attachment_id=1932

Transcription

attachment_id=1932
In the name of God
Anatomy:
Endocrine System
Moradian MD, MPH, PhD candidate
Tehran University of Medical Sciences
[email protected]
2013
http://www.
emc.marico
pa.edu/fac
ulty/farabe
e/biobk/bio
bookendocr
.html
Endocrine system
Controls many body
functions
exerts control by
releasing special
chemical substances into
the blood called
hormones
Hormones affect other
endocrine glands or body
systems
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Exocrine:
glands
transport
their
hormones to target
tissues via ducts.
Endocrine
:glands
release
hormones
directly
into
the
blood, which in turn
transports
the
hormones to target
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Endocrine System
A. Exocrine gland
Ducts
Lumen and
surfaces
B. Endocrine gland
Chemical
messengers
Blood stream
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Hormone + target =
change in cell
function
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Hormone + Receptor
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Hormones
Chemical
messenger
Secreted by
endocrine gland
Specific to target
Activate cellular
change
Of 4 different
chemical types
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Endocrine System and
Homeostasis
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Control of Endocrine Function
A. Positive
B. or Negative
Feedback
mechanisms
Self-regulating
system
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
A. Positive Feedback
Not common
Classic example:
Action of
OXYTOCIN on
uterine muscle
during birth.
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
B. Negative Feedback
Most common
control mechanism
Level of hormone in
blood or body’s
return to
homeostasis shuts
off loop at
hypothalamus and
pituitary
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Endocrine Glands
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Hypophys Gland
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Anterior Pituitary Hormones
HORMONE
TARGET
FUNCTION
Thyroid (TSH)
Stimulating
Thyroid gland
TH synthesis &
release
Growth (GH)
Many tissues
growth
AdrenocorticoTropin (ACTH)
Adrenal cortex
Cortisol release
(androgens)
Prolactin (Prl)
Breast
Milk production
Follicle (FSH)
Gonads
Egg/sperm prod.
Luteinizing (LH) Gonads
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Sex hormones
Neurosecretory Cells
Specialized neurons
Synthesize and
secrete hormones
Extend from
HYPOTHALAMUS
to POSTERIOR
PITUITARY
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
Manufactured in Hypothalamus, released
from Post. Pit.
Oxytocin
Target = smooth ms. Uterus and Breast
Function = labor and delivery, milk
ejection,(pair bonding)
ADH (Vasopressin AVP)
Target = kidneys
Function = water Reabsorption
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
What happens with excess GH?
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
GH as Juvenile
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
GH as an Adult
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Hypersecretion of GH
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
GH = pituitary dwarfism
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Thyroid Gland
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
‫لوب راست و چپ و بخش میانی‬
‫تیروکسین‪ :‬رشد‪ ،‬فعالیت فیزیکی‪ ،‬حاالت روحی و تغییرات‬
‫جنسی‪ ،‬درجه حرارت‬
‫‪http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij‬‬
Parathyroid Glands
Secretes parathyroid hormone
regulates plasma calcium (osteoclast activity)
regulates phosphate levels
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Adrenal Gland
Adrenal gland located atop kidney
Outer part = cortex
Secretes Cortisol (stress), Androgens,
Aldosterone (electrolytes)
Inner part = medulla
Secretes EPI & NEPI
(fight or flight)
SNS control
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Hypersecretion of Adrenal Cortex
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Cushing’s Syndrome?
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
‫‪Pineal gland‬‬
‫مغز میانی‪ :‬ارتباط با مسیر بینایی‬
‫پوست‬
‫رنگ‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫مالتونین‬
‫غدد‪،‬‬
‫سایر‬
‫بر‬
‫اثر‬
‫‪http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij‬‬
Pancreas
Located slightly behind the stomach
Insulin: reduces blood glucose
Facilitates glucose transport into the
cells
Promotes glycogenesis
Inhibits gluconeogensis
Glucagon: increases blood glucose
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Gonads
testes (testosterone) = sex
characteristics
muscle development and
maturity
ovaries (estrogen) = sex
characteristics
maturity and coordination
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
‫‪Breasts‬‬
‫غدد عرق تغییر شکل یافته‬
‫نیپل‪ ،‬هاله‪ ،‬مجاری شیری‬
‫‪http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij‬‬
Breasts
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Other Secretions
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij
Other Secretions
http://www.sums.ac.ir/~moradij

Similar documents