
was found in one comparison but could not found in the next comparisons, it might indicate that the
species could not survive longer in certain condition. If the species was found in all stages of growth,
it was possible that there was no big competition among the plants which made them able to grow
in the same community.
B. Vegetation Structure
The vegetation structure was the form of plant community in the forest community either
vertically or horizontally. The vertical vegetation structure described the stratification of crowns
based on the total height of each tree individual, while the horizontal vegetation structure was the
frequency (distribution), the density, and the width of basal area. The dominance or the position and
401
the role of a species in a community could be determined by the calculation of Importance Value
Index (INP). The species with the highest INP were the species dominating the area.
1. Seedling Stage
There were 19 species found at the seedling stage. The species with the highest value at this
stage were Kayu Baranakan, Medang Putih, Akasia, Takahan and Palawan.
Table 4. Recapitulation of five species with the highest KR, FR and INP at the seedling stage.
No.
Species
KR (%)
FR (%)
INP (%)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Kayu baranakan
Medang putih
Akasia
Takahan
60.50420
10.08403
5.04202
2.52101
30.612245
14.285714
6.122449
6.122449
91.116447
24.369748
11.164466
8.643457
5.
Palawan
3.36134
4.081633
7.442977
Figure 1. Graphic of dominance at the seedling stage
The value of INP described the role of a species in a community. The more the value of INP
was, the bigger the role of the species in the community. If the INP value of a species was the
highest, the species was distributed equally and had the abundant number of individuals. The criteria
of INP value of each species at the seedling stage were enough and much less based on Baku Mutu
Lingkungan Hidup Vegetasi Hutan Kepmenhut No. 200/KPTS-IV/1994. The value of INP for enough
criterion ranged from 80 to 119 %, while the category of much less was less than 40 %. The plants
with the lowest INP were the results of the condition where the species were not distributed equally.
From the INP graphic, it was obvious that the plant dominating the forest area was Kayu Baranakan
(Glochidion calycina).
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Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition…...
Fatimah Fitriana & Sudin Panjaitan
2. Sapling Stage
There were 21 species found at the sapling stage. The species with the highest value was Kayu
Baranakan, Medang Putih, Jambu Hutan, Akasia, and Sari Berangkat.
Table 5. Recapitulation of five species with the highest value of KR, FR and INP at the sapling stage
No.
Species
KR (%)
FR (%)
INP (%)
1.
2.
3.
Kayu baranakan
Medang putih
Jambu hutan
44.38776
9.69388
10.20408
23.88060
13.43284
10.44776
68.268352
23.126713
20.651843
4.
5.
Akasia
Sari berangkat
6.63265
10.20408
10.44776
1.49254
17.080414
11.696619
Figure 2. Graphic of dominance at the sapling Stage
The species dominating the sapling stage was the same species like the one dominating the
seedling stage, namely Kayu Baranakan. However, its INP was smaller than it was at the seedling
stage, 68.268 %. It was included in “less” category, while the other species were in “much less”
category. Based on the criteria of sapling value the less category ranged from 40% to 79 %, while
the much less category was less than 40 % (Baku Mutu Lingkungan Vegetasi Hutan Kepmenhut No.
200/KPTS-IV/1994).
3. Pole Stage
There were 13 species found at the pole stage. The species with the highest value were
Medang putih, Medang merah, Alaban, Akasia, and Jambu hutan.
403
Table 6. Recapitulation of five species with the highest KR, FR, DoR and INP at the pole stage.
No.
Species
KR (%)
FR (%)
DoR (%)
INP (%)
1.
2.
Medang putih
Medang merah
24.561404
15.789474
21.875000
15.625000
25.216380
19.415510
71.652783
50.829983
3.
4.
5.
Alaban
Akasia
Jambu hutan
12.280702
7.017544
8.771930
9.375000
9.375000
6.25000
13.387016
8.718220
9.107064
35.042718
25.110764
24.128994
Figure 3. Graphic of dominance at the pole stage
The above graphic indicated that at the pole stage it was dominated with Medang species,
especially Medang Putih because it had the highest INP among other species. Based on the criteria
of INP value determinants at the pole stage, this was categorized “less” and “much less”, namely
40% to 79% for the less, and less than 40% for the much less.
4. Tree Stage
The total number of species found at the tree stage was 24 species. The species with the
highest value were Medang Putih, Medang Merah, Akasia, Jambu Hutan, and Alaban.
Table 7. Recapitulation of five species with the highest KR, FR, DoR and INP at the tree stage.
No.
Species
KR (%)
FR (%)
DoR (%)
INP (%)
1.
2.
Medang Putih
Medang Merah
29.565217
23.478261
18.181818
22.077922
22.344443
21.332752
70.091479
66.888935
3.
4.
5.
Akasia
Jambu Hutan
Alaban
8.695652
6.086957
4.347826
7.792208
7.792208
6.493506
5.767494
3.624909
4.107678
22.255354
17.504073
14.949010
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Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition…...
Fatimah Fitriana & Sudin Panjaitan
Figure 4. Graphic of dominance at the tree stage
At the tree stage it was dominated by Medang Putih. If it was categorized according to the INP
value determinants, the less and much less category had the value between 60% to 119 % and less
than 60 %. It indicated that this plant species did not grow densely and the average of it had small
diameter. The species could survive in the competition for gaining either the nutrients in the soil,
water, and sunlight, or the altitude that caused the narrower distribution of a species. Likewise, the
species that had been previously dominant in a forest but after experienced the competition they
were no longer dominant and soon disappeared from the forest community. (Whittaker, 1974 in
Onrizal, 2005).
C. Dominance Index
The species that had the highest dominance index at the seedling stage was Kayu Baranakan
(Glochidion calycina) that was 0.45558 (see Appendix 8). At the sapling stage Kayu Baranakan had
the highest value, 0.34134 (see Appendix 10). At the pole stage Medang Putih had the highest value,
0.23884 (see appendix 12). While at the tree stage Medang Putih had the highest value, 0.23363
(see appendix 14). It indicated that at the young plant stages Kayu Baranakan was dominated the
community while at the growing up stages Medang Putih was.
D. Species Variability
The result of the analysis showed that the species variability was included in the criterion of
much less, namely less than 0,76 based on Baku Mutu Lingkungan Vegetasi Hutan Kepmenhut No.
200/KPTS-IV/1994. It indicated that the present vegetation did not provide the stability for the
environment.
E. Distribution Index
The present species are the species that were able to compete among individuals either for
environmental factors (light, nutrients, rooting, ect) and their offspring. The data described that the
species were not distributed equally because only a few plants could survive in all stages.
405
F. Profile Diagram
The plant height was used as the criterion in the classification of plant life forms, the certain life
forms in the stratification of the plant community. In the path, the species was measured at all
growth stages, namely seedling, sapling, pole, and tree. The observation and the measurement were
carried out on: 1) The pace from the spot 0 of path to the tree projection at the path axis (x1, y1),
2) The tree diameter, 3) The bole height and the total height of the tree, and 4) The width of the
tree crown.
K = Kayu baranakan, R = Medang pirawas, P = Medang putih, M = Medang merah, T = Takahan,
A = Akasia, L = Alaba
Figure 5. Vegetation Profile at path 1, 20 m in width and 60 m in length
The crowns of the trees in the profile above indicated that the density was sufficient so the
crown from one tree to another was not that clear. However, the light could still be able to reach the
forest ground. The most species described above were the species that were easy to grow rapidly
because the endemic species in the area did not grow much. The species in the upper layer were the
family of Lauraceae, Fabaceae, and in the bottom layer were the family of Euphorbiaceae.
G. Micro Climate
Climate gives the big impact to the sustainability of all living creatures. The climate itself is
divided into two: macro and micro climate. The macro climate in an area can be determined by the
position of latitude while the micro climate can be formed due to the effect of vegetation. The
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Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition…...
Fatimah Fitriana & Sudin Panjaitan
components of micro climate are the air humidity, air temperature, soil temperature, and light
intensity.
Air Humidity (%) and Air Temperature (oC)
1.
The air humidity indicates the amount of steam in the air. Generally the air humidity under
stands is higher than the air humidity in the open area. This is because under stands there is no light
directly reaching the ground; therefore the evaporation under stands is not higher than in the open
area.
Table 8. Data of micro climate measurement
Observation path
Air humidity (%)
Air temperature
Soil temperature (oC)
(oC)
1
80
28
26
2
70
30
29
3
64
35
32
The table above showed that at the observation path 1 the air humidity was 80 % because at
path 1 there were more vegetations than at the other two paths. Path 2 had 70 % of air humidity
because there were young vegetations found at the path. Path 3 was the open area with the
humidity value of 64 %. Time and climate could also influence the big or the small of the value in
the observation.
The air temperature is the other factor that plays the role in micro climate. The air temperature
has reversal comparison to the air humidity. If the air humidity was high, the air temperature was
low. It can been seen from the data that at path 1 the air humidity was 80 %, the air temperature
28 oC and the soil temperature 26 oC, while at path 2 the air humidity was 70 %, the
o
air
o
temperature 30 C and the soil temperature 29 C.
2.
Soil pH
The soil pH indicates the acidity level in the soil. It can determine the vegetation species
growing in a certain area. Based on the data, the soil pH was between 5.5 and 6.5, namely Path 1
(6.5), Path 2 (6.0), and Path 3 (5.5). This indicated that the soil in the area was acid.
3. Light intensity
Based on the result of the observation it indicated that the light intensity generally less under
stands than in the open area. This was because in the open area there was nothing hindering the
sun light to penetrate the earth surface. The equipment employed to measure the light intensity had
sensitive characteristic, so if there was a movement or a small weather change, it could influence the
result in the tool. The effect of weather in the data recording can be seen in Table 9.
407
Table 9. Result of light intensity measurement
Path of observation
Light intensity in
Light intensity
open area (Lux)
(Lux)
Repetition
(Lux)
(%)
1158
11.58
1380
13.80
3
1068
10.68
1
1248
12.48
1
1
2
3
2
2
10000
1150
11.50
3
1460
14.60
1
1770
17.70
2240
22.40
4500
45.00
2
10000
10000
3
The example to calculate the Light Intensity (LI):
۷۱ ൌ
۷۱‫ܛ܌ܖ܉ܜܛܚ܍܌ܖܝ‬ሺ‫ܠܝۺ‬ሻ
‫ܠ‬૚૙૙Ψ
۷۱ܑ‫܉܍ܚ܉ܖ܍ܘܗܖ‬ሺ‫ܠܝۺ‬ሻ
۷۱ ൌ
૚૚૞ૡ
‫ܠ‬૚૙૙Ψ
૚૙૙૙૙
ൌͳͳǤͷͺΨ
The data at path 3 had the highest value because it was in the open area, the ex-coal mining
area. This also indicated that the result was influenced not only by the timing of the data collection
but also by the position of the sun.
IV. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
1. The vegetation composition on KHDTK Rantau consists of 24 species of understory, 19 species at
seedling stage, 21 species at sapling stage, 13 species at pole stage, and 24 species at tree
stage.
2. The species with the highest INP (%) at the seedling and sapling stage was Kayu baranakan, and
at the pole and tree stage was Medang putih.
3. The species variability in the area of KHDTK Rantau was included in the criterion of less with the
value ranging from 0.76 to 1.59.
4. Vegetation profile found in the stratum C and D was dominated by Medang species of Lauraceae
family and Kayu beranakan of Euphorbiaceae family.
5. It is suggested to conduct more intensive protection and security to the area of KHDTK so that
the factors hindering the succession can be minimized in order to keep the effort of further
management more assured.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition…...
Fatimah Fitriana & Sudin Panjaitan
REFERENCES
Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kehutanan, 1997.Pemeliharaan Hutan Penelitian di Rantau.
Activity Report Non-Reserch, Banjarbaru.
Baku Mutu Lingkungan Vegetasi Hutan Kepmenhut Nomor : 200/Kpts-IV/1994
Bratawinata, A., 2001. Ekologi Hutan Hujan Tropis dan Metode Analisis Hutan. Badan Kerjasama
Perguruan Tinggi Negeri Indonesia Timur.
Direktorat Jenderal Bina Program, 1980. Risalah Hutan Indonesia, Bogor.
Iskandar, U. Sambas, Thoyib A, Pardijan, 1974. Survey Tegakan Tinggal pada Bekas Tebangan PT.
Yubersons Pulau Obi Maluku. Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta.
Kadri, W., 1992. Manual Kehutanan. Departemen Kehutanan. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan
Kehutanan.
Marsono, 1977. Diskripsi Vegetasi dan Tipe-tipe Vegetasi Tropika. Bagian Penerbitan Yayasan
Pembina Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta.
_______, Setyono, 1981. Tegakan Tinggal Akibat Pelaksanaan TPI Di Kalimantan Timur dan
Sekitarnya. Lokakarya TPI Fakultas Kehutanan UGM, Yogyakarta.
et
al.,
2005.KomposisiJenisdanStrukturHutanKerangasBekasKebakarandi
Onrizal,
NasionalDanauSentarum, Kalimantan Barat.
Taman
http://biodiversitas.mipa.uns.ac.id/D/D0604/D0604pdf/D060410.pdf. Diakses tanggal 30 Juni 2012.
Personal.com. Panjaitan, March 26, 2012.
Richards P. W, 1964. The Tropical Rain Forest an Ecological Study. The University Press, Cambrisge.
(Translation)
Sadili, A., 2010. Struktur dan Komposisi Jenis Herba dan Semai pada Habitat Satwa Herbivor di
Suaka
Marga
Satwa
Cikepuh,
Sukabumi,
Jawa
Barat.http://isjd.pdii.lipi.go.id/admin/jurnal/101105158.pdf. Accessed on July 25, 2012.
Samingan, T, 1971. Tipe-tipe Vegetasi. Bagian Penebitan Yayasan Pembinaan Fakultas Kehutanan
Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta.
Septiyani, Y, 2010. Struktur Komunitas dan Regenerasi
KonservasiTaman Margasatwa Ragunan, Jakarta Selatan.
Tegakan
Hutan
Di
Kawasan
http://sippm.unas.ac.id/page/download.php. Accessed on July 25, 2012.
Setyawan, D. Ahmad et al., 2004. Tumbuhan Mangrove di PesisirJawa Tengah:3. Diagram
ProfilVegetasi.
http://biodiversitas.mipa.uns.ac.id/D/D0904/D090416AHMProfilhutanxxxxa.pdf. Accessed on July 25,
2012.
Setyono, A., 1985. Analisis Vegetasi dan Assosiasi Antar Jenis Penyusun Hutan Payau di Cilacap.
Tesis Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta.
Soeseno, O. H. Idris, 1974. Silviks. Bagian Penerbitan Yayasan Pembina Fakultas Kehutanan
Universitas Gajah Mada, Yogyakarta.
409
Soerianegara, I, H. Alrasjid dan H. Hadisuparto, 1976. Pengaruh Pembebasan Vertikal dan Horizontal
Terhadap Pertumbuhan Regenerasi Hutan pada Tegakan Bekas Ekploitasi Mekanis di Hutan
Hujan Kalimantan Timur. Departemen Pertanian, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan
Pertanian, LPH, Bogor.
______, A. Indrawan, 1978. Ekologi Hutan Indonesia. Departemen Manajemen Hutan, Fakultas
Kehutanan IPB, Bogor.
Wratsongko, A., 1982. Studi Perbandingan Beberapa Cara Pengambilan Contoh pada Analisis
Vegetasi Hutan Hujan Tropis. Skripsi pada Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Gajah Mada,
Yogyakarta. (Not published)
Yudi, S., 2000.Suksesi pada padang Alang – Alang dan di BawahTegakan Johar (Cassia siameaLamk)
serta di BawahTegakan Pinus (PinusmerkusiiJungh et de Vr) pada Areal Uji Coba BTR –
Rantau Kalimantan Selatan. Skripsi Fakultas Kehutanan Universitas Lambung Mangkurat. (Not
published)
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Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition…...
Fatimah Fitriana & Sudin Panjaitan
20 Plot (400 M)
20 Plot (400 m)
20 Plot (400 m)
Appendix 1. Pattern in placing the observation plots with Nested Sampling Method.
= Compass Line
= Observation Plot at Seedling Stage (2 m x 2 m)
= Observation Plot at Sapling Stage (5 m x 5 m)
= Observation Plot at Pole Stage (10 m x 10 m)
= Observation Plot at Tree Stage (20 m x 20 m)
100 m
411
100 m
U
Appendix 2. Species of Understory Plants
Name
No.
1
2
3
4
National
Local
Family
Latin
Alang-alang
Alang-alang
Imperata cylindrica
Poaceae
Anggrek tanah
Anggrek Tanah
Spathoglottis aurea
Orchidaceae
Babawangan
Babawangan
Bambu
Allium sp
Bambusa sp
Liliaceae
Bambu
-
-
-
Poaceae
5
Carikan
6
Humbutan
-
-
-
7
Ilatung
Rotan
Daemonorops sp
Bombaceae
8
Jalung laki
Rumput
Graminae
9
Kalamenjangan
-
Pennisetum sp
-
10
Kalayi
-
-
11
Karamunting
Karamunting
Melastoma malabathricum
12
Kayu gugutalalat
-
-
13
Kunir
Kunyit
Zingiberaceae
14
Mengkudu hutan
Mengkudu
Curcumasp
Morinda citrifolia
15
Pakis hutan
Pakis
Cycas sp
Cycadaceae
Paku
Paku-pakuan
17
Papisangan
Pteridophyta sp
Musa spp
Ophioglossaceae
pisang
18
Pimping
-
19
Rangka-rangka
-
20
Sampairing
16
Rumput
-
-
-
Melastomataceae
Rubiaceae
Musaceae
-
Entadasp
-
Cenchrus sp
-
Poaceae
-
21
Tapus
22
Teki
Teki
Cyperus roduntus
23
Tu’u
Rotan
Calamus sp
Bombaceae
24
Waring
-
-
-
Total
Source: The result of Field Data Analysis
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Appendix 3. Data of plant species found at the seedling stage.
No
Species
Scientific Name
Family
1
Akasia
Acacia mangium
Fabaceae
2
Alaban
Vitex pubescens
Verbenaceae
3
Bangkal Gunung
Nauclea subdita
Rubiaceae
4
Bunglai
Radermachera gigantean
Bignoniaceae
5
Kayu Barakan
Glochidion calycina
Euphorbiaceae
6
Lua
Ficus variegate
Moraceae
7
Mali-mali
Leea india Merr
8
Medang Merah
Litsea umbellata
9
Medang Pirawas
Schima sp
10
Medang Putih
Litsea steckmanni
Lauraceae
11
Palawan
Tristania whiteania
Myrtaceae
12
Pulantan
Alstonia scholaris
Apocynaceae
13
Putat
Baringtonia racenosa
Malvaceae
14
Sapundang
-
-
15
Sari Berangkat
-
-
16
Selingsing
-
-
17
Simpur
Dillenia reticullata
Dilleniaceae
18
Takahan
-
-
19
Tarap
Artocarpus odoratissimus
Total
Source: The result of Field Data Analysis
413
Lauraceae
19 Species
Moraceae
11 Family
Appendix 4. Data of plant species found at sapling stage.
No
Scientific Name
Species
Family
1
Akasia
Acacia mangium
Fabaceae
2
Alaban
Vitex pubescens
Verbenaceae
3
Balik Angin
Alphytonia zizyphoides
Rhaminaceae
4
Jambu hutan
Eugenia sp
Myrtaceae
5
Kapur Naga
Dryobalanops sp
Dipterocarpaceae
6
Kayu Baranakan
Glochidion calycina
Euphorbiaceae
7
Kayu Manis
Cinnamomum burmani
Lauraceae
8
Kayu Putting
9
Keminting
Aleurites moluccana
Euphorbiaceae
10
Kurihang
-
-
11
Mada
Ochroma sp
Bombaceae
12
Mamerangan
Diospyros perfida
Ebenaceae
13
Medang Merah
Litsea umbellata
Lauraceae
14
Medang pirawas
Schima sp
15
Medang Putih
Litsea steckmanni
Lauraceae
16
Merambung
Vernonia arborea
Asteraceae
17
Pakopian
Rubiaceae
18
Putat
Petetronia glabra
Baringtonia racenosa
19
Sari Berangkat
-
-
20
Takahan
-
-
Tungkaling
-
-
21
-
-
21 Species
Total
11 Family
Source: The result of Field Data Analysis
Appendix 5. Data of plant species found at sapling stage.
No
Scientific Name
Species
Family
1
Akasia
Acacia mangium
Fabaceae
2
Alaban
Vitex pubescens
Verbenaceae
3
Balik angin
Rhaminaceae
4
Campang
Alphytonia zizyphoides
Prainea limpato
5
Jambu hutan
Eugenia sp
Myrtaceae
6
Kayu baranakan
Glochidion calycina
Euphorbiaceae
7
Kayu manis
Cinnamomum burmani
Lauraceae
8
Medang merah
Litsea umbellata
Lauraceae
9
Medang pirawas
Schima sp
10
Medang putih
Litsea steckmanni
Lauraceae
11
Merambung
Vernonia arborea
Asteraceae
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Vegetation Composition and Ecological Condition…...
Fatimah Fitriana & Sudin Panjaitan
12
Palawan
Tristania whiteania
Myrtaceae
13
Takahan
-
13 Species
Total
7 Family
Source: The result of Field Data Analysis
Appendix 6. Data of plant species found at tree stage.
No
Scientific Name
Species
Family
1
Akasia
Acacia mangium
Fabaceae
2
Alaban
Vitex pubescens
Verbenaceae
3
Bangkal Gunung
Nauclea subdita
Rubiaceae
4
Gaharu Bini
Gonystylus macrophylus
Thymelacaceae
5
Gintungan
-
-
6
Jambu Hutan
Eugenia sp
Myrtaceae
7
Jaring Hutan
Pithecelobium jiringa
Fabaceae
8
Jumit
Microtiopsis sumatrana
Caesalpinioidae
9
Kayu putting
-
-
10
Kelampaian
Artocephalus cadamba
Rubiaceae
11
Keminting
Aleurites moluccana
Euphorbiaceae
12
Kopi Hutan
Fagraea sp
13
Mada
Ochroma sp
Bombaceae
14
Mahang daun besar
Macaranga gigantean
Euphorbiaceae
15
Mamerangan
Diospyros perfida
Ebenaceae
16
Manggatahan
-
-
17
Medang merah
Litsea umbellata
Lauraceae
18
Medang putih
Litsea steckmanni
Lauraceae
19
Mersawa
Anisoptera costata Korth
Dipterocarpaceae
20
Palawan
Tristania whiteania
Myrtaceae
21
Putat
Baringtonia racenosa
Malvaceae
22
Simpur
Dillenia reticullata
Dilleniaceae
23
Takahan
-
-
24
Wali-wali
Cinnamomum parthenoglon
Lauraceae
Total
Source: The result of Field Data Analysis
415
24 Species
13 Family
416
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs for Pulp and Paper to Secure the
Sustainability of Natural Resources1
Han Roladi2, Dian Anggraini Indrawan2 & Rossi Margareth Tampubolon2
ABSTRACT
The usefulness of pulp, paper, and other pulp-derivative products (e.g. paperboard, fiberboard, and
dissolving pulp) is undoubtedly essential for human lives. Consumption of those products tends to
increase along with the nation-advancement level.
In Indonesia, concerns arise that someday
domestic production of pulp/its derivatives is unable to cope with such consumption due to the
dwindling potency of their conventional fibrous raw-materials (particularly natural-forest woods).
Alternative materials, which are abundantly and still largely unutilized should be introduced.
In
relevant, the Center for Research and Development on Forestry Engineering and Forest Products
Processing (Bogor) has experimented the possible use of such alternatives, comprising empty oilpalm bunches (EOPB), banana pseudo-stems, sludge from pulp/paper industries, coconut
husks/coirs, and microbial cellulose for the manufacture of paperboard, art-paperboard, paper, and
dissolving pulp.
Results revealed that the mixture of EOPB pulp, sludge, and banana-pseudo-stem pulp in particular
proportions yielded paperboard and art-paperboard that could satisfy the commercial-paperboard
requirements.
Meanwhile, greater proportion of coconut-coir pulp in its mixture with microbial
cellulose was more suitable for paper products; conversely, greater microbial-cellulose proportion is
favored for dissolving pulp. These prospective trial-results on utilization of such alternative stuff are
expectedly beneficial to lessen the dependency on natural-forest woods, thereby mitigating the rate
of forest destruction; securing the sustainability of natural resources, eco-system balance, and forest
biodiversity.
Keywords: pulp/derivative products, conventional raw materials (natural-forest woods), alternative
fiber stuffs, reducing dependency, securing natural resources and forest biodiversity
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013.
2
The Center for Research and Development on Forestry Engineering and Forest Products Processing; Jalan Gunung
Batu No. 5, Bogor 16610 (West Java). Indonesia; Tel: 0251-8633378, Fax: 0251-8633413; E-mail:
[email protected], [email protected]
417
I. INTRODUCTION
Before proceeding further, it is necessary to address several terminologies regarding pulp,
paper, and the related items.
Pulp is defined as a collection of separate lignocellulosic fibers
obtained by the so-called pulping process on wood or other ligno-cellulosic fiber stuffs such as rice
straws, bamboo, sugar-cane bagasse, empty-oil palm bunches, bamboo, abaca (hemp), and sisal.
Pulping is the process by which the wood (or other ligno-cellulosic fibrous stuffs) is reduced to a
fibrous mass or individually separated fibers (pulp), which can be accomplished mechanically,
chemically, thermally or by combination of at least either two of those treatments. Pulp aspects are
frequently linked to paper and paperboard products.
Actually, pulp typifies as a half-finished
product, while paper/paperboard refers just to one of the various kinds of pulp-finished products. In
fact, there are still other items that belong to the pulp-finished products (pulp derivatives), which
comprise fiberboard (for e.g. insulation stuffs, sound-dampening wall, furniture, and light-to-heavy
structures), rayon (artificial silk), cellulose nitrate (as ingredient for explosive and nail polisher),
cellulose acetate (X-ray film, photography, and plastic/celluloids for dolls or children toys), cellulose
phosphate (as fire-retarding agent and textile ingredient) (Casey, 1980; Smook and Kocurek, 2002;
Anonim, 2013).
Accordingly from such brief narration, it becomes clear that the role of pulp, paper, and other
pulp-derivative products is undoubtedly essential for human lives. By far, wood provides 90% of the
world’s fibrous raw materials for pulp production, while the rest comes from non-wood sources.
Further, there is a trend that consumption of pulp, paper, and other pulp derivatives can serve as
one of the criteria regarding the nation-advancement level. As indication, the United States in 2010
occupied the world’s greatest consumption of pulp/its derivative products (i.e. 236.4 kg/capita),
while Indonesia ranked the thirteenth (33.6 kg/capita). In addition, consumption of such seems also
affected by the population development.
As evident, in Indonesia its consumption for pulp/its
derivatives has increased over the last 5 years, from 4.8 million tons (in 2006) to 6.6 million tons
(2010) (Anonim, 2010; 2011).
This situation raises the concerns that someday the domestic
production of pulp/its derivatives is unable to cope with such enormous consumption due to the
limited and steadily dwindling potency of their conventional fibrous raw-materials (particularly
natural-forest woods).
This worrying situation is reflected by the increased intensity in forest
encroachment and illegal logging that brings about forest destruction (deforestation), which currently
proceed at appalling rate (1.5 million ha per year) (Anonim, 2008; 2012). In fact, forest can serve
as the world lungs, due to its ability to perform the photosynthesis in the leaves through the reaction
of CO2 (from the atmosphere) with the water (taken up all the way from soil down below through its
roots, stems, branches, twigs, ultimately to the leaves), thereby protecting/preserving the ecosystem
balance, alleviating the global warming, providing water reserves, preventing or mitigating flood and
erosion threats, securing biodiversity of living creatures (flora and fauna) inside, moderating the
possible extreme climatic changes (between rainy season and dry season), and more significantly
sustaining the natural resources.
For these reasons, it is necessary to introduce alternative fibrous stuffs for pulp/its derivative
products, which are abundantly potential and still largely unutilized as substitute for the conventional
raw materials (natural-forest woods). Among the alternatives that can be proposed are empty-oil
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
palm bunches, banana-pseudo stems, sludge from pulp/paper industry, coconut husks/coirs, and
microbial cellulose. Besides, attempts to utilize those fibrous alternatives can also imply enhancing
their added value into more useful products (i.e. pulp/its derivatives). In relevant, this paper deals
with the experiment performed by the Center for Research and Development on Forestry
Engineering and Forest Products Processing, abbreviated as CRDFEFPP (situated in Bogor,
Indonesia) to manufacture paperboard and art-paperboard from the mixture of empty-oil palm
bunches, banana-pseudo stems, and sludge in particular proportions; and also to manufacture paper
and dissolving pulp from the mixture of microbial cellulose and coconut husk/coir in particular
proportions as well. The further related details are forthcoming.
II. EXPERIMENT ON PAPERBOARD AND ART-PAPERBOARD MANUFACTURE
At first, it is necessary to define what the paperboard is, and how it differs from paper. The
distinction between paper and paperboard lies on their basis weight and thickness.
Usually, all
2
sheets above 0.3 mm thick and above 224 g/m basis weight are classed as paperboard, while those
below those figures categorized into paper (Anonim, 2013). The experiment on such paperboard (in
laboratory scale) proceeded using ligno-cellulosic fibrous stuffs that consisted of empty oil-palm
bunches, sludge, and banana pseudo-stems for paperboard and art-paperboard (Roliadi et al, 2010).
Empty oil-palm bunches (EOPB) present a waste generated from oil-palm processing for crude palmoil/CPO (as the main product). Accompanying the CPO production per ton, approximately 4 ton of
dry biomass is generated. Further, about one third of the biomass makes up the so-called EOPB
(w/w, dry weight equivalent) (Anonim, 2012). Currently, Indonesia produced roughly 21.6 million
tons of CPO per year (Anonim, 2013a). Therefore from that figure, as much 28-30 tons of waste are
generated as EOPB. As of this occasion, the use of EOPB is just as a fuel (particularly for the CPO
factory itself), compost, and potash (K) fertilizer, rendering its added-value still low. EOPB belong to
short-fibered ligno-cellulosic stuffs, therefore, it could be technically appropriate for pulp/paper
products (including paperboard and the related kinds); moreover its fibers are about 0.8-1.6 mm in
length, its cellulose content comparable to that of hardwoods (43-46%), hemicellulose content
considerably higher (34%) which affords EOPB pulp fibers with satisfactory bonding performance,
and its lignin content (17-20%) slightly lower than that in hardwoods. Paperboard and the related
kinds find their extensive uses as for book cover, packaging stuffs, shoes, handbag, fancy or art
purposes, and textile-related uses (Anonim, 2013)
Regarding sludge, it is solid organic waste resulting from pulp/paper processing.
It is
necessary to at first explain in brief about what its sources are and how it comes from. Pulp/paper
processing is commonly associated with the generation of large quantity of water-based waste
(effluents) that has to be purified to avoid severe pollution impacts on environments. The effluent
as such can come from particular stages, e.g. wood-log barking and chip washing; digester and
evaporator condensates; white waters from pulp screening, cleaning, and thickening; bleach plant
washer filtrates; paper machine’s white water; and fiber and liquor spills from all the related
processing sections. Wastewater treatment (purification) in pulp/paper mills combines the particular
works such as sedimentation, chemical precipitation, biological treatment, flotation, and anaerobic
treatment.
419
Such treatment generates large amounts of stuffs mostly composed of organic
compounds, which after dewatering form as solid mass or the so-called sludge. In Indonesia, the
potency of sludge can reach 3-4% of the real pulp/paper production (Maybe, 1999; Rina et al.,
2002; Komarayati et al., 2008). Further, based on the designed capacity of all domestic pulp and
paper industries that reach consecutively 7.9 tons per year (pulp) and 12.2 tons per year (paper),
each at the utilization stage of 80% (Anonim, 2011), then the overall Indonesia’s sludge potency
could approximately amount to 0.27-0.43 million tons per year or 900-1450 tons per day. Currently,
those pulp/paper industries encounter difficulties in discarding the sludge due to the limited available
landfills, and attempts to just burn it could just inflict negative impacts on environments. On the
other hand, in the sludge are present fibers together with their ligno-cellulosic compounds. Hence, it
might sound technically worth for the sludge conversion into paperboard grade products.
Banana pseudo-stems typify as the accompanying waste generated from banana-fruit harvests.
In 2009, Indonesia’s banana-fruit production amounted to 2,674,841 tons, and in 2010 went up to
2,958,718 tons. Judging those figures, then the potency of pseudo-stems in 2009-2010 reached 9097 million tons per year (dry weight equivalent) (Sumarjono, 2008; Anonim, 2011a).
Further,
banana pseudo-stems as a ligno-cellulosic stuff justify convenient characteristics related to
pulp/paper, such as low lignin content (6-14%), high holocellulose (63-67%) as well as high
hemicellulose (20-25%), and varied fiber-length (1.92-4.17 mm) (Lisnawati, 2000; Omotoso and
Ogunsile, 2009; Anonim, 2010a). Consequently, use of banana-pseudo stems for paperboards would
seem technically prospective, and concurrently enhance their added-values as well. Experiment on
manufacturing paperboard and art-paperboard using the mixture of those three kinds of fiber stuffs
in particular proportions proceeded from raw material (fiber-stuff) preparation; pulping of stuff;
mixing of the resulting pulp from those three fiber stuffs in particular proportions; paperboard-sheet
forming from such mixed stuffs, paperboard conditioning, until its testing. All the staged experiment
was performed in the Laboratory of Fiber Technology, under the CRDFEFPP (Bogor).
A. Fiber-Stuff Preparations
The prepared stuffs comprised EOPB, banana-pseudo stems, and sludge. The EOPB was taken
from the particular CPO factory, banana-pseudo stems from banana-fruit harvest at the community
garden, while sludge was provided by particular pulp/paper factories. The EOPB was cleaned of dirt
such as soil particles, sands, and skin of oil-palm fruit, with cool water (room temperature); and so
were banana-pseudo-stems. Further, both the cleaned EOPB and banana pseudo-stem were dried in
the sun to decrease their moisture content to about 30-40%.
The sun-died EOPB and banana
pseudo-stems were each chopped with big knives to small sizes (chips) that measured 5-6 cm long,
4 cm wide, and 1-1.5 cm thick. The EOPB and banana-pseudo stem chips were allowed to dry in the
open air but under the roof to reach their equilibrium moisture content (EMC). Regarding sludge, it
was also cleared of sand, pebbles, soil particles, and other unwanted matters, using cool water as
well. Afterwards, the cleaned sludge was allowed to dry in the sun as well, and then continued with
air-drying under the roof to reach its EMC as well.
B. Pulping of EOPB and Banana-pseudo Stems
The pulping of EOPB chips proceeded using a closed hot soda semi-chemical process. The
EOPB chips were initially cooked in the laboratory-scale electrically heated digester (ingeniously
420
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
engineered by the CRDFEFPP staffs).
The cooking condition as employed was alkali (NaOH)
concentration as much as 10% for 2 hours at maximum temperature (120 oC), chip to cooking-liquor
ratio at 1: 5.5 (w/v), and pressure about 1.5-1.7 atm. Meanwhile, the pulping of banana pseudostem chips was conducted using an open hot soda semi-chemical process, with cooking condition
that employed 6% NaOH for 1.5 hours at 100oC, chips to liquor ratio at 1:7, under the atmospheric
(1 atm) pressure. After the cooking, the softened EOPB chips and banana pseudo-stem chips were
thoroughly washed with clean water until becoming free of residual cooking liquor. Some amount of
the residual liquor was taken for the determination of alkali consumption in accordance with the
TAPPI Standards (Anonim, 2007). Afterwards, the softened EOPB chips were defiberated into pulp
in the Hollander beater at 4-5% consistency, and continued in the Niagara beater until the resulting
pulp reached the freeness degree at 250-300 ml CSF. Meanwhile, the banana pseudo-stem chips
were also defiberated into pulp but only in the Hollander beater at 4-5% consistency as well. The
resulting EOPB pulp and banana pseudo-stem pulp had their moisture content reduced using
centrifuge. Some amounts of the pulp were taken for the determination of pulp yield and kappa
number; and the remaining pulps in large amount were ready for the paperboard-sheet forming, also
according the TAPPI Standards (Anonim, 2007).
Results of the examined pulping properties of EOPB and banana pseudo stems are disclosed in
Table 1. The EOPB pulp yield afforded its range commonly obtained by the semi-chemical pulping
(60-75%). Meanwhile, the yield of banana pseudo-stem pulp was much lower, and such could be
due to its moderate cellulose content (40-42%), high extractives (37%), and high portion of nonfiber (parenchymatous) tissues, as indicated by its high solubility in consecutively hot water (1525%) and in 1% NaOH (25-35%) (Omotoso and Oqunsile, 2009). The kappa number of both EOPB
pulp and banana-stem pulp was in the common range of semi-chemical pulp, and both exhibited the
number greater than 35 thereby, rendering the pulp justifiable for paperboard products. This is
because the kappa number can relate to the residual lignin content in the pulp, and high lignin
content can impart rigidity to thing the paperboards favors. Alkali consumption in the EOPB pulping
was much greater than that in banana-stem pulping. This happened because the initial alkali charge
in the EOPB pulping (cooking) was greater than in banana-stem pulp (10% vs. 6%), implying that in
the EOPB pulping as much 98.1% of the alkali charge (10%) was as consumed, while in bananastem pulping as much as 50% of the charge (6%) was consumed. Further, such notable difference
was also due to the implemented process as the former employed closed-semichemical pulping
process, while the latter open-semichemical pulping. The alkali-consumption value can be a matter
of consideration whether it is necessary or not conducting chemical recovery.
The beating took
longer duration for EOPB pulp than that for banana-stem pulp. This could be understood as the
EOPB pulp sustained the beating in Hollander beater and later in Niagara beater, while the beating of
banana-stem pulp proceeded only in the Hollander beater.
Beating duration could relate to the
speed of pulping and the consumption of energy (from electricity as well as fuel).
421
Table 1. Properties of EOPB and banana pseudo-stem pulping
-Pulp yield, %
60.17
Banana
pseudo-stem
42.45
-Kappa number
38.17
45.16
-Alkali consumption, %
9.81
3.00
125.49
60.00
Pulping properties *)
-Beating duration, minutes **)
EOPB
Remarks: *) Average of 5 replications; **) In EOPB (empty oil-palm bunches) pulping, the beating proceeded in
Hollander beater and then in Niagara beater, while the beating of banana-stem pulp only done in
Hollander beater
Source: Roliadi et al. (2010)
C. Paperboard-Sheet Forming
The fiber stuff for paperboard-sheet forming comprised the mixture of EOPB pulp, sludge, and
banana-stem pulp in particular proportions, i.e.100%+0%+0% (=entirely 100% EOPB pulp),
50%+50%+0% (=50% EOPB pulp + 50% sludge), 42.5%+42.5%+15%, and 35%+35%+30%.
The mixing was conducted in the Hollander beater in which the mixed stuff corresponding to each of
those four proportions underwent the circulation at 3-4% consistency. Further, the circulated stuff
was further added with additives, i.e. alum 2% (as retention agent), clay 4% (as filler), tapioca
starch 3% (as glue), and rosin size 2% (to enhance water repellency). The circulation continued
until the mixed stuff appeared homogenous, then terminated, and ready for paperboard-sheet
forming. The forming was done using the hand-sheet former device, with the targeted basis weight
300-400 gram/m2. Afterwards, the resulting paperboards were allowed to dry using the laboratory
drying (wind tunnel) device, put into the conditioning room (with the controlled humidity and
temperature), and then had their physical and strength tested in accordance with the TAPPI
Standard (Anonim, 2007), which comprised paperboard yield, real basis weight, moisture content,
burst index, ring-crush index, water absorption, and thickness.
Properties of the tested paperboard that resulted were disclosed in Table 2. The real basis
weight of the overall experimented paperboard (e.g. from 100% EOPB pulp, and the mixture of 50%
EOPB pulp and 50% banana-stem pulp (which also incorporated the additive use) was in the range
of the targeted aim (300-400 gram/m2), and still higher than that of the paperboard manufactured
by the small-scale community factory (that used the mixture of 50% waste paper and 50% sludge,
without additives). This indicated that the use of additives (i.e. alum, clay, tapioca starch, and rosin
size) could inflict significant effect on improving fiber-to-fiber bonding, felting, and compactness,
thereby reducing the loss of fibers through the screen during the sheet forming. Further, moisture
content and water absorption of the paper board from the mixture of 50% EOPB pulp and 50%
banana-stem pulp were greater than those from just 100% EOPB pulp. The sludge might contain
among others fragmented fibers, low molecular weight carbohydrate, and degraded adhesives
(Suchland and Woodson, 1986; Anonim, 2013b), causing their hydroxyl (OH) groups more open and
accessible, thereby enhancing its hygroscopicity and attracting more water molecules from the
surrounding site.
With respect to the paperboard yield, basis weight, thickness, and strength
properties (e.g. burst index and ring-crush index), the paperboard from 100% EOPB pulp exhibited
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
greater values than from 50% EOPB pulp + 50% sludge mixture. This again hinted that the sludge
contained short and fragmented fibers and non-fiber particles (e.g. residual additives), thereby
negatively affecting fiber-to-fiber bonding and felting during paperboard-sheet formation..
The yield of paperboard-sheet tended to decrease with the increasing-portion of banana-stem
pulp (or with the decrease in EOPB pulp and sludge portions) (Table 2). Indicatively, the bananastem pulp as incorporated still contained a residual amount of parenchyma (non-fiber) tissues,
thereby easily destroyed (dissolved) in the water media during the sheet forming. The paperboard
either from consecutively 100% EOPB, 50% EOPB + 50% sludge mixture, or from 42.5% EOPB pulp
+ 42.5% sludge + 15% banana-stem pulp mixture afforded the yield in the range commonly
obtained by the community paperboard factories (i.e. 75-85%). However, at the mixture of 35%
EOPB pulp + 35% sludge +30% banana-stem pulp, the paperboard yield was unable to satisfy that
range, due the behavior banana stems as described previously.
Table 2. Physical and strength properties of paperboard from the mixture EOPB pulp , sludge, and
banana-stem pulp, together with those for the comparison
Experimented paperboard
No.
1
2
3
4
5
Properties
Yield, %
7
8
423
(3)
(4)
84.21
80.30
75.05
69.91
(r3.772)
(r4.324)
(r5.129)
(r4.271)
(5)
Standard
aper-
chip-
board*)
board *)
250-350
375-425
75-85
341.49
310.49
335.56
369.16
289.749
(r10.181)
(r11.374)
(r12.129)
(r30.065)
(r31.831)
Thickness,
mm
0.543
0.528
0.575
0.588
0.511
0.52-
(r0.0201)
(r0.0177)
(r0.0504)
(r0.0291)
(r0.2630)
0.56
7.11
7.92
7.77
7.79
9.73
6-8
(r1.235)
(r1.235)
(r0.822)
(r0.635)
(r2.121)
4.413
4.413
3.2455
2.300
2.600
(r0.9077)
(r0.9077)
(r0.8128)
(r0.2051)
(r0.1324)
Moisture
content, %
Burst
Burst index,
kN/g
1.275
1.175
0.932
0.654
0.500
(r2.2469)
(r2.2469)
(r0.2451)
(r0.0677)
(r0.1312)
Ring crush,
kgf
57.87
56.44
53.19
39.28
36.16
(r3.411)
(r2.478)
(r5.478)
(r2.478)
(r2.1212)
Ring crush
index,
kgf.m2/g
9
(2)
Commercialp
Basis weight,
g/m2
strength,
kgf/cm2
6
(1)
Comparison
Water
17.06
15.06
12.79
10.44
6.760
(r1.363)
(r1.461)
(r1.751)
(r1.494)
(r1.723)
152.51
162.50
137.46
128.19
506.00
1.36
1.0601.098
22.76
58-76
50-300
Experimented paperboard
Comparison
Com-
No.
Properties
absorption,
(1)
(r10.575)
(2)
(r12.575)
(3)
(r14.278)
(4)
(r15.734)
(5)
Stan-
mercialp
dard
aper-
chip-
board*)
board *)
(r12.168)
(g/m2)/60
seconds
Remarks:
1) From 100% EOPB pulp, with additives (clay 4%, alum 2%, tapioca-starch glue 3%, and rosin size 2%)
2) From the mixture of 50% EOPB pulp + 50% sludge, with additives (similar as above)
3) From the mixture of 42.5% EOPB pulp + 42.5% sludge + 15% banana-stem pulp, with additives (similar as
above)Dari campuran:
4) From the mixture of 35% EOPB pulp + 35% sludge + 30% banana-stem pulp, with additives (similar as
above)
5) Paperboard produced by the small-scale community factory, using the mixture of 50% wastepaper + 50%
sludge, without additives
1), 2), 3), and 4) average of 5 replications; figures is parenthesis = standard deviation
*) Anonim (2008)
With regard to physical and strength properties of paperboard, there was indication that the
greater the banana-stem pulp proportion, then the lower the paperboard moisture content and water
absorption, while its thickness and basis weight increased (Table 2). Such phenomena could relate
to the residual extractives that still remained with the pulp, such as wax matters, which enhanced
the paperboard water-repellency (De Bos and Adnan; 1958; Suhadi et al., 2004). Meanwhile, the
still presence of fiber bundles
in the banana-stem pulp might be responsible for such greater
thickness and basis weight. Such fiber-bundle presence occurred due to imperfect separation into
individual fibers, as the beating of banana-stem pulp was only conducted in Hollander beater, but
not continued in the Niagara beater, thereby not achieving 250-300 ml CSF freeness. The strengths
of paperboard (i.e. ring-crush index and burst index) appeared to decrease with the increase in
banana-stem pulp portion. This again strengthened the previous presumption that in that pulp were
still present the fiber bundles (again due to not reaching 25-530 ml pulp freeness), thereby not
ensuring intensive inter-fiber bonding and felting during sheet formation.
The physical and strength properties of all the experimented paperboard (from 100% EOPB
pulp, as well as from the mixture of EOPB pulp + sludge + banana-stem pulp in all the tried
proportions), with the use of additives were better than those community-factory-produced
paperboard which was composed of 50% wastepaper and 50% sludge, but without additives (Table
2). Again, this related to the use of additives, i.e. alum (as retention agent), tapioca-starch glue (as
bonding agent/adhesive), clay (as filler), and rosin-size (as water-repellency enhancement). Further,
the properties of paperboard from 100% EOPB pulp or those from the EOPB pulp but added with
sludge to particular portion (30-50%) and with banana-stem pulp (up to 15%) could to some extent
satisfy the commercial-paperboard and chipboard requirement. Meanwhile, the addition of bananastem pulp exceeding 15% (up to 30%) could negatively affect the paperboard properties
(particularly strength).
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However, results of light-scanning on the surface of paperboard that
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
incorporated 15-30% banana-stem pulp revealed interesting looks and attractive patterns, such as
scratches, grooves, spots, and other surface-related favors.
Such paperboards can therefore be
beneficial for fancy purposes (e.g. invitation paper, decorative paper, and other art uses) (Appendix
1).
This suggests the prospective mixed processing of EOPB pulp and sludge, which also
incorporated banana-stem pulp, into paperboard as well as art (fancy) paperboard, with the
proportion of the latter up to 15% (if strength considered) or over to 30% (strength not-considered).
III. EXPERIMENT ON PAPER AND DISSOLVING-PULP MANUFACTUR
This experiment (in laboratory scale as well) for such manufacture used the missed fibrous
stuffs composed of microbial cellulose and coconut husks/coirs (Puspitasari, 2012) .
Microbial
cellulose is a cellulose-polymer-based stuff obtained from the synthesis of a substrate that contains
glucose, fructose, or other simple/low-molecular weight carbohydrates, with the aid of particular
microorganisms.
The microorganisms as commonly used are of specific bacteria species, called
Acetobacter spp, which are able to biologically convert sugar or other low-molecular weight
carbohydrate into cellulose, from which the term microbial cellulose is adopted. The activities of
those bacteria are affected by among others oxygen (O 2) and nitrogen (N2) elements (Brown, 2002;
Anonim, 1998; 2012a; 2013c). Further, it is reported that the alpha-cellulose content of microbial
cellulose was greater than that of wood pulp, while beta-cellulose content lower (Sugiyama, 1997;
Hardiyanti, 2010). Expectedly, this can bring positive effects on attempts of the microbial-cellulose
conversion into the cellulose-derived products (e.g. pulp/paper).
One of the particular carbohydrate-containing substrates that can be used as the growth
(cultivating) media for Acetobacter bacteria in the microbial-cellulose synthesis is a liquid waste that
results from tapioca-flour processing. The flour is yielded from the processing of cassava root-tuber.
Such processing involves the stages that cover: (1) chopping the cassava root-tubers of the root tails
and other unwanted matters; (2) peeling the chopped cassava root-tubers and then steeping them
into the cleansing water-containing bath (pond); (3) putting the cleansed cassava tubers into the
grinder, then grinding them into smaller-sized particles, and subsequently sedimenting the particles
in the water followed with the intense agitation until they appear as the slurry that comprises the
mixture of cassava starch, water, and fibers; (4) filter the slurry to separate the starch slurry from
the fibers; (5) Sediment the fiber-free slurry in the bath (pail), in this way after some time the starch
portion will settle down or precipitate; (6) through the decanting, the precipitated portion can be
separated from the liquid mass.
The precipitated portion after the sun-drying and grinding will
become the so-called tapioca flour. Meanwhile, the liquid mass can be referred to as the tapiocaprocessing liquid waste.
For Indonesia, it was asserted as the third largest cassava-producing
country in the world, i.e. 13.3 million tons of tapioca flour in 2010 (Anonim, 2011a). In processing
the cassava into tapioca flour, roughly it produces 3.3 million tons of flour and concurrently
generates 12 -15 million kiloliters of juicy tapioca-processing waste, which sounds potentially
enormous as substrate for microbial-cellulose synthesis.
Meanwhile, the cellulose polymers
contained in the microbial cellulose serve as the principle compound that make-up the pulp.
Consequently, it would seem technically justifiable if the resulting microbial cellulose were utilized for
pulp-derived products (e.g. paper and dissolving-pulp).
425
Besides microbial cellulose, another cellulose-based fibrous stuff that also deserves thorough
attention for the manufacture of pulp/its derivatives is coconut husks/coirs, which typify as waste
generated from coconut-fruit processing (particularly copra). Roughly, as much 35% of the coconut
fruit in weight takes up a portion as the so-called coconut coirs/husks. Therefore, with the current
Indonesia’s coconut-fruit production reaching some 3.0 million tons per year (Iskandar and Supriadi,
2010; Anonim, 2011a), this yields 1.0-1.1 million tons of coconut coirs/husks annually (w/w, dry
weight). As of this occasion, the use of coconut coirs/husks is still limited, confined only to homeindustry products (Arsyad, 2011). Meanwhile, those coconut coirs/husks contain also among others
cellulose polymer and other polymers (e.g. lignin and hemicellulose).
Further, in term of fiber
dimensions, the length of fibers in coconut coirs/husks is regarded as short (1.0-1.5 mm), and
therefore for pulp/paper manufacture, the fibers belong to class III grade. However, with respect to
fiber-dimension-derived values (i.e. flexibility ratio, felting power, Runkel number, and Muhlstep
ratio), those of coconut coirs/husks each belong to class I-II.
Consequently, their use for
paper/dissolving pulp might sound technically prospective as well to enhance their added value.
In the following is depicted the processing of microbial cellulose and coconut husks/coirs each
into pulp, which was followed with the cellulose-based sheet forming from the mixture of both the
resulting pulps in particular proportions, and ultimately had the sheet properties tested in accordance
with the TAPPI Standard (Anonim, 2007).
All this staged work (experiment) took place as well in
the Laboratory of Fiber Technology, CRDFEFPP (Bogor).
A. Processing of Microbial Cellulose Pul
-
Preparation of microbial cellulose
The chemical items as used comprised tapioca-processing liquid-waste (as bacteria substrate),
NaOH (alkali), acetic acid, Z.A. (NH4)2SO4), Acetobacter xylinum bacteria, and distilled water. The
schematic work in preparation (synthesis) of microbial cellulose from the tapioca-processing waste is
described in Figure 1. From the synthesis, it turns out that the yield of microbial cellulose averaged
about 850 gram (wet weight) per 1 liter of tapioca liquid-waste (moisture content of microbial
cellulose was 95%, wet basis).
The resulting microbial-cellulose stuff was ready further for
conversion into pulp.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
Tapioca-processing liquid
waste
(one liter)
Sieving /Cleaning of
impurities
-Acetic acid (concentrated), 5 ml
-Z.A. ((NH4)2SO4), 6 grams
Mild heating,
70oC (2 hours)
Cooing, overnight ready as
substrate
Starter, i.e. using particular bacteria
(Acetobacter xylinum), 5% (v/v)
Inoculation on
substrate
Synthesis of low MW carbohydrate
(inn substrate) into microbial cellulose, 25-27oC,
7 days
Products, i.e.
Jelly-like nata de cassava (microbial
cellulose polymers, in cluster form)
Remarks: MW = molecular weight
Figure 1. Schematic work-flow in the synthesis of microbial cellulose from tapioca-processing liquid
waste
- Pulping of microbial cellulose
Initially, the microbial-cellulose stuff was purified by heating in 1% NaOH (alkali) solution, with
1:8 ratio (between the stuff to the solution,w/v), at 60oC for 2 hours. This was intended to separate
427
the stuff of residual low-molecule carbohydrate which dissolved in the alkali solution, and afterwards
ready for pulping.
The pulping was merely the action to separate (disintegrate) the microbial-
cellulose polymer chains in the stuff that might agglomerate or adhere laterally to each other, into
individual/separate polymer chains (pulp). The separation/disintegration proceeded in the so-called
laboratory-scale Niagara beater at about 3-4% consistency of the slurry (i.e. microbial cellulosewater suspension) (Appendix 2). The beating took about 1-2 hours, and was terminated when the
slurry (pulp) appeared to be homogenous.
The resulting cellulose-microbial pulp then had its
moisture content and yield examined, and as such the pulp yield reached 38% (in average). The
related staged work in microbial-cellulose pulping is disclosed in Figure 2.
Nata de cassava
(Jelly-like microbia cellulose mass)
Moisture content
determination
Purification, using
1% NaOH, 60oC, 20 minutes Æ separated
from low-molecular weight (imperfectly
synthesized) carbohydrate
Mechanical disintegration of the purified
microbial cellulose cluster in the Niagara
beater at 3-4% consistency
Determination of
-Moisture content
-Pulp yield
Product, i.e.
Microbial-cellulose pulp
Ready for
paper-sheet forming
Figure 2. Staged work in the pulping of microbial cellulose stuff
B. Processing of Coconut-Coir Pulp
Preparation of coconut coirs/husks
Coconut coirs/husks were initially cleared of dirt or unwanted stuffs, subsequently cut
lengthwise in the direction of their fiber alignment, and further cut across such alignment to smallsized pieces (called as chips) that measured approximately 5 cm in length by 1 cm in width. The
obtained coconut-coir chips were allowed to dry, had their moisture content measured, and
afterwards ready for cooking (pulping).
The pulping used the open hot semi-chemical process,
employing the particular conditions, i.e. alkali (NaOH) concentration at 10%, chip to cooking-liquor
ratio (w/v) 1:8, and maximum temperature 100oC which was kept for 3 hours. After the cooking, a
small amount of residual cooking liquor was taken and examined for the chemical (alkali)
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Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
consumption; and the softened coconut-coir chips was put into the Niagara beater at about 3-4
water-based consistency, in which they underwent mechanical action into separate individual fibers
(pulp).
The beating (mechanical action) was terminated, when the pulp reached the freeness
degree at 200-250 ml CSF. The resulting pulp then had its yield examined. It turns out the pulp
yield reached 63.42%, with alkali consumption at 6.63%. These figures imply the pulp yield of
coconut coirs/husks still fell in the range commonly obtained from the semi-chemical pulping (6075%), while in term of alkali (NaOH) consumption (6.63%), as much 66.3% of the chemical charge
(10%) signified as amount of NaOH consumed during the cooking. Further, the coconut-cour/husk
pulp in this regard was still unbleached, as the residual lignin in particular content still remained
inside. As illustration, the staged work in the pulping of coconut coirs/husks is presented in Figure 3.
C. Forming of the Cellulose-based Sheet
The sheet forming used the homogenous mixture of the resulting both microbial-cellulose pulp
and coconut-coir pulp at four proportions, i.e. 25%+75%, 50%+50%, 75+25%, 100%+0% (w/w,
dry weight basis). Such homogeneity was obtained by at first mixing those two kinds of fiber stuffs
(at each of those four proportions) in the Niagara beater at 3-4% consistency, which further
circulated the mixed stuffs vigorously. While circulating, to the stuffs were added the additives that
consisted of alum as retention agent (4%), tapioca starch as glue (2.5%), and clay as filler (3%),
and rosin size as water-repellent agent (3%)t. The circulation was terminated when the mixed stuff
appeared as homogenous water-fiber suspension. As control, the homogenous mixed.
fiber stuffs at those four proportions were also prepared without additives, and then sustained
similar stages. The homogenous water-fiber suspension either with or without additives were ready
for sheet forming with the targeted basis weight 60gram/m 2, which used the manual hand-sheet
former device, equipped with a fine 60-mesh wire screen. Mechanisms of sheet forming occurred
due to initially pouring the water-fiber suspension on the screen and allowing it drain or move down
due to its gravitation weight, thereby separating the water mass. In this way, such draining left
behind the fiber stuffs on the screening, formed as the web (sheet). During the sheet forming, the
duration of water drainage or its downward movement from the screen onto the discharging chest
below was measured. The resulting formed-sheets (regarded as paper grade, as its basis weight
less than 224 gram/m2) were then allowed to dry using a sheet drier, conditioned in the room (under
controlled humidity and temperature) for 24 hours, and then ready for the testing. The paper-sheet
testing comprised moisture content, water absorption, tear, index, tensile index, opacity, and
brightness degree. Results of the testing (including also the water-drainage duration) are presented
in Table 3. For illustration, the staged work of paper-sheet forming from those mixed fiber stuffs
was disclosed in Figure 4.
429
Coconut husks/coirs
Cutting and
chipping
Moisture-content determination
Coconut coir chips
800 g (dry weight equiv)
Cooking (pulping),
using semi-chemical alkali process
10% NaOH, 100oC, 3 hours
Determination of
alkali consumption
Softened
coconut-coir chips
Determination of
-Pulp moisture-content.
-Pulp yield
Hollander beater, i.e.
defiberation of softened
coconut coir chips
Perfection of
defiberation to
particular degree (200260 ml CSF) into pulp
Products, i.e.
Coconut-coir pulp
Ready for .
paper-sheet forming
Figure 3. Staged work in the pulping of coconut coirs/husks
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Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
Mixing in the Niagara beater at the proportions:
25%+75%, 50%+50%, 75%+25%,100%+0%
(w/w, dry weight equivalent),
under intense agitation/circulation
Nata de cassava
(microbial-cellulose
pulp)
Additives, i.e.
-Alum (retention agent), 4%
-Clay (filler), 3%
-Tapioca-starch (as glue), 2.5%
-Rosin size (enhancing
water repellency), 3%
Coconut-coir pulp
Agitation/circulation continued,
until the mixed stuffs
appeared homogenous
Without Additives, i.e.
-as Control
Paper-sheet forming
(with and without additives) manually
using hand-sheet former with
the targeted (60 gram/m2) basis weight
Wet paper web (sheet)
Drying and Conditioning
(under controlled
temperature and humidity)
Dried and conditioned
paper sheet
Ready for
paper-sheet testing, i.e.
physical, strength, and
optical properties
Figure 4. Staged work in the paper-sheet forming
Basis weight of the paper sheet indicatively increased with greater portion of microbialcellulose pulp (Table 3). Conversely, greater portion of coconut-coir pulp led to the decrease in basis
weight. This implies that the microbial cellulose did not shape like a fiber but rather as an aggregate
(cluster) of flexible parallel cellulose polymer chains with its width (diameter) much smaller than that
of fiber. Consequently, this allowed for microbial cellulose stuff to fill-up the empty spaces between
fibers in the sheet arrangement during sheet forming, hence increasing the basis weight. On the
other hand, more empty spaces in such arrangement occurred with greater portion of less-flexible
coconut-coir pulp fibers (due to still greater residual lignin content inside). Further, the incorporation
of additives (i.e. alum, tapioca starch, clay, and rosin size) to the mixed fiber stuffs (i.e. mixture of
microbial-cellulose pulp and coconut-coir pulp) rendered the sheet basis-weight increasing. Alum
served as retention agent, and therefore it caused more intensive contact between fibers as well as
between fibers and additives (i.e. clay, tapioca starch, and rosin size). As a result, this reduced the
amount of fibers and additive particles that might pass through the minute screen-holes of the
sheet-former device during paper-sheet forming, thereby increasing the sheet basis-weight. The real
basis weight of the sheet which was lower than the targeted one (60 gam/m2) revealed that some
431
amount of fibers and additives was lost through the screen holes during sheet forming, while the
basis weight greater than the target mostly occurred to the sheet with greater portion of microbialcellulose pulp and with additive use.
Again, this strengthened the presumption that microbial
cellulose stuffs filled up the spaces of inter-fiber arrangements, and the role of particular additives
(e.g. retention agent, filler, and adhesive).
Table 3. The physical, strength, and optical properties as examined of the paper sheet formed from
the mixture of microbial-cellulose pulp and coconut-coir pulp at particular proportions
No
Properties
I
Mixed propoportion of
Microbial-cellulose pulp + Coconut-coir pulp
25%+75%
50%+50%
75%+25%
100%+0%
1)
Physical aspects
-Real basis weight, g/m2
Control
55.2
61.0
57.4
64.9
With additives
57.1
61.3
58.2
64.2
Control
8.51
9.30
9.34
8.25
With additives
8.61
8.53
7.78
7.63
Control
162.5
75.1
62.5
61.9
With additives
174.9
74.3
49.4
55.3
Control
Instant
0.025
0.251
3.000
With additives
Instant
0.031
0.264
3.000
-Moisture content, %
-Water absorption, g/m2
-Drainage duration, hours
II
Strength aspects
-Tear index, Nm/g
Control
4.90
6.30
13.18
21.34
With additives
5.52
10.28
14.87
20.95
Control
4.53
5.81
5.79
9.10
With additives
4.28
5.62
5.68
11.78
Control
11.5
11.2
15.0
18.2
With additives
12.6
12.7
16.2
25.0
Control
95.1
92.2
77.8
65.2
With additives
98.5
93.0
89.3
71.7
2
-Tear index, mNm /g
III
Optical aspects
-Brightness (whiteness), %
-Brightness (whiteness), %
Remarks:
1)
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Average of three replications; Control = without additives; Additives = comprised of alum as
retention agent (4%), tapioca starch as glue (2.5%), clay as filler (3%), rosin size as water-repellent
enhancer (3%)
Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
Water absorption of the paper sheets with higher proportion of microbial-cellulose pulp tended
to decrease (Table 3), while the reverse situation was true for greater portion of coconut-coir pulp.
The possible explanation was that the microbial-cellulose pulp was made-up of almost pure cellulose
polymers with their chains lying parallel to each other, so close together, and so tightly packed
(Anonim, 2012a). Further, such greater portion therefore rendered the empty spaces between fiberto-fiber arrangements in the sheets less available.
As a result, this ultimately decreased the
hygroscopic behavior of the sheets, and the water movement became more limited inside, thereby
lowering their water absorption. For coconut-coir pulp, its greater portion in the paper sheet created
more empty spaces in the inter-fiber arrangement of the paper sheet (as described previously in the
basis weight aspect). Consequently, this provided more chance of physical contact between water
and fiber surface, thereby allowing more of the water to enter into fiber structure and hence
increasing the sheet moisture content as well as water absorption.
With regard to moisture content of the paper sheets, initially greater portion of microbialcellulose pulp (or lower portion of coconut-coir pulp) up to the mixed 50%+50% fiber-stuff portion
brought about an increase in the sheet moisture content. Afterwards, greater portion of microbial
cellulose pulp up to the mixed 100%+0% portion caused the sheet moisture-content to decrease.
Apparently, the more available free hydroxyl (OH) groups with greater portion of microbial-cellulose
pulp at first rendered the resulting paper-sheets more polar and hence more hygroscopic, thereby
increasing the its affinity towards water (i.e. increasing the sheet moisture-content). However later
on beyond the 50%+50% until 100%+0% portion, trend changes in moisture content of the sheets
due to greater microbial-cellulose pulp portion were similar to those in water-absorption, i.e. those
two water-associated properties decreasing. It seemed that the phenomena that brought about the
decrease in moisture content similar to those that did so in water absorption. Further, the use of
additives (i.e. alum, tapioca starch, and rosin size) brought about the decrease in moisture content
as well as water absorption. Apparently, the tiny-sized additive particle filled-up the spaces between
the inter-fiber arrangements in the sheets and possibly entered also into the void spaces inside the
fibers, which rendered the hygroscopic-sheet behavior reduced and water movement inside less-free
as well.
In addition, the water-repellent characteristics of the rosin size also contributed to the
lowering of paper-sheet hygroscopicity, thereby decreasing its moisture content and water
absorption.
The water-drainage duration took longer in the forming of paper sheets with higher portion of
microbial cellulose than in that with lower portion (Table 3). This again suggests that the microbialcellulose was actually not in fiber shape but rather as the cluster of several flexible cellulose-polymer
chains lying parallel and so-packed together with their diameter much smaller than those of ordinary
ligno-cellulosic fibers.
As a result, those clusters appeared in shape as a rather-tiny size piece.
During the paper-sheet forming, these microbial-cellulose pieces could become agglomerated,
enlarging in size, and therefore most likely plug the screen-holes at the sheet-former device.
Consequently, this hindered the downward water movement, thereby prolonging its drainage
duration.
Meanwhile, greater portion of coconut-coir pulp caused such duration to decrease.
Apparently, greater size of coconut-coir fibers were mostly retained on the screen (not plugged it)
433
and hence allowed the water mass to move down more freely through the screen holes, rendering
the drainage duration shorter. Further, the use of additives to the mixed fiber stuffs tended also to
prolong the water-drainage duration during paper-sheet forming.
These phenomena seemed
occurring almost similarly to those with greater portion of microbial-cellulose pulp, as the additives
were also of tiny-sized particles which therefore could also plug the screen holes. However, since
the amount of additives as incorporated (each less than 5%) was much less than that of the
microbial-cellulose pulp, its impact on prolonging the duration was not so troublesome.
Tensile index and tear index of the paper sheet inclined to increase with greater portion of
microbial-cellulose pulp (Table 3), while the situation was on the contrary with greater portion of
coconut-coir pulp. As indicated previously (from the basis weight aspects), the almost pure flexible
cellulose polymer chains in microbial cellulose pulp render their entity less rigid, thereby inflicting
more intensive interweaving (felting) and bonding between fibers in the paper sheet during its
forming, hence enhancing its strength. Conversely, the residual lignin still left in the coconut-coir
pulp caused the pulp fiber less flexible or more rigid, hence inflicting adverse effect on the sheet
strength. With respect to the tensile index, the use of additives brought about positive effect. This
could be attributable to the role of tapioca-starch additive that served as glue thereby improving the
bonding between fibers in the paper structure. On the other hand, the additives brought about
slight decrease in the tear index of the paper sheet with greater portion of microbial-cellulose pulp
up to 75% (or lower portion of coconut-coir pulp down to 25%). As such, this could be caused by
the role of clay inorganic filler which could interfere the bonding between fibers in the paper sheet.
At 100% portion of microbial cellulose pulp, however, such additives caused the increase in the tear
index. This could be attributed to the role of tapioca-starch glue in the additives that improved the
fiber-to-fiber bonding, and dominated over that of clay filler, as also occurring to the increasing
tensile index.
Brightness (whiteness) of paper sheet tended to increase with greater portion of microbialcellulose pulp, and the reverse was true for greater portion of coconut-coir pulp (Table 3). This can
be explained as microbial-cellulose pulp is again composed of nearly or almost 100% cellulose, and it
exhibits intrinsically white in color
(Anonim, 2011b; 2013c).
Conversely, the coconut-coir pulp
contained other compounds than cellulose such as residual hemicellulose and residual lignin. The
lignin is vulnerable to oxidation or other chemical action, rendering its color changed to rather dark
(brown to black) (Casey, 1980).
Consequently, as the portion of coconut-coir pulp increased, it
caused the decrease in the paper-sheet brightness. Further, the use of additives (i.e. alum, tapioca
starch, and rosin size) increased the brightness of paper sheet. Such increase was attributed to the
color of tapioca starch (organic stuff) and clay (inorganic stuff) which is inherently white (Smook and
Kocurek, 2002).
Contrary to the brightness, the opacity of paper sheet decreased with increasing portion of
microbial-cellulose pulp (Table 3), and vice versa with the increasing portion of coconut-coir pulp.
From the brightness measurement, it revealed that the intensity of white color increased with
greater portion of the former pulp, while the intensity decreased with greater portion of the latter
pulp.
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This is because the cellulose polymer in common (including also the microbial cellulose)
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
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Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
besides exhibiting white color is also translucent (transparent) to the incoming light. Consequently,
increasing the portion of such would allow more of the light to pass through the corresponding paper
sheet; or in other words, the sheet imperviousness to light became lower, thereby lowering its
opacity as well. Conversely, darker color of coconut-coir pulp (due to mainly residual lignin) brought
out the paper sheet with the increasing ability to absorb the light (or concurrently decreasing it to
pass through the object), thereby rendering the sheet more impervious to the incoming light and
hence increasing its opacity. The use of additives tended to increase the opacity of the paper sheet.
The possible explanation was that as such additives consisted of mostly tiny-sized particles, then
they could effectively fill up or the spaces of the inter-fiber arrangement in the paper sheet as well
as they entered more into the void spaces in the fibers. As a result, these phenomena reduced the
air-space volume in the paper sheet, and hence enhanced it to block the incoming light (or also notallowing it to pass through the sheet), thereby increasing the light imperviousness and hence sheet
opacity as well.
Judging from the high brightness and low opacity phenomena with the incorporation of greater
portion of microbial-cellulose pulp in the sheet forming, this strengthened the previous indication
(from its corresponding lower moisture content, less water absorption, and longer water-drainage
duration its forming) that the microbial-cellulose pulp was made up of almost 100% cellulose with its
polymer chains parallel to each other and so packed together, thereby enhancing the cellulose
crystallinity. Such high crystallinity of the microbial-cellulose pulp seemed responsible as well for its
greater strength (with respect to the tensile index and tear index of the sheet with greater microbialcellulose-pulp portion.
However, such severely longer water-drainage duration during the sheet
forming rendered less technically operational the pulping of 100% microbial cellulose, when intended
for paper-grade products. Instead, it would be more technically favored for dissolving pulp, which as
described before can sustain further processing into rayon (artificial silk), cellulose acetate, cellulose
nitrate, and cellulose phosphate. Conversely, the coconut-coir pulp exhibited much shorter waterdrainage duration in the sheet forming, therefore its mixture with microbial-cellulose pulp at the
portion of 50%+50% to 25%+75% seems technically more justifiable for paper-grade products.(e.g.
writing/printing paper, magazines, paperboard, labels, and cover papers).
IV. CONCLUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION
A. Use of EOPB, Banana Pseudo-Stems, and Sludge for Paperboard and Art-Paperboar
1. Viewed from the properties of EOPB and banana-stem pulping (e.g. pulp yield, alkali
consumption, and kappa number), then the manufacture of pulp from both kinds of fiber stuffs
seems technically prospective for paperboard
2. In the paperboard-sheet forming consecutively from 100% EOPB, from the mixture of 50%
EOPB + 50% sludge, and from the mixture of 42.5% EOPB pulp + 42.5% sludge + 15%
banana-stem pulp, it could entirely afford the yield in the range commonly obtained by the
community paperboard factory (i.e. 75-85%).
3. The physical and strength properties of the paperboard from the fiber stuffs with such three
kinds of stuff composition, which each also incorporated the use of additives (i.e. alum, tapioca
starch, clay, and rosin size) were better than those produced by the small-scale community
435
factory (from the mixture of 50% waste paper and 50% sludge, but without additives); and
could mostly satisfy the commercial-paperboard requirements.
4. The addition of sludge as well as banana-stem pulp to be mixed with EOPB pulp brought out the
resulting paperboard with lower strength properties compared to those from 100% EOPB pulp.
For sludge addition (incorporation), it increased the water affinity of the paperboard (i.e.
increase in moisture content and water absorption).
Conversely with banana-stem
incorporation, the moisture content and water absorption of the paperboard decreased.
5. Further, the incorporation of banana-stem pulp in the paperboard sheet with the portion
exceeding 15% (up to 30%) yielded the paperboard with properties unable to satisfy its
requirements.
However, there were visually interesting looks and attractive patterns on its
surface, such as scratches, grooves, spots, and other surface-related favors. This suggests the
prospective mixed processing of EOPB pulp, sludge, and banana-stem pulp into paperboard as
well as art-paperboard, with the proportion of the latter up to 15% (if strength considered) or
over to 30% (strength not-considered).
B. Use of Microbial Cellulose and Coconut Coir for Paper Sheet and Dissolving Pulp
1. In the synthesis of microbial cellulose from the tapioca-processing liquid waste with the aid of
Acetobacter xylinum bacteria, as much 850 grams from 1 liter of such liquid waste was obtained
as the so-called microbial cellulose stuffs (but still wet, with their moisture content equal to
95%). Further, purification on the microbial cellulose in hot 1%-alkali (NaOH) solution into pulp
afforded its yield about 38% (w/w).
2. -Judging that the Indonesia’s potency of tapioca-processing liquid waste currently affords about
12-15 million kiloliters per year, it implies that in theory as much 193,800 tons per year can be
yielded as microbial-cellulose pulp. This figure reveals that endeavor in microbial-cellulose pulp
seems justifiable for realization.
3. In the pulping of coconut-coir pulp, it afforded 63.42% worth of the pulp yield. The potency of
Indonesia’s coconut coir currently ranges about 1.0-1.1 million tons per year (dry weight
equivalent). This hints that the pulping of coconut coir can sound justifiable as well.
4. In mixing microbial-cellulose pulp with coconut-coir pulp in particular proportions (i.e. 25%+75%,
50%+50%, 75%+25%, and 100%+0%) for paper-sheet forming, it turns out that greater
proportion of the former stuff led to better physical and strength properties of the resulting paper
sheet. However, the forming of paper sheet from 100% microbial-cellulose pulp took so long
duration in laboratory-scale experiment (i.e. more than 3 hours of the drainage duration for one
set of paper sheets), thereby rendering this operation inefficiently performed. The possible use
of water-suctioning device can be proposed, and this however can increase the use of power
(energy), thereby necessitating thorough consideration.
The 100% microbial-cellulose pulp,
judging from its favorable characteristics (e.g. high strength as well as brightness, and low
opacity) instead seems more appropriate for dissolving-pulp, which in further processing can
convert into beneficial stuffs, other than paper products, such as rayon (artificial silk), cellulose
acetate (for X-ray film, photography items, and plastics/celluloids for dolls and children toys),
cellulose nitrate (ingredient for explosives and nail polishers), and cellulose phosphate (as fire or
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Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
flame-retarding agent). Meanwhile, the coconut coir pulp mixed with microbial-cellulose pulp at
50%+50% and 75%+25% proportions was more justifiable for paper-grade products, e.g.
writing/printing paper, wrapping paper, laboratory paper, document/archive paper, and other
paper-related uses.
C. Suggestions and Recommendations
The prospective results of the overall experiment on the alternative fibrous stuffs should
deserve thorough attention.
As these attempts can imply converting those stuffs into beneficial
items (i.e. paperboard, art-paperboard, paper-grade products, and dissolving pulp), thereby
imparting their added values.
Besides, such attempts can lessen the heavy dependence of the
pulp/paper operation on the conventional fibrous materials (particularly natural-forest woods). In
this way, it can effectively reduce the rate of forest destruction. It has been know forest besides
functioning as production purposes (e.g. providing woods) can also serve as securing water reserve,
maintaining eco-system balance, and forest biodiversity, mitigating global warming, and other
positive environmental favors.
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Country Wise Paper, Paperboard Production, and Consumption Statistics.
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Agriculture Industry Technology. Bogor Agricultural University. Bogor, Indonesia. (Title and
Content in Indonesian, with abstract in English and Indonesian)
Brown, M.R. 2002. Microbial Cellulose: A New Resource for Wood, Paper, Textiles, Food and
Specialty Products. Position Paper. Department of Botany, The University of Texas at Austin,
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78713-7640.
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Casey, J.P. 1980. Pulp and Paper Chemistry and Technology.
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manufacture. B.S. (Undergarduate) Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Industry Technology.
Bogor Agricultural University. Bogor, Indonesia. (Title and Content in Indonesian, with
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Iskandar, M.I. and A. Supriadi. 2010. The effect of adhesive content on properties of coconut-coir
particleboard. Bulletin of Forest Products, vol. 16 (2): 87-92. Center for Research and
Development on Forestry Engineering and Forest Products Processing. Bogor, Indonesia.
(Title and Abstract in Indonesian as well as English, with content in Indonesian)
Komarayati, S., H. Roliadi, and R.A. Pasaribu. 2008. Technology and financial feasibility on the
utilization of sludge from pulp and paper industries. Presented Paper. Proceedings of
Seminar on the Utilization of Sludge from Pulp and Paper Industry in Mitigating the
Environment Load. The Center for Research and Development on Forestry Engineering and
Forest Products Processing. Bogor, Indonesia. (Title, Abstract, and Content in Indonesian)
Lisnawati, 2000. Biology of abaca (Musa textiles) fibers and other Musa spp. fibers based on
physico-chemical properties and feasibility as raw material for pulp and paper. B.S.
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Agricultural University. Bogor, Indonesia. (Title and Content in Indonesian, with abstract in
English and Indonesian)
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Maybee, W. 1999. Comparative study on the chemical composition of paper-mill sludge. Ph.D.
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Puspitasari, R. 2012. Assessment on the use of microbial cellulose from nata de cassava and
coconut coirs as a substitute for wood cellulose in paper manufacture.. B.S. (Undergarduate)
Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture Industry Technology. Bogor Agricultural University. Bogor,
Indonesia. (Title and Content in Indonesian, with abstract in English as well as Indonesian)
Rina, S.S., S. Purwanti, and S. Surachman. 2002. The effect of incorporation of compost and sludge
from paper industry on the growth of particular plants and soil fertility. Presented Paper.
Proceeding of the Seminar on Cellulose Technology. Bandung, November 2001. Agency for
Research and Development on Pulp and Paper. Bandung, Indonesia. (Title, Abstract and
Content in Indonesian)
Roliadi, H. and D. Anggraini. 2010. Manufacturing of fancy paperboard from the mixture of empty
oil-palm bunch pulp, paper-mill sludge, and banana-stem pulp. Journal of Forest Products
Research, vol. 28 (4): 305-321. Center for Research and Development on Forestry
Engineering and Forest Products Processing. Bogor, Indonesia. (Title and Abstract in
Indonesian as well as English, with content in Indonesian)
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Committee of the Paper Industry. Atlanta, Georgia.
Suchland, O. and G.E. Woodson. 1986. Fiberboard manufacturing practices in the United States.
USDA Forest Service. Agricultural Handbook No. 640.
Sugiyama, J. 1997. Microbial cellulose. Preprint of 95’s Cellulose R & D 2nd Annual Meeting of
Cellulose Society of Japan. Kyoto, Japan.
Suhadi, S. Sabaruddin, S.A. Soedjoko. Minarningsih, and A. Widodo. 2004. Forests and Gardens as
National Food Sources. Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Office of the State Food
and Horticulture, and university of Gadjah Mada. Jakarta, Indonesia. (Title and Content in
Indonesian)
Sumarjono. H.H. 2004. Cultivating of 21 Fruit-Bearing Tree Species. Seri Agribisnis. Penebar
Swadaya. Jakarta, Indonesia. (Title and Content in Indonesian)
439
Appendix 1. Specific patterns on the paperboard surface, with the incorporation of particular portion of
banana-stem pulp (A); and regular patterns on the surface without banana-stem
incorporation (B).
(A)
(B)
Remarks: (A): Fascinating/specific patterns on the paperboard formed from the mixture of EOPB (35-42.5%), sludge
(35-42.5%), and banana-stem pulp (15-30%), which revealed interesting looks and attractive patterns (e.g.
scratches, grooves, and other surface favors), rendering its uses besides as those just for regular
paperboards, also suitable as fancy (art) paperboard; compared to the (regular) patterns on the paperboard
(b) from the mixture of 50% EOPB pulp and 50% sludge, without banana-stem pulp (B).
Source: Roliadi et al., 2010
Appendix 2. Niagara beater (A); and the microbial-cellulose pulp (B)
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Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
(A)
(B)
Remarks: The disintegrating of cluster of microbial cellulose polymer chains into pulp in the special device
(Niagara beater) (A); and the resulting microbial-cellulose pulp (B)
Source: Puspitasari (2012)
441
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Utilization of Natural Plant by the North Sulawesi…...
Lis Nurrani & Julianus Kinho
Utilization of Natural Plant by The North Sulawesi Community as a Lowering
of Diabetic1
Lis Nurrani2 and Julianus Kinho2
ABSTRACT
Indonesia as one of countries with the high biodiversity has great potential in providing of natural
medicine raw materials. This paper is exploration report and ethnobotany biodiversity in North
Sulawesi potentially as lowering blood sugar (Diabetic). The method used are indepth interview with
key informant by snawball techniques, followed by phytochemical testing and toxicity by BSLT
(Bhrine Shrimp Lethality Test) methods. Ethnobotany results showed that there are 11 species of
natural plants which are often utilized by North Sulawesi community as a diabetic traditional
medicine. Phytochemical testing showed that antihiperglikemia compound or lowering blood sugar
levels such as flavonoids, saponins and tanins found in Euginia cuminii and Cocos nucifera extracts.
Trycalisia minahassae and Tetracera indica extracts contains flavonoids and tanins whereas Solanum
torvum, Ficus septica dan Nephrolepis bisserata extracts contains flavonoids and saponins. Ethyl
acetate extracts of Trycalisia minahassae, n-butanol extracts of Tetracera indica, ethyl acetate
extracts of Jatropha gossypipolia and n-butanol extract of Euginia cuminii provide toxic effects as a
raw materials shown with LC50 value respectivelly of 311,42 ppm 717,06 ppm, 914,37 ppmdan
963,24 ppm.
Key words : natural plant, medicinal, diabetic, North Sulawesi
I. INTRODUCTION
World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the number of diabetics in Indonesia will soar high.
When in 2000 the number of diabetics 8.4 million people, is predicted increase to 21.3 million people
in 2030. This figure will make Indonesia ranks fourth, as the country that has the most diabetics
after the United States, China and India (Anonymous, 2012).
Based on Health Research Association’sdata (Riskesdas) 2007, diabetes was the sixth leading
cause death of all deaths in all age groups. This is because people with diabetes are very vulnerable
to the complications other diseases such as hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Therefore
requires a serious and multi-stakeholder cooperation in the handling this disease. Dowmand and
1
This paper was presented in International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, organized by Manado Forestry
Research Institute cooperated with Sam Ratulangi University, Secretariat of Forestry Research and Development
Agency, Global Environment Facility (GEF), Burung Indonesia, Government of North Sulawesi Province and SEAMEO
BIOTROP. Manado 5 July 2013.
2
Manado Forestry Research Institute, Jl. Raya Adipura Kel. Kima Atas Kec. Mapanget Kota Manado 95119
Email : [email protected]
443
Rand (1968) said that during treatment diabetics disease by regulation diet, oral antidiabetic
medication and insulin therapy. Though the use of oral antidiabetic drugs can cause side effects that
may be fatal.
Alternative treatment are cheap, safe and easy to obtain much needed. One is through the
traditional method that has been used by people for generations by the North Sulawesi community.
Considering Indonesia is one country with high biodiversity with species most widely used as raw
materials.
One of the characteristics of cultural is still dominant traditional elements in daily life. This
condition is supported by various types of biodiversity on ecosystem utilization is a long history of
being part of the local culture (Rahayu et al., 2006). Approximately 550 ethnics Indonesian people
have a close relationship with the forest in their daily life and they have high traditional knowledge in
utilization of medicinal plants (Zuhud, et al., 2009b). That activities are also performed by several
ethnic groups inhabiting North Sulawesi include Minahasa, Bolaang Mongondow and Sangihe tribes.
This knowledge is acquired/inherited from generation to generation and is based on empirical
experience. Therefore extracting information to the community figures and users of traditional
medicinal plants in North Sulawesi is necessary, along with search content of chemicals compound.
This paper is exploration report and ethnobotany biodiversity in North Sulawesi that has potential to
be used as diabetic drugs or lowering blood sugar.
II. METHODOLOGY
A.
Materials and Tools
Materials used are plant parts that utilized by North Sulawesi community as lowering blood
sugar (diabetic drug). Other ingredients are alcohol, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether.
Distilled water, seawater, and the larvae of Artemia salina Leach.
The tools used are newsprint, plastic, filter, spoon, blender, hammer mill, microplate,
fluorescent lights, pipettes, glasscups, measuring cups, glassbottles, and a rotary evaporator.
B.
Work Procedurs
1)
Exploration and study of ethnobotany is done using a combination of in-depth interviews
against key respondents with snowball techniques and field survey.
2)
Phytochemical Testing
a. alkaloid
1 gram sample is given a few drops of NH3, then mashed. Add 5 ml of CHCl3 and filtered.
Filtrate given 2M H2SO4 and then acid layer divided into 3 parts :
-
+ Dragendendrof if filtrate colour is purple
-
+ Mayer if filtrate colour is white
-
+ Wagner if filtrate colour is brown
b. Phenolic
5 gram sample are mixed with distilled water and then heated for 5 minutes and filtered
until the filtrate obtained.
- Flavonoids
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Lis Nurrani & Julianus Kinho
The filtrate is mixed with Mg powdered (magnesium), HCl: EtOH (1:1), and Amil alcohol.
Indicator presence of flavonoids is when Amil alcohol layer colour is orange
- Tanins
The filtrate is given 3 drops of FeCl310%, if greenish is an indicator of tannins content.
- Saponins
Filtrate is shaken vigorously, if inflict froth stable the filtrate containing saponins.
c. Steroids and Triterpenoids
1 gram sample is mixed with hot EtOH and filtered and then the filtrate was heated to
dry. Add 1 ml of diethyl ether and then homogenous add 1 drop H2SO4 and 1 drop CH3COOH
anhydrous. Changes color to green/blue is an indicator of steroid, whereas red/purple is an
indicator of triterpenoids.
3)
Toxicity testing
Each sample of 25g powder in maceration using 3 different solvents are n-butanol, ethyl
acetate and petroleum ether technical quality solvent that aims to find the best solvent for each
botanicals with ratio 1 : 5 during 3 x 24 hours obtained clear immersion (Sukandar et al. 2009).
Immersion is concentrated using rotary evaporator at a temperature of 40-65ºC to obtain crude
extract in the form of solids or gums that are stored in glass bottles. That Extract is test material.
Shrimp larvae is prepared by as much as 10 mg shrimp eggs plus 100 mL sea water that has
been filtered, then stored in aquarium given aerator or air regulator, given lighting fluorescent lamp
for 48 hours until all the eggs hatch. 4 mg samples extract were dissolved in 10 mL dimethyl
sulfoxide (DMSO) 10 ppm plus sea water solvent to 2 mL obtained extract with a concentration of
2000 ppm, diluted solution to obtain the concentration are 1600, 800, 400 and 200 ppm.
As many as 10 shrimp larvae A.salina Leach put into microplate and then added a solution at
each concentration repeat three times. Mixture is placed under the TL light for 24 hours and
calculated percent mortality larvae at each concentration.
C. Data Analysis
Percent larvae mortality is calculated using the formula:
% larvae = Number of larvae die X 100%
Number of test larvae
Percent data mortality of larvae then processed using the Probit analysis method to determine
LC50 values (concentration of extract that is able to provide a larvae mortality by 50%) with 95%
confidence interval using software media SPSS version 16.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A.
Ethnobotany
Based on the exploration conducted by research team Forestry Research Institute of Manado
for two years (2009-2010) which consists of two stages. Where the first stage is conducted on the
key respondents (key informants) in two tribes, namely Minahasa and Sangihe tribes who lived on
Minahasa complex highway (Tomohon City, Bitung City, Minahasa Regency, South Minahasa
Regency, South east Minahasa Regency). The second phase of exploration is conducted on key
445
respondents Mongondow tribes who lived on Bolaang Mongondow complex highway (Kotamobagu
City,
Bolaang
Mongondow
Regency,
East
Bolaang
Mongondow
Regency
and
South
BolaangMongondow Regency).
Exploration results over two years identified 151 species of natural plants that are often
utilization by communities to treat various diseases. Some type of disease that are incurable aches,
colds, bruises, vitality enhancer to cancer and diabetic. Among the several types of natural medicinal
plants that are 11 (eleven) plant species are often used as lowering blood sugar (diabetic) and wet
wounds heal from this disease. Species of plants and parts which are used as lowering blood sugar
and heal wet wounds suffered by patients with diabetic and how to use it can be seen more in table
1.
Plant parts utilized grouped into 5 parts : leaves, fruit, bark, petiole and roots. The leaves are
plants part most widely used as medicine, as many as four species while roots is plant part least
used only one species. Zuhud and Hikmat (2009) suggested that based on part medicinal plant of
Indonesian tropical forest are utilized, leaves are plants part of the most widely used as medicine is
as much as 749 species (33.50%).
Based on habitus, natural herbs used as lowering diabetic grouped into five habitus. The most
groups are herbaceous, trees and palms that each respectively four, three, and two species whereas
lianas and shrubs only one species. Herb utilized is understorey, fast-growing plants, and available
abundance below tree stands. This is one of the considerations in addition to the required properties
also availability in nature and ease of retrieval/extraction.
Based on family groups, eleventh species of natural plants that are often utilized as lowering
diabetic can be grouped into eight families. The most are Solanaceae and Arecacea family
respectively 2 species. The others family are Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, Dilleniaceae and Myrtaceae.
Zuhud and Hikmat (2009) stated that Euphorbiaceae is family with the most medicinal plant species
ranked second after Fabaceae from 203 families are clasified as a potentially medicinal plants. The
quantity as many as 94 species.
Utilization of natural plant as medicine is still traditional. It can be seen from how to used it,
which parts of the plant that would be used washed in clean water and then boiled. Water boiled of
medicinal plant drunk while warm. Another way is mixing the ingredients with others vegetables in
dishes minahasa. This simple ways proven to be applied for many years and is believed to cure
illness.
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International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Tarutuk
Gedi
Pakoba
Kelapa
Pinang
2
3
4
5
Local
names
1
No
Malvaceae
Abelmoschus
manihot L
L.
Areca catechu
Arecaceae
Arecaceae
Cocos nucifera
L.
Rubiaceace
Tricalysia
minahassae
Medik
Solanaceae
Family
Solanum
torvum
Species
young leaf
Fruit and
of midrib)
(miang/hair
Petiole
Bark
Leaf
Fruit
Parts used
Table 1. The Kinds of natural plant as lowering blood sugar
Palm
Palm
Tree
Herb
Herb
Habitus
with others vegetable
this fruit as a bitter relievers.
Minahasa community used as a
and diabetic.
for a drink.
sugar.
Diabetic medicine
diabetic pain
and drunk.
447
cups of water and then filtered
nut 4 pieces, then boiled with 2
Grab the contents of the old betel
replaced after 2-3 days look dry.
with water/wet and can be
the herb should not bein contact
1 : 1 and placed on the wound,
mixed with Doludu’s petiole is ratio
Pared Coconut’s petiole then
boiled and be drunk. Once stew
after child birth and treat blood
To heal the wounds cause by
Bark is taken sufficiently, then
As a mix drugs for women
mixed with other vegetables
The utilization with boiled or
cuisine.
(Manado’s porridge) or others
raw mixed in Tinutuan cuisine
This plant species by The
Treat gout, ulcer, cholesterhol
sugar.
young fruit as a lowering blood
Temboan community uses this
Usually this fruit mixed in cuisine
How to formulate
Pinabetengan community uses
Savor
Utilization of Natural Plant by the North Sulawesi…...
Lis Nurrani & Julianus Kinho
Myrtaceae
Solanaceae
Physalis
minima
Dilleniaceae
Family
Euginia cuminii
Tetracera
indica Merr.
Species
leaf
stem and
Roots,
Bark
stem
leaf and
Parts used
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Boyoba
8
448
Jambura
daginan
w), Moyon
(Mongondo
Balu
nan, Tangit
Meandangi
Local
names
7
6
No
Herb
tree
Liana
Habitus
Young leaf tips to cure diabetic
high blood pressure
All parts of the tree to cure
Diabetic medicine
Stem: remedy sore tendons.
to falls
wounds and other injuries due
Leaves: to heal diabetic wet
Savor
water.
stand until cold herb and drink the
brewed with hot water, allowed to
then inserted into the glass and
Take 3 leaf boyoba crushed and
the boiling water.
cleaned and boiled and then drunk
Take all parts of the tree and then
water.
salt and boiled, drink the boiling
cleaned and then added a little
Grab jambura bark that has been
is 1: 1.
high blood pressure then the ratio
yellowroot), but if the patient has
ratio of 3 : 1 (mean danginan:
added should be more, namely the
number of meandanginan stems
shave low blood pressure, the
drank water. Note: if the patient
forest cow foot, then boiled and
with yellow roots, deer antlers and
Meandanginan stems are mixed
the wound.
then paste or sprinkle ashes on
Leaves are burned in the fire and
How to formulate
11
Shrubs
a pinaraci (traditional drink of
grab stem and then blended with
lowering blood sugar
treat stomachache and
Young leaves can be used to
boiled and the water drunk
449
and drunk
to treat muscle pains.
Stems and young leaves, used
w)
young leaf
minahasa tribe) boiled together
e
Mongondo
merah, (BD
Malacai
boiled. Drink boiling water
sugar
as)
w), Luwa
Scraped root then cleaned and
seizures (eye height)
Mongondo
Roots as a lowering blood
into the eyes of patients with
(BD.
(BD.Miang
and one clove of garlic. Crushed
engridients then the water dripped
Singgolong
Stem and
lelenggata flowers (flower bean)
Jatropha
gossypipolia L.
rods were engaged with one stalk
w),
cut into two parts and scraped the
Grab tagalolo young stems, then
after 2-3 days look dry.
water/wet and can be replaced
should not bein contact with
placed on the wound, ingredients
petiole with a ratio of 1: 1 and
shaftis then mixed with coconut
Scraped doludu petiole or hair
How to formulate
inside of the trunk, then scraping
height)
stem: as drug seizures (eye
diabetic.
To heal wounds because of
Savor
Mongondo
Euphorbiacea
Tree
Herb
Habitus
m (BD.
roots
Stem and
Burm f.
Moraceae
Ficus septica
Kolimbonu
(miang/hair
Tagalolo,
10
Petiole
ceae
Parts used
Neproplepida
Family
of midrib)
Nephrolepis
bisserrata
Species
Schott.
Doludo
Local
names
9
No
Utilization of Natural Plant by the North Sulawesi…...
Lis Nurrani & Julianus Kinho
B. Phytochemical contents
Phytochemical analysis is one way to knowing the qualitative content of secondary metabolites
from a natural material. Analysis conducted on 11 species of natural plants which is used as diabetic
medicine. Analysis only conducted on certain parts of medicinal plant that has benefits for the local
community. Plant parts analyzed and the active compounds (bioactives) contains can be seen in
Table 2.
Phytochemical analysis showed that the secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, saponins
and tannins which have anti-hyperglycemic affective or lowering blood sugar levels can be found in
Cocos nucifera L petiole extract and Euginia cuminii bark extract. Pasaribu research (2009) showed
that raru bark extract contains flavonoids, saponins and tannins, were able inhibition alphaglucosidase by 88-97%. Inhibition assay of the alpha glucosidase enzhyme conducted to determine
anti hyperglycemic activity of each extract.
Table 2. Phytochemical contents of natural plant extract
No
Kinds of extract
Phytochemical contents
Alkaloid
Flavonoids
+
1
Fruit ofSolanum
torvum*
2
Leaf of Abelmoschus
manihot**
3
Bark of Tricalysia
minahassae
4
Petiole of Cocos
nucifera L.
5
Fruit and young leaf
of Areca catechu L.
6
Leaf of Tetracera
indica Merr.
+
Bark of Euginia
+
7
+
+
Tanins
+
+
Young leaf tips of
Physalis minima
9
Petiole ofNephrolepis
bisserrata Schott.
+
10
Roots of Ficus
septica Burm f.
+
Young leaf of
Saponins
+
+
+
cuminii
Jatropha
gossypipolia L.
Terpenoids
+
+
8
11
Steroids
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
Source : Primary data lab years 2009-2010; (*) Stevanie, 2007; (**) Mamahit, 2009
Flavonoids and tannins are identified in the Trycalisia minahassae bark extract and Tetracera
indica Merr leaves extract. Solanum Torvum fruit extracts, Nephrolepis bisserata Schout petiole
extract and Ficus septica Burm f roots extract identified contains flavonoids and saponins. Studiawan
and Mulya research (2005) to the laurel leaf (Eugenia polyantha) contains flavonoids and tannins
450
International Conference on Forest and Biodiversity, 5 July 2013
Utilization of Alternative Fibrous Stuffs…...
Han Roliadi, Dian Anggraeni I., & Rossi M.T.
that can lower blood sugar levels of mice induced by alloxan. Further more Raju and Balaraman
(2005) reported that provision of saponin fractions on Wistar rats showed significant decrease in
blood glucose, the Pasaribu (2009).
C. Toxicity
Each medicinal plant has a specific toxicity values so need to be known threshold value toxin
that is within each plant species to prevent damage or adverse effects if utilized by humans
(Setyawati, 2009). Of eleven species of natural plants which is used by community as lowering blood
sugar, 5 species including toxicity tests are using 3 different solvents. The use of different solvent
aims to get the best type of extract. The toxicity type and value of each extracts species can be seen
in Table 3.
Table 3. Toxicity of five natural plants species extract
No
Kinds of extract
Toxicity (LC50)
n-butanol
Etil asetat
PE
1
Abelmoschus manihot
1081,88
1137,74
1497,95
2
Tricalysia minahassae
1481,83
311,42
1336,21
3
Tetracera indica Merr.
717,06
5449,63
4
Euginia cuminii
963,24
1609,87
1109,13
5
Jatropha gossypipolia L.
1104,08
914,37
1276,01
-
Source : primary data lab years 2011
According to Meyer et al., (1982), BSLT test results with LC50 values below 1000 ppm is
comonly assumed that these extracts are toxic. Thus can be presumed that extract which had LC 50
values below 1000 ppm contains bioactive and efficacious as a medicin.
BSLT test results conducted on 5 plants species which is often used as a diabetic medicine,
there are 4 species had LC50 values below 1000 ppm. Namely ethyl acetate extract of Tricalysia
minahassae, ethyl acetate extract of Jatropha gossypipolia L., n-butanol extract of Tetracera indica
Merr and n-butanol extract of Euginia cuminii with LC50 values, respectively for 311.42 ppm, 914.37
ppm, 717.06 ppm and 963.24 ppm. From here it can be said that the fourth species of extracts
proved contain bioactive and medicinal. This is supported by the results o