Instructional Ladders - Hobbs Municipal Schools

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Instructional Ladders - Hobbs Municipal Schools
Instructional Ladders
Northwest Evaluation Association
503-624-1951
www.nwea.org
Revised 10/2009
© 2009 Northwest Evaluation Association
2008 Normative Data
NWEA has the unique ability to measure a student’s achievement and academic
growth, independent of grade, across time. From the insight provided within MAP™ and its
reports, educators can compare class or grade-level performance to students from a wide
variety of schools across the country. Status norms provide a starting point for educators to
review data. They get an understanding of where each child is, and needs to go. Having the
right data is a key component in making learning more individual to each child. (Additional information on how norms were determined as well as information on growth norms
can be found in the 2008 NWEA RIT Scale Norms Study and RIT Scale Norms for Early
Primary Grades documents available for download from NWEA’s website.)
5885 SW Meadows Road, Suite 200
Lake Oswego, OR 97035-3256
TE L 503.624.1951
FaX 503.639.7873
www.nwea.org
Measures of Academic
MAP for Primary Grades
Progress™ (MAP) Status Norms
Status Norms
The results of the 2008 NWEA RIT Scale
Norms Study include data from over 2.8
million students from 6,905 schools in
1,123 districts located in 42 states. An
essential component of status norms for
students who took the standard MAP in
grades 2-11 was instructional time. Using
each district’s unique calendar as an
anchor, the number of instructional days
was estimated for timeframes consisting
of beginning-of-year tests, middle-of-year
tests, and end-of-year tests. Status norms
were determined from a stratified sample
of students representing the national
school age population, more specifically,
ethnicity and socio-economic status at
each grade level.
The results of the interim norming study
are included in the 2008 NWEA RIT Scale
Norms Study. It examined students in
kindergarten and grade 1. The sample,
from which the Reading and Mathematics
charts were produced, includes 54,000 MAP
results from primary grades students who
tested in the fall of 2006 through spring
2007. The sample of students for Reading
and Mathematics, grades K-1, was too small
to support a stratified sample.
MAP for Science Status Norms
The 2008 NWEA RIT Scale Norms Study
also includes the results of students in
grades 2-10 who were administered MAP
for Science. Due to fewer districts testing in
General Science and Science Concepts and
Processes the stratified sample approach
was not used.
Other Interpretations
Teachers can use MAP test results to
determine a student’s instructional level by
referencing their RIT score in DesCartes
or Primary Grades Instructional Data.
This will provide indicators of skills and
concepts a student understands, skills he
or she is developing, and skills that may be
academically challenging.
To learn more about DesCartes
and Primary Grades Instructional
Data, call NWEA at 503-624-1951.
2008 Reading Status Norms (RIT values) 2008 mathematics Status Norms (RIT values)
Grade
Beginning-of-Year Middle-of-Year
Median Mean Median Mean
End-of-Year
Median Mean
Grade
Beginning-of-Year Middle-of-Year
Median Mean Median Mean
End-of-Year
Median Mean
K
146
147.6
151
152.4
155
156.3
K
148
149.5
152
153.1
158
158.1
1
160
160.2
167
166.5
173
2
179
179.7
186
186.0
190
171.9
1
164
163.4
171
169.9
178
176.7
189.6
2
179
179.5
186
186.5
191
190.8
3
192
191.6
197
196.3
4
201
200.1
205
203.7
200
199.0
3
192
192.1
199
198.0
203
202.4
207
205.8
4
203
203.0
208
207.6
211
211.4
5
208
206.7
211
6
213
211.6
215
209.6
212
211.1
5
212
211.7
216
216.0
220
219.2
213.8
216
214.8
6
219
218.3
222
221.4
225
223.8
7
217
215.4
8
220
219.0
219
217.3
219
217.9
7
225
224.1
228
226.4
230
228.3
222
220.6
223
221.2
8
230
229.3
232
230.9
234
232.7
9
222
10
226
220.9
223
221.9
224
222.6
9
233
231.6
234
232.5
236
234.0
223.9
227
224.9
228
225.4
10
237
235.2
238
235.9
239
237.1
11
227
225.2
228
225.6
227
225.6
11
239
237.1
240
238.5
241
239.8
2008 language usage Status Norms (RIT values) Grade
Beginning-of-Year Middle-of-Year
Median Mean Median Mean
End-of-Year
Median Mean
2
180
181.2
188
188.3
192
191.5
3
193
192.6
199
198.0
202
200.5
4
202
201.0
206
204.9
208
207.0
5
208
207.2
211
210.2
213
211.8
6
213
211.7
215
214.0
217
215.1
7
217
215.1
218
217.3
219
217.7
8
220
218.4
221
219.8
222
220.4
9
221
219.4
221
220.0
222
220.8
10
223
221.6
224
222.2
225
222.9
11
225
223.6
226
225.1
226
224.6
2008 general science Status Norms (RIT values)
In the samples, each district’s base school calendar was used to
determine instructional days. Using the instructional days data,
time frames for beginning of year tests, middle of year tests, and
end of year tests were established. The centers of these time
frames were roughly 20 days, 89 days, and 153 days from the
beginning of the academic year of the student’s school for the
fall, winter and spring terms, respectively.
2008 Science concepts Status Norms (RIT values)
Grade
Beginning-of-Year Middle-of-Year
Median Mean Median Mean
End-of-Year
Median Mean
Grade
Beginning-of-Year Middle-of-Year
Median Mean Median Mean
End-of-Year
Median Mean
2
184
184.7
187
187.2
189
189.7
2
180
181.2
184
184.2
187
187.2
3
191
191.0
194
193.6
196
196.3
3
189
189.2
192
191.9
195
194.6
4
196
196.6
199
198.8
201
200.9
4
195
195.2
198
197.4
200
199.6
5
201
201.1
203
203.0
205
204.9
5
200
200.0
202
201.9
204
203.7
6
205
204.4
207
205.7
208
207.0
6
204
203.7
205
204.7
206
205.7
7
208
207.7
209
208.7
210
209.6
7
207
206.9
208
207.8
209
208.6
8
211
210.5
212
211.5
213
212.6
8
210
209.6
211
210.4
212
211.2
9
213
212.4
214
212.8
214
213.3
9
212
211.4
213
211.7
213
212.1
10
216
214.9
217
215.9
218
216.8
10
214
213.3
215
214.0
216
214.8
*Values based on between 1000 and 2000 cases are shaded. Exercise caution when using these values.
Version 2
Sample Ladders
>
Instructional Ladders
Instructional Ladder for Weather and Climate Unit
Standard 3
The Physical Setting
Grade 6 (related standards for grades 5 and 7 also shown)
Students collect and organize data to identify relationships between physical objects, events, and processes. They use logical reasoning to question their own ideas
as new information challenges their conceptions of the natural world.
Earth and the Processes That Shape It
5.3.4
Investigate that when liquid water disappears it turns into a gas* (vapor) mixed into the air and can reappear as a liquid* when cooled or as a solid* if
cooled below the freezing point of water.
5.3.5
Observe and explain that clouds and fog are made of tiny droplets of water.
6.3.7
Understand and describe the scales involved in characterizing Earth and its atmosphere. Describe that Earth is mostly rock, that three-fourths of its surface
is covered by a relatively thin layer of water, and that the entire planet is surrounded by a relatively thin blanket of air.
RIT Range:
181-190
191-200
DesCartes Statements:
Draws conclusions about the role of clouds in reflecting the Sun’s light
Interprets data to identify existing weather conditions
Compares weather from season to season
Describes seasonal patterns in weather
Measures air temperature
Chooses the appropriate tool to measure changes in air temperature
Recognizes that wind is air that is moving around us
Recognizes that temperature is measured in degrees
Recognizes processes that make up the water cycle
Gives examples of gases
Classifies objects as liquids
Classifies objects as gases
Gives examples of water in each state of matter
Explains that the amount of water in an open container will decrease
because it goes into the air, but the amount of water in a closed container
will remain the same interprets data related to freezing
Describes the distribution of water on Earth
Recognizes that clouds and fog are made of tiny water droplets (condensed
from vapor or gaseous fog)
Describes how clouds form
Gives examples of forms of precipitation
Classifies rain, sleet, snow, etc., as precipitation
Recognizes that climate depends on an interaction of factors (e.g., latitude,
atmospheric composition, prevailing wind, ocean temperature, pollution)
Recognizes that empty spaces and containers are not really empty, because
they contain air
Compares properties of different wind forms (e.g., tornadoes, gusts, breezes,
drafts, gales)
Defines atmosphere as the air surrounding Earth
Analyzes processes which comprise the water cycle
Generalizes that all physical objects are made of matter
Names the three different states of matter
Describes basic properties of solids, liquids, and gases
Gives examples of solids
Classifies objects as solids, liquids, or gases
Recognizes that water can undergo changes in state (e.g., solid, liquid, gas)
Recognizes that ice is the solid form of water
Describes the process of evaporation
Describes the process of melting
Makes inferences about phase changes in matter
Gives examples of forms of matter which have undergone a change from liquid
to solid form
Explains that all matter is made of tiny particles called atoms
Describes the shape of crystals
Davies, D
Darius, M
Donnalisha, Z
Alejandra, R
Maxwell, M
Skyler, L
Students:
Leon, A
Smith, K
Giancarlo, W
Process:
Interactive Reading: Solids, liquids and gases
http://www.abpischools.org.uk/resources/solids-liquids-gases/index.asp
Lab Activity: The Slime Lab—just what is it, anyway?
Project: Collecting weather data: Measuring daily temperature
Reading Activity: Tomecek, Stephen. Matter, Matter Everywhere ISBN
0792288807
Resource: Adams, Simon. The Best Book of Weather ISBN 0753453681
Product:
Concept Map: Students will fill in the blanks in a teacher-created
concept map related to solids, liquids and gases
Project Writeup: Students will interpret and draw conclusions
from data collected over two weeks time.
Hope, M
O’Neill, G
Tunis, B
Jones, T
Curtis, K
Lab Activity: Crystal Formation
Worksheet: Classifying matter as solids, liquids and gases
Lab Activity: Can you lift an ice cube with salt and a string?
Reading: Borgford, Christie, et al Introduction to Matter ISBN 0030647975
Lab Activity: Cloud in a bottle
Demo: air pressure crushing the heated container
Project: Collecting weather data: Measuring wind speed
Activity: creating a tornado
Reading: the atomic theory
Reading Activity: Knapp, Brian. Changing from Solids to Liquids to Gases
ISBN 0717258505
Lab writeups from lab activities described above.
Concept map: Students will fill in the blanks in a teacher-created
concept map related to the water cycle
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and
skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
1
Non-Effective Example
6.3.9
Illustrate that the cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns.
6.3.11
Identify and explain the effects of oceans on climate.
7.3.5
Recognize and explain that heat energy carried by ocean currents has a strong influence on climate around the world.
Matter and Energy
5.3.8
Investigate, observe, and describe that heating and cooling cause changes in the properties of materials, such as water turning into steam by boiling and
water turning into ice by freezing. Notice that many kinds of changes occur faster at higher temperatures*.
201-210
211-220
Describes how dew forms on surfaces
Defines humidity
Understands that meteorologists use multiple measurements of weather
conditions to make forecasts
Describes how changes in the composition of the atmosphere can affect
Earth’s climate
Recognizes that air takes up space
Recongizes that air can cause changes in the environment
Recognizes that uneven heating of air by the Sun causes convection
currents
Describes the movement of water through a complete turn of the water
cycle
Describes the water cycle
Interprets models that show how water is recycled in the Earth system
Defines matter as anything that takes up space and has mass
Identifies different states of matter
Describes how water exists in three states
Recognizes that water expands as it freezes
Describes the process of evaporation
Recognizes that evaporation changes a liquid to a gas
Gives examples of evaporation
Relates surface area to evaporation
Describes the process of evaporation in terms of the changes to the
molecules involved
Describes the process of freezing
Explains that heating or cooling materials can cause their state to change
Explains that matter can change from one physical state to another
Describes cloud formation in weather systems
Describes the structure of weather systems
Analyzes humidity in weather systems
Describes how weather conditions are measured
Explains how barometric pressure is interpreted
Defines climate
Explains how uneven heating at the shore/ocean interface creates winds
Describes results of interacting air masses
Orders steps of the water cycle
Describes processes that make up the water cycle
Defines melting point; defines boiling point
Describes properties of gases
Classifies unknown substances as liquids, based on their properties
Recognizes properties of gases
Describes the process of condensation
Describes the process of freezing in terms of phases changes
Explains that removing heat will cause a substance to change from gaseous to
liquid or from liquid to solid form
Gives examples of substances which have undergone a change of state
Describes how changes in temp affect the pressure of a gas in a container
Describes the relative freedom of motion of particles in solid, liquid, and gases
Describes changes in the temp. of substances in terms of particle behavior
Explains that as heat is added to a substance the particles making up the
substance move farther and farther apart
Interprets diagrams showing the relative spacing and movement of matter in
different phases
Defines kinetic energy
Relates kinetic energy to the speed of an object
Lorian, D
Jordan, N
Dean, L
Gary, J
Adolphus, G
Tabitha, B
Gary, P
Manta, A
Allison, B
Lab Activity: How does surface area affect evaporation?
Lab Activity: Condensation on tin cans
Reading: Trueit, Trudi Strai.n The Water Cycle ISBN 0531119726
Reading: The atmosphere and climate change
Reading: changes of state
Project: Collecting weather data: humidity
Lab Activity: Creating convection currents
Lab Activity: Modelling molecular movement in solids, liquids and gases
Reading: The Gas Laws
Demo: sublimation of dry ice
Lab activity: water cycle in a bag (bag of butane on dry ice)
Reading: The kinetic molecular theory
Lab Activity: How does changing temperature affect gases?
Project: Collecting weather data: barometric pressure and humidity
Reading: convection and weather
Resource: Allaby, Michael. DK Guide to Weather ISBN 0789465000
Lab writeups from lab activities described above.
Students will fill in a partially completed diagram of the water
cycle, showing addition and removal of heat and processes
involved (evaporation, condensation, precipitation)
Lab writeups from lab activities described above.
Students will fill in a partially completed chart showing comparing
molecular distance and relative degree of movement in solids, liquids
and gases
Worksheet labeling molecular diagrams as solids, liquids and gases
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and
skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
2
Instructional Ladder for Weather and Climate Unit
Standard 3
The Physical Setting
Grades 5 and 6
Students collect and organize data to identify relationships between physical objects, events, and processes. They use logical reasoning to question their own ideas
as new information challenges their conceptions of the natural world.
Earth and the Processes That Shape It
5.3.4
Investigate that when liquid water disappears it turns into a gas* (vapor) mixed into the air and can reappear as a liquid* when cooled or as a solid* if
cooled below the freezing point of water.
RIT Range:
181-190
191-200
DesCartes Statements:
Recognizes processes that make up the water cycle
Infers that rain is associated with clouds
Interprets data related to freezing
Explains that the amount of water in an open container will decrease
because it goes into the air, but the amount of water in a closed container
will remain the same
Gives examples of water in each state of matter
Classifies objects as gases
Classifies objects as liquids
Gives examples of forms of precipitation
Describes how clouds form
Recognizes that clouds and fog are made of tiny water droplets (condensed
from vapor or gaseous form)
Describes the process of evaporation
Recognizes that ice is the solid form of water
Recognizes that water can undergo changes of state
Names the three different states of matter
Infers that matter has changed state/phase
Classifies objects as solids, liquids or gases
Describes process of melting
Leon, A
Smith, K
Giancarlo, W
Davies, D
Darius, M
Donnalisha, Z
Alejandra, R
Maxwell, M
Skyler, L
Process: Introductory Activity: Bag of Butane (discrepant event)
Concept Mapping to determine prior knowledge of water cycle
Activity: The water dance part one
Worksheet: Thinking about the Water Dance A
Lab Activity: Cloud in a bottle A
Demo: Water Cycle—question set A
Interactive Reading: Solids, liquids and gases
http://www.abpischools.org.uk/resources/solids-liquids-gases/index.asp
Jigsaw Project: Distinguishing between solids, liquids and gases
Reading: Bliss, Pamela Introduction to Weather. ISBN 0792248007
(580L)
Introductory Activity: Bag of Butane (discrepant event)
Concept Mapping to determine prior knowledge of water cycle
Activity: The water dance part one
Worksheet: Thinking about the Water Dance B
Demo: Water Cycle—question set B
Lab Activity: Cloud in a bottle B
Jigsaw Project: Creating a physical molecular models of solids, liquids and
gases
Reading Activity: Knapp, Brian. Changing from Solids to Liquids to Gases
ISBN 0717258505 (900L)
Resource: Wick, Walter. A Drop of Water ISBN 0590221973 (870L)
Product:
Introductory Concept Map used as data on student’s prior knowledge.
Write-up from Water Dance Activity
Lab write-ups from lab activities described above.
Presentation of Jigsaw Project—with grading by self, other students and
teacher.
Students:
Introductory Concept Map used as data on student’s prior knowledge.
Write-up from Water Dance Activity
Lab write-ups from lab activities described above.
Presentation of Jigsaw Project—with grading by self, other students and
teacher.
Hope, M
O’Neill, G
Tunis, B
Jones, T
Curtis, K
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and
skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
3
Effective Example
5.3.8
5.3.5 Observe and explain that clouds and fog are made of tiny droplets of water.
6.3.9 Illustrate that the cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns.
Matter and Energy
Investigate, observe, and describe that heating and cooling cause changes in the properties of materials, such as water turning into steam by boiling and
water turning into ice by freezing. Notice that many kinds of changes occur faster at higher temperatures*.
201-210
211-220
Analyzes processes which comprise the water cycle
Describes the water cycle
Describes the movement of water through a complete turn of the water
cycle
Defines humidity
Describes how dew forms on surfaces
Describes the process of condensation
Describes the process of evaporation
Recognizes that evaporation changes a liquid into a gas
Relates surface area to evaporation
Describes the process of evaporation in terms of the water molecules
involved
Explains that water is nearly unique in that exists in three states in nature
Names the three different states of matter
Explains that matter can change from one physical state to another
Gives examples of forms of matter which have undergone a change from
liquid to solid form
Explains that as heat is applied to a substance, the particles making up
the substance increase in their motion
Explains that heating or cooling materials can cause their state to change
Describes the process of freezing
Analyzes processes which comprise the water cycle
Orders steps of the water cycle
Analyzes humidity in weather systems
Describes the process of condensation
Describes the process of freezing in terms of phase changes
Describes properties of gases
Recognizes properties of gases
Classifies unknown substances as liquids based on their properties
Classifies clouds by composition, height and type of precipitation
Gives examples of substances which are undergoing a change of state
Explains that as heat is added to a substance, the particles making up the
substance move farther apart
Recognizes that as heat is applied to a solid, its molecules move farther and
farther apart
Describes the relative freedom of motion of solids, liquids and gases
Interprets diagrams showing the relative spacing and movement of matter in
different phases
Explains that removing heat from a substance will cause it to change from a gas
to liquid or from liquid to solid form
Lorian, D
Jordan, N
Dean, L
Gary, J
Adolphus, G
Tabitha, B
Gary, P
Manta, A
Allison, B
Introductory Activity: Bag of Butane (discrepant event)
Concept Mapping to determine prior knowledge of water cycle
Activity: The water dance part one:
Worksheet: Thinking about the Water Dance C
Demo: Water Cycle—question set C
Lab Activity: Cloud in a bottle C
Jigsaw Project: The water dance part 2: Creating a Model of molecular
movement due to changes in heat during evaporation, condensation and
precipitation
Reading: Royston, Angela. The Life and Times of a Drop of Water ISBN
1410919250
Introductory Activity: Bag of Butane (discrepant event)
Concept Mapping to determine prior knowledge of water cycle
Activity: The water dance part one.
Worksheet: Thinking about the Water Dance D
Demo: Water Cycle—question set D
Lab Activity: Cloud in a bottle D
Reading: The Gas Laws
Resource: Allaby, Michael. DK Guide to Weather ISBN 0789465000 (1150L)
Reading: Trueit, Trudi Strain Clouds ISBN 0531119696 (1180L)
Reading: Trueit, Trudi Strain The Water Cycle ISBN 0531119726 (1130L)
Jigsaw Project: Creating a conceptual model of the kinetic molecular theory
Introductory Concept Map used as data on student’s prior knowledge.
Write-up from Water Dance Activity
Lab write-ups from lab activities described above.
Presentation of Jigsaw Project—with grading by self, other students and
teacher.
Introductory Concept Map used as data on student’s prior knowledge.
Write-up from Water Dance Activity
Lab write-ups from lab activities described above.
Presentation of Jigsaw Project—with grading by self, other students and
teacher.
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and
skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
4
Instructional Ladder Template
RIT Range:
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and
skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
5
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and skills
articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
6
Differentiated Lesson Template
Subject:
Lesson Plan Objective: ____
Goal Strand:
RIT
Ranges
Focus Area:
Reading
Fact and Opinion__________
Distinguish between fact/opinion statements in informational text.______________
Apply Thinking Skills to Reading___
Student
Groups
DesCartes Statements
Instructional Strategies
ƒ Infers the author’s
specific purpose for an
informational passage
(persuasive)
ƒ Distinguish between factual
statements and opinions presented
in personal accounts of climbers in
1996 Everest expedition. Complete
the chart provided.
ƒ Apply information from the text
to a new situation. Write a short
paper using facts and opinions to
persuade someone to either climb
or not to climb Mount Everest.
ƒ Reading: Read and
understand “Altitude and
Brain Function” at
www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova
/everest/exposure/
ƒ Vocabulary: Know the
meanings of these words –
hubris, sherpa, edema,
antithesis, prodigal.
ƒ Persuasive writing rubric.
ƒ Classifies statements as
examples of opposing
opinion in informational
text
ƒ Distinguishes between
facts and opinions that
are unsubstantiated by
informational text
ƒ Read the summary statements
about the passage. Identify which
statements are facts and which are
opinions. Identify any statements
that are not supported by the
passage.
ƒ On the chart, write in the opinion
statements. Write an opposing or
conflicting opinion for each
statement.
ƒ Reading: Read and
understand excerpts from Into
Thin Air by Jon Krakauer
(Lexile 1080).
ƒ Vocabulary: Know the
meanings of these words –
Kathmandu, profiteer, apex,
crevasse.
ƒ Distinguishes between
fact and opinion in
informational text
ƒ Distinguishes
characteristics of
informational sentences
that are opinions versus
sentences that are facts
ƒ Using the statements from the
text, identify which statements are
facts and which are opinions.
Determine how you know each is
either fact or opinion. Complete
the chart provided.
ƒ Write two fact sentences and two
opinion sentences. Trade papers
with a partner and have them
identify your fact/opinion
sentences.
ƒ Reading: Read and
understand Beyond the Limits
by Stacey Allison (Lexile 780).
ƒ Vocabulary: Know the
meanings of these words –
charismatic, syringe, summit
(v.), Nepal.
ƒ Distinguishes between
fact and opinion in
informational text
ƒ Gives examples of
informational sentences
that are facts
ƒ Gives examples of
sentences in
informational text that
are opinions
ƒ Describes characteristics
of sentences that are
opinions in informational
text
ƒ Identify statements of fact and
opinion from the text.
ƒ Write three examples of facts and
three examples of opinion
statements from the text.
Highlight words in each statement
that signal fact or opinion in the
sentences.
ƒ Write two fact sentences and two
opinion sentences. Trade papers
with a partner and have them
identify your fact/opinion
sentences.
ƒ Reading: Read and
understand Scope magazine
article “My Everest Story”
(Lexile 530).
ƒ Vocabulary: Know the
meanings of these words –
comprehension, summit (n.),
gust, incline, altitude.
221-230
211-220
201-210
191-200
Resources
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and skills
articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
7
Differentiated Lesson Template
Subject: _____________________________________________________ Focus Area: ______________________________________________________ Lesson Plan Objective: ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Goal Strand: _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ RIT Ranges
Student
Groups
DesCartes Statements
Instructional Strategies
Resources
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and skills
articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
8
Differentiated Instruction Ladder
Subject:
Reading
Goal Area: Literal Comprehension
State Standard:
6th Grade – Standard 1: a. Read and understand a variety of materials;
b. Summarize and synthesize fiction and non-fiction
RIT Range:
Above 221
Skills:
ƒ Summarizes complex passages in literary text
ƒ Evaluates chronological/sequential order in literary text
Lexile Range:
900L-1200L
Group #4
Madison
Tanner
Shakina
Andy
Candace
RIT Range:
211-220
(Advanced - Above grade-level group)
Skills:
ƒ Summarizes literary text
ƒ Assesses chronological/sequential order in literary text
Lexile Range:
800L-1000L
Group #3
Savanah
Mitch
Travis
José
Carmella
RIT Range:
191-200
Lexile Range:
400L-700L
Group #2
Sonja
Brandi
Kristen
Jasmine
Andrew
Isabel
Jolene
Tasha
Jennifer
RIT Range:
Below 190
Lexile Range:
Below 300L
Group #1
Hector
Greg
Matthew
(Proficient - On grade-level group)
Skills:
ƒ Locates and summarizes stated information in literary text
ƒ Recognizes sequence of events in literary text – first,
second, last
(Partially Proficient- Just below grade-level group)
Skills:
ƒ Summarizes facts and details in short literary passages
ƒ Identifies the correct order of events in literary text – first,
second, last
(Unsatisfactory - Below grade-level group)
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and skills
articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
9
Differentiated Instruction Ladder
Subject:
State Standard:
Essential Question:
DesCartes Skills:
Social Studies
Students analyze the multiple causes, key events, and
complex consequences of the Civil War
What impact has the Civil War had on our society today?
Cause/Effect and Locating Information
RIT Range:
221+
Lexile Range:
1000L+
Group #4
RIT Range:
211-220
Lexile Range:
750L -1000L
Group #3
RIT Range:
191-210
Lexile Range:
300L-750L
Group #2
RIT Range:
171-190
Lexile Range:
30L-300L
DesCartes Skills:
ƒ Identify cause and effect in passages with more difficult, less
familiar content and vocabulary
ƒ Read passages where details being located are more specific
and less obvious, requiring careful reading or rereading
ƒ Find and understand specific, detailed information in an
announcement
DesCartes Skills:
ƒ Read longer passages, with more difficult content and
vocabulary
ƒ Identify which is not the effect of a stated cause
ƒ Find and understand information in an annotated
bibliography
ƒ Understand how to use a glossary
ƒ Understand page list format and the difference between use
of commas and hyphens in an index
ƒ Read passages that are lengthy, detailed, and contain adult
vocabulary
DesCartes Skills:
ƒ Read passages with complexity of content and vocabulary,
that include some clue words like since and so and because
ƒ Demonstrate combining several pieces of information to
understand the cause and effect relationship
ƒ Use a table of contents
ƒ Understand the meaning of see and see also in an index
ƒ Use reference materials to determine best source of
information
ƒ Understand the relationship between dictionary and
glossary
DesCartes Skills:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Identify cause and effect stated in different sentences
Use a table of contents
Use an index to find main topics and subtopics
Use an index to find information listed on multiple pages
Group #1
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and skills
articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
10
Writing
Writing Process – Use Pre-Writing Skills
RIT 221-230:
ƒ Select words based on main topic; Outline a complex topic selection; Choose appropriate words for a
selection; Evaluate possible point of views (i.e. personification); Choose vivid descriptors; Select method
for brainstorming
RIT 211-220:
ƒ Create comprehensive outlines; Use compound sentence selection; Outline verbiage for imaginative
stories; Categorize using main topic as guideline
Student List:
RIT 201-210:
ƒ Choose formal or informal language; Select purpose of paragraph; Choose syntax that illustrates point
of view; Outline expository mode
RIT 191-200:
ƒ Select point of view (i.e. I, He, You); Choose a mode of writing; Use clear descriptors; List details in
outline form; Determine tone and mood; Choose tone by determined audience; Outline main topic with
descriptors; Organize sentences for paragraphs; Create a list of possible word choices; Select main
headings for outline; Choose subject and brainstorm (i.e. word lists, webbing, free writing)
Student List:
RIT 181-190:
ƒ Create a simple outline; Write in a selected genre (i.e. a simple fairy tale); Create starter sentences;
Categorize around a main topic; Select appropriate sentences for topic; List sentence details; Pre-write
sentences that convey purpose of topic
RIT 171-180:
ƒ Choose main topic; Select purpose of writing; Recognize genre; Determine audience
Student List:
RIT 161-170:
ƒ Use short complete sentences; Identify a brainstormed single word list about a given topic
Student List:
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and skills
articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
11
Reading
Vocabulary – Context Clues
RIT Above 221:
ƒ Items include same skills and content as lower RIT bands with more difficult vocabulary and
extended thinking.
RIT 211-220:
ƒ After reading a sentence with a paragraph of 75-100 words, use the context of the sentence to find
the meaning of specific word, After reading a story, find the word in the story which means about
the same as underlined word, Increased vocabulary within the story or passage
Student List:
RIT 201-210:
ƒ After reading a paragraph of 50-75 words, use context to determine meaning of a specific word in
paragraph, Given a complex sentence, determine which of four words is synonym (not defined) for
underlined word, Knowledge of vocabulary with or without context within a complex paragraph,
Recognize and understand a variety of word referents, Recognize and understand sentences
containing explanatory phrases, sometimes set off by commas
RIT 191-200:
Student List:
ƒ Use context to determine meaning of specific word in paragraph of 30-60 words, Identify which
of four words is the defined synonym for underlined word in sentence, Know vocabulary with/
without context
RIT 181-190:
ƒ Demonstrate knowledge of increased vocabulary within the context of a sentence or paragraph,
Find a sentence which does not use a multiple meaning word correctly, Use context to determine
the meaning of a word in a paragraph, Choose which of four sentences best expresses the meaning
of idiomatic expression
Student List:
RIT 171-180:
ƒ Use a picture to identify a word, Use context to determine which of 4 words means the same as
underlined word from paragraph of 20-30 words, Use context through complex sentences and
phrases to find the meaning of an unfamiliar word, Use context and inference to find a missing
word, Use context to find the meaning of idiomatic phrases, Use context to find meaning of
compound words, Use context to find the opposite meaning of a word, Demonstrate acquisition of
more specific vocabulary
RIT 161-170:
Student List:
ƒ Use a picture to identify a word or sentence, Use context to find the meaning of an unfamiliar
word in short sentences, Use context to find a missing word in simple and compound sentences,
Use context to find multiple meanings when given a word list, Use word context to define evaluative
meaning, Use context to find the opposite meaning of a word
RIT 151-160:
ƒ Match a picture with a sentence, Use context to find the meaning of an unfamiliar word using
simple vocabulary, Use context to find a missing word in a simple sentence, Make inferences from
context
RIT Below 150:
ƒ Associate single words with pictures
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and
skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
12
Reading
Literal Comprehension – Reading for Detail
RIT 231-240:
ƒ Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, generally unfamiliar content, extensive vocabulary,
complex sentence phrasing; Locate, paraphrase, and interpret multiple details in a detail-filled passage
RIT 221-230:
ƒ Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, generally unfamiliar content, extensive vocabulary,
complex sentence phrasing; Isolate information not stated in a detail-filled passage; Paraphrase and interpret
significant detail; Locate specific detail in a long, detail-filled passage; Locate and interpret several details in a
detail-filled passage
Student List:
RIT 211-220:
ƒ Format: Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, often unfamiliar content, extensive vocabulary,
complex sentence phrasing; Locate small but significant detail in a detail-filled passage; Understand and
interpret significant detail; Understand and paraphrase significant detail; Discriminate between details which
are and are not stated in a passage; Locate more than one detail in a detail-filled passage
RIT 201-210:
Student List:
ƒ Format: Read passages that contain rich and varied detail, often unfamiliar content, extensive vocabulary,
complex sentence phrasing; Isolate small but significant detail necessary to answer a question in long, detailfilled passages
RIT 191-200:
ƒ Format: Read passages containing rich detail, vocabulary, description, and complex phrasing with extensive
vocabulary necessary to understand meaning of detail; Locate specific details in a passage to discriminate
between similar answer choices; Recognize significant details when paraphrased; Recognize and understand
detail referenced by “this, that, these, or those”; Recognize and understand characters when referred to
alternately by name and by descriptive phrases; Understand and interpret significant details
RIT 181-190:
Student List:
ƒ Format: Read passages frequently around 100 words, containing a variety of descriptive sentences and
vocabulary, rich with detail; Isolate small but significant details necessary to answer a question; Understand
sentences containing explanatory phrases set off by commas (my dog, Spot… my friends, Jane and Sally…),
recognizing that they are not items in a list; Understand relationships between details, combining details from
several sentences to form an answer; Recognize / understand pronouns substituted for nouns; Note he/she
pronoun use to determine gender; Isolate significant detail, combine with prior knowledge to answer a
question; Discriminate between details which are and are not stated in a passage; Determine who is the speaker
in a passage
RIT 171-180:
Student List:
ƒ Format: Longer passages, some up to 100 words; at upper RIT ranges, passages contain less familiar content
and more difficult vocabulary; Isolate details necessary to answer a question when given many details; Find
exact words in a passage to answer a question; Recognize pronoun substitution for noun; In a letter,
understand “I” and the author are the same person; Recognize important details when in a sentence with
complex phrasing (no longer simple, straightforward sentences); Combine details from several sentences or
rephrase details to answer a question; Identify the speaker in a short one-speaker passage; Use important details
to generalize an answer; In a longer passage with longer, more complex sentences and more difficult
vocabulary, locate important details necessary to answer a question; Understand the relationship between
details; Discriminate between details that are and are not stated in a passage; Use reasoning, word clues, and
recognition of pronoun meaning to identify speaker in a short passage containing more than one person
RIT 161-170:
ƒ Format: Read short passages up to 50 words, which range from very short, simple sentences to longer more
complex sentences; Locate answers by finding exact words in passage; Recognize pronoun substitutions for
nouns; Combine details from two simple sentences to arrive at answer; Understand the meaning of details to
generalize an answer; Discriminate between similar sentences and details to find an answer; Isolate details
necessary to answer question when given many details
RIT 151-160:
ƒ Format: Read short passages – up to 40 words; Locate answers by finding exact words from question
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and
skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
13
Mathematics
Measurement – Length-Weight-Volume
RIT 271-280:
ƒ Find volume of cylinder using knowledge of radius versus diameter
RIT 261-270:
ƒ No skills listed
RIT 251-260:
ƒ Find volume of cones and rectangular prisms and cylinders
Student List:
RIT 241-250:
ƒ No skills listed
RIT 231-240:
ƒ Find the volume of a pyramid
RIT 221-230:
ƒ Measure length with metric measures (centimeter); Measure length with customary measures
(inch); Select the appropriate unit of measure for length, area, and volume
Student List:
RIT 211-220:
ƒ Measure length to the nearest millimeter, centimeter, meter, and kilometer
RIT 201-210:
ƒ Find the volume of a figure using cubic units; Perform conversions between units of mass in
the metric system; also as necessary in addition or subtraction problems; Select appropriate unit
of measure for length and area; Find the volume of rectangular solids using the formula
RIT 191-200:
Student List:
ƒ Measure length to the nearest millimeter, centimeter, meter, and kilometer; Select the
appropriate metric and customary unit to measure an object or distance; Perform conversions
between linear units in the customary system; also as necessary in addition or subtraction
problems; Perform conversions between units of capacity in the customary system; also as
necessary in addition or subtraction problems
RIT 181-190:
ƒ Measure weight with metric measures with units provided (grams); Measure length to the
nearest inch, foot, and yard and do appropriate conversions between these units
Student List:
RIT 171-180:
ƒ Determine more capacity or less capacity; Measure length with customary measures (inch);
Measure weight with customary measure (pounds); Measure capacity to the nearest cup, pint,
quart, and gallon and do appropriate conversions between these units; Estimate and measure the
length of an object to the nearest metric and customary measure using a picture of a ruler
RIT 161-170:
ƒ No skills listed
RIT 151-160:
Compare objects by shape, size, height or length (larger, smaller, taller, shorter, longer); Measure
length with metric measures using a graphic of a ruler (centimeters)
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content and
skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Sample Ladders
www.nwea.org
14
Northwest Evaluation Association
503-624-1951
www.nwea.org
Revised 10/2009
© 2009 Northwest Evaluation Association
Building a Ladder
Standard Activity Groups ................. 1
Secondary Activity Groups ............. 11
Primary Activity Groups ................. 27
Using State Standards,
DesCartes: A Continuum of Learning,
and Primary Grades Instructional Data
>
Instructional Ladders
Standard Activity Groups
Directions
Building a Ladder Activity
Purpose –To design an instructional ladder to use as a tool for flexibly grouping students.
1. Access the Recorded Online Training at http://nwea.acrobat.com/standardladder
2. Use your fall Teacher Report or Class Breakdown by Goal Report to focus on a skill or concept area.
3. Decide how many rungs you will need on your ladder. (We recommend starting with three for this
activity.) Decide how you will create your flexible groups based on their RIT scores in the goal area that
applies from Step 2. After analyzing your class, you should decide where your grade-level standards will
go and build out from there.
4. Complete a ladder activity using the Differentiated Instruction Ladder template on page 10.
ƒ
ƒ
Resource: Copies of DesCartes for the area that you have chosen in Step 2.
Resource: Your state standards for the area that you have chosen in Step 2.
5. Think about how you will pre-assess this skill or concept in order to place students on the rungs of the
ladder, now that you have the rungs built.
6. If time permits, we’ll share our ladders with the entire group.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
1
Building a Ladder
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2
Class Breakdown By Goal Score RIT Ranges
(Use midpoint of RIT range)
Teacher: Sample Report
Goal Strand
191-200
201-210
Subject: Math
Dustin (200)
Grade: 8
211-220
221-230
231-240
241-250
Jacob (232)
Wesley (221)
Hillary (220)
Jennifer (248)
Lucas (235)
Anna (234)
Hannah (234)
Jayme (233)
Eda (232)
Dustin (231)
Walter (226)
Jesse (224)
Amber (224)
Stephanie (224)
Christopher (251)
Benjamin (236)
Kelagn (232)
Melinda (231)
Chad (229)
Baylee (232)
Christopher (232)
Matthew (223)
Geometry
Haley (219)
Steven (217)
Date: Fall 2007
Beginning-of-Year NWEA Median – 230
Building a Ladder
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3
Building a Ladder
DesCartes: A Continuum of Learning
Symmetry and Transformations
RIT 171-180:
ƒ
Recognize transformations of plane figures (slides, flips, and turns) by identifying the figure that
will fit in a certain space
RIT 181-190:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Identify figures with line symmetry
Recognize transformations of plane figures (slides, flips, and turns)
Identify types of transformations (slides, flips, and turns)
RIT 191-200:
ƒ
Identify figures with line symmetry and symmetrical parts
RIT 201-210:
ƒ
Identify right angles
RIT 211-220:
ƒ
Identify geometric transformations (rotation)
RIT 221-230:
ƒ
Identify types of transformations (rotation, reflection, translation)
RIT 231-240:
ƒ
Understand meaning and representations of a dilation
RIT 241-250:
ƒ
Identify symmetry of a sphere
RIT 251-260:
ƒ
Solve problems involving rotations (turns) and reflections (flips)
RIT 261-270:
ƒ
Solve problems involving volume with rotational transformation
RIT 271-280:
ƒ
New items in this skill range currently being written for coordinate geometry
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
4
Building a Ladder
Indiana Standards that address Symmetry and Transformations
Grade 4:
4.4.5
Identify and draw lines of symmetry in polygons.
Grade 5:
5.4.6
5.4.7
Identify shapes that have reflectional and rotational symmetry.
Understand that 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360° are associated with quarter, half, three-quarters, and full
turns, respectively.
Grade 6:
6.4.6
Draw the translation (slide) and reflection (flip) of shapes.
Grade 7:
7.4.2 Understand that transformations – such as slides, turns, and flips – preserve the length of
segments, and that figures resulting from slides, flips, and turns are congruent to the original figure.
Grade 8:
8.4.4
Draw the translation (slide), rotation (turn), reflection (flip), and dilation (stretches and shrinks)
of shapes.
Geometry Class:
G.2.4
Apply transformations (slides, flips, turns, expansions, and contractions) to polygons in order to
determine congruence, similarity, symmetry, and tessellations. Know that images formed by
slides, flips, and turns are congruent to the original shape.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
5
Pre-Assessment
Skill/Concept: Symmetry and Transformations
Goal Strand: Geometry
State Standard – Grade 8: Students deepen their understanding of plane and solid geometric shapes
and properties by constructing shapes that meet given conditions, by identifying attributes of shapes, and
by applying geometric concepts to solve problems.
1. All sides of the triangle below are the same length. Draw all the lines of symmetry on the triangle and
explain what symmetry means on the lines below.
2. Below is a diagram of a parking lot. Follow the instructions for each of the questions below to help
Bob find out which direction he is facing.
North
West
East
South
a. Bob starts skating while facing South. He turns 270° to the right. Which direction is he facing
now?
b. Bob starts facing East. He makes a half-turn to his left. How many degrees did he turn?
c. Bob starts skating while facing North and turns 90° to his right. What direction is he facing now?
3. Given this figure:
a.
b.
c.
d.
Draw the translation of the figure:
Draw the reflection of the figure:
Draw the rotation of the figure:
Draw a dilation of the figure:
4. Describe the difference between reflectional and rotational symmetry.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
Building a Ladder
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6
5. Fill in the blank:
Figures resulting from slides, turns, and flips are ________________________ to the original figure.
(similar, congruent, dissimilar)
6. Does a slide change the shape or size of an object? Explain your answer.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
7. How many lines of symmetry does a sphere have? Explain your answer.
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
8. What are the effects of a dilation on an object?
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
9. An isometry, or "rigid transformation," moves an object without changing the measures of the angles
or side lengths. Here are the transformations that we'll use in this problem:
ƒ
Reflect over a horizontal line.
ƒ
Reflect over a vertical line.
ƒ
Translate some number of spaces horizontally (right or left).
ƒ
Translate some number of spaces vertically (up or down).
ƒ
Rotate by 90° around a point (clockwise or counterclockwise).
ƒ
Rotate by 180° around a point.
Looking at the picture below, can you come up with a way of using a combination of exactly two of
the transformations listed above to "map" (or move) triangle ABC onto triangle DEF?
Bonus: Explain how you could "map" triangle ABC onto triangle DEF using a combination of one
reflection, one rotation, and one translation, in any order.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
7
Differentiated Instruction Ladder
Skill/Concept:
Goal Strand:
State Standard – Grade 8:
Beginning-of-Year
NWEA Median = 230
Represents grade-level
standard
Symmetry and Transformations
Geometry
Students deepen their understanding of plane and solid
geometric shapes and properties by constructing shapes
that meet given conditions, by identifying attributes of
shapes, and by applying geometric concepts to solve
problems.
RIT Range: 231-260
Rung 3 Skills:
Christopher (251)
Benjamin (236)
Kelagn (232)
Baylee (232)
Christopher (232)
Melinda (231)
Chad (229)
Matthew (223)
ƒ
RIT Range: 221-230
Rung 2 Skills:
Jennifer (248)
Lucas (235)
Anna (234)
Hannah (234)
Jayme (233)
Eda (232)
Dustin (231)
Walter (231)
Jesse (224)
Amber (224)
Stephanie (224)
ƒ
RIT Range: 191-220
Rung 1 Skills:
Jacob (232)
Wesley (221)
Hillary (220)
Haley (219)
Steven (217)
Dustin (200)
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
Building a Ladder
Understand meaning and representation of a
dilation
Identify symmetry of a sphere
Solve problems involving rotations (turns) and
reflections (flips)
Apply transformations (slides, flips, turns,
expansions, and contractions) to polygons in order
to determine congruence, similarity, symmetry,
and tessellations.
Draw the translation (slide), rotation (turn),
reflection (flip), and dilation (stretches and
shrinks) of shapes.
Understand that transformations—such as slides,
turns, and flips—preserve the length of segments,
and that figures resulting from slides, turns, and
flips are congruent to the original figures.
Recognize and identify types of transformations
of plane figures (slides, flips, turns, and rotations)
Draw the translation (slide) and reflection (flip)
of shapes
Identify figures with line symmetry and
symmetrical parts
Identify and sketch mirror-images
Understand that 90°, 180°, 270°, and 360° are
associated with quarter, half, three-quarters, and
full turns, respectively
www.nwea.org
8
Differentiated Instruction Ladder
Lesson Resources
Skill/Concept:
Goal Strand:
State Standard – Grade 8:
RIT Range: 231-260
Symmetry and Transformations
Geometry
Students deepen their understanding of plane and solid
geometric shapes and properties by constructing shapes
that meet given conditions, by identifying attributes of
shapes, and by applying geometric concepts to solve
problems.
Rung 3 Resources:
ƒ
ƒ
ƒ
RIT Range: 221-230
Rung 2 Resources:
ƒ
ƒ
RIT Range: 191-220
http://www.indianastandardsresources.org/files/
math/math_8_4_4.pdf,
http://www.indianastandardsresources.org/files/
math/math_6_4_6.pdf—G6 and G8 curriculum
frameworks
http://www.aaaknow.com/geo.htm
Rung 1 Resources:
ƒ
ƒ
Building a Ladder
http://www.indianastandardsresources.org/files/
math/math_8_4_4.pdf—G8 curriculum
frameworks
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/lab/shapes.h
tml
http://www.gamequarium.com/geometry.html
http://www.indianastandardsresources.org/files/
math/math_5_4_symmetry.pdf,
http://www.indianastandardsresources.org/files/
math/math_5_4_symmetry.pdf,
http://www.indianastandardsresources.org/files/
math/math_4_4_5.pdf —G4 and G5 curriculum
frameworks
http://www.utc.edu/~cpmawata/ - Math Cove has
a great computer-based introduction/review of
translations, reflections, and rotations
www.nwea.org
9
Differentiated Instruction Ladder
Subject:
Goal Strand:
State Standard:
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________
RIT Range: ________
Lexile Range_______
Group #4
RIT Range: ________
Lexile Range_______
Group #3
RIT Range: ________
Lexile Range_______
Group #2
RIT Range: ________
Lexile Range_______
Group #1
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
DesCartes Skills:
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
DesCartes Skills:
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
DesCartes Skills:
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
DesCartes Skills:
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
10
Secondary Activity Groups
Directions
Analyzing the Instructional Ladder Activity
Purpose –To see critical indicators of success, skill levels, and entry points relative to your teaching content and
your students.
1. Access the Recorded Online Training at http://nwea.acrobat.com/secondaryladder
2. Select a Sample Instructional Ladder from the following pages which best matches your teaching
content.
3. Highlight the RIT ranges that most closely match your Class Breakdown by Goal Report or Teacher
Report for one of your classes.
4. Using the Normative Data on page 22, circle the RIT band on your ladder that includes the 50th
percentile performance score for the grade at (or nearest to) that of the class you selected.
5. Using the State Proficiency Table handout from the state Scale Alignment Study (if available), draw a
square around the RIT band that includes the state proficiency cut score for the grade at (or nearest
to) that of the class you selected. (See page 23 for instructions on Accessing State Scale Alignment
Studies.)
6. Transfer student names from your Class Breakdown by Goal Report to the appropriate boxes on the
Sample Instructional Ladder.
Group Reporting Activity
Purpose – To explore potential approaches to address academic diversity in the secondary school.
1. Discuss the skills associated with the scores you identified on your ladders. Divide chart pack or paper
into quadrants, and record your group’s observations in Quadrant 1. (See page 24 for Quadrant 1
Discussion Questions.)
2. Examine the Academic Diversity Café - Menu of Approaches (school-wide) on page 24, to address
student diversity. Identify which of the listed organizational approaches are currently in use in your
school. Record in Quadrant 2 of your chart pack paper.
3. Evaluate other organizational approaches listed. Do you see any that might better address the
academic diversity you have observed? Select your top three, and list them in Quadrant 4 of your chart
pack paper.
4. Which of the listed instructional approaches do you frequently observe in classrooms in your school?
Record in Quadrant 3 of your chart pack paper.
5. Discuss pros and cons of other instructional approaches listed on the menu. Select one of the
instructional approaches you might utilize to address the tiered readiness levels on your selected
instructional ladder. Record group members’ selections on Quadrant 4 of your chart pack paper to
share with the large group.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
11
Mathematics
Algebra - Represent Equations, Inequalities, and Functions
RIT Above 260:
ƒ Writes the equation of the line when given the graph of the line
RIT 251-260:
ƒ Uses graphs to represent functions • Writes the equation of the line when given the graph of
the line; Determines the graph of a line when given the equation • Determines slope from
graphs; Investigates, describes, and predicts the effects of parameter changes on the graphs of
exponential functions; Distinguishes between linear and nonlinear functions (analysis)
Student List:
RIT 241-250:
ƒ Uses ordered pairs to graph a parabola; Determines the x- and/or y-intercept of an equation;
Writes linear equations when given ordered pairs; Recognizes the slope of horizontal and
vertical lines; Uses tables to represent functions; Completes a function table according to a
rule (rational numbers)
RIT 231-240:
Student List:
ƒ Writes the equation of a horizontal or vertical line when given the graph of the line;
Determines the graph of a horizontal or vertical line when given the equation; Distinguishes
between linear and nonlinear functions; Uses tables to represent functions; Completes a
function table according to a rule
RIT 221-230:
ƒ Uses models to represent functions; Completes a function table according to a rule
RIT 211-220:
ƒ Uses models to represent functions; Completes a simple function table or function machine
Student List:
RIT 201-210:
ƒ Uses models to represent functions
RIT 191-200:
ƒ No skills listed
RIT 181-190:
ƒ No skills listed
RIT 171-180:
Student List:
ƒ No skills listed
RIT Below 171:
ƒ No skills listed
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content
and skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
12
Mathematics
Algebra - Concept of Functions (Patterns)
RIT Above 260:
ƒ Determines the minimum and maximum of a function
RIT 251-260:
ƒ Estimates the limit of a given infinite sequence (e.g., given the sequence 1/n, as n gets larger);
Determines the domain and range of a function; Identifies the equation of a parabola;
Determines the vertex of a parabola; Determines the effects of parameter changes on
functions
RIT 241-250:
Student List:
ƒ Represents linear patterns using algebraic expressions; Uses an algebraic expression to
represent exponential patterns; Determines the domain and range of a function
RIT 231-240:
ƒ Recognizes and extends arithmetic sequences (linear patterns); Recognizes and extends the
Fibonacci sequence
RIT 221-230:
Student List:
ƒ Represents patterns using written descriptions (e.g., explains the rule); Recognizes and
extends geometric sequences; Recognizes and extends a sequence of triangular numbers
RIT 211-220:
ƒ Recognizes patterns in designs; Recognizes simple growing patterns; Analyzes patterns to
identify rules; Analyzes patterns in equations to identify rules; Identifies rules and applies
them to new patterns
RIT 201-210:
Student List:
ƒ Recognizes decimal and fraction linear patterns; Recognizes simple growing patterns;
Analyzes patterns to identify rules; Analyzes geometric patterns
RIT 191-200:
ƒ Recognizes basic whole-number linear patterns; Extends simple object patterns; Extends
simple letter patterns
RIT 181-190:
Student List:
ƒ Recognizes patterns in sets representing numbers; Recognizes patterns in number tables;
Recognizes letter patterns; Recognizes basic whole-number linear patterns; Extends simple
number patterns; Extends simple object patterns
RIT 171-180:
ƒ Recognizes number patterns (e.g., 2's, 5's, 10's, 50's, 100's); Extends simple number patterns;
Extends simple geometric shape patterns
RIT Below 171:
ƒ Recognizes number patterns (e.g., 2's, 5's, 10's, 50's, 100's); Extends simple geometric shape
patterns
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content
and skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
13
Mathematics
Measurement - Determine Perimeter and Area, and Apply Formulas
RIT Above 270:
ƒ No skills listed
RIT 261-270:
ƒ Solves real-world problems involving surface area; Determines surface area of a 3-D
construction, given the 2-D representation
RIT 251-260:
ƒ Determines the surface area of a pyramid; Solves real-world problems involving surface area
Student List:
RIT 241-250:
ƒ Determines the surface area of rectangular solids; Determines the surface area of a cylinder
RIT 231-240:
ƒ Identifies the formula for perimeter with a variable; Determines area, length, or width, given
the formula with variables; Determines the area of a triangle, given the formula; Determines
the area of a parallelogram or trapezoid, with the formula; Uses the formula for trapezoid or
parallelogram to determine area, height, or one of the sides; Identifies the formula for area of
circle; Identifies the formula for circumference of a circle
Student List:
RIT 221-230:
ƒ Finds the perimeter using the formula with a variable; Uses models to develop the relationship
between the total number of square units contained in a rectangle and the length and width of
the figure; Determines the area of a parallelogram or trapezoid, with the formula; Uses the
formula for trapezoid or parallelogram to determine area, height, or one of the sides
RIT 211-220:
Student List:
ƒ Determines the perimeter of a figure using nonstandard units; Determines the process for
calculating perimeter; Finds the perimeter of a polygon using a formula; Determines the area
of shapes with partial square units; Counts squares to determine surface area; Estimates and
finds volume of a figure using cubic units
RIT 201-210:
ƒ Determines the perimeter of a figure where some sides are labeled; Determines the area of
shapes with partial square units; Estimates the area of shapes using square units; Estimates and
finds volume of a figure using cubic units
Student List:
RIT 191-200:
ƒ Determines the perimeter of a figure where all sides are labeled; Determines the perimeter of a
figure where some sides are labeled; Estimates the area of shapes using square units
RIT 181-190:
ƒ Determines the perimeter of a figure where all sides are labeled; Determines the area of a
figure by counting square units
RIT 171-180:
ƒ Determines the area of a figure by counting square units
RIT 161-170:
ƒ No skills listed
RIT Below 161:
ƒ No skills listed
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content
and skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
14
Mathematics
Measurement - Area and Volume
RIT Above 260:
ƒ Solves complex problems comparing the areas of circles
RIT 251-260:
Student List:
ƒ Determines the length of the side of a square, given the area; Determines the area of a
parallelogram or trapezoid, without the formula; Determines the area, height, or one of the
sides of a parallelogram or trapezoid, without the; Formula; Solves problems comparing area to
perimeter (analysis); Solves problems involving complex figures (e.g., triangle, parallelogram);
Solves complex problems involving inscribed figures; Solves problems using volume to
calculate the length of a side or area of a face of a cube; Determines the volume of a cylinder;
Solves problems determining an unknown dimension when given the volume; Solves realworld problems comparing volumes of figures
RIT 241-250:
Student List:
ƒ Determines the area of a triangle, without the formula; Determines the area of a parallelogram
or trapezoid, without the formula; Determines the area of irregular shapes; Solves problems
involving irregular shapes; Solves problems comparing areas of different polygons; Solves
problems involving area and converts to larger or smaller units; Solves complex problems
involving inscribed figures; Describes the change in area when dimensions of an object are
altered; Solves problems using volume to calculate the length of a side or area of a face of a
cube; Determines the effects of changing dimensions on volume; Solves problems involving
area of a circle
RIT 231-240:
Student List:
ƒ Determines the area of a square or rectangle; Determines the length of a side of a rectangle,
given the area; Understands the procedure for finding the area and surface area of figures;
Solves simple problems involving the area of a square or rectangle; Solves problems involving
the area of a triangle; Solves problems comparing areas of different polygons; Describes the
change in area when dimensions of an object are altered; Calculates the volume of rectangular
solids; Solves problems using volume to calculate the length of a side or area of a face of a
rectangular solid; Solves problems involving volume; Knows the relationship between radius,
diameter, circumference, and area; Uses the appropriate unit of measure for volume
RIT 221-230:
Student List:
ƒ Determines the area of a square or rectangle; Determines the length of a side of a rectangle,
given the area; Solves simple problems involving the area of a square or rectangle; Solves
complex problems comparing area to perimeter; Describes the change in area when 1
dimension of an object is altered; Calculates the volume of rectangular solids; Solves problems
involving volume; Defines pi and knows common estimates (3.14 and 22/7); Uses the
appropriate unit of measure for area; Uses the appropriate unit of measure for volume
RIT 211-220:
ƒ Solves simple problems comparing area and perimeter; Describes the change in area when 1
dimension of an object is altered
RIT 201-210:
ƒ Identifies situations where it is appropriate to calculate area; Solves simple problems comparing
area and perimeter; Describes the change in area when 1 dimension of an object is altered
RIT 191-200:
ƒ No skills listed
RIT 181-190:
ƒ Compares objects (larger, smaller)
RIT Below 181:
ƒ No skills listed
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content
and skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
15
Mathematics
Geometry - Vocabulary and Signs & Symbols
ƒ
= Vocabulary
= Signs & Symbols
RIT 211-220:
RIT Above 270:
ƒ
Bisector
ƒ
Acute angle; Congruent angle; Dilation;
Enlargement; Geometric solid; Obtuse angle;
Perpendicular line; Straight angle; Threedimensional; Transformation; Translation;
Union; Vertical angle
+ Addition; Angle marker (arc); ÷ Division; = Is
equal to; l Length; × Multiplication; P Perimeter;
segment overbar; s side; − subtraction; w width
No skills listed
RIT 261-270:
ƒ
Adjacent side; Cosecant; Cosine; Decagon;
Opposite side; Sine; Trigonometric
function; Trigonometric relationship
cos
Student List:
Cosine ; E East; mph Miles per hour; N
North; sin Sine; tan Tangent
RIT 201-210:
ƒ
RIT 251-260:
ƒ
Student List:
Student List:
Bisect; Centroid; Collinear; Exterior angle;
Isosceles trapezoid; Line symmetry;
Nonhorizontal; Nonvertical; Point
symmetry; Regular hexagon; Regular
pentagon; Right pyramid; Rotational
symmetry; Slant height
AAA Angle
angle angle; AAS Angle angle
side; ASA Angle side angle; Congruent
angle symbol; Greater than; Parallel line
arrow markers; ┴ Perpendicular to; SAS
side angle side; ~ Similar to; SSA Side side
angle; SSS Side side side
RIT 241-250:
ƒ
Adjacent angle; Alternate exterior angle;
Alternate interior angle; Congruent
triangle; Construction; Endpoint; Incline;
Infinite; Linear pair; Pythagorean
theorem; Symmetric; Transversal; X-axis;
Y-axis
km Kilometer/kilometer; < Less
than; / Per;
→ Ray symbol; S second (SI metric); sq in.
Student List:
Square inch; sq Square; Square root
symbol; : Used with time
RIT 231-240:
ƒ
Acute triangle; Chord; Corresponding
side; Equiangular triangle; Hypotenuse;
Secant; Square pyramid; Tangent
A Area; C Circumference;
Congruent
segment symbol; h Height; ≅ Is congruent
to; r Radius; t Time
Coordinate; Coordinate point; Cubic;
Centimeter; Cubic unit; Edge; Fold; Larger;
Mirror image; Octagon; Ordered pair; Origin;
Parallel line; Quadrilateral; Rectangular box;
Regular polygon; Square centimeter; Trapezoid
Angle; ° Degrees; ↔ Line symbol; m Measure of
angle; Right angle marker
RIT 191-200:
ƒ
Diagonal; Face; Inside; Intersect; Kite; Parallel;
Pentagon; Perpendicular Plane; Polygon;
Rectangular; Rhombus; Same shape; Skew;
Square inch; Straight; Vertical line
ft
Feet; " Inches; Multiplication symbol
RIT 181-190:
ƒ
Clockwise; Diagram; Flip; Grid; Line; Line of
symmetry; Meter; Rectangular solid; Symmetry;
Turn
( ) Ordered
pair; cm Centimeter/centimeter; in.
Inch; m Meter/metre
RIT 171-180:
ƒ
Diamond; Geometric figure; Outside; Similar;
Square unit
? Next
in sequence; Point
RIT 161-170:
ƒ
Circle; Corner; Cylinder; Flat Rectangle; Side
No skills listed
RIT Below 161:
ƒ
Half; Size
No skills listed
RIT 221-230:
ƒ
Order of operations; ' Feet; - Negative
number; Parallel symbol; π Pi; : ratio; Δ triangle
()
Arc; Center; Central angle; Congruent
side; Equilateral; Interior angle; Isosceles
triangle; Midpoint; Obtuse triangle; Right
triangle; Scale factor; Scalene triangle;
Sum of measures; Supplementary
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content
and skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
16
Mathematics
Data Analysis, Statistics, and Probability - Basic Concepts of Probability
RIT Above 260:
ƒ Determines the probabilities of compound events (dependent)
RIT 251-260:
ƒ Determines certainty from a set data; Determines the probabilities of complex compound events
(independent)
RIT 241-250:
Student List:
ƒ Determines probability using tables; Determines probability using an area model; Determines
probability using counting procedures; Determines certainty from a set data; Uses counting
procedures to determine probabilities; Determines the complement of a complex event; Uses
permutation and combination formulas to determine possibilities
RIT 231-240:
ƒ Recognizes the relationship between events and probability; Determines sample space using
probability; Determines sample space to find probability; Determines sample space to find
probability for 2-step problems; Determines certainty from a set data; Determines the
complement of a complex event; Determines the probability of independent simple compound
events
Student List:
RIT 221-230:
Student List:
RIT 211-220:
ƒ Determines the possible outcomes for a simple probability experiment using spinners;
Determines the possible outcomes for a simple probability experiment using dart boards;
Determines the outcome of simple multiple events; Determines sample space to find probability;
Determines probability using tree diagrams; Computes probability as a fraction, given equivalent
forms; Explains the relationship between probability and odds, and computes one when given
the other; Determines the complement of a simple event; Determines the number of possible
combinations of given items; Solves problems involving combinations
ƒ Determines the possible outcomes for a simple probability experiment using a frequency table;
Determines the possible outcomes for a simple probability experiment using dice; Determines
the possible outcomes for a simple probability experiment using spinners; Determines
probability when drawing objects from containers; Determines probability from a real-world
situation; Determines the complement of a simple event; Determines the number of possible
combinations of given items; Solves problems involving permutations
Student List:
RIT 201-210:
ƒ Recognizes events that are certain, likely, unlikely, possible, or impossible; Uses the concept of
chance to determine the likelihood of an event; Determines the possible outcomes for a simple
probability experiment using one or more coins; Determines the possible outcomes for a simple
probability experiment using objects
RIT 191-200:
ƒ Investigates probability of "more likely" or "less likely" using a spinner; Investigates probability of
"more likely" or "less likely" with a dart board
RIT 181-190:
ƒ Investigates probability of "more likely" or "less likely" using a spinner; Investigates probability of
"more likely" or "less likely" with objects hidden in containers
RIT 171-180:
ƒ Investigates probability of "more likely" or "less likely" using a table
RIT Below 171:
ƒ No skills listed
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content
and skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
17
Language Usage
Composition and Structure - Develop Paragraphs
Above 230:
ƒ Analyzes writing in creating multiple-paragraph compositions
RIT 221-230:
ƒ Analyzes writing in creating multiple-paragraph compositions; Determines supporting details
of a main idea in a paragraph; Selects the best topic sentence for a paragraph; Identifies the
topic sentence when it is not the first sentence; Uses clear transitional words and phrases in
writing; Recognizes transitional words and phrases in writing
RIT 211-220:
Student List:
ƒ Arranges sentences in a sequential order; Arranges sentences in a logical order; Uses
concluding sentences; Organizes sentences in a paragraph around a main idea; Analyzes
writing to create multi-paragraph compositions; Determines which details support the main
idea of a paragraph; Evaluates the best way to develop a given topic with supporting details;
Identifies the topic sentence for a paragraph; Selects the best topic sentence for a paragraph;
Identifies the topic sentence when it is not the first sentence; Uses clear transitional words and
phrases; Recognizes transitional words and phrases
RIT 201-210:
Student List:
ƒ Arranges sentences in a sequential order; Arranges sentences in a logical order; Organizes
sentences in a paragraph around a main idea; Determines which details support the main idea
of a paragraph; Evaluates the best way to develop a given topic with supporting details;
Identifies the topic sentence for a paragraph; Uses clear transitional words and phrases
RIT 191-200:
Student List:
ƒ Creates multi-paragraph compositions; Recognizes an introductory paragraph that introduces
a main topic; Uses concluding sentences in paragraphs; Arranges sentences sequentially;
Arranges sentences logically; Determines details that support the main idea of a paragraph;
Evaluates the best way to develop a topic with supporting details; Identifies the topic sentence
of a paragraph
RIT 181-190:
ƒ Creates multi-paragraph compositions; Recognizes an introductory paragraph that introduces
a main topic; Arranges sentences sequentially; Arranges sentences logically; Determines details
that support the main idea of a paragraph; Evaluates the best way to develop a topic with
supporting details; Identifies the topic sentence of a paragraph; Recognizes that sentences in a
paragraph relate to one central idea
Student List:
RIT 171-180:
ƒ Determines which details support a main idea in a paragraph; Recognizes that sentences in a
paragraph all relate to one central idea
RIT Below 171:
ƒ Determines which details support a main idea in a paragraph
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content
and skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
18
Language Usage
Composition and Structure - Drafting and Revising
Above 230:
ƒ Uses parallelism in written compositions; Examines the use of figurative language in writing;
Identifies and uses literary devices in writing; Uses the writing process to review organization;
Evaluates the syntax of sentences
RIT 221-230:
Student List:
ƒ Uses the writing process to align content with purpose; Uses parallelism in written
compositions; Examines the use of figurative language in writing; Identifies and uses literary
devices in writing; Evaluates techniques used to convey personal style and voice; Uses the
writing process to review organization; Describes revisions in the writing process; Identifies
syntax appropriate to purpose in written compositions; Evaluates the syntax of sentences
RIT 211-220:
Student List:
ƒ Uses literary devices to enhance writing (e.g., imagery, hyperbole, irony); Identifies
parallelism in writing; Determines descriptive words; Evaluates descriptive passages relative to
mood conveyed; Examines the use of figurative language in writing (e.g., similes, metaphors,
personification); Develops a central idea; Uses consistent point of view within paragraphs;
Revises for different purposes (e.g., to enhance, to paraphrase, to clarify); Describes and uses
the writing process to revise; Identifies proper syntax (word order) in written compositions;
Evaluates the syntax (word order and form) of sentences
RIT 201-210:
Student List:
ƒ Recognizes descriptive words that convey ideas in writing; Recognizes the appropriate word
choice relative to tone, mood, or purpose; Uses literary devices to enhance writing (e.g.,
imagery, hyperbole, irony); Identifies parallelism in writing; Determines descriptive words;
Evaluates descriptive passages relative to mood conveyed; Examines the use of figurative
language in writing (e.g., similes, metaphors, personification); Develops a central idea; Uses
consistent point of view within paragraphs; Describes and uses the writing process to revise;
Identifies proper syntax (word order) in written compositions; Evaluates the syntax (word
order and form) of sentences
RIT 191-200:
Student List:
ƒ Recognizes descriptive words that convey ideas in writing; Examines the use of figurative
language in writing (e.g., similes, metaphors, personification); Uses literary devices in writing
(e.g., imagery, hyperbole, irony); Recognizes a central idea; Uses multi-paragraph
organization to develop ideas; Describes the process of revision; Applies appropriate revisions;
Restates sentences correctly using varied word order (syntax); Evaluates the word order and
form of sentences
RIT 181-190:
ƒ Identifies descriptive words that convey ideas in writing; Examines the use of figurative
language in writing (e.g., similes, metaphors, personification); Uses multi-paragraph
organization to develop ideas; Uses the revision process to add detail; Describes the process of
revision; Restates sentences correctly using varied word order (syntax); Evaluates the word
order and form of sentences
RIT 171-180:
ƒ Identifies descriptive words that convey ideas in writing; Chooses appropriate language to set
tone and mood in writing; Rearranges sentences to clarify meaning; Restates sentences using
varied word order (syntax)
RIT 161-170:
ƒ Restates sentences using varied word order (syntax)
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content
and skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
19
Reading
Evaluative Comprehension - Persuasive Elements
Above 230:
ƒ Evaluates specific examples of bandwagon propaganda techniques (e.g., testimonial, threat of
exclusion); Evaluates broad generalization in literary text; Evaluates either/or in literary text;
Evaluates specific examples of loaded words propaganda (e.g., glittering generalities, cliché,
flag-waving); Evaluates red herring in literary text; Evaluates examples of bias in literary text;
Evaluates validity of evidence in literary text; Evaluates stereotypes found in informational text;
Evaluates bias in informational text; Evaluates validity of information in informational text;
Evaluates informational text using proposition and support
Student List:
Student List:
Student List:
RIT 221-230:
ƒ Evaluates specific examples of bandwagon propaganda techniques (e.g., testimonial, threat of
exclusion); Evaluates broad generalization in literary text; Evaluates either/or in literary text;
Evaluates specific examples of loaded words propaganda (e.g., glittering generalities, cliché,
flag-waving); Evaluates red herring in literary text; Evaluates examples of bias in literary text;
Analyzes validity of evidence in literary text; Evaluates proposition and support in literary text;
Analyzes assumptions within literary text; Evaluates stereotypes found in informational text;
Evaluates bias in informational text; Evaluates validity of information in informational text;
Evaluates informational text using proposition and support
RIT 211-220:
ƒ Analyzes examples of propaganda in literary text that suggest if many people do something, it
must be right or good (bandwagon); Analyzes examples of propaganda in literary text that
make broad statements or claims about large groups (broad generalization); Analyzes examples
of propaganda in literary text that present only two opposing sides of a complex situation
(either/or); Interprets examples of bandwagon propaganda in literary text; Interprets examples
of broad generalization in literary text; Interprets examples of either/or propaganda in literary
text; Interprets examples of loaded words in literary text; Interprets examples of red herring in
literary text; Analyzes examples of bias in literary text; Analyzes validity of evidence in literary
text; Evaluates assumptions within literary text; Analyzes validity of information in
informational text; Analyzes informational text using proposition and support
RIT 201-210:
Student List:
ƒ Analyzes examples of propaganda in literary text that suggest if many people do something, it
must be right or good (bandwagon); Analyzes examples of propaganda in literary text that
make broad statements or claims about large groups (broad generalization); Analyzes examples
of propaganda in literary text that present only two opposing sides of a complex situation
(either/or); Analyzes examples of propaganda in literary text that use emotionally charged
words to produce strong feelings (loaded words); Interprets examples of bandwagon
propaganda in literary text; Interprets examples of broad generalization in literary text;
Interprets examples of either/or propaganda in literary text; Interprets examples of loaded
words in literary text; Interprets examples of red herring in literary text; Analyzes examples of
bias in literary text; Analyzes validity of information in informational text; Analyzes
informational text using proposition and support
RIT 191-200:
ƒ Interprets examples of bias in literary text
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content
and skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
20
Reading
Evaluative Comprehension - Persuasive Elements
RIT Above 240:
ƒ No skills listed
RIT 231-240:
Student List:
ƒ Evaluates techniques used by an author to accomplish purpose in informational text; Assesses
when the author's purpose is to persuade in informational text; Assesses when the author's
purpose is to inform in informational text; Examines techniques that convey the author's
viewpoint in informational text; Interprets assertion in literary text; Evaluates
assertion/viewpoint in informational text; Evaluates the effectiveness of techniques used to
convey assertion/viewpoint
RIT 221-230:
Student List:
ƒ Analyzes persuasive techniques used by an author in literary text; Evaluates persuasive
techniques used by an author in literary text; Evaluates techniques used by an author to
accomplish purpose in informational text; Assesses when the author's purpose is to persuade in
informational text; Assesses when the author's purpose is to inform in informational text;
Examines techniques that convey the author's viewpoint in informational text; Infers author's
viewpoint/attitude in literary text; Interprets assertion in literary text; Evaluates
assertion/viewpoint in informational text; Evaluates the effectiveness of techniques used to
convey assertion/viewpoint
RIT 211-220:
Student List:
ƒ Analyzes persuasive techniques used by an author in literary text; Analyzes techniques used by an
author to inform in literary text; Analyzes techniques used by an author to entertain in literary
text; Interprets techniques used by an author to accomplish purpose in informational text;
Discriminates when the author's purpose is to persuade in informational text; Discriminates
when the author's purpose is to inform in informational text; Infers author's viewpoint/attitude
in literary text; Analyzes assertion/viewpoint in informational text
RIT 201-210:
Student List:
ƒ Interprets when the author's purpose is to persuade in literary text; Analyzes techniques used by
an author to inform in literary text; Analyzes techniques used by an author to entertain in
literary text; Interprets techniques used by an author to accomplish purpose in informational
text; Discriminates when the author's purpose is to persuade in informational text; Discriminates
when the author's purpose is to inform in informational text; Infers viewpoint in literary text;
Analyzes assertion/viewpoint in informational text
RIT 191-200:
ƒ Interprets when the author's purpose is to entertain in literary text; Interprets when the author's
purpose is to persuade in literary text; Interprets when the author's purpose is to inform in
literary text; Analyzes techniques used by an author to accomplish purpose in informational text;
Analyzes when the author's purpose is to persuade in informational text; Analyzes when the
author's purpose is to inform in informational text; Infers viewpoint in literary text; Interprets
author's viewpoint in informational text
RIT 181-190:
ƒ Interprets the author's purpose in literary text; Analyzes techniques used by an author to
accomplish purpose in informational text; Analyzes when the author's purpose is to persuade in
informational text; Analyzes when the author's purpose is to inform in informational text;
Analyzes viewpoint in literary text; Interprets author's viewpoint in informational text
RIT 171-180:
ƒ Assesses the author's purpose in informational text
RIT Below 171:
ƒ No skills listed
Sample Instructional Ladder: Please note that the learning statements found in your state version of DesCartes may differ slightly, however, approximately 90 percent of content
and skills articulated in DesCartes learning statements are consistent from state to state.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
21
2008 Normative Data
These tables were extracted from the 2008 Normative Data
document. A copy of the full document is available at
www.nwea.org.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
22
Navigation Help Sheet
Accessing Online Reports
1. Go to www.nwea.org – click on Reports Login
2. Enter your User Name and Password.
3. From the navigation bar on left of page, click on Teacher Reports to see reports for all your classes.
Note: Print Teacher Report if your district does not have an Instructional Resources* license.
4. Click on Class by RIT to access your Class Breakdown by Overall RIT Report.
5. Click on Mathematics or other subject to see the Class Breakdown by Goal Report.
* If the Class by RIT link is activated from the navigation bar, then your district has an Instructional Resources
license and these reports will be available to you.
Accessing State Scale Alignment Studies
1. Go to www.nwea.org.
2. Click on Our Research link.
Building a Ladder
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23
Group Reporting - Quadrant 1 Discussion Questions
1. Discuss with your table group the skills associated with those scores you identified on your ladders.
2. Where in your state standards do you see the skills in your ladder reflected?
3. What observations can be made about your student data in relation to those points on the ladder? Are most
students higher? Lower? On grade level? Are scores equally or unequally distributed within a class? Across
classes?
Academic Diversity Café - Menu of Approaches
Organizational Approaches
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Tracked classrooms – Classes scheduled to include only students with similar achievement levels for the term.
Team-based grouping – Groups of teachers collaborate to work with the same group of students.
Random class assignment – Classes scheduled without consideration of student characteristics.
Prerequisite system – Students assigned to courses only when success is attained in preceding course of study.
Inclusive classrooms – Students with identified special needs assigned to standard classes with other students.
Power groupings – Identified times for students with similar academic needs to meet for focused instruction.
Magnet settings – Students with similar interests or talents attending schools specializing in that focus.
Inquiry-based settings – Schools or classes organized around student inquiry as a primary learning strategy.
Pull-out programs – Addressing special needs by removing students from the regular classroom.
Other
Instructional Approaches
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Laddered lessons – Lesson design based on an articulation of skills and identified readiness of students;
informed by RIT scores and continuum of skills in DesCartes or Primary Grades Instructional Data.
Tiered homework – Assignments based on skills and understanding at different levels of complexity, abstractness,
and open-endedness.
Independent studies – Student and teacher identify topic, method of investigation, and product which the
student will produce.
Orbitals – Independent investigations that revolve around some facet of the curriculum.
Literature circles/Multiple texts – Using varied reading materials, often with a common theme, to support
various levels of reading readiness.
Varied questioning – Asking questions that vary from simple (knowledge and comprehension) to more complex
(synthesis).
Whole group instruction – Instruction geared to the whole class, often based upon perceived typical academic
level.
Lecture – Teacher-delivered information presented orally.
Small group investigations – Study groups who explore questions related to the central idea being taught.
Learning contracts – Plans that represent agreements for what work students will do within a given course of
study, often indicating a grade value for work produced.
Curriculum compacting – Teachers preassess to determine which lesson objectives students have mastered and
extend learning options for students who have reached mastery.
Partnering – Pairing students in work to maximize collaborative and social benefits in the learning process.
Other
Building a Ladder
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24
Group Reporting
Observations on Student Academic
Performance and Data (from ladders)
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Low
Diverse needs
Few above, many below state
proficiency benchmark
Classes all have range of RIT scores,
some higher, some lower
Most students below national norm for
grade level
Current Instructional Strategies
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Varied questioning/discussion
strategies
Whole group instruction
Lecture
Small group investigations
Current Organizational Structure
Observations
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Tracked classes – only at high end
academics. Not using RIT score to
identify
Some pull-out programs
Group Recommendations
Organizational approaches
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Instructional approaches
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Building a Ladder
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25
Group Reporting
Template
Observations on Student Academic
Performance and Data (from ladders)
Current Organizational Structure
Observations
Current Instructional Strategies
Group Recommendations
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
26
Primary Activity Groups
Directions
Screening or Skills Checklist Ladder Activity
Purpose – To use data from the MAP for Primary Grades assessment system to inform instruction and
accelerate student progress through attainment of skills.
1. Access the Recorded Online Training at http://nwea.acrobat.com/primaryladder
2. Choose an instructional area from those in which you’ve given MAP for Primary Grades
Screening or Skills Checklist tests. Write that area for focus on the subject line on the
Differentiated Instruction Ladder template on page 28.
3. Use your MAP for Primary Grades Teacher Report to identify the range of skills present
in your class.
4. Transfer student names from the Low – Medium – High sections of your report into the
corresponding boxes marked “students” on the template.
5. Transfer the skills from reports that each group of students will work on into the
corresponding box on the template.
6. Add activities and resources for sections to address each skill.
7. Review the Assessment/Instruction Planning Page on page 29. Identify where your
ongoing instructional plans and additional learning sections might fit within that
flowchart pattern and complete the template on page 30.
8. Prepare to share your Differentiated Instruction Ladder and Assessment/Instruction
Planning Page with the large group.
Survey w/ Goals Ladder Activity
Purpose – To use data from the MAP for Primary Grades assessment system to plan for instructional
entry points most appropriate for your students in order to maximize student growth.
1. Access the Recorded Online Training at http://nwea.acrobat.com/primaryladder
2. Select a goal for focus. Use your Teacher Report or Class Breakdown by Goal Report to
identify the goal area with greatest academic diversity
3. Identify the score ranges present in your class using the Class Breakdown by Goal Report.
4. Highlight the RIT scores that are present in your class in the chosen goal area.
5. Write the RIT ranges for students in your class into the boxes on the ladder template on
page 31.
6. Transfer student names into the boxes that correspond to their RIT ranges.
7. Using the Primary Grades Instructional Data sample pages or a page you print from the
document at the Reports Site, highlight the RIT ranges that are present in your class in the
chosen goal area.
8. Write those skills into the skills boxes on your ladder.
Building a Ladder
www.nwea.org
27
Differentiated Instruction Ladder
Screening or Skills Checklist
Subject: ____________________________
Group 3 Students:
Section 3 Activity:
Group 3 Skills:
Group 2 Students:
Section 2 Activity:
Group 2 Skills:
Group 1 Students:
Section 1 Activity:
Group 1 Skills:
Building a Ladder
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Building a Ladder
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29
Building a Ladder
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Differentiated Instruction Ladder
Survey w/ Goals
Subject: ____________________________ Goal: ____________________________
RIT Range: ________
Lexile Range_______
Group #4
RIT Range: ________
Lexile Range_______
Group #3
RIT Range: ________
Lexile Range_______
Group #2
RIT Range: ________
Lexile Range_______
Group #1
Building a Ladder
Primary Grades Instructional Data Skills:
________________________________________
________________________________________
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________________________________________
________________________________________
Primary Grades Instructional Data Skills:
________________________________________
________________________________________
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________________________________________
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Primary Grades Instructional Data Skills:
________________________________________
________________________________________
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Primary Grades Instructional Data Skills:
________________________________________
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________________________________________
________________________________________
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________________________________________
www.nwea.org
31
Building a Ladder
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Primary Grades Instructional Data
Mathematics: Algebra
Building a Ladder
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33
Primary Grades Instructional Data
Mathematics: Algebra
Building a Ladder
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34
Primary Grades Instructional Data
Mathematics: Algebra
Building a Ladder
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35
Primary Grades Instructional Data
Mathematics: Algebra
Building a Ladder
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36
Building a Ladder
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Primary Grades Instructional Data
Reading: Phonological Awareness
Building a Ladder
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38
Primary Grades Instructional Data
Reading: Phonological Awareness
Building a Ladder
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39
Primary Grades Instructional Data
Reading: Phonological Awareness
Building a Ladder
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40
Northwest Evaluation Association
503-624-1951
www.nwea.org
Revised 10/2009
© 2009 Northwest Evaluation Association
Instructional Ladders
>
Teacher and Leadership Workbook
INSTRUCTIONAL LADDERS
Intended Accomplishments
Use standards with DesCartes or Primary Grades Instructional Data
Design instruction to meet diverse needs of learners
Identify and access resources for diverse instructional needs
Building the Instructional Ladder
Data-informed instructional design
Extended scaffolding
Appropriate entry points
Concept of Instructional Ladders
1. Read the Standards and Curriculum Differentiation article.
2. Highlight or underline any passages that strike you as important.
3. Debrief with the large group by designating a spokesperson to share what your group identified as
important parts of the article.
Standards and Curriculum Differentiation
Education Update January 2002|Volume 44|Number 1
Curriculum differentiation needs to be the partner of a standards-based initiative, said Deborah Burns,
curriculum coordinator for the Cheshire (Conn.) Public Schools and a member of ASCD's Differentiated
Instruction Cadre. "If we don't bring the two together as quickly as possible, people are going to get
worried—and rightfully so—that standards mean the same thing as standardization," she said.
Burns recommended a tool called the "ladder" for differentiating instruction.
When planning a standards-based unit, teachers should literally draw a ladder, she advised. Then they
should label the rungs from bottom to top by asking themselves: What is it that all the kids in my room
already know? What is it that some of them already know? What is it that a few of them know? What is it
that none of the kids knows going into this unit? Teachers can use preassessment to answer these
questions, she said.
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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1
Building the Instructional Ladder (continued)
(Some teachers discount the need to preassess, Burns noted. "When someone says, 'I know my kids; I
don't need to preassess,' what that really means is, 'I know what the average kid in this room is capable of,
and that's what I'm teaching to.' However, standards won't help promote higher achievement if we keep
targeting only the average kids," she asserted.)
For example, let's say a teacher is preassessing for the standard The student will use the scientific process to
answer everyday questions. The teacher might discover that every student in the class already knows what
an experiment is; some students know how to pose a hypothesis; a few students know how to control a
variable; and none of the students knows the difference between an independent and a dependent
variable. By writing these varying levels of content knowledge on the rungs of the ladder, the teacher can
create a developmental rubric for measuring progress with regard to that standard, Burns explained.
"The important thing is to have a decent baseline and a high ceiling," she said. "I doubt that can be done
with only three levels to your rubrics. You'll need four, five, or six, depending on the heterogeneity in your
student population." The goal should be for all children to move up at least one rung on the ladder, she
emphasized.
Once students' prior knowledge has been determined, teachers need to reflect on how they can
differentiate their instruction, asking themselves: Should I use different methods with different kids?
Should I address different content with different kids? How will I manage it and how will I organize it?
"If I can find each student's zone [of proximal development] through preassessment," Burns said, "and get
to know them and respect them as individuals—and not get mad that they're making life difficult for me
because they're not all the same—then I have the mind-set that would allow me to approach
differentiation."
Permission granted to copy by Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
http://www.ascd.org/publications/ed_update/200201/3.htm
Virtual Observation: Laddered Instruction
Concept of Instructional Ladders
1. Think about the following questions while watching the video clip.
What criteria is mentioned for selection of the content focus for laddered instructional plans?
What resources do Cindy and her team use to determine the various activities for their lesson?
What tip for getting started using DesCartes does Michelle point out?
What benefits does Erin mention related to using DesCartes to inform her writing
instruction?
What do you observe in these approaches that exemplifies aspects of the Burns’ article?
2. Discuss with a partner which of these strategies and approaches you have used before in your
classroom.
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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2
What is the “Zone of Proximal Development?”
A central concept in LevVygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development theory is that determining the optimal
match between the learner’s background knowledge and the introduction of new ideas and skills is an
effective way to maximize academic growth.
For additional information, read An Overview of Zone of Proximal Development Theory.
An Overview of Zone of Proximal Development Theory
Purpose
Examination of social constructs and cognitive placement as they relate to optimal learning in the child.
Supports necessity of appropriate beginning points for students as well as interactive developmental
opportunities as a bridge to learning new ideas.
Definition
The Zone of Proximal Development bridges that gap between what is known and what can be known.
Vygotsky claimed that optimal learning occurred in this zone.
Implications for Instruction
Traditionally, schools have not promoted environments in which the students play an active role in their
own education as well as their peers'. Vygotsky's theory requires the teacher and students to play
untraditional roles as they collaborate with each other. Instead of a teacher dictating her meaning to
students for future recitation, a teacher should collaborate with her students in order to create meaning in
ways that students can make their own (Hausfather, 1996). Learning becomes a reciprocal experience for
the students and teacher.
1. The physical classroom, based on Vygotsky's theory, would provide clustered desks or tables and
work space for peer instruction, collaboration, and small group instruction. Like the
environment, the instructional design of material to be learned would be structured to promote
and encourage student interaction and collaboration. Thus the classroom becomes a community
of learning.
2. Because Vygotsky asserts that cognitive change occurs within the zone of proximal development,
instruction would be designed to reach a developmental level that is just above the student's
current developmental level.
3. Individuals participating in peer collaboration or guided teacher instruction must share the same
focus in order to access the zone of proximal development. "Joint attention and shared problem
solving is needed to create a process of cognitive, social, and emotional interchange." If one
partner dominates, the interaction is less successful” (Driscoll, 1994; Hausfather, 1996).
Scaffolding and reciprocal teaching are effective strategies to access the zone of proximal development.
Scaffolding requires the teacher to provide students the opportunity to extend their current skills and
knowledge. The teacher must engage students' interest, simplify tasks so they are manageable, and
motivate students to pursue the instructional goal. In addition, the teacher must look for discrepancies
between students' efforts and the solution, control for frustration and risk, and model an idealized version
of the act (Hausfather, 1996).
Entry Points
The zone of proximal development theory focuses on the concept of readiness to learn, emphasizing
upper levels of competence, achieving the proper ‘reach’ for all students as they enter a lesson. These
upper boundaries are not immutable, however, but constantly changing with the learner's increasing
independent competence. What a child can perform today with assistance she will be able to perform
tomorrow independently, thus preparing her for entry into a new and more demanding collaboration.
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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3
What is the “Zone of Proximal Development?” (continued)
It also emphasizes structures for learning which have significant implications for classroom instruction.
Vygotsky’s research compels us to recognize the significant import of social exchange in accelerating
cognitive development, and to build classrooms around structures and procedures which support this
kind of interactive, responsive instruction.
Ongoing Assessment and Flexible Grouping
These upper boundaries are not immutable, however, but constantly changing with the learner's
increasing independent competence. What a child can perform today with assistance she will be able to
perform tomorrow independently, thus preparing her for entry into a new and more demanding
collaboration.
Using a Variety of Strategies and Restructuring the Classroom
Vygotsky’s research also emphasizes structures for learning which have significant implications for
classroom instruction. It compels us to recognize the significance of social exchanges in accelerating
cognitive development and to build classrooms around structures and procedures which support this kind
of interactive, responsive instruction. It also suggests that learners collaborate with others of like readiness
in many learning tasks so that balanced, true collaboration occurs, rather than dominance by the stronger
individual.
References
Driscoll, Marcy P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham, Ma: Allyn &&
Bacon.
Crawford, Kathryn. (1996) Vygotskian approaches to human development in the information era.
Educational Studies in Mathematics. (31) 43-62.
Hausfather, Samuel J., (1996) Vygotsky and Schooling: Creating a Social Contest for learning.
Action in Teacher Education. (18) 1-10.
Riddle, Elizabeth M. (1999). , Lev Vygotsky’s Social Development Theory, EDIT 704.
Saettler, P. (1990). The Evolution of American Educational Technology. Englewood, Co: Libraries
Unlimited.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978). Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wertsch, James V. Sohmer, Richard. (1995). Vygotsky on learning and development. Human
Development. (38) 332-37.
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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4
Determining Instructional Content
Standards
Local curriculum documents
School improvement initiatives
Student academic needs
Triangulation of data
DesCartes, Primary Grades Instructional Data, and Standards
Placing students on the ladder
Diagnosing key skill deficiencies
Planning for differentiation
Moving students beyond grade-level standards
See samples on the following pages.
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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5
Sample page from DesCartes: A Continuum of Learning
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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6
Sample page from Primary Grades Instructional Data – 3-Column Format Design
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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7
Building Instructional Ladders
Instructional Ladders Workbook
www.nwea.org
8
Instructional Ladder Samples
Contrast Effective and Non-Effective Approaches to Laddering
1. Review Science Ladder #1 (water cycle) in the Sample Ladders packet on pp. 1-2 – which is
intended as a non-example of effective laddered instructional planning.
2. Now look at Science Ladder #2 (also on the water cycle) – pp. 3-4 – which is intended as an
effective example.
3. Review the examples and discuss how delivering instruction from each of the examples would be
different.
4. Debrief ideas with your group and capture them on chart pack.
5. Discussion questions:
How would it be different in each of these lesson plans to:
` Manage the classroom?
` Follow students concept development?
` Connect ideas for whole group instruction?
Previewing the Instructional Ladder
Three basic steps to building the instructional ladder:
1. Identify skills/standard/goals to be addressed in the lesson or unit.
2. Identify RIT bands presented in class.
3. Match RIT band to DesCartes statements or Primary Grades Instructional Data for that
skill/standard/goal.
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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9
Building the Instructional Ladder
Designing an Instructional Ladder
Refer to the Building a Ladder packet for directions to this activity.
Group Reporting
Share Ladders and Observations
1. What observations did you make around student data as you worked through this process? High
school groups, what did you add to the first quadrant of your chart pack reports? Other groups did you have similar or different findings around student readiness and academic diversity?
2. What were the topics and skills you incorporated into your ladders? Middle grades teachers - how
broadly did the skills needed to address student readiness vary? What discussions did you have
around these skills related to grade level standards and typical on grade-level lesson content?
3. What approaches did you envision using to address student needs on the ladders? What activities
or structure for activities did you incorporate into your laddered plans? Primary teachers – what
instructional strategies did you think of as you planned for student needs?
Additional Resources for Instructional Ladders
Refer to the Resources of Interest handout.
Ladders
Differentiation
Grouping
Rubrics and assessment
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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10
Assessing Student Growth in Laddered Instruction
Observation, in-class assessments, and student work
Student self-assessment
Fall-to-spring comparisons
Resources
Identify Resources
1. Focus on a topic your currently teach.
2. Take five minutes to individually write down as many resources as you can think of that fit in each
of the concentric circles.
3. Share results with table groups. Debrief by asking for volunteers to share examples.
Internet & Beyond
NWEA Web Site
Community
District
District
Building
Teacher Classroom
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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11
Sustaining the Momentum
Sustaining the Momentum
Refer to the Sustaining the Momentum and the Sample Teach-Back Plan (if applicable) handout(s).
Use standards with DesCartes or Primary Grades Instructional Data
Design instruction to meet diverse needs of learners
Identify and access resources for diverse instructional needs
Instructional Ladders Workbook
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12
Northwest Evaluation Association
503-624-1951
www.nwea.org
Revised 10/2009
© 2009 Northwest Evaluation Association
Name: __________________________________
What Needs
to be Done
Sustaining the Momentum
Reviewed 7/2008
© 2008 Northwest Evaluation Association
Sustaining the Momentum
District: __________________________________
Taking Action Plan
Date: ___________________________________
Person(s) Responsible
Resources Needed
www.nwea.org
Possible Roadblocks/
Strategies to Overcome
Date of Completion
1 of 1
Sustaining the Momentum
Taking Action Plan
Name: ___________________________________
District: __________________________________
Date:____________________________________
Sample Teach-Back Plan
Instructional Ladders
What Needs to be Done
Person(s) Responsible
ƒ Workshop Materials
Principal
ƒ Substitute teachers for one day
Reading Specialist
planning
Data Coach
Grade-Level Trainers
ƒ Time
ƒ Computers/Internet
ƒ Access to the NWEA Reports
Site
ƒ User Names and Passwords
distributed to staff
ƒ New teachers need to
know purpose of
assessment.
Prior to teachback sessions
Principal
Data Coach
Data Team
Grade-Level Lead
Teachers
ƒ Computer Lab
ƒ Class Breakdown by Goal
Report
ƒ Copies of Instructional
Ladders workbook
ƒ Copies of Building a Ladder
packet
ƒ Instructional Ladders
PowerPoint
ƒ 2 hours needed
ƒ Coordinate with early
release days or utilize
subs
Within one month
of NWEA
workshop
Principal
Data Coach
Data Team
Grade-Level Lead
Teachers
ƒ Space for teams to meet
ƒ 45 minute time blocks
ƒ Time
ƒ Use planning times or
department / gradelevel meeting times
Within one month
of NWEA
workshop
Prior to teach-back sessions at the building level,
all new teachers, and those who would like a
refresher will view MAP Basics – Knowledge
Academy Course.
ƒ Data Coach
Teach-Back Session 1:
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Activity:
ƒ Create an instructional ladder and share
with your grade-level colleagues.
ƒ Share Instructional Ladders created in
Session 1
Activity:
ƒ Create a ladder for another content area.
ƒ Share results at next staff meeting.
Date of
Completion
Within two weeks
of NWEA
workshop
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Teach-Back Session 2:
Possible Roadblocks/
Strategies to Overcome
ƒ Funds for substitute
teachers
Planning Team will meet after workshop to plan
a series of professional development teach-back
sessions for staff relating to workshop content.
ƒ Instructional Ladders Recorded Online
Differentiated Ladder Activities
ƒ Create Instructional Ladders
ƒ Apply the Class Breakdown by Goal Report
and DesCartes/Primary Grades
Instructional Data
Resources Needed
Sessions provided based on school resources: lunch or after school, release time, etc.
Ongoing coaching and data sessions could be planned for teachers during common planning times, release days, etc.
Sustaining the Momentum Sample Teach-Back Plan
Instructional Ladders
Revised 10/2009
© 2009 Northwest Evaluation Association
www.nwea.org
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Resources of Interest
Printed Resources
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Tomlinson, C.A. (1995). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms.
Alexandria, VA: ASCD
Online Resources
NWEA - www.nwea.org
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Partner Support
Reports Site
Student Learning Inventories
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surfaquarium.com/MI/inventory.htm
www.ncsu.edu/felder-public/ILSpage.html
www.bloomington.in.us/~cape/intinv.html
Literacy Resources
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www.lexile.com
www.scholastic.com
Instructional Ladders
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www.foridahoteachers.org
Resources of Interest
Revised 10/2009
© 2009 Northwest Evaluation Association
www.nwea.org
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