Technology Threats


Technology Threats
Your Instructor
Jim Dill, Deputy Chief, Retired
PA Office of Attorney General
Innovative Technology &
Investigative Solutions, LLC
Sexting, Stalking, & Social
[email protected]
Goals & Objectives
Ultimate Goal
Look at the darker side of two common technologies that
parents & teens are using.
• Cellular & Smartphones
• Social Networking
Examine how those indispensable technologies can have a
negative impact on our lives.
Provide methods to prevent or mitigate their harmful
Negative Impact??
What are some of the undesirable issues facing us
with these technologies?
• Sexting
• Sextortion
• Stalking
• Identity Theft
• Child Predators
• On & on & on...
Wireless Subscribers
Cellular & SmartPhones
Cell phones are the #1 form of communication for teens
(Pew, 2012).
More kids have cell phones than ever before, including
83% of middle school students (Massachusetts
Aggression Reduction Center, 2012).
Teens text more than they talk — averaging 3,146 text
messages a month, compared with 203 calls (Pew, 2012).
58% of teens have Smartphones (Neilson, 2012).
18% share their location (Pew 2012)
Cell Phones & Convergence
What capabilities does your cell phone or PDA
Make & receive calls
Send & receive text messages
Send & receive e-mail
Surf the web
Play music
Take & store photos
Take & store videos
Record & store audio notes
Contact Manager/Calendar
GPS Device
Video game player
Download & play TV & Movie
A cellular modem for your laptop
Wireless LAN allowing up to 5 devices to use the phone’s modem for Internet access
E-Book reader
Alarm monitor & DVR
Credit card replacement???
Plus thousands of iPhone & other phone applications
Cell Phone Vulnerabilities
You are carrying a portable computer with all those
What personal information is on your phone today?
Private contact info (family & friends addresses & phone numbers)
PINs, passwords, account numbers
Photographs & Videos
E-mail & Text Messages
• Calendars & Events
• GPS (Location) Information.
• Recent Call History
But How Safe is that Information?!?
Is Your Mobile Phone Protected?
If you lost or someone got a hold of your cell phone today
what information would you be you be providing a Stalker!
• Is your phone locked??? If not DO IT! How?
• What steps should you take if you lose your cell phone?
• Contact provider & suspend service.
• Call it or use a utility to locate by sound or GPS.
• Use a utility to remotely wipe your phone.
Implications for Child, Family & Police
Sexting Statistics*
The term was defined in 2010 by the court in United
States v. Broxmeyer, as the exchange of sexually explicit
text messages, including photographs, via cell phone.
The word is derived from the combination of two terms
sex and texting. However it isn’t just words!
Many teens “flash” and send sexual or partially nude
photos of themselves
The percent of teenagers who have sent or posted nude or semi-nude
pictures or video of themselves:
• 20% of teenagers overall
• 22% of teen girls
• 18% of teen boys
• 11% of teen girls ages 13-16
The percent of teenagers sending or posting sexually suggestive
• 39% of all teenagers
• 37% of teen girls
• 40% of teen boys
*Published in July 2010 FBI Bulletin
Many teens don’t look at long term consequences
when sexting.
Many times it is a result of peer pressure or bullying
It can and does lead to stalking, harassment,
sextortion & suicide.
Plain & simple – Sexting can dramatically damage
one’s life and self esteem.
Increase in Crime-Sextortion
• Extortion using digital sexual photos/videos as
• A Case of ‘Sextortion’ Cons Like ‘Bieber Ruse’
Targeted Minor Girls – FBI Website February 2013
• Hacker blackmailed over 350 women into stripping on
their webcams, FBI says
• January 2013
• Webcam cyber-sextortionist preyed on over 200 women
• November 2010
Jessica Logan Story
• 15 year old Amanda Todd’s suicide
Amanda Todd’s Story
Amanda was bullied viciously on Facebook where her
schoolmates were invited to join a page which
included her breasts as the Avatar, causing Amanda to
suffer from anxiety and depression.
It started after an unknown man convinced her to expose herself
online in front of a webcam. He told her she was beautiful and just
wanted her to flash him. He blackmailed her (sextortion) and spread
the photos around, destroying her reputation.
The bulling was incessant and although she changed schools 3
times it followed her via Social Networks.
On 10 October 2012, Amanda Todd committed suicide. It was just
one week before her 16th birthday. 9 teens arrested after she hung
herself. View Amanda’s Story
Self Destructing Messaging Apps
Parents know what to look for!
Potential Sexting Apps
• There are dozens of texting apps on the market. Many
provide secret ways to hide the messages on the
phone. Even the App may be deceiving one actually
disguised as flash light app.
• Self Destructing text messages have given kids the
false impression that they can sext safely. They include:
• Snapchat, Facebook Poke, Tiger Text, Burn Note,
Wickr, and others allow you to set a timer which will
cause the message to be deleted at a predetermined
Easy Ways to Defeat
• Take a screenshot (although some apps
will notify the Sender).
• Take a picture before the message
Facebook Poke
• After receiving a message but before
opening copy a file to computer.
Burn Note
The Law in PA
Currently, in Pennsylvania, sending explicit
photographs by minors, ages 12 to 17, a
misdemeanor or summary offense, rather than a
Only for first-time juvenile offenders
After the first offense it falls under the child
pornography laws
Juvenile gets labeled as a sexual predator
Sexting-What Can Be Done
Technically – parental controls & spy apps - good idea???
Parental involvement is key
• Educate your teen respectfully.
• Explain the long term consequences and that it is a crime.
• Keep the device age appropriate
• If your child receives an inappropriate message – DON’T DELETE, call the
• Trust but verify! – Speak with your child…
• Take inventory- look at all the gadgets that can take or store photos or
videos, these can include: cell phones, social networking sites, video
game consoles (X-Box, WII), IPods, mp3 players etc.
• Look for Apps that can conceal or password protect messages
What to Say to Your Child?
Text Messaging & Instant
Messaging Lingo
A good source to help decode Text Messaging acronyms
and emoticons:
EXIF - Exchangeable Image File Format
Camera settings and scene information are recorded
by the camera into the image file.
Often called Metadata.
Most photo viewers can read EXIF data
EXIF Data from a Digital Camera
Most cell phone cameras and many newer digital
cameras insert geo-location information
EXIF Data from a Cell Phone
EXIF Location Data Demo
Let’s look at what happens when we post these
pictures at some photo sharing sites.
EXIF News Report
Turn off GPS on phone/camera for photos.
• Go into your phone’s camera, location, or security settings
Set security on photo sharing site.
Remove EXIF information
• With Window’s Vista or 7:
• Right click photo
• Select: Properties
• Select: Details
• Select: Remove Properties & Personal Detail
• Choose to remove all or just GPS data
• Or use an EXIF Remover App such as “EXIF Cleaner”
Cyberstalking or Digital Stalking can be defined as
threatening behavior or unwanted advances directed at
another using the Internet and other forms of digital and
computer communications.
It is a crime in ALL 50 States!
Another Cell Phone Vulnerability
• In PA Title 18 § 2709.1. Stalking.
Digital Stalking
There are dozens of applications that can be loaded onto a cell
phone that permit you to monitor all activity on that phone!
Many are sold under the guise that parent can monitor their
child’s activities.
These applications run hidden in the background and are very
difficult to detect.
They are often used for Stalking & Harassment
Smart Phone Apps
Cell Phone Spy Programs
Stalking Made Easy
• There are hundreds of thousands applications
now written for Smartphones.
Mobile Apps
Secret listening device ("bug") for a phone.
Option to schedule for later (don't get busted "playing
with your phone")
Record with no visible indication
Google has surpassed Apple with over 800,000 apps
Apple has approximately 750,000 apps
The Android is an Open Source architecture
Many apps for Google can be purchased on sites other
than the Google Play Store
Mobile Apps
Turns your phone camera or webcam into a visual motion
triggered SpyCam.
Your phone or webcam will auto-capture (still photo or
video) any motion within it's field of vision, and then save
to MicroSD or email the image.
Can also text it to take photo or video.
Mobile Apps
Mobile Apps
Install this APP to receive a copy of any text received on
the targeted phone to your email.
It looks like a calculator is activated by typing “111444777
Clear” into the calculator
runs on android
phone hidden in
the background
Turns your
phone into a
covert GPS
Runs discreetly in the background
Child Safety Apps
Cell Phone Security Tips
Turn off GPS settings or change to 911 only.
Know the Apps that are on your Child’s phone!
Consider Lost/Anti-Theft applications for tracking phone or
erasing the device.
FBI Child ID
Emergency Family Pro
Find My Kids-Footprints
Sex Offender Search
Baby Monitor HD
Family Tracker
Cyberbullying is sending or posting harmful or
cruel text or images using the Internet or other
digital communication devices, including cell
Not just a Cell Phone Issue
A 2010 survey of children and teenagers between
the ages of 10 and 18 by the Cyberbullying
Research Center shows:
• 20.8% of the kids have been cyberbullied in their lifetime
• 17% have been cyberbullied at least once in the previous
30 days
• 13.3% have been cyberbullied by rumors online
• 14.3% have been cyberbullied by mean or hurtful
comments online
• 7.2% have been threatened online
The American Academy of Child and Adolescent
Psychiatry finds children who are bullied
experience suffering that can interfere with their
social and emotional development, and harm
school performance.
Case Study
An Actual Case Study
What Can Be Done?
Never post or forward inappropriate pictures or images of
others – Don’t Participate!
Don’t reply! It usually just encourages the sender.
Communicate with a trusted adult.
If it isn’t harmful label it as junk.
If it is serious or threatening DO NOT DELETE. Contact
the authorities. They will need the original for evidence
and to trace it to the sender.
If you notify the Social Network they are obligated to
remove the post making it difficult to prosecute.
Social Networking Timeline
What is a Social Network?
• Any group that gets together with a common interest
What is online Social Networking?
• Socializing from behind a keyboard
• Keyboard Courage
Danah. M Boyd - UC Berkeley
Is Social Media a Fad?
Is Social Media a Fad?
The Social Networking
NO, Social Media isn’t a fad, it’s a
fundamental shift in the way we
So How Big is it?
How big is it?
Facebook alone has over 1 BILLION users!!
• Population of the US is around 330 million!
• That is 11% of the world’s population.
Google+ had reached 10 million users just two weeks after it
was launched. After 4 weeks in operation, it had reached 25
million users. That took Facebook 3 years! As of the end of
Dec. 2012 it had 343 million users*.
Twitter has 340 million tweets written each day
• Social Networking is a business!!!
*stats by UK market research firm Trendstream
Number of Social Network Users
There are now more social-networking accounts
than there are people in the world, according to
figures from In-Stat dated April 2011.
Social networking site usage grew 88 percent
among Internet users aged 55-64 between April
2009 and May 2010 (Pew Research)
Attributes of Social Networking
Social Networks Directory
Good Resource!
Listing of Social Networking
Top 10 Based on Followers
January 2013 –
Instantaneous Communications
• Chats, Posts, IM, Photo & Video uploads
• You can be “notified” upon receiving any communication.
Mobility of Communications
• Smartphone provide mobile access
Reach of that Communication
• Millions can be reached within seconds (yes, millions)
Social Networking Terms
Avatar - A small image found at the top of your page and
is considered a visual representation of yourself. Most
often it is a photo of yourself.
Buddy/Friend List - A collection of friends and contacts
names stored in a central that you share with.
Tagging - The process of adding information (usually a
name) that identifies a Web photo
Social Networking Terms
Messaging - instantaneous person-to-person keyboard
Privacy Settings – The optional settings on most social
networks that determine your privacy and what
information you share. Many social networks require you
to “opt in” to privacy features
Geo-Tagging – Adding location information usually in the
form of GPS coordinates to your communication.
•The first big microblogging site
• You have 140 characters of text to comment, and as soon as you hit
update, the site's millions of users can see what you're up to.
• Can transmit via Text message right to cell phone
• You can make Tweets public or private and visible only to people you
• Can provide Geo-Tagging with every Tweet
Other Social Networks!
YouTube is only 6 years old
1 trillion – The number of video playbacks on YouTube in 2011.
140 – The number of YouTube video playbacks per person on
48 hours – The amount of video uploaded to YouTube every
It Exceeds 2 billion (yes billion) views/day.
•Other different social networks…
• (for those into the Twilight scene).
• (dating social network for those into Goth lifestyles)
• (match your dreams with others)
• (a site for family members of sick of terminally ill patients)
(Stats according to
Elements of a Social Network
A profile or bio about yourself (personal info)
usually includes Avatar (photo).
Profile Info-what are they asking for?
Email address
Physical Address
Cell Phone #
Other #’s
Years Graduated
Work History
Relationship Status
Political View
Hobbies & Interests
• No verification
Elements of a Social Network
Search for & create “friend” lists
Status updates/news feeds
Photo & video sharing – EXIF Information
Photo Tagging & Facial Recognition
Send & receive messages (open or private)
Elements of a Social Network
Applications (games, utilities, etc)
Terms of Service – sample
Privacy Controls
Mobile vs Desktop
Be Cautious About What You May Be
Giving Up!
Let’s take a deeper look at a couple of these elements
• You should always be careful about which Facebook apps
you allow to connect with your account, as they can
collect varying levels of information about you. If you
aren't comfortable with that, don't install the app.
• Furthermore, even if you are careful about what
Facebook apps you install - are your friends being just as
• It may surprise you to hear that when other Facebook
users choose to install apps they can then share the
information they can see about you with those apps.
Friends/Buddy List
One you accept someone as a “Friend” they
normally have unfettered access to your postings,
pictures friend listing.
Social Networking sites suggest friends you may
know based on your profile or contact list
Review Periodically!
Many accept “Friends” that they don’t even know.
A Very Important Link on Facebook
Even Cops are Fooled
A fictitious profile meant to fool
cops into friending. This gives
them full access to the officers
profile & personal information.
The photo of the officer was
taken from an Officer Down
Memorial Page.
Photo & Video Sharing
Tagging & Facial
According to 2011 statistics gathered by Pixable
and posted on
• Photobucket has 8 billion photos posted on line
• Picasa has 8 billion photos posted on line
• Flickr has 7 billion photos posted on line
• Instagram over 1 Billion
Photo & Video Sharing
Photo & Video Sharing
The number of photos on Facebook
is exploding!! With the purchase of
Instagram for $1 BILLION dollars
Facebook now houses over 219
Billion photos on their servers!
Facebook is the largest repository of
pictures anywhere and at any time
in history per the NY Times!
As of June 2012, its users upload 300
million pictures a day!
Photo Searching
Photo Tagging
There are numerous search engines that search the unprotected
photos on Facebook as well as other Social Networks e.g.
Every day, people add more than 100 million tags to photos on
Tagging is adding the name of an individual pictured in the
This image search engine lets you find photos that are on Facebook,
Flickr, Zooomr, MySpace, US Government sites, Photobucket, Corbis,
deviantart, Webshots, Blogger, Typepad and WordPress.
Photo Tagging
Removing a Photo Tag
Who Can See Tags?
You may remove a tag from a photo you're tagged in, so
it doesn't appear on your profile (timeline). Removing a
tag unlinks your name from the photo and ONLY takes
the photo off your profile (timeline). The photo will still
be visible in other places unless the person who posted
it takes it down.
What if you don’t use Facebook? ??????
If you don’t like a photo you’re tagged in, you can ask the
person to take it down or escalate the issue:
When someone is tagged, it may be visible to:
• The audience selected for the post
• The person tagged
• Friends of the person tagged If the audience of the post...
To learn more about Tags look in “Privacy Settings”.
Facebook can’t make people remove photos that don’t
violate their Statement of Rights and Responsibilities.
Removing a Photo Tag
AKA: Tag Suggest
Facial Recognition
• April 2011 Facebook starts using its own facial
recognition technology to identify your friends in photos
called “Tag Suggest”
• Facebook Changes Privacy Settings to Enable Facial
Recognition – June 7, 2012 NY Times
Opting Out of Facial Recognition
In the Privacy Settings Find the Profile (Timeline) and
Tagging section and choose Edit Settings.
Click Who sees tag suggestions when photos that look like
you are uploaded?
Click on dropdown in the lower-right corner of the pop-up
and choose “No One”.
• Facebook Acquires Israeli Facial Recognition Company – June 18, 2012 Times
• Unlike other Photo recognition applications (Picasa) with
Facebook the “Facial Recognition” data remains on
“their” servers!
Remove Your Facial Data
From Facebook
When you turn off tag suggestions, Facebook won’t suggest that
friends tag you when photos look like you. The template that we
created to enable the tag suggestions feature will also be
Note that friends will still be able to tag photos
Location Based Services
of you manually!
Geo-location apps do two things:
• They report your location to other users.
• They associate real-world locations (such as
restaurants and events) to your location.
That location info can be GPS, WPS (Wi-Fi Positioning
System), Cellular Triangulation, or XPS (a combination of
all 3).
Most new cameras and cell phones default to adding geotagging to your photos in the
Many smartphone applications incorporate geo-tagging.
Social Networking Apps
• Combines feeds of Twitter, Facebook, & Foursquare
• Shares communications & location info across platforms
Social Networks go mobile
• Using smartphone applications
• Facebook Places, Foursquare,
• Loopt, Google Latitude
• Many others including Twitter
Social Networking
Privacy Controls
Facebook Privacy Controls
Each social network has its own:
• Privacy Policy
• Terms of Service
• Privacy Controls
• Controls are complex and numerous
Applications request access to most of you bio and
personal information
Implications for Families
•Identity Theft
•Child Porn/Child Predators
Feds bust child porn 'social networking site'
Largest crimes against children case brought anywhere by anyone’
Associated Press Writer
updated 4:11 p.m. ET, Thurs., May 27, 2010
INDIANAPOLIS - Federal prosecutors announced Wednesday that they had broken
up a major online international child pornography ring that at its peak had more than
1,000 members trading millions of sexually explicit images.
More than 50 people have been arrested in several states…
Potential Dangers!
Implications for Families
29,000 Sex Offenders Found on
by Gary D. Robertson, Associated Press July 24, 2007
MySpace has located and deleted a stunning 29,000
registered sex offenders from its site — more than
four times the number it initially reported…
Increase in Crimes
• Recruiting
• Bragging
• Police can search for Users displaying Gang Insignia
Chat Roulette
Staying Safe on Social Networks
Set your security settings!!!
Limit info on your profile/bio.
Use an Avatar that is not your picture.
Utilize Facebook’s new Smart List feature.
Review your friend list & accept only new friends
that you trust.
Staying Safe on Social Networks
Do Not provide your location or itinerary as part
of a wall post or status update!
Avoid Geo-location apps.
Staying Safe on Social Networks
Use Parental Control Apps such as the iPhone/iPad “Safe
Eyes” or Norton On-line Family to protect your child from
visiting dangerous or pornographic sites.
Remove Geo-tags from photos.
Learn how to block individuals.
Report serious cases of abuse to the police first then
to the Social Networking site!
Know the difference between suspending &
deleting an account.
Software to Protect Yourself & Your
Microsoft Safety & Security Center
National Center for Missing & Exploited Children
McAfee Internet Safety
PA Office of Attorney General
Your Safe Haven