Philippines 101 - House of the Philippines

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Philippines 101 - House of the Philippines
House of the Philippines
PHILIPPINES 101
History of the Philippines
Through the centuries…
• 750,000
750,000--500,000 years ago: Flake tools
found in Solana, Cagayan
• 50,000
50,000--10,000 BC: Cutting tools found in
the Tabon Caves in Quezon, Palawan
• 24,000
24,000--22,000 BC: Fossil remains of
“Tabon Man” in Tabon Caves
• 6th to 10th century: Complex society exists
in Negros Oriental.
• AD 900: Chinese porcelain and stoneware
found in Masbate.
• AD 990: Wooden boat found in Butuan
City.
• 10th to 12th century: Metal works of iron,
bronze, lead and gold.
• 13th century: Muslim settlement in Sulu
• 14th century: Artifacts from China,
Vietnam and Thailand found in Palawan
shipwrecks.
• 15th century: Muslim Malays from Sumatra
in Sulu led by Rajah Baguinda
Magellan’s Journey
• August 10, 1519 – Leaves Spain with 235
men and 5 ships.
• March 16, 1521 – Arrives in Samar with
three ships.
• March 28 – Goes to Limasawa island,
ruled by Rajah Kolambu and Rajah Siagu.
Makes blood pact with Kolambu.
• March 31: Catholic Mass celebrated on
Easter Sunday, islands claimed for the
King of Spain.
• April 7: Goes to Cebu, makes blood pact
with Rajah Humabon.
• April 26: Zula, chief from Mactan, arrives
seeking help against chief LapuLapu-Lapu.
• April 27: Goes to Mactan with soldiers and
native allies to fight LapuLapu-Lapu. He is
killed.
• May 1: Rajah Humabon attacks the
Spanish and forces them to leave.
• September 8, 1522: 19 members of the
expedition return to Spain on one ship.
Lapu Lapu
More expeditions…
• Three expeditions in 1525, 1528 and 1543
land in Mindanao but do not settle.
• On the third expedition, Ruy Lopez de
Villalobos, names the islands “Felipinas”
for Prince Philip, later King of Spain.
Legazpi comes to stay
• February 13, 1565: Miguel Lopez de
Legazpi and Fray Andres de Urdaneta lead
four ships and 350 men to Samar.
• May 8: Break ground for a fort in Cebu.
• June 4: Cebuanos recognize Spanish in
return for protection and trade.
Filipino Natives
Manila becomes capital
• May 19, 1571: Legazpi attacks Maynilad
and defeats Rajah Soliman.
• June 3: Name is changed to Manila and
Legazpi becomes governor of the
Philippines.
• November 19, 1595: Manila becomes the
capital of the Philippine Islands.
Spanish Map
Under British rule
• September 22, 1762: British fleet attack
Manila.
• October 1: British take over Manila.
• February 10, 1763: The Treaty of Paris
returns the Philippines to Spain.
Spanish Impact
• Christian except for Mindanao. Philippine
Independent Church (Aglipayan) and
Iglesia Ni Cristo founded by Filipinos.
• Filipinos forced to take Spanish surnames.
• Used Filipinos to put down revolts.
• Did not teach Spanish to entire population.
• Galleon trade between Manila and Acapulco
Spanish Era
Philippine Revolution
• The Illustrados, Filipinos at European
universities form the Propaganda
Movement and publish the newspaper La
Solidaridad (1889 to 1895) to publicize the
conditions in the Philippines.
• 3 Filipino priests advocating reform were
executed in 1872 after false accusations
(Gomez, Burgos, Zamora – Gomburza).
• June 26, 1892 - Jose Rizal returns to the
Philippines and organized La Liga Filipina,
a society seeking reforms.
• July 7 - Andres Bonifacio helps found the
Katipunan (KKK), a secret society seeking
liberation from Spain.
• August 19, 1896 - Katipunan is exposed to
Spanish authorities who begin arrests.
• August 24 – Meeting in Pugadlawin, the
Katipunan decides on armed struggle.
• August 30 – Eight provinces placed under
martial law (Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite,
Laguna, Manila, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga,
Tarlac).
• November 3 – Jose Rizal arrested. He is
executed on December 30.
Rizal Monument in Luneta Park
• March 21, 1897 – Emilio Aguinaldo named
President of revolutionary government
(Tejeros Convention).
• May 10 – Andres Bonifacio executed by
the revolutionary government.
• November 1 – BiakBiak-na
na--Bato Republic
declared in Bulacan.
• December 14 – Pact of Biak
Biak--na
na--Bato,
Aguinaldo goes into exile in Hong Kong.
• April 26, 1898 – War between US and
Spain begins.
• May 1 – Admiral George Dewey defeats
Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.
• May 19 – Aguinaldo returns to Cavite.
• June 12 – Aguinaldo declares
independence in Kawit, Cavite. National
anthem sung and flag unfurled.
Aguinaldo Shrine
• August 13 – After “mock battle”, Spanish
surrenders to Dewey.
• September 15 – Malolos Congress
convenes in Bulacan.
• October 8 – Draft constitution presented
for debate.
• December 10 – Spain gives the Philippine
to the US in exchange for $20 million
(Treaty of Paris).
• January 23, 1899 – Philippine Republic
inaugurated in Malolos.
Malolos.
• February 4 – Fighting between American
and Filipino forces on San Juan Bridge
starts the Philippine American War.
• March 23, 1900 – Aguinaldo is captured.
• July 4, 1902 – President Theodore
Roosevelt declares “insurrection” over.
• November 15, 1935 – Commonwealth
of the Philippines
• July 4, 1946 – Republic of the Philippines
Emilio Aguinaldo
Andres Bonifacio
Jose Rizal
Manila
Philippine Presidents
• Emilio Aguinaldo (1899)
• Manuel Quezon (1935) – Elected President
of Commonwealth. Reelected in 1941,
government in exile in US during World
War II. Died from illness in 1944.
• Jose Laurel (1943) – President during
Japanese occupation
• Sergio Osmena (1944) – Became
President after Quezon’s death.
• Manuel Roxas (1946) – President of the
Republic of the Philippines, died in office
in 1948.
• Elpidio Quirino (1948) – Became President
after Roxas death.
• Ramon Magsaysay (1953) – Died in air
crash in March, 1957.
• Carlos Garcia (1957) – Became President
after Magsaysay death, elected in 1957.
• Diosdado Macapagal (1961)
• Ferdinand Marcos – Elected in 1965,
reelected in 1969. Declared martial law in
1971.
Opposition leader, Benigno Aquino,
assassinated in Manila in 1983. Marcos
declared winner against Cory Aquino on
February 15, 1986.
On February 22, EDSA “People Power”
Revolution beings. Marcos leaves on Feb.
25 for exile in Hawaii.
EDSA Revolution
• Cory Aquino (1986)
• Fidel Ramos (1992) – Defense minister
under Aquino, former general under
Marcos
• Joseph Estrada (1998) – Popular actor, VP
under Ramos. Deposed in 2001 after
EDSA II Revolution.
• Gloria Arroyo (2001) – Daughter of
President Diosdado Macapagal
Q&A

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