07.03 _ Guerilla Sites
ALD HS Wismar 08/09
Light & Symbols
07.03 _ Guerilla Sites
Picture: Banksy; banksy.com
1 _ Introduction Guerilla Marketing
a _ provenance and developement
The Expression „Guerilla“ emerged in
the beginnig of the 19th century, during the war of independence in Spain
Guerillas translated means „Kleinkrieg“
or „running battle“ and refers to irregular combatants, mainly aminority
group, operating in the background.
Their methods to interfere are in general suprising attacks and sabotage.
Most radical actions are against a superior military power or the government.
Regarding the economic situation, it
comes clear, that Guerilla Marketing
activities originally were attempts of
small buisnesses to bear up against big
and powerful companies and to assert
on the market.
The concept of Guerilla Marketing was
invented in the mid 60s in the USA. To
that time the market changed from
seller´s to buyer´s market, which as
a consequence claimed new ways of
New strageties aim at
ingenuity, non-conventionality and
above all flexibility
instead of power, size and capital.
But first, activities in Guerilla Marketing
triggered legal disputes to block and
hinder official advertising campaignes
and through this, pull out advantage
for the own buisness.
The most known expert and pioneer
in fields of Guerilla Marketing however
is Jay Conrad Levinson. With his works,
Guerilla Marketing finally broke through
in 1980. His first book about this topic
came out than in 1984 and was primarily directed at small buisnesses, not at
To that time the image of Guerilla Marketing still remained the attempt to
attack from the rear.
In further developement, Guerilla Marketing was than differently characterized by the works of marketing the
experts Al Ries and Jack Trout. They converted the new concept into a constructive and strategical option with high
potential in success to keep up in the
competition with dominant buisnesses.
According to their studies, three main principals lead to successful Guerilla Marketing:
_to come across market niches and defend them
_to keep a slim organisational structure
_to ensure high quality
Market niches in that terms means to detect a small corner on the market which, for a small buisness with limited
funds is easy and affordable to maintain. Special offers in
products or services as well as gepgraphical characteristics e.g. can create differences and draw attention.
The organisational structure of a buisness should be kept
slim to ensure a high speed of reaction on relevant changes on the market and to save costs anyway.
Flexibility, as an important feature and similar to a slim
structure, provides the actuality of activities in relation to
efficiency. Market niches can be swopped quickly and all
resources trimmed to new fields of activity.
b _ Guerilla Marketing and its aim
Nowadays there are a lot definitions made for Guerilla Marketing. Here is one definded
by two of todays marketing experts Patrick Breitenbach (Werbeblogger) and Thorsten
Schulke (guerilla-Marketing Portal):
„Guerilla-Marketing is the skill to draw maximize attention through unconventional and
inventive marketing from costumers fed-up by commercial advertisment. Therefore the
marketer should possibly leave behind classic fields of advertising and ordinary marketing
Looking on several definitions, some features in each of them appear again and again.
They are listed below and characterize the aim of Guerilla Marketing well:
The customer is supposed to become part of the marketing itself and enjoy the experience of unconventional advertisement.
c _ principals of Guerilla Marketing
The pricipals of Guerilla Marketing vary constantly to ensure extraordinarity in appearance and concepts. Some of the classic ones are listed in the following to reveal
Ambient Marketing describes advertisment in public environments of a certain target
group. It appearce where people spend their daily living or freetime. Ambient Marketing mainly focuses on a young audience in the age between 16 - 35 years. Common
public areas e.g. are:
_trend gastronomies (bars, clubs, cinemas, cafés,...)
_gyms, swimming baths, spas
_Out-Of-Home (streets, shopping malls, trains and stations, airport, fairs,...)
_Point Of Sale (supermarkets, bakeries, gasstations, video stores,...)
_Point Of Education ( kindergardens, schools, universities)
_on products (packaging e.g. pizza boxes,...)
As the the word ambush already tells, this marketing strategy attacks from the rear.
Ambush Marketing profits from the attention of great media events e.g. the world cup,
the olympis games. The marketeer thus joins or sneaks in a Excisting event and profits
financial wise or conceptual wise. For this reason it´s often called Parasite-Marketing or
It espacially aims at public attetion drawn without financial effort qnd to weaken other
Viral & Buzz Marketing
Viral Marketing aims at a purposful triggering in communication within a target
group,, mainly via internet. A message e.g. is spread throughout an excisting network.
Due to the fast distribution of a certain information it is named Virus o Viral Marketing.
BUZZ Marketing triggers, similar to Viral Marketig mouth-to-mouth propaganda and
the epidemic-like spreading of a message. As the word buzz implies the spreading is
based on the spoken word amongst people.
Street-Branding is a ecofriendly way of advertising. With a stencil on the asphalt and a
high-pressure water blaster the message or the slogan appears as the cleaned part on
the street. It is a cheap and discreet method to spread advertisment.
Pop-Up Stores are shops which temporarily open up, pop up in cities and often use
extraordinary location e.g. run-down factory sites, closed and shabby stores, etc.. Due
to the short period of time it is possible to afford these kind of location and create abstrus retail situations.
They mainly serve for promotion purposes than for retail profits.
The aim is to reach a wide field of potential target groups. The short time factor allows
igh flexibility and the possibility to adjust easily to new trends.
Architectural Buildings for a certain brand, a shop for example is no longer just taking
on the fuction of creating space and serving for the retails or shops needs. It is more
over representing the brand/lable and supporting a clear image. It becomes a manifestation and statement concerning power, status, and impact of thec ompany.
c _ examples of Guerilla Marketing
Ambiet Marketing Strategy
AXE deodorant advertising
Stickers with the slogan:
„TURNS NICE GIRLS NAUGHTY“
besides orientation signs in public
spaces with a high frequncy of
Agency: LOWE, Belgium
HYUNDAI Atos Prime
the new gas-car Atos Prime
Advertisng to point out the economicalness of the car;
A little carousel in form of a lettre was
sent around, for addressees to craft
themselves. With a candle beneath the
paper carousel it starts turning and a
printed car on bottom side of the papaer cylinder is going round in circles.
The slogan says: „With just a little
warmth the new Atos Prime runs 5000
Agency: Guangdong, Peking
Ambush Marketing Strategy
Kingfisher / Go Airlines
Jet first setup its add for, saying „we´ve changed“ which
inspired Kingfisher and
finally Go to refer to their
slogan and convert it into
advantage in terms of own
Jonny Walker _ das Moorhuhn
To promote the lable „Jonny Walker“
the computergame „das Moorhuhn“
was invented in 1999. It became extremly popular and in the meantime 28
different version of the game exicist.
Agency:Phenomedia AG; Witan
WWF campaignes for more attention to
environmental protction in Japan.
The installations were buzzed a lot in
the local media.
NIKE _ Austria 2008
Infront of four NIKE stores in Vienna,
the slogan „Erreiche dein nächstes Level - nikefootball.com“ (reach your next
level - nikefootball.com) was branded
on the pathway.
Agency: boomerang Medien
VW Eos Cabrio 2007
in 2007 VW installed a black board with
cutout lettres in a pedastrin area. In
days of sunny wether the slogan
„perfect wether for a test drive - the Eos
was projected in a light and shadow
play on the ground.
Agency: DDB, Düsseldorf
Condor Flugdienst GmbH
During the tourism fair in Cologne in
2006, floor and wall graphics have
been tacked around this area to arise
attention unconventioonally as well as
the wrong store, NY 2007
The pop-up store „the wrong store“
never really opended, although the
products ( by Marcel Wanders, Dieter
Rahms, Sol LeWitt,...) were ofered for
sale. But it remaind closed during the
Curators: Tobi Wong and Gregory Krum
Gestalten Temporary 2009
Gestalten Temporary is a pop-up store
of Gestalten Verlag running now until
January 31, 2009 in Berlin. It offers a
wide range of Gestalten products books, designer toys and celebrate the
launch of the new Art Editions.
Agency:die Gestalten Verlag
Comme de Garcon
They have had shops in Barcelona, Singapore, Athens, Berlin and more. Each
location stays open for one year. Advertising is kept very small and unless
one come across a poster accedently
or hear about it from informed friends,
on e would not know of the existing
shops: Warsaw Poland, Düsseldorf, Germany
Prada Marfa 2005
Beside a lonly highway in the texan
desert, close to Marfa a huge vitrin was
installed which one can not enter. The
way of exibiting the new collection is
in relation to their fmous Epi-Centres
in Japan and USA where they created
museum-like flagship stores. The building will not be removed, but is supposed to fall into ruin within the time.
artists: Elmgreen & Dragset, Berlin
architect: Jörg Boettger
BMW World Of Experience 2006
Across from the BMW Group Corporate
Headquarters , the new Experience
and Delivery Centre is situated. Both
together are supposed to create a unit
and allow visitors insights in the BMW
world. The architectural office Coop
Himmelb(l)au in Vienna won the competition for this building.
architects: Coop Himmelb(l)au
source: archithese 6.2003
a_differentiation of Guerilla Techniques
The analysis in terms of the three aims in strategy, ingenuity, non-conventionality
and flexibility, for Guerilla Marketing shows the following:
Ingenuity as a feature which is provided through:
market niches, location, medium
Non-conventionality as a feature which is provided through:
actuality, trend settings, possibilities in appearance
Flexibility as a feature which is provided through:
fields of activity, target group, efford
b_focus on Architectural Branding
As for lighting or brand lighting it will always need space to experience the light,
further analysis will go deeper into strategies dealing with any kind of space.
Regarding Guerilla Marketing some methods obviousliy focus on space. Architectural
Branding, Pop-Up Stores and Streetbranding are linking their concept closly to a location however.
With Architectural Branding the architecture itself takes on the function of a logo.
It connects Identity, Culture and Space. Once again, it is not aout to create a space in
which one accommodates necessary functions, but the building becomes the leading
part and often is far beyond the actual elements for correlate activities.
Shops become museums, hotels isolated fantasy worlds. The architecture turns to
be a sculpture, the architect himself the sculptor.
The connection/cooperation of architects and brands is not of unimportance. Both
sides profit from each other in terms of image, popularity and marketing.
Pop-Up Stores are linked to mainly urban spaces, locations within a city, which are
accessable for the people. They draw attention through extraordinarity in appearance.
That includes for example unconventional shop rooms. Often old factory sites or rundown spaces in shabby backyards are chosen.
These places are supposed to be discovered, to be observed and they unexpectedly
reveal a certain charme which is linked than to the brand.
Due to temporarily openings the costs for a special site can be higher than for constant rent.
The marketing for Pop-Up Stores mainly works with mouth-tomouth propaganda
which has two advantages in the same time: first it saves money in advertising and
secondly it enhances the importance of the store/the event.
Here as well the eperience is in the foreground and what is delivered next to the offered goods.
Street Branding is a way of advertising which comes to the people. That means it appears where a lot of people pass by or spend time in public areas.
Streetbranding is supposed to interupt routin and in a funny way nudge you unexpectedly.
Here the main instrument to call attention is the slogan, the image or the use of existing logos. It is a freindly way to spread messages without beeing in-your-face.
As people get the feeling of having detected something new or obscure, they will memorise and watch out for any news.
The extract of the content above translated more abstract results in:
With the analysis in backround, a mindmapping of different ligth meanings regarding
modern society resulted into the following:
A first and nonreflective consolidation of the two results show potential approaches
for basic ideas of Light in Guerilla Sites:
3_Brainstorming Brand Lighting
and Guerilla Sites
Madrid 2008, Luz Interruptus